WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam factory project

  1. RIKEN RI Beam Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Yasushige; Goto, Akira; Katayama, Takeshi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The RARF proposes `RIKEN RI Beam Factory` as a next facility-expanding project. The factory makes it the primary aim to provide RI (Radioactive Isotope) beams covering over the whole atomic-mass range with the world-highest intensity in a wide energy range up to several hundreds MeV/nucleon. These RI beams are generated by the fragmentation of high-intensity heavy-ion beams. For the efficient production heavy-ion energies will be boosted up to over 100 MeV/nucleon even for very heavy ions by a K2500-MeV superconducting ring cyclotron serving as a post accelerator of the existing K540-MeV ring cyclotron. A new type of experimental installation called `MUSES` (Multi-USe Experimental Storage rings) will be constructed as well. With MUSES, various types of unique colliding experiments will become possible. (author)

  2. RIKEN RI Beam Factory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Y.; Katayama, T.

    1996-01-01

    The RARF has a heavy-ion accelerator complex consisting of a K540-MeV ring cyclotron as a booster accelerator and two different types of injectors. The facility provides not only nuclear physicists but also researchers of atomic physics, nuclear chemistry, material science, radiobiology and others with various kinds of heavy-ion beams of an energy range of 10 MeV/nucleon to 100 MeV/nucleon. One of remarkable features of this facility is capability of supplying RI (radioactive isotope) beams with the world-highest level of intensities. In these several years the RI beam has opened up a quite new and fascinating heavy-ion science. In order to further promote this new science, we propose open-quote open-quote RIKEN RI Beam Factory close-quote close-quote as a future project of the RARF: The existing facility will be expanded into the open-quote open-quote Factory close-quote close-quote where high-intensity RI beams of the whole mass range will become available in a wide energy range up to several hundred MeV/nucleon. The concept of this new proposal as well as currently-running upgrade programs relevant to the project will be presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. RIKEN radioactive isotope beam factory project – Present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Programs for studying nuclear reactions and structure of exotic nuclei available at the RIKEN radioactive isotope beam factory project are introduced and discussed by demonstrating recent highlights. Special emphasis is given to the present status and future plans of new devices.

  4. RIKEN radioactive isotope beam factory project – Present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    trapped-ion cloud formed at a localized position in the electron storage ring. Ions are three-dimensionally confined in the transverse potential well produced by the projectile electron beam itself in combination with an applied longitudinal mirror potential. RI ions are injected into the potential well from outside. This design,.

  5. RIKEN radioactive isotope beam factory project–Present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Programs for studying nuclear reactions and structure of exotic nuclei available at the RIKEN radioactive isotope beam factory project are introduced and discussed by demonstrating recent highlights. Special emphasis is given to the present status and future plans of new devices.

  6. Beam-beam tails simulation for KEK B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatilov, D.

    1996-12-01

    The special tracking technique is applied for investigation of the beam-beam interaction for KEK B-factory with a crossing angle at the IP. This technique allows us to save a lot of CPU time while simulating the beam tails. The detailed comparison with the brute force tracking code has been performed in order to confirm the validity of the technique. After that, some simulation results for KEKB are presented, which have shown that, in spite of synchro-betatron resonances induced by a crossing angle at the IP, the beam halo growing is quite acceptable. (author)

  7. RI beam factory and its expected pioneering work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yasushige

    1996-01-01

    The RARF (RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility) houses an intermediate-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex consisting of a K540-MeV ring cyclotron (RRC) and a couple of different types of the injectors: a variable-frequency heavy-ion linac and a K70-MeV AVF cyclotron. One of remarkable features of this facility is capability of supplying light-atomic-mass RI (radioactive isotope) beams with the world-highest level of intensities by the projectile-fragment separator, RIPS. In these several years nuclear physicists have opened up a quite new and fascinating heavy-ion science exploiting such RI beams. In order to further promote this new science, the RARF proposes 'RIKEN RI Beam Factory' as a next facility-expanding project. The factory takes the aim at providing RI beams covering over the whole atomic-mass range with the world-highest intensities in a wide energy range up to several hundreds MeV/nucleon. To realize the 'Factory' a K2500-MeV superconducting ring cyclotron will be built which boosts output energies of the RRC beams up to 400 MeV/nucleon for light ions and up to 100 MeV/nucleon for very heavy ions, preserving their beam intensities (typically 1 pμA). RI beams will be generated by the projectile fragmentation. A new type of experimental installation called 'MUSES' (Multi-USe Experimental Storage rings) will also be constructed. It consists of an accumulator-cooler ring, booster synchrotron ring and double storage rings. With MUSES, various types of unique colliding experiments will become possible: ion-ion merging or head-on collisions; collisions of either electrons or X-rays with ion (stable isotope or RI) beams; internal target experiments; and atomic and molecular physics with cooler electron beams. (author)

  8. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-01-01

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy μ + μ - colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings (μSR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included

  9. Beam finding algorithms at the interaction point of B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozanecki, W.

    1992-10-01

    We review existing methods to bring beams in collision in circular machines, and examine collision alignment strategies proposed for e + e - B-factories. The two-ring feature of such machines, while imposing more stringent demands on beam control, also opens up new diagnostic possibilities

  10. NEUTRINO FACTORY AND BETA BEAM EXPERIMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALBRIGHT, C.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.; GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; KIRK, H.; ET AL.

    2004-09-21

    The long-term prospects for fully exploring three-flavor mixing in the neutrino sector depend upon an ongoing and increased investment in the appropriate accelerator R&D. Two new concepts have been proposed that would revolutionize neutrino experiments, namely the Neutrino Factory and the Beta Beam facility. These new facilities would dramatically improve our ability to test the three-flavor mixing framework, measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and perhaps determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, and, if necessary, probe extremely small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The stunning sensitivity that could be achieved with a Neutrino Factory is described, together with our present understanding of the corresponding sensitivity that might be achieved with a Beta Beam facility. In the Beta Beam case, additional study is required to better understand the optimum Beta Beam energy, and the achievable sensitivity. Neither a Neutrino Factory nor a Beta Beam facility could be built without significant R&D. An impressive Neutrino Factory R&D effort has been ongoing in the U.S. and elsewhere over the last few years and significant progress has been made towards optimizing the design, developing and testing the required accelerator components, and significantly reducing the cost. The recent progress is described here. There has been no corresponding activity in the U.S. on Beta Beam facility design and, given the very limited resources, there is little prospect of starting a significant U.S. Beta Beam R&D effort in the near future. However, the Beta Beam concept is interesting, and progress on its development in Europe should be followed. The Neutrino Factory R&D program has reached a critical stage in which support is required for two crucial international experiments and a third-generation international design study. If this support is forthcoming, a Neutrino Factory could be added to the Neutrino Community's road map in about a decade.

  11. Software Development Factories, the Project Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a software factory, the applications are developed in the same way Henri Ford started manufacturing cars. In such a way, a customized solution could be obtained within a reasonable budget and within the foreseen timeframe. This development method offers a flexible solution that can be readapted rapidly and automatically to the changing business needs, so the Project Management becomes a real challenge.

  12. The neutrino factory and beta beam experiments and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, C.; Barger, V.; Beacom, J.F.; Berg, J.S.; Black, E.; Blondel, A.; Bogacz, S.; Brice, S.; Caspi, S.; Chou, W.; Cummings, M.; Fernow, R.; Finley, D.; Gallardo,; Geer, S.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Goodman, M.; Harris, D.; Huber, Patrick; Jansson, A.; Johnstone, C.; /Fermilab /Wisconsin U., Madison /Brookhaven /IIT, Chicago /Geneva U.

    2004-11-01

    The long-term prospects for fully exploring three-flavor mixing in the neutrino sector depend upon an ongoing and increased investment in the appropriate accelerator R&D. Two new concepts have been proposed that would revolutionize neutrino experiments, namely the Neutrino Factory and the Beta Beam facility. These new facilities would dramatically improve our ability to test the three-flavor mixing framework, measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and perhaps determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, and, if necessary, probe extremely small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The stunning sensitivity that could be achieved with a Neutrino Factory is described, together with our present understanding of the corresponding sensitivity that might be achieved with a Beta Beam facility. In the Beta Beam case, additional study is required to better understand the optimum Beta Beam energy, and the achievable sensitivity. Neither a Neutrino Factory nor a Beta Beam facility could be built without significant R&D. An impressive Neutrino Factory R&D effort has been ongoing in the U.S. and elsewhere over the last few years and significant progress has been made towards optimizing the design, developing and testing the required accelerator components, and significantly reducing the cost. The recent progress is described here.

  13. The neutrino factory beam and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Campanelli, M; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Cline, David B; Collot, J; De Jong, M; Donini, Andrea; Dydak, Friedrich; Edgecock, R; Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; González-Garciá, M Concepción; Gruber, P M; Harris, D A; Hernández, Pilar; Kuno, Y; Litchfield, P J; McFarland, K; Mena, O; Migliozzi, P; Palladino, Vittorio; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Para, A; Peña-Garay, C; Pérez, P; Rigolin, Stefano; Romanino, Andrea; Rubbia, André; Strolin, P; Wojcicki, S G

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a new window to the still mysterious origin of masses and flavour-mixing. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino-mixing matrix, requires the neutrino beams from a \

  14. A 1 MHz beam chopper for the KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wait, G.D.; Barnes, M.J.; Waters, G.; Figley, C.B.

    1990-06-01

    The proposed KAON Factory at TRIUMF requires a high repetition rate beam chopper for the injection process into the accumulator ring. Prototype studies on a novel design for an energy efficient 1 MHz (10 6 discrete pulses/s) beam chopper are described. In the low voltage prototype 20 V electrical pulses are stored in a low loss transmission line which is open circuited at the far end. Testing has just begun on high voltage prototype in which 7 kV pulses have been produced at the end of 10 cm diameter, 50 Ω coaxial cable. In the final version the voltage may be as high as 20 kV and the low loss transmission line will be coupled to an open circuited set of deflection plates through which the beam passes. Results on the performance of the low voltage prototype are presented as well as a description of the first test results from the high voltage prototype. (Author) 16 refs., 5 figs., tab

  15. Physics at a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandyopadhyay, A.; Choubey, S.; Gandhi, R.; Goswami, S.; Roberts, B. L.; Bouchez, J.; Antoniadis, I.; Ellis, J.; Giudice, G. F.; Schwetz, T.; Umasankar, S.; Karagiorgi, G.; Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Pascoli, S.; Geer, S.; Campagne, J. E.; Rolinec, M.; Blondel, A.; Campanelli, M.; Kopp, J.; Lindner, M.; Peltoniemi, J.; Dornan, P. J.; Long, K.; Matsushita, T.; Rogers, C.; Uchida, Y.; Dracos, M.; Whisnant, K.; Casper, D.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Popov, B.; Aysto, J.; Marfatia, D.; Okada, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Jungmann, K.; Lesgourgues, J.; Zisman, M.; Tortola, M. A.; Friedland, A.; Davidson, S.; Antusch, S.; Biggio, C.; Donini, A.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Gavela, B.; Maltoni, M.; Lopez-Pavon, J.; Rigolin, S.; Mondal, N.; Palladino, V.; Filthaut, F.; Albright, C.; de Gouvea, A.; Kuno, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Mezzetto, M.; Lola, S.; Langacker, P.; Baldini, A.; Nunokawa, H.; Meloni, D.; Diaz, M.; King, S. F.; Zuber, K.; Akeroyd, A. G.; Grossman, Y.; Farzan, Y.; Tobe, K.; Aoki, Mayumi; Murayama, H.; Kitazawa, N.; Yasuda, O.; Petcov, S.; Romanino, A.; Chimenti, P.; Vacchi, A.; Smirnov, A. Yu; Couce, E.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Hernandez, P.; Sorel, M.; Valle, J. W. F.; Harrison, P. F.; Lunardini, C.; Nelson, J. K.; Barger, V.; Everett, L.; Huber, P.; Winter, W.; Fetscher, W.; van der Schaaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    The conclusions of the Physics Working Group of the International Scoping Study of a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS) are presented. The ISS was carried out by the international community between NuFact05, (the 7th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and

  16. How well do we need to know the beam properties at a neutrino factory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, S.; Crisan, C.

    2000-01-01

    In principle, a neutrino factory can produce a beam with a well known ν e and ν μ flux. In practice, the uncertainties on the muon beam properties will introduce uncertainties into the calculated neutrino fluxes. The authors explore the relationship between the beam systematics and the systematic uncertainties on predicted event rates at a far site. The desired precision with which they must know the beam momentum, direction, divergence, momentum spread, and polarization are discussed

  17. The SuperB factory, physics potential and project status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiechczynski Jaroslaw

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The SuperB project is an international enterprise aiming at the construction of the high-luminosity asymmetric beam energy electron-positron accelerator, which would be located in the area of Rome. It would exploit several novel features allowing to achieve an unprecedented luminosities and to collect almost a hundred times more data than the current generation of ”B factories”. As for the leptonic colliders, it will maintain a clean, low-background experimental environment that is crucial for numerous measurements on the field of high energy physics

  18. Beam position monitoring system for the proposed asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.

    1992-10-01

    The beam position monitor system of the B Factory is drastically different from the actual PEP system. We present a description of the new configuration and list the features which have been adopted to make this system a highly reliable diagnostic tool. An electrode geometry is suggested, based on the maximum-acceptable power extracted from the beam, and the measurement resolution is estimated by assuming some practical bandwidth and the noise level. Finally, an estimate of the system precision is made by adding up what is expected to be the most significant systematic errors

  19. Present status of beam position stabilization at photon factory storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norio

    1990-01-01

    Stabilization of photon beam position became a major issue in the operation of the storage rings dedicated as synchrotron radiation source. At the Photon Factory storage ring (PF ring), the orbit movement appeared remarkably when the low-emittance operation started. This orbit movement became a serious problem to synchrotron radiation users because the photon beam to drift with a large amplitude. The horizontal and vertical orbit feedback systems were constructed and developed in order to suppress the orbit movement globally. As a result, the horizontal and vertical orbit movements were reduced by a factor of five and ten, respectively. In addition, another type of feedback system using a local bump was constructed. In the test operation, this system could remove the fast photon beam motion as well as the slow photon beam drift for a beamline. (author)

  20. The beam-beam limit in asymmetric colliders: Optimization of the B-factory parameter base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a general theory of the beam-beam limit in symmetric and asymmetric lepton ring colliders. It shows how the beam-beam limit in these accelerators affects the maximum attainable luminosity and presents a specific algorithm for parameter base optimization. It is shown that the special problems inherent in asymmetric colliders derive not from the asymmetry, but from the fact that the two beams must be in different rings. Computer simulation experiments are used to demonstrate the various phenomena discussed in the theory

  1. A beam position feedback system for beam lines at the photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, T.; Kamiya, Y.; Haga, K.; Mitsuhashi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The beam position of the synchrotron radiation produced from the Storage Ring was stabilized by a twofold position feedback system. A digital feedback system was developed to suppress the diurnal beam movement (one cycle of sin-like drifting motion per day) which became a serious problem in low-emittance operation. The feedback was applied to the closed-orbit-distortion (COD) correction system in order to cancel the position variation at all the beam lines proportionately to the variation monitored at one beam line. An analog feedback system is also used to suppress frequency components faster than the slow diurnal movement

  2. New data acquisition system for the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.

    2010-04-01

    A new data-acquisition (DAQ) system has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF). This system has functions of network-distributed data processing, hierarchical event building and parallel readout which are achieved with newly developed software and commodity hardware. This system is both versatile and scalable, allowing it to meet the various requirements for RIBF experiments. It has a maximum data processing capability of around 40 MB/s. This paper describes the configuration and the data processing performance of the DAQ system.

  3. Issues in Acceleration of A Muon Beam for a Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Delayen; D. Douglas; L. Harwood; V. Lebedev; C. Leemann; L. Merminga

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a concept for acceleration of a large phase-space, pulsed muon beam from 190 MeV to 50 GeV as part of a collaborative study of the feasibility of a neutrino factory based on in-flight decay of muons. The muon beam's initial energy spread was ∼20% and each bunch has the physical size of a soccer ball. Production of the muons will be quite expensive, so prevention of loss due to scraping or decay is critical. The former drives the system to large apertures and the latter calls for high real-estate-average gradients. The solution to be presented utilizes a 3 GeV linac to capture the beam, a 4-pass recirculating linac to get the beam to 10 GeV, and then a 5-pass linac to get the beam to 50 GeV. Throughout the system, longitudinal dynamics issues far outweighed transverse dynamics issues. This paper focuses on the issues surrounding the choice of superconducting rf structures over copper structures

  4. Report of the ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop 'Accelerators for a Higgs Factory: Linear vs. Circular' (HF2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, Alain; Chou, Weiren; Gao, Jie; Schulte, Daniel; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a summary report of the ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop 'Accelerators for a Higgs Factory: Linear vs. Circular' (HF2012). It discusses four types of accelerators as possible candidates for a Higgs factory: linear e+e- colliders, circular e+e- colliders, muon collider and photon colliders. The comparison includes: physics reach, performance (energy and luminosity), upgrade potential, technology maturity and readiness, and technical challenges requiring further R&D.

  5. The CERN target and horn concept for a neutrino factory based on muon beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ravn, H L

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a high-power pion production target and collection system, which is suggested to be used as source for the proposed CERN muon-neutrino factory. A relatively low-energy proton beam of 2.2 GeV which is pulsed at 50 Hz with similar to 10**1**4 ppp and 4 MW average power has been chosen as driver. The deleterious effects of the up to 1 kW/g power densities deposited in the target and its surroundings by the proton beam are a major technical challenge since it seriously limits the lifetime of all solid components. A target, which consists of a free surface mercury- jet with a high axial velocity, allows efficiently to carry the heat away from the production region without need for beam windows. The secondary pions are collected and injected into the pion decay channel by means of a magnetic horn. This horn which has to surround the Hg-jet target is known to be very radiation resistant as well as light and easy to exchange. The suggested mechanical layout and technical parameter...

  6. Design and construction of drift tube linac cavities for RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, K.; Sakamoto, N.; Yamada, K.; Arai, S.; Chiba, Y.; Kase, M.; Okuno, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Kamigaito, O.

    2013-09-01

    A new injector linac "RILAC2", has recently been constructed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory. The main part of the RILAC2 is a drift tube linac that consists of three newly designed cavities. These cavities operate in continuous wave (CW) mode at a fixed frequency of 36.5 MHz. Their structure is based on a quarter-wavelength resonator because this is the smallest resonator available in this frequency range among the available structures. We adopted the direct coupling method in the construction of these cavities. A power amplifier was directly coupled to the cavity without a long transmission line to reduce the installation area and simultaneously reduce construction cost. A detailed cavity and coupler design was carried out via simulation. Our work also describes the design process using three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation software. Construction and operation tests are also shown.

  7. Particle factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Rafe

    1989-01-01

    Physicists' attention is increasingly turning to the high luminosity frontier - providing enough collisions to amass sizable numbers of rare events - to complement the traditional quest for higher energies. This month we cover three areas where projects are now being considered: Phi-factory workshop, PSI Planning for B meson factory, Tau-charm factory

  8. Measuring beam losses in the THI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Duneau, P.; Lecorche, E.; Lermine, P.; Lemaitre, E.; Ulrich, M.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the THI project (High Intensity Transport) is to upgrade the GANIL facilities by increasing the beam by a factor of 15, at least for light ions. This higher intensity is required by the radioactive beam facility SPIRAL starting in September 1997, to generate the new nuclear species in the solid target-source (ISOL method). For the control system, the most important issues are now to tune the accelerators while minimizing the beam losses at each stage of acceleration and when not possible, to have a fast beam loss detection signal. This system is composed of probes which deliver a signal to stop the beam when there's too much intensity lost and when not, a logarithmic value of the beam intensity. These probes are linked to a front end VME crate on the network, and in the control room, on the workstations, a graphical user interface program displays the beam variations using logarithmic scales. This program is also used to center the beam while injecting in or ejecting from the main cyclotrons by tuning the steerers, the magnetic elements inside, and the electrostatic deflector to be able to separate and extract the last beam turn. (author)

  9. The PIAFE project: instrumentation and beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laamyem, M.

    1996-01-01

    The beam transport of low energy radioactive ions over long distances was a key problem for the PIAFE project. The construction of a 18 m long portion validated the technical choices. Problems dealing with the alignment of the beam transport line supports and the quadrupoles have been solved. The beam/residual gas interaction model was confirmed through the measurement of both the charge exchange cross section and the growth of the emittance due to coulomb scattering. This work shows that low energy exotic ions can be transported over long distances with a vacuum around 10 -8 mbar

  10. Final project report for NEET pulsed ion beam project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheyev, S. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-11

    The major goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel experimental approach to access the dynamic regime of radiation damage formation in nuclear materials. In particular, the project exploited a pulsed-ion-beam method in order to gain insight into defect interaction dynamics by measuring effective defect interaction time constants and defect diffusion lengths. This project had the following four major objectives: (i) the demonstration of the pulsed ion beam method for a prototypical nuclear ceramic material, SiC; (ii) the evaluation of the robustness of the pulsed beam method from studies of defect generation rate effects; (iii) the measurement of the temperature dependence of defect dynamics and thermally activated defect-interaction processes by pulsed ion beam techniques; and (iv) the demonstration of alternative characterization techniques to study defect dynamics. As we describe below, all these objectives have been met.

  11. 16th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Beam Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the 16th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Beam Facilities (NUFACT 2014) that was held at the University of Glasgow (Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom) from 25-30 August 2014. This edition of the NUFACT annual meetings, which started in 1999, consisted of 24 plenary and 92 parallel talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 124 delegates. Furthermore, the International Neutrino Summer School 2014 was held from 10-22 August 2014 at St Andrews, Scotland, in the two weeks before NUFACT 2014. It was intended for young scientists with an interest in neutrino physics in such a way that they would be able to participate and contribute to the NUFACT workshop as well. The objectives of the NUFACT workshops are to review progress on different studies for future accelerator-based neutrino oscillation facilities, with the goal to discover the mass hierarchy of neutrinos, CP violation in the leptonic s...

  12. TRISTAN, electron-positron colliding beam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    In this report e + e - colliding beam program which is now referred to as TRISTAN Project will be described. A brief chronology and outline of TRISTAN Project is given in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 of this article gives a discussion of physics objectives at TRISTAN. Chapter 3 treats the overall description of the accelerators. Chapter 4 describes design of each of the accelerator systems. In Chapter 5, detector facilities are discussed in some detail. A description of accelerator tunnels, experimental areas, and utilities are given in Chapter 6. In the Appendix, the publications on the TRISTAN Project are listed. (author)

  13. Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M; Tsenov, R; Dracos, M; Bonesini, M; Palladino, V; Tortora, L; Mori, Y; Planche, T; Lagrange, J  B; Kuno, Y; Benedetto, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoini, S; Martini, M; Wildner, E; Prior, G; Blondel, A; Karadzhow, Y; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, F  J  P; Alekou, A; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Jenner, L  J; Kurup, A; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Zarrebini, A; Poslimski, J; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Tunnell, C; Andreopoulos, C; Bennett, J  R  J; Brooks, S; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Edgecock, T  R; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; McFarland, A; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Booth, C; Skoro, G; Back, J  J; Harrison, P; Berg, J  S; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J  C; Gupta, R; Kirk, H; Simos, N; Stratakis, D; Souchlas, N; Witte, H; Bross, A; Geer, S; Johnstone, C; Mokhov, N; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Strait, J; Striganov, S; Morfín, J  G; Wands, R; Snopok, P; Bogacz, S  A; Morozov, V; Roblin, Y; Cline, D; Ding, X; Bromberg, C; Hart, T; Abrams, R  J; Ankenbrandt, C  M; Beard, K  B; Cummings, M  A  C; Flanagan, G; Johnson, R  P; Roberts, T  J; Yoshikawa, C  Y; Graves, V  B; McDonald, K  T; Coney, L; Hanson, G

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that $\\theta_{13} > 0$. The measured value of $\\theta_{13}$ is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO$\

  14. Possible experiments at neutrino factories

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, T O

    2001-01-01

    There are currently plans to construct neutrino factories based on muon storage rings. Such projects are parts of large programmes for the production, cooling, acceleration and storage of muons for dedicated muon colliders, and the lower-energy neutrino factories are perceived as a first step towards the colliders at a much higher energy. We shall explore possible experiments at the projected high- intensity neutrino beams. Among these experiments the measurement of the nuclear coherent scattering cross section would be based on the use of thermal calorimetric detectors segmented so that self-vetoing would supplement the surrounding veto detectors. (4 refs).

  15. A general exact method for synthesizing parallel-beam projections from cone-beam projections via filtered backprojection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liang; Chen Zhiqiang; Xing Yuxiang; Zhang Li; Kang Kejun; Wang Ge

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, image reconstruction methods for cone-beam computed tomography (CT) have been extensively studied. However, few of these studies discussed computing parallel-beam projections from cone-beam projections. In this paper, we focus on the exact synthesis of complete or incomplete parallel-beam projections from cone-beam projections. First, an extended central slice theorem is described to establish a relationship between the Radon space and the Fourier space. Then, data sufficiency conditions are proposed for computing parallel-beam projection data from cone-beam data. Using these results, a general filtered backprojection algorithm is formulated that can exactly synthesize parallel-beam projection data from cone-beam projection data. As an example, we prove that parallel-beam projections can be exactly synthesized in an angular range in the case of circular cone-beam scanning. Interestingly, this angular range is larger than that derived in the Feldkamp reconstruction framework. Numerical experiments are performed in the circular scanning case to verify our method

  16. Image-projection ion-beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Image-projection ion-beam lithography is an attractive alternative for submicron patterning because it may provide high throughput; it uses demagnification to gain advantages in reticle fabrication, inspection, and lifetime; and it enjoys the precise deposition characteristics of ions which cause essentially no collateral damage. This lithographic option involves extracting low-mass ions (e.g., He + ) from a plasma source, transmitting the ions at low voltage through a stencil reticle, and then accelerating and focusing the ions electrostatically onto a resist-coated wafer. While the advantages of this technology have been demonstrated experimentally by the work of IMS (Austria), many difficulties still impede extension of the technology to the high-volume production of microelectronic devices. We report a computational study of a lithography system designed to address problem areas in field size, telecentricity, and chromatic and geometric aberration. We present a novel ion-column-design approach and conceptual ion-source and column designs which address these issues. We find that image-projection ion-beam technology should in principle meet high-volume-production requirements. The technical success of our present relatively compact-column design requires that a glow-discharge-based ion source (or equivalent cold source) be developed and that moderate further improvement in geometric aberration levels be obtained. Our system requires that image predistortion be employed during reticle fabrication to overcome distortion due to residual image nonlinearity and space-charge forces. This constitutes a software data preparation step, as do correcting for distortions in electron lithography columns and performing proximity-effect corrections. Areas needing further fundamental work are identified

  17. Neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bogomilov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that θ_{13}>0. The measured value of θ_{13} is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (antineutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EUROν Design Study consortium. EUROν coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF collaboration. The EUROν baseline accelerator facility will provide 10^{21} muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  18. Analytical inversion formula for uniformly attenuated fan-beam projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Y.; Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    In deriving algorithms to reconstruct single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) projection data, it is important that the algorithm compensates for photon attenuation in order to obtain quantitative reconstruction results. A convolution backprojection algorithm was derived by Tretiak and Metz to reconstruct two-dimensional (2-D) transaxial slices from uniformly attenuated parallel-beam projections. Using transformation of coordinates, this algorithm can be modified to obtain a formulation useful to reconstruct uniformly attenuated fan-beam projections. Unlike that for parallel-beam projections, this formulation does not produce a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm but instead has a formulation that is an inverse integral operator with a spatially varying kernel. This algorithm thus requires more computation time than does the filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm for the uniformly attenuated parallel-beam case. However, the fan-beam reconstructions demonstrate the same image quality as that of parallel-beam reconstructions

  19. Commissioning the beam diagnostics for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.S.; Alzofon, D.; Collins, B.

    1998-06-01

    PEP-II is a 2.2-km-circumference collider with a 2.1-A, 3.1-GeV positron ring (the Low-Energy Ring) 1 m above a 1-A, 9-GeV electron ring (the High-Energy Ring); both rings are designed for a maximum current of 3 A. The authors describe the beam diagnostics and present measurements from HER commissioning. The beam profile is measured using near-UV synchrotron light extracted by grazing-incidence mirrors that must withstand up to 200 W/cm. Normally 1,658 of the 3,492 buckets will be filled, and the charge must be equal within 2%. To measure the charge in each bucket, the sum signal from a set of 4 pickup buttons is digitized and averaged over 256 samples per bucket in every 60-Hz interval. The sum is them normalized to the ring current, measured by a DC current transformer. The 300 beam-position monitors per ring are multiplexed to share 171 processor modules, which use DPSs for recording positions over 1,024 turns and for calibration. For both diagnostics and machine protection, 100 photomultipliers with fused-silica Cherenkov radiators measure beam losses and can trigger a beam abort in case of high loss. For the ring tunes, signals from a set of 4 pickup buttons are combined into horizontal, vertical, and sum signals. Two signals are selected and downconverted into the range of a 10-MHz, 2-channel, programmable, DSP-based spectrum analyzer, connected over ethernet to the control room

  20. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for funding to continue development of an alternative beam combiner for Stellar Imager (SI), a 30-aperture, interferometric telescope chosen as one...

  1. Increasing Cone-beam projection usage by temporal fitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyksborg, Mark; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    A Cone-beam CT system can be used to image the lung region. The system records 2D projections which will allow 3D reconstruction however a reconstruction based on all projections will lead to a blurred reconstruction in regions were respiratory motion occur. To avoid this the projections are typi...

  2. Kaon factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1983-03-01

    Kaon factories would provide beams 100-1000 times more intense than those available from present accelerators in the 10-30 GeV range. More intense or cleaner secondary beams of kaons, antiprotons and neutrinos would be of particular interest for high precision experiments and studies of rare processes in both particle and nuclear physics, e.g. symmetry violations in K-decay, neutrino scattering, meson and baryon spectroscopy, hypernuclei, exotic atoms, K + studies of nuclear density and resonance propagation in nuclei. The various accelerators proposed include both fast-cycling synchrotrons providing 100 μA proton beams at 15 to 32 GeV and superconducting isochronous ring cyclotrons giving 100-400 μA at up to 15 GeV. This paper describes these designs and the various technical problems associated with them

  3. A tau -- charm -- factory at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.; Fields, T.; Grosnick, D.; Norem, J.; Repond, J.; Schoessow, P.

    1994-01-01

    Depending on the beam energy setting, the τ -- charm -- factory will be optimized to study physics with τ leptons, with charmed mesons, or with charmonium states. This report gives a short overview of the physics of these topics. Also discussed are the detectors and the costs associated with this project

  4. Results of a neutrino oscillation experiment performed at a meson factory beam-stop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.W.

    1989-04-01

    This document describes a neutrino oscillation experiment performed at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The oscillation mode searched for is /bar /nu///sub μ/ → /bar /nu///sub e/. The first chapter is a review of the known properties of the neutrino and a description of the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. Previous experimental limits on this unobserved phenomenon are also given. The second chapter describes the experimental apparatus used by the E645 experiment to detect neutrinos produced in the LAMPF beam stop. The salient features of the detector are its large mass (20 tons of CH 2 ), its fine segmentation (to allow good particle tracking), good energy resolution, its recording of the history both before and after tracks appear in the detector, an active cosmic-ray anticoincidence shield, and 2000 gm/cm 2 of passive cosmic-ray shielding. It is located 26.8 m from the neutrino source, which has a mean neutrino energy of 40 MeV. The third chapter details the reduction of the 1.3 million event data sample to a 49 event sample of neutrino candidates. Principle backgrounds are Michel electrons from stopping cosmic-ray muons and protons from np elastic scattering by cosmic-ray neutrons. The fourth chapter explains how background levels from neutrino-nuclear scattering are predicted. The result of a maximum-likelihood analysis reveals no evidence for oscillation. 90% confidence levels are set at δm 2 = .10 eV 2 for large mixing and sin 2 (2θ) = .014 for large δm 2 . 82 refs., 18 figs., 55 tabs

  5. THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY ORION PROJECT: ECLIPSING BINARIES AND YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eyken, Julian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Akeson, Rachel L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Gelino, Dawn M.; Kane, Stephen R.; Plavchan, Peter; RamIrez, Solange V.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Stauffer, John R.; Hoard, D. W.; Boden, Andrew F.; Howell, Steve B.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas M.; Nugent, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) Orion project is one of the experiments within the broader PTF survey, a systematic automated exploration of the sky for optical transients. Taking advantage of the wide (3. 0 5 x 2. 0 3) field of view available using the PTF camera installed at the Palomar 48 inch telescope, 40 nights were dedicated in 2009 December to 2010 January to perform continuous high-cadence differential photometry on a single field containing the young (7-10 Myr) 25 Ori association. Little is known empirically about the formation of planets at these young ages, and the primary motivation for the project is to search for planets around young stars in this region. The unique data set also provides for much ancillary science. In this first paper, we describe the survey and the data reduction pipeline, and present some initial results from an inspection of the most clearly varying stars relating to two of the ancillary science objectives: detection of eclipsing binaries and young stellar objects. We find 82 new eclipsing binary systems, 9 of which are good candidate 25 Ori or Orion OB1a association members. Of these, two are potential young W UMa type systems. We report on the possible low-mass (M-dwarf primary) eclipsing systems in the sample, which include six of the candidate young systems. Forty-five of the binary systems are close (mainly contact) systems, and one of these shows an orbital period among the shortest known for W UMa binaries, at 0.2156509 ± 0.0000071 days, with flat-bottomed primary eclipses, and a derived distance that appears consistent with membership in the general Orion association. One of the candidate young systems presents an unusual light curve, perhaps representing a semi-detached binary system with an inflated low-mass primary or a star with a warped disk, and may represent an additional young Orion member. Finally, we identify 14 probable new classical T-Tauri stars in our data, along with one previously known (CVSO 35) and

  6. The radioactive ion beam project at VECC, Kolkata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A project to build an ISOL-post accelerator type of radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility has been undertaken at VECC, Kolkata. The funding for the first phase of the project was approved in August 1997. This phase will be the R&D phase and will be completed by December 2003. The present status of development of the ...

  7. Projected beam irradiation at low latitudes using Meteonorm database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatwaambo, Sylvester; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Björn

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of beam radiation received on a solar concentrator may be understood by evaluating the projected solar height angle or profile angle along the north-south vertical plane. This means that all the sunrays projected along the north-south vertical plane will be intercepted b...

  8. Procurement of Beams in Multiple D&B Bridge Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CT. Ramanathan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Selected infrastructure development projects are being implemented by Design and Build (D&B pocurement system in Sabah (East Malaysia by the Public Works Department (PWD. In the first phase 45 bridge replacement projects were awarded in 5 packages. These simultaneous multiple Bridge projects are for the development of the backward areas and hence their timely completion is utmost important. Procurement and production of bridge beams have been the critical element of construction in these rural areas and no researches has been reported on various aspects of procurement of the bridge beams in multiple D&B projects. The aspects of procurement researched in this work include the determination of a common beam element for the ease of procurement and the optimization of the construction methodology, the finalization and purchasing plate dimensions to suite the manufacturer's production range, the delivery of materials, the planning and monitoring of fabrication, the preparation and assembly, and the erection and launching of beams. The beams are optimized using element optimization techniques. The most important problems in fabricating steel girders were in planning and scheduling of materials for the fabrication and the fabrication process. Findings in all the aspects of production of steel girders are highlighted through a case study of six long span bridges at various locations in Sabah. Solutions drawn from lessons learnt which minimize wastages, and aids in timely completion of beams in multiple bridge construction are discussed.

  9. Long-rising Type II supernovae from Palomar Transient Factory and Caltech Core-Collapse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, F.; Sollerman, J.; Fremling, C.; Migotto, K.; Gal-Yam, A.; Armen, S.; Duggan, G.; Ergon, M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Fransson, C.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Laher, R. R.; Leloudas, G.; Leonard, D. C.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F. J.; Moon, D.-S.; Silverman, J. M.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Supernova (SN) 1987A was a peculiar hydrogen-rich event with a long-rising (~84 d) light curve, stemming from the explosion of a compact blue supergiant star. Only a few similar events have been presented in the literature in recent decades. Aims: We present new data for a sample of six long-rising Type II SNe (SNe II), three of which were discovered and observed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three observed by the Caltech Core-Collapse Project (CCCP). Our aim is to enlarge this small family of long-rising SNe II, characterizing their differences in terms of progenitor and explosion parameters. We also study the metallicity of their environments. Methods: Optical light curves, spectra, and host-galaxy properties of these SNe are presented and analyzed. Detailed comparisons with known SN 1987A-like events in the literature are shown, with particular emphasis on the absolute magnitudes, colors, expansion velocities, and host-galaxy metallicities. Bolometric properties are derived from the multiband light curves. By modeling the early-time emission with scaling relations derived from the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC) models of MESA progenitor stars, we estimate the progenitor radii of these transients. The modeling of the bolometric light curves also allows us to estimate other progenitor and explosion parameters, such as the ejected 56Ni mass, the explosion energy, and the ejecta mass. Results: We present PTF12kso, a long-rising SN II that is estimated to have the largest amount of ejected 56Ni mass measured for this class. PTF09gpn and PTF12kso are found at the lowest host metallicities observed for this SN group. The variety of early light-curve luminosities depends on the wide range of progenitor radii of these SNe, from a few tens of R⊙ (SN 2005ci) up to thousands (SN 2004ek) with some intermediate cases between 100 R⊙ (PTF09gpn) and 300 R⊙ (SN 2004em). Conclusions: We confirm that long-rising SNe II with light-curve shapes closely

  10. Status of RHIC head-on beam-beam compensation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Anerella, M.; Beebe, E.; Bruno, D.; Gassner, D.M.; Gu, X.; Gupta, R.C.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.K.; Lambiase, R.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Montag, C.; Oerter, B.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.I.; Raparia, D.; Tan, Y.; Than, R.; Thieberger, P.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    Two electron lenses are under construction for RHIC to partially compensate the head-on beam-beam effect in order to increase both the peak and average luminosities. The final design of the overall system is reported as well as the status of the component design, acquisition, and manufacturing. An overview of the RHIC head-on beam-beam compensation project is given in [1], and more details in [2]. With 2 head-on beam-beam interactions in IP6 and IP8, a third interaction with a low-energy electron beam is added near IP10 to partially compensate the the head-on beam-beam effect. Two electron lenses are under construction, one for each ring. Both will be located in a region common to both beams, but each lens will act only on one beam. With head-on beam-beam compensation up to a factor of two improvement in luminosity is expected together with a polarized source upgrade. The current RHIC polarized proton performance is documented in Ref. [4]. An electron lens (Fig. 1) consists of an DC electron gun, warm solenoids to focus the electron beam during transport, a superconducting main solenoid in which the interaction with the proton beam occurs, steering magnets, a collector, and instrumentation. The main developments in the last year are given below. The experimental program for polarized program at 100 GeV was expected to be finished by the time the electron lenses are commissioned. However, decadal plans by the RHIC experiments STAR and PHENIX show a continuing interest at both 100 GeV and 250 GeV, and a larger proton beam size has been accommodated in the design (Tab. 1). Over the last year beam and lattice parameters were optimized, and RHIC proton lattices are under development for optimized electron lens performance. The effect of the electron lens magnetic structure on the proton beam was evaluated, and found to be correctable. Experiments were done in RHIC and the Tevatron.

  11. 3D sound in the telepresence project BEAMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    three applications: A general purpose theatrical scene, a teaching situation and a medical patient-visiting-doctor scenario. The March 2012 project review deals with the teaching situation. This involves a single microphone recording followed by signal processing that reconstructs the spatial content......The involvement of Aalborg University in the EU project BEAMING will be presented. BEAMING deals with telepresence including multiple modalities; vision, haptics and audio, of which the latter is of main interest here. The setup consists of two types of locations: The Destination, where the Locals...... for the Visitor, 3D audio is provided through headphones. It is rendered based on the Locals' coordinates via a common Internet database including local positional tracking to ensure that information on the Visitor's head rotation has a minimum delay through the network. The BEAMING project currently addresses...

  12. Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Radziwon, Agnieszka; Grube Hansen, David

    2017-01-01

    A large part of Danish Industry is based on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), which account for –99% of the companies in Denmark and about two third of the job positions (source: statistikbanken.dk) . That is why, it is so important also to focus research and development at SMEs, and to ......A large part of Danish Industry is based on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), which account for –99% of the companies in Denmark and about two third of the job positions (source: statistikbanken.dk) . That is why, it is so important also to focus research and development at SMEs......, and to target their challenges and ensure sustainable growth and business in these enterprises. Therefore the focus of the Smart Factory project was to support the growth and sustainable development of the small and medium sized manufacturing industry in Denmark. The project focused on SMEs and how to improve...... their innovation and competitive advantage by focusing at their competences, strengths and opportunities. The project suggests innovative solutions and business models through collaboration and use of new technologies. In the Smart Factory, SMEs should be able to collaborate on new products, markets and production...

  13. A new framework of image reconstruction from fan beam projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.-H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a unified framework to reconstruct images for both fan beam and cone beam projections. The important feature of our theoretical framework is that it does not depend on the classical concept of the Radon transform at all. This property allows us to directly generalize the ideas and techniques developed in this paper to the cone beam reconstruction problem. In this paper, we extract such a framework from developing a new image reconstruction scheme from fan beam projections. Our new scheme also provides us new understanding of fan beam reconstruction problem. Our main results for the fan beam reconstruction are the following: First, we derive a general reconstruction scheme, in which the data sufficiency condition is transparently revealed by the reconstruction formula. Specifically, the data sufficiency condition for an accurate reconstruction of a region of interest (ROI) is that all the lines passing through the ROI must intersect the source trajectory at least once. Second, we further simplify the general reconstruction scheme by following three major steps of our new framework: (i) using symmetries of intermediate function; (ii) handling the data redundancy; (iii) changing discrete summation over the possible focal points into an integral along the source trajectory. After these steps, we obtain a new filtered backprojection algorithm. The key characteristic of this new algorithm is to take derivative of measured data with respect to the trajectory parameter. In practice, we can trade this derivative to some other continuous functions. In the configuration of a circular source trajectory with a third generation arc/collinear detector, we demonstrate how to remove the undesirable derivative of measured projection data. It results in a new algorithm for the sequential reconstruction of a ROI with a general normalized weighting function

  14. Overview of the Livermore electron beam ion trap project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Behar, E.; Boyce, K.R.; Brown, G.V.; Chen, H.; Gendreau, K.C.; Graf, A.; Gu, M.-F.; Harris, C.L.; Kahn, S.M.; Kelley, R.L.; Lepson, J.K.; May, M.J.; Neill, P.A.; Pinnington, E.H.; Porter, F.S.; Smith, A.J.; Stahle, C.K.; Szymkowiak, A.E.; Tillotson, A.; Thorn, D.B.; Traebert, E.; Wargelin, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Livermore electron beam ion trap facility has recently been moved to a new location within LLNL, and new instrumentation was added, including a 32-pixel microcalorimeter. The move was accompanied by a shift of focus toward in situ measurements of highly charged ions, which continue with increased vigor. Overviews of the facility, which includes EBIT-I and SuperEBIT, and the research projects are given, including results from optical spectroscopy, QED, and X-ray line excitation measurements

  15. Applying EVM principles to Tevatron Beam Position Monitor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Bakul

    2005-01-01

    At Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Tevatron high energy particle collider must meet the increasing scientific demand of higher beam luminosity. To achieve this higher luminosity goal, U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a major upgrade of capabilities of Fermilab's accelerator complex that spans five years and costs over fifty million dollars. Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system upgrade is a part of this project, generally called RunII upgrade project. Since the purpose of the Tevatron collider is to detect the smashing of proton and anti-protons orbiting the circular accelerator in opposite directions, capability to detect positions of both protons and antiprotons at a high resolution level is a desirable functionality of the monitoring system. The original system was installed during early 1980s, along with the original construction of the Tevatron. However, electronic technology available in 1980s did not allow for the detection of significantly smaller resolution of antiprotons. The objective of the upgrade project is to replace the existing BPM system with a new system utilizing capabilities of modern electronics enhanced by a front-end software driven by a real-time operating software. The new BPM system is designed to detect both protons and antiprotons with increased resolution of up to an order of magnitude. The new system is capable of maintaining a very high-level of data integrity and system reliability. The system consists of 27 VME crates installed at 27 service buildings around the Tevatron ring servicing 236 beam position monitors placed underground, inside the accelerator tunnel. Each crate consists of a single Timing Generator Fanout module, custom made by Fermilab staff, one MVME processor card running VxWorks 5.5, multiple Echotek Digital Receiver boards complimented by custom made Filter Board. The VxWorks based front-end software communicates with the Main Accelerator Control software via a special

  16. 'Geant Simulation of Muon Cooling Rings,' 'Ionization Cooling Ring for Muons,' 'Geant Simulation of Six-Dimensional Cooling of Muon Beams in Ring Coolers,' 'Recent Progress in Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Research Within the Muon Collaboration,' 'Towards the Higgs Factory/Muon Collider,' 'Status of R and D on Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders,' 'Feasibility Study-II of a Muon-Based Neutrino Source,' 'A Muon Collider as a Higgs Factory,' 'Higgs Factory Muon Collider,' 'A Muon Collider as a Higgs Factory,' 'A Feasibility Study of a Neutrino Source Based on a Muon Storage Ring,' 'Status of Muon Collider Research and Development and Future Plans,'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. G. Hanson and A. Klier; R. Palmer,; Amit Klier and Gail G. Hanson,; Mohammad M. Alsharo, et al,; G. Hanson,; G. Hanson,; S. Ozaki, R. Palmer, M.S. Zisman, and J. Gallardo, eds.,; D.B. Cline and G.G. Hanson,; D.B. Cline and G.G. Hanson,; D.B. Cline and G.G. Hanson,; N. Holtkamp and D. Finley, eds.; C.M. Ankenbrandt

    2006-01-01

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT FOR DOE AWARD DE-FG02-03ER41267 NEUTRINO FACTORY AND MUON COLLIDER FELLOW By providing an intense, well controlled, well characterized, narrow beam of muon neutrinos and electron antineutrinos from the decay of muons in a storage ring, a neutrino factory can advance neutrino physics beyond the current round of approved and proposed experiments using conventional neutrino beams produced from a beam of decaying pions and kaons. There is no other comparable single clean source of electron neutrinos (from the decay of UNKNOWN, UNREADABLE IN ORIGINAL FILE) or antineutrinos. A muon storage ring producing 1019 to 1021 muon decays per year should be feasible. These intense neutrino beams can be used to study neutrino oscillations and possible CP violation. An entry-level muon storage ring that could provide 1019 decays per year would allow a determination of the sign of and a first measurement of sin22(UNKNOWN)±13 for favorable values of this parameter. An improved muon storage ring system that could provide 1020 muon decays per year would allow measurement of sin22(UNKNOWN)±13 to (UNKNOWN). A high performance muon storage ring capable of providing more than 1020 muon decays per year would allow the exciting possibility of a measurement of CP violation in the leptonic sector. An intense cold muon beam at the front end of a neutrino factory could enable a rich variety of precision muon physics, such as a more precise measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g - 2) and searches for (UNKNOWN, UNREADABLE IN ORIGINAL FILE) N conversion. In addition, colliding beams of (UNKNOWN) and (UNKNOWN) in a muon collider can provide an effective 'Higgs factory' or multi-TeV center-of-mass energy collisions. A muon collider will be the best way to study the Higgs bosons associated with supersymmetric theories and may be necessary to discover them. Two neutrino factory feasibility studies have been carried out in the U.S. International design efforts are

  17. Thermal projection shielding in teeth flanks of a sugar cane mill drainer of a sugar factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo M. Espín Lagos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Shielding was performed on the flanks of teeth of a cane mill by means of the flame thermal projection technique using the Eutalloy 11496 micropulverized alloy. The material of the toner is AISI 1045 steel and the surface of shielding was prepared by the jet process with abrasive material of volcanic nature, in order to achieve an optimum anchorage surface for the alloy. Next, in software, iterations of the thickness of the shield were realized with the purpose of determining its useful life and through the distribution of Weibull we estimated the function of reliability and the function of probability of failure, considering a complete harvest of 240 days.

  18. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

  19. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10 9 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

  20. Neutrinos: from the Workshop to the Factory

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over the next 5 years much work will be done to reach a theoretical and practical description of a neutrino factory. How could this project turn out to be an interesting future option for CERN? Neutrino beams travelling from CERN to the Canary Islands? And to the Svalbard archipelago in Norway? Or even to the Pyhaesalmi Mine in Finland? Why neutrinos? And why so far? The answers provide one of CERN's next challenging options: the construction of a high-energy muon storage ring to provide neutrino beams. This project, nicknamed 'neutrino factory', now figures in CERN's middle term plan as a recognized and supported research and development project. International collaborations, with other European laboratories and also with America and Japan, are now being set up. Long baseline locations for neutrino oscillations studies at a CERN based neutrino factory. Early in its history, LEP established that there exist just three kinds of light neutrinos, those associated with the electron, muon, and tau leptons. For a...

  1. Baby Factory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... severe exploitation, such as forced labour, slavery, debt bondage, prostitution, pornography or the unlawful removal of organs”. Kalu (2011) in his report on the issue of 'baby factory' in the South East of Nigeria, described 'baby factory' as a form of child trafficking since the girls are harboured against their ...

  2. Possibilities for reduction of transverse projected emittances by partial removal of transverse to longitudinal beam correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balandin, V.; Decking, W.; Golubeva, N.

    2014-09-01

    We show that if in the particle beam there are linear correlations between energy of particles and their transverse positions and momenta (linear beam dispersions), then the transverse projected emittances always can be reduced by letting the beam to pass through magnetostatic system with specially chosen nonzero lattice dispersions. The maximum possible reduction of the transverse projected emittances occurs when all beam dispersions are zeroed, and the values of the lattice dispersions required for that are completely defined by the values of the beam dispersions and the beam rms energy spread and are independent from any other second-order central beam moments. Besides that, we prove that, alternatively, one can also use the lattice dispersions to remove linear correlations between longitudinal positions of particles and their transverse coordinates (linear beam tilts), but in this situation solution for the lattice dispersions is nonunique and the reduction of the transverse projected emittances is not guaranteed.

  3. Internet factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  4. Internet Factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  5. Factory physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hopp, Wallace J.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief introductory chapter, "Factory Physics 3/e" is divided into three parts: I - The Lessons of History; II - Factory Physics; and III - Principles in Practice. The scientific approach to manufacturing and supply chain management, developed in Part II, is unique to this text. No other text or professional book provides a rigorous, principles-based foundation for manufacturing management. The Third Edition offers tighter connections between Lean Manufacturing, MRP/ERP, Six Sigma, Supply Chain Management, and Factory Physics. In addition to enhancing the historical overview of how these systems evolved, the authors show explicitly how users can achieve Lean Manufacturing objectives (faster response, less inventory) using the integration aspects of MRP/ERP/SCM systems along with the variance analysis methods of Six Sigma. Factory Physics provides the overarching framework that coordinates all of these initiatives into a single-focused strategy.

  6. A fast beam hardening correction method incorporated in a filtered back-projection based MAP algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shouhua; Wu, Huazhen; Sun, Yi; Li, Jing; Li, Guang; Gu, Ning

    2017-03-01

    The beam hardening effect can induce strong artifacts in CT images, which result in severely deteriorated image quality with incorrect intensities (CT numbers). This paper develops an effective and efficient beam hardening correction algorithm incorporated in a filtered back-projection based maximum a posteriori (BHC-FMAP). In the proposed algorithm, the beam hardening effect is modeled and incorporated into the forward-projection of the MAP to suppress beam hardening induced artifacts, and the image update process is performed by Feldkamp-Davis-Kress method based back-projection to speed up the convergence. The proposed BHC-FMAP approach does not require information about the beam spectrum or the material properties, or any additional segmentation operation. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated using both phantom and animal projection data. The experimental results demonstrate that the BHC-FMAP method can efficiently provide a good correction of beam hardening induced artefacts.

  7. Status of beam line detectors for the BigRIPS fragment separator at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. Issues on high rates and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) and parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were installed within the superconducting in-flight separator, named BigRIPS, at the RIKEN Nishina Center for particle identification of RI beams. The MUSIC detector showed negligible charge collection inefficiency from recombination of electrons and ions, up to a 99-kcps incidence rate for high-energy heavy ions. For the PPAC detectors, the electrical discharge durability for incident heavy ions was improved by changing the electrode material. Finally, we designed a single crystal diamond detector, which is under development for TOF measurements of high-energy heavy ions, that has a very fast response time (pulse width <1 ns). (author)

  8. Status of Beam Line Detectors for the BigRIPS Fragment Separator at RIKEN RI Beam Factory: Issues on High Rates and Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Kameda, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yohei; Ahn, DeukSoon; Murai, Daichi; Inabe, Naohito; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi; Kumagai, Hidekazu; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiromi; Yoshida, Koichi; Kubo, Toshiyuki

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) and parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were installed within the superconducting in-flight separator, named BigRIPS, at the RIKEN Nishina Center for particle identification of RI beams. The MUSIC detector showed negligible charge collection inefficiency from recombination of electrons and ions, up to a 99-kcps incidence rate for high-energy heavy ions. For the PPAC detectors, the electrical discharge durability for incident heavy ions was improved by changing the electrode material. Finally, we designed a single crystal diamond detector, which is under development for TOF measurements of high-energy heavy ions, that has a very fast response time (pulse width <1 ns).

  9. New data postprocessing for e-beam projection lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kazuya; Kamijo, Koichi; Kojima, Shinichi; Minami, Hideyuki; Okino, Teruaki

    2001-08-01

    In electron beam projection lithography (EPL), one of the most crucial tasks is to develop a data post-processing system, namely, a specific tool to expose a faithful pattern for every subfield on the wafer based on the pattern layout data. This system includes two basic flows. The 1st flow is common for reticle fabrication, and the 2nd flow is unique for EPL. During the 2nd flow, based on the LSI pattern data, electron optics space-charge effect correction will be automatically and rapidly executed and output to the EPL system in order to adjust parameters such as focus, magnification, rotation and astigmatism. In addition, this system should perform such tasks as segmentations of subfields (including complementary division), arrangement of stripes and reticlets, and alignment mark insertion. For proximity effect correction, we will first use a pattern shape modulation first. Shape modification at stitching boundaries is also investigated. In summary, to achieve conformable EPL delivery to customers, a new data post- processing system is developed in collaboration with some suppliers.

  10. Fan-beam and cone-beam image reconstruction via filtering the backprojection image of differentiated projection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Tingliang; Leng Shuai; Nett, Brian E; Chen Guanghong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new image reconstruction scheme is presented based on Tuy's cone-beam inversion scheme and its fan-beam counterpart. It is demonstrated that Tuy's inversion scheme may be used to derive a new framework for fan-beam and cone-beam image reconstruction. In this new framework, images are reconstructed via filtering the backprojection image of differentiated projection data. The new framework is mathematically exact and is applicable to a general source trajectory provided the Tuy data sufficiency condition is satisfied. By choosing a piece-wise constant function for one of the components in the factorized weighting function, the filtering kernel is one dimensional, viz. the filtering process is along a straight line. Thus, the derived image reconstruction algorithm is mathematically exact and efficient. In the cone-beam case, the derived reconstruction algorithm is applicable to a large class of source trajectories where the pi-lines or the generalized pi-lines exist. In addition, the new reconstruction scheme survives the super-short scan mode in both the fan-beam and cone-beam cases provided the data are not transversely truncated. Numerical simulations were conducted to validate the new reconstruction scheme for the fan-beam case

  11. A beam test of prototype time projection chamber using micro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We conducted a series of beam tests of prototype TPCs for the international linear collider (ILC) experiment, equipped with an MWPC, a MicroMEGAS, or GEMs as a readout device. The prototype operated successfully in a test beam at KEK under an axial magnetic field of up to 1 T. The analysis of data is now in ...

  12. A beam test of prototype time projection chamber using micro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We conducted a series of beam tests of prototype TPCs for the international linear collider (ILC) experiment, equipped with an MWPC, a MicroMEGAS, or GEMs as a readout device. The prototype operated successfully in a test beam at KEK under an axial magnetic field of up to 1 T. The analysis of data is now in progress ...

  13. Full data consistency conditions for cone-beam projections with sources on a plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clackdoyle, Rolf; Desbat, Laurent

    2013-12-07

    Cone-beam consistency conditions (also known as range conditions) are mathematical relationships between different cone-beam projections, and they therefore describe the redundancy or overlap of information between projections. These redundancies have often been exploited for applications in image reconstruction. In this work we describe new consistency conditions for cone-beam projections whose source positions lie on a plane. A further restriction is that the target object must not intersect this plane. The conditions require that moments of the cone-beam projections be polynomial functions of the source positions, with some additional constraints on the coefficients of the polynomials. A precise description of the consistency conditions is that the four parameters of the cone-beam projections (two for the detector, two for the source position) can be expressed with just three variables, using a certain formulation involving homogeneous polynomials. The main contribution of this work is our demonstration that these conditions are not only necessary, but also sufficient. Thus the consistency conditions completely characterize all redundancies, so no other independent conditions are possible and in this sense the conditions are full. The idea of the proof is to use the known consistency conditions for 3D parallel projections, and to then apply a 1996 theorem of Edholm and Danielsson that links parallel to cone-beam projections. The consistency conditions are illustrated with a simulation example.

  14. Full data consistency conditions for cone-beam projections with sources on a plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clackdoyle, Rolf; Desbat, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Cone-beam consistency conditions (also known as range conditions) are mathematical relationships between different cone-beam projections, and they therefore describe the redundancy or overlap of information between projections. These redundancies have often been exploited for applications in image reconstruction. In this work we describe new consistency conditions for cone-beam projections whose source positions lie on a plane. A further restriction is that the target object must not intersect this plane. The conditions require that moments of the cone-beam projections be polynomial functions of the source positions, with some additional constraints on the coefficients of the polynomials. A precise description of the consistency conditions is that the four parameters of the cone-beam projections (two for the detector, two for the source position) can be expressed with just three variables, using a certain formulation involving homogeneous polynomials. The main contribution of this work is our demonstration that these conditions are not only necessary, but also sufficient. Thus the consistency conditions completely characterize all redundancies, so no other independent conditions are possible and in this sense the conditions are full. The idea of the proof is to use the known consistency conditions for 3D parallel projections, and to then apply a 1996 theorem of Edholm and Danielsson that links parallel to cone-beam projections. The consistency conditions are illustrated with a simulation example. (paper)

  15. Emittance of secondary beams and the project SISSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittig, W.

    1990-01-01

    The study of exotic nuclei has become a very active domain at GANIL. These nuclei are produced by a fragmentation-like process, which gives products focused to forward angles and having a rather well determined velocity. With the spectrometers actually used for studying these nuclei, LISE [1] and SPEG [2], only about typically 1% of the reaction products are accepted by these devices. In order to increase the collection efficiency, the author considers these products as a secondary beam. The Liouville theorem states that the emittance is conserved during beam transport, and the cost and difficulty of construction of this beam line increase with the emittance. Decision on the construction will be taken in beginning of 1990, and if accepted will increase the collection efficiency at GANIL by one order of magnitude. It will produce low emittance secondary beams, and increase the experimental flexibility due to the fact that this device will be placed up stream the experimental area, thus this beam may be sent to all existing equipment

  16. A tau -- charm -- factory at Argonne. Preliminary assessment of the physics case and the Argonne Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Fields, T.; Grosnick, D.; Norem, J.; Repond, J.; Schoessow, P.

    1994-02-02

    Depending on the beam energy setting, the {tau} -- charm -- factory will be optimized to study physics with {tau} leptons, with charmed mesons, or with charmonium states. This report gives a short overview of the physics of these topics. Also discussed are the detectors and the costs associated with this project.

  17. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; ET AL.

    2005-02-28

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linac. The highly successful development of an EBIS at BNL now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based pre-injectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem.

  18. Nuclear Structure Studies with Stable and Radioactive Beams: The SPES radioactive ion beam project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, G.; SPES Collaboration; Prete, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Corradetti, S.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Lollo, M.; Calderolla, M.; Vasquez, J.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Sarchiapone, L.; Benini, D.; Favaron, P.; Rigato, M.; Pegoraro, R.; Maniero, D.; Calabretta, L.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Lombardi, A.; Piazza, L.; Porcellato, A. M.; Roncolato, C.; Bisoffi, G.; Pisent, A.; Galatà, A.; Giacchini, M.; Bassato, G.; Canella, S.; Gramegna, F.; Valiente, J.; Bermudez, J.; Mastinu, P. F.; Esposito, J.; Wyss, J.; Russo, A.; Zanella, S.

    2015-04-01

    A new Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility (SPES) is presently under construction at the Legnaro National Laboratories of INFN. The SPES facility is based on the ISOL method using an UCx Direct Target able to sustain a power of 10 kW. The primary proton beam is provided by a high current Cyclotron accelerator with energy of 35-70 MeV and a beam current of 0.2-0.5 mA. Neutron-rich radioactive ions are produced by proton induced fission on an Uranium target at an expected fission rate of the order of 1013 fissions per second. After ionization and selection the exotic isotopes are re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10A MeV for masses in the region A=130 amu. The expected secondary beam rates are of the order of 107 - 109 pps. Aim of the SPES facility is to deliver high intensity radioactive ion beams of neutron rich nuclei for nuclear physics research as well as to be an interdisciplinary research centre for radio-isotopes production for medicine and for neutron beams.

  19. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; GRANDINETTI, R.; HSEUH, H.; JAVIDFAR, A.; KPONOU, A.; LAMBIASE, R.; LESSARD, E.; LOCKEY, R.; LODESTRO, V.; MAPES, M.; MIRABELLA, D.; NEHRING, T.; OERTER, B.; PENDZICK, A.; PIKIN, A.; RAPARIA, D.; RITTER, J.; ROSER, T.; RUSSO, T.; SNYDSTRUP, L.; WILINSKI, M.; ZALTSMAN, A.; ZHANG, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linear accelerator (Linac). The highly successful development of an EBIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based preinjectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The proposed pre-injector system would also provide for a major enhancement in capability for the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), which utilizes heavy-ion beams from the RHIC complex. EBIS would allow for the acceleration of all important ion species for the NASA radiobiology program, such as, helium, argon, and neon which are unavailable with the present Tandem injector. In addition, the new system would allow for very rapid switching of ion species for

  20. Photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, J.; Huke, K.; Chikawa, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Photon Factory (PF) was established on April 1, 1978 at KEK. The PF is a synchrotron radiation facility, which has a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring fully dedicated to the SR usage and a 2.5 GeV electron linac supplying electrons and positrons to the PF ring and the accumulation ring of TRISTAN (30 GeV electron-positron colliding machine). The PF consists of three departments, injector linac, light source, and instrumentation department. The facility is described

  1. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  2. A new method to determine the projected coordinate origin of a cone-beam CT system using elliptical projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Li Baolei; Jin Xuling

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the projected coordinate origin in the cone-beam CT scanning system with respect to the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm,we propose a simple yet feasible method to accurately measure the projected coordinate origin. This method was established on the basis of the theory that the projection of a spherical object in the cone-beam field is an ellipse. We first utilized image processing and the least square estimation method to get each major axis of the elliptical Digital Radiography (DR) projections of a group of spherical objects. Then we determined the intersection point of the group of major axis by solving an over-determined equation set that was composed by the major axis equations of all the elliptical projections. Based on the experimental results,this new method was proved to be easy to implement in practical scanning systems with high accuracy and anti-noise capability. (authors)

  3. The radioactive ion beam project at VECC, Kolkata–A status report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A project to build an ISOL-post accelerator type of radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility has been undertaken at VECC, Kolkata. The funding for the first phase of the project was approved in August 1997. This phase will be the R&D phase and will be completed by December 2003. The present status of development of the ...

  4. Measuring radiation damage dynamics by pulsed ion beam irradiation: 2016 project annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheyev, Sergei O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-04

    The major goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a novel experimental approach to access the dynamic regime of radiation damage formation in nuclear materials. In particular, the project exploits a pulsed-ion-beam method in order to gain insight into defect interaction dynamics by measuring effective defect interaction time constants and defect diffusion lengths. For Year 3, this project had the following two major milestones: (i) the demonstration of the measurement of thermally activated defect-interaction processes by pulsed ion beam techniques and (ii) the demonstration of alternative characterization techniques to study defect dynamics. As we describe below, both of these milestones have been met.

  5. Intial characterization fo a commerical electron gun for profiling high intensity proton beams in Project X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Thangaraj, J.C.T.; Zhang, D.; /Fermilab; Blokland, W.; /Oak Ridge

    2011-03-01

    Measuring the profile of a high-intensity proton beam is problematic in that traditional invasive techniques such as flying wires don't survive the encounter with the beam. One alternative is the use of an electron beam as a probe of the charge distribution in the proton beam as was done at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL. Here we present an initial characterization of the beam from a commercial electron gun from Kimball Physics, intended for use in the Fermilab Main Injector for Project X. Despite the fact that the horizontal spot size is abnormally large in the high current measurement, the spot size at the downstream cross X2 is reasonable in the context of measuring the deflection. A thin foil OTR would help with the beam heating and should be tried. The next phase of this experiment is to simulate the proton beam with a pair of current carrying wires and to design and construct a fast deflector. Some of the remaining issues to be considered include determining the minimum beam current needed to observe the deflected beam for a given sweep time and the impact of longitudinal variations in the charge density of the bunch.

  6. Project outline of high quality electron beam generation at Waseda University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, M.; Hama, Y.; Kashiwagi, S.; Kuroda, R.; Kobuki, T.; Hirose, T.

    2000-01-01

    High quality electron beam generation project has been started at Waseda University under the grant of Ministry of Education, named High-Tech Research Center Project. In the project, we will install a laser photo-cathode RF Gun system with 1.6 accelerating structure cells of s-band and a stabilized RF power source. This RF Gun is expected to produce single electron bunch up to 1 or 2nC with around 10ps pulse duration. (author)

  7. Construction and measurement techniques for the APS LEUTL project RF beam position monitors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorski, A.

    1999-04-20

    The design, construction, and assembly procedure of 24 rf beam position monitors used in the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line and linear accelerator (linac) are described. Beam stability as well as beam positioning capabilities are essential to the LEUTL project. A design objective of the LEUTL facility is to achieve better than 1-{micro}m resolution. The highest care was used in the mechanical fabrication and assembly of the BPM units. The latest experimental results using these BPMs are presented.

  8. The TRIUMF KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1991-05-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated -fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal RF shields, an RF cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, and RF beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia (already approved) and international contributors. The federal decision is expected shortly. (Author) 29 refs., 5 figs

  9. Calibration method of parallel projection beams for 3D profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shuo-Jen; Fan, Tienjung

    1996-10-01

    3D profile measurement of work-piece by non-contact optical methods has been studied extensively because of its importance in the automated manufacturing processes and quality control of components. In this paper, a projection method and its calibration algorithm of parallel projection means for 3D profile measurement system was presented. The proposed method used the pin-hole theory. An arc light which was assumed to be a point light source was positioned in the focal point of a parabolic mirror. After it was reflected by the parabolic mirror, uniform parallel light beams were projected. Using alignment collimator and telescope, the best positions of all of the optical elements in the system can be adjusted. Parameters of CCD lens, image center, arc light source and their relative positional relationship were also calibrated. This ensures the overall accuracy of the projection system. For most of the structured light optical methods, the size and shape of the dot laser beam or the length and width of a line laser beam of the projected slits were functions of the measurement range. A lot of efforts and caution have been conducted int he calibration process and mathematical manipulations are required to assure the measurement accuracy. The proposed parallel projection beam method eliminates above mentioned difficulty. It could be a robust and efficient non-contact optical method for the measurement of 3D profile.

  10. Data correlation based noise level estimation for cone beam projection data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ti; Yan, Hao; Ouyang, Luo; Staub, David; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B; Mou, Xuanqin

    2017-01-01

    In regularized iterative reconstruction algorithms, the selection of regularization parameter depends on the noise level of cone beam projection data. Our aim is to propose an algorithm to estimate the noise level of cone beam projection data. We first derived the data correlation of cone beam projection data in the Fourier domain, based on which, the signal and the noise were decoupled. Then the noise was extracted and averaged for estimation. An adaptive regularization parameter selection strategy was introduced based on the estimated noise level. Simulation and real data studies were conducted for performance validation. There exists an approximately zero-energy double-wedge area in the 3D Fourier domain of cone beam projection data. As for the noise level estimation results, the averaged relative errors of the proposed algorithm in the analytical/MC/spotlight-mode simulation experiments were 0.8%, 0.14% and 0.24%, respectively, and outperformed the homogeneous area based as well as the transformation based algorithms. Real studies indicated that the estimated noise levels were inversely proportional to the exposure levels, i.e., the slopes in the log-log plot were -1.0197 and -1.049 with respect to the short-scan and half-fan modes. The introduced regularization parameter selection strategy could deliver promising reconstructed image qualities. Based on the data correlation of cone beam projection data in Fourier domain, the proposed algorithm could estimate the noise level of cone beam projection data accurately and robustly. The estimated noise level could be used to adaptively select the regularization parameter.

  11. A beam test of prototype time projection chamber using micro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Time projection chamber; micro-pattern gas detectors; micro-mesh gaseous structure; gas electron multiplier; international linear collider; spatial resolution. ... Makoto Kobayashi1 on behalf of part of the ILC{TPC Collaboration. High Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801, Japan ...

  12. A beam test of prototype time projection chamber using micro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interpretation. Also given is the extrapolation of the obtained spatial resolution to that of a large TPC expected as the central tracker of the ILC experiment. Keywords. Time projection ... Next, some preliminary results are presented along with our interpretation, in which special .... support and hospitality. He is also grateful to ...

  13. Generation of virtual monochromatic CBCT from dual kV/MV beam projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Bo; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel on-board imaging technique which allows generation of virtual monochromatic (VM) cone-beam CT (CBCT) with a selected energy from combined kilovoltage (kV)/megavoltage (MV) beam projections. Methods: With the current orthogonal kV/MV imaging hardware equipped in modern linear accelerators, both MV projections (from gantry angle of 0°–100°) and kV projections (90°–200°) were acquired as gantry rotated a total of 110°. A selected range of overlap projections between 90° to 100° were then decomposed into two material projections using experimentally determined parameters from orthogonally stacked aluminum and acrylic step-wedges. Given attenuation coefficients of aluminum and acrylic at a predetermined energy, one set of VM projections could be synthesized from two corresponding sets of decomposed projections. Two linear functions were generated using projection information at overlap angles to convert kV and MV projections at nonoverlap angles to approximate VM projections for CBCT reconstruction. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated for different inserts in VM CBCTs of a CatPhan phantom with various selected energies and compared with those in kV and MV CBCTs. The effect of overlap projection number on CNR was evaluated. Additionally, the effect of beam orientation was studied by scanning the CatPhan sandwiched with two 5 cm solid-water phantoms on both lateral sides and an electronic density phantom with two metal bolt inserts. Results: Proper selection of VM energy [30 and 40 keV for low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polymethylpentene, 2 MeV for Delrin] provided comparable or even better CNR results as compared with kV or MV CBCT. An increased number of overlap kV and MV projection demonstrated only marginal improvements of CNR for different inserts (with the exception of LDPE) and therefore one projection overlap was found to be sufficient for the CatPhan study. It was also evident that the optimal CBCT image

  14. Photon Factory activity report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Photon Factory is a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated with the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics located in Tsukuba Science City. The Photon Factory consists of a 2.5 GeV electron/positron linear accelerator, a 2.5 GeV electron/positron storage ring, beam lines and experimental stations. All the facilities for synchrotron radiation research are open to scientists. A part of the accumulation ring of the TRISTAN main ring has been used as a synchrotron radiation source in the energy range from 5.8 to 6.5 GeV. The Photon Factory is composed of three divisions of Injector Linac, Light Source and Instrumentation. The researches of each divisions are reviewed, and the users' short reports are collected. The list of published papers with author index is also included in the publication. (K.I.) 233 refs

  15. Baseball II-T multiple beam project 50 kV, 80 amp, power supply system for sustaining neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    This document describes a high power, high voltage power supply system required to operate sustaining neutral beam (NB) sources as would be used in the Baseball II-T Multiple Beam Project. Two such systems would be needed. Appended are site plan installation drawings

  16. Recent developments at the TRIUMF meson factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1976-10-01

    The TRIUMF meson factory, which is based on a 6-sector isochronous cyclotron accelerating H - ions to 520 MeV, has been operating since December 1974. Two proton beams are extracted simultaneously to feed the two experimental areas. Characteristics of the beams and beam lines are given. Work is also proceeding on (i) additional beam lines, (ii) a 180 kW beam dump and thermal neutron source, (iii) a medium resolution proton spectrometer, and (iv) adding third harmonic flat-topping to the RF to permit separation of the internal orbits and reduction of the energy spread of the extracted beam to 0.1 MeV. (author)

  17. Leveraging Technology in Campus Change Initiatives: A Practice Brief Based on BEAMS Project Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chough, Alex

    2008-01-01

    During 2003-07, the Building Engagement and Attainment for Minority Students (BEAMS) project fostered data-based campus change initiatives at more than 100 four-year Historically Black, Hispanic-Serving, and Tribal colleges and universities to increase student engagement and learning. This brief provides an overview of technology-driven strategies…

  18. Asymmetric energy B factory at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yasushi

    1994-01-01

    An introductory review is given on the project of the Asymmetric Energy B factory at KEK. First, the motivation for B factory is discussed. The most interesting and important topic there is the measurement of CP violation in other than the K-system. Thus, CP violation in the B decays is reviewed rather extensively, especially on how the angles of the unitarity triangle can be measured at an asymmetric energy B factory. Then the B factory project at KEK is briefly reviewed. (author)

  19. Managing the Real-time Behaviour of a Particle Beam Factory The CERN Proton Synchrotron Complex and its Timing System Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bau, J C; Lewis, J; Philippe, J

    1998-01-01

    In the CERN 26 Gev Proton Synchrotron (PS) accelerator network, super-cycles are defined as sequences of different kinds of beams produced repetitively [Fig.1]. Each of these beams is characterised by attributes such as particle type, beam energy, its route through the accelerator network, and the final end user. The super-cycle is programmed by means of an editor through which the operational requirements of the physics programme can be described. Each beam in the normal sequence may later be replaced by a set of spare beams automatically depending on software and hardware interlocks and requests presented to the Master Timing Generator (MTG [Glos. 1]). The MTG calculates at run time how each beam is to be manufactured, and sends a telegram [Glos. 3] message to each accelerator, just before each cycle, describing what it should be doing now and during the next cycle. These messages, together with key machine timing events and clocks are encoded onto a timing distribution drop net where they are distributed a...

  20. Low-contrast visualization in megavoltage cone-beam CT at one beam pulse per projection using thick segmented scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; Choroszucha, Richard B.; Wang, Yi

    2010-04-01

    Megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is a highly promising technique for providing valuable volumetric information for image guidance in radiotherapy. However, active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs), which are the established gold standard in portal imaging, require a relatively large dose to create images that are clinically useful. This is a consequence of the inefficiency of the phosphor screens employed in conventional MV AMFPIs, which utilize only ~2% of the incident radiation at 6 MV. Fortunately, the incorporation of thick, segmented scintillators can significantly improve the performance of MV AMFPIs, leading to improved image quality for projection imaging at extremely low dose. It is therefore of interest to explore the performance of such thick scintillators for MV CBCT toward the goal of soft-tissue contrast visualization. In this study, prototype AMFPIs incorporating segmented scintillators based on CsI:Tl and BGO crystals with thicknesses ranging from ~11 to 25 mm have been constructed and evaluated. Each prototype incorporates a detector consisting of a matrix of 120 × 60 scintillator elements separated by reflective septal walls, with an element-to-element pitch of 1.016 mm, coupled to an overlying ~1 mm thick Cu plate. The prototype AMFPIs were incorporated into a bench-top CBCT system, allowing the acquisition of tomographic images of a contrast phantom using a 6 MV radiotherapy photon beam. The phantom consists of a water-equivalent (solid water) cylinder, embedded with tissue-equivalent inserts having electron densities, relative to water, varying from ~0.43 to ~1.47. Reconstructed images of the phantom were obtained down to the lowest available dose (one beam pulse per projection), corresponding to a total scan dose of ~4 cGy using 180 projections. In this article, reconstructed images, contrast, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio for the tissue-equivalent objects using the

  1. The TRIUMF KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1990-11-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of experiments in particle and nuclear physics. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various accelerator components to be built and evaluated. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed. Payment of one-third of the total cost of $708 million (Canadian) has been approved by the government of British Columbia; a further third is expected from international sources, on the basis of inter-governmental consultations. A decision on the final third is expected from the government of Canada before the end of 1990. (Author) (15 refs., 7 figs.)

  2. A Review of "Infinity Factory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Following a discussion of the historical background of the TV series "Infinity Factory," the goals of the television project are listed. A general description of the television series, an evaluation of the entertainment value, and an evaluation of children's attitude change are briefly presented. The program's presentation of mathematics…

  3. MUON STORAGE RINGS - NEUTRINO FACTORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSA, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Source (Neutrino Factory) has sparked considerable interest in the High Energy Physics community. Besides providing a first phase of a muon collider facility, it would generate more intense and well collimated neutrino beams than currently available. The BNL-AGS or some other proton driver would provide an intense proton beam that hits a target, produces pions that decay into muons. The muons must be cooled, accelerated and injected into a storage ring with a long straight section where they decay. The decays occurring in the straight sections of the ring would generate neutrino beams that could be directed to detectors located thousands of kilometers away, allowing studies of neutrino oscillations with precisions not currently accessible. For example, with the neutrino source at BNL, detectors at Soudan, Minnesota (1,715 km), and Gran Sasso, Italy (6,527 km) become very interesting possibilities. The feasibility of constructing and operating such a muon-storage-ring based Neutrino-Factory, including geotechnical questions related to building non-planar storage rings (e.g. at 8degree angle for BNL-Soudan, and 3degree angle for BNL-Gran Sasso) along with the design of the muon capture, cooling, acceleration, and storage ring for such a facility is being explored by the growing Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC). The authors present overview of Neutrino Factory concept based on a muon storage ring, its components, physics opportunities, possible upgrade to a full muon collider, latest simulations of front-end, and a new bowtie-muon storage ring design

  4. Some TPC [Time Projection Chamber] measurements in an oxygen beam at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, W.A.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The principal detector for AGS Experiment 810 is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in which it is intended to measure momenta and angles of a major fraction of the charged particles from each light ion collision. This report describes the results of a test of a prototype of the TPC in a beam of (14.6 /times/ 16 = 233.6 GeV/c) oxygen ions run in June of this year

  5. Low-energy neutrino factory design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ankenbrandt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a low-energy (4 GeV neutrino factory (NF is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The π^{±} decay to produce muons (μ^{±}, which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by ∼1.4×10^{21} μ^{+} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of μ^{-} decays.

  6. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-30

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  7. Photon Factory activity report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the foundation of Photon Factory a decade age, it has played an important role as a unique synchrotron X-ray radiation source in Japan. Installation of various insertion devices, storage of intense positron beam and reduction of beam emittance were the substantial achievements in the last several years. The exploitation of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring as a synchrotron radiation source has paved the way for a new potential of development. All these activities have brought about the increase of beamlines and the expansion of scientific fronts. Third International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation held in Tsukuba was one of the most highlighted events for the facility. In coming years, it is intended to open new research fields using the promising single bunch beam and circularly polarized wiggler radiation. The TRISTAN Main Ring also will be applied to synchrotron radiation research. The Photon Factory in a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated to the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, and it consists of a 2.5 GeV electron linac, a 2.5 GeV storage ring as a synchrotron light source, beam lines and experimental stations. The operation, improvement and development in respective departments are reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Alignment Tools Used to Locate a Wire and a Laser Beam in the VISA Undulator Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Z.; Ruland, R.; Dix, B.; Arnett, D.; /SLAC

    2005-08-17

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is evaluating the feasibility of placing a free electron laser (FEL) at the end of the linear accelerator. The proposal is to inject electrons two thirds of the way down the linac, accelerate the electrons for the last one third of the linac, and then send the electrons into the FEL. This project is known as the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source). To test the feasibility of the LCLS, a smaller experiment VISA (Visual to Infrared SASE (Self Amplified Stimulated Emission) Amplifier) is being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. VISA consists of four wiggler segments, each 0.99 m long. The four segments are required to be aligned to the beam axis with an rms error less than 50 {micro}m [1]. This very demanding alignment is carried out in two steps [2]. First the segments are fiducialized using a pulsed wire system. Then the wiggler segments are placed along a reference laser beam which coincides with the electron beam axis. In the wiggler segment fiducialization, a wire is stretched through a wiggler segment and a current pulse is sent down the wire. The deflection of the wire is monitored. The deflection gives information about the electron beam trajectory. The wire is moved until its x position, the coordinate without wire sag, is on the ideal beam trajectory. (The y position is obtained by rotating the wiggler 90{sup o}.) Once the wire is on the ideal beam trajectory, the wire's location is measured relative to tooling balls on the wiggler segment. To locate the wire, a device was constructed which measures the wire position relative to tooling balls on the device. The device is called the wire finder. It will be discussed in this paper. To place the magnets along the reference laser beam, the position of the laser beam must be determined. A device which can locate the laser beam relative to tooling balls was constructed and is also discussed in this paper. This device is called the laser finder. With a total

  9. Data Management System at the Photon Factory Macromolecular Crystallography Beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y; Matsugaki, N; Chavas, L M G; Hiraki, M; Igarashi, N; Wakatsuki, S

    2013-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallography is a very powerful tool to investigate three-dimensional structures of macromolecules at the atomic level, and is widely spread among structural biology researchers. Due to recent upgrades of the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the Photon Factory, beamline throughput has improved, allowing more experiments to be conducted during a user's beam time. Although the number of beamlines has increased, so has the number of beam time applications. Consequently, both the experimental data from users' experiments and data derived from beamline operations have dramatically increased, causing difficulties in organizing these diverse and large amounts of data for the beamline operation staff and users. To overcome this problem, we have developed a data management system by introducing commercial middleware, which consists of a controller, database, and web servers. We have prepared several database projects using this system. Each project is dedicated to a certain aspect such as experimental results, beam time applications, beam time schedule, or beamline operation reports. Then we designed a scheme to link all the database projects.

  10. Photon Factory activity report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Photon Factory made great strides in 1987. The low emittance operation of the PF ring was achieved in March, and resulted favorably in the increase of brilliance from 2 to 20 times for all the beam lines with high beam stability. At the same time, the installation of inserted devices was under way for all available straight sections of the ring. A 54-pole wiggler-undulator has been commissioned at BL-16. The devices to be inserted in the near future are a multipole wiggler for BL-13, an undulator for BL-19, and an undulator for circular polarized radiation at BL-28. The construction of beam lines continued, and four new beam lines, BL-6, BL-9, BL-16 and BL-17, are now in operation, BL-13 and BL-19 are under construction, and BL-3, BL-5, BL-18, BL-20 and BL-28 are in the design stage. Since its inauguration with four beam lines in 1982, the Photon Factory has grown rapidly, and approaches the goal of operating the PF ring with positrons in full use of its 24 beam ports and the straight sections for inserted devices. The total operation time was limited to 3,000 hours by the budget for fiscal year 1987, and about 80 % of the operation hours were devoted to the experiments of users. The nearly perfect operation of the 400 m long linac has continued in 1987, and has supplied both electrons and positrons to the TRISTAN collision experiment. The light source of a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring was normally operated. (Kako, I.)

  11. Cone-beam CT in paediatric dentistry: DIMITRA project position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenning, Anne Caroline; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Pauwels, Ruben; Stratis, Andreas; Hedesiu, Mihaela; Salmon, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    DIMITRA (dentomaxillofacial paediatric imaging: an investigation towards low-dose radiation induced risks) is a European multicenter and multidisciplinary project focused on optimizing cone-beam CT exposures for children and adolescents. With increasing use of cone-beam CT for dentomaxillofacial diagnostics, concern arises regarding radiation risks associated with this imaging modality, especially for children. Research evidence concerning cone-beam CT indications in children remains limited, while reports mention inconsistent recommendations for dose reduction. Furthermore, there is no paper using the combined and integrated information on the required indication-oriented image quality and the related patient dose levels. In this paper, therefore, the authors initiate an integrated approach based on current evidence regarding image quality and dose, together with the expertise of DIMITRA's members searching for a state of the art. The aim of this DIMITRA position statement is to provide indication-oriented and patient-specific recommendations regarding the main cone-beam CT applications in the pediatric field. The authors will review this position statement document when results regarding multidisciplinary approaches evolve, in a period of 5 years or earlier.

  12. GPU accelerated voxel-driven forward projection for iterative reconstruction of cone-beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Yu, Gongyi; Xiang, Xincheng; Wang, Xiangang

    2017-01-05

    For cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), which has been playing an important role in clinical applications, iterative reconstruction algorithms are able to provide advantageous image qualities over the classical FDK. However, the computational speed of iterative reconstruction is a notable issue for CBCT, of which the forward projection calculation is one of the most time-consuming components. In this study, the cone-beam forward projection problem using the voxel-driven model is analysed, and a GPU-based acceleration method for CBCT forward projection is proposed with the method rationale and implementation workflow detailed as well. For method validation and evaluation, computational simulations are performed, and the calculation times of different methods are collected. Compared with the benchmark CPU processing time, the proposed method performs effectively in handling the inter-thread interference problem, and an acceleration ratio as high as more than 100 is achieved compared to a single-threaded CPU implementation. The voxel-driven forward projection calculation for CBCT is highly paralleled by the proposed method, and we believe it will serve as a critical module to develop iterative reconstruction and correction methods for CBCT imaging.

  13. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user`s short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  14. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user's short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  15. Cavity loss factors of non-relativistic beams for Project X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunin, A.; Yakovlev, V.; Kazakov, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Cavity loss factor calculation is an important part of the total cryolosses estimation for the super conductive (SC) accelerating structures. There are two approaches how to calculate cavity loss factors, the integration of a wake potential over the bunch profile and the addition of loss factors for individual cavity modes. We applied both methods in order to get reliable results for non-relativistic beam. The time domain CST solver was used for a wake potential calculation and the frequency domain HFSS code was used for the cavity eigenmodes spectrum findings. Finally we present the results of cavity loss factors simulations for a non-relativistic part of the ProjectX and analyze it for various beam parameters.

  16. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  17. The charge breeder beam line for the selective production of exotic species project at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatà, A.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project with the aim at producing and post-accelerating exotic beams to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. To allow post-acceleration of the radioactive ions, an ECR-based Charge Breeder (CB) developed on the basis of the Phoenix booster was chosen. The design of the complete beam line for the SPES-CB will be described: a system for stable 1+ beams production was included; special attention was paid to the medium resolution mass spectrometer after the CB to limit possible superposition of the exotic beams with the impurities present in the ECR plasma.

  18. Magnet design studies for the TRIUMF KAON factory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, A.J.; Ellstrom, L.; Haddock, C.; Harold, M.; Reeve, P.; Sasaki, H.; Schwandt, P.

    1989-10-01

    TRIUMF is engaged on a one year Project Definition Study of its KAON factory proposal. This proposal calls for a total of 1800 magnets to be installed in three storage rings, two synchrotrons, beam transfer lines and experimental facilities to increase the present beam from 200 μA at 500 MeV to 100 μA at 30 GeV. The paper discusses the current design status concentrating on the ac booster synchrotron ring magnets which will be driven by biased dc current modulated at 50 Hz. Methods of estimating the core losses for this excitation, the coil eddy current losses and design and fabrication features of prototypes will be presented

  19. Beam dynamics in THz dielectric-loaded waveguides for the AXSIS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinatier, T.; Assmann, R. W.; Dorda, U.; Lemery, F.; Marchetti, B.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate with ASTRA simulations the beam dynamics in dielectric-loaded waveguides driven by THz pulses, used as linac structure for the AXSIS project. We show that the bunch properties at the linac exit are very sensitive to the phase velocity of the THz pulse and are limited by the strong phase slippage of the bunch respective to it. We also show that the bunch properties are optimized when low frequencies (Work supported by the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement n. 609920.

  20. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel M. [IIT, Chicago

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  1. Exact Reconstruction From Uniformly Attenuated Helical Cone-Beam Projections in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, Grant T.; Huang, Qiu; You, Jiangsheng; Zeng, Gengsheng L.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the development of cone-beam reconstruction algorithms has been an active research area in x-ray computed tomography (CT), and significant progress has been made in the advancement of algorithms. Theoretically exact and computationally efficient analytical algorithms can be found in the literature. However, in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), published cone-beam reconstruction algorithms are either approximate or involve iterative methods. The SPECT reconstruction problem is more complicated due to degradations in the imaging detection process, one of which is the effect of attenuation of gamma ray photons. Attenuation should be compensated for to obtain quantitative results. In this paper, an analytical reconstruction algorithm for uniformly attenuated cone-beam projection data is presented for SPECT imaging. The algorithm adopts the DBH method, a procedure consisting of differentiation and backprojection followed by a finite inverse cosh-weighted Hilbert transform. The significance of the proposed approach is that a selected region of interest can be reconstructed even with a detector with a reduced field of view. The algorithm is designed for a general trajectory. However, to validate the algorithm, a numerical study was performed using a helical trajectory. The implementation is efficient and the simulation result is promising

  2. REBL: design progress toward 16 nm half-pitch maskless projection electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mark A.; Petric, Paul; Ummethala, Upendra; Carroll, Allen; Kojima, Shinichi; Grella, Luca; Shriyan, Sameet; Rettner, Charles T.; Bevis, Chris F.

    2012-03-01

    REBL (Reflective Electron Beam Lithography) is a novel concept for high speed maskless projection electron beam lithography. Originally targeting 45 nm HP (half pitch) under a DARPA funded contract, we are now working on optimizing the optics and architecture for the commercial silicon integrated circuit fabrication market at the equivalent of 16 nm HP. The shift to smaller features requires innovation in most major subsystems of the tool, including optics, stage, and metrology. We also require better simulation and understanding of the exposure process. In order to meet blur requirements for 16 nm lithography, we are both shrinking the pixel size and reducing the beam current. Throughput will be maintained by increasing the number of columns as well as other design optimizations. In consequence, the maximum stage speed required to meet wafer throughput targets at 16 nm will be much less than originally planned for at 45 nm. As a result, we are changing the stage architecture from a rotary design to a linear design that can still meet the throughput requirements but with more conventional technology that entails less technical risk. The linear concept also allows for simplifications in the datapath, primarily from being able to reuse pattern data across dies and columns. Finally, we are now able to demonstrate working dynamic pattern generator (DPG) chips, CMOS chips with microfabricated lenslets on top to prevent crosstalk between pixels.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction from cone beam projection by a block iterative technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrin, Francoise; Goutte, Robert; Amiel, Michel

    1991-07-01

    This work is concerned with truly 3D X-ray tomography. The method consists in the acquisition of an object's radiographs for different positions of an X-ray cone beam source. The image is then obtained by solving a 3D reconstruction problem from cone beam projections. When considering a series expansion approach, the problem is equivalent to the resolution of a linear system, presenting very particular characteristics in size and sparseness. The authors investigate the use of block iterative techniques which allow an efficient implementation of the algorithm on a parallel computer. Three different block iterative reconstruction schemes are developed. They can be used with or without simple constraints on the solution (positivity, amplitude, support...). Results obtained on simulated images allow comparison to the convergence properties of the different methods. Contrary to the conventional case in truly 3D X-ray tomography, different trajectories of the cone beam source are considered and the first results obtained on simulated objects are discussed.

  4. A method for robust segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque structures in cone-beam CT projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fledelius, Walther; Keall, Paul J; Weiss, Elisabeth; Lu, Jun; Brackbill, Emily; Hugo, Geoffrey D

    2011-04-01

    Implanted markers are commonly used in radiotherapy for x-ray based target localization. The projected marker position in a series of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections can be used to estimate the three dimensional (3D) target trajectory during the CBCT acquisition. This has important applications in tumor motion management such as motion inclusive, gating, and tumor tracking strategies. However, for irregularly shaped markers, reliable segmentation is challenged by large variations in the marker shape with projection angle. The purpose of this study was to develop a semiautomated method for robust and reliable segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections. The segmentation method involved the following three steps: (1) Threshold based segmentation of the marker in three to six selected projections with large angular separation, good marker contrast, and uniform background; (2) construction of a 3D marker model by coalignment and backprojection of the threshold-based segmentations; and (3) construction of marker templates at all imaging angles by projection of the 3D model and use of these templates for template-based segmentation. The versatility of the segmentation method was demonstrated by segmentation of the following structures in the projections from two clinical CBCT scans: (1) Three linear fiducial markers (Visicoil) implanted in or near a lung tumor and (2) an artificial cardiac valve in a lung cancer patient. Automatic marker segmentation was obtained in more than 99.9% of the cases. The segmentation failed in a few cases where the marker was either close to a structure of similar appearance or hidden behind a dense structure (data cable). A robust template-based method for segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections was developed.

  5. A kaon factory for TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measday, D.F.

    1988-11-01

    The design study for the TRIUMF Kaon Factory has recently been funded. A short discussion of the scientific motivation is given first, followed by a brief description of the 30 GeV synchrotron which is being proposed. There will be five rings altogether using the present TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron as an injector. If the project is funded in 1990 the accelerators would be completed in 1995 or so, and the experimental programme would start a year later

  6. Fully automatic segmentation of arbitrarily shaped fiducial markers in cone-beam CT projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertholet, Jenny; Wan, Hanlin; Toftegaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Radio-opaque fiducial markers of different shapes are often implanted in or near abdominal or thoracic tumors to act as surrogates for the tumor position during radiotherapy. They can be used for real-time treatment adaptation, but this requires a robust, automatic segmentation method able...... to handle arbitrarily shaped markers in a rotational imaging geometry such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projection images and intra-treatment images. In this study, we propose a fully automatic dynamic programming (DP) assisted template-based (TB) segmentation method. Based on an initial DP...... segmentation, the DPTB algorithm generates and uses a 3D marker model to create 2D templates at any projection angle. The 2D templates are used to segment the marker position as the position with highest normalized cross-correlation in a search area centered at the DP segmented position. The accuracy of the DP...

  7. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies......-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories....

  8. The NOVA project: maximizing beam time efficiency through synergistic analyses of SRμCT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Heuveline, Vincent; Lösel, Philipp; Becker, Jürgen; Beckmann, Felix; Schluenzen, Frank; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kopmann, Andreas; Mexner, Wolfgang; Vogelgesang, Matthias; Jerome, Nicholas Tan; Betz, Oliver; Beutel, Rolf; Wipfler, Benjamin; Blanke, Alexander; Harzsch, Steffen; Hörnig, Marie; Baumbach, Tilo; van de Kamp, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Beamtime and resulting SRμCT data are a valuable resource for researchers of a broad scientific community in life sciences. Most research groups, however, are only interested in a specific organ and use only a fraction of their data. The rest of the data usually remains untapped. By using a new collaborative approach, the NOVA project (Network for Online Visualization and synergistic Analysis of tomographic data) aims to demonstrate, that more efficient use of the valuable beam time is possible by coordinated research on different organ systems. The biological partners in the project cover different scientific aspects and thus serve as model community for the collaborative approach. As proof of principle, different aspects of insect head morphology will be investigated (e.g., biomechanics of the mouthparts, and neurobiology with the topology of sensory areas). This effort is accomplished by development of advanced analysis tools for the ever-increasing quantity of tomographic datasets. In the preceding project ASTOR, we already successfully demonstrated considerable progress in semi-automatic segmentation and classification of internal structures. Further improvement of these methods is essential for an efficient use of beam time and will be refined in the current NOVAproject. Significant enhancements are also planned at PETRA III beamline p05 to provide all possible contrast modalities in x-ray imaging optimized to biological samples, on the reconstruction algorithms, and the tools for subsequent analyses and management of the data. All improvements made on key technologies within this project will in the long-term be equally beneficial for all users of tomography instrumentations.

  9. Photon Factory activity report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Photon Factory has grown at a considerable rate, and 600 experiments are carried out in 1991, while the number of users is now 2300 including about 500 from industrial sectors. The use of synchrotron radiation increased from fundamental research to industrial development. The development at the Photon Factory is supported by the capability of the accelerators. At present, the 2.5 GeV PF ring is operated with positrons at the initial beam current of 350 mA. The total operation time was 3500 hours in the fiscal year 1990. The development of an avalanche mode photodiode, the observation of quantum beat in the experiment of nuclear Bragg scattering, the measurement of photo-electron and photo-ion spectroscopy were carried out. The conversion of TRISTAN main ring to an ultrahigh brilliance and high coherence source is planned for the future. The annual PF Symposium was held, and Professor H. Winick gave the lecture 'Ultrahigh brightness and coherent radiation from large storage rings'. In this report, the outline of the Photon Factory and the activities in Divisions of Injector Linac, Light Source and Instrumentation are described. (K.I.)

  10. B-meson factory in the CERN-ISR tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivkin, L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a feasibility study of the proposed B-meson factory in the CERN ISR tunnel. Machine parameters, the lattice, interaction region, RF system, beam instabilities, vacuum system, and background radiation are discussed

  11. Exact fan-beam image reconstruction algorithm for truncated projection data acquired from an asymmetric half-size detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Shuai; Zhuang Tingliang; Nett, Brian E; Chen Guanghong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new algorithm designed for a specific data truncation problem in fan-beam CT. We consider a scanning configuration in which the fan-beam projection data are acquired from an asymmetrically positioned half-sized detector. Namely, the asymmetric detector only covers one half of the scanning field of view. Thus, the acquired fan-beam projection data are truncated at every view angle. If an explicit data rebinning process is not invoked, this data acquisition configuration will reek havoc on many known fan-beam image reconstruction schemes including the standard filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and the super-short-scan FBP reconstruction algorithms. However, we demonstrate that a recently developed fan-beam image reconstruction algorithm which reconstructs an image via filtering a backprojection image of differentiated projection data (FBPD) survives the above fan-beam data truncation problem. Namely, we may exactly reconstruct the whole image object using the truncated data acquired in a full scan mode (2π angular range). We may also exactly reconstruct a small region of interest (ROI) using the truncated projection data acquired in a short-scan mode (less than 2π angular range). The most important characteristic of the proposed reconstruction scheme is that an explicit data rebinning process is not introduced. Numerical simulations were conducted to validate the new reconstruction algorithm

  12. An asymmetric B Factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.; Zisman, M.S.

    1990-06-01

    The study of rare and CP-violating B meson decays is well suited to a high-luminosity e + e - collider. For studying certain decay processes there are also substantial benefits associated with asymmetric beam energies, which give a moving center of mass for the B mesons. We describe a design for a 9 GeV x 3.1 GeV B Factory in the PEP tunnel that would operate initially at a luminosity of 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . Technical problems include issues related to high currents (e.g., beam instabilities, feedback systems, lifetime degradation and detector radiation power dissipation) and those related to the hetero-energetic beams (e.g., beam separation, beam-beam interaction and detector requirements). Issues requiring R ampersand D effort are identified. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Railways Factory in Resita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Iacob-Mare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an exemption Analysis railway factory in Resita impressed having experience and also provide some technical characteristics of freight wagons representative technology, used to transport products made in factories in ReşiŃa.

  14. PCs in the factory

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication.PCs have become as essential to the factory environment as they are to the office environment. This in-depth report examines how specially adapted PCs and peripherals are being established in Factory Process Control and Reporting. The report covers: * Hardware and Software* Typical Applications* Implementation Issues* Case Studies and Real Applications

  15. Backgrounds at e+e- B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    B-factory designers and prospective users have learned that the viability of such facilities is crucially dependent upon control of machine-related backgrounds in the interaction region (IR). Photons from synchrotron radiation (SR), and the debris that follows loss of stored beam, can compromise the performance and thwart the mission of the elaborate and expensive experimental detectors. This danger is relevant to taucharm and phi factories as well. My goal is to make clear to non-experts why this is so, and to explicate the underlying physical processes and important defensive measures. We shall stay close to reality by comparing simulation to actual experience at the CLEOII detector - CESR storage ring complex at Cornell. Why should one expect background difficulties at B factories? First, backgrounds are not negligible now, at luminosities of 2.10 32 cm 2 sec -1 ; future facilities will require currents and luminosity 10 to 50 times greater. Second, backgrounds rise faster than linearly with beam current; since gas evolution is driven by SR, the beam-gas backgrounds will grow quadratically with current. High beam energies (for asymmetric colliders) and the very strong quadrupole fields required for small β * and rapid beam separation exacerbate the problems posed by SR from magnets near the IR. The experiments will employ thin beryllium beampipes at (typically) 2.5 cm radius, with little inherent resistance to penetration by x rays. Finally, the HEP physics is ''high-precision physics,'' especially vulnerable to corruption by backgrounds. (orig.)

  16. Drive Beam Quadrupoles for the CLIC Project: a Novel Method of Fiducialisation and a New Micrometric Adjustment System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)411678; Duquenne, Mathieu; Sandomierski, Jacek; Sosin, Mateusz; Rude, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of fiducialisation applied to determine the magnetic axis of the Drive Beam quadrupole of the CLIC project with respect to external alignment fiducials, within a micrometric accuracy and precision. It introduces also a new micrometric adjustment system along 5 Degrees of Freedom, developed for the same Drive Beam quadrupole. The combination of both developments opens very interesting perspectives to get a more simple and accurate alignment of the quadrupoles.

  17. Energy balance of a cheese factory and preliminary project for biogas production; Bilan energetique de la fromagerie et avant-projet d'installation de biogaz. Richard Bettex - 1487 Champtauroz (VD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membrez, Y. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Wellinger, A. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aadorf (Switzerland); Bonjour, B. [Sorane SA, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This report is a feasibility study for a biogas production unit adapted to a farm in Champtauroz in Switzerland, and a dual purpose power plant generating thermal and electric energy from the biogas according to the energy demand of the cheese factory attached to the farm. Typically 5*10{sup 5} m{sup 3} per year of biogas should be extracted from the manure of around 1,500 farm animals. The methane would be produced by a continuously operated digestor. The energy demand of the cheese factory, mainly thermal energy for the goat milk transformation process and electric power for the milk refrigeration, is measured in details and its annual profile is estimated. This demand is practically independent from the outdoor temperature as long as this temperature is higher than 10 {sup o}C. The report also includes a cost estimate for the whole project, functional schematics of the biogas production unit and of the power plant, and several diagrams displaying the heat and electric power demands of the cheese factory as a function of parameters like the cheese production and the quantity of refrigerated milk.

  18. The KAON Factory at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1992-08-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated -fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal rf shields, and rf cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, and rf beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia and international contributors: the first two-thirds of this sum have already been approved and negotiations for the remainder are under way. 25 refs., 7 figs

  19. The KAON factory at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1992-07-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million pre-construction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated: fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal rf shields, an rf cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, an rf beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia and international contributors; the first two-thirds of this sum have already been approved and negotiations for the remainder are under way. 26 refs., 6 figs

  20. Handbook factory planning and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wiendahl, Hans-Peter; Nyhuis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This handbook introduces a methodical approach and pragmatic concept for the planning and design of changeable factories that act in strategic alliances to supply the ever-changing needs of the global market. In the first part, the change drivers of manufacturing enterprises and the resulting new challenges are considered in detail with focus on an appropriate change potential. The second part concerns the design of the production facilities and systems on the factory levels work place, section, building and site under functional, organisational, architectural and strategic aspects keeping in mind the environmental, health and safety aspects including corporate social responsibility. The third part is dedicated to the planning and design method that is based on a synergetic interaction of process and space. The accompanying project management of the planning and construction phase and the facility management for the effective utilization of the built premises close the book. -        Concise overview o...

  1. The nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Siegrist, J.; Wang, L.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Copin, Y.; Smadja, G.; Gangler, E.; Castera, A.; Adam, G.; Bacon, R.; Lemonnier, J.-P.; Pecontal, A.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.08. This program will provide an exceptional data set of well-studied SNe in the nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to ∼12 SNe/month in 2003

  2. Particle physics prospects for the KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryman, D.

    1989-05-01

    The Kaon Factory at TRIUMF will produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos and other particles with a hundred-fold increase in intensity over existing machines in the 30 GeV region. This will make possible new high precision experiments designed to test current ideas as well as high sensitivity measurements which could potentially reveal new effects. A sample of particle physics experiments involving rare kaon decays, CP and T violation studies, neutrino properties and reactions and light quark spectroscopy which might take advantage of the new opportunities presented by the Kaon Factory is discussed

  3. An FDK-like cone-beam SPECT reconstruction algorithm for non-uniform attenuated projections acquired using a circular trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Q; Zeng, G L; You, J; Gullberg, G T

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, Novikov's inversion formula of the attenuated two-dimensional (2D) Radon transform is applied to the reconstruction of attenuated fan-beam projections acquired with equal detector spacing and of attenuated cone-beam projections acquired with a flat planar detector and circular trajectory. The derivation of the fan-beam algorithm is obtained by transformation from parallel-beam coordinates to fan-beam coordinates. The cone-beam reconstruction algorithm is an extension of the fan-beam reconstruction algorithm using Feldkamp-Davis-Kress's (FDK) method. Computer simulations indicate that the algorithm is efficient and is accurate in reconstructing slices close to the central slice of the cone-beam orbit plane. When the attenuation map is set to zero the implementation is equivalent to the FDK method. Reconstructed images are also shown for noise corrupted projections

  4. ION BEAM POLARIZATION DYNAMICS IN THE 8 GEV BOOSTER OF THE JLEIC PROJECT AT JLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratenko, A. M. [GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058, Russia; Kondratenko, M. A. [GOO Zaryad, Russkaya st., 41, Novosibirsk, 630058, Russia; Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Lin, Fanglei; Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Filatov, Yuri [MIPT, Dolgoprudniy, Moscow Region, Russia

    2016-05-01

    In the Jefferson Lab’s Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) project, an injector of polarized ions into the collider ring is a superconducting 8 GeV booster. Both figure-8 and racetrack booster versions were considered. Our analysis showed that the figure-8 ring configuration allows one to preserve the polarization of any ion species during beam acceleration using only small longitudinal field with an integral less than 0.5 Tm. In the racetrack booster, to pre-serve the polarization of ions with the exception of deu-terons, it suffices to use a solenoidal Siberian snake with a maximum field integral of 30 Tm. To preserve deuteron polarization, we propose to use arc magnets for the race-track booster structure with a field ramp rate of the order of 1 T/s. We calculate deuteron and proton beam polari-zations in both the figure-8 and racetrack boosters includ-ing alignment errors of their magnetic elements using the Zgoubi code.

  5. Damped button electrode for B-Factory BPM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintake, T.; Akasaka, N.; Obina, T.; Chin, Y.H. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A new concept of damping of resonances in a button electrode has been proposed and tested in the BPM system for the B-Factory project at KEK (KEKB). Since a very high current beam has to be stored in the machine, even a small resonance in the ring will result in losing a beam due to multi-bunch instabilities. In a conventional button electrode used in BPMs, a TE110 mode resonance can be trapped in the gap between the electrode and the vacuum chamber. In order to damp this mode, the diameter of the electrode has been chosen to be small to increase the resonance frequency and to radiate the power into the beam pipe. In addition, an asymmetric structure is applied to extract the EM energy of the TE110 mode into the coaxial cable as the propagating TEM mode which has no cut-off frequency. Results of the computer simulations and tests with cold models are reported. The quality factor of the TE110 mode was small enough due to the radiation into the beam pipe even in the conventional electrode and the mode coupling effect due to the asymmetric shape was significant on a cavity-like TE111 mode. (author)

  6. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  7. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  8. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  9. Virtual Factory Testbed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Factory Testbed (VFT) is comprised of three physical facilities linked by a standalone network (VFNet). The three facilities are the Smart and Wireless...

  10. Super B Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . 744. Pramana – J. Phys. ... bound the values of NP parameters and study their effect on the b → s penguin modes. The B factories ..... the magnet power supplies, the RF system, the digital feedback system, and many vacuum components.

  11. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...

  12. Status of the SPES project, a new tool for fundamental and apply science studies with exotic ion beams at LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoli, D. R., E-mail: napoli@lnl.infn.it; Andrighetto, A.; Antonini, P.; Benini, D.; Bermudez, J.; Bisoffi, G.; Boratto, E.; Bortolato, D.; Calderolla, M.; Calore, A.; Campo, D.; Carturan, S.; Cinausero, M.; Comunian, M.; Corradetti, S.; De Angelis, G.; De Ruvo, P. L.; Esposito, J.; Ferrari, L.; Galatá, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); and others

    2016-07-07

    SPES, a new accelerator facility for both the production of exotic ion beams and radio-pharmaceuticals, is presently being installed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro in Italy (LNL). The new cyclotron, which will provide high intensity proton beams for the production of the rare isotopes, has been installed and is now in the commissioning phase. We present here the status of the part of the project devoted to the production and acceleration of fission fragments created in the interaction of an intense proton beam on a production target of UCx. The expected SPES radioactive beams intensities, their quality and their maximum energies (up to 11 MeV/A for A=130) will permit to perform forefront research in nuclear structure and nuclear dynamics far from the stability valley. Another low energy section of the facility is foreseen for new and challenging research, both in the nuclear physics and in the material science frameworks.

  13. Status of the SPES project, a new tool for fundamental and apply science studies with exotic ion beams at LNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoli, D. R.; Andrighetto, A.; Antonini, P.; Benini, D.; Bermudez, J.; Bisoffi, G.; Boratto, E.; Bortolato, D.; Calderolla, M.; Calore, A.; Campo, D.; Carturan, S.; Cinausero, M.; Comunian, M.; Corradetti, S.; De Angelis, G.; De Ruvo, P. L.; Esposito, J.; Ferrari, L.; Galatá, A.

    2016-01-01

    SPES, a new accelerator facility for both the production of exotic ion beams and radio-pharmaceuticals, is presently being installed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro in Italy (LNL). The new cyclotron, which will provide high intensity proton beams for the production of the rare isotopes, has been installed and is now in the commissioning phase. We present here the status of the part of the project devoted to the production and acceleration of fission fragments created in the interaction of an intense proton beam on a production target of UCx. The expected SPES radioactive beams intensities, their quality and their maximum energies (up to 11 MeV/A for A=130) will permit to perform forefront research in nuclear structure and nuclear dynamics far from the stability valley. Another low energy section of the facility is foreseen for new and challenging research, both in the nuclear physics and in the material science frameworks.

  14. Tomographic mammography using a limited number of low-dose cone-beam projection images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; Stewart, Alexander; Stanton, Martin; McCauley, Thomas; Phillips, Walter; Kopans, Daniel B.; Moore, Richard H.; Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Opsahl-Ong, Beale; Niklason, Loren; Williams, Mark B.

    2003-01-01

    A method is described for using a limited number (typically 10-50) of low-dose radiographs to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of x-ray attenuation in the breast. The method uses x-ray cone-beam imaging, an electronic digital detector, and constrained nonlinear iterative computational techniques. Images are reconstructed with high resolution in two dimensions and lower resolution in the third dimension. The 3D distribution of attenuation that is projected into one image in conventional mammography can be separated into many layers (typically 30-80 1-mm-thick layers, depending on breast thickness), increasing the conspicuity of features that are often obscured by overlapping structure in a single-projection view. Schemes that record breast images at nonuniform angular increments, nonuniform image exposure, and nonuniform detector resolution are investigated in order to reduce the total x-ray exposure necessary to obtain diagnostically useful 3D reconstructions, and to improve the quality of the reconstructed images for a given exposure. The total patient radiation dose can be comparable to that used for a standard two-view mammogram. The method is illustrated with images from mastectomy specimens, a phantom, and human volunteers. The results show how image quality is affected by various data-collection protocols

  15. Fully automatic segmentation of arbitrarily shaped fiducial markers in cone-beam CT projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, J; Wan, H; Toftegaard, J; Schmidt, M L; Chotard, F; Parikh, P J; Poulsen, P R

    2017-02-21

    Radio-opaque fiducial markers of different shapes are often implanted in or near abdominal or thoracic tumors to act as surrogates for the tumor position during radiotherapy. They can be used for real-time treatment adaptation, but this requires a robust, automatic segmentation method able to handle arbitrarily shaped markers in a rotational imaging geometry such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projection images and intra-treatment images. In this study, we propose a fully automatic dynamic programming (DP) assisted template-based (TB) segmentation method. Based on an initial DP segmentation, the DPTB algorithm generates and uses a 3D marker model to create 2D templates at any projection angle. The 2D templates are used to segment the marker position as the position with highest normalized cross-correlation in a search area centered at the DP segmented position. The accuracy of the DP algorithm and the new DPTB algorithm was quantified as the 2D segmentation error (pixels) compared to a manual ground truth segmentation for 97 markers in the projection images of CBCT scans of 40 patients. Also the fraction of wrong segmentations, defined as 2D errors larger than 5 pixels, was calculated. The mean 2D segmentation error of DP was reduced from 4.1 pixels to 3.0 pixels by DPTB, while the fraction of wrong segmentations was reduced from 17.4% to 6.8%. DPTB allowed rejection of uncertain segmentations as deemed by a low normalized cross-correlation coefficient and contrast-to-noise ratio. For a rejection rate of 9.97%, the sensitivity in detecting wrong segmentations was 67% and the specificity was 94%. The accepted segmentations had a mean segmentation error of 1.8 pixels and 2.5% wrong segmentations.

  16. Status of the control and beam diagnostic systems of the CRYRING project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starker, J.; Engstroem, M.

    1992-01-01

    CRYRING is a facility for research in atomic, molecular and nuclear physics. It uses a cryogenic electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, together with an RFQ linear accelerator as injector into a synchrotron/storage ring for very highly charged, heavy ions. The first circulating beam was achieved in december 1990. The status of the systems for control and beam diagnostics are described. (author)

  17. Radiation aspects of the B-Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Nelson, W.R.; Mao, X.S.

    1996-11-01

    The B-Factor is a high-energy physics project at SLAC that studies the phenomenon of CP violation from collisions between two stored beams; high energy electrons (HER, maximum 12-GeV) and low energy positrons (LER, maximum 4-GeV). Both the HER and LER are located in an underground tunnel of 2,200-m-long circumference with a maximum stored current of 3 A. The injector consists of the existing SLAC 2-mile-long LINAC with two extraction and transport lines for both rings. Radiation aspects of the machine are addressed in the context of machine protection and personnel protection. Specific illustrations (e.g., the estimations of neutron, photon and synchrotron radiation environment in the ring tunnel and the radiation levels outside a typical Interaction Region, etc.) are given to show a few natures of the radiation issues for the B-Factory and to reflect the appropriate SLAC policies on radiation safety

  18. OAM beams from incomplete computer generated holograms projected onto a DMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambale, Niña Angelica F.; Doblado, Gerald John H.; Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2017-09-01

    We show that optical beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be generated even with incomplete computer generated holograms (CGH). These holograms are made such that random portions of it do not contain any information. We observe that although the beams produced with these holograms are less intense, these beams maintain their shape and that their topological charges are not affected. Furthermore, we show that superposition of two or more beams can be created using separate incomplete CGHs interspersed together. Our result is significant especially since most method to generate beams with OAM for various applications rely on pixelated devices or optical elements with imperfections.

  19. A Projection Quality-Driven Tube Current Modulation Method in Cone-Beam CT for IGRT: Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Kuo; Dai, Jianrong

    2017-12-01

    To develop a projection quality-driven tube current modulation method in cone-beam computed tomography for image-guided radiotherapy based on the prior attenuation information obtained by the planning computed tomography and then evaluate its effect on a reduction in the imaging dose. The QCKV-1 phantom with different thicknesses (0-400 mm) of solid water upon it was used to simulate different attenuation (μ). Projections were acquired with a series of tube current-exposure time product (mAs) settings, and a 2-dimensional contrast to noise ratio was analyzed for each projection to create a lookup table of mAs versus 2-dimensional contrast to noise ratio, μ. Before a patient underwent computed tomography, the maximum attenuation [Formula: see text] within the 95% range of each projection angle (θ) was estimated according to the planning computed tomography images. Then, a desired 2-dimensional contrast to noise ratio value was selected, and the mAs setting at θ was calculated with the lookup table of mAs versus 2-dimensional contrast to noise ratio,[Formula: see text]. Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images were reconstructed using the projections acquired with the selected mAs. The imaging dose was evaluated with a polymethyl methacrylate dosimetry phantom in terms of volume computed tomography dose index. Image quality was analyzed using a Catphan 503 phantom with an oval body annulus and a pelvis phantom. For the Catphan 503 phantom, the cone-beam computed tomography image obtained by the projection quality-driven tube current modulation method had a similar quality to that of conventional cone-beam computed tomography . However, the proposed method could reduce the imaging dose by 16% to 33% to achieve an equivalent contrast to noise ratio value. For the pelvis phantom, the structural similarity index was 0.992 with a dose reduction of 39.7% for the projection quality-driven tube current modulation method. The proposed method could reduce the

  20. The Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays we live in a world, which a decade ago would only be described in the science fiction literature. More and more things become smart and both scientists and engineers strive for developing not only new and innovative devices, but also homes, factories, or even cities. Despite of continuous...... development, many of those concepts are still being just a vision of the future, which still needs a lot of effort to become true. This paper reviews the usage of adjective smart in respect to technology and with a special emphasis on the smart factory concept placement among contemporary studies. Due...... to a lack of a consensus of common understanding of this term, a unified definition is proposed. The conceptualization will not only refer to various smart factory visions reported in the literature, but also link the crucial characteristics of this emerging manufacturing concept to usual manufacturing...

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of the detection of bone change using panoramic TMJ projection. Comparative study with limited cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro; Kataoka, Ryuta; Honda, Kazuya; Endo, Atsushi; Kaneko, Norikazu; Funahashi, Itsuo

    2008-01-01

    Panoramic temporoman joint (TMJ) projection is one of the alternative methods of conventional radiography, such as transcranial projection, for diagnosing temporomandibular joint disorder. There have been a few reports describing the diagnostic ability of this method. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of detecting bone change with panoramic TMJ projection. Fifty TMJs in 25 patients were examined. All TMJs were examined by panoramic TMJ projection (Hyper XF) and limited cone-beam CT (3D Accuitomo FPD; 3DX). Two observers evaluated the presence of bone change in the TMJ region using panoramic TMJ projection. One other observer evaluated the limited cone-beam CT for the presence and the pattern of bone changes in the TMJ region as the gold standard. Panoramic TMJ findings were evaluated with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the panoramic TMJ projection were 0.86, 0.76, and 0.82, respectively. These results and those of previous reports on other radiographic methods for TMJ suggest that panoramic TMJ projection is a useful method of screening for bone change due to TMJ disorder. (author)

  2. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-04ER86191 Hydrogen Cryostat for Muon Beam Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-05-07

    The project was to develop cryostat designs that could be used for muon beam cooling channels where hydrogen would circulate through refrigerators and the beam-cooling channel to simultaneously refrigerate 1) high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) magnet coils, 2) cold copper RF cavities, and 3) the hydrogen that is heated by the muon beam. In an application where a large amount of hydrogen is naturally present because it is the optimum ionization cooling material, it was reasonable to explore its use with HTS magnets and cold, but not superconducting, RF cavities. In this project we developed computer programs for simulations and analysis and conducted experimental programs to examine the parameters and technological limitations of the materials and designs of Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) components (magnet conductor, RF cavities, absorber windows, heat transport, energy absorber, and refrigerant).The project showed that although a hydrogen cryostat is not the optimum solution for muon ionization cooling channels, the studies of the cooling channel components that define the cryostat requirements led to fundamental advances. In particular, two new lines of promising development were opened up, regarding very high field HTS magnets and the HS concept, that have led to new proposals and funded projects.

  3. Fluorescence detection of white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy: towards element-sensitive projections of local atomic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korecki, P.; Tolkiehn, M.; Dąbrowski, K. M.; Novikov, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of the atomic structure around Nb atoms in a LiNbO3 single crystal were obtained from a white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy (XAA) pattern detected using Nb K fluorescence. This kind of anisotropy results from the interference of X-rays inside a sample and, owing to the short coherence length of a white beam, is visible only at small angles around interatomic directions. Consequently, the main features of the recorded XAA corresponded to distorted real-space projections of dense-packed atomic planes and atomic rows. A quantitative analysis of XAA was carried out using a wavelet transform and allowed well resolved projections of Nb atoms to be obtained up to distances of 10 Å. The signal of nearest O atoms was detected indirectly by a comparison with model calculations. The measurement of white-beam XAA using characteristic radiation indicates the possibility of obtaining element-sensitive projections of the local atomic structure in more complex samples. PMID:21997909

  4. The 6 MV tandem accelerator project for nuclear physics and ion beam applications at the University of Tsukuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasa, Kimikazu

    2013-05-01

    The 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at the University of Tsukuba suffered serious damage from the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. A post-quake reconstruction project has been started to construct a new middle-sized tandem accelerator instead of the broken 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at the 2nd target room connecting the beam line to existing facilities at the 1st target room. The new accelerator system consists of the 6 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, new 4 ion sources, an existing Lam-shift polarized ion source and 12 beam lines. It is expected to apply for nuclear physics, accelerator mass spectrometry and ion beam applications. The construction of the new accelerator system will be completed by spring 2014.

  5. Report on the engineering test of the LBL 30 second neutral beam source for the MFTF-B project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, M.C.; Pincosy, P.A.; Hauck, C.A.; Pyle, R.V.

    1984-08-01

    Positive ion based neutral beam development in the US has centered on the long pulse, Advanced Positive Ion Source (APIS). APIS eventually focused on development of 30 second sources for MFTF-B. The Engineering Test was part of competitive testing of the LBL and ORNL long pulse sources carried out for the MFTF-B Project. The test consisted of 500 beam shots with 80 kV, 30 second deuterium, and was carried out on the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF). This report summarizes the results of LBL testing, in which the LBL APIS demonstrated that it would meet the requirements for MFTF-B 30 second sources. In part as a result of this test, the LBL design was found to be suitable as the baseline for a Common Long Pulse Source design for MFTF-B, TFTR, and Doublet Upgrade

  6. Recent developments on the TRIUMF KAON factory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.; Baartman, R.; Burge, R.

    1988-06-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory proposal has made considerable progress on both technical and political fronts over the last year. A racetrack-shaped lattice is now being considered in conjunction with a three-element slow extraction system in an effort to reduce losses to the 0.1% level. Hardware studies have continued on both magnet power supplies and on rf cavities - the latter work gaining an extra dimension from a recently-instituted formal collaboration with LAMPF. The H - extraction system for the cyclotron has been tested successfully with 66 μA pulsed and 10 μA average beams. On the political side, British Columbia has agreed to fund the buildings and tunnels (Cdn dollar 87M) and is making the KAON Factory its top priority project with the Canadian federal government. A joint federal-provincial delegation has traveled abroad and found that a number of countries would consider significant contributions to the cost. Approval of dollar 11 million in pre-construction R and D funds is expected imminently, permitting formal negotiations to start abroad, with final approval for construction coming in 1989

  7. Projection correlation based view interpolation for cone beam CT: primary fluence restoration in scatter measurement with a moving beam stop array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hao; Mou Xuanqin; Tang Shaojie; Xu Qiong; Zankl, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Scatter correction is an open problem in x-ray cone beam (CB) CT. The measurement of scatter intensity with a moving beam stop array (BSA) is a promising technique that offers a low patient dose and accurate scatter measurement. However, when restoring the blocked primary fluence behind the BSA, spatial interpolation cannot well restore the high-frequency part, causing streaks in the reconstructed image. To address this problem, we deduce a projection correlation (PC) to utilize the redundancy (over-determined information) in neighbouring CB views. PC indicates that the main high-frequency information is contained in neighbouring angular projections, instead of the current projection itself, which provides a guiding principle that applies to high-frequency information restoration. On this basis, we present the projection correlation based view interpolation (PC-VI) algorithm; that it outperforms the use of only spatial interpolation is validated. The PC-VI based moving BSA method is developed. In this method, PC-VI is employed instead of spatial interpolation, and new moving modes are designed, which greatly improve the performance of the moving BSA method in terms of reliability and practicability. Evaluation is made on a high-resolution voxel-based human phantom realistically including the entire procedure of scatter measurement with a moving BSA, which is simulated by analytical ray-tracing plus Monte Carlo simulation with EGSnrc. With the proposed method, we get visually artefact-free images approaching the ideal correction. Compared with the spatial interpolation based method, the relative mean square error is reduced by a factor of 6.05-15.94 for different slices. PC-VI does well in CB redundancy mining; therefore, it has further potential in CBCT studies.

  8. Super B Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Heavy-flavor physics, in particular B and τ physics results from the B fac- tories, currently provides strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard. Model. A new generation of colliders, Super B Factories, with 50 to 100 times the lumi- nosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, ...

  9. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  10. The Cupcake Factory: Helping Elementary Students Understand Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Howard; Hatcher, Barbara

    1985-01-01

    Described is a project in which third graders create their own corporation--a cupcake factory--and learn first-hand about economic principles and the decisions that businesses must make in the market economy. The cupcake factory is one example of how enterprising educators can make economics comprehensible and captivating. (RM)

  11. Haiti. Educating factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, H

    1990-04-01

    There are approximately 50,000 workers employed in the light assembly industry in Haiti. About 70% are women, the majority of whom are aged between 25 and 34 years, and are either single or in a nonpermanent relationship with the father of their children. Many live and work in appalling conditions, surviving on very low wages to support several children and an extended family. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now a visible problem in many factories. In October 1988, the Center for the Promotion of Women Workers (Centre de Promotion des Femmes Ouvriers/CPFO) launched a pilot AIDS education program for factory women. The Center, based in a large industrial zone near the airport, runs a health clinic and courses in literacy, communications skills, health promotion and family planning. The new AIDS program allowed CPFO staff to gain entry into factories for the 1st time. Other courses were held outside working hours and outside factory premises. Staff contacted manages by telephone to arrange a meeting to discuss AIDS and to ask permission to hold educational "round tables" with workers. Of 18 managers in the factories approached over a 12-month period, only 2 refused entry to CPFO staff. Almost all managers reported they had registered between 2 and 5 deaths from AIDS among their employees over the past couple of years. A total of 85 educational sessions, each lasting about 2 hours, were held within 28 different factories, community or labor organizations reaching 3063 workers (male and female). In each session, the presentation was carried out by 2 CPFO trained monitors and included a slide show, flip charts, and the video "Met ko," originally produced for Haitian immigrants in New York. The most important aspect of the program was the training of 38 volunteer factory-based health promoters. These promoters attended the round table sessions, where they facilitated discussion and distributed condoms and were subsequently available for counseling co

  12. The Challenge of Interfacing the Primary Beam Lines for the AWAKE Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Gschwendtner, E; Meddahi, M; Petrenko, A; Velotti, FM

    2014-01-01

    The Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) at CERN foresees the simultaneous operation of a proton, a laser and an electron beam. The first stage of the experiment will consist in proving the self-modulation, in the plasma, of a long proton bunch into micro-bunches. The success of this experiment requires an almost perfect concentricity of the proton and laser beam, over the full length of the plasma cell. The complexity of integrating the laser into the proton beam line and fulfilling the strict requirements in terms of pointing precision of the proton beam at the plasma cell are described. The second stage of the experiment foresees also the injection of electron bunches to probe the accelerating wakefields driven by the proton beam. Studies were performed to evaluate the possibility of injecting the electron beam parallel and with an offset to the beam axis. This option would imply that protons and electrons will have to share the last few meters of a common beam line. Issues and po...

  13. Automated patient setup and gating using cone beam computed tomography projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hanlin; Bertholet, Jenny; Ge, Jiajia; Poulsen, Per; Parikh, Parag

    2016-03-01

    In radiation therapy, fiducial markers are often implanted near tumors and used for patient positioning and respiratory gating purposes. These markers are then used to manually align the patients by matching the markers in the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction to those in the planning CT. This step is time-intensive and user-dependent, and often results in a suboptimal patient setup. We propose a fully automated, robust method based on dynamic programming (DP) for segmenting radiopaque fiducial markers in CBCT projection images, which are then used to automatically optimize the treatment couch position and/or gating window bounds. The mean of the absolute 2D segmentation error of our DP algorithm is 1.3+/- 1.0 mm for 87 markers on 39 patients. Intrafraction images were acquired every 3 s during treatment at two different institutions. For gated patients from Institution A (8 patients, 40 fractions), the DP algorithm increased the delivery accuracy (96+/- 6% versus 91+/- 11% , p  manual setup using kV fluoroscopy. For non-gated patients from Institution B (6 patients, 16 fractions), the DP algorithm performed similarly (1.5+/- 0.8 mm versus 1.6+/- 0.9 mm, p  =  0.48) compared to the manual setup matching the fiducial markers in the CBCT to the mean position. Our proposed automated patient setup algorithm only takes 1-2 s to run, requires no user intervention, and performs as well as or better than the current clinical setup.

  14. The SPARC project: a high-brightness electron beam source at LNF to drive a SASE-FEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesini, D.; Bertolucci, S.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Clozza, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrario, M.; Fusco, V.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Incurvati, M.; Laurelli, P.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Migliorati, M.; Milardi, C.; Palumbo, L.; Pellegrino, L.; Preger, M.; Raimondi, P.; Ricci, R.; Sanelli, C.; Sgamma, F.; Spataro, B.; Serio, M.; Stecchi, A.; Stella, A.; Tazzioli, F.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vescovi, M.; Vicario, C.; Zobov, M.; Acerbi, E.; Alessandria, F.; Barni, D.; Bellomo, G.; Boscolo, I.; Broggi, F.; Cialdi, S.; DeMartinis, C.; Giove, D.; Maroli, C.; Petrillo, V.; Rome', M.; Serafini, L.; Chiadroni, E.; Felici, G.; Levi, D.; Mastrucci, M.; Mattioli, M.; Medici, G.; Petrarca, G.S.; Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; D'Angelo, A.; Di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A.; Moricciani, D.; Schaerf, C.; Bartolini, R.; Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Doria, A.; Flora, F.; Gallerano, G.P.; Giannessi, L.; Giovenale, E.; Messina, G.; Mezi, L.; Ottaviani, P.L.; Picardi, L.; Quattromini, M.; Renieri, A.; Ronsivalle, C.; Avaldi, L.; Carbone, C.; Cricenti, A.; Pifferi, A.; Perfetti, P.; Prosperi, T.; Albertini, V. Rossi; Quaresima, C.; Zema, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Project Sorgente Pulsata e Amplificata di Radiazione Coerente (SPARC), proposed by a collaboration among ENEA-INFN-CNR-Universita' di Tor Vergata-INFM-ST, was recently approved by the Italian Government and will be built at LNF. The aim of the project is to promote an R and D activity oriented to the development of a coherent ultra-brilliant X-ray source in Italy. This collaboration has identified a program founded on two main issues: the generation of ultra-high peak brightness electron beams and of resonant higher harmonics in the SASE-FEL process, as presented in this paper

  15. Cone beam CT imaging with limited angle of projections and prior knowledge for volumetric verification of non-coplanar beam radiation therapy: a proof of concept study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Bowen; Xing, Lei; Han, Bin; Koong, Albert; Chang, Daniel; Li, Ruijiang; Cheng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Non-coplanar beams are important for treatment of both cranial and noncranial tumors. Treatment verification of such beams with couch rotation/kicks, however, is challenging, particularly for the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). In this situation, only limited and unconventional imaging angles are feasible to avoid collision between the gantry, couch, patient, and on-board imaging system. The purpose of this work is to develop a CBCT verification strategy for patients undergoing non-coplanar radiation therapy. We propose an image reconstruction scheme that integrates a prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) technique with image registration. Planning CT or CBCT acquired at the neutral position is rotated and translated according to the nominal couch rotation/translation to serve as the initial prior image. Here, the nominal couch movement is chosen to have a rotational error of 5° and translational error of 8 mm from the ground truth in one or more axes or directions. The proposed reconstruction scheme alternates between two major steps. First, an image is reconstructed using the PICCS technique implemented with total-variation minimization and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction. Second, the rotational/translational setup errors are corrected and the prior image is updated by applying rigid image registration between the reconstructed image and the previous prior image. The PICCS algorithm and rigid image registration are alternated iteratively until the registration results fall below a predetermined threshold. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is evaluated with an anthropomorphic digital phantom and physical head phantom. The proposed algorithm provides useful volumetric images for patient setup using projections with an angular range as small as 60°. It reduced the translational setup errors from 8 mm to generally <1 mm and the rotational setup errors from 5° to <1°. Compared with the PICCS algorithm alone, the integration of rigid

  16. Holographic Projection of Structured Beams of Light for Target Ranging, Remote Velocimetry, and Sample Acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Structuring the amplitude, phase and polarization profiles of a laser beam can endow the light with remarkable properties that create immediate opportunities for...

  17. High-Speed, Low-Power ADC for Digital Beam Forming (DBF) Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop Group will design a high-speed, low-power silicon germanium (SiGe)-based, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to be a key element for digital beam forming...

  18. Studies of the Injection System in the Decay Ring of Beta-Beam Neutrino Souce Project

    CERN Document Server

    Payet, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    After being accelerated the beta radioactive ions are accumulated in a decay ring. The losses due to their decay are compensated with regular injections in presence of filled bucket. Without a damping mechanism, the new particles are injected at a different energy from the stored beam energy, then the old and the new buckets are merged with RF manipulation. This type of injection has to be done, in a dispersive region, in presence of closed orbit bump and a septum magnet. The sizes of the injected beam and of the stored beam have to be adjusted in order to minimize the losses on the septum and to maximize the stored intensity keeping small beam sizes. The dispersion has to be large enough in order to decrease the energy difference. The injection system may be located either in the arc or in a straight section, both possibilities have been studied.

  19. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely...... focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies...... in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta...

  20. Engineering the smart factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  1. A method to determine the detector locations of the cone-beam projection of the balls’ centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Lin; Xi, Xiaoqi; Li, Lei; Han, Yu; Yan, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In geometric calibration of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), sphere-like objects such as balls are widely imaged, the positioning information of which is obtained to determine the unknown geometric parameters. In this process, the accuracy of the detector location of CB projection of the center of the ball, which we call the center projection, is very important, since geometric calibration is sensitive to errors in the positioning information. Currently in almost all the geometric calibration using balls, the center projection is invariably estimated by the center of the support of the projection or the centroid of the intensity values inside the support approximately. Clackdoyle’s work indicates that the center projection is not always at the center of the support or the centroid of the intensity values inside, and has given a quantitative analysis of the maximum errors in evaluating the center projection by the centroid. In this paper, an exact method is proposed to calculate the center projection, utilizing both the detector location of the ellipse center and the two axis lengths of the ellipse. Numerical simulation results have demonstrated the precision and the robustness of the proposed method. Finally there are some comments on this work with non-uniform density balls, as well as the effect by the error occurred in the evaluation for the location of the orthogonal projection of the cone vertex onto the detector. (paper)

  2. SLAC B Factory computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the research and development program in preparation for a possible B Factory at SLAC, a group has been studying various aspects of HEP computing. In particular, the group is investigating the use of UNIX for all computing, from data acquisition, through analysis, and word processing. A summary of some of the results of this study will be given, along with some personal opinions on these topics

  3. The SPES radioactive ion beam project of LNL: status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, Giacomo; Prete, G.; Andrigetto, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Corradetti, S.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Lollo, M.; Calderolla, M.; Vasquez, J.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Sarchiapone, L.; Benini, D.; Favaron, P.; Rigato, M.; Pegoraro, R.; Maniero, D.; Calabretta, L.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Lombardi, A.; Porcellato, A. M.; Roncolato, C.; Bisoffi, G.; Pisent, A.; Galatà, A.; Giacchini, M.; Bassato, G.; Canella, S.; Gramegna, F.; Valiente, J.; Bermudez, J.; Mastinu, P. F.; Esposito, J.; Wyss, J.; Russo, A.; Zanella, S.

    2016-01-01

    A new Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility (SPES) is presently under construction at the Legnaro National Laboratories of INFN. The SPES facility is based on the ISOL method using an UCx Direct Target able to sustain a power of 8 kW. The primary proton beam is provided by a high current Cyclotron accelerator with energy of 35-70 MeV and a beam current of 0.2-0.7 mA. Neutron-rich radioactive ions are produced by proton induced fission on an Uranium target at an expected fission rate of the order of 1013 fissions per second. After ionization and selection the exotic isotopes are re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10A MeV for masses in the region A=130 amu. The expected secondary beam rates are of the order of 107 - 109 pps. Aim of the SPES facility is to deliver high intensity radioactive ion beams of neutron rich nuclei for nuclear physics research as well as to be an interdisciplinary research centre for radio-isotopes production for medicine and for neutron beams.

  4. Photon Factory activity report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    At the Photon Factory about 500 experiments are now running annually with about 50 experimental stations, the total operation time of the 2.5 GeV storage ring was 3400 hour in 1989, and the number of users was more than 2000, including 300 scientists from industry. This wide usage of synchrotron radiation has been supported by good performance of the accelerators. The positron beam current of the linac was increased for rapid injection (injection time: 20 min). The entire roof of the Light Source building was covered with thermal insulator (urethane-foam). This has greatly improved the beam stability of the ring. It has been operated at an initial ring current of 350 mA with a life time of 20 hours. Distinctive instrumentation at the Photon Factory has expanded to various fields such as angle-resolved ion-spectroscopy, dispersive EXAFS, trace impurity X-ray fluorescence analysis, plane-wave topography, structure analysis under high pressure, and imaging plates. Recently, experiments of protein structure analysis have been carried out extensively; Sakabe developed a new type of Weissenberg camera for protein crystallography, and about 50 experiments have been done for the past six months by a combination of Sakabe camera and imaging plates. The 2.5 GeV light source is now at an entrance of its harvest season. The TRISTAN Accumulation Ring has been used throughout this year in a time sharing basis with the TRISTAN experiment; twenty minutes for injection to TRISTAN Main Ring and 2 hours for SR experiment. The main subject has been magnetic Compton scattering with circularly polarized wiggler radiation. Such experiences enable us to expand our perspective for research in the following decade; we are investigating the possibility of operating the TRISTAN Main Ring at 6-8 GeV with 6000-pole undulaters, resulting in an extremely brilliant radiation source (Emittance: 0.1 nm·rad at 5 GeV with damping rings). (J.P.N.)

  5. EMIR data factory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosich Minguell, Josefina; Barreto, M.; Castro, N.; Garzón, F.; Guerra, D.; Insausti, M.; López-Martín, L.; López, P.; Molgó, J.; Patrón, J.

    2014-07-01

    EMIR (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infrarrojo) is a wide-field, near-infrared, multi-object spectrograph, with image capabilities, which will be located at the Nasmyth focus of GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias). It will allow observers to obtain many intermediate resolution spectra simultaneously, in the nIR bands Z, J, H, K. A multi-slit mask unit will be used for target acquisition. This paper shows an overview of EMIR Data Factory System which main functionality is to receive raw images from DAS (Data Acquisition system), collect FITS header keywords, store images to database and propagate images to other GCS (GTC Control System) components to produce astronomical data. This system follows the standards defined by the telescope to permit the integration of this software on the GCS. The Data Factory System needs the DAS, the Sequencer, GUI and the Monitor Manager subsystems to operate. DAS generates images and sends them to the Data Factory. Sequencer and GUI (Graphical User Interface) provide information about instrument and observing program. The Monitor Manager supplies information about telescope and instrument state.

  6. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8.9-fold

  7. Fusion studies with low-intensity radioactive ion beams using an active-target time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolata, J.J., E-mail: jkolata@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Howard, A.M. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Mittig, W. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ahn, T. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bazin, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Becchetti, F.D. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Beceiro-Novo, S.; Chajecki, Z. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Febbrarro, M. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Fritsch, A.; Lynch, W.G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Roberts, A. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Shore, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Torres-Isea, R.O. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-09-11

    The total fusion excitation function for {sup 10}Be+{sup 40}Ar has been measured over the center-of-momentum (c.m.) energy range from 12 to 24 MeV using a time-projection chamber (TPC). The main purpose of this experiment, which was carried out in a single run of duration 90 h using a ≈100 particle per second (pps) {sup 10}Be beam, was to demonstrate the capability of an active-target TPC to determine fusion excitation functions for extremely weak radioactive ion beams. Cross sections as low as 12 mb were measured with acceptable (50%) statistical accuracy. It also proved to be possible to separate events in which charged particles were emitted from the fusion residue from those in which only neutrons were evaporated. The method permits simultaneous measurement of incomplete fusion, break-up, scattering, and transfer reactions, and therefore fully exploits the opportunities presented by the very exotic beams that will be available from the new generation of radioactive beam facilities.

  8. An Inter-Projection Interpolation (IPI) Approach with Geometric Model Restriction to Reduce Image Dose in Cone Beam CT (CBCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Kong, Fengchong; Ren, Lei; Jin, Jian-Yue

    2014-09-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is a key step in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to improve tumor targeting. The quality and imaging dose of CBCT are two important factors. However, X-ray scatter in the large cone beam field usually induces image artifacts and degrades the image quality for CBCT. A synchronized moving grid (SMOG) approach has recently been proposed to resolve this issue and shows great promise. However, the SMOG technique requires two projections in the same gantry angle to obtain full information due to signal blockage by the grid. This study aims to develop an inter-projection interpolation (IPI) method to estimate the blocked image information. This approach will require only one projection in each gantry angle, thus reducing the scan time and patient dose. IPI is also potentially suitable for sparse-view CBCT reconstruction to reduce the imaging dose. To be compared with other state-of-the-art spatial interpolation (called inpainting) methods in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on a Catphan and head phantoms, IPI increases SNR from 15.3dB and 12.7dB to 29.0dB and 28.1dB, respectively. The SNR of IPI on sparse-view CBCT reconstruction can achieve from 28dB to 17dB for undersample projection sets with gantry angle interval varying from 1 to 3 degrees for both phantoms.

  9. JINR tau-charm factory design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perel'shtejn, E.; Aleksandrov, V.; Antropov, V.

    1993-01-01

    The review on tau-charm factory in JINR (Dubna) is presented. The structure scheme of tau-charm factory is described. The problems on injection complex are discussed: the composition, the working regime and parameters. The magnetic lattice of a booster is described. A versatile magnet lattice is used in tau-charm collider. It can realize both conventional flat beam scheme and monochromatization scheme. The results of chromaticity correction in high emittance lattice are presented. The list of parameters of tau-charm collider is given. The technical proposal of magnetic elements of booster and collider and their power supplies is made, as well as RF power supply in collider and vacuum system in its periodic cell. 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. A Novel Markerless Technique to Evaluate Daily Lung Tumor Motion Based on Conventional Cone-Beam CT Projection Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Zhong Zichun; Guo Xiaohu; Wang Jing; Anderson, John; Solberg, Timothy; Mao Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we present a novel markerless technique, based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) raw projection data, to evaluate lung tumor daily motion. Method and Materials: The markerless technique, which uses raw CBCT projection data and locates tumors directly on every projection, consists of three steps. First, the tumor contour on the planning CT is used to create digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) at every projection angle. Two sets of DRRs are created: one showing only the tumor, and another with the complete anatomy without the tumor. Second, a rigid two-dimensional image registration is performed to register the DRR set without the tumor to the CBCT projections. After the registration, the projections are subtracted from the DRRs, resulting in a projection dataset containing primarily tumor. Finally, a second registration is performed between the subtracted projection and tumor-only DRR. The methodology was evaluated using a chest phantom containing a moving tumor, and retrospectively in 4 lung cancer patients treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy. Tumors detected on projection images were compared with those from three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) CBCT reconstruction results. Results: Results in both static and moving phantoms demonstrate that the accuracy is within 1 mm. The subsequent application to 22 sets of CBCT scan raw projection data of 4 lung cancer patients includes about 11,000 projections, with the detected tumor locations consistent with 3D and 4D CBCT reconstruction results. This technique reveals detailed lung tumor motion and provides additional information than conventional 4D images. Conclusion: This technique is capable of accurately characterizing lung tumor motion on a daily basis based on a conventional CBCT scan. It provides daily verification of the tumor motion to ensure that these motions are within prior estimation and covered by the treatment planning volume.

  11. Roman Pot Insertions in High-Intensity Beams for the CT-PPS Project at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Deile, Mario; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Salvant, Benoit; Valentino, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) at the LHC IP5 aims at exploring diffractive physics at high luminosity in standard LHC fills. It is based on 14 Roman Pots (RPs), designed to host tracking and time-of-flight detectors for measuring the kinematics of leading protons. To reach the physics goals, the RPs will finally have to approach the beams to distances of 15 beam σs (i.e. ~1.5 mm) or closer. After problems with showers and impedance heating in first high-luminosity RP insertions in 2012, the LS1 of LHC was used for upgrades in view of impedance minimisation and for adding new collimators to intercept RP-induced showers. In 2015 the effectiveness of these improvements was shown by successfully inserting the RPs in all LHC beam intensity steps to a first-phase distance of ~25 σs. This contribution reviews the measurements of debris showers and impedance effects, i.e. the data from Beam Loss Monitors, beam vacuum gauges and temperature sensors. The dependences of the observables on the lu...

  12. REXEBIS the Electron Beam Ion Source for the REX-ISOLDE project

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F; Liljeby, L; Nyman, G H

    1998-01-01

    The REXEBIS is an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed especially to trap and further ionise the sometimes rare and short-lived isotopes that are produced in the ISOLDE separator for the Radioactive beam EXperiment at ISOLDE (REX-ISOLDE). By promoting the single-charged ions to a high charge-state the ions are more efficiently accelerated in the following linear accelerator. The EBIS uses an electron gun capable of producing a 0.5 A electron beam. The electron gun is immersed in a magnetic field of 0.2 T, and the electron beam is compressed to a current density of >200 A/cm2 inside a 2 T superconducting solenoid. The EBIS is situated on a high voltage (HV) platform with an initial electric potential of 60 kV allowing cooled and bunched 60 keV ions extracted from a Penning trap to be captured. After a period of confinement in the electron beam (<20 ms), the single-charged ions have been ionised to a charge-to-mass ratio of approximately ¼. During this confinement period, the platform potential is decr...

  13. Design for antiproton collection and beam transport in the Fermilab Tevatron I project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, E.; Hojvat, C.

    1983-03-01

    120-GeV protons from the Main Ring will be used to produce 8-GeV antiprotons. A pulsed lithium lens collects and matches the antiprotons to a beam line for injection into the Debuncher Ring. The anti p beam has a transverse emittance of 20..pi.. mm-mr and a deltap/p = +-2.0%. The beam line consists of a clean-up section with vertical emittance selection, two long dispersion free sections, a bend and a vertical injector. Antiprotons with a transverse emittance of 2..pi.. mm-mr and deltap/p = +-7.0 x 10/sup -4/ are transported in the reverse direction, bypassing the target area, and along the 120-GeV proton transport line for reverse injection in the Main Ring.

  14. Recycler Electron Cooling Project: Mechanical vibrations in the Pelletron and their effect on the beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakevich, Grigory M.; Burov, A.; Boffo, C.; Joireman, P.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C.W.; Shemyakin, A.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab's Recycler ring will employ an electron cooler to cool stored 8.9 GeV antiprotons [1]. The cooler is based on an electrostatic accelerator, Pelletron [2], working in an energy-recovery regime. A full-scale prototype of the cooler has been assembled and commissioned in a separate building [3]. The main goal of the experiments with the prototype was to demonstrate stable operation with a 3.5 MeV, 0.5 A DC electron beam while preserving a high beam quality in the cooling section. The quality is characterized, first of all, by a spread of electron velocities in the cooling section, which may be significantly affected by mechanical vibration of the Pelletron elements. This paper describes the results of vibration measurements in the Pelletron terminal and correlates them with the beam motion in the cooling section

  15. Siphon-based turbine - Demonstration project: hydropower plant at a paper factory in Perlen, Switzerland; Demonstrationsprojekt Saugheber - Turbinen. Wasserturbinenanlage Papierfabrik Perlen (WTA-PF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the demonstration project that concerned the re-activation and refurbishing of a very low-head hydropower installation. The functional principles of the siphon-turbine used are explained and the potential for its use at many low-head sites examined. The authors are of the opinion that innovative technology and simple mechanical concepts could be used to reactivate out-of-use hydropower plant or be used to refurbish existing plant to provide increased efficiency and reliability. Various other points that are to be considered when planning the refurbishment of a hydropower plant such as retaining mechanical and hydraulic symmetry in the plant are listed and concepts for reducing operating costs are discussed. Figures on the three runner-regulated turbines installed in Perlen are quoted.

  16. Automated patient setup and gating using cone beam computed tomography projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Hanlin; Bertholet, Jenny; Ge, Jiajia

    2016-01-01

    In radiation therapy, fiducial markers are often implanted near tumors and used for patient positioning and respiratory gating purposes. These markers are then used to manually align the patients by matching the markers in the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction to those...

  17. Tau/Charm Factory Accelerator Report

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. BiaginiINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; R. BoniINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; M. BoscoloINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. ChiarucciINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; R. CiminoINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. ClozzaINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. DragoINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; S. GuiducciINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; C. LigiINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; G. MazzitelliINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; R. RicciINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; C. SanelliINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; M. SerioINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. StellaINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; S. TomassiniINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy

    2014-01-01

    The present Report concerns the current status of the Italian Tau/Charm accelerator project and in particular discusses the issues related to the lattice design, to the accelerators systems and to the associated conventional facilities. The project aims at realizing a variable energy Flavor Factory between 1 and 4.6 GeV in the center of mass, and succeeds to the SuperB project from which it inherits most of the solutions proposed in this document. The work comes from a cooperation involving t...

  18. A CLIC-Prototype Higgs Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Belusevic, Radoje; Higo, Toshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    We propose that a pair of electron linacs with high accelerating gradients and an optical FEL be built at an existing laboratory. The linacs would employ CLIC-type rf cavities and a klystron-based power source; a two-beam scheme could be implemented at a later stage. The proposed facility would serve primarily as an e+e-/gamma-gamma Higgs-boson factory. The rich set of final states in e+e- and gamma-gamma collisions would play an essential role in measuring the mass, spin, parity, two-photon ...

  19. External audit on output calibration for photon beams (Polish participation in pan-European Radiation Oncology Project for Assurance of Treatment Quality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izewska, J.; Rostkowska, J.; Kania, M.; Gwiazdowska, B.; Hliniak, A. [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    TLD audit of photon beams in radiotherapy centres started in June 1994 within the frame of the EROPAQ project. All 55 photon beams in Polish departments have been checked and 18 beams rechecked in the centres , where deviations out of 3% were detected. Out of 55 beams checked in the first run, 87% were found within 3% acceptance limit and 13% showed deviations larger than 3%. No deviations out of 6% have been detected. The results of the national intercomparison for photon beams (90-92) compared to the results of the EROPAQ audit (94-95) show an improvement of the beam calibrations in Poland and illustrate the usefulness of external audits. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs.

  20. Muon physics possibilities at a muon-neutrino factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, KP

    2001-01-01

    New intense proton accelerators with above GeV energies and MW beam power, such as they are discussed in connection with neutrino factories, appear to be excellently suited for feeding bright muon sources for low-energy muon science. Muon rates with several orders of magnitude increased flux

  1. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  2. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2013-04-05

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Recent progress in neutrino factory and muon collider research within the Muon Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsharo'a, MM; Ankenbrandt, CM; Atac, M; Autin, BR; Balbekov, VI; Barger, VD; Benary, O; Bennett, JRJ; Berger, MS; Berg, JS; Berz, M; Black, EL; Blondel, A; Bogacz, SA; Bonesini, M; Bracker, SB; Bross, AD; Bruno, L; Buckley-Geer, EJ; Caldwell, AC; Campanelli, M; Cassel, KW; Catanesi, MG; Chattopadhyay, S; Chou, WR; Cline, DB; Coney, LR; Conrad, JM; Corlett, JN; Cremaldi, L; Cummings, MA; Darve, C; DeJongh, F; Drozhdin, A; Drumm, P; Elvira, VD; Errede, D; Fabich, A; Fawley, WM; Fernow, RC; Ferrario, M; Finley, DA; Fisch, NJ; Fukui, Y; Furman, MA; Gabriel, TA; Galea, R; Gallardo, JC; Garoby, R; Garren, AA; Geer, SH; Gilardoni, S; Van Ginneken, AJ; Ginzburg, IF; Godang, R; Goodman, M; Gosz, MR; Green, MA; Gruber, P; Gunion, JF; Gupta, R; Haines, JR; Hanke, K; Hanson, GG; Han, T; Haney, M; Hartill, D; Hartline, RE; Haseroth, HD; Hassanein, A; Hoffman, K; Holtkamp, N; Holzer, EB; Johnson, C; Johnson, RP; Johnstone, C; Jungmann, K; Kahn, SA; Kaplan, DM; Keil, EK; Kim, ES; Kim, KJ; King, BJ; Kirk, HG; Kuno, Y; Ladran, TS; Lau, WW; Learned, JG; Lebedev, V; Lebrun, P; Lee, K; Lettry, JA; Laveder, M; Li, DR; Lombardi, A; Lu, CG; Makino, K; Malkin, V; Marfatia, D; McDonald, KT; Mezzetto, M; Miller, [No Value; Mills, FE; Mocioiu, I; Mokhov, NV; Monroe, J; Moretti, A; Mori, Y; Neuffer, DV; Ng, KY; Norem, JH; Onel, Y; Oreglia, M; Ozaki, S; Padamsee, H; Pakvasa, S; Palmer, RB; Parker, B; Parsa, Z; Penn, G; Pischalnikov, Y; Qian, ZB; Radicioni, E; Raja, R; Ravn, HL; Reed, CB; Reginato, LL; Rehak, P; Rimmer, RA; Roberts, TJ; Roser, T; Rossmanith, R; Samulyak, RV; Scanlan, RM; Schlenstedt, S; Schwandt, P; Sessler, AM; Shaevitz, MH; Shrock, R; Sievers, P; Silvestrov, GI; Simos, N; Skrinsky, AN; Solomey, N; Spampinato, PT; Spentzouris, P; Stefanski, R; Stoltz, P; Stumer, I; Summers, DJ; Teng, LC; Thieberger, PA; Tigner, M; Todosow, M; Tollestrup, AV; Torun, Y; Trbojevic, D; Usubov, ZU; Vsevolozhskaya, TA; Wah, Y; Wang, CX; Wang, HP; Weggel, RJ; Whisnant, K; Willen, EH; Winn, DR; Wurtele, JS; Wu, V; Yokoi, T; Yoon, M; York, R; Yu, S; Zeller, A; Zhao, YX; Zisman, MS; Popovic, Milorad B.; Wilson, Edmund J.N.

    We describe the status of our effort to realize a first neutrino factory and the progress made in understanding the problems associated with the collection and cooling of muons towards that end. We summarize the physics that can be done with neutrino factories as well as with intense cold beams of

  4. Performance Of A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Exposed To The WANF Neutrino Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F.; Bonesini, M.; di Tigliole, A.Borio; Boschetti, B.; Bueno, A.; Calligarich, E.; Casagrande, F.; Cavalli, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cesana, E.; Cline, D.; Curioni, A.; De Mitri, I.; De Vecchi, C.; Dolfini, R.; Ferrari, A.; Ghezzi, A.; Guglielmi, A.; Kisiel, J.; Mannocchi, G.; de la Ossa, A.Martinez; Matthey, C.; Mauri, F.; Montanari, C.; Navas, S.; Negri, P.; Nicoletto, M.; Otwinowski, S.; Paganoni, M.; Palamara, O.; Pepato, A.; Periale, L.; Mortari, G.Piano; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Puccini, A.; Pullia, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Rancati, T.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Redaelli, N.; Rondio, E.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sobczyk, J.; Suzuki, S.; de Fatis, T.Tabarelli; Terrani, M.; Terranova, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.; Zalewska, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of the first exposure of a Liquid Argon TPC to a multi-GeV neutrino beam. The data have been collected with a 50 liters ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF). We discuss both the instrumental performance of the detector and its capability to identify and reconstruct low multiplicity neutrino interactions.

  5. Beam-beam diagnostics from closed-orbit distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kozanecki, W. [DAPNIA/SPP, CEN Saclay Gif-sur-Yvette, (FR)]|[Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for asymmetric B factories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the interaction point (IP), provide distinct signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.

  6. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-06ER86282 Development and Demonstration of 6-Dimensional Muon Beam Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muons, Inc.

    2011-05-24

    The overarching purpose of this project was to prepare a proposal for an experiment to demonstrate 6-dimensional muon beam cooling. The technical objectives were all steps in preparing the proposal, which was successfully presented to the Fermilab Accelerator Advisory Committee in February 2009. All primary goals of this project have been met.

  7. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  8. Development and characterization of semiconductor materials by ion beams. Final report of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This CRP was recommended by the Consultants meeting on Ion Beam Techniques Applied to Semiconductor and Related Advanced Materials, held in April 1997 in Vienna. The consultants proposed to have a CRP in the field of application of MeV ion beams for the development and characterization of semiconductor materials. The CRP was approved and a first RCM was held in Vienna between 2-5 June 1998, in order to stimulate ideas and to promote collaborations among CRP participants. The goals and practical outcomes of the CRP were defined and several specific topics were identified including: optoelectronic characterization of semiconductor materials and devices by ion microbeams, characterization of thin films, defect transformations in semiconductors, light element analysis. One important recommendation was that sample exchanges among different laboratories be strongly encouraged. The participants presented individual activities on their projects, all subjects of research were identified and linked with approved individual projects. Collaboration among the participants was discussed and established. Some modifications to work plans were adopted. As proposed during the first RCM, the final RCM was held at the Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia, between 25 and 29 September 2000, with the purpose of reviewing/discussing the results achieved during the course of the CRP and to prepare a draft of the final report and associated publication. This document contains summary of the CRP and ten individual reports presented by participants. Each of the reports has been indexed separately

  9. SRF for neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory calls for nearly 500 meters of 200 MHz SRF cavities to provide 7.5 GV. Such a facility is more demanding than the largest SRF installation to date, i.e., LEP-II, where 500 m of niobium-coated copper cavities provided more than 3 GV of acceleration. Based on the high real estate gradient desired to minimize muon loss, superconducting cavities are selected to provide active gradients of 15 - 17 MV/m, and a real estate gradient of 7.5 MV/m. At such high gradients, the peak RF power demand for copper cavities would become prohibitively expensive. By virtue of low losses, SC cavities can be filled slowly (rise time 3 ms) reducing the peak power demand to roughly half MW per cell. (author)

  10. Colorful Microbial Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Damm

    Yeast cell factories are powerful tools used for the production of high-value natural compounds otherwise not easily available. Many bioactive and industrially important plant secondary metabolites can be produced in yeast by engineering their biosynthetic pathways into yeast cells, as these both...... possess the cellular functions to synthesize, express and fold the eukaryotic genes and proteins, as well as many of the precursors needed as substrates for biosynthesis of most classes of plant natural products. Natural colorants represent an important class of food ingredients in industry, as they have...... desirable properties compared to chemically synthetized artificial dyes; one of the most prominent being their health-promoting properties. Several problems in the form of low concentrations in host tissues, seasonal availability, and chemical in stability exist for plant pigments, such as the desirable...

  11. Project and construction of energy degrading and scattering plates for electron beam radiotherapy for skin diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva

    2010-01-01

    There are many radiosensitive epidermotropics diseases such as mycosis fungo-ids and the syndrome of Sezary, coetaneous neoplasics originated from type T lymphocytes. Several studies indicate the eradication of the disease when treated with linear accelerators emitting electron beams with energies between 4 to 10 MeV. However, this treatment technique presents innumerable technical challenges since the disease in general reaches all patient's body, becoming necessary not only a very large field size radiation beam, but also deliver superficial doses limited to the skin depth. To reach the uniformity in the dose distribution, many techniques had already been developed. Based on these previous studies and guided by the report no. 23 of the American Association of Physicists in Medi-cine (AAPM), the present study developed an energy scattering and degrading plates and made dosimetry (computational and experimental), supplying subsidies for a future installation of Total Skin Electron Therapy (TSET) at the Servico de Radioterapia do Hospital das Clinicas de Sao Paulo. As part of the plates design, first of all, the energy spectrum of the 6 MeV electron beam of the VARIAN 2100C accelerator was reconstructed through Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP4C code and based on experimental data. Once the spectrum is built, several materials were analyzed for the plates design based on radial and axial dose distribution, production of rays-x and dose attenuation. The simulation results were validated by experimental measurements in order to obtain a large field of radiation with 200 cm x 80 cm that meets the specifications of the AAPM protocol. (author)

  12. Philips high tension generator (x-ray machine) testing for baby ebm (electron beam machine) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman Awalludin; Leo Kwee Wah; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the test of the HT system (from X-ray machine) for usage of the mini EBM (Electron Beam Machine). It consists the procedures of the installation, the safety procedures when deals with HT, modification of the system for testing purpose and the technique/method for testing the HT system. As a result, the voltage for the HT system and the electron gun (filament) current can be measured. Based on the results, suitability of the machine for baby EBM could be confirmed. (Author)

  13. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  14. GPU-based fast cone beam CT reconstruction from undersampled and noisy projection data via total variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xun; Lou Yifei; Li Ruijiang; Song, William Y.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) plays an important role in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). However, the large radiation dose from serial CBCT scans in most IGRT procedures raises a clinical concern, especially for pediatric patients who are essentially excluded from receiving IGRT for this reason. The goal of this work is to develop a fast GPU-based algorithm to reconstruct CBCT from undersampled and noisy projection data so as to lower the imaging dose. Methods: The CBCT is reconstructed by minimizing an energy functional consisting of a data fidelity term and a total variation regularization term. The authors developed a GPU-friendly version of the forward-backward splitting algorithm to solve this model. A multigrid technique is also employed. Results: It is found that 20-40 x-ray projections are sufficient to reconstruct images with satisfactory quality for IGRT. The reconstruction time ranges from 77 to 130 s on an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 (NVIDIA, Santa Clara, CA) GPU card, depending on the number of projections used, which is estimated about 100 times faster than similar iterative reconstruction approaches. Moreover, phantom studies indicate that the algorithm enables the CBCT to be reconstructed under a scanning protocol with as low as 0.1 mA s/projection. Comparing with currently widely used full-fan head and neck scanning protocol of ∼360 projections with 0.4 mA s/projection, it is estimated that an overall 36-72 times dose reduction has been achieved in our fast CBCT reconstruction algorithm. Conclusions: This work indicates that the developed GPU-based CBCT reconstruction algorithm is capable of lowering imaging dose considerably. The high computation efficiency in this algorithm makes the iterative CBCT reconstruction approach applicable in real clinical environments.

  15. Evolutionary algorithm for the neutrino factory front end design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poklonskiy, Alexey A.; /Michigan State U.; Neuffer, David; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory is an important tool in the long-term neutrino physics program. Substantial effort is put internationally into designing this facility in order to achieve desired performance within the allotted budget. This accelerator is a secondary beam machine: neutrinos are produced by means of the decay of muons. Muons, in turn, are produced by the decay of pions, produced by hitting the target by a beam of accelerated protons suitable for acceleration. Due to the physics of this process, extra conditioning of the pion beam coming from the target is needed in order to effectively perform subsequent acceleration. The subsystem of the Neutrino Factory that performs this conditioning is called Front End, its main performance characteristic is the number of the produced muons.

  16. Beam and experiments summary [neutrino studies

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Campanelli, M; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Cline, David B; Collot, J; De Jong, M; Donini, Andrea; Dydak, Friedrich; Edgecock, R; Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; González-Garciá, M Concepción; Gruber, P; Harris, D A; Hernández, Pilar; Kuno, Y; Litchfield, P J; McFarland, K; Mena, O; Migliozzi, P; Palladino, Vittorio; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Para, A; Peña-Garay, C; Pérez, P; Rigolin, Stefano; Romanino, Andrea; Rubbia, André; Strolin, P; Wojcicki, S G

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a new window to the still mysterious origin of masses and flavour mixing. Many current and forthcoming experiments will. Answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino-mixing matrix, requires the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. Most importantly, the neutrino factory is the only known way to generate a high- intensity beam of electron neutrinos of high energy. The neutrino beam from a neutrino factory, in particular the electron-neutrino beam, enables the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only mode...

  17. Localizing intracavitary brachytherapy applicators from cone-beam CT x-ray projections via a novel iterative forward projection matching algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Murphy, Martin J.; Todor, Dorin A.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel method for reconstructing the 3D pose (position and orientation) of radio-opaque applicators of known but arbitrary shape from a small set of 2D x-ray projections in support of intraoperative brachytherapy planning. Methods: The generalized iterative forward projection matching (gIFPM) algorithm finds the six degree-of-freedom pose of an arbitrary rigid object by minimizing the sum-of-squared-intensity differences (SSQD) between the computed and experimentally acquired autosegmented projection of the objects. Starting with an initial estimate of the object's pose, gIFPM iteratively refines the pose parameters (3D position and three Euler angles) until the SSQD converges. The object, here specialized to a Fletcher-Weeks intracavitary brachytherapy (ICB) applicator, is represented by a fine mesh of discrete points derived from complex combinatorial geometric models of the actual applicators. Three pairs of computed and measured projection images with known imaging geometry are used. Projection images of an intrauterine tandem and colpostats were acquired from an ACUITY cone-beam CT digital simulator. An image postprocessing step was performed to create blurred binary applicators only images. To quantify gIFPM accuracy, the reconstructed 3D pose of the applicator model was forward projected and overlaid with the measured images and empirically calculated the nearest-neighbor applicator positional difference for each image pair. Results: In the numerical simulations, the tandem and colpostats positions (x,y,z) and orientations (α,β,γ) were estimated with accuracies of 0.6 mm and 2 deg., respectively. For experimentally acquired images of actual applicators, the residual 2D registration error was less than 1.8 mm for each image pair, corresponding to about 1 mm positioning accuracy at isocenter, with a total computation time of less than 1.5 min on a 1 GHz processor. Conclusions: This work describes a novel, accurate, fast, and completely

  18. Quantum beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    Present state and future prospect are described on quantum beams for medical use. Efforts for compactness of linac for advanced cancer therapy have brought about the production of machines like Accuray's CyberKnife and TOMOTHERAPY (Tomo Therapy Inc.) where the acceleration frequency of X-band (9-11 GHz) is used. For cervical vein angiography by the X-band linac, a compact hard X-ray source is developed which is based on the (reverse) Compton scattering through laser-electron collision. More intense beam and laser are necessary at present. A compact machine generating the particle beam of 10 MeV-1 GeV (laser-plasma accelerator) for cancer therapy is also developed using the recent compression technique (chirped-pulse amplification) to generate laser of >10 TW. Tokyo University is studying for the electron beam with energy of GeV order, for the laser-based synchrotron X-ray, and for imaging by the short pulse ion beam. Development of advanced compact accelerators is globally attempted. In Japan, a virtual laboratory by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a working group of universities and research facilities through the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in 2001 for practical manufacturing of the above-mentioned machines for cancer therapy and for angiography. Virtual Factory (Inc.), a business venture, is to be stood in future. (N.I.)

  19. The eldercare factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Noel; Sharkey, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in service robotics together with dramatic shifts in population demographics have led to the notion that technology may be the answer to our eldercare problems. Robots are being developed for feeding, washing, lifting, carrying and mobilising the elderly as well as monitoring their health. They are also being proposed as a substitute for companionship. While these technologies could accrue major benefits for society and empower the elderly, we must balance their use with the ethical costs. These include a potential reduction in human contact, increased feeling of objectification and loss of control, loss of privacy and personal freedom as well as deception and infantilisation. With appropriate guidelines in place before the introduction of robots en masse into the care system, robots could improve the lives of the elderly, reducing their dependence and creating more opportunities for social interaction. Without forethought, the elderly may find themselves in a barren world of machines, a world of automated care: a factory for the elderly. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Review of coherent effects in B- and Φ-factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.

    1998-01-01

    The author reviews instabilities which may be relevant to the storage rings under construction and in commissioning such as Φ-factor in Frascati, and the B-factories at SLAC and KEK. For this reason, he doesn't consider effects specific mostly for proton machines. Beam-beam effects are also not included because today these effects look like a somewhat distant future for the Φ- and B-factories, assumption that may become wrong very quickly. Personal interest and limited knowledge of the author also defined selected topics. It has been known for more than 30 years that interaction of the beam with environment can cause beam instabilities. Until recently, impedances and wake fields were associated with resistivity and variations of the beam pipe geometry. In addition, interaction with other (foreign) particles, existing or produced by the beam such as ions, trapped- or photo-electrons, may become important for multi-bunch beams, causing instabilities with growth rates substantially higher than these caused by geometric wake fields. The main topics are: Impedances; Traditional instabilities -- single- and multi-bunch instabilities; Effect of ions; and New instabilities

  1. Beam-beam limit in e+e- circular colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, K.; Tawada, M.; Kamada, S.; Oide, K.; Cai, Y.; Qiang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Beam-beam effects limit the luminosity of circular colliders. Once the bunch population exceeds a threshold, the luminosity increases at a slower rate. This phenomenon is called the beam-beam limit. Onset of the beam-beam limit has been analyzed with various simulation methods based on the weak-strong and strong-strong models. We have observed that an incoherent phenomenon is mainly concerned in the beam-beam limit. The simulation have shown that equilibrium distributions of the two colliding beams are distorted from Gaussians when the luminosity is limited. The beam-beam limit is estimated to be ξ∼0.1 for a B factory with damping time of several thousand turns

  2. Test of the beam effect on vacuum arc occurrence in a high-gradient accelerating structure for the CLIC project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2130409; Gagliardi, Martino

    A new generation of lepton colliders capable of reaching TeV energies is pres- ently under development, and to succeed in this task it is necessary to show that the technology for such a machine is available. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a possible design option among the future lepton collider projects. It consists of two normal-conducting linacs. Accelerating structures with a gradient of the order of 100 MV/m are necessary to reach the required high energies within a reasonable machine length. One of the strictest require- ments for such accelerating structures is a relatively low occurrence of vacuum arcs. CLIC prototype structures have been tested in the past, but only in absence of beam. In order to proof the feasibility of the high gradient technology for building a functional collider, it is necessary to understand the effect of the beam presence on the vacuum breakdowns. Tests of this type have never been performed previously. The main goal of this work is to provide a first measurement of t...

  3. A B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peruzzi, I.

    1988-01-01

    Various energy choice are considered for studying B Physics at the Frascati project ARES; the option of an asymmetric machine is particularly discussed and the pros and cons weighted. Results from a Montecarlo simulation in several energy configurations are presented

  4. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, J; Hover, J; Love, P; Stewart, G A

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  5. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Stewart, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  6. WE-DE-207B-12: Scatter Correction for Dedicated Cone Beam Breast CT Based On a Forward Projection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L; Zhu, L [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (Georgia); Vedantham, S; Karellas, A [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The image quality of dedicated cone-beam breast CT (CBBCT) is fundamentally limited by substantial x-ray scatter contamination, resulting in cupping artifacts and contrast-loss in reconstructed images. Such effects obscure the visibility of soft-tissue lesions and calcifications, which hinders breast cancer detection and diagnosis. In this work, we propose to suppress x-ray scatter in CBBCT images using a deterministic forward projection model. Method: We first use the 1st-pass FDK-reconstructed CBBCT images to segment fibroglandular and adipose tissue. Attenuation coefficients are assigned to the two tissues based on the x-ray spectrum used for imaging acquisition, and is forward projected to simulate scatter-free primary projections. We estimate the scatter by subtracting the simulated primary projection from the measured projection, and then the resultant scatter map is further refined by a Fourier-domain fitting algorithm after discarding untrusted scatter information. The final scatter estimate is subtracted from the measured projection for effective scatter correction. In our implementation, the proposed scatter correction takes 0.5 seconds for each projection. The method was evaluated using the overall image spatial non-uniformity (SNU) metric and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) with 5 clinical datasets of BI-RADS 4/5 subjects. Results: For the 5 clinical datasets, our method reduced the SNU from 7.79% to 1.68% in coronal view and from 6.71% to 3.20% in sagittal view. The average CNR is improved by a factor of 1.38 in coronal view and 1.26 in sagittal view. Conclusion: The proposed scatter correction approach requires no additional scans or prior images and uses a deterministic model for efficient calculation. Evaluation with clinical datasets demonstrates the feasibility and stability of the method. These features are attractive for clinical CBBCT and make our method distinct from other approaches. Supported partly by NIH R21EB019597, R21CA134128

  7. Optimization of a mercury jet target for a neutrino factory or a muon collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Ding

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of target parameters for a mercury jet target for a neutrino factory or muon collider is presented. We simulate particle production initiated by incoming protons with kinetic energies between 2 and 100 GeV. For each proton beam kinetic energy, we maximize production by varying the geometric parameters of the target: the mercury jet radius, the incoming proton beam angle, and the crossing angle between the mercury jet and the proton beam. With an 8-GeV proton beam, we study the variation of meson production with the entry direction of the proton beam relative to the jet. We also examine the influence on the meson production by the focusing of the proton beam. The number of muons surviving through the neutrino factory front end channel is determined as a function of the proton beam kinetic energy.

  8. Photon factory activity report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National laboratory of High Energy Physics. First, the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, the Tristan synchrotron radiation facility at the accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.) (435 refs.)

  9. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  10. Photon factory activity report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National Laboratory of High Energy Physics. First the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, synchrotron radiation facility at the Tristan accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.)

  11. Application of e-beam welding in W/Cu divertor project for EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wanjing, E-mail: wjwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China); Li, Qiang; Zhao, Sixiang; Xu, Yue; Wei, Ran; Cao, Lei; Yao, Damao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China); Qin, Sigui; Peng, Lingjian; Shi, Yingli; Pan, Ningjie; Liu, Guohui [Advanced Technology and Materials Company - AT& M, Beijing (China); Li, Hui [Beijing Zhongke Electric Co. Ltd., Beijing (China); Luo, Guang-Nan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • To develop the actively cooled W/Cu components, we have to meet the application of EBW. • In this work, the microstructure of the fusion zone and the mechanical properties of Cu−Cu and Cu−Ni joint welded by EBW have been investigated. • In the practice of quality control, it was found that under present standard the helium leak detection is unreliable. Thus the UT has been introduced and the premier results have shown it's effective. • In addition, the control of configuration tolerance has also been investigated. And a solidified welding procedure with jigs was established before the batch production. - Abstract: In the development of EAST actively cooled W/Cu components, the ITER-grade CuCrZr has been chosen as the heat sink material for its good thermomechanics properties. To realize the seal joint of the heat sink, a large number of electron beam welding (EBW) of CuCrZr/CuCrZr or CuCrZr/Inconel625 has been carried out. In the quality control of the W/Cu components, the helium leak detection at thermal condition has been performed on the entire components before delivery. However, in the operation of EAST device some micro leak on the components was detected indicating that the helium leak detection under present standard was unreliable for the quality control. Therefore, the ultrasonic non-destructive testing technique was introduced to exclude the defects. In addition, the welding shrinkage and bending has also been investigated to meet the required tight tolerances for plasma-facing components in vacuum vessel.

  12. Diagnostic of laser-accelerated ion beams for the ELIMED project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L. [Physics Department of Messina University, V.le S. d' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cutroneo, M. [Physics Department of Messina University, V.le S. d' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata (Italy); Cavallaro, S.; Andò, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Calcagno, L.; Musumeci, P. [Physics Department of Catania University, V. S,. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The laser-generated plasma, in non equilibrium conditions, has peculiar properties depending strongly on the laser parameters, on the target composition and on the target geometry. Different fast diagnostic techniques can be employed for the plasma characterization in terms of particles and photons emission, plasma temperature and density, ion energy distribution, angular emission, yield and electric field acceleration. Particular attention is devoted to the proton emission from hydrogenated targets and to the proton diagnostics by using time of flight techniques and Thomson parabola spectrometry. The diagnostic techniques will be presented and discussed on the base of the development of the ELIMED project.

  13. Preliminary studies of the quickly pulsed synchrotron involved in the Beta-Beam project; Etudes preliminaires du synchrotron rapidement pulse du projet Beta-Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaize, A

    2007-07-01

    This study presents a quickly-pulsed synchrotron able to accelerate He{sup 6} and Ne{sup 18} beams from 100 MeV/u till 3.5 GeV (proton equivalent) The accelerator is made up of 48 bending dipoles and 42 focusing quadrupoles. The design of the HF accelerating system, the bunch injection and the correction of errors in beam dynamics are dealt with.

  14. The Gamma Factory proposal for CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold

    2015-01-01

    This year, 2015, marks the centenary of the publication of Einsteins Theory of General Relativity and it has been named the International Year of Light and light-based technologies by the UN General Assembly. It is thus timely to discuss the possibility of broadening the present CERN research program by including a new component based on a novel concept of the light source which could pave a way towards a multipurpose Gamma Factory. The proposed light source could be realized at CERN by using the infrastructure of the existing accelerators. It could push the intensity limits of the presently operating light-sources by at least 7 orders of magnitude, reaching the flux of the order of 10^17 photons/s, in the particularly interesting gamma-ray energy domain of 1 < Ephoton < 400 MeV. This domain is out of reach for the FEL-based light sources. The energy-tuned, quasi-monochromatic gamma beams, together with the gamma-beam-driven, high intensity secondary beams of polarized positrons, polarized muons, neutro...

  15. The Multimedia Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Peter

    The history of instructional multimedia systems development includes many difficulties--authorial uncertainty about how to order concepts, the misplaced focus of so-called "intelligent tutors," the sometimes disconcerting proliferation of products, and financial constraints. Against this background, this paper discusses the project which…

  16. 3–10 keV Xe+ ion beam machining of ultra low thermal expansion glasses for EUVL projection optics: Evaluation of surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, K.; Kamijo, K.; Morijiri, K.; Pahlovy, S.A.; Aikawa, N.; Miyamoto, I.

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain surface figure error of 0.15 nm rms and surface roughness (R rms ) of 0.12 nm rms for aspherical substrates in EUVL tools, ion beam figuring may be adopted to final surface figure error correction of aspherical substrates. During figure error correction, machined surface of the substrate becomes rougher than the pre-finished one. Therefore, we investigated the machined depth and ion energy dependences of R rms (measured by an AFM) of substrates machined by 3–10 keV Xe + ion beam, and compared them with the results obtained for Ar + ion beam. Result shows that the R rms s of CLEARCERAM®-Z, Zerodur® and ULE® substrates machined to the depth of 50 nm by 3–10 keV Xe + ion beam at the normal ion incidence angle become approximately 0.25, 0.28 and 0.15 nm rms, respectively. Those values are larger than the pre-finished substrates (0.07–0.09 nm rms), but smaller than that (0.60 nm rms for CLEARCERAM®-Z, 0.61 nm rms for Zerodur® and 0.18 nm rms for ULE®) of the substrates machined by Ar + ion beam. Moreover, the R rms s merely increase with increasing ion energy. The R rms s of the ULE® substrate machined by 3–10 keV Xe + ion beam rapidly increase with increasing machined depth, then saturate at machined depth of 10–50 nm. The saturated values of the R rms s are 0.12 and 0.15 nm rms for 3 and 10 keV Xe + ion beam respectively. We suggest that the 3 keV Xe + ion beam machining can be applicable for final shape correction of ULE® substrates for EUVL projection optics in association with considering further ultra smoothing process such as Si deposition or low energy ion beam smoothing.

  17. 17th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Facilities Search

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    NuFact15 is the seventeenth in a series that started in 1999 as an important yearly workshop with emphasis on future neutrino projects. This will be the first edition in Latin America, showing the scientific growth of this field. The main goals of the workshop are to review the progress on studies of future facilities able to improve on measurements of the properties of neutrinos and charged lepton flavor violation as well as new phenomena searches beyond the capabilities of presently planned experiments. Since such progress in the neutrino sector could require innovation in neutrino beams, the role of a neutrino factory within future HEP initiatives will be addressed. The workshops are not only international but also interdisciplinary in that experimenters, theorists and accelerator physicists from the Asian, American and European regions share expertise with the common goal of designing the next generation of experiments.

  18. Design and Factory Test of the E /E- Frascati Linear Accelerator for DAFNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anamkath, H.; Lyons, S.; Nett, D.; Treas, P.; Whitham, K.; Zante, T.; /Titan Beta, Dublin; Miller, R.; /Titan Beta, Dublin /SLAC; Boni, R.; Hsieh, H.; Sannibale, F.; Vescovi, M.; Vignola, G.; /Frascati

    2011-11-28

    The electron-positron accelerator for the DAFNE project has been built and is in test at Titan Beta in Dublin, CA. This S-Band RF linac system utilizes four 45 MW sledded klystrons and 16-3 m accelerating structures to achieve the required performance. It delivers a 4 ampere electron beam to the positron converter and accelerates the resulting positrons to 550 MeV. The converter design uses a 4.3T pulsed tapered flux compressor along with a pseudo-adiabatic tapered field to a 5 KG solenoid over the first two positron accelerating sections. Quadrupole focusing is used after 100 MeV. The system performance is given in Table 1. This paper briefly describes the design and development of the various subassemblies in this system and gives the initial factory test data.

  19. The tau-charm factory: Experimental perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.; Schindler, R.H.

    1991-09-01

    This report discusses the Tau-Charm Factory Concept; D and D S Physics at the Tau-Charm Factory; τ and ν τ Physics at the Tau-Charm Factory; and Charmonium, Gluonium and Light Quark Spectroscopy at the Tau-Charm Factory

  20. Binary moving-blocker-based scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography with width-truncated projections: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho; Fahimian, Benjamin P; Xing, Lei

    2017-03-21

    This paper proposes a binary moving-blocker (BMB)-based technique for scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). In concept, a beam blocker consisting of lead strips, mounted in front of the x-ray tube, moves rapidly in and out of the beam during a single gantry rotation. The projections are acquired in alternating phases of blocked and unblocked cone beams, where the blocked phase results in a stripe pattern in the width direction. To derive the scatter map from the blocked projections, 1D B-Spline interpolation/extrapolation is applied by using the detected information in the shaded regions. The scatter map of the unblocked projections is corrected by averaging two scatter maps that correspond to their adjacent blocked projections. The scatter-corrected projections are obtained by subtracting the corresponding scatter maps from the projection data and are utilized to generate the CBCT image by a compressed-sensing (CS)-based iterative reconstruction algorithm. Catphan504 and pelvis phantoms were used to evaluate the method's performance. The proposed BMB-based technique provided an effective method to enhance the image quality by suppressing scatter-induced artifacts, such as ring artifacts around the bowtie area. Compared to CBCT without a blocker, the spatial nonuniformity was reduced from 9.1% to 3.1%. The root-mean-square error of the CT numbers in the regions of interest (ROIs) was reduced from 30.2 HU to 3.8 HU. In addition to high resolution, comparable to that of the benchmark image, the CS-based reconstruction also led to a better contrast-to-noise ratio in seven ROIs. The proposed technique enables complete scatter-corrected CBCT imaging with width-truncated projections and allows reducing the acquisition time to approximately half. This work may have significant implications for image-guided or adaptive radiation therapy, where CBCT is often used.

  1. An Asymmetric B-Meson Factory at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garren, A.A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chin, Y.; Oddone, P.J.; Zisman, Michael S.; Donald, M.; Feldman, G.; Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for a B-factory has been made using asymmetric collisions between positrons in the PEP storage ring and electrons in a new, low-energy ring. The design utilizes small-aperture, permanent-magnet quadrupoles close to the interaction point (IP). Optimization of optical and beam parameters at the IP will be discussed, as well as the lattice design of the interaction region and of the rings.

  2. RF system design for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    The paper presents an overview of the design of the RF system for the PEP-II B Factory. An RF station consists of either two or four single-cell cavities driven by a 1.2 MW klystron through a waveguide distribution network. A variety of feedback loops stabilize the RF and its interaction with the beam. System parameters and all the relevant parameters of klystron and cavities are given

  3. Nucleolus: The ribosome factory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cmarko, Dušan; Šmigová, J.; Minichová, L.; Popov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 10 (2008), s. 1291-1298 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/06/1691 Grant - others:Wellcome Trust(XE) 075834/04/Z; GA MŠk(CZ) LC535; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/06/1662 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : nucleolus * nucleolar architecture * ribosome biogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.194, year: 2008

  4. The Gamma Factory — new research opportunities for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In this talk I shall discuss the recent initiative of broadening the present CERN research programme by including a new component exploiting a novel concept of the light source. The proposed, partially stripped ion beam driven, light source is the backbone of the Gamma Factory initiative. It could be realized at CERN by using the infrastructure of the already existing accelerators. It could push the intensity limits of the presently operating light-sources by at least 7 orders of magnitude, reaching the flux of the order of 10^17 photons/s, in the particularly interesting gamma-ray energy domain of 0.1 — 400 MeV. The partially stripped ion beams, the unprecedented-intensity energy-tuned gamma beams, together with the gamma-beam-driven secondary beams of polarized positrons, polarized muons, neutrinos, neutrons and radioactive ions constitute the basic research tools of the Gamma Factory. A broad spectrum of new research opportunities, in a vast domain of uncharted fundamental and applied physics territories...

  5. Status of the TRIUMF KAON Factory design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackmore, E.W.

    1989-12-01

    The proposed KAON Factory consists of a chain of 5 accelerator and storage rings which will accelerate a 100 μA beam of protons injected from the TRIUMF H - cyclotron to a final energy of 30 GeV. This beam will be available either as a slow extracted beam with 80-90% duty factor or as a fast extracted beam with a 3 μs pulse every 100 ms. The status of an 11M$ preconstruction design study scheduled for completion in February 1990 will be described. Prototypes of various accelerator components are being fabricated and tested and the design of the conventional facilities, buildings, tunnels and services is being finalized

  6. Math for the digital factory

    CERN Document Server

    Hömberg, Dietmar; Landry, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a unique collection of mathematical tools and industrial case studies in digital manufacturing. It addresses various topics, ranging from models of single production technologies, production lines, logistics and workflows to models and optimization strategies for energy consumption in production. The digital factory represents a network of digital models and simulation and 3D visualization methods for the holistic planning, realization, control and ongoing improvement of all factory processes related to a specific product. In the past ten years, all industrialized countries have launched initiatives to realize this vision, sometimes also referred to as Industry 4.0 (in Europe) or Smart Manufacturing (in the United States). Its main goals are • reconfigurable, adaptive and evolving factories capable of small-scale production • high-performance production, combining flexibility, productivity, precision and zero defects • energy and resource efficiency in manufacturing None of these...

  7. The contamination factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989 the Senate Committee on Armed Services asked the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to investigate the environmental and public health impacts of contamination at the nation's nuclear weapons complex and to review the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to clean up past contamination and manage huge quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes. The DOE Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Program is a massive, multibillion-dollar effort engaging state governments and several federal agencies, and including some of the most technically challenging environmental characterization and remediation projects ever attempted. Congress recognized the enormity of DOE's environmental and legal problems and is interested in insuring that the cleanup program is both adequate and efficient. This summary of the OTA report has been adapted for publication in the Bulletin

  8. BPM Breakdown Potential in the PEP-II B-factory Storage Ring Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2010-02-10

    High current B-Factory BPM designs incorporate a button type electrode which introduces a small gap between the button and the beam chamber. For achievable currents and bunch lengths, simulations indicate that electric potentials can be induced in this gap which are comparable to the breakdown voltage. This study characterizes beam induced voltages in the existing PEP-II storage ring collider BPM as a function of bunch length and beam current.

  9. Summary of the polarized beam working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Dyck, O. van.

    1989-05-01

    The polarized beam working group reviewed the AGS Bookster and TRIUMF KAON Factory facilities, heard an overview of the subject of siberian snakes, discussed internal polarized gas targets, and made recommendations for further study

  10. Outline of application plans of accelerator beams in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has various application plans of accelerators such as; Neutron Science Research Complex (NSRC), Positron Factory, International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), and Spring-8 Project. Each application plan has its own research program and its own core accelerator. The NSRC is a multi-purpose research complex composed of seven research facilities: slow neutron scattering facility for material science, the nuclear energy research facility like nuclear transmutation and so on. The Positron Factory will be applied to the research of precise analysis of material structure by novel method of positron probing. The IFMIF aims at simulating the wall loading of a demo fusion reactor by producing high intense neutron flux. The SPring-8 is the largest synchrotron radiation source in the world. More than 60 X-ray beam lines will be equipped for the various researches. (author)

  11. Physics and technology challenges of B bar B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1991-05-01

    An e + e - collider designed to serve as a B factory requires a luminosity of 3 x 10 33 cm -1 s -1 -- a factor of 20 beyond that of the best present collider and thus presents a considerable challenge to the accelerator builder. To optimize the experiment, it is necessary that the B bar B system have a moving center-of-mass, which implies different energies for the two beams. This feature dictates that a two-ring configuration be used. Accelerator physics issues that arise in such a design are related to the need to tightly focus the beams to a vertical beta function on the order of 1 cm, to bring the beams from two different rings into collision and then clearly separate them again, and to mask the detector region sufficiently to permit measurements with very large beam currents passing through the interaction region. Because the luminosity is limited by the beam-beam interaction, any large improvement must come from considerably increasing both the beam current and the number of bunches in the ring. These choices place many demands on accelerator technology as well as accelerator physics. Vacuum systems must be designed to handle the thermal load from a multi-ampere beam of 8--9 GeV and to maintain an adequate running pressure in the face of a large gas load from synchrotron radiation induced photodesorption. An RF system capable of supporting the high beam currents must be developed. To reduce the growth of potentially strong multibunch instabilities, the cavity higher-order modes must be highly damped to Q ≤ 70. Even with a well optimized RF system, the high beam currents typically mean that wideband multibunch feedback systems are needed to maintain beam stability

  12. Jean Piaget: Images of a life and his factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2012-08-01

    In this article, I use a new book about Jean Piaget to introduce a new historical method: examining "psychological factories." I also discuss some of the ways that "Great Men" are presented in the literature, as well as opportunities for new projects if one approaches the history of the discipline differently and examines the conditions that made that greatness possible. To that end, the article includes many details about Piaget that have never before been discussed in English. Attention is drawn, in particular, to Piaget's collaborators: the hundreds of workers at his factory in Geneva, many of whom were women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Phantom and Clinical Study of Differences in Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Registration When Aligned to Maximum and Average Intensity Projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Kiyonori; Nishiyama, Kinji; Katsuda, Toshizo; Teshima, Teruki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Tsujii, Katsutomo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether maximum or average intensity projection (MIP or AIP, respectively) reconstructed from 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is preferred for alignment to cone beam CT (CBCT) images in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Stationary CT and 4DCT images were acquired with a target phantom at the center of motion and moving along the superior–inferior (SI) direction, respectively. Motion profiles were asymmetrical waveforms with amplitudes of 10, 15, and 20 mm and a 4-second cycle. Stationary CBCT and dynamic CBCT images were acquired in the same manner as stationary CT and 4DCT images. Stationary CBCT was aligned to stationary CT, and the couch position was used as the baseline. Dynamic CBCT was aligned to the MIP and AIP of corresponding amplitudes. Registration error was defined as the SI deviation of the couch position from the baseline. In 16 patients with isolated lung lesions, free-breathing CBCT (FBCBCT) was registered to AIP and MIP (64 sessions in total), and the difference in couch shifts was calculated. Results: In the phantom study, registration errors were within 0.1 mm for AIP and 1.5 to 1.8 mm toward the inferior direction for MIP. In the patient study, the difference in the couch shifts (mean, range) was insignificant in the right-left (0.0 mm, ≤1.0 mm) and anterior–posterior (0.0 mm, ≤2.1 mm) directions. In the SI direction, however, the couch position significantly shifted in the inferior direction after MIP registration compared with after AIP registration (mean, −0.6 mm; ranging 1.7 mm to the superior side and 3.5 mm to the inferior side, P=.02). Conclusions: AIP is recommended as the reference image for registration to FBCBCT when target alignment is performed in the presence of asymmetrical respiratory motion, whereas MIP causes systematic target positioning error

  14. Circular Higgs Factories & Possible Long-Term Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 two LHC experiments have discovered a new particle with a mass around 125 GeV, which appears to be the scalar Higgs boson of the Standard Model. To further examine this remarkable particle it could be produced in large numbers for precision studies by an e+e− collider operating near the ZH threshold at beam energies of 120 GeV, or, in the s-channel by a gamma-gamma collider with primary electron beam energies of 80 GeV, or by a high-energy electron-proton collider. In this talk I will discuss tentative design parameters, novel concepts and accelerator-physics challenges (1) for a high-luminosity lepton-hadron collider, bringing into collision a 60-GeV electron beam from an energy-recovery electron linac with one of the LHC hadron beams – LHeC –, (2) for a gamma-gamma Higgs-factory collider based on the reconfigured recirculating SC electron linac – SAPPHiRE – and (3) for a circular e+e− Higgs-factory collider in a new tunnel with a circumference of 80-100 km – TLEP. I will also discuss f...

  15. Noise, sampling, and the number of projections in cone-beam CT with a flat-panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.; Gang, G. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the number of projection views on image noise in cone-beam CT (CBCT) with a flat-panel detector. Methods: This fairly fundamental consideration in CBCT system design and operation was addressed experimentally (using a phantom presenting a uniform medium as well as statistically motivated “clutter”) and theoretically (using a cascaded systems model describing CBCT noise) to elucidate the contributing factors of quantum noise (σ Q ), electronic noise (σ E ), and view aliasing (σ view ). Analysis included investigation of the noise, noise-power spectrum, and modulation transfer function as a function of the number of projections (N proj ), dose (D tot ), and voxel size (b vox ). Results: The results reveal a nonmonotonic relationship between image noise andN proj at fixed total dose: for the CBCT system considered, noise decreased with increasing N proj due to reduction of view sampling effects in the regime N proj proj due to increased electronic noise. View sampling effects were shown to depend on the heterogeneity of the object in a direct analytical relationship to power-law anatomical clutter of the form κ/f  β —and a general model of individual noise components (σ Q , σ E , and σ view ) demonstrated agreement with measurements over a broad range in N proj , D tot , and b vox . Conclusions: The work elucidates fairly basic elements of CBCT noise in a manner that demonstrates the role of distinct noise components (viz., quantum, electronic, and view sampling noise). For configurations fairly typical of CBCT with a flat-panel detector (FPD), the analysis reveals a “sweet spot” (i.e., minimum noise) in the rangeN proj ∼ 250–350, nearly an order of magnitude lower in N proj than typical of multidetector CT, owing to the relatively high electronic noise in FPDs. The analysis explicitly relates view aliasing and quantum noise in a manner that includes aspects of the object (“clutter”) and imaging chain

  16. Optimising the Target and Capture Sections of the Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Ole Martin; Stapnes, Steinar

    The Neutrino Factory is designed to produce an intense high energy neutrino beam from stored muons. The majority of the muons are obtained from the decay of pions, produced by a proton beam impinging on a free-flowing mercury-jet target and captured by a high magnetic field. It is important to capture a large fraction of the produced pions to maximize the intensity of the neutrino beam. Various optimisation studies have been performed with the aim of maximising the muon influx to the accelerator and thus the neutrino beam intensity. The optimisation studies were performed with the use of Monte Carlo simulation tools. The production of secondary particles, by interactions between the incoming proton beam and the mercury target, was optimised by varying the proton beam impact position and impact angles on the target. The proton beam and target interaction region was studied and showed to be off the central axis of the capture section in the baseline configuration. The off-centred interaction region resulted in ...

  17. Parasitic crossing at an asymmetric B factory, APIARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Y.H.

    1991-05-01

    Effects of parasitic crossings (''near miss'' collisions of two counter-rotating beams at unwanted positions near the IP) are studied in terms of computer simulations for an asymmetric B Factory, APIARY- 6.3d. Beams are separated horizontally at the first parasitic crossing points by about 7.6 times the horizontal rms size of the low energy beam (the larger in size of the two beams), σ 0x,+ . Simulations, including both the beam collision at the IP and parasitic crossings, have been performed for different separation distances, d. It is found that the ratio d/σ 0x,+ is a good scaling parameter of beam blowup behavior. The results show that beam blowup due to the parasitic crossings is diminished for d ≥ 7σ 0x,+ , in agreement with the bunch separation experiment at CESR. Thus, the nominal separation 7.6 σ 0x,+ turns out to be acceptable, but with only a small margin. Some methods to mitigate the effects of the parasitic crossings are discussed. 3 refs. , 5 figs., 2 tabs

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF LAW RELATING TO FACTORIES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of industrial town and factories has paved the way to develop our industrial legislation accordingly. The Government of India never expressed their interest in framing separate legislation vis-à-vis factories which resulted in implementation of the same statute which was enacted pre-independence. It was done by virtue of Art. 372 of the Constitution of India. However, the Constitutional Lawmakers created vacuum for the implementation of new statute in accordance with the demand of society by inserting scope under the Directive Principles of State Policies. However, in the 67 years history of Indian Republic, there are unprecedented developments of law relating to factories in India.The Government of India, with the adoption of existed statute, made an effort to incorporate the welfare legislation but it never developed along with the change in time. It is to be noticed that as far as existing statutes are concerned, the development is an effect of judicial pronouncement or some tragic incident like Bhopal Gas Tragedy. This paper succinctly describes the history of factory legislation, the constitutional validity of the previous statute and necessary amendment which have already been done and / or on the verge of being amended. It will further discuss contribution of judiciary in developing the law relating to factories, scope of industrial jurisprudence in promoting the development of factory legislation. The primary focus of the research project is to reflect upon the areas where factory legislation has developed, so that proper yardstick could be made in order to put emphasis on those areas which have been remained untouched.

  19. Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis. Report of a Coordinated Research Project on Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Ion beam analysis techniques are non-destructive analytical techniques used to identify the composition and provide elemental depth profiles in surface layers of materials. The applications of such techniques are diverse and include environmental control, cultural heritage and conservation and fusion technologies. Their reliability and accuracy depends strongly on our knowledge of the nuclear reaction cross sections, and this publication describes the coordinated effort to measure, compile and evaluate cross section data relevant to these techniques and make these data available to the user community through a comprehensive online database. It includes detailed assessments of experimental cross sections as well as attempts to benchmark these data against appropriate integral measurements

  20. Factory Outlet Stores - ein Trend in Deutschland?

    OpenAIRE

    Nufer, Gerd; Sieber, Dorothea

    2009-01-01

    Der Factory Outlet Store stellt einen neuen Vertriebskanal dar, der es Herstellern ermöglicht, Kunden Markenprodukte zu vergleichsweise günstige Preisen anzubieten. Der vorliegende Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Konzept Factory Outlet Store und der Frage, ob es sich hierbei um einen aktuellen Marketing-Trend handelt bzw. welche Mittel unternommen werden müssen, um Factory Outlet Stores nachhaltig zu etablieren. Hierzu werden Factory Outlet Stores aus der Marketing-Perspektive analysiert, bei de...

  1. Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weathersby, Stephen; /SLAC; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.

  2. Higher order mode damping in Kaon factory RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enegren, T.; Poirier, R.; Griffin, J.; Walling, L.; Thiessen, H.A.; Smythe, W.R.

    1989-05-01

    Proposed designs for Kaon factory accelerators require that the rf cavities support beam currents on the order of several amperes. The beam current has Fourier components at all multiples of the rf frequency. Empty rf buckets produce additional components at all multiples of the revolution frequency. If a Fourier component of the beam coincides with the resonant frequency of a higher order mode of the cavity, which is inevitable if the cavity has a large frequency swing, significant excitation of this mode can occur. The induced voltage may then excite coupled bunch mode instabilities. Effective means are required to damp higher order modes without significantly affecting the fundamental mode. A mode damping scheme based on coupled transmission lines has been investigated and is report

  3. Bunch-motion feedback for B-factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1992-09-01

    The colliding electron and positron beams in a B-factory must have average current of one ampere or more to produce the required luminosity. The high current interacts with structures in the beam tube to drive strong coupled-bunch (c.b.) instabilities. To suppress these instabilities requires negative feedback of the bunch motions. Beam impedances arising from strong rf cavity modes should first be reduced to make the required feedback damping rate practical and the cost economical. In what follows, control of transverse motions will be discussed first, then longitudinal. We shall use the parameters of the 3.1 GeV ring of PEP-II to illustrate the general requirements

  4. Six-Dimensional Beam Cooling in a Gas Absorber. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland P.; Derbenev, Yaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Six-Dimensional (6D) muon beam cooling using gaseous energy absorber and pressurized high-gradient RF was the subject of this Muons, Inc. SBIR grant with Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI), which began in July 2003 and ended in January 2007. A magnetic field configured such that higher energy muons have a longer path length can be used to generate the momentum-dependent energy loss needed for emittance exchange and six-dimensional beam cooling. In the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) developed in this project, helical dipole, helical quadrupole, and solenoidal magnets and the RF cavities in them are filled with dense hydrogen so that higher energy particles then have more ionization energy loss. The properties of the HCC were examined using analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The exceptional beam cooling of the HCC has been demonstrated for use in muon colliders, neutrino factories, and stopping muon beams for diverse purposes.

  5. Apiary B Factory lattice design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.

    1991-04-01

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab

  6. Hadronic research at kaon factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Future experiments in strong-interaction physics that are especially suited for kaon factories, such as the proposed LAMPF II, are discussed. The need to focus on the issue of confinement of light quarks (u,d,s) is stressed. Experiments to search for the H dibaryon and glueballs, as well as to pursue the sea-quark distribution in nuclei using the Drell-Yan process, are featured. A brief discussion of the LAMPF II facility and its costs is also presented

  7. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  8. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  9. Design and manufacture NCS instruments for cement factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Tuy; Nguyen Tien Dung; Dang Nguyet Anh; Nguyen Phuc; Khuong Thanh Tuan; Luong Duc Long; Pham Trong Quyen

    2003-01-01

    The ministry project 'Design and manufacture some of NCS instruments for cement factories' is a part of instrumentation for cement production in Vietnam. The objectives of the project include: 1/Design and manufacture the automatic control system for cement raw material mixing, connected to components X-ray analyzer through serial port of PC; 2/Design and manufacture the automatic discharge control system using gamma rays. The instruments, made by the project , for controlling the conveyor belt weighing machine can be easily improved for various types of conveyor belt weighing machines. Their mobility and software equipped can be adapted for requirement of modern cement production technology. The instruments are operating well in some cement factories and they are helping in quality control. (NHA)

  10. R and D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of muon beams to create either an intense source of decay neutrinos aimed at a detector located 3000-7500 km away (a Neutrino Factory), or a Muon Collider that produces high-luminosity collisions at the energy frontier. R and D aimed at producing these facilities has been under way for more than 10 years. This paper will review experimental results from MuCool, MERIT, and MICE and indicate the extent to which they will provide proof-of-principle demonstrations of the key technologies required for a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. Progress in constructing components for the MICE experiment will also be described.

  11. A large magnetic detector for the neutrino factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera, A.; Dydak, F.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physics opportunities of the neutrino factory have been the subject of a number of recent studies. It was shown that sensitive measurements of the angle θ 13 , of MSW effects, and of the sign of the atmospheric mass difference Δm 23 2 are possible, and even CP violation in the neutrino mixing matrix may be within reach. The focus of interest is the oscillation ν e →ν μ , which leads in the well-defined neutrino beam of the neutrino factory to 'wrong-sign' muon events. In this paper, we show that a large magnetic detector will be capable of detecting with high efficiency and small backgrounds such wrong-sign muon events. We present a conceptual design of the apparatus and its performance. Various backgrounds are analysed and we demonstrate that they can be sufficiently suppressed by appropriate cuts. We illustrate the performance of the large magnetic detector by its sensitivity to the angle θ 13

  12. Closed orbit distortion and the beam-beam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kozanecki, W. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B factory, PEP-II. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the IP, provide distinct coordinate- or frequency-space signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.

  13. Design of a plant factory suitable for Okinawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Ueno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A "Plant factory" is one of the advanced facilities for vegetable cultivation in an artificially controlled environment, i.e., temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentration are controlled. Recently, it has become popular in Japan, USA, China and others. However, there are some problems to overcome before they become widespread. A project to develop a specific plant factory called the "Okinawa-type plant factory" has been funded by the Okinawa Prefecture. It addresses the severe environmental and social conditions of Okinawa. The main goal of the project was to reduce energy consumption by 30%. To achieve this, three methods were investigated using solar energy and LED lamps, since this plant factory used artificial illumination. Forty foot reefer containers were employed for the cultivation room, and insulation panels were partially used. Solar energy was used for lighting and air-conditioning. Solar energy was converted to thermal energy for air-conditioning using heat collecting panels. Hot water of 75-85 oC obtained by the collector was used for adsorption refrigeration. Sunlight was introduced in the cultivation room from the skylight windows. DC to DC system was also employed for photovoltaic utilization. The use of solar energy and LED lamps are effective to reduce energy consumption. A 30% reduction in energy use was achieved.

  14. Ground-up circular Higgs Factory ring design and cell length optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Richard

    2017-02-01

    A “ground-up” Higgs Factory design methodology is described. For concreteness, numerical parameter choices are drawn primarily from CEPC, the Circular Electron Positron Collider. The goals are to find: (i) optimal parameters, (ii) improved understanding , (iii) a tentative lattice design. As illustration of the method, six chromaticity-corrected lattices, with cell lengths ranging from 45 m to 280 m, all with identical βy = 2 mm or βy = 10 mm intersection region optics, are designed and their properties compared. For simplicity only a single “toy ring,” circumference (76 km), with one interaction point, and a single beam energy (120 GeV) is considered. For the cell-length optimization a figure of merit FOM (essentially integrated luminosity) is maximized consistent with a dimensionless “fine tuning penalty function” or figure of demerit FOD not being allowed to exceed a conservatively chosen upper limit. The tentative recommendation from this investigation is that the optimal CEPC route is (except for obvious changes) to simply copy LEP: 80 m cell length and two-in-one single-ring operation. The main luminosity-increasing improvements are increased radius and power, top-off-full-energy-injection, noninterleaved sextupoles, more than 100 beam bunch operation, and improved intersection region design. Local chromaticity compensation (with its inevitable intense hard X-rays incident on the detectors) is found to be unnecessary. With these changes luminosity in excess of 1034cm-2s-1 is projected to be achievable.

  15. A Stationary Target for the CERN-Neutrino-Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Sievers, P

    2001-01-01

    As production target for Neutrino Factories,free mercury jets with high axial velocity of about 20 m /s are being studied.For the CERN-Neutrino- Factory proposal with a 4 MW beam power,but with a relatively large beam size at 2 .2 GeV /c and pulsed at 50 Hz ,maximum energy deposition densities of below 20 J /g and average power densities of about 1 kW /g are expected in the target.Therefore a study has been made which discusses the feasibility and limits of a stationary target.It is proposed to use densely packed solid spheres of heavy material and with diameters in the millimeter range.These spheres are con fined inside a Titanium container and cooled by an e fficient water circuit or possibly by He-gas.Dynamic response,as pressure pulses and vibrations are greatly reduced in the small target granules due to relatively long beam bursts,each with a duration of 3.3 s .The encouraging results achieved in this assessment justify to pursue further experimental tests,in particular of the cooling...

  16. A Stationary Target for the CERN-Neutrino-Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Sievers, P

    2001-01-01

    As production target for Neutron Factories, free mercury jets with high axial velocity of about 20 m/s are being studied. For the CERN-Neutrino-Factory proposal with a 4 MW beam power, but with a relatively large beam size at 2.2 GeV/c and pulsed at 75 Hz, maximum energy deposition densities of below 20 J/g and average power densities of about 1 kW/g are expected. Therefore a study has been made which discusses the feasibility and limits of a confined, stationary target cooled by a liquid. It is proposed to use solid spheres of high density material with diameters in the millimeter range. These spheres are confined inside a Titanium container and cooled by an efficient water circuit. Alternatively, low density liquid metal cooling could be used. Dynamic response, as pressure pulses and vibrations are greatly reduced by the small size of the target granules in combination with a relatively long beam pulse with a duration of 3.3 ms. The open issue of the lifetime of such as structure and its fatigue limit at...

  17. WE-G-BRF-05: Feasibility of Markerless Motion Tracking Using Dual Energy Cone Beam Computed Tomography (DE-CBCT) Projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfil, J; Patel, R; Surucu, M; Roeske, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare markerless template-based tracking of lung tumors using dual energy (DE) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections versus single energy (SE) CBCT projections. Methods: A RANDO chest phantom with a simulated tumor in the upper right lung was used to investigate the effectiveness of tumor tracking using DE and SE CBCT projections. Planar kV projections from CBCT acquisitions were captured at 60 kVp (4 mAs) and 120 kVp (1 mAs) using the Varian TrueBeam and non-commercial iTools Capture software. Projections were taken at approximately every 0.53° while the gantry rotated. Due to limitations of the phantom, angles for which the shoulders blocked the tumor were excluded from tracking analysis. DE images were constructed using a weighted logarithmic subtraction that removed bony anatomy while preserving soft tissue structures. The tumors were tracked separately on DE and SE (120 kVp) images using a template-based tracking algorithm. The tracking results were compared to ground truth coordinates designated by a physician. Matches with a distance of greater than 3 mm from ground truth were designated as failing to track. Results: 363 frames were analyzed. The algorithm successfully tracked the tumor on 89.8% (326/363) of DE frames compared to 54.3% (197/363) of SE frames (p<0.0001). Average distance between tracking and ground truth coordinates was 1.27 +/− 0.67 mm for DE versus 1.83+/−0.74 mm for SE (p<0.0001). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of markerless template-based tracking using DE CBCT. DE imaging resulted in better detectability with more accurate localization on average versus SE. Supported by a grant from Varian Medical Systems

  18. Eficiency factory - Quo Vadis? Brief study; Effizienzfabrik - Quo Vadis? Kurzstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Katharina; Kleine, Oliver; Hirzel, Simon; Rhode, Clemens

    2012-11-15

    The demand for an enhanced resource efficiency and energy efficiency in production arises not only from a purely economic perspective, but also from environmental and social reasons. Nevertheless, the issue of resource efficiency did not gain the necessary attention at the corporate level. In 2009, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) launched a program to develop resource-efficient production technologies in which 31 integrated research projects with the efficiency factory and a dedicated accompanying project are promoted immediately in order to improve the transfer of the results. The contribution under consideration reports on the performance of the efficiency factory as a transfer platform in the context of the funding priority and the research results achieved up to now.

  19. T10 Beam Studies & Beam Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Michael Georges; Van Dijk, Maarten; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In order to test detector components before their installation in actual experiments, one uses test beams in which one can control particle typ, momentum and size to high degree. For this project the focus of a secondary beam at T10 in the East Area at CERN was analysed using an AZALEA telescope from DESY.

  20. WQO is Decidable for Factorial Languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2017-08-08

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors, i.e. contiguous subwords. Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. We also discuss possible ways to extend our solution to permutations and graphs.

  1. Revisit of combined parallel-beam/cone-beam or fan-beam/cone-beam imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gengsheng L

    2013-10-01

    This aim of this paper is to revisit the parallel-beam/cone-beam or fan-beam/cone-beam imaging configuration, and to investigate whether this configuration has any advantages. Twenty years ago, it was suggested to simultaneously use a parallel-beam (or a fan-beam) collimator and a cone-beam collimator to acquire single photon emission computed tomography data. The motivation was that the parallel-beam (or the fan-beam) collimator can provide sufficient sampling, while the cone-beam collimator is able to provide higher photon counts. Even with higher total counts, this hybrid system does not give significant improvement (if any) in terms of image noise and artifacts reduction. If a conventional iterative maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization algorithm is used to reconstruct the image, the resultant reconstruction may be worse than the parallel-beam-only (or fan-beam-only) system. This paper uses the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis to explain this phenomenon. The SVD results indicate that the parallel-beam-only and the fan-beam-only system outperform the combined systems. The optimal imaging system does not necessary to be the one that generates the projections with highest signal-to-noise ratio and best resolution.

  2. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-06ER86281 Particle Tracking in Matter-Dominated Beam Lines (G4beamline)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muons, Inc.

    2011-05-19

    This project has been for software development of the G4beamline [1] program, which is a particle-tracking simulation program based on the Geant4 toolkit [2], optimized for beam lines. This program can perform more realistic simulations than most alternatives, while being significantly easier to use by physicists. This project has fostered the general acceptance of G4beamline within the muon community, and has assisted in expanding its role outside that community. During this project, the G4beamline user community has grown from about a half-dozen users to more than 200 users around the world. This project also validated our business decision to keep G4beamline an open-source program, judging that an STTR project would provide more development resources than would marketing and selling the program. G4beamline is freely available to the physics community, and has been well validated against experiments and other codes within its domain. Muons, Inc. continues to support and develop the program, and a major part of the company's continued success and growth is directly related to our expertise in applying this program to interesting applications.

  3. Performance of a liquid argon time projection chamber exposed to the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneodo, F.; Cavanna, F.; Mitri, I. De; Mortari, G. Piano; Benetti, P.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Calligarich, E.; Cesana, E.; Dolfini, R.; Mauri, F.; Montanari, C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rubbia, C.; Terrani, M.; Vignoli, C.; Bonesini, M.; Boschetti, B.; Cavalli, D.; Curioni, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of the first exposure of a Liquid Argon TPC to a multi-GeV neutrino beam. The data have been collected with a 50 liters ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF). We discuss both the instrumental performance of the detector and its capability to identify and reconstruct low-multiplicity neutrino interactions

  4. Electron beam bunch length characterizations using incoherent and coherent transition radiation on the APS SASE FEL project

    CERN Document Server

    Lumpkin, Alex H; Berg, W J; Lewellen, J W; Sereno, N S; Happek, U

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) injector linac has been reconfigured with a low-emittance RF thermionic gun and a photocathode (PC) RF gun to support self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) experiments. One of the most critical parameters for optimizing SASE performance (gain length) is the electron beam peak current, which requires a charge measurement and a bunch length measurement capability. We report here initial measurements of the latter using both incoherent optical transition radiation (OTR) and coherent transition radiation (CTR). A visible light Hamamatsu C5680 synchroscan streak camera was used to measure the thermionic RF gun beam's bunch length (sigma approx 2-3 ps) via OTR generated by the beam at 220 MeV and 200 mA macropulse average current. In addition, a CTR monitor (Michelson Interferometer) based on a Golay cell as the far-infrared (FIR) detector has been installed at the 40-MeV station in the beamline. Initial observations of CTR signal strength variation wi...

  5. Engineering the Polyketide Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Louise

    produced by plants, fungi and bacteria. However, the natural producers often do not achieve commercial titers of the polyketide therapeutic. Thus the natural production must be improved. This can be done by random mutagenesis or heterologous expression of the polyketide gene cluster resulting in production...... cerevisiae. Both organisms have well-known genetic tools available for gene targeting and heterologous expression. It has been the aim to create a stable expression platform with all genes integrated in the genome. This has been achieved through the use of two advanced genetic engineering systems for A...... phosphopantetheinylase (PPTase). This versatile vector system can easily be used for expression of other polyketides of interest as well as extended to express whole gene clusters. After achieving proof of principle in terms of expression, the polyketide cell factory must be optimized. The optimization can be achieved...

  6. Utilizing assumption for project of stand for solid state targets activation on inner beams of AIC-144 cyclotron; Zalozenia uzytkowe do projektu stanowiska do aktywacji tarcz w stanie stalym na wiazce wewnetrznej cyklotronu AIC-144

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petelenz, B. [The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    General assumptions for project of target activation stand at AIC-144 cyclotron are presented. The project predicts production of {sup 67}Ga, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 139}Ce, {sup 88}Y, {sup 123}I and {sup 211}At isotopes using various target backings. Directions concerning target cooling and beam parameters are also described 25 refs, 1 tab

  7. WE-EF-207-08: Improve Cone Beam CT Using a Synchronized Moving Grid, An Inter-Projection Sensor Fusion and a Probability Total Variation Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H; Kong, V; Jin, J; Ren, L; Zhang, Y; Giles, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system, which uses a synchronized moving grid (SMOG) to reduce and correct scatter, an inter-projection sensor fusion (IPSF) algorithm to estimate the missing information blocked by the grid, and a probability total variation (pTV) algorithm to reconstruct the CBCT image. Methods: A prototype SMOG-equipped CBCT system was developed, and was used to acquire gridded projections with complimentary grid patterns in two neighboring projections. Scatter was reduced by the grid, and the remaining scatter was corrected by measuring it under the grid. An IPSF algorithm was used to estimate the missing information in a projection from data in its 2 neighboring projections. Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm was used to reconstruct the initial CBCT image using projections after IPSF processing for pTV. A probability map was generated depending on the confidence of estimation in IPSF for the regions of missing data and penumbra. pTV was finally used to reconstruct the CBCT image for a Catphan, and was compared to conventional CBCT image without using SMOG, images without using IPSF (SMOG + FDK and SMOG + mask-TV), and image without using pTV (SMOG + IPSF + FDK). Results: The conventional CBCT without using SMOG shows apparent scatter-induced cup artifacts. The approaches with SMOG but without IPSF show severe (SMOG + FDK) or additional (SMOG + TV) artifacts, possibly due to using projections of missing data. The 2 approaches with SMOG + IPSF removes the cup artifacts, and the pTV approach is superior than the FDK by substantially reducing the noise. Using the SMOG also reduces half of the imaging dose. Conclusion: The proposed technique is promising in improving CBCT image quality while reducing imaging dose

  8. WE-EF-207-08: Improve Cone Beam CT Using a Synchronized Moving Grid, An Inter-Projection Sensor Fusion and a Probability Total Variation Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H; Kong, V; Jin, J [Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, Augusta, GA (Georgia); Ren, L; Zhang, Y; Giles, W [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To present a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system, which uses a synchronized moving grid (SMOG) to reduce and correct scatter, an inter-projection sensor fusion (IPSF) algorithm to estimate the missing information blocked by the grid, and a probability total variation (pTV) algorithm to reconstruct the CBCT image. Methods: A prototype SMOG-equipped CBCT system was developed, and was used to acquire gridded projections with complimentary grid patterns in two neighboring projections. Scatter was reduced by the grid, and the remaining scatter was corrected by measuring it under the grid. An IPSF algorithm was used to estimate the missing information in a projection from data in its 2 neighboring projections. Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm was used to reconstruct the initial CBCT image using projections after IPSF processing for pTV. A probability map was generated depending on the confidence of estimation in IPSF for the regions of missing data and penumbra. pTV was finally used to reconstruct the CBCT image for a Catphan, and was compared to conventional CBCT image without using SMOG, images without using IPSF (SMOG + FDK and SMOG + mask-TV), and image without using pTV (SMOG + IPSF + FDK). Results: The conventional CBCT without using SMOG shows apparent scatter-induced cup artifacts. The approaches with SMOG but without IPSF show severe (SMOG + FDK) or additional (SMOG + TV) artifacts, possibly due to using projections of missing data. The 2 approaches with SMOG + IPSF removes the cup artifacts, and the pTV approach is superior than the FDK by substantially reducing the noise. Using the SMOG also reduces half of the imaging dose. Conclusion: The proposed technique is promising in improving CBCT image quality while reducing imaging dose.

  9. Newly designed double surface bimorph mirror for BL-15A of the photon factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Noriyuki, E-mail: noriyuki.igarashi@kek.jp; Nitani, Hiroaki; Takeichi, Yasuo; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Abe, Hitoshi; Kimura, Masao; Mori, Takeharu; Nagatani, Yasuko; Kosuge, Takashi; Kamijo, Ai; Koyama, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobutaka [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ohta, Hiromasa [Mitsubishi Electric System & Service Co., Ltd. 20F Carrot Tower 4-1-1 Taishido, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8520 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    BL-15A is a new x-ray undulator beamline at the Photon Factory. It will be dedicated to two independent research activities, simultaneous XAFS/XRF/XRD experiments, and SAXS/WAXS/GI-SAXS studies. In order to supply a choice of micro-focus, low-divergence and collimated beams, a double surface bimorph mirror was recently developed. To achieve further mirror surface optimization, the pencil beam scanning method was applied for “in-situ” beam inspection and the Inverse Matrix method was used for determination of optimal voltages on the piezoelectric actuators. The corrected beam profiles at every focal spot gave good agreement with the theoretical values and the resultant beam performance is promising for both techniques. Quick and stable switching between highly focused and intense collimated beams was established using this new mirror with the simple motorized stages.

  10. Image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT: A sensitivity analysis of respiratory signal, binning method, reconstruction algorithm, and projection angular spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Kipritidis, John; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Keall, Paul J.; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory signal, binning method, and reconstruction algorithm are three major controllable factors affecting image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT), which is widely used in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Previous studies have investigated each of these factors individually, but no integrated sensitivity analysis has been performed. In addition, projection angular spacing is also a key factor in reconstruction, but how it affects image quality is not obvious. An investigation of the impacts of these four factors on image quality can help determine the most effective strategy in improving 4D-CBCT for IGRT. Methods: Fourteen 4D-CBCT patient projection datasets with various respiratory motion features were reconstructed with the following controllable factors: (i) respiratory signal (real-time position management, projection image intensity analysis, or fiducial marker tracking), (ii) binning method (phase, displacement, or equal-projection-density displacement binning), and (iii) reconstruction algorithm [Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK), McKinnon–Bates (MKB), or adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS)]. The image quality was quantified using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio, and edge-response width in order to assess noise/streaking and blur. The SNR values were also analyzed with respect to the maximum, mean, and root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) projection angular spacing to investigate how projection angular spacing affects image quality. Results: The choice of respiratory signals was found to have no significant impact on image quality. Displacement-based binning was found to be less prone to motion artifacts compared to phase binning in more than half of the cases, but was shown to suffer from large interbin image quality variation and large projection angular gaps. Both MKB and ASD-POCS resulted in noticeably improved image quality almost 100% of the time relative to FDK. In addition, SNR

  11. SU-D-12A-01: An Inter-Projection Interpolation (IPI) Approach for the Synchronized Moving Grid (SMOG) to Reduce Dose in Cone Beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H; Kong, V; Jin, J; Ren, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Synchronized moving grid is a promising technique to reduce scatter and ghost artifacts in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, it requires 2 projections in the same gantry angle to obtain full information due to signal blockage by the grid. We proposed an inter-projection interpolation (IPI) method to estimate blocked signals, which may reduce the scan time and the dose. This study aims to provide a framework to achieve a balance between speed, dose and image quality. Methods: The IPI method is based on the hypothesis that an abrupt signal in a projection can be well predicted by the information in the two immediate neighboring projections if the gantry angle step is small. The study was performed on a Catphan and a head phantom. The SMOG was simulated by erasing the information (filling with “0”) of the areas in each projection corresponding to the grid. An IPI algorithm was applied on each projection to recover the erased information. FDK algorithm was used to reconstruct CBCT images for the IPI-processed projections, and compared with the original image in term of signal to noise ratio (SNR) measured in the whole reconstruction image range. The effect of gantry angle step was investigated by comparing the CBCT images from projection sets of various gantry intervals, with IPI-predicted projections to fill the missing projection in the interval. Results: The IPI procession time was 1.79s±0.53s for each projection. SNR after IPI was 29.0db and 28.1db for the Catphan and head phantom, respectively, comparing to 15.3db and 22.7db for an inpainting based interpolation technique. SNR was 28.3, 28.3, 21.8, 19.3 and 17.3 db for gantry angle intervals of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 degrees, respectively. Conclusion: IPI is feasible to estimate the missing information, and achieve an reasonable CBCT image quality with reduced dose and scan time. This study is supported by NIH/NCI grant 1R01CA166948-01

  12. Environmental assessment for the proposed B-Factory (Asymmetric Electron Positron Collider)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document presents the potential environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of an Asymmetric Electron Positron Collider, also known as a B-Factory. DOE proposes to modify either the existing Positron-Electron Project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) or the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) at Cornell University. PEP and CESR provide the most technically promising and practical options for a B-Factory. A B-Factory can be constructed by modifying the existing facilities and with minor or no conventional construction. Details involved with the upgrade along with two alternatives to the proposed action are described.

  13. KEKB B-factory design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    KEKB is an asymmetric electron-positron collider at 8 x 3.5 GeV which aims at providing electron-positron collision at the center of mass energy of 10.58 GeV. Its mission is to support high energy physics research programs on CP violation and other topics in B-meson decay. Its luminosity goal is 10 34 /cm 2 s. As the construction of the KEKB was approved as a five-year project by the Japanese government, it was begun formally in April, 1994. The low energy ring LER for positrons at 3.5 GeV and the high energy ring HER for electrons at 8 GeV will be built side by side in the existing TRISTAN tunnel with 3 km circumference, and the maximum use of the infrastructure of TRISTAN will be made. The KEKB has only one interaction point in the Tsukuba experimental hall, and the BELLE detector will be installed in this interaction region. The layout of the two rings is explained. In this report, the basic design, hardware systems, the construction schedule, physics requirement, machine parameters, beam-beam interaction, RF parameters, impedance and collective effects, lattice design, interaction region, RF system, magnet system, vacuum system, beam instrumentation, injection and accelerator control system are described. (K.I.)

  14. A Tau-Charm Factory at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, K.K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is proposed that a Tau Charm Factory represents a natural extension of CEBAF into higher energy domains. The exciting nature of the physics of charm quarks and tau leptons is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that the concept of a linac-ring collider as a Tau Charm Factory at CEBAF should be seriously studied.

  15. Looking for Exotica at the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Gagan B.

    2007-01-25

    Current experiments at the B factories, designed to perform precision measurements of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the B meson system, have a much broader physics reach especially in the sector of quarkonium spectroscopy. Here we present a minireview on the new charmonium-like states observed at the B factories including the X(3872) and Y(4260).

  16. Interaction region considerations for a B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeStaebler, H.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of the project is to observe CP violation in the bar BB system. This machine is supposed to be a factory for high energy physics, not an R ampersand D project for accelerator physics. There are a number of interrelated design issues arising from the different desires of the detector and the machine, some of which are listed in this paper. A number of background and beampipe issues are mentioned. The emphasis is on calculations. Any satisfactory design will combine measurements on existing machines with calculations pertaining to the measurement conditions as well as to the proposed machine. 57 refs

  17. Physics and technology challenges of $B\\overline{B}$ factories

    CERN Document Server

    Zisman, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    An e+e− collider designed to serve as a B factory requires a luminosity of 3 x 1033 cm−2 s−1—a factor of 15 beyond that of the best present collider (the CESR ring)—and thus presents a considerable challenge to the accelerator builder. To optimize the experiment, it is necessary that the BB¯ system have a moving center-of-mass, which implies different energies for the two beams (hence an “asymmetric” collider). This feature dictates that a two-ring configuration be used. Accelerator physics issues that arise in such a design are related to the need to tightly focus the beams to a vertical beta function on the order of 1 cm, to bring the beams from two different rings into collision and then cleanly separate them again, and to mask the detector region sufficiently to permit measurements with very large beam currents passing through the interaction region. In addition, the process of optimizing the luminosity for asymmetric collisions breaks new ground. Because the luminosity is limited by the b...

  18. Creating reusable tools from scripts: the Galaxy Tool Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Ross; Kaspi, Antony; Ziemann, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Galaxy is a software application supporting high-throughput biology analyses and work flows, available as a free on-line service or as source code for local deployment. New tools can be written to extend Galaxy, and these can be shared using public Galaxy Tool Shed (GTS) repositories, but converting even simple scripts into tools requires effort from a skilled developer. The Tool Factory is a novel Galaxy tool that automates the generation of all code needed to execute user-supplied scripts, and wraps them into new Galaxy tools for upload to a GTS, ready for review and installation through the Galaxy administrative interface. The Galaxy administrative interface supports automated installation from the main GTS. Source code and support are available at the project website, https://bitbucket.org/fubar/galaxytoolfactory. The Tool Factory is implemented as an installable Galaxy tool. ross.lazarus@channing.harvard.edu.

  19. Software factory techniques applied to process control at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dutour, Mathias D

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires constant monitoring and control of quantities of parameters to guarantee operational conditions. For this purpose, a methodology called UNICOS (UNIfied Industrial COntrols Systems) has been implemented to standardize the design of process control applications. To further accelerate the development of these applications, we migrated our existing UNICOS tooling suite toward a software factory in charge of assembling project, domain and technical information seamlessly into deployable PLC (Programmable logic Controller) - SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. This software factory delivers consistently high quality by reducing human error and repetitive tasks, and adapts to user specifications in a cost-efficient way. Hence, this production tool is designed to encapsulate and hide the PLC and SCADA target platforms, enabling the experts to focus on the business model rather than specific syntaxes and grammars. Based on industry standard software, ...

  20. Software factory techniques applied to Process Control at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Dutour, MD

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires constant monitoring and control of quantities of parameters to guarantee operational conditions. For this purpose, a methodology called UNICOS (UNIfied Industrial COntrols Systems) has been implemented to standardize the design of process control applications. To further accelerate the development of these applications, we migrated our existing UNICOS tooling suite toward a software factory in charge of assembling project, domain and technical information seamlessly into deployable PLC (Programmable logic Controller) – SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. This software factory delivers consistently high quality by reducing human error and repetitive tasks, and adapts to user specifications in a cost-efficient way. Hence, this production tool is designed to encapsulate and hide the PLC and SCADA target platforms, enabling the experts to focus on the business model rather than specific syntaxes and grammars. Based on industry standard software...

  1. Integral logistics of the nuclear fuel Factory Juzbado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Logistic considers the complete process since the determination of possible demand, production planning, materials procurement, production control and delivery of final products to customer. This complete process is managed in all the scope under the same department called Planning and Logistic. This integration, some times really complex, has allowed to Enusa factory control all the key aspects that allow its running completely, considering the synergy's and important advantages to solve different problems. This article describes how we work of the main areas of procurement, production planning and control, fuel delivery and project planning of improvements on equipment's and factory systems, with an integrated management of all of them under the same direction. (Author)

  2. Prospects for high-power radioactive beam facilities worldwide

    CERN Document Server

    Nolen, Jerry A

    2003-01-01

    Advances in accelerators, targets, ion sources, and experimental instrumentation are making possible ever more powerful facilities for basic and applied research with short-lived radioactive isotopes. There are several current generation facilities, based on a variety of technologies, operating worldwide. These include, for example, those based on the in-flight method such as the recently upgraded National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University, the facility at RIKEN in Japan, GANIL in Caen, France, and GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. Present facilities based on the Isotope-Separator On-Line method include, for example, the ISOLDE laboratory at CERN, HRIBF at Oak Ridge, and the new high-power facility ISAC at TRIUMF in Vancouver. Next-generation facilities include the Radioactive-Ion Factory upgrade of RIKEN to higher energy and intensity and the upgrade of ISAC to a higher energy secondary beam; both of these projects are in progress. A new project, LINAG, to upgrade the capabilities at...

  3. Beam test results of STS prototype modules for the future accelerator experiments FAIR/CBM and NICA/MPD projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamov, Petr; Dementev, Dmitrii; Shitenkov, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    High-energy heavy-ion collision experiments provide the unique possibility to create and investigate extreme states of strongly-interacted matter and address the fundamental aspects of QCD. The experimental investigation the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. The reconstruction of the charged particles created in the nuclear collisions, including the determination of their momenta, is the central detection task in high-energy heavy-ion experiments. It is taken up by the Silicon Tracking System in CBM@FAIR and by Inner Tracker in MPD@NICA currently under development. These experiments requires very fast and radiation hard detectors, a novel data read-out and analysis concept including free streaming front-end electronics. Thermal and beam tests of prototype detector modules for these tracking systems showed the stability of sensors and readout electronics operation.

  4. Beam test results of STS prototype modules for the future accelerator experiments FAIR/CBM and NICA/MPD projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharlamov Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-energy heavy-ion collision experiments provide the unique possibility to create and investigate extreme states of strongly-interacted matter and address the fundamental aspects of QCD. The experimental investigation the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. The reconstruction of the charged particles created in the nuclear collisions, including the determination of their momenta, is the central detection task in high-energy heavy-ion experiments. It is taken up by the Silicon Tracking System in CBM@FAIR and by Inner Tracker in MPD@NICA currently under development. These experiments requires very fast and radiation hard detectors, a novel data read-out and analysis concept including free streaming front-end electronics. Thermal and beam tests of prototype detector modules for these tracking systems showed the stability of sensors and readout electronics operation.

  5. Study of device mass production capability of the character projection based electron beam direct writing process technology toward 14 nm node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Takakuwa, Masaki; Ohshio, Shuzo; Sugatani, Shinji; Tujimura, Ryo; Takita, Hiroshi; Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Ito, Yoshio; Miyajima, Masaaki; Kon, Jun-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Techniques to appropriately control the key factors for a character projection (CP) based electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology for mass production are shown and discussed. In order to achieve accurate CD control, the CP technique using the master CP is adopted. Another CP technique, the Packed CP, is used to obtain suitable shot count. For the alignment on the some critical layers which have the normally an even surface, the alignment methodology differ from photolithography is required. The process that etches the SiO2 material in the shallow trench isolation is added and then the alignment marks can be detected using electron beam even at the gate layer, which is normally on an even surface. The proximity effect correction using the simplified electron energy flux model and the hybrid exposure are used to obtain enough process margins. As a result, the sufficient CD accuracy, overlay accuracy, and yield are obtained on the 65 nm node device. The condition in our system is checked using self-diagnosis on a regular basis, and scheduled maintenances have been properly performed. Due to the proper system control, more than 10,000 production wafers have been successfully exposed so far without any major system downtime. It is shown that those techniques can be adapted to the 32 nm node production with slight modifications. For the 14 nm node and beyond, however, the drastic increment of the shot count becomes more of a concern. The Multi column cell (MCC) exposure method, the key concept of which is the parallelization of the electron beam columns with a CP, can overcome this concern. It is expected that by using the MCC exposure system, those techniques will be applicable to the rapid establishment for the 14 nm node technology.

  6. Factorial structure of aerobics athletes’ fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Shepelenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to develop an algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics and to define factorial structure of athletes’ fitness. Material : in the research sport aerobics’ athletes (n=19 participated. All athletes are members of Kharkiv national team (Ukraine. All athletes underwent complete medical examination. The functional condition of an organism (arterial blood pressure, indicators of a variability of the rhythm of the heart, treadbahn testing, psycho-physiological state (time’s determination of simple and complex reaction were defined. The physical development and physical fitness and stability of vestibular system were also defined. The factorial and cluster analysis were used. Results : The algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics is developed for performances in various competitive categories. The algorithm contains all stages of standard procedure of the factorial and cluster analysis. In the factorial analysis the individual factorial values were also defined. Conclusions : The obtained data are recommended to be used at teams’ formation for performances in various competitive categories: team formation for pair and group performances. The general and individual factorial structure of athletes’ complex fitness is defined. It is possible to select athletes with similar qualities and with different qualities for the mixed performances. The determination of individual factorial structure of fitness permits to estimate objectively variants of athletes’ formation in groups.

  7. Summary talk - an accelerator for other projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laclare, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, great consideration was given to the feasibility of a new generation of high intensity proton linear accelerators capable of delivering several tens of MW of beam power. Many scientific applications could benefit from such a development: 1) hybrid reactors and transmutation of nuclear waste, 2) muon and neutrino factories, 3) irradiation tools, 4) spallation neutron source for material studies, 5) radioactive nuclear beams, and 6) radioisotopes. Deciding on priorities is more difficult than in the past and competition is extremely strong. A possible solution could be to look for possible synergies between these projects and to develop multi-purpose facilities whenever the applications are compatible, so as to maximize scientific outcome while minimising costs. This paper intends to identify large similarities in terms of accelerator requirements and potential synergies for the 6 applications listed above

  8. Beaming teaching application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophon...

  9. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  10. Numerical study of a magnetically insulated front-end channel for a neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diktys Stratakis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A neutrino factory, which can deliver an intense flux of ∼10^{21} neutrinos per year from a multi-GeV stored muon beam, is seemingly the ideal tool for studying neutrino oscillations and CP violations for leptons. The front end of this facility plays a critical role in determining the number of muons that can be accepted by the downstream accelerators. Delivering peak performance requires transporting the muon beams through long sections of a beam channel containing high-gradient rf cavities and strong focusing solenoids. Here, we propose a novel scheme to improve the performance of the cavities, thereby increasing the number of muons within the acceptance of the accelerator chain. The key element of our new scheme is to apply a tangential magnetic field to the rf surfaces, thus forcing any field-emitted electrons to return to the surface before gaining enough energy to damage the cavity. We incorporate this idea into a new lattice design for a neutrino factory, and detail its performance numerically. Although our proposed front-end channel requires more rf power than conventional pillbox designs, it provides enough beam cooling and muon production to be a feasible option for a neutrino factory.

  11. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  12. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  13. Benthic carbonate factories of the Phanerozoic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlager, W.

    2003-01-01

    Marine carbonate precipitation occurs in three basic modes: abiotic (or quasi-abiotic), biotically induced, and biotically controlled. On a geologic scale, these precipitation modes combine to form three carbonate production systems, or "factories" in the benthic environment: (1) tropical

  14. Production of intense beams of highly charged heavy ions from RIKEN 18 GHz ECRIS and liquid He free SC-ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.; Kidera, M.; Kageyama, T.; Kase, M.; Yano, Y.; Higurashi, Y.; Kurita, T.; Imanaka, M.

    2001-01-01

    We have constructed the high performance ECRISs for RIKEN RI Beam factory project and successfully produced intense beams of highly charged heavy ions. RIKEN 18 GHz ECRIS can especially produce intense beams of medium charge states of heavy ions (1.3 mA of Ar 8+ , 200 eμA of Xe 20+ ) by applying the various techniques, e.g., Al cylinder method, biased electrode method, optimization of the plasma electrode position. Very recently, we successfully produced intense beams of highly charged heavy ions (10 eμA of Xe 30+ , 1 eμA of Xe 36+ ) from the Liquid He free SC-ECRIS with operational frequency of 14 GHz

  15. CrossRef Neutrino factories

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinos are produced by many processes in our universe. These elusive particles reach the earth having a certain energy permitting them to react with nuclei in detectors that are specifically designed to probe their properties. However, to get higher intensities and higher energy neutrinos for better statistics and better physics reach, the use of accelerators is necessary to advance in the field of neutrino research. To produce neutrinos with an accelerator, one needs to send a high power beam onto a target to get particles or isotopes that produce neutrinos with the required properties, by decay. The parent particles have to be collected and prepared for injection into an accelerating structure. Accelerator-based experiments can tune the energy of the produced neutrinos by boosting and controlling the energy of the parent particle. The produced neutrinos will travel the distance between the source and the detector, generally through earth; the distance the neutrino travels through earth, the energy of the...

  16. LAMPF II - also a hyperon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.

    1982-06-01

    The possibility of generating large numbers of hyperons via an intense 4.5 GeV/c K - beam at LAMPF II is explored. The advantage of using a K - beam over that of using a π beam is examined. Hyperon fluxes and backgrounds are estimated and compared with those available from existing hyperon beams. Production mechanisms are briefly discussed

  17. The physics of the B factories

    CERN Document Server

    Bevan, A J; Mannel, Th; Prell, S; Yabsley, B D; Abe, K; Aihara, H; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Aushev, T; Beneke, M; Beringer, J; Bianchi, F; Bigi, I I; Bona, M; Brambilla, N; Brodzicka, J; Chang, P; Charles, M J; Cheng, C H; Cheng, H -Y; Chistov, R; Colangelo, P; Coleman, J P; Drutskoy, A; Druzhinin, V P; Eidelman, S; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Faccini, R; Flood, K T; Gambino, P; Gaz, A; Gradl, W; Hayashii, H; Higuchi, T; Hulsbergen, W D; Hurth, T; Iijima, T; Itoh, R; Jackson, P D; Kass, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kou, E; Križan, P; Kronfeld, A; Kumano, S; Kwon, Y J; Latham, T E; Leith, D W G S; Lüth, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Meadows, B T; Mussa, R; Nakao, M; Nishida, S; Ocariz, J; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palano, A; Pich, A; Playfer, S; Poluektov, A; Porter, F C; Robertson, S H; Roney, J M; Roodman, A; Sakai, Y; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekula, S J; Steinhauser, M; Sumisawa, K; Swanson, E S; Tackmann, F; Trabelsi, K; Uehara, S; Uno, S; van der Water, R; Vasseur, G; Verkerke, W; Waldi, R; Wang, M Z; Wilson, F F; Zupan, J; Zupanc, A; Adachi, I; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Ben-Haim, E; Biassoni, P; Cahn, R N; Cartaro, C; Chauveau, J; Chen, C; Chiang, C C; Cowan, R; Dalseno, J; Davier, M; Davies, C; Dingfelder, J C; Echenard, B; Epifanov, D; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Gary, J W; Godang, R; Graham, M T; Hafner, A; Hamilton, B; Hartmann, T; Hayasaka, K; Hearty, C; Iwasaki, Y; Khodjamirian, A; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Lafferty, G D; Lazzaro, A; Li, J; Lindemann, D; Long, O; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinelli, M; Miyabayashi, K; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Muller, D R; Nakazawa, H; Ongmongkolkul, P; Pacetti, S; Palombo, F; Pedlar, T K; Piilonen, L E; Pilloni, A; Poireau, V; Prothmann, K; Pulliam, T; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roudeau, P; Schrenk, S; Schroeder, T; Schubert, K R; Shen, C P; Shwartz, B; Soffer, A; Solodov, E P; Somov, A; Starič, M; Stracka, S; Telnov, A V; Todyshev, K Yu; Tsuboyama, T; Uglov, T; Vinokurova, A; Walsh, J J; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Ye, S; Zhang, C C; Abachi, S; Abashian, A; Abe, N; Abe, R; Abe, T; Abrams, G S; Adam, I; Adamczyk, K; Adametz, A; Adye, T; Agarwal, A; Ahmed, H; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Ahn, B S; Ahn, H S; Aitchison, I J R; Akai, K; Akar, S; Akatsu, M; Akemoto, M; Akhmetshin, R; Akre, R; Alam, M S; Albert, J N; Aleksan, R; Alexander, J P; Alimonti, G; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Alsmiller, J R G; Altenburg, D; Alwyn, K E; An, Q; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, D; Andreotti, M; Andress, J C; Angelini, C; Anipko, D; Anjomshoaa, A; Anthony, P L; Antillon, E A; Antonioli, E; Aoki, K; Arguin, J F; A, K; Arisaka, K; Asai, K; Asai, M; Asano, Y; Asgeirsson, D J; Asner, D M; Aso, T; Aspinwall, M L; Aston, D; Atmacan, H; Aubert, B; Aulchenko, V; Ayad, R; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Azzolini, V; Azzopardi, D E; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Bagnasco, S; Bahinipati, S; Bailey, D S; Bailey, S; Bailly, P; van Bakel, N; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Balagura, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Banas, E; Band, H R; Banerjee, S; Baracchini, E; Barate, R; Barberio, E; Barbero, M; Bard, D J; Barillari, T; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartel, W; Bartelt, J; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bay, A; Beaulieu, M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Becker, J; Becla, J; Bedny, I; Behari, S; Behera, P K; Behn, E; Behr, L; Beigbeder, C; Beiline, D; Bell, R; Bellini, F; Bellis, M; Bellodi, G; Belous, K; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Benitez, J F; Benkebil, M; Berger, N; Bernabeu, J; Bernard, D; Bernet, R; Bernlochner, F U; Berryhill, J W; Bertsche, K; Besson, P; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bhardwaj, V; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Biagini, M E; Biasini, M; van Bibber, K; Biesiada, J; Bingham, I; Bionta, R M; Bischofberger, M; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Blouw, J; Bly, M; Blyth, S; Boeheim, C T; Bomben, M; Bondar, A; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bonvicini, G; Booke, M; Booth, J; Borean, C; Borgland, A W; Borsato, E; Bosi, F; Bosisio, L; Botov, A A; Bougher, J; Bouldin, K; Bourgeois, P; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyce, R F; Boyd, J T; Bozek, A; Bozzi, C; Bračko, M; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, B; Brau, J; Breon, A B; Breton, D; Brew, C; Briand, H; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigljević, V; Britton, D I; Brochard, F; Broomer, B; Brose, J; Browder, T E; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Browne, M; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmueller, O L; Bünger, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Bulten, H; Burchat, P R; Burgess, W; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzykaev, A R; Buzzo, A; Cai, Y; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Camanzi, B; Campagna, E; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carassiti, V; Carpinelli, M; Carroll, M; Casarosa, G; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castelli, G; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cecchi, A; Cenci, R; Cerizza, G; Cervelli, A; Ceseracciu, A; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chang, M C; Chang, Y H; Chang, Y W; Chao, D S; Chao, M; Chao, Y; Charles, E; Chavez, C A; Cheaib, R; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, E; Chen, G P; Chen, H F; Chen, J -H; Chen, J C; Chen, K F; Chen, P; Chen, S; Chen, W T; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y Q; Cheng, B; Cheon, B G; Chevalier, N; Chia, Y M; Chidzik, S; Chilikin, K; Chistiakova, M V; Cizeron, R; Cho, I S; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, H H F; Choi, K S; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Christ, S; Chu, P H; Chun, S; Chuvikov, A; Cibinetto, G; Cinabro, D; Clark, A R; Clark, P J; Clarke, C K; Claus, R; Claxton, B; Clifton, Z C; Cochran, J; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cohn, H; Colberg, T; Cole, S; Colecchia, F; Condurache, C; Contri, R; Convert, P; Convery, M R; Cooke, P; Copty, N; Cormack, C M; Corso, F Dal; Corwin, L A; Cossutti, F; Cote, D; Ramusino, A Cotta; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Coupal, D P; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Craddock, W W; Crane, G; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Crescente, A; Cristinziani, M; Crnkovic, J; Crosetti, G; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Cunha, A; Curry, S; D'Orazio, A; Dû, S; Dahlinger, G; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Danilov, M; Das, A; Dash, M; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Daudo, F; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davis, C L; Day, C T; De Mori, F; De Domenico, G; De Groot, N; De la Vaissière, C; de la Vaissière, Ch; de Lesquen, A; De Nardo, G; de Sangro, R; De Silva, A; DeBarger, S; Decker, F J; Sanchez, P del Amo; Del Buono, L; Del Gamba, V; del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Denig, A G; Derkach, D; Derrington, I M; DeStaebler, H; Destree, J; Devmal, S; Dey, B; Di Girolamo, B; Di Marco, E; Dickopp, M; Dima, M O; Dittrich, S; Dittongo, S; Dixon, P; Dneprovsky, L; Dohou, F; Doi, Y; Doležal, Z; Doll, D A; Donald, M; Dong, L; Dong, L Y; Dorfan, J; Dorigo, A; Dorsten, M P; Dowd, R; Dowdell, J; Drásal, Z; Dragic, J; Drummond, B W; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dubrovin, M S; Duh, Y C; Duh, Y T; Dujmic, D; Dungel, W; Dunwoodie, W; Dutta, D; Dvoretskii, A; Dyce, N; Ebert, M; Eckhart, E A; Ecklund, S; Eckmann, R; Eckstein, P; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Enari, Y; Enomoto, R; Erdos, E; Erickson, R; Ernst, J A; Erwin, R J; Escalier, M; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Esen, S; Esteve, L; Evangelisti, F; Everton, C W; Eyges, V; Fabby, C; Fabozzi, F; Fahey, S; Falbo, M; Fan, S; Fang, F; Fanin, C; Farbin, A; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Fella, A; Feltresi, E; Ferber, T; Fernholz, R E; Ferrag, S; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Filippi, A; Finocchiaro, G; Fioravanti, E; da Costa, J Firmino; Fischer, P -A; Fisher, A; Fisher, P H; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Flanagan, J; Flanigan, J M; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, A C; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foster, B; Foulkes, S D; Fouque, G; Fox, J; Franchini, P; Sevilla, M Franco; Franek, B; Frank, E D; Fransham, K B; Fratina, S; Fratini, K; Frey, A; Frey, R; Friedl, M; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Fujita, Y; Fujiyama, Y; Fukunaga, C; Fukushima, M; Fullwood, J; Funahashi, Y; Funakoshi, Y; Furano, F; Furman, M; Furukawa, K; Futterschneider, H; Gabathuler, E; Gabriel, T A; Gabyshev, N; Gaede, F; Gagliardi, N; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J -M; Gaillard, J R; Galagedera, S; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Gandini, P; Ganguly, S; Ganzhur, S F; Gao, Y Y; Gaponenko, I; Garmash, A; Tico, J Garra; Garzia, I; Gaspero, M; Gastaldi, F; Gatto, C; Gaur, V; Geddes, N I; Geld, T L; Genat, J -F; George, K A; George, M; George, S; Georgette, Z; Gershon, T J; Gill, M S; Gillard, R; Gilman, J D; Giordano, F; Giorgi, M A; Giraud, P -F; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Glattauer, R; Go, A; Goetzen, K; Goh, Y M; Gokhroo, G; Goldenzweig, P; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gordon, A; Gorišek, A; Goriletsky, V I; Gorodeisky, R; Gosset, L; Gotow, K; Gowdy, S J; Graffin, P; Grancagnolo, S; Grauges, E; Graziani, G; Green, M G; Greene, M G; Grenier, G J; Grenier, P; Griessinger, K; Grillo, A A; Grinyov, B V; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Grosso, P; Grothe, M; Groysman, Y; Grünberg, O; Guido, E; Guler, H; Gunawardane, N J W; Guo, Q H; Guo, R S; Guo, Z J; Guttman, N; Ha, H; Ha, H C; Haas, T; Haba, J; Hachtel, J; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Hagner, C; Haire, M; Haitani, F; Haji, T; Haller, G; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamasaki, H; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Hamilton, J; Hamilton, R; Hamon, O; Han, B Y; Han, Y L; Hanada, H; Hanagaki, K; Handa, F; Hanson, J E; Hanushevsky, A; Hara, K; Hara, T; Harada, Y; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Harrop, B; Hart, A J; Hart, P A; Hartfiel, B L; Harton, J L; Haruyama, T; Hasan, A; Hasegawa, Y; Hast, C; Hastings, N C; Hasuko, K; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hayashi, K; Hazumi, M; Hee, C; Heenan, E M; Heffernan, D; Held, T; Henderson, R; Henderson, S W; Hertzbach, S S; Hervé, S; Heß, M; Heusch, C A; Hicheur, A; Higashi, Y; Higasino, Y; Higuchi, I; Hikita, S; Hill, E J; Himel, T; Hinz, L; Hirai, T; Hirano, H; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hitomi, N; Hodgkinson, M C; Höcker, A; Hoi, C T; Hojo, T; Hokuue, T; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hooberman, B; Hopkins, D A; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hryn'ova, T; Hsiung, Y B; Hsu, C L; Hsu, S C; Hu, H; Hu, T; Huang, H C; Huang, T J; Huang, Y C; Huard, Z; Huffer, M E; Hufnagel, D; Hung, T; Hutchcroft, D E; Hyun, H J; Ichizawa, S; Igaki, T; Igarashi, A; Igarashi, S; Igarashi, Y; Igonkina, O; Ikado, K; Ikeda, H; Ikeda, K; Ilic, J; Inami, K; Innes, W R; Inoue, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itagaki, K; Itami, S; Itoh, K; Ivanchenko, V N; Iverson, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwai, G; Iwai, M; Iwaida, S; Iwamoto, M; Iwasaki, H; Iwasaki, M; Iwashita, T; Izen, J M; Jackson, D J; Jackson, F; Jackson, G; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jacoby, C; Jaegle, I; Jain, V; Jalocha, P; Jang, H K; Jasper, H; Jawahery, A; Jayatilleke, S; Jen, C M; Jensen, F; Jessop, C P; Ji, X B; John, M J J; Johnson, D R; Johnson, J R; Jolly, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Joshi, N; Joshi, N J; Judd, D; Julius, T; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J A; Kagan, H; Kagan, R; Kah, D H; Kaiser, S; Kaji, H; Kajiwara, S; Kakuno, H; Kameshima, T; Kaminski, J; Kamitani, T; Kaneko, J; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kani, T; Kapusta, P; Karbach, T M; Karolak, M; Karyotakis, Y; Kasami, K; Katano, G; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kato, E; Kato, Y; Kawai, H; Kawai, M; Kawamura, N; Kawasaki, T; Kay, J; Kay, M; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kent, N; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Khan, H R; Kharakh, D; Kibayashi, A; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kikuchi, M; Kikutani, E; Kim, B H; Kim, C H; Kim, D W; Kim, H; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, H W; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, P; Kim, S K; Kim, S M; Kim, T H; Kim, Y I; Kim, Y J; King, G J; Kinoshita, K; Kirk, A; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Klemetti, M; Klose, V; Klucar, J; Knecht, N S; Knoepfel, K J; Knowles, D J; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, N; Kobayashi, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M J; Koblitz, S; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Kodyš, P; Koeneke, K; Kofler, R; Koike, S; Koishi, S; Koiso, H; Kolb, J A; Kolya, S D; Kondo, Y; Konishi, H; Koppenburg, P; Koptchev, V B; Kordich, T M B; Korol, A A; Korotushenko, K; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R; Kozakai, Y; Kozanecki, W; Kral, J F; Krasnykh, A; Krause, R; Kravchenko, E A; Krebs, J; Kreisel, A; Kreps, M; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroeger, W; Krokovny, P; Kronenbitter, B; Kroseberg, J; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kukartsev, G; Kulasiri, R; Kulikov, A; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Kumita, T; Kuniya, T; Kunze, M; Kuo, C C; Kuo, T -L; Kurashiro, H; Kurihara, E; Kurita, N; Kuroki, Y; Kurup, A; Kutter, P E; Kuznetsova, N; Kvasnička, P; Kyberd, P; Kyeong, S H; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lamanna, E; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Landi, L; Lang, M I; Lange, D J; Lange, J S; Langenegger, U; Langer, M; Lankford, A J; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lavin, D R; Layter, J; Lebbolo, H; LeClerc, C; Leddig, T; Leder, G; Diberder, F Le; Lee, C L; Lee, J; Lee, J S; Lee, M C; Lee, M H; Lee, M J; Lee, S -J; Lee, S E; Lee, S H; Lee, Y J; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leitgab, M; Leitner, R; Leonardi, E; Leonidopoulos, C; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, Ph; Lesiak, T; Levi, M E; Levy, S L; Lewandowski, B; Lewczuk, M J; Lewis, P; Li, H; Li, H B; Li, S; Li, X; Li, Y; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Lidbury, J; Lillard, V; Lim, C L; Limosani, A; Lin, C S; Lin, J Y; Lin, S W; Lin, Y S; Lindquist, B; Lindsay, C; Lista, L; Liu, C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, R; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Vetere, M Lo; Locke, C B; Lockman, W S; Di Lodovico, F; Lombardo, V; London, G W; Pegna, D Lopes; Lopez, L; Lopez-March, N; Lory, J; LoSecco, J M; Lou, X C; Louvot, R; Lu, A; Lu, C; Lu, M; Lu, R S; Lueck, T; Luitz, S; Lukin, P; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lutz, A M; Lutz, O; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lyon, A J; Lyubinsky, V R; MacFarlane, D B; Mackay, C; MacNaughton, J; Macri, M M; Madani, S; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Majumder, G; Makida, Y; Malaescu, B; Malaguti, R; Malclès, J; Mallik, U; Maly, E; Mamada, H; Manabe, A; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M; Mandl, F; Manfredi, P F; Mangeol, D J J; Manoni, E; Mao, Z P; Margoni, M; Marker, C E; Markey, G; Marks, J; Marlow, D; Marques, V; Marsiske, H; Martellotti, S; Martin, E C; Martin, J P; Martin, L; Martinez, A J; Marzolla, M; Mass, A; Masuzawa, M; Mathieu, A; Matricon, P; Matsubara, T; Matsuda, T; Matsumoto, H; Matsumoto, S; Matsumoto, T; Matsuo, H; Mattison, T S; Matvienko, D; Matyja, A; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McCulloch, M; McDonald, J; McFall, J D; McGrath, P; McKemey, A K; McKenna, J A; Mclachlin, S E; McMahon, S; McMahon, T R; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Melen, R; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Menke, S; Merchant, A M; Merkel, J; Messner, R; Metcalfe, S; Metzler, S; Meyer, N T; Meyer, T I; Meyer, W T; Michael, A K; Michelon, G; Michizono, S; Micout, P; Miftakov, V; Mihalyi, A; Mikami, Y; Milanes, D A; Milek, M; Mimashi, T; Minamora, J S; Mindas, C; Minutoli, S; Mir, L M; Mishra, K; Mitaroff, W; Miyake, H; Miyashita, T S; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Moffitt, L C; Mohapatra, A; Mohapatra, A K; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Moloney, G R; Mols, J P; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Moorhead, G F; de Freitas, P Mora; Morandin, M; Morgan, N; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Mori, S; Mori, T; Morii, M; Morris, J P; Morsani, F; Morton, G W; Moss, L J; Mouly, J P; Mount, R; Mueller, J; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Mugge, M; Muheim, F; Muir, A; Mullin, E; Munerato, M; Murakami, A; Murakami, T; Muramatsu, N; Musico, P; Nagai, I; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nagashima, Y; Nagayama, S; Nagel, M; Naisbit, M T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahama, Y; Nakajima, M; Nakajima, T; Nakamura, I; Nakamura, T; Nakamura, T T; Nakano, E; Nakayama, H; Nam, J W; Narita, S; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Natkaniec, Z; Nauenberg, U; Nayak, M; Neal, H; Nedelkovska, E; Negrini, M; Neichi, K; Nelson, D; Nelson, S; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Neubauer, S; Newman-Coburn, D; Ng, C; Nguyen, X; Nicholson, H; Niebuhr, C; Nief, J Y; Niiyama, M; Nikolich, M B; Nisar, N K; Nishimura, K; Nishio, Y; Nitoh, O; Nogowski, R; Noguchi, S; Nomura, T; Nordby, M; Nosochkov, Y; Novokhatski, A; Nozaki, S; Nozaki, T; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; O'Neale, S W; O'Neill, F G; Oberhof, B; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, K; Ogawa, S; Ogawa, Y; Ohkubo, R; Ohmi, K; Ohnishi, Y; Ohno, F; Ohshima, T; Ohshima, Y; Ohuchi, N; Oide, K; Oishi, N; Okabe, T; Okazaki, N; Okazaki, T; Okuno, S; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olley, P; Olsen, J; Ono, S; Onorato, G; Onuchin, A P; Onuki, Y; Ooba, T; Orimoto, T J; Oshima, T; Osipenkov, I L; Ostrowicz, W; Oswald, C; Otto, S; Oyang, J; Oyanguren, A; Ozaki, H; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Padoan, C; Paick, K; Palka, H; Pan, B; Pan, Y; Vazquez, W Panduro; Panetta, J; Panova, A I; Panvini, R S; Panzenböck, E; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Paramesvaran, S; Park, C S; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, H K; Park, K S; Park, W; Parry, R J; Parslow, N; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Pavel, T; Pavlovich, J; Payne, D J; Peak, L S; Peimer, D R; Pelizaeus, M; Pellegrini, R; Pelliccioni, M; Peng, C C; Peng, J C; Peng, K C; Peng, T; Penichot, Y; Pennazzi, S; Pennington, M R; Penny, R C; Penzkofer, A; Perazzo, A; Perez, A; Perl, M; Pernicka, M; Perroud, J -P; Peruzzi, I M; Pestotnik, R; Peters, K; Peters, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petigura, E; Petrak, S; Petrella, A; Petrič, M; Petzold, A; Pia, M G; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Piemontese, M; Pierini, M; Pierson, S; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Pivk, M; Plaszczynski, S; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Potter, R J L; Prasad, V; Prebys, E; Prencipe, E; Prendki, J; Prepost, R; Prest, M; Prim, M; Pripstein, M; Prudent, X; Pruvot, S; Puccio, E M T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Quinn, H; Raaf, J; Rabberman, R; Raffaelli, F; Ragghianti, G; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rahmat, R; Rakitin, A Y; Randle-Conde, A; Rankin, P; Rashevskaya, I; Ratkovsky, S; Raven, G; Re, V; Reep, M; Regensburger, J J; Reidy, J; Reif, R; Reisert, B; Renard, C; Renga, F; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Ritter, M; Rivetta, C; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Robertson, A I; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Rodriguez, D M; Rodriguez, J L; Rodriguez, R; Roe, N A; Röhrken, M; Roethel, W; Rolquin, J; Romanov, L; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Rong, G; Ronga, F J; Roos, L; Root, N; Rosen, M; Rosenberg, E I; Rossi, A; Rostomyan, A; Rotondo, M; Roussot, E; Roy, J; Rozanska, M; Rozen, Y; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Ruland, A M; Rybicki, K; Ryd, A; Ryu, S; Ryuko, J; Sabik, S; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Tehrani, F Safai; Sagawa, H; Sahoo, H; Sahu, S; Saigo, M; Saito, T; Saitoh, S; Sakai, K; Sakamoto, H; Sakaue, H; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvati, E; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Sanders, P; Sandilya, S; Sandrelli, F; Sands, W; Sands, W R; Sanpei, M; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Santoro, V; Santroni, A; Sanuki, T; Sarangi, T R; Saremi, S; Sarti, A; Sasaki, T; Sasao, N; Satapathy, M; Sato, Nobuhiko; Sato, Noriaki; Sato, Y; Satoyama, N; Satpathy, A; Savinov, V; Savvas, N; Saxton, O H; Sayeed, K; Schaffner, S F; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schieck, J R; Schietinger, T; Schilling, C J; Schindler, R H; Schmid, S; Schmitz, R E; Schmuecker, H; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schönmeier, P; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schröder, H; Schram, M; Schubert, J; Schümann, J; Schultz, J; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwanke, U; Schwarz, H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Scott, I J; Seeman, J; Seiden, A; Seitz, R; Seki, T; Sekiya, A I; Semenov, S; Semmler, D; Sen, S; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Serbo, V V; Serednyakov, S I; Serfass, B; Serra, M; Serrano, J; Settai, Y; Seuster, R; Sevior, M E; Shakhova, K V; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Sharma, V; Shebalin, V; Shelkov, V G; Shen, B C; Shen, D Z; Shen, Y T; Sherwood, D J; Shibata, T; Shibata, T A; Shibuya, H; Shidara, T; Shimada, K; Shimoyama, M; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J G; Shorthouse, H W; Shpilinskaya, L I; Sibidanov, A; Sicard, E; Sidorov, A; Sidorov, V; Siegle, V; Sigamani, M; Simani, M C; Simard, M; Simi, G; Simon, F; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Singh, H; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Sitt, S; Skovpen, Yu I; Sloane, R J; Smerkol, P; Smith, A J S; Smith, D; Smith, D S; Smith, J G; Smol, A; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; So, R Y; Sobie, R J; Soderstrom, E; Soha, A; Sohn, Y S; Sokoloff, M D; Sokolov, A; Solagna, P; Solovieva, E; Soni, N; Sonnek, P; Sordini, V; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spencer, E; Speziali, V; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Staengle, H; Stamen, R; Stanek, M; Stanič, S; Stark, J; Steder, M; Steininger, H; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stevanato, E; Stocchi, A; Stock, R; Stoeck, H; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strother, P; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stypula, J; Su, D; Suda, R; Sugahara, R; Sugi, A; Sugimura, T; Sugiyama, A; Suitoh, S; Sullivan, M K; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Summers, D J; Sun, L; Sun, S; Sundermann, J E; Sung, H F; Susaki, Y; Sutcliffe, P; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, J; Suzuki, J I; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Swain, J E; Swain, S K; T'Jampens, S; Tabata, M; Tackmann, K; Tajima, H; Tajima, O; Takahashi, K; Takahashi, S; Takahashi, T; Takasaki, F; Takayama, T; Takita, M; Tamai, K; Tamponi, U; Tamura, N; Tan, N; Tan, P; Tanabe, K; Tanabe, T; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Taniguchi, N; Taras, P; Tasneem, N; Tatishvili, G; Tatomi, T; Tawada, M; Taylor, F; Taylor, G N; Taylor, G P; Telnov, V I; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonyan, R; Teramoto, Y; Teytelman, D; Thérin, G; Thiebaux, Ch; Thiessen, D; Thomas, E W; Thompson, J M; Thorne, F; Tian, X C; Tibbetts, M; Tikhomirov, I; Tinslay, J S; Tiozzo, G; Tisserand, V; Tocut, V; Toki, W H; Tomassini, E W; Tomoto, M; Tomura, T; Torassa, E; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Toussaint, J C; Tovey, S N; Trapani, P P; Treadwell, E; Triggiani, G; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trischuk, W; Troost, D; Trunov, A; Tsai, K L; Tsai, Y T; Tsujita, Y; Tsukada, K; Tsukamoto, T; Tuggle, J M; Tumanov, A; Tung, Y W; Turnbull, L; Turner, J; Turri, M; Uchida, K; Uchida, M; Uchida, Y; Ueki, M; Ueno, K; Ujiie, N; Ulmer, K A; Unno, Y; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Usseglio, M; Usuki, Y; Uwer, U; Va'vra, J; Vahsen, S E; Vaitsas, G; Valassi, A; Vallazza, E; Vallereau, A; Vanhoefer, P; van Hoek, W C; Van Hulse, C; van Winkle, D; Varner, G; Varnes, E W; Varvell, K E; Vasileiadis, G; Velikzhanin, Y S; Verderi, M; Versillé, S; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Vidal, P B; Villa, S; Villanueva-Perez, P; Vinograd, E L; Vitale, L; Vitug, G M; Voß, C; Voci, C; Voena, C; Volk, A; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Vorobyev, V; Vossen, A; Vuagnin, G; Vuosalo, C O; Wacker, K; Wagner, A P; Wagner, D L; Wagner, G; Wagner, M N; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Walker, D; Walkowiak, W; Wallom, D; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, J G; Wang, K; Wang, L; Wang, L L; Wang, P; Wang, T J; Wang, W F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y F; Wappler, F R; Watanabe, M; Watson, A T; Watson, J E; Watson, N K; Watt, M; Weatherall, J H; Weaver, M; Weber, T; Wedd, R; Wei, J T; Weidemann, A W; W, A J R; Wenzel, W A; West, C A; West, C G; West, T J; White, R M; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Wienands, U; Wilden, L; Wilder, M; Williams, D C; Williams, G; Williams, J C; Williams, K M; Williams, M I; Willocq, S Y; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Winter, M A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wittlin, J; Wittmer, W; Wixted, R; Woch, A; Wogsland, B J; Wong, Q K; Wray, B C; Wren, A C; Wright, D M; Wu, C H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Wulsin, H W; Xella, S M; Xie, Q L; Xie, Y; Xu, Z Z; Yèche, Ch; Yamada, Y; Yamaga, M; Yamaguchi, A; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, N; Yamamoto, R K; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamaoka, H; Yamaoka, J; Yamaoka, Y; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yan, D S; Yan, Y; Yanai, H; Yanaka, S; Yang, H; Yang, R; Yang, S; Yarritu, A K; Yashchenko, S; Yashima, J; Yasin, Z; Yasu, Y; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Yi, M; Yin, Z W; Ying, J; Yocky, G; Yokoyama, K; Yokoyama, M; Yokoyama, T; Yoshida, K; Yoshida, M; Yoshimura, Y; Young, C C; Yu, C X; Yu, Z; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Yumiceva, F X; Yusa, Y; Yushkov, A N; Yuta, H; Zacek, V; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zambito, S; Zander, D; Zang, S L; Zanin, D; Zaslavsky, B G; Zeng, Q L; Zghiche, A; Zhang, B; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, L M; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, H W; Zhao, M; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, Y; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhou, P; Zhu, R Y; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z M; Zhulanov, V; Ziegler, T; Ziegler, V; Zioulas, G; Zisman, M; Zito, M; Zürcher, D; Zwahlen, N; Zyukova, O; Živko, T; Žontar, D; Bevan, Adrian; Golob, Bostjan; Mannel, Thomas; Prell, Soeren; Yabsley, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.

  18. Recent progress in neutrino factory and muon collider research within the muon collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsharo'a, Mohammad M.; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Atac, Muzaffer; Autin, Bruno R.; Balbekov, Valeri I.; Barger, Vernon D.; Benary, Odette; Bennett, J. Roger J.; Berger, Michael S.; Berg, J. Scott; Berz, Martin; Black, Edgar L.; Blondel, Alain; Bogacz, S. Alex; Bonesini, M.; Bracker, Stephen B.; Bross, Alan D.; Bruno, Luca; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Caldwell, Allen C.; Companelli, Mario; Cassel, Kevin W.; Catanesi, M. Gabriela; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; Chou, Weiren; Cline, David B.; Coney, Linda R.; Conrad, Janet M.; Corlett, John N.; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cummings, Mary Anne; Darve, Christine; DeJongh, Fritz; Drozhdin, Alexandr; Drumm, Paul; Elvira, V. Daniel; Errede, Deborah; Fabich, Adrian; Fawley, William M.; Fernow, Richard C.; Ferrario, Massimo; Finley, David A.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Fukui, Yasuo; Furman, Miguel A.; Gabriel, Tony A.; Galea, Raphael; Gallardo, Juan C.; Garoby, Roland; Garren, Alper A.; Geer, Stephen H.; Gilardoni, Simone; Van Ginneken, Andreas J.; Ginzburg, Ilya F.; Godang, Romulus; Goodman, Maury; Gosz, Michael R.; Green, Michael A.; Gruber, Peter; Gunion, John F.; Gupta, Ramesh; Haines, John R.; Hanke, Klaus; Hanson, Gail G.; Han, Tao; Haney, Michael; Hartill, Don; Hartline, Robert E.; Haseroth, Helmut D.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Hoffman, Kara; Holtkamp, Norbert; Holzer, E. Barbara; Johnson, Colin; Johnson, Rolland P.; Johnstone, Carol; Jungmann, Klaus; Kahn, Stephen A.; Kaplan, Daniel M.; Keil, Eberhard K.; Kim, Eun-San; Kim, Kwang-Je; King, Bruce J.; Kirk, Harold G.; Kuno, Yoshitaka; Ladran, Tony S.; Lau, Wing W.; Learned, John G.; Lebedev, Valeri; Lebrun, Paul; Lee, Kevin; Lettry, Jacques A.; Lavender, Marco; Li, Derun; Lombardi, Alessandra; Lu, Changguo; Makino, Kyoko; Malkin, Vladimir; Marfatia, D.; McDonald, Kirk T.; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miller, John R.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mocioiu, I.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Monroe, Jocelyn; Moretti, Aldred; Mori, Yoshiharu; Neuffer, David V.; Ng, King-Yuen; Norem, James H.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the status of our effort to realize a first neutrino factory and the progress made in understanding the problems associated with the collection and cooling of muons towards that end. We summarize the physics that can be done with neutrino factories as well as with intense cold beams of muons. The physics potential of muon colliders is reviewed, both as Higgs Factories and compact high energy lepton colliders. The status and timescale of our research and development effort is reviewed as well as the latest designs in cooling channels including the promise of ring coolers in achieving longitudinal and transverse cooling simultaneously. We detail the efforts being made to mount an international cooling experiment to demonstrate the ionization cooling of muons

  19. Recent progress in neutrino factory and muon collider research within the Muon Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Alsharo’a

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the status of our effort to realize a first neutrino factory and the progress made in understanding the problems associated with the collection and cooling of muons towards that end. We summarize the physics that can be done with neutrino factories as well as with intense cold beams of muons. The physics potential of muon colliders is reviewed, both as Higgs factories and compact high-energy lepton colliders. The status and time scale of our research and development effort is reviewed as well as the latest designs in cooling channels including the promise of ring coolers in achieving longitudinal and transverse cooling simultaneously. We detail the efforts being made to mount an international cooling experiment to demonstrate the ionization cooling of muons.

  20. Operation and Recent Developments of the Photon Factory Advanced Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Miyajima, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Kiyokazu; Haga, Kaiichi; Harada, Kentaro; Hori, Yoichiro; Ieiri, Takao; Isagawa, Shigeru; Kageyama, Tatsuya; Kasuga, Toshio; Katoh, Tadahiko; Kawata, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Kudo, Kikuo; Mitsuhashi, Toshiyuki; Nagahashi, Shinya; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Nogami, Takashi; Obina, Takashi; Ohsawa, Yasunobu; Ono, Masaaki; Ozaki, Toshiyuki; Sakai, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Sakanaka, Shogo; Sato, Masayuki; Satoh, Masato; Shioya, Tatsuro; Suetake, Masaaki; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Tadano, Mikito; Takahashi, Takeshi; Takasaki, Seiji; Tanimoto, Yasunori; Tejima, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Kimichika; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ueda, Akira; Umemori, Kensei; Xing Cheng, Wei; Yamamoto, Noboru; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshimoto, S

    2005-01-01

    The Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) is a synchrotron light source dedicated to X-ray research. The PF-AR is usually operated at a beam energy of 6.5 GeV, but a 5.0 GeV mode is also available for medical application. In 6.5 GeV mode the typical lifetime of 15 hrs and the beam current of 60 mA with a single-bunch have been archived. Almost full-time single-bunch operation for pulse X-ray characterize the PF-AR. However, single-bunch high-current caused several problems to be solved, including the temperature rise of the some of the vacuum component, a pressure increase in the ring, and a sudden drop in lifetime. In order to avoid these issues the developments of new methods have been continued. In this paper, the status and the recent developments of the PF-AR will be presented. It concerns: the successful operation with two-bunch high-current in 5.0 GeV mode; varying the vertical beam size for the medical application; modulating the RF acceleration phase in order to elongate the length of bunch; stabilizi...

  1. Phase and group velocity tracing analysis of projected wave packet motion along oblique radar beams – qualitative analysis of QP echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Kuo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The wave packets of atmospheric gravity waves were numerically generated, with a given characteristic wave period, horizontal wave length and projection mean wind along the horizontal wave vector. Their projection phase and group velocities along the oblique radar beam (vpr and vgr, with different zenith angle θ and azimuth angle φ, were analyzed by the method of phase- and group-velocity tracing. The results were consistent with the theoretical calculations derived by the dispersion relation, reconfirming the accuracy of the method of analysis. The RTI plot of the numerical wave packets were similar to the striation patterns of the QP echoes from the FAI irregularity region. We propose that the striation range rate of the QP echo is equal to the radial phase velocity vpr, and the slope of the energy line across the neighboring striations is equal to the radial group velocity vgr of the wave packet; the horizontal distance between two neighboring striations is equal to the characteristic wave period τ. Then, one can inversely calculate all the properties of the gravity wave responsible for the appearance of the QP echoes. We found that the possibility of some QP echoes being generated by the gravity waves originated from lower altitudes cannot be ruled out.

  2. Self-tracking optical beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.

    1992-01-01

    A new optical beam monitor with a self-tracking system was constructed and tested at an undulator beam line of the Photon Factory. The monitor has a feedback system to receive a constant part of the radiation and gives a large range of linearity. The beam position is read out through a linear encoder to detect the self-tracking movement of a pair of photocathodes. The monitor except the feedback system is totally bakeable and UHV compatible and can be installed at a VUV or a soft x-ray beam line

  3. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  4. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e + e - collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings

  5. CrossRef Neutrino factory proton driver and target design

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, Roland; Thomason, John; Davenne, Tristan; Caretta, Ottone; Back, John J

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinos are very elusive particles belonging to the lepton family. They exist in different types corresponding to the different charged leptons, namely electrons, muons and taus. Contrary to electrons, neutrinos hardly interact with matter which makes them very difficult to detect and study. To the best of today’s knowledge, neutrinos have hardly any mass and they can change from one type to another (so-called “neutrino oscillation”). Most physicists think that this oscillation occurs because neutrinos have mass. A Neutrino Factory [1] is a special facility producing a large amount of neutrinos every year (typically 10$^{21}$ neutrinos/year). Its main purpose is to study the change of type of neutrinos between the place where they are generated and a remote location. In a Neutrino Factory, neutrinos result from the decay of muons, unstable particles with a mean lifetime of 2.2 $\\mu$s in their rest frame. Sharp beams of high energy neutrinos are obtained at the end of the long straight sections of a mu...

  6. Activity of beam uses for innovating frontier industry and knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Naoki; Yasuda, Ryo

    2006-01-01

    The state of quantum beam technology, available research fields, various methods to promote use and persons of talent are stated. Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) and RI Beam Factory (RIBF) are in progressing in Japan. J-PARC is one of three large neutron resources; the others are SNS (USA) and ISIS (England). RI beam generation system factory of RIBF will be established in 2006, and Rare Isotope Accelerator (NSCL, USA), Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, Germany) and SPIRALII (French) are in progressing. The quantum beam technology will be used in the research fields such as nanotechnology, materials, life science, medical technology, environment and energy. The platform to promote use of quantum beam, establishment of trial use, a society for the study of beam use, seminars, mail service, and other methods for use of beam is described. (S.Y.)

  7. Accelerators for a Higgs Factory: Linear vs. Circular . (HF2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Chou, W; Gao, J; Schulte, D; Yokoya, K

    2013-01-01

    The 4th of July 2012 was a historical moment for high-energy physics (HEP). On that day, CERN announced that both the ATLAS and CMS experiments had discovered a new Higgs-like boson. In this report, we shall assume that this newly found particle will turn out to be a Higgs boson, the key signature of the Standard Model. At the ICFA meeting on July 8 in Melbourne, an ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop “Accelerators for a Higgs Factory: Linear vs. Circular” (HF2012) was approved. This workshop took place from November 14 to 16, 2012 at Fermilab, USA. (conferences.fnal.gov/hf2012) Seventy-one people from 31 institutions in Asia, Europe and North America attended.

  8. Electron Beam Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, Lloyd R.

    1997-04-01

    Electron beams have played a significant role in semiconductor technology for more than twenty years. Early electron beam machines used a raster scanned beam spot to write patterns in electron-sensitive polymer resist materials. The main application of electron beam lithography has been in mask making. Despite the inherently high spatial resolution and wide process margins of electron beam lithography, the writing rate for semiconductor wafers has been too slow to be economically viable on a large scale. In the late 1970's, variable shape electron beam writing was developed, projecting a rectangular beam whose size can be varied for each "shot" exposure of a particular pattern, allowing some integrated circuits to be made economically where a variety of "customized" patterns are desired. In the cell or block projection electron beam exposure technique, a unit cell of a repetitive pattern is projected repeatedly to increase the level of parallelism. This can work well for highly repetitive patterns such as memory chips but is not well suited to complex varying patterns such as microprocessors. The rapid progress in the performance of integrated circuits has been largely driven by progress in optical lithography, through improvements in lens design and fabrication as well as the use of shorter wavelengths for the exposure radiation. Due to limitations from the opacity of lens and mask materials, it is unlikely that conventional optical printing methods can be used at wavelengths below 193 nm or feature sizes much below 180 nm. One candidate technology for a post-optical era is the Scattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron-beam Lithography (SCALPEL) approach, which combines the high resolution and wide process latitude inherent in electron beam lithography with the throughput of a parallel projection system. A mask consisting of a low atomic number membrane and a high atomic number pattern layer is uniformly illuminated with high energy (100 ke

  9. Vacuum system of the high energy ring of an asymmetric B-factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Calderon, M.O.; Wong, R.; Jenkins, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The multi-ampere currents required for high luminosity operation of an asymmetric B factory leads to extremely stressing requirements on a vacuum system suitable for maintaining long beam-gas lifetimes and acceptable background levels in the detector. We present the design for a Cu alloy vacuum chamber and its associated pumping system for the 9 GeV electron storage ring of the proposed B factory based on PEP. The excellent thermal and photo-desorption properties of Cu allows handling the high proton flux in a conventional, single chamber design with distributed ion pumps. The x-ray opacity of the Cu is sufficiently high that no additional lead shielding is necessary to protect the dipoles from the intense synchrotron radiation generated by the beam. The design allows chamber commissioning in <500 hr of operation. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions

  11. Beam shaping for relay mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Justin D.

    2006-08-01

    Relay mirrors offer a method of extending the range and efficacy of laser weapons systems by providing a platform that can relay the high power beam from the source to a target at a lower cost than building more laser weapons. Most laser weapons' platforms use a Cassegrain aperture telescope to project the high-power beam to a target. Diffraction causes power in the projected beam to move out beyond the edge of the receiving aperture and into the central obscuration of the receiving Cassegrain telescope. This paper presents a method of increasing the power coupling between a projected beam and a receiving telescope by warping the phase of the projected beam and shows that the spatial frequency and amplitude of the phase aberration is consistent with being integrated with the adaptive optics control loop on the source beam projector.

  12. Interaction region of 4x7 GeV asymmetric B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovin, A.N.; Vlasov, A.M.; Zholents, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the organization of the interaction region of a double ring B-factory in the conditions of a comparatively small energy difference between the beams. Besides the well known fact of advantages for the observation of CP violation, this approach gives also the benefit for a storage ring design. The foundations of the approach are given and a variant of the scheme design is presented. 1 ref.; 7 figs

  13. Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thukral, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler's gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler's factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are complex numbers. The factorials of real negative integers have their imaginary part equal to zero, thus are real numbers. Similarly, the factorials of imaginary numbers are complex numbers. The moduli of the complex factorials of real negative numbers, and imaginary numbers are equal to their respective real positive number factorials. Fractional factorials and multifactorials have been defined in a new perspective. The proposed concept has also been extended to Euler's gamma function for real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, and beta function.

  14. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Education for Cultivating Future Factory Managers by Industry-College Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennichi, Michio; Yamada, Hirofumi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Furuya, Shigehiko; Ito, Kouhei

    In 2007, Kanazawa Technical College was designated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology as an institute on a Project to the Cultivation of Practical Engineers by Cooperative Education and is to complete the project. Our project aims at accomplishing “Education Program Development and Practice for Cultivating Future Factory Managers Beginning at Age 16” , with the object of the cooperative project by local businesses, Ishikawa Prefecture and Kanazawa Institute of Technology. This paper reports as follows. (1) Outline of this project (2) Results from the project we have tackled. (3) Safety education in order to begin mechanical hands-on training at the first grade.

  16. Vacuum system design for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.; Bostic, D.; Daly, E.

    1994-06-01

    The design of the vacuum system for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring is reviewed. The thermal design and vacuum requirements are particularly challenging in PEP-II due to high stored beam currents up to 3.0 amps in 1658 bunches. The vacuum chambers for the HER arcs are fabricated by electron beam welding extruded copper sections up to 6 m long. Design of these chambers and the vacuum PumPing configuration is described with results from vacuum and thermal analyses

  17. Possibility of studying ν/sub e/ and anti ν/sub e/ interactions at a Kaon Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1981-03-01

    The possibility of observing ν/sub e/- and anti ν/sub e/-induced reactions at a high-flux Kaon Factory is discussed. A recently suggested neutrino beam derived from K/sub L/ 0 decays is the enriched source of ν/sub e/ and anti ν/sub e/. Some specific measurements which are feasible are described

  18. The Italian Tau/charm project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagini Maria Enrica

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A τ/charm Factory, an e + e- collider with very high luminosity at the 2–4.6 GeV center of mass energy, to be built on the Rome University at Tor Vergata campus, was studied by the Consortium Nicola Cabibbo Laboratory and the INFN Frascati Laboratories. This project is the natural evolution of the flagship Italian project SuperB Factory, funded by the Italian Government in 2010 with a budget that turned out to be insufficient to cover the total costs of the project. The study of rare events at the τ/charm energy was already planned as a Phase-II of SuperB [1]. This design keeps all the unique features of SuperB, including the polarization of the electron beam, with the possibility to take data in a larger energy range, with reduced accelerator dimensions and construction and operation costs. A Report on the accelerator design has been published in September 2013 [2].

  19. Coherent beam-beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    There are two physical pictures that describe the beam-beam interaction in a storage ring collider: The weak-strong and the strong-strong pictures. Both pictures play a role in determining the beam-beam behavior. This review addresses only the strong-strong picture. The corresponding beam dynamical effects are referred to as the coherent beam-beam effects. Some basic knowledge of the weak-strong picture is assumed. To be specific, two beams of opposite charges are considered. (orig.)

  20. Beam tomography or ART in accelerator physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.

    1978-11-01

    Projections of charged particle beam current density have been used for many years as a measure of beam position and size. The conventional practice of obtaining only two projections, usually in the horizontal and vertical planes, puts a severe limit on the detail that can be recovered from the projections. A third projection provides sufficient improvement to justify the addition of a wire to the conventional wire scanner in certain cases. A group of programs using algebraic reconstruction techniques was written to reconstruct beam current density from beam projections obtained at three or more specific or arbitrary angles around the beam. A generalized program, which makes use of arbitrary 2 x 2 transfer matrices between projections, can be used to reconstruct transverse or longitudinal emittance from appropriate projections. Reconstruction examples of beam current density and transverse and longitudinal emittance using experimental data from the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator beam are given

  1. BNL AGS - a context for kaon factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littenberg, L.S.

    1983-05-01

    Figure 1 shows the Brookhaven site with the AGS-CBA complex highlighted. In this photograph the AGS is dwarfed by CBA and indeed during the past few years future plans for particle physics at BNL have been dominated by this enormous project. However, very recently interest in future physics use of the AGS has undergone a strong revival. Indeed, since the beginning of this year, two projects for augmenting the AGS have been proposed. Such projects could keep the AGS viable as a research machine for many years to come. In general such schemes will also improve the performance and increase the versatility of the CBA, and so are doubly valuable. It should be kept in mind that in spite of the fact the AGS has been perhaps the most fruitful machine in the history of high energy physics, its full capacities have never been exploited. Even without improvements at least one generation of rare K decay experiments beyond those currently launched seems feasible. Beyond that a major effort at any of the experiments discussed above could take it to the point where it would be limited by intrinsic physics background. To pursue a full program of physics at this level one would want to increase the intensity of the AGS as described. A ten-fold increase in K flux would remove such experiments from the category of all-out technological assaults and render them manageable by reasonably small groups of physicists. In addition, certain other, cleaner experiments, e.g., K/sub L/ 0 → e + e - or e + e - π 0 , could be pushed to limits unobtainable at the present AGS. The increased flux would also be welcomed by the neutrino and hypernuclear physics programs. Even experiments which do not at present require higher fluxes would benefit through the availability of purer beams and cleaner conditions

  2. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available zones capable of introducing a phase shift of zero or p on the alternately out of phase rings of the TEMp0 beams into a unified phase and then focusing the rectified beam to generate a high resolution beam which has a Gaussian beam intensity distribution...

  3. INPHO project. Task 1: the setting of electron lines - beam dynamics; Projet INPHO. Tache 1: mise en place des lignes - faisceaulogie. Bilan de la phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmetti, S.; Baze, J.M.; Brasseur, A.; Cazanou, M.; Cazaux, S.; Coadou, B.; Congretel, G.; Contrepois, P.; Curtoni, A.; Denis, J.F.; Desmons, M.; Dorlot, M.; Fontaine, M.; Jablonka, M.; Jannin, J.L.; Joly, J.M.; Launay, J.C.; Lotode, A.; Luong, M.; Mattei, P.; Nardin, P.; Perrin, J.L.; Saudemont, J.C.; Veyssiere, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Laine, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Technologies du Capteur et du Signal (DRT/LIST/DETECS/SSTM/L2MA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    The INPHO project aims at upgrading and optimizing the SAPHIR installation that is dedicated to the measurement (through the detection of photofission reactions) of radioactive wastes containing transuranium elements. Some modifications have been made during the phase I of the upgrading: -) the supply of power between the 2 parts of the accelerator has been modified. Now the setting of the beam energy does not imply to compensate for a phase shift; -) the vacuum level of the accelerator has been improved, it passed from 10{sup -6} torr to 7.10{sup -8} torr); and current measurers have been set on the electron line (there were no direct diagnostics previously). Other modifications are planned for the phase II of the upgrading. It concerns: -) the power supply of the electron gun; -) the control system; and the power supply of the klystron. In parallel with the phase II, feasibility studies have been led for the design of an electron line that will allow the electron-photon converter target to be as near as possible to the waste package to probe. (A.C.)

  4. Nuclear physics at the KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitching, R.

    1989-05-01

    The author surveys the range of nuclear physics issues which can be addressed with a high intensity hadron facility such as the KAON factory. He discusses hadron spectroscopy, kaon scattering, hypernuclear physics, spin physics, and nuclear physics with neutrinos. Nuclear Physics is defined rather broadly, encompassing the study of strongly interacting systems, and including the structure of individual hadrons, hadron-hadron interactions, hadronic weak and electromagnetic currents (in nuclei too), conventional nuclear structure, and exotic nuclei. The basic theme is how the KAON Factory can shed light on non-perturbative QCD and its relation to conventional nuclear physics

  5. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  6. Lightweight bonded acrylic facing at the Vitra VSL Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Matthias Michel, E-mail: michel@imagine-structure.eu Acrylic glass is omnipresent in the industrialised world; but as a building material most architects, facade planners and engineers are still unfamiliar with this material. In most cases it is applied as a substitute for glass which leads to inappropriate joints and fixtures. During the years of the path toward the digital era, the authors were in the fortunate position to be involved in several unconventional glass and acrylic glass projects. On the basis of their most recent project, the facade of the Vitra VSL Factory by SANAA Architekten, they describe the development of a facade for which they chose acrylic glass not as a substitute for glass but rather as a conscious material choice. Since the entire facade is it was possible to apply the manufacturing technology of deep-drawing, allowing for very thin wall thicknesses.

  7. Beam director design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30 0 beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project

  8. Beam director design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  9. Employment and Training Problems in New Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Does management in newly established factories using highly advanced technology meet special problems in recruitment and training of their workers? Are the traditional training systems supplying the skilled manpower required for running highly sophisticated plants? These were the basic questions asked when the present study was started in seven…

  10. Plant factories; crop transpiration and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graamans, Luuk; Dobbelsteen, van den Andy; Meinen, Esther; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and rapid urbanisation may result in a shortage of food supplies for cities in the foreseeable future. Research on closed plant production systems, such as plant factories, has attempted to offer perspectives for robust (urban) agricultural systems. Insight into the explicit role

  11. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  12. Factory Downtime Minimization through Tracking of Maintenance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The front factory comprises two tandems: tandem A and B. The total downtime records for the first six months of 2013/14 sugar production season for tandem A show that the downtime was mainly due to mechanical failures, lack of canes, preventive maintenance activities, cleanings due to blockages, and electrical failures, ...

  13. Permanent-Magnet Quadrupoles for Neutrino Factories

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Eberhard

    2000-01-01

    Using permanent-magnet quadrupoles for the long straight sections of the recirculating linear accelerators and in the muon storage ring proper of a neutrino factory is proposed. The parameters needed for such quadrupoles are compared to the parameters of the permanent-magnet quadrupoles that are used in the Recycler Ring at Fermilab. Using such quadrupoles for ELFE at CERN is also considered.

  14. Predictors of Organizational Commitment of Factory Employees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey research investigated the predictive influence of organizational climate, self-efficacy and emotional intelligence on organizational commitment. Data were collected from 200randomly selected employees of Cocacola Factory who served as participants in this study using structured questionnaire. Results of the ...

  15. Factorial and reduced K-means reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva; Kiers, Henk A. L.; Vichi, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Factorial K-means analysis (FKM) and Reduced K-means analysis (RKM) are clustering methods that aim at simultaneously achieving a clustering of the objects and a dimension reduction of the variables. Because a comprehensive comparison between FKM and RKM is lacking in the literature so far, a

  16. SuperB, the super flavor factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitlin, D. G.

    2009-06-01

    Heavy flavor physics measurements, in particular B and τ physics results from the B Factories, currently provide strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. SuperB, a next generation asymmetric collider with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique insights into New Physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  17. The Energy Factory; EnergieFabriek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Boomen, M.; Van den Dungen, G.J.; Elias, T.; Jansen, M. [Universiteit van Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The Energy Factory is a collaboration of 26 Dutch local water boards in which options for energy saving and energy production are examined. According to the authors, the initiative of the Energy Factory will lead to a reframing of the role of the water boards. Moreover, they explain how the PPP concept (People, Planet, Profit) may act as platform for negotiations between actors who are involved in the Energy Factory. In addition, the PPP concept is used to demonstrate that the Energy Factory will lead to larger social involvement, social entrepreneurship and growing profits [Dutch] De Energiefabriek is een samenwerkingsverband van 26 waterschappen in Nederland waarin wordt gezocht naar mogelijkheden om energie te besparen en zelf energie te produceren. Volgens de auteurs van deze notitie leidt het initiatief van de Energiefabriek tot een reframing van de rol van waterschappen. Daarnaast leggen ze uit hoe het PPP-concept (People, Profit, Planet) kan fungeren als platform voor onderhandelingen tussen de actoren die betrokken zijn bij de Energiefabriek. Verder wordt met het PPP-concept aangetoond dat de Energiefabriek leidt tot ruimere maatschappelijke betrokkenheid, maatschappelijk ondernemen en winstvergroting.

  18. Undergraduate Students' Initial Conceptions of Factorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise; Erickson, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Counting problems offer rich opportunities for students to engage in mathematical thinking, but they can be difficult for students to solve. In this paper, we present a study that examines student thinking about one concept within counting, factorials, which are a key aspect of many combinatorial ideas. In an effort to better understand students'…

  19. Science achievement determinants: factorial structure of family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of. Family Psychotherapy, 1:29-38. Science achievement determinants: factorial structure of family variables. Elias Oupa Mashile. Faculty of Education ... children themselves have about such involvement and support. Most researchers only ascribe a few of these variables to familial influence in their studies. Also ...

  20. Business plan Feed Factory Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a poultry feed factory, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Tete Province, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers come from other

  1. An Epiphany in a Toilet Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Catlin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences of the universality of art making and artistic experience of being a dancer and teaching artist. She describes her performance at Kohler, a worldwide leader in plumbing products in Spartanburg, South Carolina, where she had an epiphany dancing in a toilet factory--a sudden, intuitive moment of…

  2. Study of beam-beam long range compensation with octupoles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Tambasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Long range beam-beam effects are responsible for particle losses and define fundamental operational parameters of colliders (i.e. crossing angles, intensities, emittances, ${\\beta}$${^∗}$). In this study we propose octuple magnets as a possible scheme to efficiently compensate long-range beam-beam interactions with a global correction scheme. The impact and improvements on the dynamic aperture of colliding beams together with estimates of the luminosity potentials are dis- cussed for the HL-LHC upgrade and extrapolations made for the FCC project.

  3. MODEL PENGELOLAAN TEACHING FACTORY SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEJURUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Burhan R Wijaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and develop management models Factory Teaching Vocational School through a series of tests and validation of the model with the approach of reasearch and Development. Teaching Factory Management Models at Vocational Schools is a concept that combines learning management approach learning Competency Based Training (CBT and Production Based Training (PBT in the real atmosphere so that the process of achieving competence or skill skills life skills (life skills in accordance with the standards of graduate work in the industrial world. In particular, this study aims to formulate design management model development Teaching Factory Vocational School. To achieve the research objectives above using the approach of Research and Development, through preliminary studies, design development models, testing and validation. Preliminary study phase is planned to take the flow / stage as follows: the study of literature, study / collection of field data, and a description and analysis of field findings (factual, namely: (1 the description of the characteristics of vocational school with a standard performance indicators that can be poured as the content of the development of Teaching Factory, (2 description of the characteristics and potential development group management model Tefa as an outcome groups to develop and implement management models Tefa for Vocational Schools (3 description of the characteristics of potential stakeholders to support the development and implementation TEFA management model, and (4 preparation of the management model TEFA for Vocational Schools excellence and innovative. Trial design done on a limited scale model group. Then the model was accompanied by outcome group to develop and implement a model TEFA for Vocational Schools to determine whether the model developed can be applied correctly. Data analysis in this study, the preliminary study stage, the findings or the facts about productive learning

  4. Beam-beam and impedance

    CERN Document Server

    White, S.

    2014-07-17

    As two counter-rotating beams interact they can give rise to coherent dipole modes. Under the influence of impedance these coherent beam-beam modes can couple to higher order head-tail modes and lead to strong instabilities. A fully self-consistent approach including beam-beam and impedance was used to characterize this new coupled mode instability and study possible cures such as a transverse damper and high chromaticity.

  5. Secondary beams at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubre, H.

    1992-01-01

    GANIL, a user's facility since 1983, can deliver a broad spectrum of heavy-ion beams, from He to U, to well-equipped experimental areas. Their very large intensities are to be exploited to produce secondary beams, either using the fragmentation method (beams at energy per nucleon larger than 30 MeV/u), or the ISOL method. With the latter one, these ions have to be re-accelerated. The project of a cyclotron as a post-accelerator is described. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Recent developments in electron beam machine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, T.; Ross, A.; Leveziel, H.

    1994-01-01

    Electron beam accelerator provides ionisation energy for industrial processing. Electron beam accelerators are increasingly used for decontamination, conservation and disinfestation of food, for sterilization of medical products, and for polymerisation of materials. These machines are easy to install into a production factory as the radiation stops as soon as the machine is switched off. This safety advantage, together with the flexibility of use of these highly automated machines, has allowed the electron beam accelerator to become an important production tool. (author). 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Accelerator and Technical Sector Seminar: Future neutrino facilities: the neutrino factory

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Thursday 19.January 2012 at 14:15  -  IT Auditorium (bldg. 31 3-004) Future neutrino facilities: the neutrino factory by Gersende Prior / University of Geneva and CERN EN/MEF The neutrino factory is one of the proposed designs for a future intense neutrino beam facility. In its current layout, a high-power proton beam impinges on an Hg jet target producing pions, decaying in turn into muons. In order to reduce the particle beam emittance, the muon transverse momentum is reduced through ionization cooling by a technically demanding set-up made of closely-packed RF cavities alternating with absorbers. In this talk I will present the motivation for building an intense neutrino beam and some of the proposed neutrino facilities' design. I will discuss the challenges inherent to the cooling of muons, possible optimization of the current baseline and the on-going R&D. ________________ ATS Seminars Organisers: H. Burkhardt (BE), S. Sgobba (EN), G. deRijk (TE)

  8. New developments on preparation of cooled and bunched Radioactive Ion beams at ISOL facilities the ISCOOL project and the rotating wall cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Podadera-Aliseda, I

    2006-01-01

    The future of physics research with radioactive isotopes is linked to the development of more accurate and specific experiments which will work with more exotic and energetic nuclei. Requirements from experiments are getting more and more stringent and represent a big challenge for the preparation of ion beams, since each one demands different optical specifications to optimize its setup and improve its results. This thesis focuses on the new developments achieved in preparation of RIB's (Radioactive Ion Beams) at ISOL facilities. Optical beam improvements based on cooling and bunching are the main points of the work. The design of a new general purpose second generation RFQCB (Radio Frequency ion Quadrupole Cooler and Buncher) for ISOLDE, the oldest ISOL facility, will be completely described. Nowadays, RFQCB's are one of the most important devices in the beam preparation stage thanks to the capacity to cool and bunch low-intensity ion beams quickly, easily and with great efficiency. The thesis will detail t...

  9. Particle beam fusion progress report January 1979 through June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The following chapters are included: (1) fusion target studies, (2) target experiments, (3) particle beam source development, (4) particle beam experiments, (5) pulsed power research and development, (6) pulsed fusion applications, and (7) electron beam fusion accelerator project

  10. IR Up Grade Plans for the PEP-II B-Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.

    2004-07-07

    PEP-II, the SLAC, LBNL, LLNL B-factory has achieved a peak luminosity of over 9 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, more than 3 times the design luminosity, and plans to obtain a luminosity of over 1 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} in the next year. In order to push the luminosity performance of PEP-II to even higher levels an upgrade to the interaction region (IR) is being designed. In the present design, the interaction point (IP) is a head-on collision with two strong horizontal dipole magnets located between 21-70 cm from the IP that bring the beams together and separate the beams after the collision. The first parasitic crossing (PC) is 63 cm from the IP in the present by2 bunch spacing. Future improvements to PEP-II performance include lowering the {beta}*{sub y} values of both rings. This will increase the {beta}{sub y} value at the PCs which increases the beam-beam effect at these non-colliding crossings. Introducing a horizontal crossing angle at the IP quickly increases the beam separation at the PCs but recent beam-beam studies indicate that a significant luminosity reduction occurs when a crossing angle is introduced at the IP. We discuss these issues and describe the present interaction region upgrade design.

  11. SU-E-T-58: A Novel Monte Carlo Photon Transport Simulation Scheme and Its Application in Cone Beam CT Projection Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y; Tian, Z; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Zhou, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is an important tool to solve radiotherapy and medical imaging problems. Low computational efficiency hinders its wide applications. Conventionally, MC is performed in a particle-by -particle fashion. The lack of control on particle trajectory is a main cause of low efficiency in some applications. Take cone beam CT (CBCT) projection simulation as an example, significant amount of computations were wasted on transporting photons that do not reach the detector. To solve this problem, we propose an innovative MC simulation scheme with a path-by-path sampling method. Methods: Consider a photon path starting at the x-ray source. After going through a set of interactions, it ends at the detector. In the proposed scheme, we sampled an entire photon path each time. Metropolis-Hasting algorithm was employed to accept/reject a sampled path based on a calculated acceptance probability, in order to maintain correct relative probabilities among different paths, which are governed by photon transport physics. We developed a package gMMC on GPU with this new scheme implemented. The performance of gMMC was tested in a sample problem of CBCT projection simulation for a homogeneous object. The results were compared to those obtained using gMCDRR, a GPU-based MC tool with the conventional particle-by-particle simulation scheme. Results: Calculated scattered photon signals in gMMC agreed with those from gMCDRR with a relative difference of 3%. It took 3.1 hr. for gMCDRR to simulate 7.8e11 photons and 246.5 sec for gMMC to simulate 1.4e10 paths. Under this setting, both results attained the same ∼2% statistical uncertainty. Hence, a speed-up factor of ∼45.3 was achieved by this new path-by-path simulation scheme, where all the computations were spent on those photons contributing to the detector signal. Conclusion: We innovatively proposed a novel path-by-path simulation scheme that enabled a significant efficiency enhancement for MC particle

  12. Physics with the KLOE2 experiment at the φ factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloise, C.; Gauzzi, P.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the most debated issues which experimentation at the φ factory can really shed light on with a short-term program of measurements. Recent, very promising improvements in the lattice-QCD calculations call for new precision measurements in the Kaon sector to obtain more stringent results on CKM Unitarity and Lepton Flavour Universality. Neutral Kaon Interferometry can probe Discrete Symmetries, but also Quantum Mechanics at the Planck scale. Current limits obtained by KLOE can be overcome by both, the increase in statistics, and the upgrade of the tracking system with an inner GEM chamber for improving vertex resolution near the beam interaction region. One possible solution to the Dark Mass problem, allowing also to interpret the positron excess measured by the satellite Payload experiment PAMELA, suggests a '' dark '' sector that can really be constrained by the experiments at the Kaon and B-Factories. Low energy QCD phenomenology can receive an important contribution from the new measurements of radiative and non-leptonic decays of K, eta and eta' mesons. Finally, important results on the physics in the continuum can be achieved by new measurements of the hadronic cross section and the study of gamma-gamma processes. Improvements on hadronic cross section at low energy are needed to understand the 3-sigma effect on (g-2) μ and for precision determination of alpha em at the TeV scale while the analysis of the gamma-gamma sample impacts scalar spectroscopy and the underlying physics but also the light-by-light hadronic contribution to (g-2) μ . (authors)

  13. Silanization of glass chips—A factorial approach for optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistas, Cláudia R.; Águas, Ana C. P.; Ferreira, Guilherme N. M.

    2013-12-01

    Silanization of glass chips with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) was investigated and optimized to generate a high-quality layer with well-oriented thiol groups. A full factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of silane concentration and reaction time. The stabilization of the silane monolayer by thermal curing was also investigated, and a disulfide reduction step was included to fully regenerate the thiol-modified surface function. Fluorescence analysis and water contact angle measurements were used to quantitatively assess the chemical modifications, wettability and quality of modified chip surfaces throughout the silanization, curing and reduction steps. The factorial design enables a systematic approach for the optimization of glass chips silanization process. The optimal conditions for the silanization were incubation of the chips in a 2.5% MPTS solution for 2 h, followed by a curing process at 110 °C for 2 h and a reduction step with 10 mM dithiothreitol for 30 min at 37 °C. For these conditions the surface density of functional thiol groups was 4.9 × 1013 molecules/cm2, which is similar to the expected maximum coverage obtained from the theoretical estimations based on projected molecular area (∼5 × 1013 molecules/cm2).

  14. Study of the CNGS beam and identification of muons in the Opera experiment. Optimization of the beam line from SPL-Frejus project; Etude du faisceau CNGS et identification des muons dans l'experience OPERA. Optimisation de la ligne de faisceau du projet SPL-Frejus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazes, A

    2004-12-15

    Neutrino oscillations are the subject of most of the experiments looking at this particle. This mechanism uses the fact that neutrinos have mass to allow the transformation from one flavour to another one. The OPERA experiment will start to take data in spring 2006. Its goal is to proof this mechanism with no ambiguity using the appearance of tau neutrinos in the CNGS beam, which is made of muon neutrinos. This thesis presents a description of neutrino beams in general, and more precisely of the CNGS beam, which is sent from CERN to Gran Sasso in Italy. The neutrino flux are recalculated, and simulations have been performed in order to study miss positioning of the beam line elements. The OPERA detector is made of bricks containing a pile of lead plates and photographic emulsion films, of two trackers and two spectrometers. The high position resolution of the emulsions (< 1 {mu}m ), allows to identify the {tau} created by the tau neutrino charged current interactions. The brick localisation is made using a scintillator array. The pattern recognition in these scintillators as well as in the spectrometers is one of the part of this thesis. Furthermore, a muon identification algorithm has been set up. It allows to reject by a factor 20 the charm background. Future of neutrino oscillation physics is the building of more and more intense neutrino beams, in order to measure the last unknown parameters ({theta}{sub 13} and {delta}{sub CP}). The project of neutrino beam from CERN to the Fr us tunnel is fully revisited in the last part of this thesis. An optimisation of all the beam line element is proposed, and allows to reach a sensitivity to {theta}{sub 13} around one degree. (author)

  15. Asymptotic formulas for sequence factorial of arithmetic progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aṣiru, Muniru A.

    2014-08-01

    This note provides asymptotic formulas for approximating the sequence factorial of members of a finite arithmetic progression by using Stirling, Burnside and other more accurate asymptotic formulas for large factorials that have appeared in the literature.

  16. Production of Tetraquark State Tcc at B-Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidin, Reyima

    2013-12-01

    We study production of the tetraquark state Tcc via virtual photon at the B-factories in the QCD factorization framework. We predict the cross section of tetraquark state production in the leading order at the B-factories.

  17. Beam cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Danared, H

    2006-01-01

    Beam cooling is the technique of reducing the momentum spread and increasing the phase-space density of stored particle beams. This paper gives an introduction to beam cooling and Liouville’s theorem, and then it describes the three methods of active beam cooling that have been proven to work so far, namely electron cooling, stochastic cooling, and laser cooling. Ionization cooling is also mentioned briefly.

  18. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelbury, J.M.; Smith, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies with directed collision-free beams of particles continue to play an important role in the development of modern physics and chemistry. The deflections suffered by such beams as they pass through electric and magnetic fields or laser radiation provide some of the most direct information about the individual constituents of the beam; the scattering observed when two beams intersect yields important data about the intermolecular forces responsible for the scattering. (author)

  19. 40-80 MHZ MUON front-end for the Neutrino factory design study

    CERN Document Server

    Prior, G; Alexandri, A E

    2011-01-01

    To understand better the neutrino properties, machines able to produce 1021 neutrinos per year have to be built. One of the proposed machines is called the neutrino factory. In this scenario, muons produced by the decay of pions coming from the interaction of a proton beam onto a target are accelerated to energies of several GeV and injected in a storage ring where they will decay in neutrinos. The so-called front-end section of the neutrino factory is conceived to reduce the transverse divergence of the muon beam and to adapt its temporal structure to the acceptance of the downstream accelerator to minimize losses. We present a re-evaluation of the muon front-end scenario which used 40-80 MHz radio-frequency (RF) cavities capturing one sign at a time in a single-bunch to bucket mode. The standard software environment of the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF) has been used, for comparison of its performance with the IDS-NF baseline front-end design which operates with higher frequen...

  20. An Interactive Simulation Tool for Production Planning in Bacon Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory......The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory...

  1. Analysis of the Wakefield Effects in the PEP-II SLAC B-FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, A; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2009-07-06

    We present the history and analysis of different wake field effects throughout the operational life of the PEP-II SLAC B-factory. Although the impedance of the high and low energy rings is small, the intense high current beams generated a lot of power. The effects from these wake fields are: heating and damage of vacuum beam chamber elements like RF seals, vacuum valves , shielded bellows, BPM buttons and ceramic tiles; vacuum spikes, vacuum instabilities and high detector background; beam longitudinal and transverse instabilities. We also discuss the methods used to eliminate these effects. Results of this analysis and the PEP-II experience may be very useful in the design of new storage rings and light sources.

  2. Recent developments for beam intensity increase operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, T.; Anger, P.; Baelde, J.L.; Baumgarten, R.; Doutressoulles, C.; Ducoudret, B.; Etaix, G.; Jamet, C.; Mariette, C.; Petit, E.; Tichoux, G.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the beam intensity increase operation (THI project) is to multiply the present intensities for lightest ions by a factor of fifteen in order to reach maximum power of six kilowatts. The main objective is the production of large amounts of rare isotopes, either with SISSI (device intended for producing radioactive beams), or with SPIRAL (production and acceleration of radioactive ion beams). As part of this THI project, new developments have been required such as spiral scanners, for beam profile measurements, and safety system to protect equipments against beam loses. Other developments are being carried on to improve the high intensity beam operation. (authors)

  3. Assessment of noise in furniture factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Petusk Filipe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Work safety is of great importance in all industrial activities. The Norm NR15 of the Brazilian law determines that the work environment be tailored to employees to minimize biological, ergonomic, physical, chemical risks and accidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of intermittent noise in a daily dose to workers in furniture factories. Measurements were made with a sound level meter and dosimeter in a workday of eight hours in 14 furniture factories located in the South of Minas Gerais. Noise values ranged from 66.0 to 117.4 dB(A. At a dose of 8 working hours it was observed that the values exceed the tolerance limit of a unit, being from 2.76 to 30.52 for minimum and maximum units, respectively. Both noises and daily doses were superior than the values set by the NR-15-Annex 01 (BRASIL, 2008.

  4. Portable Material Culture and Death Factory Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian T. Myers

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Like any other factory, the death factory of Auschwitz consumed primary materials and produced secondary products. Unique to Auschwitz, though, is that the primary material consumed was human life; not just the life of the breathing human body, but also the material possessions associated with that life. The detritus of this most efficient genocide – clothing, jewellery, food, corpses – was appropriated and put to new uses by the SS and the prisoners. Others have recognised the various postwar material cultural outcomes of the camp: the writing, the film, the theatre, the art, the tourism. This article, however, demonstrates that the material culture of Auschwitz is not a phenomenon exclusive to the postwar era. It focuses on the fact that inside the camp during the war, despite the landscape of death and deprivation, intimate interaction between humans and material culture continued.

  5. The Physics of the B Factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, A.J.; Golob, B.; Mannel, T.

    2014-01-01

    The inspiration for this book came from Fran@cois le Diberder. During his term as spokesperson for BABAR he laid down a vision for the two B Factory detector collaborations, BABAR and Belle, to work together on a book that would describe the methodologies used and physics results obtained by those experiments. A key ideal emphasized from the outset was that this book should be written from a pedagogical perspective; it should be of interest to the student and expert alike. This vision was presented during a BABAR collaboration meeting on the island of Elba in May 2008 and a follow up Belle collaboration meeting at KEK, with visiting colleagues from the BABAR collaboration, and was embraced by the community. A number of workshops involving people from the theoretical community as well as the two collaborations were held on four continents over the following years. The resulting book, ''The Physics of the B Factories'', is a testament to the way that this concept captured the zeitgeist on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. This book is divided into three parts, the first of which provides a brief description of the B Factories, including a short (though not exhaustive) historical perspective, as well as descriptions of the detectors, ancillary data acquisition systems and data (re)processing systems that were built by the two detector collaborations in the late 1990's. The second part of the book discusses tools and methods that are frequently used when analyzing the data collected. These range from details of low level reconstruction algorithms and abstract summaries of statistical methods to high level prescriptions used when evaluating systematic uncertainties on measurements of observables. The third part of the book is devoted to physics results. This includes sufficient theoretical discussion in order for the reader to understand the context of the work being described. We are indebted to our colleagues from the theoretical community who have helped us achieve

  6. Physics at e+e- factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.; MacFarlane, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    Feasible designs are well advanced for high-luminosity e + e - storage rings which produce B 0 bar B 0 pairs either at rest or, in what appears to be a more promising option, boosted in the detector frame. Facilities which could provide samples of 30--100 fb -1 per year on the Υ(4S) will be proposed in early 1991. Here we examine the principal physics goal of such B Factories, namely CP violation in the b system. Methods in a variety of channels, estimated event samples, and detector requirements are all considered. We conclude that the physics argument for an e + e - B Factory is well documented, and compelling. 50 refs., 22 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Improved premises for cell factory development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karina Marie

    by a differential expression of the lysozyme gene encoded on the same plasmid. These phenomena seem to have been largely overlooked despite the huge popularity of the T7/pet-based systems for bacterial protein production. Additionally, the paradox that standardization comes at the cost of reduced flexibility...... is at the core of biotechnology and numerous molecular tools and bacterial strains have been developed over the past four decades for this purpose. Understanding of the genetic code and our ability to manipulate genetic material, paves the way for the microbial cell factory development that enables production...... of protein in a sustainable, costefficient manner. In this thesis I report the joined efforts of my colleagues and myself, to improve the premises for cell factory development by optimizing the cloning strategies, improving the awareness of unforeseen side-effects in complex bacterial expression systems...

  8. Summary of the Superconducting RF Linac for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.; Garoby, R.; Geer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Project-X is a proposed project to be built at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory with several potential missions. A primary part of the Project-X accelerator chain is a Superconducting linac, and In October 2009 a workshop was held to concentrate on the linac parameters. The charge of the workshop was to 'focus only on the SRF linac approaches and how it can be used'. The focus of Working Group 2 of this workshop was to evaluate how the different linac options being considered impact the potential realization of Muon Collider (MC) and Neutrino Factory (NF) applications. In particular the working group charge was, 'to investigate the use of a multi-megawatt proton linac to target, phase rotate and collect muons to support a muon collider and neutrino factory'. To focus the working group discussion, three primary questions were identified early on, to serve as a reference: (1) What are the proton source requirements for muon colliders and neutrino factories? (2) What are the issues with respect to realizing the required muon collider and neutrino factory proton sources - (a) General considerations and (b) Considerations specific to the two linac configurations identified by Project-X? (3) What things need to be done before we can be reasonably confident that ICD1/ICD2 can be upgraded to provide the neutrino factory/muon collider needs? A number of presentations were given, and are available at the workshop web-site. This paper does not summarize the individual presentations, but rather addresses overall findings as related to the three guiding questions listed above.

  9. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Rogers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  10. LAMPF: the meson factory. A LASL monograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, J.C.

    1977-08-01

    A general and simplified introduction to the entire concept of LAMPF is given in terms of its experimental capabilities. Parts of the current experimental program are used as illustrative examples. Topics discussed include: (1) the evolution of the meson factory; (2) accelerator construction; (3) strong focusing; (4) accelerator innovations at LAMPF; (5) photons and pions; (6) muons as nuclear probes; (7) nuclear chemistry; (8) radiobiology and medical applications; (9) radioisotope production; (10) materials testing; and (11) LAMPF management and users group

  11. LAMPF: the meson factory. A LASL monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, J.C.

    1977-08-01

    A general and simplified introduction to the entire concept of LAMPF is given in terms of its experimental capabilities. Parts of the current experimental program are used as illustrative examples. Topics discussed include: (1) the evolution of the meson factory; (2) accelerator construction; (3) strong focusing; (4) accelerator innovations at LAMPF; (5) photons and pions; (6) muons as nuclear probes; (7) nuclear chemistry; (8) radiobiology and medical applications; (9) radioisotope production; (10) materials testing; and (11) LAMPF management and users group. (PMA)

  12. A biophysical model for transcription factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canals-Hamann, Ana Z; Neves, Ricardo Pires das; Reittie, Joyce E; Iñiguez, Carlos; Soneji, Shamit; Enver, Tariq; Buckle, Veronica J; Iborra, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factories are nuclear domains where gene transcription takes place although the molecular basis for their formation and maintenance are unknown. In this study, we explored how the properties of chromatin as a polymer may contribute to the structure of transcription factories. We found that transcriptional active chromatin contains modifications like histone H4 acetylated at Lysine 16 (H4K16ac). Single fibre analysis showed that this modification spans the entire body of the gene. Furthermore, H4K16ac genes cluster in regions up to 500 Kb alternating active and inactive chromatin. The introduction of H4K16ac in chromatin induces stiffness in the chromatin fibre. The result of this change in flexibility is that chromatin could behave like a multi-block copolymer with repetitions of stiff-flexible (active-inactive chromatin) components. Copolymers with such structure self-organize through spontaneous phase separation into microdomains. Consistent with such model H4K16ac chromatin form foci that associates with nascent transcripts. We propose that transcription factories are the result of the spontaneous concentration of H4K16ac chromatin that are in proximity, mainly in cis

  13. Factorial complexity and Morally Debatable Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldo Muchotrigo, Mirian P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, from the scientific and professional practice point of view, comes out the necessity to know more about moral permissiveness, as it seems to be an increase in “moral relativism”.. Because it, it this is important to have tools to collect valid and reliable information about moral in social situations defined as social and personal behavior issue. This paper presents a technical note of The Morally Debatable Behaviors Scale (MDBS from Harding & Phillips (1986, which was developed in USA and mainly focused on young people and adults. This technical note makes direct reference to a recent Latin American study (Merino & Grimaldo, 2010; this article focuses on the internal structure and the problems associated with evidences of factorial complexity among items of the MDBS. This means that the interpretation of scores is not factorially simple and could not be achieved by a conceptual distinction between the latent constructs applied to the study sample.. The results in the previous study of the factorial complexity leads the researcher to decide whether an instrument for measuring this aspect may contain a reasonable amount of complexity that is consistent with what is in reality, or look for the unidimensional and simple structure.

  14. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e + e - collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings

  15. Engineering Robustness of Microbial Cell Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwei; Nielsen, Jens; Zhou, Yongjin J

    2017-10-01

    Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology offer great prospects in developing microbial cell factories capable of converting renewable feedstocks into fuels, chemicals, food ingredients, and pharmaceuticals. However, prohibitively low production rate and mass concentration remain the major hurdles in industrial processes even though the biosynthetic pathways are comprehensively optimized. These limitations are caused by a variety of factors unamenable for host cell survival, such as harsh industrial conditions, fermentation inhibitors from biomass hydrolysates, and toxic compounds including metabolic intermediates and valuable target products. Therefore, engineered microbes with robust phenotypes is essential for achieving higher yield and productivity. In this review, the recent advances in engineering robustness and tolerance of cell factories is described to cope with these issues and briefly introduce novel strategies with great potential to enhance the robustness of cell factories, including metabolic pathway balancing, transporter engineering, and adaptive laboratory evolution. This review also highlights the integration of advanced systems and synthetic biology principles toward engineering the harmony of overall cell function, more than the specific pathways or enzymes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Cortese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs. Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton. : Cortese et al. show that ZIKV infection in both human hepatoma and neuronal progenitor cells induces drastic structural modification of the cellular architecture. Microtubules and intermediate filaments surround the viral replication factory composed of vesicles corresponding to ER membrane invagination toward the ER lumen. Importantly, alteration of microtubule flexibility impairs ZIKV replication. Keywords: Zika virus, flavivirus, human neural progenitor cells, replication factories, replication organelles, microtubules, intermediate filaments, electron microscopy, electron tomography, live-cell imaging

  17. Synthetic yeast based cell factories for vanillin-glucoside production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas

    and controlled expression/overexpression of genes of interest. De novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin-β-glucoside production was employed as a model system for several case studies in this project. In order to construct yeast cell factories fulfilling current demands of industrial biotechnology, methods...... method was further applied for balancing vanillin-β-glucoside production in S. cerevisiae. It was previously demonstrated that de novo biosynthetic pathway is not capable to efficiently convert its precursor metabolite into vanillin-β-glucoside, which resulted in significant accumulation of several...... intermediates. Here, the gene amplification system was used to systematically overexpress individual genes or gene combinations of the biosynthetic pathway. Using this strategy, metabolic bottlenecks were identified and the production yield of vanillin-β-glucoside was 6-fold improved. Several S. cerevisiae...

  18. Down sampled signal processing for a B Factory bunch-by-bunch feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindi, H.; Hosseini, W.; Briggs, D.; Fox, J.; Hutton, A.

    1992-03-01

    A bunch-by-bunch feedback scheme is studied for damping coupled bunch synchrotron oscillations in the proposed PEP II B Factory. The quasi-linear feedback systems design incorporates a phase detector to provide a quantized measure of bunch phase, digital signal processing to compute an error correction signal and a kicker system to correct the energy of the bunches. A farm of digital processors, operating in parallel, is proposed to compute correction signals for the 1658 bunches of the B Factory. This paper studies the use of down sampled processing to reduce the computational complexity of the feedback system. We present simulation results showing the effect of down sampling on beam dynamics. Results show that down sampled processing can reduce the scale of the processing task by a factor of 10

  19. NEUTRINO FACTORY BASED ON MUON-STORAGE-RINGS TO MUON COLLIDERS: PHYSICS AND FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSA, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Intense muon sources for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beamsfactory) represents very interesting possibilities. If successful, such efforts would significantly advance the state of muon technology and provides intermediate steps in technologies required for a future high energy muon collider complex. High intensity muon: production, capture, cooling, acceleration and multi-turn muon storage rings are some of the key technology issues that needs more studies and developments, and will briefly be discussed here. A muon collider requires basically the same number of muons as for the muon storage ring neutrino factory, but would require more cooling, and simultaneous capture of both ± μ. We present some physics possibilities, muon storage ring based neutrino facility concept, site specific examples including collaboration feasibility studies, and upgrades to a full collider

  20. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-07

    project was approved by the DOE Technical Topic Manager to develop magnets for the Mu2e experiment that fit well into the Fermilab Technical Division availability. The difference between the MCC helical solenoid and the Mu2e bent solenoid described in Appendix I is that the helical solenoid is made of coils that are in parallel planes with offset centers, while the coils in the bent solenoid follow the central particle trajectory and look much like a “slinky” toy. The muon-beam cooling-channel technologies developed in this project will enable a muon collider, the next step toward the energy frontier, Higgs/neutrino/Z-factories, and rare muon decay experiments. Commercial uses of the beams made possible by the cooling techniques developed in this project include scanning for nuclear contraband, studies of material properties with spin resonance techniques, and muon-catalyzed fusion.

  1. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2015-01-01

    DOE Technical Topic Manager to develop magnets for the Mu2e experiment that fit well into the Fermilab Technical Division availability. The difference between the MCC helical solenoid and the Mu2e bent solenoid described in Appendix I is that the helical solenoid is made of coils that are in parallel planes with offset centers, while the coils in the bent solenoid follow the central particle trajectory and look much like a @slinky@ toy. The muon-beam cooling-channel technologies developed in this project will enable a muon collider, the next step toward the energy frontier, Higgs/neutrino/Z-factories, and rare muon decay experiments. Commercial uses of the beams made possible by the cooling techniques developed in this project include scanning for nuclear contraband, studies of material properties with spin resonance techniques, and muon-catalyzed fusion.

  2. Development of a super B-factory monolithic active pixel detector-the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, G.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Fang, F.; Hazumi, M.; Igarashi, A.; Iwaida, S.; Kennedy, J.; Kent, N.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Stanic, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years great progress has been made in the technological development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) such that upgrades to existing vertex detectors using this technology are now actively being considered. Future vertex detection at an upgraded KEK-B factory, already the highest luminosity collider in the world, will require a detector technology capable of withstanding the increased track densities and larger radiation exposures. Near the beam pipe the current silicon strip detectors have projected occupancies in excess of 100%. Deep sub-micron MAPS look very promising to address this problem. In the context of an upgrade to the Belle vertex detector, the major obstacles to realizing such a device have been concerns about radiation hardness and readout speed. Two prototypes implemented in the TSMC 0.35 μm process have been developed to address these issues. Denoted the Continuous Acquisition Pixel, or CAP, the two variants of this architecture are distinguished in that CAP2 includes an 8-deep sampling pipeline within each 22.5 μm 2 pixel. Preliminary test results and remaining R and D issues are presented

  3. Beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the open-quotes Boosterclose quotes and open-quotes ATLASclose quotes linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates

  4. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.; Strikman, M.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1991-01-01

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 10 9 B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 10 9 B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs

  5. Stochastic nonlinear beam equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzezniak, Z.; Maslowski, Bohdan; Seidler, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2005), s. 119-149 ISSN 0178-8051 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/1197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stochastic beam equation * stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.896, year: 2005

  6. Recycled Paper Beam Sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kristin; Tabacchi, Jo

    2011-01-01

    As art department budgets across the country continue to shrink, art teachers are increasingly on the lookout for inexpensive materials that can be used to teach a range of concepts. In this article, the authors describe a newspaper beam tower project inspired by the book, "The Wonderful Towers of Watts" by Patricia Zelver. There are many more…

  7. Noninterceptive transverse beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.; Minerbo, G.N.; Teel, L.E. Jr.; Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The transverse emittance properties of a high-current linear accelerator may be measured by using TV cameras sensitive to the visible radiation emitted following beam interactions with residual gas. This paper describes the TV system being used to measure emittances for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project

  8. In-Factory Learning - Qualification For The Factory Of The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, Fabian; Mura, Katharina; Gorecky, Dominic

    2015-07-01

    The Industry 4.0 vision anticipates that internet technologies will find their way into future factories replacing traditional components by dynamic and intelligent cyber-physical systems (CPS) that combine the physical objects with their digital representation. Reducing the gap between the real and digital world makes the factory environment more flexible, more adaptive, but also more complex for the human workers. Future workers require interdisciplinary competencies from engineering, information technology, and computer science in order to understand and manage the diverse interrelations between physical objects and their digital counterpart. This paper proposes a mixed-reality based learning environment, which combines physical objects and visualisation of digital content via Augmented Reality. It uses reality-based interaction in order to make the dynamic interrelations between real and digital factory visible and tangible. We argue that our learning system does not work as a stand-alone solution, but should fit into existing academic and advanced training curricula.

  9. Confirmatory factorial analysis of TEOSQp / Análise factorial confirmatória do TEOSQp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder M. Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (by gender of the Portuguese version of TEOSQ –Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Data were collected from 1010 physical education students with a mean age of 15.42 ( SD=1.91. Factorial and invariance measurements were tested via confirmatory factorial analysis. Results supported internal consistency for the two proposed subscales (task and ego. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification the TEOSQ p was reduced to 12 items with better goodness-of-fit indices for the oblique model. The results of gender invariance did not provide full empirical support to the multi-group equivalence assumption, being suggested that TEOSQ p does not measure in the same way goal orientations for boys (orthogonal model and girls (oblique model. In light of these results, conceptual, empirical and practical issues were discussed.

  10. The Tau-Charm Factory in the ERA of B-Factories and CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, L.V.; Perl, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper is a collection of presentations made at a conference on tau-charm factories, held at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Stanford University on August 15-16, 1994. The papers presented summarize the physics which can be learned from such a facility, the advantages it would present over planned B-factories and large centers such as CESR, and the types of decay modes which could be observed. More detailed studies of tau physics are opened up, as well as charmonium and charmed systems. Seperate presentations to the proceedings are indexed individually into the database

  11. Resonance Excitation of Longitudinal High Order Modes in Project X Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabiboulline, T.N.; Sukhanov, A.AUTHOR = Awida, M.; Gonin, I.; Lunin, A.AUTHOR = Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Results of simulation of power loss due to excitation of longitudinal high order modes (HOMs) in the accelerating superconducting RF system of CW linac of Project X are presented. Beam structures corresponding to the various modes of Project X operation are considered: CW regime for 3 GeV physics program; pulsed mode for neutrino experiments; and pulsed regime, when Project X linac operates as a driver for Neutrino Factory/Muon Collider. Power loss and associated heat load due to resonance excitation of longitudinal HOMs are shown to be small in all modes of operation. Conclusion is made that HOM couplers can be removed from the design of superconducting RF cavities of Project X linac.

  12. Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.

    2014-12-01

    Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.

  13. Elliptical beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandres, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2008-12-08

    A very general beam solution of the paraxial wave equation in elliptic cylindrical coordinates is presented. We call such a field an elliptic beam (EB). The complex amplitude of the EB is described by either the generalized Ince functions or the Whittaker-Hill functions and is characterized by four parameters that are complex in the most general situation. The propagation through complex ABCD optical systems and the conditions for square integrability are studied in detail. Special cases of the EB are the standard, elegant, and generalized Ince-Gauss beams, Mathieu-Gauss beams, among others.

  14. FASER Rescue Equipment and Mining Lamp Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala, L.

    1984-12-01

    The history of the FASER Rescue Equipment and Mining Lamp Factory founded in 1924 is discussed. Plant development from 1924 to 1939 and from 1947 to 1984 is evaluated. The FASER Plant has been subordinated to the EMAG Center for Research and Production of Electrical Engineering and Mine Automation since 1980. Equipment manufactured by the plant is discussed: oxygen respirators, canisters, protective clothing, control systems and measuring instruments used in mine rescue, medical equipment, lighting systems and light bulbs for underground mines. Some problems associated with manufacturing processes are evaluated: manufacturing equipment, manufacturing technologies, quality of rescue equipment, innovation and its economic significance, etc.

  15. The Personal Software Process: Downscaling the factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Daniel M.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that the next wave of software process improvement (SPI) activities will be based on a people-centered paradigm. The most promising such paradigm, Watts Humphrey's personal software process (PSP), is summarized and its advantages are listed. The concepts of the PSP are shown also to fit a down-scaled version of Basili's experience factory. The author's data and lessons learned while practicing the PSP are presented along with personal experience, observations, and advice from the perspective of a consultant and teacher for the personal software process.

  16. Advanced manufacturing: optimising the factories of tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippon, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Faced with competition Patrick Philippon - Les Defis du CEA no.179 - April 2013 from the emerging countries, the competitiveness of the industrialised nations depends on the ability of their industries to innovate. This strategy necessarily entails the reorganisation and optimisation of the production systems. This is the whole challenge for 'advanced manufacturing', which relies on the new information and communication technologies. Interactive robotics, virtual reality and non-destructive testing are all technological building blocks developed by CEA, now approved within a cross-cutting programme, to meet the needs of industry and together build the factories of tomorrow. (author)

  17. Racetrack lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servranckx, R.V.; Craddock, M.K.

    1989-05-01

    Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. The arcs of the large rings have a regular FODO structure with a superimposed six-fold symmetric modulation of the betafunction in order to raise γ t to infinity. In the small rings, γ t is kept high enough by choosing a sufficiently large phase advance in the arcs. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. The ion-optical properties of the lattices and the results from tracking studies are discussed

  18. Compact scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Yasuo; Inami, Nobuhito; Ono, Kanta; Suga, Hiroki; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and performance of a compact scanning transmission X-ray microscope developed at the Photon Factory. Piezo-driven linear stages are used as coarse stages of the microscope to realize excellent compactness, mobility, and vibrational and thermal stability. An X-ray beam with an intensity of ∼10 7 photons/s was focused to a diameter of ∼40 nm at the sample. At the soft X-ray undulator beamline used with the microscope, a wide range of photon energies (250–1600 eV) is available. The microscope has been used to research energy materials and in environmental sciences

  19. Beam line design using G4BeamLine

    CERN Document Server

    Dogan, Arda

    2014-01-01

    In Turkey in Ankara TAEK SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility (PAF), there is a cyclotron which produces a focused intense 30 MeV proton beam and sends this beam to four different arms, three of which uses this beam to produce pharmaceutical medicine. The remaining one is spared for R&D purposes and the idea was to use these protons coming out from the fourth arm to use space radiation tests, which cannot be done in Turkey at the moment. However, according to SCC 25100 standards which is for 30 MeV protons, the beam coming out of cyclotron is too intense and focused to use for space radiation tests. Therefore, the main aim of my project is to design a beam line which will defocus the beam and reduce the flux so that the space radiation tests can be done according to the standards of SCC 25100.

  20. ISOL based radioactive nuclear beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.

    1991-07-01

    High-intensity and high-quality unstable nuclear beams can be realized by coupling an isotope separator on-line and a proper post accelerator in various primary beams. Some technical features and problems in the production of such beams are discussed. A brief description is given on 'Exotic Nuclei Arena' in Japanese Hadron Project. (author)

  1. Future prospects for radioactive nuclear beams in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    In 1989 this author proposed the construction of a dedicated, flexible, radioactive nuclear beams facility that would provide intense beams of nearly all elements for a program of scientific studies in nuclear structure, nuclear reaction dynamics, astrophysics, high-spin physics, nuclei far from stability, material- and surface science, and atomic- and hyperfine-interaction physics. The initial name proposed for the new facility was ''IsoSpin Factory'' to underscore the key feature of this new physics tool; it was later changed to ''IsoSpin Laboratory'' (ISL). The ISL is now supported by a broad base of nuclear scientists and has been identified in the US Long Range Plan on Nuclear Science as one of the new potential construction projects for the second part of this decade. Since 1989 a number of conferences and workshops has been held in which the scientific and technical case for RNB facilities has been made. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the North American plan for the ISL, which was initially summarized in a ''White Paper'' but has since evolved in its scientific and technical scop

  2. Rare B decays at B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, Karim

    2010-01-01

    Radiative and Electroweak Penguin Decays are Flavor Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC) occurring in the Standard Model only at the loop level. They are characterized by high sensitivity to New Physics (they can appear in the loop with size comparable to leading SM contributions) and they are Complementary to the direct production of new particles expected at LHC. Huge datasets collected at the two B- factories, BaBar and Belle, have made it possible to explore precisely these decays in exclusive channels and inclusive measurements. b →sγ, b→dγ, b→s l + l - , B + →τν, B→Dτν etc measured provide tests of SM predictions and interesting BSM constraints: Charged Higgs bounds from b →sγ, B + →τν, B + →Dτν; Constraints on Wilson coefficients C 7 , C 9 and C 10 ; and Constraints on |V td |/|V ts |. They provide interesting signatures: B(B + →τ + ν) direct measurement versus CKM fit; and large forward-backward asymmetry of K* l + l - . Final Belle/BaBar data samples are yet to be analyzed and even more interesting results are expected at Super B factories with two orders of magnitude larger data samples

  3. Muon Acceleration: Neutrino Factory and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Alex [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-03-01

    We summarize the current state of a concept for muon acceleration aimed at a future Neutrino Factory and extendable to Higgs Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance by exploring the interplay between the complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival for the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to an initially low RF frequency, e.g., 325 MHz, which is then increased to 650 MHz as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. We consider an SRF-efficient design based on a multi-pass (4.5) ?dogbone? RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  4. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available positions of p zeros of intensity distributions on the Gaussian beam, resulting to a generation of TEMp0 beams where there are minimum losses. The LGBs are well-known family of exact orthogonal solutions of free-space paraxial wave equation in cylindrical...

  5. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2008-01-01

    Most beam measurements are based on the electro-magnetic interaction of fields induced by the beam with their environment. Beam current transformers as well as beam position monitors are based on this principle. The signals induced in the sensors must be amplified and shaped before they are converted into numerical values. These values are further treated numerically in order to extract meaningful machine parameter measurements. The lecture introduces the architecture of an instrument and shows where in the treatment chain digital signal analysis can be introduced. Then the use of digital signal processing is presented using tune measurements, orbit and trajectory measurements as well as beam loss detection and longitudinal phase space tomography as examples. The hardware as well as the treatment algorithms and their implementation on Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) or in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are presented.

  6. Beam dancer fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    To accomplish fusion of two or more fusion fuel elements numerous minute spots of energy or laser light are directed to a micro target area, there to be moved or danced about by a precision mechanical controlling apparatus at the source of the laser light or electromagnetic energy beams, so that merging and coinciding patterns of light or energy beams can occur around the area of the fuel atoms or ions. The projecting of these merging patterns may be considered as target searching techniques to locate responsive clusters of fuel elements and to compress such elements into a condition in which fusion may occur. Computerized programming may be used

  7. GTK beam test 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Vostinic, Snezana

    2017-01-01

    The GTK is in operation at NA62 since 2014 and is among the few silicon pixel detectors performing 4D tracking. This summer, a beam test was conducted to study the phenomena determining the detector time resolution. The project described here contributed to the beam test preparation, data taking and data analyses. One of the main goals of the test was to understand the weight field contribution to the detector time resolution. This field is distorting the signal pulse shape at the edge of the pixel. Hence, to study this effect, the position of the hits inside the pixel has to be determined. An external telescope was therefore used for this purpose.

  8. Masking system and background estimation at the interaction region of KEK B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, S.

    1991-01-01

    There are two sources of beam background in any positron-electron collider experiment. One source is the synchrotron radiation from bending magnets and quadrupole magnets. Another source of the background comes from spent electrons which hit the beam pipe near the interaction region because of over-bending. To reduce such backgrounds, the careful design of a masking system is important. A masking system has been designed based on the insertion design. Although the critical energy of synchrotron radiation is rather low in the proposed B-Factory, the number of photons with energy higher than 5 keV is large. Those must be reduced by a set of several masks and the optimized radius of the beam pipe. the beryllium beam pipe, the arrangement of horizontal masks and the shadowed region caused by a mask are shown. The background contribution from spent electrons were studied using the DECAY TURTLE code. During injection, beam loss might be significantly large, and radiation damage might occur. This can be prevented by placing another mask far away from the interaction point. (k.I.)

  9. Exact fan-beam and 4π-acquisition cone-beam SPECT algorithms with uniform attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qiulin; Zeng, Gengsheng L.; Wu Jiansheng; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents analytical fan-beam and cone-beam reconstruction algorithms that compensate for uniform attenuation in single photon emission computed tomography. First, a fan-beam algorithm is developed by obtaining a relationship between the two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform of parallel-beam projections and fan-beam projections. Using this relationship, 2D Fourier transforms of equivalent parallel-beam projection data are obtained from the fan-beam projection data. Then a quasioptimal analytical reconstruction algorithm for uniformly attenuated Radon data, developed by Metz and Pan, is used to reconstruct the image. A cone-beam algorithm is developed by extending the fan-beam algorithm to 4π solid angle geometry. The cone-beam algorithm is also an exact algorithm

  10. The physics program and status of the SLAC B-Factory and detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearty, C.

    1994-05-01

    The goal of the SLAC B-Factory is to measure CP violation in the decay of B-mesons and to test the standard model description of CP violation. Work is now underway in upgrading the PEP collider for this project, and much of the preliminary detector design has been done. The physics goals and design of PEP-II are briefly discussed, and the current plans for the detector are outlined

  11. Beam Fields in an Integrated Cavity, Coupler and Window Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2010-02-10

    In a multi-bunch high current storage ring, beam generated fields couple strongly into the RF cavity coupler structure when beam arrival times are in resonance with cavity fields. In this study the integrated effect of beam fields over several thousand RF periods is simulated for the complete cavity, coupler, window and waveguide system of the PEP-II B-factory storage ring collider. We show that the beam generated fields at frequencies corresponding to several bunch spacings for this case gives rise to high field strength near the ceramic window which could limit the performance of future high current storage rings such as PEP-X or Super B-factories.

  12. Lifestyles and Periodontal Disease of Japanese Factory Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Yukie, YOSHIDA; Yukiko, OGAWA; Masahide, IMAKI; Takeo, NAKAMURA; Seiki, TANADA; Osaka Prefectural College of Health Science; Osaka Prefectural College of Health Science; Osaka Prefectural College of Health Science; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University

    1997-01-01

    The association between lifestyle and periodontal disease as classified by the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) was investigated in 1, 821 factory workers, 20-69 years of age, residing in Osaka, Japan. Lifestyles were examined using a questionnaire concerning the smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical exercise, sleeping hours and dietary habits of male factory workers. Age and sex were strongly associated with the CPITN score. In the male factory workers, the CPIT...

  13. INDOOR THERMAL CONDITION OF FACTORY BUILDING IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Abdullah Al Sayem Khan; Mohd. Hamdan Ahmad; Tareef Hayat Khan

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country and has a lot of factories for different products for local use and also export to abroad. Garments industries are one of the top most items of exported items. A huge number of populations are working in garments industries. But these factories are not well designed in sense of the thermal environment. Workers experiences sickness related to indoor environment. The productions of these factories are affected due to employees’ health condition. The research i...

  14. Maskless lithography: estimation of the number of shots for each layer in a logic device with character-projection-type low-energy electron-beam direct writing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanami, Ryoichi; Magoshi, Shunko; Kousai, Shouhei; Ando, Atsushi; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Mori, Ichiro; Sugihara, Kazuyoshi; Miura, Akira

    2003-06-01

    Electron beam direct writing (EBDW) system is at the head of systems fabricating circuit patterns by maskless. But the throughput of EBDW is very poor beause very large number of electron beam (EB) shots are requested for exposure of whole patterns on a wafer. We had proposed methods of reduction of the number of EB shots with Character Projection (CP) and designing the best devicve pattern for CP-EBDW to fabricate logic devices such as ASIC or SoC device. Though the method is effective to Front-End-Of-Line (FEOL) layers of cell based logic deviec, Back-End-Of-Line (BEOL) layers cannot be exposed by the method with small number of characters and EB shots. Now, we will propose methods for appropriate CP exposure and data processign for patterns in BEOL layers. By the methods, each BEOL layer in a typical logic device cna be exposed with throughputs about 6 to 8 wafers/h, with a Low-energy-EBDW system produced by e-BEAM Corporation, named "EBIS".

  15. SU-G-BRA-10: Marker Free Lung Tumor Motion Tracking by An Active Contour Model On Cone Beam CT Projections for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, M; Yuan, Y; Lo, Y [The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Wei, J [City College of New York, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel strategy to extract the lung tumor motion from cone beam CT (CBCT) projections by an active contour model with interpolated respiration learned from diaphragm motion. Methods: Tumor tracking on CBCT projections was accomplished with the templates derived from planning CT (pCT). There are three major steps in the proposed algorithm: 1) The pCT was modified to form two CT sets: a tumor removed pCT and a tumor only pCT, the respective digitally reconstructed radiographs DRRtr and DRRto following the same geometry of the CBCT projections were generated correspondingly. 2) The DRRtr was rigidly registered with the CBCT projections on the frame-by-frame basis. Difference images between CBCT projections and the registered DRRtr were generated where the tumor visibility was appreciably enhanced. 3) An active contour method was applied to track the tumor motion on the tumor enhanced projections with DRRto as templates to initialize the tumor tracking while the respiratory motion was compensated for by interpolating the diaphragm motion estimated by our novel constrained linear regression approach. CBCT and pCT from five patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy were included in addition to scans from a Quasar phantom programmed with known motion. Manual tumor tracking was performed on CBCT projections and was compared to the automatic tracking to evaluate the algorithm accuracy. Results: The phantom study showed that the error between the automatic tracking and the ground truth was within 0.2mm. For the patients the discrepancy between the calculation and the manual tracking was between 1.4 and 2.2 mm depending on the location and shape of the lung tumor. Similar patterns were observed in the frequency domain. Conclusion: The new algorithm demonstrated the feasibility to track the lung tumor from noisy CBCT projections, providing a potential solution to better motion management for lung radiation therapy.

  16. SU-G-BRA-10: Marker Free Lung Tumor Motion Tracking by An Active Contour Model On Cone Beam CT Projections for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, M; Yuan, Y; Lo, Y; Wei, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel strategy to extract the lung tumor motion from cone beam CT (CBCT) projections by an active contour model with interpolated respiration learned from diaphragm motion. Methods: Tumor tracking on CBCT projections was accomplished with the templates derived from planning CT (pCT). There are three major steps in the proposed algorithm: 1) The pCT was modified to form two CT sets: a tumor removed pCT and a tumor only pCT, the respective digitally reconstructed radiographs DRRtr and DRRto following the same geometry of the CBCT projections were generated correspondingly. 2) The DRRtr was rigidly registered with the CBCT projections on the frame-by-frame basis. Difference images between CBCT projections and the registered DRRtr were generated where the tumor visibility was appreciably enhanced. 3) An active contour method was applied to track the tumor motion on the tumor enhanced projections with DRRto as templates to initialize the tumor tracking while the respiratory motion was compensated for by interpolating the diaphragm motion estimated by our novel constrained linear regression approach. CBCT and pCT from five patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy were included in addition to scans from a Quasar phantom programmed with known motion. Manual tumor tracking was performed on CBCT projections and was compared to the automatic tracking to evaluate the algorithm accuracy. Results: The phantom study showed that the error between the automatic tracking and the ground truth was within 0.2mm. For the patients the discrepancy between the calculation and the manual tracking was between 1.4 and 2.2 mm depending on the location and shape of the lung tumor. Similar patterns were observed in the frequency domain. Conclusion: The new algorithm demonstrated the feasibility to track the lung tumor from noisy CBCT projections, providing a potential solution to better motion management for lung radiation therapy.

  17. LETTER REPORT - INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT FAN HOUSE, BUILDING 704 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on August 17 through August 23, 2010 to perform visual inspections and conduct independent measurement and sampling of the 'Outside Areas' at the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) decommissioning project. During this visit, ORISE was also able to evaluate Fan House, Building 704 survey units (SUs) 4 and 5, which are part of the Underground Utilities portion of the HFBR decommissioning project. ORISE performed limited alpha plus beta scans of the remaining Fan House foundation lower walls and remaining pedestals while collecting static measurements. Scans were performed using gas proportional detectors coupled to ratemeter-scalers with audible output and encompassed an area of approximately 1 square meter around the static measurement location. Alpha plus beta scans ranged from 120 to 460 cpm. Twenty smears for gross alpha and beta activity and tritium were collected at judgmentally selected locations on the walls and pedestals of the Fan House foundation. Attention was given to joints, cracks, and penetrations when determining each sample location. Removable concentrations ranged from -0.43 to 1.73 dpm/100 cm2 for alpha and -3.64 to 7.80 dpm/100 cm2 for beta. Tritium results for smears ranged from -1.9 to 9.0 pCi/g. On the concrete pad, 100% of accessible area was scanned using a large area alpha plus beta gas proportional detector coupled to a ratemeter-scaler. Gross scan count rates ranged from 800 to 1500 cpm using the large area detector. Three concrete samples were collected from the pad primarily for tritium analysis. Tritium concentrations in concrete samples ranged from 53.3 to 127.5 pCi/g. Gamma spectroscopy results of radionuclide concentrations in concrete samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.11 pCi/g for Cs-137 and 0.19 to 0.22 pCi/g for Ra-226. High density scans for gamma radiation levels were performed in accessible areas in each SU, Fan House

  18. Proceedings of B Factories, the state of the art in accelerators, detectors and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitlin, D. (ed.) (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The conference B Factories, The State of the Art in Accelerators, Detectors and Physics was held at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on April 6-10, 1992. The guiding principle of the conference was to bring together accelerator physicists and high energy experimentalists and theorists at the same time, with the goal of encouraging communication in defining and solving problems in a way which cut across narrow areas of specialization. Thus the conference was, in large measure, two distinct conferences, one involving accelerator specialists, the other theorists and experimentalists. There were initial and closing plenary sessions, and three separate tracks of parallel sessions, called Accelerator, Detector/Physics and Joint Interest sessions. This report contains the papers of this conference, the general topics of these cover: vacuum system, lattice design, beam-beam interactions, rf systems, feedback systems, measuring instrumentation, the interaction region, radiation background, particle detectors, particle tracking and identification, data acquisition, and computing system, and particle theory.

  19. Continuous synchronization scheme for TRIUMF KAON Factory Booster and Collector by heterodyne with intermediate frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.R.

    1992-08-01

    Often it arises that several batches of protons must be transferred in box-car fashion from a Booster to Main Ring synchrotron. When the combination (i) large change in kinematic β, (ii) γ-transition close to γ-beam, (iii) small radial aperture confining Δp/p s steering, and (iv) absence of magnetic flat top, occur in the Booster, then conventional phase slip methods of synchronization become infeasible. An alternative is to heterodyne the Booster revolution frequency with an intermediate frequency (of predetermined phase variation) so as to produce a signal equal to a harmonic of the main ring revolution frequency. This allows elaboration of a synchronization control. This paper describes computer modelling of the synchronization technique, as applied to the KAON Factory Booster and Collector, including the effects of error sources and beam-control loops. 4 figs

  20. μ+N→τ+N at a muon or neutrino factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, Marc; Turan, Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The experimental discovery of large ν μ -ν τ mixing indicates that analogous mixing in the charged lepton sector could be substantial. We consider the possibility that if a high intensity muon beam, perhaps at the early stages of a muon or neutrino factory, strikes a nuclear target, then conversion of some of the muons into tau leptons could occur (similar to the conversion of muons to electrons at MECO). Using current experimental limits on rare tau decays to bound the size of the relevant operators, we find that a 50 GeV muon beam, with 10 20 muons on target per year, could yield as many as 10 7 μ+N→τ+N events per year. Backgrounds could be substantial, and we comment on the possibility of detection of this process

  1. Proceedings of B Factories, the state of the art in accelerators, detectors and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitlin, D.

    1992-11-01

    The conference B Factories, The State of the Art in Accelerators, Detectors and Physics was held at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on April 6-10, 1992. The guiding principle of the conference was to bring together accelerator physicists and high energy experimentalists and theorists at the same time, with the goal of encouraging communication in defining and solving problems in a way which cut across narrow areas of specialization. Thus the conference was, in large measure, two distinct conferences, one involving accelerator specialists, the other theorists and experimentalists. There were initial and closing plenary sessions, and three separate tracks of parallel sessions, called Accelerator, Detector/Physics and Joint Interest sessions. This report contains the papers of this conference, the general topics of these cover: vacuum system, lattice design, beam-beam interactions, rf systems, feedback systems, measuring instrumentation, the interaction region, radiation background, particle detectors, particle tracking and identification, data acquisition, and computing system, and particle theory

  2. AutoPyFactory and the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, P

    2013-01-01

    AutoPyFactory (APF) is a next-generation pilot submission framework that has been used as part of the ATLAS workload management system (PANDA) for two years. APF is reliable, scalable, and offers easy and flexible configuration. Using a plugin-based architecture, APF polls for information from configured information and batch systems (including grid sites), decides how many additional pilot jobs are needed, and submits them. With the advent of cloud computing, providing resources goes beyond submitting pilots to grid sites. Now, the resources on which the pilot will run also need to be managed. Handling both pilot submission and controlling the virtual machine life cycle (creation, retirement, and termination) from the same framework allows robust and efficient management of the process. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of these virtual machine management capabilities of APF. Expanding on our plugin-based approach, we allow cascades of virtual resources associated with a job queue. A si...

  3. Producción escrita: Estructura factorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esperanza HERRERA GARCÍA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se planteó con la idea de comprobar de forma empírica si los indicadores lingüísticos obtenidos en investigaciones realizadas sobre comprensión lectora aparecían también como significativos en el análisis de la producción escrita. Si bien la investigación psicológica ha demostrado en numerosas ocasiones la relación existente entre comprensión y producción en el sentido de una maduración anterior de la primera con respecto a la segunda, podemos considerar a priori la existencia de indicadores que nos permitan medir ambos aspectos. Para ello buscamos la estructura factorial que presentan los indicadores lingüísticos que vamos a considerar y comprobaremos si presenta los factores encontrados en comprensión lectora.

  4. Achille Maramotti, between factory and collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pirozzi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes Achille Maramotti’s figure and links between entrepreneurship and his passion for art and contemporary collections: from the desire to expose his private collection inside Max Mara factory to create a collection that was the mirror of the artistic experiments of his time. The article analyzes the critical contributions in the development of Maramotti Collection and, in particular, the relationship between Achille Maramotti and Mario Diacono that, as the Emilian collector, is expert and admirer of European and American painting of the second half of the twentieth century. Achille Maramotti, sons and daughter are considered among the most influential collectors in the world, and represents a successful example of contemporary art collection linked to the image and business management; the Max Mara fashion house.

  5. The EC's next global warming factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, A.

    1993-12-01

    Greenpeace suggests that, because they waste far more of the fuel's energy than they transform into electricity, fossil fuel power plants would more accurately be called global warming factories. Electricity is effectively only a by-product. Although the European Community's Energy and Environment ministers three years ago agreed to stabilise rising CO 2 emissions, the strategy proposed by the European Commission would have virtually no impact on the electricity sector, the largest source of CO 2 . Emissions threaten to be 17% higher in 2000 than in 1990 yet power companies are building more plants. Greenpeace has compiled a list of the next 145 global warming factories in the EC amounting to 90,000 MW with the potential to emit around 375 million tonnes CO 2 per year. More strenuous efforts must be made to curb CO 2 emissions. A UN panel of the world's leading climate scientists has confirmed its earlier findings justifying deep cuts in CO 2 emissions. Part of the solution lies in severing the link between electricity sales and power companies' profits. Even the best efforts to save energy will be undermined by the power sector unless its profitability is coupled to improving customer energy efficiency. A planning framework along these lines known as Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) has performed successfully in North America for over a decade. Greenpeace is calling for a moratorium on power plant construction until options for saving energy are exhausted and a shake-up of the power sector in Europe to put energy efficiency first with the rapid introduction of new power planning legislation at national and Community levels concerning IRP. 2 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Evolution of the Factory 1975-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Since it was founded in 1973. Equipos Nucleares (ENSA) has been actively present in the nuclear market. This was the reason for its creation and for which it was organized from the very beginning, by designing a company with a nuclear structure and mentality. The author reviews the history and evolution of the Factory- more than a workshop- and describes its different stages, which were strongly affected by the unexpected evolution of a diminishing market- an inexistent market the likes to say- and also stresses the extraordinary difficulty of its work and the determination to remain in the nuclear market. He acknowledges the people and the culture of ENSA emphasizing their dedication, generosity, flexibility, training and enthusiasm, and stresses their stake in being the best and to attain excellence in the quality of supplies, meeting deadlines and customer satisfaction, identifying these as fundamental factors of the company's legacy. Having a better Factory is possible by improving its technological capability through researching and developing its processes, automating and robotizing manufacturing and inspection activities, and simplifying its operating systems. A result of these efforts is the continuous international presence as a supplier and collaborator with the world's leading designers, which has consolidated it as a reference supplier on the American market. Of not is the supply to the market of its different product lines a result of combining its design and manufacturing capabilities with its flexibility and size, all of which contribute to ENSA's wealth, diversity and appeal. ENSA is aware of the forthcoming resurgence of the new nuclear market. It is preparing for the future by renewing and upgrading its manufacturing facilities and implementing new systems techniques- Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma-into its Annual Improvement Plans to favor and drive its technological capability and competitiveness and to respond to the increasingly demanding

  7. Developments in non-destructive beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    With the large average beam currents being achieved in accelerators and storage rings, there is an increasing need for non-destructive beam diagnostic devices. For continuous beams, position monitors of the capacitive pick-up type are replaced by resonant devices that respond to the transverse displacement of the beam centroid. Bunch length monitors of the SLAC type using resonant cavities operating in the TM 010 mode can be used for continuous beams. The more detailed information derivable from beam profile scanners requires development of improved non-destructive devices. Profile monitors which scan the visible light produced by high current beams may be more reliable than ones using the residual ionization if the light intensity from gas molecules following nonionizing collisions with beam particles gives a measure of the beam current density independent of the local electron density. The intense Balmer series lines from neutral hydrogen beams have been used successfully to measure beam profiles. At CRNL and at LASL, beam light profile monitors are being developed for high average current accelerators. Three or more projections will be recorded to allow tomographic reconstruction of the two-dimensional beam current density. Light detection is either by intensified Reticons or ISIT vidicons. The use of three or more beam light monitors on a beam transport line will also permit estimates of the transverse emittance to be made through the reconstruction technique

  8. A machine protection beam position monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedko, E.; Smith, S.; Fisher, A.

    1998-01-01

    Loss of the stored beam in an uncontrolled manner can cause damage to the PEP-II B Factory. We describe here a device which detects large beam position excursions or unexpected beam loss and triggers the beam abort system to extract the stored beam safely. The bad-orbit abort trigger beam position monitor (BOAT BPM) generates a trigger when the beam orbit is far off the center (>20 mm), or rapid beam current loss (dI/dT) is detected. The BOAT BPM averages the input signal over one turn (136 kHz). AM demodulation is used to convert input signals at 476 MHz to baseband voltages. The detected signal goes to a filter section for suppression of the revolution frequency, then on to amplifiers, dividers, and comparators for position and current measurements and triggering. The derived current signal goes to a special filter, designed to perform dI/dT monitoring at fast, medium, and slow current loss rates. The BOAT BPM prototype test results confirm the design concepts

  9. Modular low-voltage electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, A.J.; Avnery, Tovi; Carlson, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Modular, low-voltage systems have simplified electron beam (EB) technology for industrial uses and for research and development. Modular EB units are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A simple plug-out--plug-in method of replacement eliminates downtime for servicing. Use of ultra-thin beam windows (<10 μm of titanium foil), solid-state 19 in. (48 cm) rack-mounted power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, combine for ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 and 150 kV and with high beam currents (up to 40 mA across the 25 cm window). These electron systems are available in three widths, the standard 25 cm and new 5 and 40 cm beams. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas as well as uses in surface sterilization have found these compact, lightweight (approximately 15 kg) modular beams of interest. Units have been configured around complex shapes to enable three-dimensional surface curing (as for coatings on aluminum tubing) to be achieved at high production rates. Details of the beam construction and some industrial uses are discussed

  10. Modular low-voltage electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berejka, Anthony J.; Avnery, Tovi; Carlson, Carl

    2004-09-01

    Modular, low-voltage systems have simplified electron beam (EB) technology for industrial uses and for research and development. Modular EB units are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A simple plug-out—plug-in method of replacement eliminates downtime for servicing. Use of ultra-thin beam windows (innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, combine for ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 and 150 kV and with high beam currents (up to 40 mA across the 25 cm window). These electron systems are available in three widths, the standard 25 cm and new 5 and 40 cm beams. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas as well as uses in surface sterilization have found these compact, lightweight (approximately 15 kg) modular beams of interest. Units have been configured around complex shapes to enable three-dimensional surface curing (as for coatings on aluminum tubing) to be achieved at high production rates. Details of the beam construction and some industrial uses are discussed.

  11. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams; Projeto, construcao e caracterizacao de camaras de ionizacao para utilizacao como sistemas padroes em feixes de radiacao X e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-07-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  12. Project X: Accelerator Reference Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Stephen D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-06-20

    applications of muon spin rotation techniques provide sensitive probes of the magnetic structure of materials. Goal: Provide MW-class proton beams at 1 GeV, coupled with novel targets required to support a broad range of materials science and energy applications. Platform for Evolution to Future Frontier Facilities: A high-intensity proton source will strengthen and modernize the Fermilab injector complex, providing a robust platform upon which to build future frontier facilities. The Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider are examples that would provide world-leading capabilities at the Intensity and Energy Frontiers for many decades to come. Goal: Provide a straightforward upgrade path for a 4 MW, low-duty-factor source of protons at energies between 5 and 15 GeV. These four elements are expected to form the basis of the Mission Need statement required for the Department of Energy (DOE) Critical Decision 0 (CD-0), and represent the fundamental design criteria for Project X. The following chapters present the Reference Design for the Project X accelerator facility. The Reference Design is based on a continuous wave (CW) superconducting (SC) linac providing up to 1 and 3 MW of beam power at 1 and 3 GeV respectively. A pulsed linac provides acceleration of roughly 4% of the beam delivered from the CW linac to the 8 GeV injection energy of the existing Recycler/Main Injector complex. Upgrades to the Recycler and Main Injector support a factor of three increase, beyond current capabilities, in proton beam power at 60 to 120 GeV. The Reference Design represents a facility that will be unique in the world with unmatched capabilities for the delivery of very high beam power, with flexible beam formats, to multiple users at multiple energies. The utilization of linacs within the Project X facility enables capabilities beyond what is achievable with circular accelerators. It is anticipated that the final configuration and operating parameters of the complex will be further refined through

  13. Markerless four-dimensional-cone beam computed tomography projection-phase sorting using prior knowledge and patient motion modeling: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The study demonstrated the feasibility of using PCA coefficients for 4D-CBCT projection-phase sorting. High sorting accuracy in both digital phantoms and patient cases was achieved. This method provides an accurate and robust tool for automatic 4D-CBCT projection sorting using 3D motion modeling without the need of external surrogate or internal markers.

  14. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a timeless and rather complete theoretical and experimental treatment of electric and magnetic resonance molecular-beam experiments for studying the radio frequency spectra of atoms and molecules. The theory of interactions of the nucleus with atomic and molecular fields is extensively presented. Measurements of atomic and nuclear magnetic moments, electric multipole moments, and atomic fine and hyperfine structure are detailed. Useful but somewhat outdated chapters on gas kinetics, molecular beam design, and experimental techniques are also included

  15. Beam Time Accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Seitova, Diana

    2016-01-01

    ISOLDE is one of the leading research facilities in the field of nuclear physics. A proton beam with an energy 1.4 GeV coming from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) hits one of the targets at ISOLDE and produces Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs). Then, the RIBs of interest is selected and delivered to the different experimental stations. In order to deliver the beam to the certain experimental station, the positions of the devices along the beamline should satisfy certain conditions. The purpose of this project is to define the conditions for the beam to pass through the different beamlines and to store the data about device’s status for later analysis and statistics, so it would be possible to know when the beam was used for different experiments. The data with the settings of the different devices is saved in the Timber database and the first steps for making virtual devices to compile the status of the beamlines were completed.

  16. Proton beam formation at Fermilab for μ2e (and for NF/MC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuffer, David

    2009-01-01

    Proton bunch formation from the Fermilab proton sources for the mu2e experiment is discussed. In the initial scenario a single intense h=1 bunch is formed in the Accumulator/Debuncher, with slow extraction providing the required spill. However, the mu2e experiment could use h=4 bunching in the Accumulator rather than h=1, with the 4 bunches fed one at a time into the more isochronous Debuncher for slow extraction. The h=4 variant has several advantages and a few disadvantages, and can reduce peak beam intensities, and therefore improve space charge limits. The method can be extended to project X to enable high duty cycle extraction within space charge limits. A further extension should make possible an accumulator/buncher scenario that can provide 8 GeV short bunches for a neutrino factory and/or muon collider scenario.

  17. GridFactory - Distributed computing on ephemeral resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Frederik; Niinimaki, Marko

    2011-01-01

    on demand, across organizational boundaries. Other features include firewall-friendliness, integrated software provisioning and virtual machine management. We describe the design and architecture of Grid Factory and four applications that utilize it. Moreover, we compare the performance of Grid Factory...

  18. Factorial analysis of slaughter characteristics of fattening pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... determined slaughter traits of pigs fed diets containing different additives. The results obtained in general ... was fed standard diet supplemented with probiotic Lacture and. Microbond. Pigs received food ad ... rotation, a factorial matrix was obtained whose elements are factorial ponders, and ponders of ...

  19. Parametric study of a target factory for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherohman, J.W.; Meier, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of a target factory leading to the derivation of production rate equations has provided the basis for a parametric study. Rate equations describing the production of laser fusion targets have been developed for the purpose of identifying key parameters, attractive production techniques and cost scaling relationships for a commercial target factory

  20. Factorial moment -generating function and the Pascal distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given a distribution, the cumulants or factorial moments can be used to obtain the skewness and kurtosis which in turn are used to determine the normal approximation of the given distribution. It is shown in this paper that for the Pascal Distribution, the factorial moment generating function provides a simpler technique.

  1. Review of Hosein Aabad Sugar Factory (HASF) Wastewater and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar industry is one of the largest industries in the world. Hosein Abad sugar factory (HASF) is located in Hamadan province of Iran. The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and quantity of wastewater of the said factory and to estimate the pollution load and its emission factor as prerequisite of the management ...

  2. Proceedings of the Workshop on CP Violation at KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, J.N.

    1989-07-01

    These proceedings contain the written version of eight talks delivered at the Workshop on CP Violation at KAON Factory. The articles contain reviews on the exploration of CP violation effects associated with the s-quark. Discussion on the use of intense kaon fluxes, which will be available at the proposed KAON Factory, are included

  3. Factorial validation and reliability analysis of the brain fag syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Brain fag is an indigenous psychopathology or culture-bound syndrome formally documented in Nigeria in the 1960's by Raymond Prince. Objective: The need for a factorial examination of the scale to ensure factorial validity and also to examine the reliability of this screening scale. Methods: Two hundred thirty ...

  4. Review of data and methods recommended in the international code of practice for dosimetry IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 381, The Use of Plane Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon beams. Final report of the co-ordinated research project on dose determination with plane parallel ionization chambers in therapeutic electron and photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusautoy, A.; Roos, M.; Svensson, H.; Andreo, P.

    2000-01-01

    An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project was designed to validate the data and procedures included in the International Code of Practice Technical Reports Series (TRS) No. 381, ''The Use of Plane Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon Beams''. This work reviews and analyses the procedures used and the data obtained by the participants of the project. The analysis shows that applying TRS-381 generally produces reliable results. The determination of absorbed dose to water using the electron method in reference conditions is within the stated uncertainties (2.9%). Comparisons have shown TRS-381 is consistent with the AAPM TG-39 protocol within 1% for measurements made in water. Based on the analysis, recommendations are given with respect to: (i) the use of plane parallel ionization chambers of the Markus type, (ii) the values for the fluence correction factor for cylindrical chambers, (iii) the value of the wall correction factor for the Roos chamber in 60 Co beams, and (iv) the use of plastic phantoms and the values of the fluence correction factors. (author)

  5. The Three-dimensional Digital Factory for Shipbuilding Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional digital factory technology research is the hotspot in shipbuilding recently. The three-dimensional digital factory technology not only focus on design the components of the product, but also discuss on the simulation and analyses of the production process.Based on the three-dimensional model, the basic data layer, application control layer and the presentation layer of hierarchical structure are established in the three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding in this paper. And the key technologies of three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding are analysed. Finally, a case study is applied and the results show that the three-dimensional digital factory will play an important role in the future.

  6. App Factory: A flexible approach to rehabilitation engineering in an era of rapid technology advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Mueller, James; Morris, John

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a flexible and effective approach to research and development in an era of rapid technological advancement. The approach relies on secondary dispersal of grant funds to commercial developers through a competitive selection process. This "App Factory" model balances the practical reliance on multi-year funding needed to sustain a rehabilitation engineering research center (RERC), with the need for agility and adaptability of development efforts undertaken in a rapidly changing technology environment. This approach also allows us to take advantage of technical expertise needed to accomplish a particular development task, and provides incentives to deliver successful products in a cost-effective manner. In this article, we describe the App Factory structure, process, and results achieved to date; and we discuss the lessons learned and the potential relevance of this approach for other grant-funded research and development efforts. Data presented on the direct costs and number of downloads of the 16 app development projects funded in the App Factory's first 3 years show that it can be an effective means for supporting focused, short-term assistive technology development projects.

  7. In Depth Diagnostics for RF System Operation in the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, Daniel; Fox, John; Teytelman, Dmitry; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The PEP-II RF systems incorporate numerous feedback loops in the low-level processing for impedance control and operating point regulation. The interaction of the multiple loops with the beam is complicated, and the systems incorporate online diagnostic tools to configure the feedback loops as well as to record fault files in the case of an RF abort. Rapid and consistent analysis of the RF-related beam aborts and other failures is critical to the reliable operation of the B-Factory, especially at the recently achieved high beam currents. Procedures and algorithms used to extract diagnostic information from time domain fault files are presented and illustrated via example interpretations of PEP-II fault file data. Example faults presented will highlight the subtle interpretation required to determine the root cause. Some such examples are: abort kicker firing asynchronously, klystron and cavity arcs, beam loss leading to longitudinal instability, tuner read back jumps and poorly configured low-level RF feedback loop

  8. Interleaved wide and narrow pulses for the KAON factory 1 MHz chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wait, G.D.; Barnes, M.J.; Bishop, D.; Waters, G.

    1993-01-01

    A beam chopper is required in the transfer line between the 1 GeV/c TRIUMF cyclotron and the Accumulator ring of the proposed 30 GeV/c KAON Factory synchrotron. The beam chopper must generate pulses with a magnitude of at least 9.5 kV with rise and fall times of less than 38 ns (corresponds to kick rise/fall time of less than 39 ns) at a repetition rate of 10 6 pulses per second at a 100% duty cycle. The pulse pattern must be synchronized to the 23 MHz RF system for the TRIUMF cyclotron. Two different pulse widths are required to deflect a total of 5 beam bursts out of every 45 beam bursts that are extracted from the cyclotron. The inter-leaved pulses will have flattop durations of more than 48 ns and 92 ns. Results of measurements on a prototype chopper are presented where pulses of two different widths are synchronized to an RF synthesizer and stored in a low loss delay cable. Rise and fall times of 20 ns to 40 ns have been achieved with 12 kV to 15 kV wide and narrow pulses at 1.9 x 10 6 pulses per second continuous operation

  9. A LYSO Calorimeter for the SuperB Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchi, Claudia; Germani, Stefano; Manoni, Elisa; Rossi, Alessandro; Bizzarri, Marco [Universita di Perugia e INFN Sezione di Perugia Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Recchia, Luigi [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' e INFN Sezione di Roma1 P.zzle Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Lubrano, Pasquale; Lebeau, Michel; Papi, Andrea, E-mail: claudia.cecchi@pg.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2011-04-01

    The SuperB project is an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} accelerator of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} luminosity, capable of collecting a data sample of 50-75 ab{sup -1} in five years of running. The SuperB electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC), that will be described in this paper, provides energy and direction measurement of photons and electrons, and is used for identification of electrons versus other charged particles. In particular we will present its design, geometry study and related simulations, as well as R and D on LYSO crystals, a project for the mechanical structure and development on readout and electronics. A matrix of 6 crystals has been tested this year June 2010 at the Beam Test Facility of Frascati (BTF) at energies between 200 MeV and 500 MeV, and a beam test with the complete prototype of 25 crystals is foreseen at CERN in October 2010 to cover the energy range between 500 MeV and 7 GeV.

  10. Calculation of radiative corrections to virtual compton scattering - absolute measurement of the energy of Jefferson Lab. electron beam (hall A) by a magnetic method: arc project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, D.

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents the radiative corrections to the virtual compton scattering and the magnetic method adopted in the Hall A at Jefferson Laboratory, to measure the electrons beam energy with an accuracy of 10 4 . The virtual compton scattering experiments allow the access to the generalised polarizabilities of the protons. The extraction of these polarizabilities is obtained by the experimental and theoretical cross sections comparison. That's why the systematic errors and the radiative effects of the experiments have to be controlled very seriously. In this scope, a whole calculation of the internal radiative corrections has been realised in the framework of the quantum electrodynamic. The method of the dimensional regularisation has been used to the treatment of the ultraviolet and infra-red divergences. The absolute measure method of the energy, takes into account the magnetic deviation, made up of eight identical dipoles. The energy is determined from the deviation angle calculation of the beam and the measure of the magnetic field integral along the deviation

  11. Cameo: A Python Library for Computer Aided Metabolic Engineering and Optimization of Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Joao G.R.; Jensen, Kristian; Lieven, Christian

    2018-01-01

    on proprietary software, or do not provide documented interfaces, which has precluded their mainstream adoption in the field. In this work we present cameo, a platform-independent software that enables in silico design of cell factories and targets both experienced modelers as well as users new to the field......Computational systems biology methods enable rational design of cell factories on a genome-scale and thus accelerate the engineering of cells for the production of valuable chemicals and proteins. Unfortunately, for the majority of these methods' implementations are either not published, rely....... It is written in Python and implements state-of-the-art methods for enumerating and prioritizing knock-out, knock-in, over-expression, and down-regulation strategies and combinations thereof. Cameo is an open source software project and is freely available under the Apache License 2.0. A dedicated website...

  12. Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; de Castro, Marcela Martínez; Paz, Francisco; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2008-09-01

    Workers in Mexico's maquiladoras (assembly plants) are mainly young, single women, many of whom could benefit from emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Because ECPs are readily available in Mexico, women who know about the therapy can obtain it easily. Do maquiladora workers know about the method? Could worksite programs help increase awareness? To investigate these questions, we conducted a five-month intervention during which workers in three maquiladoras along the Mexico-United States border could attend educational talks on ECPs, receive pamphlets, and obtain kits containing EC supplies. Among the workers exposed to our intervention, knowledge of ECPs increased. Reported ECP use also increased. Although our intervention apparently increased workers' knowledge and use, the factory proved to be a difficult intervention setting. Problems we experienced included a factory closure and management/staff opposition to certain project elements. Future studies should continue to investigate work-site interventions and other strategies to reach workers.

  13. The Software Engineering Laboratory: An operational software experience factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of understanding, assessing, and improving software and software processes within a production software development environment at NASA/GSFC. The SEL comprises three major organizations: (1) NASA/GSFC, Flight Dynamics Division; (2) University of Maryland, Department of Computer Science; and (3) Computer Sciences Corporation, Flight Dynamics Technology Group. These organizations have jointly carried out several hundred software studies, producing hundreds of reports, papers, and documents, all of which describe some aspect of the software engineering technology that was analyzed in the flight dynamics environment at NASA. The studies range from small, controlled experiments (such as analyzing the effectiveness of code reading versus that of functional testing) to large, multiple project studies (such as assessing the impacts of Ada on a production environment). The organization's driving goal is to improve the software process continually, so that sustained improvement may be observed in the resulting products. This paper discusses the SEL as a functioning example of an operational software experience factory and summarizes the characteristics of and major lessons learned from 15 years of SEL operations.

  14. Agile manufacturing: The factory of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Joseph M.; Bossieux, Terry A.

    1994-01-01

    The factory of the future will require an operating methodology which effectively utilizes all of the elements of product design, manufacturing and delivery. The process must respond rapidly to changes in product demand, product mix, design changes or changes in the raw materials. To achieve agility in a manufacturing operation, the design and development of the manufacturing processes must focus on customer satisfaction. Achieving greatest results requires that the manufacturing process be considered from product concept through sales. This provides the best opportunity to build a quality product for the customer at a reasonable rate. The primary elements of a manufacturing system include people, equipment, materials, methods and the environment. The most significant and most agile element in any process is the human resource. Only with a highly trained, knowledgeable work force can the proper methods be applied to efficiently process materials with machinery which is predictable, reliable and flexible. This paper discusses the affect of each element on the development of agile manufacturing systems.

  15. Algal Cell Factories: Approaches, Applications, and Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqi Fu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive “cell factories”: the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO2, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field.

  16. Hospitals as factories of medical garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    Over the course of the twentieth century, as hospitals cleaned up, they came to produce more and more rubbish. Beginning in the 1970s and gaining pace in the 1980s and 1990s, single-use plastic items (syringes, blood bags, tubing) saturated everyday medical practice across the globe. This essay brings the question of plastic to bear upon the longer history of twentieth century sanitary science. The widespread adoption of single-use disposable medical plastics consolidated a century's worth of changes in medical hygiene. As strange as it may seem today, the initial uptake of medical plastics was not driven primarily by concerns about hygiene. Plastic began as a mid-century technology of convenience and durability. It was not until the end of the twentieth century that it morphed into a powerful symbol and instrument of medical hygiene. Today, both patients and practitioners have embraced plastic as an indispensable technology of clean medicine. The procession of single-use medical plastics through everyday medicine now comprises a constant, if disposable, infrastructure of medical hygiene. This new processional infrastructure of disposable hygiene has produced another, albeit unintended, consequence. This new regime has exponentially increased hospitals' material outputs. In so doing, plastic has refigured the ecologies of everyday medicine. Plastic hygiene has rendered hospitals factories of medical garbage.

  17. The factorial structure of pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Z; Blaszczynski, A

    1996-03-01

    Pathological gambling has been characterised by DSM-III-R and DSM-IV as a disorder of impulse control with a proportion of gamblers identified as meeting criteria for a co-morbid diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder. To date, empirical evidence in support of the notion that pathological gamblers as a group manifest elevated traits of impulsivity remains equivocal. Principal components analysis was used to investigate relationships between the constructs of impulsivity, psychopathy, DSM-III-R criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder, psychological distress, criminal offending behavior and a range of other common psychological measures employed with pathological gamblers. The sample comprised 115 pathological gamblers, 80 consecutive gamblers seeking treatment from a general hospital psychiatric inpatient behavior therapy unit, and 35 volunteer Gamblers Anonymous attenders. Four primary factors were determined: psychological distress, sensation seeking, crime and liveliness, and impulsive-antisocial. Results suggest that pathological gambling consists of a number of discrete and reproducible factorial structures. The impulsive antisocial factor was found to be associated with gambling behavior and indices of poor psychosocial functioning.

  18. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Mirko; Goellner, Sarah; Acosta, Eliana Gisela; Neufeldt, Christopher John; Oleksiuk, Olga; Lampe, Marko; Haselmann, Uta; Funaya, Charlotta; Schieber, Nicole; Ronchi, Paolo; Schorb, Martin; Pruunsild, Priit; Schwab, Yannick; Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Ruggieri, Alessia; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2017-02-28

    A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs). Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New Physics at a Super Flavor Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Browder, Thomas E; Pirjol, Dan; Soni, Amarjit; Zupan, Jure

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a Super Flavor Factory (SFF) for searches of New Physics is reviewed. While very high luminosity B physics is assumed to be at the core of the program, its scope for extensive charm and tau studies are also emphasized. The possibility to run at the Upsilon(5S) as well as at the Upsilon(4S) is also very briefly discussed; in principle, this could provide very clean measurements of B_s decays. The strength and reach of a SFF is most notably due to the possibility of examining an impressive array of very clean observables. The angles and the sides of the unitarity triangle can be determined with unprecedented accuracy. These serve as a reference for New Physics (NP) sensitive decays such as B^+ ->tau^+ nu and penguin dominated hadronic decay modes, providing tests of generic NP scenarios with an accuracy of a few percent. Besides, very precise studies of direct and time dependent CP asymmetries in radiative B decays and forward-backward asymmetry studies in B -> X_s l^+ l^- and numerous null tes...

  20. Beam dynamics issues of high-luminosity asymmetric collider rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Machines for use in high-energy physics are advancing along two frontiers. First, there is the frontier of energy, currently being pressed by the Fermilab collider (p bar p), and SLC and LEP (e + e - ) and in the near future by HERA (ep), the LHC, and the SSC (pp). Second, there is the frontier of intensity, currently being pressed by a variety of low-energy machines and, at higher energies, by various linacs such as those at KEK. Fermilab, GSI, and LAMPF (p) and CEBAF (e - ). In the future there should be, along this frontier, various ''factories'' such as those for Kaons at TRIUMF, and those proposed for var-phi mesons, τ-charm particles, and B mesons. It is with the intensity frontier that these proceedings are concerned. The elementary particle motivation to study the nonconservation of PC in the B-stringB system (which topic is not covered in these Proceedings, but is treated extensively in the literature) has motivated the study of very high intensity asymmetric collider rings. It was for this purpose that a Workshop on Beam Dynamics Issues of High-Luminosity Asymmetric Collider Rings was held, in Berkeley, during February 12--16, 1990. A general introduction to the subject has been given in an article which is reprinted here as an Appendix. The nonexpert may wish to start there. The volume consists of four parts. The first part consists of Summaries; first an overall summary of the Workshop and then, second, more detailed summaries from each of the working groups. The second part consists of the Invited Talks at the workshop. The third part contains various Contributed Papers, most of which represent work that came out of the workshop. Finally, there are, in the fourth part, brief Summaries of the Various Proposed B-Factory Projects in the world

  1. Standard beam PWC for Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenker, H.

    1983-02-01

    As one of its projects the Fermilab Experimental Areas Department has been designed and tested a relatively small proportional wire chamber for use in the secondary beam lines. It is intended to supplement the variety of detectors known in the vernacular as SWICS that are used to obtain profiles for beam tuning. The new detector, described in this report, operates in the limited proportional mode and allows experimenters to use a standard, lab supported device for associating trajectories of individual beam particles with events triggering their own experiment's apparatus. A completed triple plane module is shown

  2. BEAM-BEAM SIMULATIONS FOR DOUBLE-GAUSSIAN BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MONTAG, C.; MALITSKY, N.; BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-05-16

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular gaussian beams and identical tune shift parameters.

  3. BEAM-BEAM SIMULATIONS FOR DOUBLE-GAUSSIAN BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MONTAG, C.; MALITSKY, N.; BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of loW--frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular gaussian beams and identical tune shift parameters

  4. Beam-Beam Simulations for Double-Gaussian Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Montag, Christoph; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Malitsky, Nikolay

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two Gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-Gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-Gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular Gaussian beams and identical tuneshift parameters.

  5. An electron beam flue gas treatment plant for a coal fired thermal power station. EBA demonstration plant in Chengdu thermal power station (China EBA Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Shi, Jingke

    1999-01-01

    Ebara's electron beam flue gas treatment plant was installed and is being demonstrated in Chengdu Thermal Power Station, Sichuan, China. The demonstration is proving that this plant is fully capable of meeting the target removal of sulfur dioxides from flue gas (flow rate : 300-thousand m 3 /h). Recovered by-products, namely ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, from the treatment were actually tested as fertilizers, the result of which was favorable. The sale and distribution of these by-products are already underway. In May 1995, this plant was presented the certificate of authorization by China's State Power Corporation. It is noted that this was the first time a sulfur dioxide removal plant was certified as such in China. (author)

  6. The Palomar Transient Factory: Introduction and Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surace, Jason Anthony

    2015-08-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is a synoptic sky survey in operation since 2009. PTF utilizes a 7.1 square degree camera on the Palomar 48-inch Schmidt telescope to survey the sky primarily at a single wavelength (R-band) at a rate of 1000-3000 square degrees a night, to a depth of roughly 20.5. The data are used to detect and study transient and moving objects such as gamma ray bursts, supernovae and asteroids, as well as variable phenomena such as quasars and Galactic stars. The data processing system handles realtime processing and detection of transients, solar system object processing, high photometric precision processing and light curve generation, and long-term archiving and curation. Although a significant scientific installation in of itself, PTF also serves as the prototype for our next generation project, the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). Beginning operations in 2017, ZTF will feature a 50 square degree camera which will enable scanning of the entire northern visible sky every night. ZTF in turn will serve as a stepping stone to the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).We announce the availability of the second PTF public data release, which includes epochal images and catalogs, as well as deep (coadded) reference images and associated catalogs, for the majority of the northern sky. The epochal data span the time period from 2009 through 2012, with various cadences and coverages, typically in the tens or hundreds for most points on the sky. The data are available through both a GUI and software API portal at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at Caltech. The PTF and current iPTF projects are multi-partner multi-national collaborations.

  7. The SuperB Project: Status and the Physics Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The SuperB experiment is a next generation Super Flavour Factory expected to accumulate 75 ab −1 of data at the Υ(4S) in five years of nominal running, and will be built at the recently established Cabibbo Laboratory on the outskirts of Rome. In addition to running data at the Υ(4S), SuperB will be able to accumulate data from the ψ(3770) up to the Υ(6S). A polarized electron beam enables unique physics opportunities at SuperB. The large samples of B, D and τ decays that will be recorded at SuperB can be used to provide both stringent constraints on new physics scenarios, and over-constraints on the Standard Model. We present the status of the project as well as the physics potential of SuperB.

  8. Multilevel Factorial Designs With Experiment-Induced Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Dziak, John J; Collins, Linda M

    2017-04-06

    Factorial experimental designs have many applications in the behavioral sciences. In the context of intervention development, factorial experiments play a critical role in building and optimizing high-quality, multicomponent behavioral interventions. One challenge in implementing factorial experiments in the behavioral sciences is that individuals are often clustered in social or administrative units and may be more similar to each other than to individuals in other clusters. This means that data are dependent within clusters. Power planning resources are available for factorial experiments in which the multilevel structure of the data is due to individuals' membership in groups that existed before experimentation. However, in many cases clusters are generated in the course of the study itself. Such experiment-induced clustering (EIC) requires different data analysis models and power planning resources from those available for multilevel experimental designs in which clusters exist prior to experimentation. Despite the common occurrence of both experimental designs with EIC and factorial designs, a bridge has yet to be built between EIC and factorial designs. Therefore, resources are limited or nonexistent for planning factorial experiments that involve EIC. This article seeks to bridge this gap by extending prior models for EIC, developed for single-factor experiments, to factorial experiments involving various types of EIC. We also offer power formulas to help investigators decide whether a particular experimental design involving EIC is feasible. We demonstrate that factorial experiments can be powerful and feasible even with EIC. We discuss design considerations and directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Survivor shielding. Part A. Nagasaki factory worker shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Robert T.; Barnes, John M.; Azmy, Yousry Y.; Kerr, George D.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Cullings, Harry M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent investigations based on conventional chromosome aberration data by the RERF suggest that the DS86 doses received by many Nagasaki factory workers may have been overestimated by as much as 40% relative to those for other survivors in Japanese-type houses and other shielding configurations (Kodama et al. 2001). Since the factory workers represent about 25% of the Nagasaki survivors with DS86 doses in excess of 0.5 Gy (50 rad), systematic errors in their dose estimates can have a major impact on the risk coefficients from RERF studies. The factory worker doses may have been overestimated for a number of reasons. The calculation techniques, including the factory building modeling, weapon source spectra and cross-section data used in the DS86 shielding calculations were not detailed enough to replicate actual conditions. The models used did not take into account local shielding provided by machinery, tools, and the internal structure in the buildings. In addition, changes in the disposition of shielding following collapse of the building by the blast wave were not considered. The location of large factory complexes may be uncertain, causing large numbers of factory survivors, correctly located relative to each other, to be uniformly too close to the hypocenter. Any or all of these reasons are sufficient to result in an overestimate of the factory worker doses. During the DS02 studies, factory worker doses have been reassessed by more carefully modeling the factory buildings, incorporating improved radiation transport methods and cross-section data and using the most recent bomb leakage spectra (Chapter 2). Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations were carried out initially to estimate the effects of workbenches and tools on worker doses to determine if the inclusion of these components would, in fact, reduce the dose by amounts consistent with the RERF observations (Kodama et al. 2001). (author)

  10. Simulation of Head-on Beam-Beam Limitations in Future High Energy Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Florio, Adrien; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Hadron Collider (FCC-hh) project calls for studies in a new regime of beam-beam interactions. While the emittance damping due to synchrotron radiation is still slower than in past or existing lepton colliders, it is significantly larger than in other hadron colliders. The slow reduction of the emittance is profitable for higher luminosity in term of transverse beam size at the interaction points and also to mitigate long-range beam-beam effects, potentially allowing for a reduction of the crossing angle between the beams during the operation. In such conditions, the strength of head-on beam-beam interactions increases, potentially limiting the beam brightness. 4D weak-strong and strong-strong simulations are performed in order to assess these limitations.

  11. Beam halo studies in LEHIPA DTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Pande, R.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) project at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) consists of a 20 MeV, 30 mA proton linac. The accelerator comprises of a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL). In such high intensity accelerators, beam halos are of concern as they not only cause an increase in emittance, but also lead to beam loss and radio activation. We have studied the effect of beam mismatch at the DTL input on halo formation and propagation. The particle core model is used to excite the three envelope eigen modes; the quadrupole mode, the fast mode and the slow mode by giving input beam mismatch. These modes get damped as the beam progresses through the DTL. The damping mechanism is clearly Landau damping and leads to increase in rms emittance of the beam. The evolution of these modes and the corresponding increase in beam emittance and maximum beam extent, as the beam propagates through the DTL, has been studied for different space charge tunes. The halo parameter based on the definition of Allen and Wangler has been calculated. It is seen that beam halos are very important for LEHIPA DTL, even at 20 MeV and leads to emittance and beam size increase and also to beam loss in some cases. The longitudinal halo is present even without mismatch and transverse halos arise in the presence of beam mismatch.

  12. Fast automatic system for measurements of beam parameters of the MMF linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt-Nickulin, P.; Bragin, S.; Ilinsky, N.; Senichev, Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Fast transverse beam profile and current monitoring systems have been tested at the Linear Accelerator of Moscow Meson Factory. The signals for each system are derived from multiwire secondary emission chamber and beam current transformer. Each beam pulse is digitized by fast ADC's. There are two modes for systems. First one is for detailed beam adjustment and second one is for normal 100 Hz rate of the MMF Linac. Essential features of the hardware, software, data acquisition, measurement accuracy and beam results are presented. (author)

  13. The Experiment Factory: standardizing behavioral experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa V Sochat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (de Leeuw (2015; McDonnell et al. (2012; Mason and Suri (2011; Lange et al. (2015 have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker (2015; Open Science Collaboration (2015 highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms.

  14. The metabolic productivity of the cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascante, M; Lloréns, M; Meléndez-Hevia, E; Puigjaner, J; Montero, F; Martí, E

    1996-10-07

    It is widely accepted that some performance function has been optimized during the evolution of metabolic pathways. One can study the nature of such a function by analogy with the industrial manufacturing world, in which there have been efforts over recent decades to optimize production chains, and in which it is now accepted that fluxes are not the only important system variables that determine process efficiency, because inventory turnover must also be considered. Inspired by the parallels between living cells and manufacturing factories, we propose that fluxes and transit time may have simultaneously been major targets of natural selection in the optimization of the design, structure and kinetic parameters of metabolic pathways. Accordingly we define the ratio of flux to transit time as a performance index of productivity in metabolic systems: it measures the efficiency with which stocks are administered, and facilitates comparison of a pathway in different steady states or in different tissues or organisms. For a linear chain of two enzymes, at a fixed total equilibrium constant, we have analysed the variation of flux, transit time and productivity index as functions of the equilibrium constants of the two steps. The results show that only the productivity index has a maximum, which represents a good compromise in optimizing flux and transit time. We have extended control analysis to the productivity index and derived the summation theorem that applies to it. For linear chains of different length with maximum productivity index values, the distribution of control coefficients with regard to the three parameters has a characteristic profile independent of the length of the chain. Finally, this control profile changes when other variables are optimized, and we compare the theoretical results with the control profile of the first steps of glycolysis in rat liver.

  15. Make your company a talent factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Douglas A; Conger, Jay A

    2007-06-01

    Despite the great sums of money companies dedicate to talent management systems, many still struggle to fill key positions - limiting their potential for growth in the process. Virtually all the human resource executives in the authors' 2005 survey of 40 companies around the world said that their pipeline of high-potential employees was insufficient to fill strategic management roles. The survey revealed two primary reasons for this. First, the formal procedures for identifying and developing next-generation leaders have fallen out of sync with what companies need to grow or expand into new markets. To save money, for example, some firms have eliminated positions that would expose high-potential employees to a broad range of problems, thus sacrificing future development opportunities that would far outweigh any initial savings from the job cuts. Second, HR executives often have trouble keeping top leaders' attention on talent issues, despite those leaders' vigorous assertions that obtaining and keeping the best people is a major priority. If passion for that objective doesn't start at the top and infuse the culture, say the authors, talent management can easily deteriorate into the management of bureaucratic routines. Yet there are companies that can face the future with confidence. These firms don't just manage talent, they build talent factories. The authors describe the experiences of two such corporations - consumer products icon Procter & Gamble and financial services giant HSBC Group -that figured out how to develop and retain key employees and fill positions quickly to meet evolving business needs. Though each company approached talent management from a different direction, they both maintained a twin focus on functionality (rigorous talent processes that support strategic and cultural objectives) and vitality (management's emotional commitment, which is reflected in daily actions).

  16. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BEAM project advances inflatable habitat technology further and conducts flight demonstration of a commercially-designed inflatable system to achieve Technology...

  17. Oscillations of factorial cumulants to factorial moments ratio from an eikonal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beggio, P.C., E-mail: beggio@uenf.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro – UENF, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-02

    We study the factorial moments (F{sub q}), the factorial cumulants (K{sub q}) and the ratio of K{sub q} to F{sub q} (H{sub q}=K{sub q}/F{sub q}) in pp/pp{sup ¯} collisions using an updated approach, in which the multiplicity distribution is related to the eikonal function. The QCD inspired eikonal model adopted contains contributions of quark–quark, quark–gluon and gluon–gluon interactions. Our work shows that the approach can reproduce the collision energy dependence of the F{sub q} moments, correctly predicts that the first minimum of the H{sub q} lies around q=5 and qualitatively reproduces the oscillations of the H{sub q} moments, as shown in the experimental data and predicted by QCD at preasymptotic energy. The result of this study seems to indicate that the H{sub q} oscillations are manifestations of semihard component in the multiparticle production process. Predictions for multiplicity distribution and H{sub q} moments at the LHC energy of √(s)=14 TeV are presented.

  18. Alignment Methods Developed for the Validation of the Thermal and Mechanical Behaviour of the Two Beam Test Modules for the CLIC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, Helene; Sosin, Mateusz; Rude, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    CLIC project will consist of more than 20 000 two meters long modules. A test setup made of three modules is being built at CERN to validate the assembly and integration of all components and technical systems and to validate the short range strategy of pre-alignment. The test setup has been installed in a room equipped with a sophisticated system of ventilation able to reproduce the environmental conditions of the CLIC tunnel. Some of the components have been equipped with electrical heaters to simulate the power dissipation, combined with a water cooling system integrated in the RF components. Using these installations, to have a better understanding of the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a module under different operation modes, machine cycles have been simulated; the misalignment of the components and their supports has been observed. This paper describes the measurements methods developed for such a project and the results obtained.

  19. Architectural design of experience based factory model for software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    architectural design. Automation features are incorporated in the design in which workflow system and intelligent agents are integrated, and the facilitation of cloud environment is empowered to further support the automation. Keywords: architectural design; knowledge management; experience factory; workflow;

  20. Argonne Tau-charm factory collider design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.; Crosbie, E.A.; Norem, J.

    1995-01-01

    The design approach and design principles for a Tau-charm Factory at Argonne were studied. These studies led to a set of preliminary parameters and tentative component features as presented in this paper