WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam energy region

  1. Discrete Energies of a Weakly Outcoupled Atom Laser Beam Outside the Bose–Einstein Condensate Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Budi Prayitno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the possibility of a discrete set of energies of a weakly outcoupled atom laser beam to the homogeneous Schrödinger equation with anisotropic harmonic trap in Cartesian coordinates outside the Bose–Einstein condensate region. This treatment is used because working in the cylindrical coordinates is not really possible, even though we implement the cigar-shaped trap case. The Schrödinger equation appears to replace a set of two-coupled Gross– Pitaevskii equations by enabling the weak-coupling assumption. This atom laser can be produced in a simple way that only involves extracting the atoms in a condensate from by using the radio frequency field. We initially present the relation between condensates as sources and atom laser as an output by exploring the previous work of Riou et al. in the case of theoretical work for the propagation of atom laser beams. We also show that even though the discrete energies are obtained by means of an approaching harmonic oscillator, degeneracy is only available in two states because of the anisotropic external potential

  2. High current density ion beam obtained by a transition to a highly focused state in extremely low-energy region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Y; Kiyama, S; Fujiwara, Y; Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H

    2015-11-01

    A high current density (≈3 mA/cm(2)) hydrogen ion beam source operating in an extremely low-energy region (E(ib) ≈ 150-200 eV) has been realized by using a transition to a highly focused state, where the beam is extracted from the ion source chamber through three concave electrodes with nominal focal lengths of ≈350 mm. The transition occurs when the beam energy exceeds a threshold value between 145 and 170 eV. Low-level hysteresis is observed in the transition when E(ib) is being reduced. The radial profiles of the ion beam current density and the low temperature ion current density can be obtained separately using a Faraday cup with a grid in front. The measured profiles confirm that more than a half of the extracted beam ions reaches the target plate with a good focusing profile with a full width at half maximum of ≈3 cm. Estimation of the particle balances in beam ions, the slow ions, and the electrons indicates the possibility that the secondary electron emission from the target plate and electron impact ionization of hydrogen may play roles as particle sources in this extremely low-energy beam after the compensation of beam ion space charge.

  3. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  4. Self-focusing of a high current density ion beam extracted with concave electrodes in a low energy region around 150 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Y., E-mail: y.hirano@aist.go.jp [Innovative Plasma Technologies Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan); Laboratory of Physics, College of Science and Technologies, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H. [Innovative Plasma Technologies Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan); Sakakita, H. [Innovative Plasma Technologies Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Spontaneous self-focusing of ion beam with high current density (J{sub c} ∼ 2 mA/cm{sup 2}, I{sub b} ∼ 65 mA) in low energy region (∼150 eV) is observed in a hydrogen ion beam extracted from an ordinary bucket type ion source with three electrodes having concave shape (acceleration, deceleration, and grounded electrodes). The focusing appears abruptly in the beam energy region over ∼135–150 eV, and the J{sub c} jumps up from 0.7 to 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. Simultaneously a strong electron flow also appears in the beam region. The electron flow has almost the same current density. Probably these electrons compensate the ion space charge and suppress the beam divergence.

  5. Beam characteristics of energy-matched flattening filter free beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paynter, D.; Weston, S. J.; Cosgrove, V. P. [St James Institute of Oncology The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Medical Physics, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Evans, J. A. [LIGHT Institute University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Thwaites, D. I. [LIGHT Institute University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds, United Kingdom and Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerators can increase treatment efficiency and plan quality. There are multiple methods of defining a FFF beam. The Elekta control system supports tuning of the delivered FFF beam energy to enable matching of the percentage depth-dose (PDD) of the flattened beam at 10 cm depth. This is compared to FFF beams where the linac control parameters are identical to those for the flattened beam. All beams were delivered on an Elekta Synergy accelerator with an Agility multi-leaf collimator installed and compared to the standard, flattened beam. The aim of this study is to compare “matched” FFF beams to both “unmatched” FFF beams and flattened beams to determine the benefits of matching beams. Methods: For the three modes of operation 6 MV flattened, 6 MV matched FFF, 6 MV unmatched FFF, 10 MV flattened, 10 MV matched FFF, and 10 MV unmatched FFF beam profiles were obtained using a plotting tank and were measured in steps of 0.1 mm in the penumbral region. Beam penumbra was defined as the distance between the 80% and 20% of the normalized dose when the inflection points of the unflattened and flattened profiles were normalized with the central axis dose of the flattened field set as 100%. PDD data was obtained at field sizes ranging from 3 cm × 3 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. Radiation protection measurements were additionally performed to determine the head leakage and environmental monitoring through the maze and primary barriers. Results: No significant change is made to the beam penumbra for FFF beams with and without PDD matching, the maximum change in penumbra for a 10 cm × 10 cm field was within the experimental error of the study. The changes in the profile shape with increasing field size are most significant for the matched FFF beam, and both FFF beams showed less profile shape variation with increasing depth when compared to flattened beams, due to consistency in beam energy spectra across the radiation field

  6. Determination of the Beam-Spin Asymmetry of Deuteron Photodisintegration in the Energy Region $E_\\gamma=1.1-2.3$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Zachariou, Nicholas; Ivanov, Nikolay Ya; Sargsian, Misak M; Avakian, Robert; Feldman, Gerald; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Anderson, M D; Pereira, S Anefalos; Avakian, H; Badui, R A; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Baturin, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Cao, T; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Compton, N; Contalbrigo, M; Cortes, O; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; Alaoui, A El; Fassi, L El; Elouadrhiri, L; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Filippi, A; Fleming, J A; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Glazier, D I; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Ho, D; Holtrop, M; Hughes, S M; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khachatryan, G; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Kubarovsky, V; Lenisa, P; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mattione, P T; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeeev, V I; Montgomery, R A; Moutarde, H; Camacho, C Munoz; Net, L A; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, W; Phillips, J J; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Ripani, M; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Senderovich, I; Sharabian, Y G; Skorodumina, Iu; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Sparveris, N; Stepanyan, S; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I

    2015-01-01

    The beam-spin asymmetry, $\\Sigma$, for the reaction $\\gamma d\\rightarrow pn$ has been measured using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) for six photon-energy bins between 1.1 and 2.3 GeV, and proton angles in the center-of-mass frame, $\\theta_{c.m.}$, between $25^\\circ$ and $160^\\circ$. These are the first measurements of beam-spin asymmetries at $\\theta_{c.m.}=90^\\circ$ for photon-beam energies above 1.6 GeV, and the first measurements for angles other than $\\theta_{c.m.}=90^\\circ$. The angular and energy dependence of $\\Sigma$ is expected to aid in the development of QCD-based models to understand the mechanisms of deuteron photodisintegration in the transition region between hadronic and partonic degrees of freedom, where both effective field theories and perturbative QCD cannot make reliable predictions.

  7. Colliding beam physics at Fermilab: interaction regions, beam storage, antiproton cooling, production, and colliding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.K. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the colliding beams experment department at Fermilab was to bring about collisions of the stored beams in the energy doubler/saver and main ring, and construct experimental areas with appropriate detectors. To explore the feasibility of using the main ring as a storage device, several studies were carried out to investigate beam growth, loss, and the backgrounds in detectors at possible intersection regions. This range of developments constituted the major topics at the 1977 Summer Study reported here. Emphasis in part one is on interaction regions, beam storage, antiproton cooling, production, and colliding. 40 papers from this part are included in the data base. (GHT)

  8. Polarized beams in high energy circular accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1979-05-01

    In recent years, high energy physicists have become increasingly interested in the possible spin effects at high energies. To study those spin effects, it is desirable to have beams with high energy, high intensity and high polarization. In this talk, we briefly review the present status and the prospects for the near future of high energy polarized beams. 30 refs.

  9. Determination of the LEP beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Torrence, E

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the determination of the LEP beam energy above the production threshold for W boson pairs. A brief overview of the magnetic extrapolation method is presented which is currently used to determine the LEP beam energy to a relative precision of 2*10/sup -4 /. A new method for beam energy measurements based on an in-line energy spectrometer is presented, and current developments in the commissioning of this device are outlined. (2 refs).

  10. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  11. Beam energy online measurement of BEPCII LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shao-Zhe; Chi, Yun-Long

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes beam energy online measurement of BEPCII linac, presents the calculation formula and some of the results. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring beam positions in the horizontal direction with three beam position monitors (BPM) eliminating the effect of orbit fluctuation, which is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in the end of this paper.

  12. Surface and buildup region dose measurements with Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, Gafchromic EBT3 film and MOSFET detector for high energy photon beams

    CERN Document Server

    Akbas, Ugur; Koksal, Canan; Bilge, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate surface and buildup region doses for 6 MV photon beams using a Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, GafChromic EBT3 film and MOSFET detector for different field sizes and beam angles. The measurements were made in a water equivalent solid phantom at the surface and in the buildup region of the 6 MV photon beams at 100 cm source-detector distance (SDD) for 5x5, 10x10 and 20x20 cm2 field sizes and 0, 30, 60, 80 and 90 beam angles. The surface doses for 10x10 cm2 field size were found to be 20.33%, 18.80% and 25.48% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface dose increased with field size for all dosimeters. As the angle of the incident radiation beam became more oblique, the surface dose increased. The effective measurement depths of dosimeters vary, thus the results of the measurements could be different. This issue can lead to mistakes at surface and buildup dosimetry, and must be taken into account.

  13. Surface and Buildup Region Dose Measurements with Markus Parallel-Plate Ionization Chamber, GafChromic EBT3 Film, and MOSFET Detector for High-Energy Photon Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Akbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate surface and buildup region doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams using a Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, GafChromic EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector for different field sizes and beam angles. The measurements were made in a water equivalent solid phantom at the surface and in the buildup region of the 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams at 100 cm source-detector distance for 5 × 5, 10 × 10, and 20 × 20 cm2 field sizes and 0°, 30°, 60°, and 80° beam angles. The surface doses using 6 MV photon beams for 10 × 10 cm2 field size were found to be 20.3%, 18.8%, and 25.5% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface doses using 15 MV photon beams for 10 × 10 cm2 field size were found to be 14.9%, 13.4%, and 16.4% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface dose increased with field size for all dosimeters. As the angle of the incident radiation beam became more oblique, the surface dose increased. The effective measurement depths of dosimeters vary; thus, the results of the measurements could be different. This issue can lead to mistakes at surface and buildup dosimetry and must be taken into account.

  14. Intermediate energy neutron beams from the MURR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, R M; Herleth, W H

    1990-01-01

    Several reactors in the United States are potential candidates to deliver beams of intermediate energy neutrons for NCT. At this time, moderators, as compared to filters, appear to be the more effective means of tailoring the flux of these reactors. The objective is to sufficiently reduce the flux of fast neutrons while producing enough intermediate energy neutrons for treatments. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), the code MCNP has recently been used to calculate doses in a phantom. First, "ideal" beams of 1, 35, and 1000 eV neutrons were analyzed to determine doses and advantage depths in the phantom. Second, a high quality beam that had been designed to fit in the thermal column of the MURR, was reanalyzed. MCNP calculations of the dose in phantom in this beam confirmed previous calculations and showed that this beam would be a nearly ideal one with neutrons of the desired energy and also a high neutron current. However, installation of this beam will require a significant modification of the thermal column of the MURR. Therefore, a second beam that is less difficult to build and install, but of lower neutron current, has been designed to fit in MURR port F. This beam is designed using inexpensive A1, S, and Pb. The doses calculated in the phantom placed in this beam show that it will be satisfactory for sample tests, animal tests, and possible initial patient trials. Producing this beam will require only modest modifications of the existing tube.

  15. High energy laser beam dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, John

    2004-09-14

    The laser beam dump is positioned in a housing. An absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing. A heat sync means for extracting heat from the absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing and operatively connected to the absorbing glass plate means.

  16. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  17. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  18. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  19. Gas Electron multipliers for low energy beams

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, F; Ropelewski, L; Spanggaard, J; Tranquille, G

    2010-01-01

    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) find their way to more and more applications in beam instrumentation. Gas Electron Multiplication uses a very similar physical phenomenon to that of Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) but for small profile monitors they are much more cost efficient both to produce and to maintain. This paper presents the new GEM profile monitors intended to replace the MWPCs currently used at CERN’s low energy Antiproton Decelerator (AD). It will be shown how GEMs overcome the documented problems of profile measurements with MWPCs for low energy beams, where the interaction of the beam with the detector has a large influence on the measured profile. Results will be shown of profile measurements performed at 5 MeV using four different GEM prototypes, with discussion on the possible use of GEMs at even lower energies needed at the AD in 2013.

  20. Low Energy High Brilliance Beam Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Bähr, J

    2005-01-01

    Low energy high brilliance beam characterization plays an important role for electron sources and injectors of Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and electron linear accelerators as for example the future ILC project. The topic is discussed basing on solutions of the PITZ facility (PhotoInjector Test facility Zeuthen) which are compared with methods applied at other facilities. The properties of an electron beam produced at a laser-driven rf-gun is mainly influenced also by characteristics of the laser beam and the electron gun itself. Therefore aspects of diagnostics will be also discussed for the laser, laser beam line and gun as well. The main properties of the electron beam are transverse and longitudinal phase space and charge as well. The measurement of transverse beam size and position, transverse emittance, charge, beam current, and longitudinal phase space will be discussed in detail. The measurements of the transverse emittance at PITZ is based on a single slit method. The measurement of the longitudinal p...

  1. Beam simulation studies of ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haitao; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Lund, Steven M; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wu, Xiaoyu; Morgan, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    To meet the beam power requirements of 400 kW at the fragmentation target for facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states should be used for heavier ions. These intense multi-charged ion beams will be produced by a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at a high voltage of 35 kV. After extraction, the ion beam will be pre-accelerated to 12 keV/u with a 50 kV platform, transported down to an achromatic charge state selection (CSS) system followed by a vertical transport line, and then injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The TRACK code developed at ANL is used to perform the simulations of the ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB. In this study, we include the magnetic field of ECR ion source into simulations. Different initial beam conditions as well as different space charge neutralization levels are tested for the ECR beamline. The beam loss in CSS system and the corresponding protective measures are discussed. The detailed results about the beam dynamic simulation and beam loss in CSS system will be presented in this paper.

  2. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Patrick; Beach, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this study was to (1) review and analyze the state-of-art in beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) by identifying potential game-changing applications, (2) formulate a roadmap of technology development, and (3) identify key near-term technology demonstrations to rapidly advance elements of BEP technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. The two major areas of interest were launching payloads and space propulsion. More generally, the study was requested and structured to address basic mission feasibility. The attraction of beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) is the potential for high specific impulse while removing the power-generation mass. The rapid advancements in high-energy beamed-power systems and optics over the past 20 years warranted a fresh look at the technology. For launching payloads, the study concluded that using BEP to propel vehicles into space is technically feasible if a commitment to develop new technologies and large investments can be made over long periods of time. From a commercial competitive standpoint, if an advantage of beamed energy for Earth-to-orbit (ETO) is to be found, it will rest with smaller, frequently launched payloads. For space propulsion, the study concluded that using beamed energy to propel vehicles from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and into deep space is definitely feasible and showed distinct advantages and greater potential over current propulsion technologies. However, this conclusion also assumes that upfront infrastructure investments and commitments to critical technologies will be made over long periods of time. The chief issue, similar to that for payloads, is high infrastructure costs.

  3. Region 9 Renewable Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Renewable energy production is expected to increase significantly in the next 25 years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and...

  4. Energy Absorption Capacity of Composite Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arivalagan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Local buckling may occur in the compression flange of rectangular hollow-section beams under cyclic repeated loadingarising from earthquakes. Once a local mechanism forms, residual strength rapidly reduces within a few cycles. This is trueeven for compact sections under static bending. This paper aims to study the experimental behaviour and ultimate momentcapacity of unfilled and concrete-filled rectangular hollow sections subjected to cyclic reversible loading. Two types offiller material were used - normal mix concrete and fly ash concrete. The effect of filler materials, section slenderness, loaddeflectionresponse, moment-strain behaviour, first cycle peak load, ductility, stiffness degradation and energy absorption ofconcrete –filled RHS beams are studied.

  5. Energy Spread Reduction of Electron Beams Produced via Laser Wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Bradley Bolt [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds great promise for producing ultra-compact stages of GeV scale, high quality electron beams for applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and high energy colliders. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses can be self-guided by relativistic plasma waves over tens of vacuum diffraction lengths, to give >1 GeV energy in cm-scale low density plasma using ionization-induced injection to inject charge into the wake at low densities. This thesis describes a series of experiments which investigates the physics of LWFA in the self-guided blowout regime. Beginning with high density gas jet experiments the scaling of the LWFA-produced electron beam energy with plasma electron density is found to be in excellent agreement with both phenomenological theory and with 3-D PIC simulations. It is also determined that self-trapping of background electrons into the wake exhibits a threshold as a function of the electron density, and at the densities required to produce electron beams with energies exceeding 1 GeV a different mechanism is required to trap charge into low density wakes. By introducing small concentrations of high-Z gas to the nominal He background the ionization-induced injection mechanism is enabled. Electron trapping is observed at densities as low as 1.3 x 1018 cm-3 in a gas cell target, and 1.45 GeV electrons are demonstrated for the first time from LWFA. This is currently the highest electron energy ever produced from LWFA. The ionization-induced trapping mechanism is also shown to generate quasi-continuous electron beam energies, which is undesirable for accelerator applications. By limiting the region over which ionization-induced trapping occurs, the energy spread of the electron beams can be controlled. The development of a novel two-stage gas cell target provides the capability to tailor the gas composition in the longitudinal direction, and confine the trapping process to occur only in a

  6. Renewable Energy in European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging

  7. Energy Production Demonstrator for Megawatt Proton Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Pronskikh, Vitaly S; Novitski, Igor; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary study of the Energy Production Demonstrator (EPD) concept - a solid heavy metal target irradiated by GeV-range intense proton beams and producing more energy than consuming - is carried out. Neutron production, fission, energy deposition, energy gain, testing volume and helium production are simulated with the MARS15 code for tungsten, thorium, and natural uranium targets in the proton energy range 0.5 to 120 GeV. This study shows that the proton energy range of 2 to 4 GeV is optimal for both a natU EPD and the tungsten-based testing station that would be the most suitable for proton accelerator facilities. Conservative estimates, not including breeding and fission of plutonium, based on the simulations suggest that the proton beam current of 1 mA will be sufficient to produce 1 GW of thermal output power with the natU EPD while supplying < 8% of that power to operate the accelerator. The thermal analysis shows that the concept considered has a problem due to a possible core meltdown; however...

  8. High energy electron beams for ceramic joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clifford, J.R. [Titan Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Joining of structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for high temperature joining. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the ceramic. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 MPa have been measured. This strength is comparable to that reported in the literature for bonding silicon nitride to molybdenum with copper-silver-titanium braze, but weaker than that reported for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with gold-nickel braze. The bonding mechanism appears to be a thin silicide layer.

  9. Low energy beam transport for HIDIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusel, O. E-mail: o.meusel@iap.uni-frankfurt.de; Pozimski, J.; Jakob, A.; Lakatos, A

    2001-05-21

    Low energy beam transport (LEBT) for a heavy ion inertial fusion (HIDIF, I. Hofmann and G. Plass, Report of the European Study Group on Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion for the Period 1995-1998) facility suffers from high space charge forces and high ion mass. Space charge compensation reduces the necessary focusing force of the lenses and the radius of the beam in the LEBT, and therefrom the emittance growth due to aberrations and self fields is reduced. Gabor lenses (D. Gabor, Nature 160 (1947)) providing a stable space charge cloud for focusing and combine strong cylinder symmetric focusing with partly space charge compensation and low emittance growth. A high tolerance against source noise and current fluctuations and reduced investment costs could be other possible advantages. The proof of principle has already been demonstrated (J.A. Palkovic, Measurements on a Gabor lens for Neutralizing and Focusing a 30 keV Proton beam, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1989; J. Pozimski, P. Gross, R. Doelling and T. Weis, First experimental studies of a Gabor plasma-lens in Frankfurt, Proceedings of the 3rd EPAC Conference, Berlin, 1992). To broaden the experiences and to investigate the realisation of a LEBT concept for the HIDIF injector an experimental program using two Gabor lenses for independent variation of beam radius and envelope angel at RFQ injection was started. Therefrom the first experimental results using a double Gabor lens (DGPL) LEBT system for transporting an high perveance Xe{sup +} beam are presented and the results of numerical simulations are shown.

  10. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  11. Energy compensation of slow extracted beams with RF acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Souda, Hikaru; Torikoshi, Masami; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yamada, Satoru; Noda, Koji

    2016-03-01

    In a conventional carbon-ion radiotherapy facility, a carbon-ion beam is typically accelerated up to an optimum energy, slowly extracted from a synchrotron ring by a resonant slow extraction method, and ultimately delivered to a patient through a beam-delivery system. At Japan's Gunma University, a method employing slow-beam extraction along with beam-acceleration has been adopted. This method slightly alters the extracted-beam's energy owing to the acceleration component of the process, which subsequently results in a residual-range variation of approximately 2 mm in water-equivalent length. However, this range variation does not disturb a distal dose distribution with broad-beam methods such as the single beam-wobbling method. With the pencil-beam 3D scanning method, however, such a range variation disturbs a distal dose distribution because the variation is comparable to slice thickness. Therefore, for pencil-beam 3D scanning, an energy compensation method for a slow extracted beam is proposed in this paper. This method can compensate for the aforementioned energy variances by controlling net energy losses through a rotatable energy absorber set fixed between the synchrotron exit channel and the isocenter. Experimental results demonstrate that beam energies can be maintained constant, as originally hypothesized. Moreover, energy-absorber positions were found to be significantly enhanced by optimizing beam optics for reducing beam-size growth by implementation of the multiple-scattering effect option.

  12. High energy ion beam analysis at ARRONAX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koumeir, C.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N. [Subatech, Nantes (France); GIP ARRONAX, Saint-Herblain (France); Guertin, A.; Metivier, V.; Michel, N.; Ragreb, D.; Servagent, N. [Subatech, Nantes (France)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: ARRONAX, acronym for 'Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology at Nantes' is a high energy cyclotron. It is characterized by the acceleration of several types of particle beams: 68 MeV alpha, 15-35 MeV deuterons and 30-68 MeV protons. A platform was implemented on ARRONAX to perform non-destructive materials analysis with X and gamma rays emission (PIXE-PIGE). A proper selection of the projectile type and beam energy allows to analyze heavy and light elements in thin and thick samples. Our research activities are oriented along three axes: 1) Measurements of K X-ray production cross section for various elements to complement the databases at high energy. A first experiment has been conducted to measure these cross sections for copper and gold with protons energy between 34 and 68 MeV. 2) Study of the detection sensitivity which depends on the nuclear background and the Bremsstrahlung radiations. A dedicated shielding has been developed and detection limits below tens of μg/g/μC have been assessed using different referenced samples from IAEA. 3) Determination of concentration profile as function of the depth in a thick target. Using layered samples, we have showed for a target consisting of three different layers, the possibility to determine the sequence and thickness of each layer by using X and gamma rays measured respectively during and after irradiation. During this talk, I will present the characteristics and the capabilities of our platform. In the near future we intend to install the PIGE technique and use it with 15 MeV deuterons to analyze lightweight elements. (author)

  13. Faraday Cup - it is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    A Faraday Cup is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams. An electrically isolated metallic electrode intercepts the beam and captures all its charges. These charges are integrated using an current sensitive amplifier. When the beam impinges onto the electrode surface low energy electrons are liberated. In order to prevent these electrons from escaping the cup and thus falsifying the measurement, a repeller electrode with negative potential pushes the electrons back onto the electrode.

  14. Calculation of Electron Beam Potential Energy from RF Photocathode Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Wan Ming; Power, John G; Wang, Haitao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the contribution of potential energy to beam dynamics as simulated by PARMELA at low energies (10 - 30MeV). We have developed a routine to calculate the potential energy of the relativistic electron beam using the static coulomb potential in the rest frame (first order approximation as in PARMELA). We found that the potential energy contribution to the beam dynamics could be very significant, particularly with high charge beams generated by an RF photocathode gun. Our results show that when the potential energy is counted correctly and added to the kinetic energy from PARMELA, the total energy is conserved. Simulation results of potential and kinetic energies for short beams (~1 mm) at various charges (1 - 100 nC) generated by a high current RF photocathode gun are presented.

  15. Beam-induced energy deposition issues in the Very Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N V; Foster, G W

    2001-01-01

    Energy deposition issues are extremely important in the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) with huge energy stored in its 20 TeV (Stage-1) and 87.5 TeV (Stage-2) beams. The status of the VLHC design on these topics, and possible solutions of the problems are discussed. Protective measures are determined based on the operational and accidental beam loss limits for the prompt radiation dose at the surface, residual radiation dose, ground water activation, accelerator components radiation damage and quench stability. The beam abort and beam collimation systems are designed to protect accelerator from accidental and operational beam losses, IP region quadrupoles from irradiation by the products of beam-beam collisions, and to reduce the accelerator-induced backgrounds in the detectors. (7 refs).

  16. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Lettry, Jacques; Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H(-) beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  17. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  18. Energy distribution of projectile fragment particles in heavy ion therapeutic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Tomura, Hiromi; Futami, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Production of fragment particles in a patient`s body is one of important problems for heavy charged particle therapy. It is required to know the yield and the energy spectrum for each fragment element - so called `beam quality` to understand the effect of therapeutic beam precisely. In this study, fragment particles produced by practical therapeutic beam of HIMAC were investigated with using tissue-equivalent material and a detector complex. From the results, fragment particles were well identified by difference of their atomic numbers and the beam quality was derived. Responses of the detectors in this energy region were also researched. (author)

  19. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  20. Beam Diagnostics Instrumentation for the High Energy Beam Transport Line of I.P.H.I.

    CERN Document Server

    Ausset, P; Coacolo, J L; Lesrel, J; Maymon, J N; Olivier, A; Rouviere, N; Solal-Cohen, M; Vatrinet, L; Yaniche, J F

    2005-01-01

    I.P.H.I. is a High Intensity Proton Injector under construction at Saclay (C.N.R.S/ I.N.2P.3; C.E.A. / D.A.P.N.I.A and C.E.R.N. collaboration). An E.C.R. produces a 100 keV, 100 mA C.W. proton beam which will be accelerated at 3 MeV by a 4 vanes R.F.Q. operating at 352.2 MHz. Finally, a High Energy Beam Transport Line (H.E.B.T.) will deliver the beam to a beam stopper and will be equipped with appropriate beam diagnostics to carry intensity; centroïd beam transverse position, transverse beam profiles, beam energy and energy spread measurements for the commissioning of I.P.H.I. These beam diagnostics will operate under both pulsed and C.W. operation. Transverse beam profile measurements will be acquired under low and high duty factor pulsed beam operation using a slow wire scanner and a C.C.D. camera to image the beam-induced fluorescence. The beam instrumentation of the H.E.B.T. is reviewed and preliminary obtained transverse profile measurements at 100 keV are described.

  1. Beam diagnostics instrumentation for the high energy beam transfer line of I.P.H.I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausset, P.; Berthelot, S.; Coacolo, J.L.; Lesrel, J.; Maymon, J.N.; Olivier, A.; Rouviere, N.; Solal, M.; Vatrinet, L.; Yaniche, J.F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS) 91 - Orsay (France); Belyaev, G.; Roudskoy, I. [I.T.E.P. Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    I.P.H.I. is a High Intensity Proton Injector under construction at Saclay. An E.C.R. source produces a 100 keV, 100 mA C.W. proton beam which will be accelerated at 3 MeV by a 4 vanes R.F.Q. operating at 352.2 MHz. Finally, a High Energy Beam Transport Line (H.E.B.T.) will deliver the beam to a beam stopper and will be equipped with appropriate beam diagnostics to carry intensity, centroid beam transverse position, transverse beam profiles, beam energy and energy spread measurements for the commissioning of I.P.H.I. These beam diagnostics will operate under both pulsed and C.W. operation. Transverse beam profile measurements will be acquired under low and high duty factor pulsed beam operation using a slow wire scanner and a C.C.D. camera to image the beam-induced fluorescence. The beam instrumentation of the H.E.B.T. is reviewed and preliminary obtained transverse profile measurements at 100 keV are described. (authors)

  2. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvesh, E-mail: sarvesh@iuac.res.in; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  3. SU-E-T-146: Beam Energy Spread Estimate Based On Bragg Peak Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anferov, V; Derenchuk, V; Moore, R [ProNova Solutions, Knoxville, TN (United States); Schreuder, A [Provision Healthcare Partners, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: ProNova is installing and commissioning a two room proton therapy system in Knoxville, TN. Beam energy out of the 230MeV cyclotron was measured on Jan 24, 2015. Cyclotron beam was delivered into a Zebra multi layered IC detector calibrated in terms of penetration range in water. The analysis of the measured Bragg peak determines penetration range in water which can be subsequently converted into proton beam energy. We extended this analysis to obtain an estimate of the beam energy spread out of the cyclotron. Methods: Using Monte Carlo simulations we established the correlation between Bragg peak shape parameters (width at 50% and 80% dose levels, distal falloff) and penetration range for a monoenergetic proton beam. For large uniform field impinging on a small area detector, we observed linear dependence of each Bragg peak parameter on beam penetration range as shown in Figure A. Then we studied how this correlation changes when the shape of Bragg peak is distorted by the beam focusing conditions. As shown in Figure B, small field size or diverging beam cause Bragg peak deformation predominantly in the proximal region. The distal shape of the renormalized Bragg peaks stays nearly constant. This excludes usage of Bragg peak width parameters for energy spread estimates. Results: The measured Bragg peaks had an average distal falloff of 4.86mm, which corresponds to an effective range of 35.5cm for a monoenergetic beam. The 32.7cm measured penetration range is 2.8cm less. Passage of a 230MeV proton beam through a 2.8cm thick slab of water results in a ±0.56MeV energy spread. As a final check, we confirmed agreement between shapes of the measured Bragg peak and one generated by Monte-Carlo code for proton beam with 0.56 MeV energy spread. Conclusion: Proton beam energy spread can be estimated using Bragg peak analysis.

  4. Compact Measurement Station for Low Energy Proton Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Yildiz, H; Oz, S; Yasatekin, B; Turemen, G; Ogur, S; Sunar, E; Aydin, Y A; Dimov, V A; Unel, G; Alacakir, A

    2016-01-01

    A compact, remote controlled, cost efficient diagnostic station has been developed to measure the charge, the profile and the emittance for low energy proton beams. It has been installed and tested in the proton beam line of the Project Prometheus at SANAEM of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority.

  5. Measurement of the polarisation of a high energy muon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Ahmad, S.; Arvidson, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballintijn, M.K.; Bardin, G.; Baum, G.; Berglund, P.; Betev, L.; Bird, I.G.; Birsa, R.; Bjoerkholm, P.; Bonner, B.E.; Botton, N. de; Boutemeur, M.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Bruell, A.; Buchanan, J.; Bueltmann, S.; Burtin, E.; Cavata, C.; Chen, J.P.; Clement, J.; Clocchiatti, M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Crabb, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dantzig, R. van; Day, D.; Demolis, J.M.; Dhawan, S.; Dulya, C.; Dupont, J.; Dyring, A.; Eichblatt, S.; Faivre, J.C.; Fasching, D.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandez, C.; Frois, B.; Garabatos, C.; Garzon, J.A.; Gatignon, L.; Gaussiran, T.; Giorgi, M.; Goeler, E. von; Gomez, A.; Gracia, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Harrach, D. von; Hasegawa, T.; Hayashi, N.; Heusch, C.A.; Horikawa, N.; Hughes, V.W.; Igo, G.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Jong, M. de; Kabuss, E.M.; Kaiser, R.; Karev, A.; Kessler, H.J.; Ketel, T.J.; Kishi, A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klostermann, L.; Krivokhijine, V.; Kukhtin, V.; Kyynaeraeinen, J.; La; Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC)

    1994-04-11

    A muon beam polarimeter has been built for the SMC experiment at the CERN SPS, for muon energies of 100 to 200 GeV. The beam polarisation is determined from the energy spectrum of positrons from the decay [mu][sup +][yields]e[sup +][nu][sub e] anti [nu][sub [mu

  6. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guimei [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2011-12-31

    energy at ~5MeV. Simulation shows that in the 3+1/2 DC- C injector, there is a region the beam could be over focused by RF electromagnetic field and the transverse emittance in the transport line up to linac will increase instantly due to over focusing. In order to eliminate this effect on beam emittance, several solutions are investigated to avoid over focusing. This result is very important for beam loading experiment for low bunch charge operation. Meanwhile, different merger structures are compared in terms of error sensitivity and emittance increase with space charge effect. In recirculation beam line, a new symmetric 180{degree} arc structure is designed. It fulfills the achromatic condition and adjustable bunch compression. These two parameters are controlled by different Quads knob. With this novel structure, the recirculation lattice can achieve path length adjustment, bunch compression and decompression in a large range. With beamline error, the beam central orbit will deviate from the designed trajectory. An orbit correction system is optimized, which balances between cost and performance of orbit after correction at design level. Different methods are used to estimate its robustness. The BBU instability, especially multi-pass BBU imposed a potentially severe limitation to the average current that can be accelerated in an ERL. Simulation gives the harmful HOMs and predicts that the threshold average current in this machine is much higher than the possible operation current. This work is based on the existing facility in PKU, so it provides guidelines for the facility operation and upgrade in the future. The theoretical analysis of ERL requirement and FEL requirement on beam transport line and beam property paves the way for future ERL research.

  7. Regional energy integration in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.

  8. Space charge compensation in low energy proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, A B; Uriot, D; Pichoff, N

    2004-01-01

    High power accelerators are being studied for several projects including accelerator driven neutron or neutrino sources. The low energy part of these facilities has to be carefully optimized to match the beam requirements of the higher energy parts. In this low energy part, the space charge self force, induced by a high intensity beam, has to be carefully managed. This nonlinear force can generate a high irreversible emittance growth of the beam. To reduce space charge effects, neutralization of the beam charge can be done by capturing some particles of the ionised residual gas in the vacuum chamber. This space charge compensation (SCC) regime complicates the dynamic study. Modelling the beam behaviour in such regime would be a significant contribution to the development of high intensity accelerators. Numerical and experimental study of SCC is in progress on the Saclay High Intensity Proton Injector. Experimental measurements and 2D/3D simulations of proton beam SCC will be presented.

  9. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, Strahinja

    2013-01-01

    Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: -> Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. -> Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. -> Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.

  10. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, Strahinja

    2013-01-01

    Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: - Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. - Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. - Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.

  11. Characterization of low energy radioactive beams using direct reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.G.; Fraser, M.A.; Bildstein, V.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new technique to determine the beam structure of low energy radioactive beams using coincidence events from a direct reaction. The technique will be described and tested using Geant4 simulations. We use the technique to determine for the first time the width, divergence and energy...... of an accelerated radioactive beam produced at ISOLDE. We use data from an experiment with an 11Be beam incident on a deuteron target producing 10Be from a (d,t) reaction. The T-REX Si detector array was used for particle detection, but the technique is applicable for other setups....

  12. Modelling polychromatic high energy photon beams by superposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, P E; Hoban, P W; Murray, D C; Round, W H

    1989-09-01

    A unified three dimensional superposition approach to dose calculations used in treatment planning of polychromatic high energy photon beams in radiotherapy is developed. The approach we have used involves computing the dose at all points in a medium by superposing the dose spread array (DSA) from the interaction of a photon at a point in the medium with an array of data representing the TERMA (photon fluence times the photon energy) at points in the beam. The polychromatic nature of the beam is accounted for by modelling the beam as having ten spectral components. A "polychromatic dose spread array" (PDSA) for an interaction from a beam with this spectrum was derived. The TERMA array is calculated from a weighted average of the TERMA arrays for the ten photon energies to give a "polychromatic TERMA array". Thus the method accounts for the effect of beam hardening of the TERMA. But it does not account for the effect of beam hardening on the PDSA since a single PDSA (usually for the spectrum at the surface of the medium) is used at all depths. However, by considering measured and calculated beam central axis data, this model is shown to be adequate for computing depth doses for beams in a homogeneous medium penetrating to extreme radiological depths. A computation time advantage is gained because only one superposition per beam is required.

  13. Detecting electron beam energy shifts with a commercially available energy monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M D; Moftah, B A; Olivares, M; Podgorsak, E B

    2000-07-01

    Routine electron beam quality assurance requires an accurate, yet practical, method of energy characterization. Subtle shifts in beam energy may be produced by the linac bending magnet assembly, and the sensitivity of a commercially available electron beam energy-monitoring device for monitoring these small energy drifts has been evaluated. The device shows an 11% change in signal for a 2 mm change in the I50 energy parameter for low energy electron beams (in the vicinity of 6 MeV) and a 2.5% change in signal for a 2 mm change in the I50 energy parameter for high energy electron beams (in the vicinity of 22 MeV). Thus the device is capable of detecting small energy shifts resulting from bending magnet drift for all clinically relevant electron beams.

  14. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  15. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  16. Beam energy scan with asymmetric collision at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Alessi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Beebe, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brennan, J. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Butler, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); D Ottavio, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Drees, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hao, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hayes, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hulsart, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ingrassia, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jamilkowski, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laster, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marr, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); McIntyre, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morris, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Naylor, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nemesure, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pinayev, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sampson, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sandberg, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Severino, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shrey, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Than, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A beam energy scan of deuteron-gold collision, with center-of-mass energy at 19.6, 39, 62.4 and 200.7 GeV/n, was performed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider in 2016 to study the threshold for quark-gluon plasma (QGP) production. The lattice, RF, stochastic cooling and other subsystems were in different configurations for the various energies. The operational challenges changed with every new energy. The operational experience at each energy, the operation performance, highlights and lessons of the beam energy scan are reviewed in this report.

  17. Piezoelectric energy harvester having planform-tapered interdigitated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Rick A.; Sumali, Hartono

    2011-05-24

    Embodiments of energy harvesters have a plurality of piezoelectric planform-tapered, interdigitated cantilevered beams anchored to a common frame. The plurality of beams can be arranged as two or more sets of beams with each set sharing a common sense mass affixed to their free ends. Each set thus defined being capable of motion independent of any other set of beams. Each beam can comprise a unimorph or bimorph piezoelectric configuration bonded to a conductive or non-conductive supporting layer and provided with electrical contacts to the active piezoelectric elements for collecting strain induced charge (i.e. energy). The beams are planform tapered along the entirety or a portion of their length thereby increasing the effective stress level and power output of each piezoelectric element, and are interdigitated by sets to increase the power output per unit volume of a harvester thus produced.

  18. Cryogenic Beam Screens for High-Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Tavian, L; van Weelderen, R

    2013-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key enabling technology for high-energy particle accelerators, thus making them large helium cryogenic systems operating at very low temperature. The circulation of high-intensity particle beams in these machines generates energy deposition in the first wall through different processes. For thermodynamic efficiency, it is advisable to intercept these beam-induced heat loads, which may be large in comparison with cryostat heat in-leaks, at higher temperature than that of the superconducting magnets of the accelerator, by means of beam screens located in the magnet apertures. Beam screens may also be used as part of the ultra-high vacuum system of the accelerator, by sheltering the gas molecules cryopumped on the beam pipe from impinging radiation and thus avoiding pressure runaway. Space being extremely tight in the magnet apertures, cooling of the long, slender beam screens also raises substantial problems in cryogenic heat transfer and fluid flow. We present sizing rule...

  19. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrivens, R., E-mail: richard.scrivens@cern.ch; Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  20. Linac4 Low Energy Beam Measurements with Negative Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Scrivens, R; Crettiez, O; Dimov, V; Gerard, D; Granemann Souza, E; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Lallement, J B; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A; Midttun, O; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Riffaud, B; Roncarolo, F; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Wallner, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zickler, T

    2014-01-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H- linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H- beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  1. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivens, R; Bellodi, G; Crettiez, O; Dimov, V; Gerard, D; Granemann Souza, E; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Lallement, J-B; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A; Midttun, Ø; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Riffaud, B; Roncarolo, F; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Wallner, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zickler, T

    2014-02-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H(-) linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H(-) beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  2. Structuring of silicon with low energy focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebiker, P.W.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muehle, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The defect production in silicon induced by focused ion beam irradiation as a function of energy and projectile mass has been investigated and compared to the measured sputter yield. The aim was to find optimal beam parameters for the structuring of semiconductors with a minimum amount of defects produced per removed atom. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  3. Position and size of the electron beam in the high-energy electron beam ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Utter, S B; López-Urrutia, J R C; Widmann, K

    1999-01-01

    In the last decade, many spectroscopic studies have been performed using the electron beam ion trap. Often these measurements rely on the electron beam as an effective slit, yet until now, no systematic study of the position and size of the electron beam under various operating conditions has been made. Here, we present a thorough study of the electron beam's position and size (and thus the electron density) as affected by various operating parameters, and give optimal parameter ranges for operating the device as a spectroscopic source. It is shown that the diameter is constant as the energy is varied, which is important for accurate cross-section measurements.

  4. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  5. Electron Beam Energy Compensation by Controlling RF Pulse Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, T; Kusukame, K; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    We have studied on improvement of electron beam macropulse properties from a thermionic RF gun. Though a thermionic RF gun has many salient features, there is a serious problem that back-bombardment effect worsens quality of the beam. To reduce beam energy degradation by this effect, we tried to feed non-flat RF power into the gun. As a result, we successfully obtained about 1.5 times longer macropulse and two times larger total charge per macropulse. On the other hand, we calculated transient evolution of RF power considering non-constant beam loading. The beam loading is evaluated from time evolution of cathode temperature, by use of one dimensional heat conduction model and electron trajectories' calculations by a particle simulation code. Then we found good agreement between the experimental and calculation results. Furthermore, with the same way, we studied the electron beam output dependence on the cathode radius.

  6. Demand for Energy and Energy Generation: Does Regional Energy Policy Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeaga, Paul; Odejimi DEBORAH

    2014-01-01

    Does regional energy policy play a role in regional energy generation? What does the implication of the current industrialization trend mean for the generation and the supply process across regions? And to what extent does regional energy policy affect energy security (energy supply risks) in regions? This study investigates the effect of regional energy policy on regional generation characteristics in seven regions of the World using regional panel data from 1980 to 2010 a period of 31 years...

  7. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzkes, J.; Zeil, K.; Kraft, S. D.; Karsch, L.; Sobiella, M.; Rehwald, M.; Obst, L.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schramm, U.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ˜4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source.

  8. Computer simulations of a low energy proton beam tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhoretto, E.; Schelin, H.R.; Setti, J.A.P.; Denyak, V.; Paschuk, S.A.; Basilio, A.C.; Rocha, R.; Ribeiro Junior, S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)]. E-mails: sergei@utfpr.edu.br; edneymilhoretto@yahoo.com; schelin@cpgei.cefetpr.br; Evseev, I.; Yevseyeva, O. [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: evseev@iprj.uerj.br; Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graducao em Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Vinagre Filho, U.M. [Instituto de Energia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This work presents the recent development of a low energy proton beam tomograph. The proton tomograph prototype (involving UTFPR, UERJ, UFRJ and IEN/CNEN) has been installed and tested at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to optimize the performance of the scattered proton beam and its aluminum collimator energy losses. The computer code simulates the tomographic measurements with two aluminum collimators (variable aperture from 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm in diameter and variable thickness from 4 mm to 8 mm), a water phantom and a Si(Li) detector. The analysis of the exit beam energy spectra in comparison with a perfectly collimated proton beam made it possible to achieve the best quality of reconstructed tomographic images of water phantom. (author)

  9. Upgrade of Beam Energy Measurement System at BEPC-II

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Yong; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Guo, Di-Zhou; Wang, Jian-Li; Liu, Bai-Qi; Achasov, M N; Krasnov, A A; Muchnoi, N Yu; Pyata, E E; Mamoshkina, E V; Harris, F A

    2015-01-01

    The beam energy measurement system is of great importance and profit for both BEPC-II accelerator and BES-III detector. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. Many advanced techniques and precise instruments are employed to realize the highly accurate measurement of positron/electron beam energy. During five year's running period, in order to meet the requirement of data taking and improve the capacity of measurement itself, the upgradation of system is continued, which involve the component reformation of laser and optics subsystem, replacement of view-port of the laser to vacuum insertion subsystem, the purchase of electric cooling system for high purity germanium detector, and the improvement of data acquisition and processing subsystem. The upgrading of system guarantees the smooth and efficient measuring of beam energy at BEPC-II and accommodates the accurate offline energy values for further physics analysis at BES-III.

  10. Energy harvesting from controlled buckling of piezoelectric beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin

    2015-11-01

    A piezoelectric vibration energy harvester is presented that can generate electricity from the weight of passing cars or crowds. The energy harvester consists of a piezoelectric beam, which buckles when the device is stepped on. The energy harvester can have a horizontal or vertical configuration. In the vertical (direct) configuration, the piezoelectric beam is vertical and directly sustains the weight of the vehicles or people. In the horizontal (indirect) configuration, the vertical weight is transferred to a horizontal axial force through a scissor-like mechanism. Buckling of the beam results in significant stresses and, thus, large power production. However, if the beam’s buckling is not controlled, the beam will fracture. To prevent this, the axial deformation is constrained to limit the deformations of the beam. In this paper, the energy harvester is analytically modeled. The considered piezoelectric beam is a general non-uniform beam. The natural frequencies, mode shapes, and the critical buckling force corresponding to each mode shape are calculated. The electro-mechanical coupling and the geometric nonlinearities are included in the model. The design criteria for the device are discussed. It is demonstrated that a device, realized with commonly used piezoelectric patches, can generate tens of milliwatts of power from passing car traffic. The proposed device could also be implemented in the sidewalks or integrated in shoe soles for energy generation. One of the key features of the device is its frequency up-conversion characteristics. The piezoelectric beam undergoes free vibrations each time the weight is applied to or removed from the energy harvester. The frequency of the free vibrations is orders of magnitude larger than the frequency of the load. The device is, thus, both efficient and insensitive to the frequency of the force excitations.

  11. Design study of low-energy beam transport for multi-charge beams at RAON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Qiang, Ji; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-12-01

    The Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness (RAON) at the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) is being designed to simultaneously accelerate beams with multiple charge states. It includes a driver superconducting (SC) linac for producing 200 MeV/u and 400 kW continuous wave (CW) heavy ion beams from protons to uranium. The RAON consists of a few electron cyclotron resonance ion sources, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system, a CW 81.25 MHz, 500 keV/u radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, a medium-energy beam transport system, the SC linac, and a charge-stripper system. The LEBT system for the RISP accelerator facility consists of a high-voltage platform, two 90° dipoles, a multi-harmonic buncher (MHB), solenoids, electrostatic quadrupoles, a velocity equalizer, and a diagnostic system. The ECR ion sources are located on a high-voltage platform to reach an initial beam energy of 10 keV/u. After extraction, the ion beam is transported through the LEBT system to the RFQ accelerator. The generated charge states are selected by an achromatic bending system and then bunched by the MHB in the LEBT system. The MHB is used to achieve a small longitudinal emittance in the RFQ by generating a sawtooth wave with three harmonics. In this paper, we present the results and issues of the beam dynamics of the LEBT system.

  12. Thermo-mechanical modelling of high energy particle beam impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Scapin, M; Dallocchio, A

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented energy intensities of modern hadron accelerators yield special problems with the materials that are placed close to or into the high intensity beams. The energy stored in LHC in a single beam is equivalent to about 80 kg of TNT explosive, stored in a transverse beam area of 0.2 mm×0.2 mm. The materials placed close to the beam are used at, or even beyond, their damage limits. However, it is very difficult to predict structural efficiency and robustness accurately: beam-induced damage occurs in a regime where practical experience does not exist. This study is performed in order to estimate the damage on a copper component due to the impact with a 7 TeV proton beam generated by LHC. The case study represents an accidental case consequent to an abnormal release of the beam, in which 8 bunches irradiate the target directly. The energy delivered on the component is calculated using the FLUKA code and then used as input in the numerical simulations, that are carried out via the FEM code LS-DYNA. ...

  13. A fast chopper for medium energy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrak, R. [Fermilab; Wildman, D. [Fermilab

    2014-10-30

    The key elements have been constructed for a fast chopper system capable of removing single 2.5 MeV proton bunches spaced at 325 MHz. The average chopping rate is ~ 1 MHz. The components include a pulse delaying microstrip structure for deflecting the beam, high voltage (1.2 kV) fast (ns rise time) pulsers, and an associated wideband combiner. Various designs for the deflecting structures have been studied. Measurements of the microstrip structures' coverage factors and pulse shapes are presented.

  14. Calculation of the energy deposition in a water beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Schönbacher, Helmut

    1975-01-01

    The energy deposition per interacting proton in GeV/cm/sup 3/ and the star density in star/cm/sup 3/ have been calculated in a water cylinder with a Monte Carlo computer program. These calculations permit the estimation of the temperature rise, induced radioactivity, etc., in beam dumps of high energy accelerator and storage rings. The calculation assumed a cylinder of different diameters and lengths and an incident proton beam energy of 20, 200, 300 and 400 GeV. (5 refs).

  15. An Asian Regional Architecture for Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Liping

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Non-traditional security issues such as energy security have been becoming more and more important in Asia and worldwide in recent years.It is increasingly difficult for a single country to guarantee its energy security in the globalized world of today.Asian countries have made some progress in bilateral and multilateral dialogues to promote cooperation and coordination in the energy field.However, they are still far from establishing a regional architecture of energy security.The Asian countries must therefore make greater efforts to realize a regional mechanism of energy cooperation.In the future, there should be a multi-level(regional, sub-regional, and trans-regional, and bilateral),multi-channel, and multi-model Asian regional architecture of energy security.

  16. Calculation of depth-dose distribution of intermediate energy heavy-ion beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the interactions between intermediate energy heavy-ion beam and target matter, a method to calculate the depth-dose distribution of heavy-ion beams with intermediate energy (10 -100 MeV/u) is presented. By comparing high energy beams where projectile fragmentation is overwhelm ing with lowenergies where energy straggling is the sole factor instead, a crescent energy spread with increasing depth and a simple fragmentation assumption were included for the depth-dose calculation of the intermediate energy beam. Rel ative depth-dose curves of carbon and oxygen ion beams with intermediate energie s were computed according to the method here. Comparisons between the calculated relative doses and measurements are shown. The calculated Bragg curves, especially the upstream and downstream Bragg peaks, agree with the measured data. Differences between the two results appear only around the peak regions because of th e limitations of the calculation and experimental conditions, but the calculated curves generally reproduce the measured data within the experimental errors. Th e reasons for the divergences were analyzed carefully and the magnitudes of the deviations are given.

  17. Tuscany (Italy) 1990 regional energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarrini, M.; Santoprete, G. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Economia Aziendale)

    This paper first discusses the overall problems involved in the preparation of functional and reliable regional energy balance sheets. It then presents and analyzes the 1990 energy balance sheet prepared for the Tuscany Region of Italy. The problems cited basically deal with the availability, compatibility and accuracy of regional energy data. Trends in Tuscany's energy consumption are compared with national figures in order to give some useful indications as to future energy strategies to be taken into consideration by the regional administration. In fact, this Region reflects the main national energy policy weakness - over-dependency on foreign supplied petroleum. It is thus recommended that locally available geothermal energy sources be further developed.

  18. Crossed-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seka, W; Edgell, D H; Michel, D T; Froula, D H; Goncharov, V N; Craxton, R S; Divol, L; Epstein, R; Follett, R; Kelly, J H; Kosc, T Z; Maximov, A V; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Michel, P; Myatt, J F; Sangster, T C; Shvydky, A; Skupsky, S

    2012-05-22

    Direct-drive-implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have showed discrepancies between simulations of the scattered (non-absorbed) light levels and measured ones that indicate the presence of a mechanism that reduces laser coupling efficiency by 10%-20%. This appears to be due to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) that involves electromagnetic-seeded, low-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering. CBET scatters energy from the central portion of the incoming light beam to outgoing light, reducing the laser absorption and hydrodynamic efficiency of implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET show good agreement with all observables in implosion experiments on OMEGA. Three strategies to mitigate CBET and improve laser coupling are considered: the use of narrow beams, multicolor lasers, and higher-Z ablators. Experiments on OMEGA using narrow beams have demonstrated improvements in implosion performance.

  19. Low-Energy Electron Beam Direct Writing Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Takashi; Ando, Atsushi; Kotsugi, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Hidetoshi; Sugihara, Kazuyoshi

    2007-09-01

    We proposed an electron beam direct writing (EBDW) system capable of high throughput and maskless operation based on a novel concept of using both low-energy electron beam (EB) and character projection (CP) system. We fabricated an EB optical column of low-energy EBDW equipment and obtained a resist pattern. We also investigated the beam blur and line width roughness (LWR) of lines and spaces (L/S) formed on a resist to change various EB current densities and convergence half angles. The obtained results show that a Coulomb interaction effect markedly affects the beam blur in our EB optical column. Thus, we reduce the number of sources caused by LWR and developed photoresists to obtain small LWR L/S patterns for achieving a high throughput.

  20. Flexible energy harvesting from hard piezoelectric beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents design, multiphysics finite element modeling and experimental validation of a new miniaturized PZT generator that integrates a bulk piezoelectric ceramic onto a flexible platform for energy harvesting from the human body pressing force. In spite of its flexibility, the mechanical structure of the proposed device is simple to fabricate and efficient for the energy conversion. The finite element model involves both mechanical and piezoelectric parts of the device coupled with the electrical circuit model. The energy harvester prototype was fabricated and tested under the low frequency periodic pressing force during 10 seconds. The experimental results show that several nano joules of electrical energy is stored in a capacitor that is quite significant given the size of the device. The finite element model is validated by observing a good agreement between experimental and simulation results. the validated model could be used for optimizing the device for energy harvesting from earcanal deformations.

  1. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Korepanov, S.; Mishagin, V.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction.

  2. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A., E-mail: ivanov@inp.nsk.su; Mishagin, V.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Prospect Lavrentieva 11, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Foothill Ranch, California 92610 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction.

  3. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  4. Dependence of bunch energy loss in cavities on beam velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    1999-03-01

    Beam energy loss in a cavity can be easily computed for a relativistic bunch using time-domain codes like MAFIA or ABCI. However, for nonrelativistic beams the problem is more complicated because of difficulties with its numerical formulation in the time domain. We calculate the cavity loss factors for a bunch in frequency domain as a function of its velocity and compare results with the relativistic case.

  5. Measuring the electron beam energy in a magnetic bunch compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-09-15

    Within this thesis, work was carried out in and around the first bunch compressor chicane of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) linear accelerator in which two distinct systems were developed for the measurement of an electron beams' position with sub-5 {mu}m precision over a 10 cm range. One of these two systems utilized RF techniques to measure the difference between the arrival-times of two broadband electrical pulses generated by the passage of the electron beam adjacent to a pickup antenna. The other system measured the arrival-times of the pulses from the pickup with an optical technique dependent on the delivery of laser pulses which are synchronized to the RF reference of the machine. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques are explored and compared to other available approaches to measure the same beam property, including a time-of-flight measurement with two beam arrival-time monitors and a synchrotron light monitor with two photomultiplier tubes. The electron beam position measurement is required as part of a measurement of the electron beam energy and could be used in an intra-bunch-train beam-based feedback system that would stabilize the amplitude of the accelerating field. By stabilizing the accelerating field amplitude, the arrival-time of the electron beam can be made more stable. By stabilizing the electron beam arrival-time relative to a stable reference, diagnostic, seeding, and beam-manipulation lasers can be synchronized to the beam. (orig.)

  6. Filtered region of interest cone-beam rotational angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, Sebastian; Noeel, Peter B.; Walczak, Alan M.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States) and Toshiba Stroke Research Center, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Computer Science, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States) and Toshiba Stroke Research Center, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 and Toshiba Stroke Research Center, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Computer Science, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States) and Toshiba Stroke Research Center, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Cone-beam rotational angiography (CBRA) is widely used in the modern clinical settings. In a number of procedures, the area of interest is often considerably smaller than the field of view (FOV) of the detector, subjecting the patient to potentially unnecessary x-ray dose. The authors therefore propose a filter-based method to reduce the dose in the regions of low interest, while supplying high image quality in the region of interest (ROI). Methods: For such procedures, the authors propose a method of filtered region of interest (FROI)-CBRA. In the authors' approach, a gadolinium filter with a circular central opening is placed into the x-ray beam during image acquisition. The central region is imaged with high contrast, while peripheral regions are subjected to a substantial lower intensity and dose through beam filtering. The resulting images contain a high contrast/intensity ROI, as well as a low contrast/intensity peripheral region, and a transition region in between. To equalize the two regions' intensities, the first projection of the acquisition is performed with and without the filter in place. The equalization relationship, based on Beer's law, is established through linear regression using corresponding filtered and nonfiltered data. The transition region is equalized based on radial profiles. Results: Evaluations in 2D and 3D show no visible difference between conventional FROI-CBRA projection images and reconstructions in the ROI. CNR evaluations show similar image quality in the ROI, with a reduced CNR in the reconstructed peripheral region. In all filtered projection images, the scatter fraction inside the ROI was reduced. Theoretical and experimental dose evaluations show a considerable dose reduction; using a ROI half the original FOV reduces the dose by 60% for the filter thickness of 1.29 mm. Conclusions: These results indicate the potential of FROI-CBRA to reduce the dose to the patient while supplying the physician with

  7. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP): Considerations for Beaming High Energy-Density Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2

  8. Beam dynamics and commissioning of low and medium energy H- beam at Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Satri, Masoomeh Yarmohammadi; Lamehi-Rachti , Mohammad

    The First step of the CERN Large Hadron Collider injectors upgrade (LIU) project is Linac4. It accelerates H- ions to 160 MeV in an 80 m long accelerator housed in a tunnel 12 m underground, presently under construction. It will replace the present 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector of the proton accelerator complex to increase the LHC luminosity. It consists of a 45 keV RF volume source, a twosolenoid Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerating the beam to 3 MeV, a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line. The MEBT houses a fast chopper to selectively remove unwanted micro-bunches in the 352 MHz sequence and avoid losses at capture in the CERN PSB (1 MHz). After chopping, the beam acceleration continues by a 50 MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL), a 100 MeV Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac and a Pi-Mode Structure bringing the beam to the final energy of 160 MeV. Linac4 has been commissioned with a temporary source up to 12 MeV. The beam commissioning stages of Linac4 in LEBT...

  9. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchnoi, N. [Budker Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10{sup -4} or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  10. Invariant and energy analysis of an axially retracting beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaodong; Liu Ming; Zhang Wei; Roderick V.N. Melnik

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of a retracting cantilevered beam has been investigated by the invariant and energy-based analysis. The time-varying parameter partial differential equation governing the transverse vibrations of a beam with retracting motion is derived based on the momentum theorem. The assumed-mode method is used to truncate the governing partial differential equation into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with time-dependent coefficients. It is found that if the order of truncation is not less than the order of the initial conditions, the assumed-mode method can yield accurate results. The energy transfers among assumed modes are discussed during retrac-tion. The total energy varying with time has been investigated by numerical and analytical methods, and the results have good agreement with each other. For the transverse vibrations of the axially retracting beam, the adiabatic invariant is derived by both the averaging method and the Bessel function method.

  11. American Institute of Beamed Energy Propulsion: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.

    2008-04-01

    To date ISBEP remains the main forum addressing the science and engineering of beamed energy propulsion. Hopefully, it will continue to serve BEP community in this capacity for years to come. The need for organization acting beyond ISBEP was discussed since the second symposium. This paper will address the following question: if our community is ready for having its own organization, a BEP institute, what new it should bring comparing to already existing conference. Such organization, an American Institute on Beamed Energy Propulsion (AIBEP) was recently established. The institute is designed as a nonprofit corporation serving the purpose "to promote the ideas, concepts and benefits of beamed-energy propulsion to research community, industry and society at large". The goals of the institute, expected outcomes and benefits of the organization and its membership will be discussed.

  12. Proceedings of the Northwest regional energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A S; Comstock, D R [eds.

    1978-12-01

    The conference was directed toward two main objectives. First, a major portion of the proceedings were to focus on the policies, programs, and priorities of the new US DOE, and their relationships to the Pacific Northwest region. Second, the conference was to explore specific energy issues of regional significance and provide an opportunity for regional feedback on energy policies. The 10 sessions of the conference are Keynote Session: Congress, and the National Energy Plan Sen. Henry Jackson; National Perspectives on Energy Issues (I): An Overview of the NEP, Programs and Priorities of DOE (Alvin Alm and NEP - Conservation and Solar Applications (Don Beattie); and Luncheon address - Alaska Energy Issues (Robert LeResche); National Perspectives on Energy Issues (II): Utility Rate Reform - National Provisions and Relationships to the Pacific Northwest (David Bardin) and Technology for Energy and Long Term Short Alternatives (Robert Thorne); Concurrent Interest Group Sessions: State and Local Roles in Energy Planning and Decision-Making and Industry and University Roles in DOE Research and Programs; Banquet address. The US Energy Future (James Schlesinger); Regional Perspectives on Energy Issues: DOE-X - Organization and Response to Regional Needs (Randall Hardy). What Comes After Number 13 (Sterling Munro), Hanford 1978 (Alex Fremling), and Low Head Hydro and Geothermal (Richard Wood); Lucheon address - The Washington Perspective on Energy (Dixie Lee Ray); Regional Power Planning (Panel); and Conference Wrap Up Session. (MCW)

  13. The Beam Energy Tracking System of the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Carlier, E; Gräwer, G; Voumard, N; Gjelsvik, R

    2005-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System (LBDS) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, will be installed around the straight section 6. It comprises per ring 15 horizontally deflecting extraction kickers, followed by 1 quadrupole, 15 vertically deflecting steel septum magnets, 10 dilution kickers and, in a separate cavern several hundred meters away, an external absorber assembly. A beam dump request can occur at any moment during the operation of the collider, from injection at 450 GeV up to top energy at 7 TeV. The Beam Energy Tracking System (BETS) monitors the deflection strength of each active element of the LBDS with respect to the beam energy in order to guarantee the correct extraction trajectory over the complete operational range and under all operational conditions. Its main functions are the acquisition of the beam energy, the generation of the kick strength reference signals for the extraction and dilution kickers, the continuous checking that the kicker high voltage generat...

  14. High energy electron beam joining of ceramic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A. [and others

    1997-07-01

    High strength, hermetic braze joints between ceramic components have been produced using high energy electron beams. With a penetration depth into a typical ceramic of {approximately}1 cm for a 10 MeV electron beam, this method provides the capability for rapid, transient brazing operations where temperature control of critical components is essential. The method deposits energy directly into a buried joint, allowing otherwise inaccessible interfaces to be brazed. Because of transient heating, higher thermal conductivity, lower heat capacity, and lower melting temperature of braze metals relative to the ceramic materials, a pulsed high power beam can melt a braze metal without producing excessive ceramic temperatures. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this process related to ceramic coupons as well as ceramic and glass tubes. The transient thermal response was predicted, using as input the energy absorption predicted from the coupled electron-photon transport analysis. The joining experiments were conducted with an RF Linac accelerator at 10-13 MV. The repetition rate of the pulsed beam was varied between 8 and 120 Hz, the average beam current was varied between 8 and 120 microamps, and the power was varied up to 1.5 kW. These beam parameters gave a beam power density between 0.2 to 2 kW/cm{sup 2}. The duration of the joining runs varied from 5 to 600 sec. Joining experiments have provided high strength between alumina - alumina and alumina - cermet joints in cylindrical geometry. These joints provided good hermetic seals. A series of tests was conducted to determine the minimum beam power and exposure time for producing, a hermetic seal.

  15. Energy Spread of the Proton Beam in the Fermilab Booster at its Injection Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, C M; Chaurize, S J; Garcia, F G; Seiya, K; Pellico, W A; Sullivan, T M; Triplett, A K

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the total energy spread (99 persent energy spread) of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods - 1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, 2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and 3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of RF systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line.

  16. Narrow beam dosimetry for high-energy hadrons and electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pelliccioni, M; Ulrici, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose were calculated with the latest version of the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA in the case of an anthropomorphic mathematical model exposed to monoenergetic narrow beams of protons, pions and electrons in the energy range 10°— 400 GeV. The target organs considered were right eye, thyroid, thymus, lung and breast. Simple scaling laws to the calculated values are given. The present data and formula should prove useful for dosimetric estimations in case of accidental exposures to high-energy beams.

  17. Mercuric iodide dosimeter response to high energy electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewinger, E.; Nissenbaum, J.; Schieber, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Mercuric iodide solid state dosimeter response to high energy electron beams of up to 35 MeV is reported. High sensitivity of up to 1.5 V/cGy was observed with a 200 V external bias, as well as several mV/cGy, with no external bias for small volume (approx. 10 mm/sup 3/) detectors. The physical characteristics of the detector response are discussed, showing the feasibility of mercuric iodide as a reliable dosimeter for high energy electron beams.

  18. The Beamed Energy Technology Working Group, Programs and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A brief description of the Beamed Energy Technology Program will be given. Its relationship to the overall Advanced Technology Program at Marshall Space Flight Center will be discussed. A summary description of the known potential benefits and technical issues remaining in the development of a viable system will be presented along with program plans for a NASA Research Announcement in FY03 to begin development of relevant technologies and systems concepts. The results of workshop activity by the Beamed Energy Technology Working Group will be provided.

  19. Narrow beam dosimetry for high energy hadrons and electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccioni, M; Silari, M; Ulrici, L

    2001-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose were calculated with the latest version of the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA in the case of an anthropomorphic mathematical model exposed to monoenergetic narrow beams of protons, pions and electrons in the energy range 10-400 GeV. The target organs considered were right eye, thyroid, thymus, lung and breast. Simple scaling laws to the calculated values are given. The present data and formulae should prove useful for dosimetric estimations in the case of accidental exposures to high energy beams.

  20. Microbunched electron cooling for high-energy hadron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, D

    2013-08-23

    Electron and stochastic cooling are proven methods for cooling low-energy hadron beams, but at present there is no way of cooling hadrons as they near the TeV scale. In the 1980s, Derbenev suggested that electron instabilities, such as free-electron lasers, could create collective space charge fields strong enough to correct the hadron energies. This Letter presents a variation on Derbenev's electron cooling scheme using the microbunching instability as the amplifier. The large bandwidth of the instability allows for faster cooling of high-density beams. A simple analytical model illustrates the cooling mechanism, and simulations show cooling rates for realistic parameters of the Large Hadron Collider.

  1. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  2. Regions in Energy Market Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.

    2007-02-01

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model--and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  3. Regions in Energy Market Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  4. Energy gain and spectral tailoring of ion beams using ultra-high intensity laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Swantusch, Marco; Cerchez, Mirela; Spickermann, Sven; Auorand, Bastian; Wowra, Thomas; Boeker, Juergen; Willi, Oswald

    2015-11-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration over the past decade has produced a huge amount of research. Nowadays, several multi-beam facilities with high rep rate system, e.g. ELI, are being developed across the world for different kinds of experiments. The study of interaction dynamics of multiple beams possessing ultra-high intensity and ultra-short pulse duration is of vital importance. Here, we present the first experimental results on ion acceleration using two ultra-high intensity beams. Thanks to the unique capability of Arcturus laser at HHU Düsseldorf, two almost identical, independent beams in laser parameters such as intensity (>1020 W/cm2), pulse duration (30 fs) and contrast (>1010), could be accessed. Both beams are focused onto a 5 μm thin Ti target. While ensuring spatial overlap of the two beams, at relative temporal delay of ~ 50 ps (optimum delay), the proton and carbon ion energies were enhanced by factor of 1.5. Moreover, strong modulation in C4+ions near the high energy cut-off is observed later than the optimum delay for the proton enhancement. This offers controlled tailoring of the spectral content of heavy ions.

  5. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, Sergei M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  6. Optimization of solenoid based low energy beam transport line for high current H+ beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, R.; Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Roy, S.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2015-02-01

    A 20 MeV, 30 mA CW proton linac is being developed at BARC, Mumbai. This linac will consist of an ECR ion source followed by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and Drift tube Linac (DTL). The low energy beam transport (LEBT) line is used to match the beam from the ion source to the RFQ with minimum beam loss and increase in emittance. The LEBT is also used to eliminate the unwanted ions like H2+ and H3+ from entering the RFQ. In addition, space charge compensation is required for transportation of such high beam currents. All this requires careful design and optimization. Detailed beam dynamics simulations have been done to optimize the design of the LEBT using the Particle-in-cell code TRACEWIN. We find that with careful optimization it is possible to transport a 30 mA CW proton beam through the LEBT with 100% transmission and minimal emittance blow up, while at the same time suppressing unwanted species H2+ and H3+ to less than 3.3% of the total beam current.

  7. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  8. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-Up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  9. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  10. Imprint reduction in rotating heavy ions beam energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A., E-mail: antoineclaude.bret@uclm.es [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); ETSI Industriales, Universidad Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Piriz, A.R., E-mail: Roberto.Piriz@uclm.es [ETSI Industriales, Universidad Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Tahir, N.A., E-mail: n.tahir@gsi.de [GSI Darmstadt, Plankstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The compression of a cylindrical target by a rotating heavy ions beam is contemplated in certain inertial fusion schemes or in heavy density matter experiments. Because the beam has its proper temporal profile, the energy deposition is asymmetric and leaves an imprint which can have important consequences for the rest of the process. In this paper, the Fourier components of the deposited ion density are computed exactly in terms of the beam temporal profile and its rotation frequency Ω. We show that for any beam profile of duration T, there exist an infinite number of values of ΩT canceling exactly any given harmonic. For the particular case of a parabolic profile, we find possible to cancel exactly the first harmonic and nearly cancel every other odd harmonics. In such case, the imprint amplitude is divided by 4 without any increase of Ω.

  11. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Polarization Effects on Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in OMEGA Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-10-01

    Beamlet spot images are used to diagnose cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) during OMEGA direct-drive implosions. The spots are, in essence, the end point of beamlets of light originating from different regions of each beam profile and following paths determined by refraction. The intensity of each spot varies because of absorption and CBET along that path. When each beam is linearly polarized, the image is asymmetric in terms of spot intensities. A 3-D CBET postprocessor for hydrodynamics codes is used to model the intensity, wavelength, and polarization of light from each beam. Rotation of polarization caused by CBET is tracked. The model is benchmarked using a 3-D wave-based solver for simplified CBET geometries. For linearly polarized beams in OMEGA implosions, the model predicts that polarization effects will result in asymmetric polarization and unabsorbed light profiles that are different for each beam. An asymmetric beamlet spot image similar to that recorded is predicted by the CBET model for linearly polarized beams. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  12. Japan's Energy Policy in the Asian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Reiji Takeishi

    2014-01-01

    With encouraged economic activities in the Asian region, energy consumption of Asian countries are substantially increasing. Based on the improved role of Asian countries, the possibility to secure enough energy in the future is becoming a seriously important matter because economic activities basically depend on stable energy supplies.

  13. Energy sustainability performance of the regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Danilov

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the dynamics of energy intensity of gross regional product of the Sverdlovsk region for the period 1996 - 2003 years. and projections for the period up to 2015. The principal possibility of growth performance of the regional economy, without a significant increase in the consumption of primary fuel.

  14. Symbolic modeling of high energy beam optics

    CERN Document Server

    Autin, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    A classical problem of computational physics consists of finding the minimum of a chi /sup 2/ like function of many variables. Powerful optimization algorithms have been developed but do not guarantee convergence towards an absolute minimum. Analytical methods can improve the insight into a physical problem but calculations quickly exceed the power of a human brain. There comes the interest of optical design of high energy particle accelerators. The physics background is sketched and emphasis is put on the methodology. In practice, algebraic models may not be precise enough but they usually provide excellent initial conditions for a final numerical optimization. (4 refs).

  15. High energy physics with polarized beams and targets. [65 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, M L [ed.

    1976-01-01

    Sixty-six papers are presented as a report on conference sessions held from August 23-27, 1976, at Argonne National Laboratory. Topics covered include: (1) strong interactions; (2) weak and electromagnetic interactions; (3) polarized beams; and (4) polarized targets. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and for the INIS Atomindex. (PMA)

  16. Automation of variable low-energy positron beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Jayapandian, J; Amarendra, G; Venugopal-Rao, G; Purniah, B; Viswanathan, B

    2000-01-01

    By exploiting the special BIOS interrupt (INT 1CH) of PC in conjunction with a compatible high-voltage controller card and menu-driven control program, we report here the automation of variable low-energy positron beam experiments. The beam experiment consists of monitoring the Doppler broadening lineshape parameters corresponding to the annihilation 511 keV gamma-ray at various positron beam implantation energies. The variation and monitoring of the sample high voltage, which determines positron beam energy, is carried out using a controller add-on card coupled to a 0-30 kV high-voltage unit. The design features of this controller card are discussed. This controller card is housed in a PC, which also houses a multichannel analyser (MCA) card. The MCA stores the Doppler energy spectrum of the annihilation gamma-ray. The interactive control program, written in Turbo C, carries out the assigned tasks. The design features of the automation and results are presented.

  17. LOW ENERGY BEAM-GAS SPECTROSCOPY OF HIGHLY IONISED ATOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Desesquelles, J.; DENIS A.; Druetta, M.; Martin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Features of low energy beam-gas spectroscopic source are reviewed and compared to those of other light sources. Measurement techniques are surveyed. They include the study of wavelength of heavy multiply charged ions in visible and u.v. ranges from normal excited states, doubly excited states, high n levels and doubly excited Rydberg levels.

  18. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  19. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  20. High Energy Electron Reconstruction in the BeamCal

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, Andre

    2016-01-01

    This note discusses methods of particle reconstruction in the forward region detectors of future e+ e− linear colliders such as ILC or CLIC. At the nominal luminosity the innermost electromagnetic calorimeters undergo high particle fluxes from the beam-induced background. In this prospect, different methods of the background simulation and signal electron reconstruction are described.

  1. Experiments with high-energy neutrino beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, J

    1989-09-15

    Experiments in which high-energy neutrinos were used as projectiles have made substantial contributions to our understanding of both weak and strong interactions, as well as the structure of hadrons. This article offers some illustrations. It recalls the discovery of the neutral weak current and some experiments on its nature. The sections on charged-current inclusive scattering recall the important role of these experiments in the understanding of the quark structure of the nucleon and the validity of quantum chromodynamics. The section on dimuon production illustrates the role of neutrino experiments in establishing the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiani current as well as the measurement of the structure function of the strange quark in the nucleon.

  2. Extraction design and low energy beam transport optimization of space charge dominated multispecies ion beam sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O.; De Menezes, D.

    2004-05-01

    In all accelerator projects, the low energy part of the accelerator has to be carefully optimized to match the beam characteristic requirements of the higher energy parts. Since 1994 with the beginning of the Injector of Protons for High Intensity (IPHI) project and Source of Light Ions with High Intensities (SILHI) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source development at CEA/Saclay, we are using a set of two-dimensional (2D) codes for extraction system optimization (AXCEL, OPERA-2D) and beam transport (MULTIPART). The 95 keV SILHI extraction system optimization has largely increased the extracted current, and improved the beam line transmission. From these good results, a 130 mA D+ extraction system for the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility project has been designed in the same way as SILHI one. We are also now involved in the SPIRAL 2 project for the building of a 40 keV D+ ECR ion source, continuously tunable from 0.1 to 5 mA, for which a special four-electrode extraction system has been studied. In this article we will describe the 2D design process and present the different extraction geometries and beam characteristics. Simulation results of SILHI H+ beam emittance will be compared with experimental measurements.

  3. Vibration piezoelectric energy harvester with multi-beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel vibration piezoelectric energy harvester, which is a micro piezoelectric cantilever with multi-beam. The characteristics of the PZT (Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 thin film were measured; XRD (X-ray diffraction pattern and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope image of the PZT thin film were measured, and show that the PZT (Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 thin film is highly (110 crystal oriented; the leakage current is maintained in nA magnitude, the residual polarisation Pr is 37.037 μC/cm2, the coercive field voltage Ec is 27.083 kV/cm, and the piezoelectric constant d33 is 28 pC/N. In order to test the dynamic performance of the energy harvester, a new measuring system was set up. The maximum output voltage of the single beam of the multi-beam can achieve 80.78 mV under an acceleration of 1 g at 260 Hz of frequency; the maximum output voltage of the single beam of the multi-beam is almost 20 mV at 1400 Hz frequency.

  4. Vibration piezoelectric energy harvester with multi-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yan, E-mail: yanc@dlut.edu.cn; Zhang, Qunying, E-mail: zhangqunying89@126.com; Yao, Minglei, E-mail: yaomingleiok@126.com [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of the Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, 116024, Dalian, Liaoning Province (China); Dong, Weijie, E-mail: dongwj@dlut.edu.cn [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024, Dalian, Liaoning Province (China); Gao, Shiqiao, E-mail: gaoshq@bit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, Beijing Province (China)

    2015-04-15

    This work presents a novel vibration piezoelectric energy harvester, which is a micro piezoelectric cantilever with multi-beam. The characteristics of the PZT (Pb(Zr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47})O{sub 3}) thin film were measured; XRD (X-ray diffraction) pattern and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) image of the PZT thin film were measured, and show that the PZT (Pb(Zr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47})O{sub 3}) thin film is highly (110) crystal oriented; the leakage current is maintained in nA magnitude, the residual polarisation Pr is 37.037 μC/cm{sup 2}, the coercive field voltage Ec is 27.083 kV/cm, and the piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is 28 pC/N. In order to test the dynamic performance of the energy harvester, a new measuring system was set up. The maximum output voltage of the single beam of the multi-beam can achieve 80.78 mV under an acceleration of 1 g at 260 Hz of frequency; the maximum output voltage of the single beam of the multi-beam is almost 20 mV at 1400 Hz frequency. .

  5. Preliminary investigations on high energy electron beam tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertling, Yves; Hoppe, Dietrich; Hampel, Uwe

    2010-12-15

    In computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional images of the attenuation distribution within a slice are created by scanning radiographic projections of an object with a rotating X-ray source detector compound and subsequent reconstruction of the images from these projection data on a computer. CT can be made very fast by employing a scanned electron beam instead of a mechanically moving X-ray source. Now this principle was extended towards high-energy electron beam tomography with an electrostatic accelerator. Therefore a dedicated experimental campaign was planned and carried out at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk. There we investigated the capabilities of BINP's accelerators as an electron beam generating and scanning unit of a potential high-energy electron beam tomography device. The setup based on a 1 MeV ELV-6 (BINP) electron accelerator and a single detector. Besides tomographic measurements with different phantoms, further experiments were carried out concerning the focal spot size and repeat accuracy of the electron beam as well as the detector's response time and signal to noise ratio. (orig.)

  6. Upward electron beams measured by DE-1 - A primary source of dayside region-1 Birkeland currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Reiff, P. H.; Sugiura, M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements made by the High Altitude Plasma Instrument on DE-1 have shown that intense upward electron beams with energies from about 20 eV to about 200 eV are a common feature of the region just equatorward of the morning-side polar cusp. Computations of the currents carried by these beams and by the precipitating cusp electrons show excellent agreement with the simultaneous DE-1 magnetometer measurements for both upward and downward Birkeland currents. The data indicate that cold ionospheric electrons, which carry the downward region-1 Birkeland currents on the morning side, are accelerated upward by potential drops of a few tens of eV at altitudes of several thousand kilometers. This acceleration process allows spacecraft above those altitudes to measure routinely the charge carriers of both downward and upward current systems.

  7. Photon beam convolution using polyenergetic energy deposition kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoban, P.W.; Murray, D.C.; Round, W.H. (Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand). Dept. of Physics)

    1994-04-01

    In photon beam convolution calculations where polyenergetic energy deposition kernels (EDKs) are used, the primary photon energy spectrum should be correctly accounted for in Monte Carlo generation of EDKs. This requires the probability of interaction, determined by the linear attenuation coefficient, [mu], to be taken into account when primary photon interactions are forced to occur at the EDK origin. The use of primary and scattered EDKs generated with a fixed photon spectrum can give rise to an error in the dose calculation due to neglecting the effects of beam hardening with depth. The proportion of primary photon energy that is transferred to secondary electrons increases with depth of interaction, due to the increase in the ratio [mu][sub ab]/[mu] as the beam hardens. Convolution depth-dose curves calculated using polyenergetic EDKs generated for the primary photon spectra which exist at depths of 0, 20 and 40 cm in water, show a fall-off which is too steep when compared with EGS4 Monte Carlo results. A beam hardening correction factor applied to primary and scattered 0 cm EDKs, based on the ratio of kerma to terma at each depth, gives primary, scattered and total dose in good agreement with Monte Carlo results. (Author).

  8. Spacecraft Power Beaming Using High-Energy Lasers, Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Sherif

    2008-04-01

    The lifetime of many spacecrafts are often limited by degradation of their electrical power subsystem, e.g. radiation-damaged solar arrays or failed batteries. Being able to beam power from terrestrial sites using high energy lasers, could alleviate this limitation, extending the lifetime of billions of dollars of satellite assets, as well as providing additional energy for electric propulsion that can be used for stationkeeping and orbital changes. In addition, extensive research at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has shown the potential for annealing damaged solar cells using lasers. This paper describes that research and a proposed experiment to demonstrate the relevant concepts of high energy laser power beaming to an NPS-built and operated satellite. Preliminary results of ground experiment of laser illuminations of some of the solar panels of one of the spacecrafts are also presented.

  9. A Beam Interlock System for CERN High Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Schmidt, R

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (The European Organisation for Nuclear Research) is one of the largest and most complicated machines envisaged to date. The LHC has been conceived and designed over the course of the last 25 years and represents the cutting edge of accelerator technology with a collision energy of 14TeV, having a stored beam energy over 100 times more powerful than the nearest competitor. Commissioning of the machine is already nderway and operation with beam is intended for Autumn 2007, with 7TeV operation expected in 2008. The LHC is set to answer some of the fundemental questions in theoretical physics, colliding particles with such high energy that the inner workings of the quantum world can be revealed. Colliding particles together at such high energy makes very high demands on machine operation and protection. The specified beam energy requires strong magnetic fields that are made in superconducting dipole magnets, these magnets are kept only around two degrees above absolute zero...

  10. Energy planning on a regional scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, B.; Sommerville Smith, J. (March Consulting Group (GB))

    1989-07-01

    In a study carried out for the European Commission, energy use in the north west of England was analysed to highlight the region's energy profile, the scope for improving energy efficiency and the barriers to investment. The results of this work were used to put forward a programme of proposals for improving the effective use of energy. This programme, if implemented, would not only affect energy consumption in the North West, but would also be relevant to the UK as a whole. (author).

  11. Energy composition of high-energy neutral beams on the COMPASS tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitosinkova Klara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS tokamak is equipped with two identical neutral beam injectors (NBI for additional plasma heating. They provide a beam of deuterium atoms with a power of up to ~(2 × 300 kW. We show that the neutral beam is not monoenergetic but contains several energy components. An accurate knowledge of the neutral beam power in each individual energy component is essential for a detailed description of the beam- -plasma interaction and better understanding of the NBI heating processes in the COMPASS tokamak. This paper describes the determination of individual energy components in the neutral beam from intensities of the Doppler-shifted Dα lines, which are measured by a high-resolution spectrometer viewing the neutral beam-line at the exit of NBI. Furthermore, the divergence of beamlets escaping single aperture of the last accelerating grid is deduced from the width of the Doppler-shifted lines. Recently, one of the NBI systems was modified by the removal of the Faraday copper shield from the ion source. The comparison of the beam composition and the beamlet divergence before and after this modification is also presented.

  12. High-energy tritium beams as current drivers in tokamak reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Grisham, L.R.

    1983-04-01

    The effect on neutral-beam design and reactor performance of using high-energy (approx. 3-10 MeV) tritium neutral beams to drive steady-state tokamak reactors is considered. The lower current of such beams leads to several advantages over lower-energy neutral beams. The major disadvantage is the reduction of the reactor output caused by the lower current-drive efficiency of the high-energy beams.

  13. Feasibility of ceramic joining with high energy electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clifford, J.R. [Titan Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Joining structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for producing joints with high temperature capability. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the adjacent ceramic. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 NTa have been measured for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Mo-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. These modest strengths are due to beam non-uniformity and the limited area of bonding. The bonding mechanism appears to be a thin silicide reaction layer. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} joints with no metal layer were also produced, apparently bonded an yttrium apatite grain boundary phase.

  14. Regional Integration of Renewable Energies; Integracion Regional de energias Renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J. [Ciemat.Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this report is to show how Energetic Planning and Territorial Policy should be working together for a better integration of Renewable Energies into Region. This Integration should to contemplate social, economic and environmental aspects of the territory. The report has been classified into 7 items: planning, energetic scenarios, technology transfer for Renewable Energies dissemination, barriers for this dissemination, environmental aspects, European Union Policy and Decision Support Systems (and specially GIS). (Author) 54 refs.

  15. Phase rotation of muon beams for producing intense low-energy muon beams

    CERN Document Server

    Neuffer, D; Hansen, G

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy muon beams are useful for rare decay searches, which provide access to new physics that cannot be addressed at high-energy colliders. However, muons are produced within a broad energy spread unmatched to the low-energy required. In this paper we outline a phase rotation method to significantly increase the intensity of low-energy muons. The muons are produced from a short pulsed proton driver, and develop a time-momentum correlation in a drift space following production. A series of rf cavities is used to bunch the muons and phase-energy rotate the bunches to a momentum of around 100 MeV/c. Then another group of rf cavities is used to decelerate the muon bunches to low-energy. This obtains ~0.1 muon per 8 GeV proton, which is significantly higher than currently planned Mu2e experiments, and would enable a next generation of rare decay searches, and other intense muon beam applications.

  16. Phase Rotation of Muon Beams for Producing Intense Low-Energy Muon Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D. [Fermilab; Bao, Y. [UC, Riverside; Hansen, G. [UC, Riverside

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy muon beams are useful for rare decay searches, which provide access to new physics that cannot be addressed at high-energy colliders. However, muons are produced within a broad energy spread unmatched to the low-energy required. In this paper we outline a phase rotation method to significantly increase the intensity of low-energy muons. The muons are produced from a short pulsed proton driver, and develop a time-momentum correlation in a drift space following production. A series of rf cavities is used to bunch the muons and phase-energy rotate the bunches to a momentum of around 100 MeV/c. Then another group of rf cavities is used to decelerate the muon bunches to low-energy. This obtains ~0.1 muon per 8 GeV proton, which is significantly higher than currently planned Mu2e experiments, and would enable a next generation of rare decay searches, and other intense muon beam applications.

  17. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  18. Vibrational Energy Flow Analysis of Corrected Flexural Waves in Timoshenko Beam – Part II: Application to Coupled Timoshenko Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Park

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology for the energy flow analysis of coupled Timoshenko beam structures and various numerical applications to verify the developed methodology. To extend the application of the energy flow model for corrected flexural waves in the Timoshenko beam, which is developed in the other companion paper, to coupled structures, the wave transmission analyses of general coupled Timoshenko beam systems are performed. First, power transmission and reflection coefficients for all kinds of propagating waves in the general, coupled Timoshenko beam structures are derived by the wave transmission approach. In numerical applications, the energy flow solutions using the derived coefficients agree well with the classical solutions for various exciting frequencies, damping loss factors, and coupled Timoshenko beam structures. Additionally, the numerical results for the Timoshenko beam are compared with those for the Euler-Bernoulli beam.

  19. Dynamic Response of Inextensible Beams by Improved Energy Balance Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sfahani, M. G.; Barari, Amin; Omidvar, M.

    2011-01-01

    An improved He's energy balance method (EBM) for solving non-linear oscillatory differential equation using a new trial function is presented. The problem considered represents the governing equations of the non-linear, large-amplitude free vibrations of a slender cantilever beam with a rotationa......An improved He's energy balance method (EBM) for solving non-linear oscillatory differential equation using a new trial function is presented. The problem considered represents the governing equations of the non-linear, large-amplitude free vibrations of a slender cantilever beam...... procedure for a particular value of the initial condition is then used to estimate the constants. This semi-analytical representation gives excellent approximations to the exact solutions for the whole range of the oscillation amplitude, reducing the respective error of angular frequency in comparison...

  20. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  1. Vibrational Energy Flow Analysis of Corrected Flexural Waves in Timoshenko Beam – Part II: Application to Coupled Timoshenko Beams

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for the energy flow analysis of coupled Timoshenko beam structures and various numerical applications to verify the developed methodology. To extend the application of the energy flow model for corrected flexural waves in the Timoshenko beam, which is developed in the other companion paper, to coupled structures, the wave transmission analyses of general coupled Timoshenko beam systems are performed. First, power transmission and reflection coefficients for...

  2. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar; G Rodrigues; U K Rao; C P Safvan; D Kanjilal; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion beams ranging from a few keV to a few MeV for research in materials sciences, atomic and molecular physics is described. One of the important features of this facility is the availability of relatively large currents of multiply charged positive ions from an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source placed entirely on a high voltage platform. All the electronic and vacuum systems related to the ECR source including 10 GHz ultra high frequency (UHF) transmitter, high voltage power supplies for extractor and Einzel lens are placed on a high voltage platform. All the equipments are controlled using a personal computer at ground potential through optical fibers for high voltage isolation. Some of the experimental facilities available are also described.

  3. Using Off-Resonance Laser Modulation for Beam Energy Spread Cooling in Generation of Short-Wavelength Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Haixiao

    2013-01-01

    Various seeding configurations have being proposed for frequency up-conversion of the electron beam density distribution, in which the energy spread, may however hinder the harmonic generation efficiency. In this Letter, a method for cooling the electron beam energy spread by off-resonance seed laser modulation is described, using a transversely dispersed beam and a modulator undulator with proper transverse gradient. With this novel mechanism, it is shown that the frequency up-conversion efficiency can be significantly enhanced. We present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for seeded soft x-ray free electron laser and storage ring based coherent harmonic generation in extreme ultraviolet spectral region.

  4. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  5. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  6. Observations of Multi - Component Ion Beams in the High-Altitude Cusp/Cleft Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, R.; Semkova, J.; Smirnov, V.; Fedorov, A.

    Both Solar wind and the Earth ionosphere serve as sources of magnetospheric plasma. Having entered (SW ions) or being ejected (ionospheric ions) into the magnetosphere, ions are involved in the magnetospheric circulation. The common idea is that ions, convected to the lobe region, due to the ExB drift, enter the region of the plasma sheet and get energized by different processes. Magnetospheric plasma flows have been widely investigated, using mainly energy-per-charge measurements. While this method successfully differentiates ion species, which have near - equal flow speed and low thermal velocities [e.g. Seki et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1998], the ionic composition of hot magnetospheric flows could only be revealed in mass or mass-per-charge measurements. Recent plasma flows studies based on ion composition measurements [Lennartson, J. Geophys. Res., 2001] showed a great deal of similarity between the tailward drifts of the different ions, especially in the transition region between the central plasma sheet and the tail lobes, and evoked the idea of near-Earth mixing of the Solar wind and ionospheric ions. We present some experimental evidence on near-Earth mixing of magnetospheric ions of different origin. Used are data from the Low Energy Plasma Composition Experiment (AMEI-2) onboard the high-apogee INTERBALL-1 satellite. We present and discuss several cases of ion beams with energies above 3 keV, registered in the cusp/cleft region at distances from 5 to 9 Re, in which both He++ and O+ are present. The beams are observed on filed lines connected with different magnetospheric regions: the LLBL, the plasma mantle and the lobe. The energy/pitch angle behaviour of both He++ (Solar wind origin) and O+ (ionospheric origin) reveals great similarity, as if they are from one and the same source. Only the wider distributions of the He++ fluxes and the narrow ones of the O+ ions indicate their different origin. The distributions bare the signatures of various acceleration

  7. Modeling global and regional energy futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethinaraj, T. S. Gopi

    A rigorous econometric calibration of a model of energy consumption is presented using a comprehensive time series database on energy consumption and other socioeconomic indicators. The future of nuclear power in the evolving distribution of various energy sources is also examined. An important consideration for the long-term future of nuclear power concerns the rate of decline of the fraction of energy that comes from coal, which has historically declined on a global basis about linearly as a function of the cumulative use of coal. The use of fluid fossil fuels is also expected to eventually decline as the more readily extractable deposits are depleted. The investigation here is restricted to examining a comparatively simple model of the dynamics of competition between nuclear and other competing energy sources. Using a defined tropical/temperate disaggregation of the world, region-specific modeling results are presented for population growth, GDP growth, energy use, and carbon use compatible with a gradual transition to energy sustainability. Results for the fractions of energy use from various sources by grouping nine commercial primary energy sources into pairs of competing fuel categories are presented in combination with the idea of experiential learning and resource depletion. Analysis based on this division provides estimates for future evolution of the fractional shares, annual use rates, cumulative use of individual energy sources, and the economic attractiveness of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. This unified approach helps to conceptualize and understand the dynamics of evolution of importance of various energy resources over time.

  8. Beam dynamics and error study of the medium energy beam transport line in the Korea Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San; Hahn, Garam

    2016-11-01

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator consists of an injector and a synchrotron for an ion medical accelerator that is the first carbon-ion therapy system in Korea. The medium energy beam transport(MEBT) line connects the interdigital H-mode drift tube linac and the synchrotron. We investigated the beam conditions after the charge stripper by using the LISE++ and the SRIM codes. The beam was stripped from C4+ into C6+ by using the charge stripper. We investigated the performance of a de-buncher in optimizing the energy spread and the beam distribution in z-dW/W (direction of beam progress-beam and energy) phase. We obtained the results of the tracking simulation and the error analysis by using the TRACK code. Possible misalignments and rotations of the magnets were considered in the simulations. States of the beam were examined when errors occurred in the magnets by the applying analytic fringe field model in TRACK code. The condition for the beam orbit was optimized by using correctors and profile monitors to correct the orbit. In this paper, we focus on the beam dynamics and the error studies dedicated to the MEBT beam line and show the optimized beam parameters for the MEBT.

  9. Energy-filtered electron-diffracted beam holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, R.A. [Center for Advanced Materials and Related Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, P.O. Box. 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8N 4T6 (Canada)]. E-mail: rherring@uvic.ca

    2005-10-15

    A method of energy-filtered electron holography is described where any two electron-diffracted beams can be interfered using an electron biprism. A Gatan image filter is used to select the energy loss of the electrons produced in the holograms. Gallium arsenide is used as the TEM specimen. This method of microscopy confirms that fringes extending beyond a limiting aperture were due to inelastically scattered electrons and specifically electrons scattered from the bulk plasmon. The degree of coherence of the zero-loss and energy-loss electrons were high and measured to be {approx}0.3, which was maintained even for the high energy-loss electrons up to 100 eV. Future systematic studies using this method should help understand the Stobbs factor and contribute to the development of quantitative high-resolution electron microscopy.

  10. Energy-filtered electron-diffracted beam holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, R A

    2005-10-01

    A method of energy-filtered electron holography is described where any two electron-diffracted beams can be interfered using an electron biprism. A Gatan image filter is used to select the energy loss of the electrons produced in the holograms. Gallium arsenide is used as the TEM specimen. This method of microscopy confirms that fringes extending beyond a limiting aperture were due to inelastically scattered electrons and specifically electrons scattered from the bulk plasmon. The degree of coherence of the zero-loss and energy-loss electrons were high and measured to be approximately 0.3, which was maintained even for the high energy-loss electrons up to 100 eV. Future systematic studies using this method should help understand the Stobbs factor and contribute to the development of quantitative high-resolution electron microscopy.

  11. Energy flow, energy density of Timoshenko beam and wave mode incoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Rao, Zhushi; Ta, Na

    2015-10-01

    Time-averaged energy flow and energy density are of significance in vibration analysis. The wave decomposition method is more fruitful and global in physical sense than the state variables depicted point by point. By wave approach, the Timoshenko beam vibration field is decomposed into two distinct modes: travelling and evanescent waves. Consequently, the power and energy functions defined on these waves' amplitude and phase need to be established. However, such formulas on Timoshenko beam are hardly found in literatures. Furthermore, the incoherence between these two modes is of theoretical and practical significance. This characteristic guarantees that the resultant power or energy of a superposed wave field is equal to the sum of the power or energy that each wave mode would generate individually. Unlike Euler-Bernoulli beam, such incoherence in the Timoshenko beam case has not been theoretically proved so far. Initially, the power and energy formulas based on wave approach and the corresponding incoherence proof are achieved by present work, both in theoretical and numerical ways. Fortunately, the theoretical and numerical results show that the travelling and evanescent wave modes are incoherent with each other both on power and energy functions. Notably, the energy function is unconventional and self-defined in order to obtain the incoherence. Some remarkable power transmission characteristics of the evanescent wave are also illustrated meanwhile.

  12. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  13. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  14. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Lv

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU based on the Internet of Things (IoT was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance.

  15. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-05-13

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance.

  16. Radiosurgery with high energy photon beams: a comparison among techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgorsak, E.B.; Pike, G.B.; Olivier, A.; Pla, M.; Souhami, L.

    1989-03-01

    The presently known radiosurgical techniques with high energy photon beams are based either on the commercially available Gamma unit utilizing 201 stationary cobalt beams or on isocentric linear accelerators. The techniques using linear accelerators are divided into the single plane rotation, the multiple non-coplanar arcs, and the dynamic rotation. A brief description of these techniques is given, and their physical characteristics, such as precision of dose delivery, dose fall-off outside the target volume, and isodose distributions are discussed. It is shown that the multiple non-coplanar arcs technique and the dynamic rotation give dose distributions similar to those of the Gamma unit, which makes these two linear accelerator based techniques attractive alternatives to radiosurgery with the Gamma unit.22 references.

  17. Crystals channel high-energy beams in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Bent crystals can be used to deflect particle beams, as suggested by E. Tsyganov in 1976. Experimental demonstrations have been carried out for four decades in various laboratories worldwide. In recent tests, a bent crystal inserted into the LHC beam halo successfully channelled and deflected 6.5 TeV protons into an absorber, with reduced secondary irradiation.    Quasimosaic crystal for the LHC (developed by PNPI). Bent crystal technology was introduced at CERN and further developed for the LHC by the UA9 Collaboration. For about ten years, experts from CERN, INFN (Italy), Imperial College (UK), LAL (France), and PNPI, IHEP and JINR (Russia) have been investigating the advantages of using bent crystals in the collimation systems of high-energy hadron colliders. A bent crystal replacing the primary collimator can deflect the incoming halo deeply inside the secondary collimators, improving their absorption efficiency. “The bent crystals we have just tested at the world-record en...

  18. Producing titanium-niobium alloy by high energy beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P., E-mail: sharkeev@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheski Prosp., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Golkovski, M. G., E-mail: golkoski@mail.ru [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Akademika Lavrentiev Prosp., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Glukhov, I. A., E-mail: gia@ispms.tsc.ru; Eroshenko, A. Yu., E-mail: eroshenko@ispms.tsc.ru; Fortuna, S. V., E-mail: s-fortuna@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheski Prosp., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Bataev, V. A., E-mail: bataev@vadm.ustu.ru [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prosp., Novosibirsk, 630073 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The research is involved in producing a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer on titanium substrate by high energy beam method, as well as in examining their structures and mechanical properties. Applying electron-beam cladding it was possible to produce a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer of several millimeters, where the niobium concentration was up to 40% at. and the structure itself could be related to martensite quenching structure. At the same time, a significant microhardness increase of 3200-3400 MPa was observed, which, in its turn, is connected with the formation of martensite structure. Cladding material of Ti-Nb composition could be the source in producing alloys of homogeneous microhardness and desired concentration of alloying niobium element.

  19. Biomaterial imaging with MeV-energy heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Toshio, E-mail: seki@sakura.nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Wakamatsu, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Shunichiro [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Aoki, Takaaki [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Ishihara, Akihiko [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Life Science, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Matsuo, Jiro [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    The spatial distribution of several chemical compounds in biological tissues and cells can be obtained with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). In conventional secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with keV-energy ion beams, elastic collisions occur between projectiles and atoms of constituent molecules. The collisions produce fragments, making the acquisition of molecular information difficult. In contrast, ion beams with MeV-energy excite near-surface electrons and enhance the ionization of high-mass molecules; hence, SIMS spectra of fragment-suppressed ionized molecules can be obtained with MeV-SIMS. To compare between MeV and conventional SIMS, we used the two methods based on MeV and Bi{sub 3}-keV ions, respectively, to obtain molecular images of rat cerebellum. Conventional SIMS images of m/z 184 were clearly observed, but with the Bi{sub 3} ion, the distribution of the molecule with m/z 772.5 could be observed with much difficulty. This effect was attributed to the low secondary ion yields and we could not get many signal counts with keV-energy beam. On the other hand, intact molecular ion distributions of lipids were clearly observed with MeV-SIMS, although the mass of all lipid molecules was higher than 500 Da. The peaks of intact molecular ions in MeV-SIMS spectra allowed us to assign the mass. The high secondary ion sensitivity with MeV-energy heavy ions is very useful in biomaterial analysis.

  20. Lattice design and beam dynamics studies of the high energy beam transport line in the RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyunchang, E-mail: hcjin@ibs.re.kr; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Jeon, Dong-O

    2015-12-01

    In RAON heavy ion accelerator, beams generated by superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS) or Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system are accelerated by lower energy superconducting linac and high energy superconducting linac. The accelerated beams are used in the high energy experimental hall which includes bio-medical and muon-SR facilities, after passing through the high energy beam transport lines. At the targets of those two facilities, the stable and small beams meeting the requirements rigorously are required in the transverse plane. Therefore the beams must be safely sent to the targets and simultaneously satisfy the two requirements, the achromatic condition and the mid-plane symmetric condition, of the targets. For this reason, the lattice design of the high energy beam transport lines in which the long deflecting sections are included is considered as a significant issue in the RAON accelerator. In this paper, we will describe the calculated beam optics satisfying the conditions and present the result of particle tracking simulations with the designed lattice of the high energy beam transport lines in the RAON accelerator. Also, the orbit distortion caused by the machine imperfections and the orbit correction with correctors will be discussed.

  1. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables and is intended to complement the main publication. This information paper provides an in-depth account of the regional markets and policy trends in all six focus regions; 56 countries in total. Each region is discussed with regards to: recent market developments in the electricity, heat and transport sector; policy developments; IEA projections; an analysis of the mid-term (2030) potential of renewable energy technologies in these regions; and an analysis of the strategic drivers underpinning the deployment of RE in each region.

  2. Feasibility of a 90° electric sector energy analyzer for low energy ion beam characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahinay, C. L. S., E-mail: cmahinay@nip.upd.edu.ph; Ramos, H. J. [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Metro Manila (Philippines); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    A simple formula to calculate refocusing by locating the output slit at a specific distance away from the exit of 90° ion deflecting electric sector is given. Numerical analysis is also performed to calculate the ion beam trajectories for different values of the initial angular deviation of the beam. To validate the theory, a compact (90 mm × 5.5 mm × 32 mm) 90° sector ESA is fabricated which can fit through the inner diameter of a conflat 70 vacuum flange. Experimental results show that the dependence of resolution upon the distance between the sector exit and the Faraday cup agrees with the theory. The fabricated 90° sector electrostatic energy analyzer was then used to measure the space resolved ion energy distribution functions of an ion beam with the energy as low as 600 eV.

  3. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  4. Risk and Machine Protection for Stored Magnetic and Beam Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, B

    2015-01-01

    Risk is a fundamental consideration when designing electronic systems. For most systems a view of risk can assist in setting design objectives, whereas both a qualitative and quantitative understanding of risk is mandatory when considering protection systems. This paper gives an overview of the risks due to stored magnetic and beam energies in high-energy physics, and shows how a risk-based approach can be used to design new systems mitigating these risks, using a lifecycle inspired by IEC 61508. Designing new systems in high-energy physics can be challenging as new and novel techniques are difficult to quantify and predict. This paper shows how the same lifecycle approach can be used in reverse to analyse existing systems, following their operation and first experiences.

  5. Demand for Energy and Energy Generation: Does Regional Energy Policy Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul OJEAGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Does regional energy policy play a role in regional energy generation? What does the implication of the current industrialization trend mean for the generation and the supply process across regions? And to what extent does regional energy policy affect energy security (energy supply risks in regions? This study investigates the effect of regional energy policy on regional generation characteristics in seven regions of the World using regional panel data from 1980 to 2010 a period of 31 years although some years of data are missing. It was found that regional energy policy were been shaped by pollution concerns and that cost reduction needs had strong effects on energy security (energy generation resources supply. The method of estimation used is the quantile regression estimation method which provides robust estimates after controlling for heterscedastic errors and is robust in the presence of outliers in the response measurement. Energy policy has strong implication for access to sustainable supply of energy generation resources however it had little or no effect on energy generation itself. Industrial demand for energy particularly in the developed countries were probably also making developed countries depend on more nuclear and hydro energy generation sources.

  6. Study of Effect of Ion Source Energy Spread on RFQ Beam Dynamics at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, M A

    2013-01-01

    With an upgrade to the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at REX under consideration a study was launched in order to understand the effect of an increased energy spread from the ion source on the beam dynamics of the RFQ. Due to the increased electron beam potential needed to achieve the upgrade’s charge breeding specification it is expected that the energy spread of the beam will increase from today’s estimated value of approximately +-0.1%. It is shown through beam dynamics simulations that the energy spread can be increased to +-1% without significant degradation of the beam quality output by the RFQ.

  7. Replacement of chemical rocket launchers by beamed energy propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunari, Masafumi; Arnault, Anthony; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2014-11-01

    Microwave Rocket is a beamed energy propulsion system that is expected to reach space at drastically lower cost. This cost reduction is estimated by replacing the first-stage engine and solid rocket boosters of the Japanese H-IIB rocket with Microwave Rocket, using a recently developed thrust model in which thrust is generated through repetitively pulsed microwave detonation with a reed-valve air-breathing system. Results show that Microwave Rocket trajectory, in terms of velocity versus altitude, can be designed similarly to the current H-IIB first stage trajectory. Moreover, the payload ratio can be increased by 450%, resulting in launch-cost reduction of 74%.

  8. A Device for a Proton Beam Energy Control for Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Agapov, A V; Molokanov, A G; Shvidkii, S V

    2004-01-01

    A Medical-Technical Facility for hadron radiotherapy based on DLNP JINR phasotron has been constructed and put into operation. Upgrading of methods, hardware and software for radiotherapy is one of the main tasks for further development of the Facility. This article concerns one of the fields of this work, that is the development of equipment for dynamic irradiation of deep lying target - the construction of a device for the proton beam energy control and measurement of its depth-dose curve in a treatment room.

  9. Optimization of finances into regional energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yuryevich Domnikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern Russian energy collides with the need for major investments in the modernization and renewal of generation and transmission capacity. In terms of attracting sufficient financial resources and find ways to increase, energy sector profitability and investment attractiveness of particular importance is the problem of investment financing optimizing aimed at minimizing the cost of financing while maintaining financial stability of the power companies and the goals and objectives of Russian energy system long-term development. The article discusses the problem of investment projects financing in power generation from the point of view of the need to achieve optimal investment budget. Presents the author’s approach to the investment financing optimization of power generation company that will achieve the minimum cost of resources involved, taking into account the impact of the funding structure for the power generating company financial sustainability. The developed model is applied to the problem of investment budget optimizing, for example, regional power generating company. The results can improve the efficiency of investment in energy, sustainable and competitive development of regional energy systems.

  10. Dosimetric response of radiochromic films to protons of low energies in the Bragg peak region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, M. C.; Schardt, D.; Espino, J. M.; Gallardo, M. I.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Quesada, J. M.; Lallena, A. M.; Miras, H.; Guirado, D.

    2016-06-01

    One of the major advantages of proton or ion beams, applied in cancer treatment, is their excellent depth-dose profile exhibiting a low dose in the entrance channel and a distinct dose maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range in tissue. In the region of the Bragg peak, where the protons or ions are almost stopped, experimental studies with low-energy particle beams and thin biological samples may contribute valuable information on the biological effectiveness in the stopping region. Such experiments, however, require beam optimization and special dosimetry techniques for determining the absolute dose and dose homogeneity for very thin biological samples. At the National Centre of Accelerators in Seville, one of the beam lines at the 3 MV Tandem Accelerator was equipped with a scattering device, a special parallel-plate ionization chamber with very thin electrode foils and target holders for cell cultures. In this work, we present the calibration in absolute dose of EBT3 films [Gafchromic radiotherapy films, http://www.ashland.com/products/gafchromic-radiotherapy-films] for proton energies in the region of the Bragg peak, where the linear energy transfer increases and becomes more significant for radiobiology studies, as well as the response of the EBT3 films for different proton energy values. To irradiate the films in the Bragg peak region, the energy of the beam was degraded passively, by interposing Mylar foils of variable thickness to place the Bragg peak inside the active layer of the film. The results obtained for the beam degraded in Mylar foils are compared with the dose calculated by means of the measurement of the beam fluence with an ionization chamber and the energy loss predicted by srim2008 code.

  11. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  12. Enhanced creation of high energy particles in colliding laser beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchiev, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The creation of particles by two colliding strong laser beams is considered. It is found that the electron-positron pairs created in the laser field via the Schwinger mechanism may recollide after one or several oscillations in the field. Their collision can take place at high energy, which the pair gains from the field. As a result, high energy gamma quanta can be created by inelastic scattering or annihilation of the pair. Moreover, heavy particles such as muon pairs may also be created via the annihilation $e^+ + e^-\\rightarrow \\mu^+ + \\mu^- $. The probability of $e^-e^+$ collision is greatly enhanced due to a strong alignment of the electron and positron momenta with the electric field. The found muon creation rate exponentially exceeds the rate predicted by the direct Schwinger mechanism for muons, while the photon creation rate exponentially exceeds photon emission due to the fermion oscillation.

  13. Degradation of bimorph piezoelectric bending beams in energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatsch, P.; Xiao, B. L.; Shashoua, N.; Gramling, H. M.; Yeatman, E. M.; Wright, P. K.

    2017-03-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting is an attractive alternative to battery powering for wireless sensor networks. However, in order for it to be a viable long term solution the fatigue life needs to be assessed. Many vibration harvesting devices employ bimorph piezoelectric bending beams as transduction elements to convert mechanical to electrical energy. This paper introduces two degradation studies performed under symmetrical and asymmetrical sinusoidal loading. It is shown that besides a loss in output power, the most dramatic effect of degradation is a shift in resonance frequency which is highly detrimental to resonant harvester designs. In addition, micro-cracking was shown to occur predominantly in piezoelectric layers under tensile stress. This opens the opportunity for increased life time through compressive operation or pre-loading of piezoceramic layers.

  14. Wind energy resource assessment in Madrid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Jimenez, Angel; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando [Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior Ingenieros Industriales (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Autonomous Community of Madrid, in the following Madrid Region), is a region located at the geographical centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Its area is 8.028 km{sup 2}, and its population about five million people. The Department of Economy and Technological Innovation of the Madrid Region, together with some organizations dealing on energy saving and other research institutions have elaborated an Energy Plan for the 2004-12 period. As a part of this work, the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the Polytechnic University of Madrid has carried out the assessment of the wind energy resources [Crespo A, Migoya E, Gomez Elvira R. La energia eolica en Madrid. Potencialidad y prospectiva. Plan energetico de la Comunidad de Madrid, 2004-2012. Madrid: Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid; 2004]; using for this task the WAsP program (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program), and the own codes, UPMORO (code to study orography effects) and UPMPARK (code to study wake effects in wind parks). Different kinds of data have been collected about climate, topography, roughness of the land, environmentally protected areas, town and village distribution, population density, main facilities and electric power supply. The Spanish National Meteorological Institute has nine wind measurement stations in the region, but only four of them have good and reliable temporary wind data, with time measurement periods that are long enough to provide representative correlations among stations. The Observed Wind Climates of the valid meteorological stations have been made. The Wind Atlas and the resource grid have been calculated, especially in the high wind resource areas, selecting appropriate measurements stations and using criteria based on proximity, similarity and ruggedness index. Some areas cannot be used as a wind energy resource mainly because they have environmental regulation or, in some cases, are very close

  15. Magnetic Energy Spectra in Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramenko, Valentyna

    2010-01-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) of different flare rate observed at the solar disk center from January 1997 until December 2006 are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to the flare productivity. Data from {\\it SOHO}/MDI instrument recorded in the high resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs of higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, $\\alpha$, of the energy spectrum, $E(k) \\sim k^{-\\alpha}$, and the total spectral energy $W=\\int E(k)dk$ are comparably correlated with the flare index, $A$, of an active region. The correlations are found to be stronger than that found between the flare index and total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of $\\alpha$ and $W$ as $A=10^b (\\alpha W)^c$, with $b=-7.92 \\pm 0.58$ and $c=1.85 \\pm 0.13$. We found ...

  16. Effect of Photon Beam Energy, Gold Nanoparticle Size and Concentration on the Dose Enhancement in Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahideh Gharehaghaji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gold nanoparticles have been used as radiation dose enhancing materials in recent investigations. In the current study, dose enhancement effect of gold nanoparticles on tumor cells was evaluated using Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Methods: We used MCNPX code for MC modeling in the current study. A water phantom and a tumor region with a size of 1×1×1 cm3 loaded with gold nanoparticles were simulated. The macroscopic dose enhancement factor was calculated for gold nanoparticles with sizes of 30, 50, and 100 nm. Also, we simulated different photon beams including mono-energetic beams (50-120 keV, a Cobalt-60 beam, 6 & 18 MV photon beams of a conventional linear accelerator. Results: We found a dose enhancement factor (DEF of from 1.4 to 3.7 for monoenergetic kilovoltage beams, while the DEFs for megavoltage beams were negligible and less than 3% for all GNP sizes and concentrations. The optimum energy for higher DEF was found to be the 90 keV monoenergetic beam. The effect of GNP size was not considerable, but the GNP concentration had a substantial impact on achieved DEF in GNP-based radiation therapy. Conclusion: The results were in close agreement with some previous studies considering the effect of photon energy and GNP concentration on observed DEF. Application of GNP-based radiation therapy using kilovoltage beams is recommended.

  17. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  18. Future of the beam energy scan program at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odyniec Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first exploratory phase of a very successful Beam Energy Scan Program at RHIC was completed in 2014 with Au+Au collisions at energies ranging from 7 to 39 GeV. Data sets taken earlier extended the upper limit of energy range to the √sNN of 200 GeV. This provided an initial look into the uncharted territory of the QCD phase diagram, which is considered to be the single most important graph of our field. The main results from BES phase I, although effected by large statistical errors (steeply increasing with decreasing energy, suggest that the highest potential for discovery of the QCD Critical Point lies bellow √sNN 20 GeV. Here, we discuss the plans and the preparation for phase II of the BES program, with an order of magnitude larger statistics, which is planned for 2018-2019. The BES II will focus on Au+Au collisions at √sNN from 20 to 7 GeV in collider mode, and from √sNN 7 to 3.5 GeV in the fixed target mode, which will be run concurrently with the collider mode operation.

  19. Energy constancy checking for electron beams using a wedge-shaped solid phantom combined with a beam profile scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenow, U.F.; Islam, M.K.; Gaballa, H.; Rashid, H. (Univ. of Goettingen (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    An energy constancy checking method is presented which involves a specially designed wedge-shaped solid phantom in combination with a multiple channel ionization chamber array known as the Thebes device. Once the phantom/beam scanner combination is set up, measurements for all electron energies can be made and evaluated without re-entering the treatment room. This is also valid for the readjustment of beam energies which are found to deviate from required settings. The immediate presentation of the measurements is in the form of crossplots which resemble depth dose profiles. The evaluation of the measured data can be performed using a hand-held calculator, but processing of the measured signals through a PC-type computer is advisable. The method is insensitive to usual fluctuations in beam flatness. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method are more than adequate. The method may also be used in modified form for photon beams.

  20. Energy constancy checking for electron beams using a wedge-shaped solid phantom combined with a beam profile scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, U F; Islam, M K; Gaballa, H; Rashid, H

    1991-01-01

    An energy constancy checking method is presented which involves a specially designed wedge-shaped solid phantom in combination with a multiple channel ionization chamber array known as the Thebes device. Once the phantom/beam scanner combination is set up, measurements for all electron energies can be made and evaluated without re-entering the treatment room. This is also valid for the readjustment of beam energies which are found to deviate from required settings. The immediate presentation of the measurements is in the form of crossplots which resemble depth dose profiles. The evaluation of the measured data can be performed using a hand-held calculator, but processing of the measured signals through a PC-type computer is advisable. The method is insensitive to usual fluctuations in beam flatness. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method are more than adequate. The method may also be used in modified form for photon beams.

  1. Simulation of Head-on Beam-Beam Limitations in Future High Energy Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Florio, Adrien; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Hadron Collider (FCC-hh) project calls for studies in a new regime of beam-beam interactions. While the emittance damping due to synchrotron radiation is still slower than in past or existing lepton colliders, it is significantly larger than in other hadron colliders. The slow reduction of the emittance is profitable for higher luminosity in term of transverse beam size at the interaction points and also to mitigate long-range beam-beam effects, potentially allowing for a reduction of the crossing angle between the beams during the operation. In such conditions, the strength of head-on beam-beam interactions increases, potentially limiting the beam brightness. 4D weak-strong and strong-strong simulations are performed in order to assess these limitations.

  2. Prognostication of regional energy system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy Borisovich Korovin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes practice and development of new methodological approaches to forecasting the development of regional energy systems. It is shown that the energy complex is involved in a variety of forward and backward linkages as an element of socio-economic systems, and the quality and availability of energy resources largely determines the structure and pace of economic, social and environmental development of the region. Analysis of existing current practice of territorial and sectoral forecasting implemented in Russia and abroad, suggests that such practice is inadequate in its theoretical and methodological elaboration. This is confirmed by the frequent discrepancy between actual results and plans, as well as their regular revision. The methods are mostly based on extrapolation of existing tendencies and not taking into account many factors and emerging trends related to the complexity and openness of the social and economic systems. Post-industrial level of civilization is characterized by fast development of technology; knowledge, information, technological and institutional innovation become the main resources. The greatest importance is attached to such development properties as instability, various orderliness, nonlinearity, interactions etc. Current approaches to forecasting the future are described by a number of theories that are generally called self-organization theory, taking into account these singularities. These concepts should be included in the theoretical basis for the development and implementation of regional development forecasts. Using the synergetic approach assumes that, along with organizational processes, processes of self-organization and self-development are very important in the system, they are characterized by spontaneous, unexpected formations and emerging structures. The development of such systems can generate stable and efficient new structure. The presence of crisis is an integral feature of complex

  3. Plunger lifetime measurements after Coulomb excitation at intermediate beam energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackstein, Matthias; Dewald, Alfred; Fransen, Christoph; Ilie, Gabriela; Jolie, Jan; Melon, Barbara; Pissulla, Thomas; Rother, Wolfram; Zell, Karl-Oskar [University of Cologne (Germany); Petkov, Pavel [University of Cologne (Germany); INRNE (Bulgaria); Chester, Aaron; Adrich, Przemyslaw; Bazin, Daniel; Bowen, Matt; Gade, Alexandra; Glasmacher, Thomas; Miller, Dave; Moeller, Victoria; Starosta, Krzysztof; Stolz, Andreas; Vaman, Constantin; Voss, Philip; Weissharr, Dirk [Michigan State Univerity (United States); Moeller, Oliver [TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Two recoil-distance-doppler-shift (RDDS) experiments were performed at the NSCL/MSU using Coulomb excitations of the projectile nuclei {sup 110}Pd, {sup 114}Pd at beam energies of 54 MeV/u in order to investigate the evolution of deformation of neutron rich paladium isotopes. The experimental set-up consisted of a dedicated plunger device, developed at the University of Cologne, the SEGA Ge-array and the S800 spectrometer. Lifetimes of the 2{sub 1}{sup +}-states in {sup 110}Pd and {sup 114}Pd were derived from the analysis of the {gamma}-line-shapes as well as from the measured decay-curves. Special features of the data analysis, e.g. features originating from the very high recoil velocities, are discussed.

  4. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Rakhno, Igor L; Tropin, Igor S

    2015-01-01

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system -- all with corresponding radiation shielding -- was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options.

  5. Low-energy Coulomb excitation of Sr,9896 beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, E.; Zielińska, M.; Péru, S.; Goutte, H.; Hilaire, S.; Görgen, A.; Korten, W.; Doherty, D. T.; Bastin, B.; Bauer, C.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Bruyneel, B.; Butler, P. A.; Butterworth, J.; Cederkäll, J.; Delahaye, P.; Dijon, A.; Ekström, A.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fransen, C.; Georgiev, G.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Iwanicki, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Larsen, A. C.; Ljungvall, J.; Lutter, R.; Marley, P.; Moschner, K.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Pakarinen, J.; Petts, A.; Reiter, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Siem, S.; Sotty, C.; Srebrny, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Tveten, G. M.; Van de Walle, J.; Vermeulen, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wiens, A.; De Witte, H.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.

    2016-11-01

    The structure of neutron-rich Sr,9896 nuclei was investigated by low-energy safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN, with the MINIBALL spectrometer. A rich set of transitional and diagonal E 2 matrix elements, including those for non-yrast structures, has been extracted from the differential Coulomb-excitation cross sections. The results support the scenario of a shape transition at N =60 , giving rise to the coexistence of a highly deformed prolate and a spherical configuration in 98Sr, and are compared to predictions from several theoretical calculations. The experimental data suggest a significant contribution of the triaxal degree of freedom in the ground state of both isotopes. In addition, experimental information on low-lying states in 98Rb has been obtained.

  6. Urbanism and energy in developing regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, R.L.; Berman, S.; Dowell, D.

    1978-03-01

    The pace of urbanization must continue, because in most parts of the world the surplus population in the countryside has nowhere else to go. The world is about 40% urban now and apparently headed for the 80 to 90% share of the total population presently exhibited by the developed countries. Thus, the 1.6 billion urban dwellers in 1978 would become about 3 billion in 1995--if major catastrophes can be avoided. Feasibility assessments for Sao Paulo-Rio de Janeiro, Calcutta, Cairo-Alexandria, Mexico City, and Seoul are presented in the appendices. This analysis-from-a-distance is insufficient to judge how much extra installed electrical generating capacity is required before 1995, the added refining capability for liquid fuels, or the uses for new LNG and coal imports due to be arranged. It is evident that energy (and perhaps also water in most regions) planning is the major determinant of the manner in which these urban areas will adapt to the extraordinary pressures for new settlement. The current round of planning in such metropolitan areas has been addressed to solving traffic-congestion problems, and reorganizing land use in central districts, as the most-pressing issues. Since energy sources and distribution systems now affect the largest and most crucial investments in urban growth it is to be expected that future metropolitan planning may concentrate upon energy efficiency. Energy supplies must be planned to meet requirements set by locally dominant values regarding human services and the environment.

  7. Design of the prototype of a beam transport line for handling and selection of low energy laser-driven beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Costa, M.; Rifuggiato, D.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.

    2016-11-01

    A first prototype of transport beam-line for laser-driven ion beams to be used for the handling of particles accelerated by high-power laser interacting with solid targets has been realized at INFN. The goal is the production of a controlled and stable beam in terms of energy and angular spread. The beam-line consists of two elements: an Energy Selection System (ESS), already realized and characterized with both conventional and laser-accelerated beams, and a Permanent Magnet Quadrupole system (PMQ) designed, in collaboration with SIGMAPHI (Fr), to improve the ESS performances. In this work a description of the ESS system and some results of its characterization with conventional beams are reported, in order to provide a complete explanation of the acceptance calculation. Then, the matching with the PMQ system is presented and, finally, the results of preliminary simulations with a realistic laser-driven energy spectrum are discussed demonstrating the possibility to provide a good quality beam downstream the systems.

  8. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy field. First year report. Development of the process for creation of new functional materials using electron beam excited plasma; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy bun'ya. Denshi beam reiki plasma wo mochiita shinkino zairyo sosei process no kaihatsu (dai 1 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development of manufacturing technology was proceeded with for a high speed nitriding system using electron beam excited plasma device which realizes high dissociation for nitrogen molecules and controls the plasma state. By the device, the following are aimed at: high quality/high speed nitriding, formation of super-hard cubic system boron nitride (c-BN) and carbon nitride (CN) films on the surface of tools, and formation of TiO{sub 2} thin films with high infrared reflectance and environmental purification photocatalyst function. TiO{sub 2} thin films are assumed to be applied to window glass by making use of the high performance heat mirror function as well as the environmental purification function. Studies were made in the following 6 fields: 1)development of small electron beam excitation plasma source; 2) development of high speed nitrided container; 3) establishment of technology for real-time monitoring of radicals and ions; 4) design/trial manufacture of a device to form super-hard nitrided thin films; 5) development of heat mirror film formation device; 6) establishment of a method to evaluate effects of photocatalyst. (NEDO)

  9. Enhancement of resistance against high energy laser pulse injection with chevron beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsuka, Eiichi; Hatae, Takaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Bassan, Michele; Vayakis, George; Walsh, Michael [ITER Organization, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex, Provence 13067 (France); Itami, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The laser irradiation tests onto flat-mirror-molybdenum sample were carried out. • The absorbed energy density is the correct figure of the laser-induced damage. • Experiments validated the design of a new beam dump called chevron beam dump. • The chevron beam dump would have much longer lifetime than conventional beam dumps. - Abstract: The laser beam dump of the Edge Thomson scattering (ETS) in ITER is being developed and a new type of beam dump called the chevron beam dump was proposed recently. The laser-induced damage on the surface is one of the most severe issues to be overcome. The key concept of the chevron beam dump is to reduce the laser energy absorption per unit area and to absorb the laser beam gradually. The laser irradiation tests onto flat-mirror-molybdenum sample were carried out. It was clarified that the absorbed (rather than incident) energy density of the laser pulses should be the correct figure of merit for the laser-induced damage. Therefore, the concept of the chevron beam dump design, that minimizes the absorbed laser energy density per unit area, was validated experimentally. The chevron beam dump enables us to extend its lifetime drastically relative to conventional beam dumps. Potential methods to improve the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) are also discussed in this paper.

  10. The mass angular scattering power method for determining the kinetic energies of clinical electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, N.; Podgorsak, E.B. (Montreal General Hospital, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Medical Physics)

    1992-10-01

    A method for determining the kinetic energy of clinical electron beams is described, based on the measurement in air of the spatial spread of a pencil electron beam which is produced from the broad clinical electron beam. As predicted by the Fermi-Eyges theory, the dose distribution measured in air on a plane, perpendicular to the incident direction of the initial pencil electron beam, is Gaussian. The square of its spatial spread is related to the mass angular scattering power which in turn is related to the kinetic energy of the electron beam. The measured spatial spread may thus be used to determine the mass angular scattering power, which is then used to determine the kinetic energy of the electron beam from the known relationship between mass angular scattering power and kinetic energy. Energies obtained with the mass angular scattering power method agree with those obtained with the electron range method. (author).

  11. How to measure energy of LEReC electron beam with magnetic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-11

    For successful cooling the energies of RHIC ion beam and LEReC electron beam must be matched with 10-4 accuracy. While the energy of ions will be known with required accuracy, e-beam energy can have as large initial offset as 5%. The final setting of e-beam energy will be performed by observing either Schottky spectrum [1, 2] or recombination signal from debunched ions co-traveling with the e-beam. Yet, to start observing such signals one has to set absolute energy of electron beam with accuracy better than 10-2, preferably better than 5∙10-3. The aim of this exercise is to determine whether and how such accuracy can be reached by utilizing LEReC 180° bend as a spectrometer.

  12. Generating a Homogeneous Dose Distribution in the Junction Region between Two Adjacent Fields in Electron Beam Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi Birgani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment with megavoltage electron beams is ideal for irradiating superficial tumors because of their limited range in tissues. However, for electron treatment of extended areas, such as the chest wall, two or more adjacent fields can be used. Abutment of these fields may lead to significant dose in homogeneities in the junction region. The aim of this study is to offer a new method for generating a homogeneous dose distribution in the junction region between two adjacent fields in electron beam therapy. Materials and Methods: Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem of ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ spots in the junction region between abutting electron fields. These techniques are based on beam-edge modifying devices or penumbra generators which act to broaden the electron beam penumbra, and thus facilitate field matching. But use of these devices is time consuming and design of the modifications to the applicators are generally applicator dependent. An idea which was originally proposed for matching two adjacent photon fields (with dose inhomogeneity of about 2% is resurrected here. This method is based on the rotation of the gantry such that the adjacent fields have a common edge and the overlap region in treatment volume is eliminated. For this purpose, the effective source to surface distance (SSDeff for the available electron beam energies (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV and applicators (cones (6 × 6, 10 × 10, 15 ×15, 20 × 20 and 25 × 25 cm2 have been determined for a Varian 2100C linear accelerator. Result: Using SSDeff, in respect to beam divergence, one can use the photon beam behavior for electron beams and achieve a uniform dose distribution in adjacent electron fields. Discussion and Conclusion: Compared to beam-edge modifying devices or penumbra generators that are usually time consuming to plan and set up, rotating the gantry to eliminate the overlap region is simple and applicable in the problem of abutting

  13. Beam chopper For the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) in the APS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y.; Wang, J.; Milton, S.; Teng, L. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) is being built and will be tested with a short beam pulse from an rf gun in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory. In the LEUTL a beam chopper is used after the rf gun to deflect the unwanted beam to a beam dump. The beam chopper consists of a permanent magnet and an electric deflector that can compensate for the magnetic deflection. A 30-kV pulsed power supply is used for the electric deflector. The chopper subsystem was assembled and tested for beamline installation. The electrical and beam properties of the chopper assembly are presented.

  14. Particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of the low energy beam transport for the SSC-linac injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Chen; HE Yuan; YUAN You-Jin; YAO Qing-Gao; WANG Zhi-Jun; CHANG Wei; LIU Yong; XIA Jia-Wen

    2011-01-01

    A new SSC-linac system (injector into separated sector cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of SSC-Linac, the LEBT (low energy beam transport) consists of seven solenoids, four quadrupoles, a bending magnet and an extra multi-harmonic buncher. The total length of this segment is about 7 meters. The beam dynamics in this LEBT has been studied using three-dimensional PIC (particle-in-cell) code BEAMPATH. The simulation results show that the continuous beam from the ion source is first well analyzed by a charge-to-mass selection system, and the beam of the selected charge-to-mass ratio is then efficiently pre-bunched by a multi-harmonic buncher and optimally matched into the RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole) for further acceleration. The principles and effects of the solenoid collimation channel are discussed, and it could limit the beam emittance by changing the aperture size.

  15. Energy Dissipation Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with CFRP Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungnam; Park, Sun-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Cyclic loading tests were performed to investigate the energy dissipation capacities of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips. Four RC beams were manufactured and three-point loaded. Responses of the strengthened beams to the cyclic loadings were measured, including deflections at the center of their span and strains of the CFRP strips and reinforcing steel rebars. Based on test results, the energy dissipation capacity of the strengthened beams were evaluated in comparison with that of an unstrengthened control beam.

  16. Energy Supplies Ensured in Earthquake Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hebin

    2008-01-01

    @@ China is releasing oil products from its state reserve stockpiles to areas stricken by earthquake on May 12 to ensure energy supply. PetroChina has also resumed fuel distribution in those regions. The State Reserve Bureau has sent 6,313 tons of oil products to the quake-hit areas. The reserve bureau will also release gasoline and diesel from its stockpiles in Jiangyou, Sichuan and Guiyang, Guizhou to quake hit areas. The government has also diverted jet fuel tankers to Shuangliu and Mianyang airports in Sichuan to ensure air transport.China National Aviation Fuel Group Corp. has sent 68 tankers carrying 3,200 tons of jet fuel to the airports.

  17. Characterization of the NEPOMUC primary and remoderated positron beams at different energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanja, J.; Hergenhahn, U.; Niemann, H.; Paschkowski, N.; Sunn Pedersen, T.; Saitoh, H.; Stenson, E. V.; Stoneking, M. R.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Piochacz, C.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the characterization of the positron beam provided at the open beam port of the NEPOMUC facility at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) Garching. The absolute positron flux of the primary beam at 400 eV and 1 keV kinetic energy and of the remoderated beam at 5, 12 and 22 eV were determined. Energy-dependent intensities in the range of (1 - 5) ·108e+ / s and (2 - 6) ·107e+ / s have been observed for the primary and remoderated beam, respectively. We attribute the significant losses for the primary beam, in comparison with the expected value, to the non-adiabatic positron guiding in the beam line. We also measured the longitudinal energy distribution of the remoderated beam, yielding an energy spread below 3.3 eV. The mean transverse energy of the remoderated beam, determined from measurements in different final magnetic fields, was found to be below 1.3 eV. These results are likely to apply to the NEPOMUC beam delivered to other user stations.

  18. Thermal hydraulic studies of spallation target for one-way coupled Indian accelerator driven systems with low energy proton beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Mantha; A K Mohanty; P Satyamurthy

    2007-02-01

    BARC has recently proposed a one-way coupled ADS reactor. This reactor requires typically ∼ 1 GeV proton beam with 2 mA of current. Approximately 8 kW of heat is deposited in the window of the target. Circulating liquid metal target (lead/lead-bismuth-eutectic) has to extract this heat and this is a critical R&D problem to be solved. At present there are very few accelerators, which can give few mA and high-energy proton beam. However, accelerators with low energy and hundreds of micro-ampere current are commercially available. In view of this, it is proposed in this paper to simulate beam window heating of ∼ 8 kW in the target with low-energy proton beam. Detailed thermal analysis in the spallation and window region has been carried out to study the capability of heat extraction by circulating LBE for a typical target loop with a proton beam of 30 MeV energy and current of 0.267 mA. The heat deposition study is carried out using FLUKA code and flow analysis by CFD code. The detailed analysis of this work is presented in this paper.

  19. Full Spectrum Diffused and Beamed Solar Energy Application Using Optical Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, M. R. Dutta; Das, Debasish

    2007-01-01

    Existing solar energy application systems use small fraction of full spectrum of solar energy. So attempts are made to show how full spectrum solar energy can be used for diffused and beamed form of incident solar energy. Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) principle with optical fibre in diffused sun light and dielectric mirror separation technique with optical fibre in beamed form are discussed. Comparison of both the cases are done. Keywords: full spectrum, solar photonics, diffused solar...

  20. Beam Performance and Luminosity Limitations in the High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR)

    CERN Document Server

    Lehrach, A; Hinterberger, F; Maier, R; Prasuhn, D

    2006-01-01

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) of the future International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt is planned as an antiproton synchrotron and storage ring in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. An important feature of this new facility is the combination of phase space cooled beams with dense internal targets (e.g. pellet targets), resulting in demanding beam parameter of two operation modes: high luminosity mode with peak luminosities up to 2*10^32 cm-2 s-1, and high resolution mode with a momentum spread down to 10^-5, respectively. To reach these beam parameters very powerful phase space cooling is needed, utilizing high-energy electron cooling and high-bandwidth stochastic cooling. The effect of beam-target scattering and intra-beam interaction is investigated in order to study beam equilibria and beam losses for the two different operation modes.

  1. Beam performance and luminosity limitations in the high-energy storage ring (HESR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrach, A.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Hinterberger, F.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.

    2006-06-01

    The high-energy storage ring (HESR) of the future International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt is planned as an antiproton synchrotron storage ring in the momentum range 1.5-15 GeV/ c. An important feature of this new facility is the combination of phase space cooled beams and dense internal targets (e.g. pellet targets), which results in demanding beam parameter requirements for two operation modes: high luminosity mode with peak luminosities to 2×10 32 cm -2 s -1, and high-resolution mode with a momentum spread down to 10 -5. To reach these beam parameters one needs a very powerful phase space cooling, utilizing high-energy electron cooling and high-bandwidth stochastic cooling. The effects of beam-target scattering and intra-beam interaction are investigated in order to study beam equilibria and beam losses for the two different operation modes.

  2. A new criterion to describe crossed-beam energy transfer in laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trines, R.; Schmitz, H.; Alves, E. P.; Fiuza, F.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Bingham, R.

    2016-10-01

    Crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) between laser beams in underdense plasma is ubiquitous in both direct-drive and indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. To understand the impact of this process on the final shape of the laser beams involved, as well as their imprint on either hohlraum walls or target surface, a detailed spatial and temporal description of the crossing beams is needed. We have developed an analytical model and derived new criteria describing both the spatial structure and temporal evolution of the beams after crossing. Numerical simulations have been carried out justifying the analytical model and confirming the criteria. The impact of our results on present and future multi-beam experiments in laser fusion and high-energy-density physics, in particular the ``bursty'' nature of beams predicted to occur in NIF experiments, will be discussed.

  3. Design and delivery of beam monitors for the energy-upgraded linac in J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Akihiko; Ouchi, Nobuo; Oguri, Hidetomo; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Miyao, Tomoaki; Ikegami, Masanori

    2015-02-01

    In the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) linac, an energy-upgrade project has started to achieve a design beam power of 1 MW at the exit of the downstream synchrotron. To account for the significant beam parameter upgrades, we will use the newly-fabricated beam monitors for the beam commissioning. This paper discusses the design and assembly of the beam position monitor, phase monitor, current monitor, transverse profile monitor, and beam loss monitor for the energy-upgraded linac. We periodically installed the newly-fabricated monitors for the upgraded beam line, as well as for longitudinal matching, because of the frequency jump between the original RF cavity and the newly-developed cavity. We employed two debunchers to correct for momentum spread and jitter. To account for the new debunchers, we fabricated and installed additional pairs of phase monitors in order to tune the debunchers to the adequate RF set point. Finally, we propose commissioning plans to support the beam monitor check. We will begin to establish the 181-MeV operation to confirm the proper functioning of beam monitors. Herein, we will examine the response to changes of the knobs that control the quadrupole magnets after the energy upgrade. After proper functioning of the beam monitors is confirmed, we will use the new beam monitors to establish the 400-MeV acceleration operation.

  4. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams generating high-energy-density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/ c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. These data have been used as input to a sophisticated two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1 m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy deposition region will extend to a length of about 35 m over the beam duration. This is due to the fact that first few tens of bunches deposit sufficient energy that leads to high pressure that generates an outgoing radial shock wave. Shock propagation leads to continuous reduction in the density at the target center that allows the protons delivered in subsequent bunches to penetrate deeper and deeper into the target. This phenomenon has also been seen in case of heavy-ion heated targets [N. A. Tahir, A. Kozyreva, P. Spiller, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and A. Shutov, Phys. Rev. E 63, 036407 (2001)]. This effect needs to be considered in the design of a sacrificial beam stopper. These simulations have also shown that the target is severely damaged and is converted into a huge sample of high-energy density (HED) matter. In fact, the inner part of the target is transformed into a strongly coupled plasma with fairly uniform physical conditions. This work, therefore, has

  5. A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, H., E-mail: kashiwagi.hirotsugu@jaea.go.jp; Miyawaki, N.; Kurashima, S.; Okumura, S. [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of {sup 16}O{sup 6+} from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane.

  6. Scenario for Precision Beam Energy Calibration in FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Koop, I A

    2015-01-01

    The resonance depolarization method was very successfully used in the experiments at LEP, where the mass of the Z-boson was determined with the relative uncertainty [1, 2]. In the future FCC-ee circular electron-positron collider the luminosity at Z-peak (beam energy 45.5 GeV) is expected be 4-5 orders of magnitude higher and one goal is to perform the same experiments as at LEP, but with much greater accuracy, approaching the level of [3]. Obviously this can be done only by measuring the spin precession frequency. But there are many problems which still need to be solved on the way towards a complete design. The first one: the self-polarization takes too long a time. The Sokolov-Ternov polarization time is about 250 hours at Z-peak. One approach is to install the special field-asymmetric polarizing wigglers to make the self-polarization time much shorter [4, 5] and to utilize only few percent of the polarization degree to measure the resonance spin precession frequency. But these very strong wigglers substan...

  7. Nano-structural Modification of Amorphous Carbon Thin Films by Low-energy Electron Beam Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EijiIwamura; MasanoriYamaguchi

    2004-01-01

    A new approach using a low-energy electron beam radiation system was investigated to synthesize carbon hybrid structures in amorphous carbon thin films. Two types of amorphous carbon films, which were 15at% iron containing film and with column/inter-column structures, were deposited onto Si substrates by a sputtering technique and subsequently exposed to an electron shower of which the energy and dose rate were much smaller compared to an intense electron beam used in a transmission electron microscopy. As a result of the low-energy and low-dose electron irradiation process, graphitic structures formed in amorphous matrix at a relatively low temperature up to 450 K. Hybrid carbon thin films containing onion-like structures in an amorphous carbon matrix were synthesized by dynamic structural modification of iron containing amorphous carbon thin films. It was found that the graphitization progressed more in the electron irradiation than in annealing at 773K, and it was attributed to thermal and catalytic effects which are strongly related to grain growth of metal clusters. On the other hand, a reversal of TEM image contrast was observed in a-C films with column/inter-column structures. It is presumed that preferable graphitization occurred in the inter-column regions induced by electron irradiation.

  8. Nano-structural Modification of Amorphous Carbon Thin Films by Low-energy Electron Beam Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiji Iwamura; Masanori Yamaguchi

    2004-01-01

    A new approach using a low-energy electron beam radiation system was investigated to synthesize carbon hybrid structures in amorphous carbon thin films. Two types of amorphous carbon films, which were 15at% iron containing film and with column/inter-column structures, were deposited onto Si substrates by a sputtering technique and subsequently exposed to an electron shower of which the energy and dose rate were much smaller compared to an intense electron beam used in a transmission electron microscopy. As a result of the low-energy and low-dose electron irradiation process,graphitic structures formed in amorphous matrix at a relatively low temperature up to 450 K. Hybrid carbon thin films containing onion-like structures in an amorphous carbon matrix were synthesized by dynamic structural modification of iron containing amorphous carbon thin films. It was found that the graphitization progressed more in the electron irradiation than in annealing at 773K, and it was attributed to thermal and catalytic effects which are strongly related to grain growth of metal clusters. On the other hand, a reversal of TEM image contrast was observed in a-C films with column/inter-column structures. It is presumed that preferable graphitization occurred in the inter-column regions induced by electron irradiation.

  9. Polarization of high-energy electrons traversing a laser beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kotkin, G L; Serbo, V G

    1998-01-01

    When polarized electrons traverse a region where the laser light is focused their polarization varies even if their energy and direction of motion are not changed. This effect is due to interference of the incoming electron wave and an electron wave scattered at zero angle. Equations are obtained which determine the variation of the electron density matrix, and their solutions are given. The change in the electron polarization depends not only on the Compton cross section but on the real part of the forward Compton amplitude as well. It should be taken into account, for example, in simulations of the $e \\to \\gamma$ conversion for future $\\gamma \\gamma$ colliders.

  10. Low-Energy Plasma Focus Device as an Electron Beam Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-energy plasma focus device was used as an electron beam source. A technique was developed to simultaneously measure the electron beam intensity and energy. The system was operated in Argon filling at an optimum pressure of 1.7 mbar. A Faraday cup was used together with an array of filtered PIN diodes. The beam-target X-rays were registered through X-ray spectrometry. Copper and lead line radiations were registered upon usage as targets. The maximum electron beam charge and density were estimated to be 0.31 μC and 13.5×1016/m3, respectively. The average energy of the electron beam was 500 keV. The high flux of the electron beam can be potentially applicable in material sciences.

  11. Low-Energy Plasma Focus Device as an Electron Beam Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong Ling, Yap; Naresh Kumar, Nitturi; Lian Kuang, Lim; Chiow San, Wong

    2014-01-01

    A low-energy plasma focus device was used as an electron beam source. A technique was developed to simultaneously measure the electron beam intensity and energy. The system was operated in Argon filling at an optimum pressure of 1.7 mbar. A Faraday cup was used together with an array of filtered PIN diodes. The beam-target X-rays were registered through X-ray spectrometry. Copper and lead line radiations were registered upon usage as targets. The maximum electron beam charge and density were estimated to be 0.31 μC and 13.5 × 1016/m3, respectively. The average energy of the electron beam was 500 keV. The high flux of the electron beam can be potentially applicable in material sciences. PMID:25544952

  12. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  13. Space Charge Correction on Emittance Measurement of Low Energy Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treado, Colleen J.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst

    2012-09-07

    The goal of any particle accelerator is to optimize the transport of a charged particle beam along a set path by confining the beam to a small region close to the design trajectory and directing it accurately along the beamline. To do so in the simplest fashion, accelerators use a system of magnets that exert approximately linear electromagnetic forces on the charged beam. These electromagnets bend the beam along the desired path, in the case of bending magnets, and constrain the beam to the desired area through alternating focusing and defocusing effects, in the case of quadrupole magnets. We can model the transport of such a beam through transfer matrices representing the actions of the various beamline elements. However, space charge effects, produced from self electric fields within the beam, defocus the beam and must be accounted for in the calculation of beam emittance. We present below the preliminary results of a MATLAB code built to model the transport of a charged particle beam through an accelerator and measure the emittance under the influence of space charge effects. We demonstrate the method of correctly calculating the emittance of a beam under space charge effects using a least square fit to determine the initial properties of the beam given the beam size measured at a specific point after transport.

  14. Validation of the Local Hadronic Calibration Scheme of ATLAS with Combined Beam Test Data in the End-Cap and Forward Regions of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kiryunin, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The three Atlas calorimeter systems in the region of the forward crack at |eta| = 3.2 in the nominal Atlas setup have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented. The Local Hadron Calibration developed for the energy reconstruction and the calibration of jets and missing transverse energy in ATLAS, has been validated using data obtained during these beam tests. The analysis has been carried out by using special sets of calibration weights and corrections obtained with the Geant4 simulation of a detailed beam test set-up. The validation itself has been performed by careful studying specific calorimeter performance parameters such as e.g. energy response, energy resolution, shower shapes, cluster energy density as well as different physics lists of the Geant4 simulation.

  15. Low-energy RI beam technology and nuclear clusters in the explosive pp-chain breakout process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubono, S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 73000 (China); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0 (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D. M.; Ohshiro, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamazaki, N. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-858 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kase, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hayakawa, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Kwon, Y. K. [Institute for Basic Science, 70, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-81 (Korea, Republic of); Hashimoto, T.; Fukuda, Y. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); He, J. J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 73000 (China); Goto, A. [Faculty of Medcine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-2331 (Japan); Muto, H. [Center of General Education, Tokyo University of Science at Suwa, Chino, Nagano 391-0292 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    The lecture includes two parts: One is a discussion on the technology for developing RIB beam facility based on the in-flight method and relevant experimental technology. The second part is a discussion on experimental efforts for studying the breakout process from the pp-chain region based on recent works with low energy RI beams. The discussion of the second part specifically covers the problem of the vp-process in type II supernovae in terms of alpha cluster nature for the reactions.

  16. Generation of high energy and good beam quality pulses with a master oscillator power amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Li(李志刚); Z.Xiong; Nicholas Moore; Chen Tao; G.C.Lim; Weiling Huang(黄维玲); Dexiu Huang(黄德修)

    2004-01-01

    A high efficiency and high peak power laser system with short-pulse and good beam quality has been demonstrated by using a master oscillator power amplifier with two-pass amplification configuration. The master oscillator, end-pumped with a fiber-coupled laser diode array, provides low power but excellent beam quality pulses, and the amplifier boosts the pulse energy by orders without significant beam quality degradation. Short pulses of 8.5 ns with energy up to 130 mJ and approximately diffraction limited beam quality have been demonstrated.

  17. Summary of monoenergetic neutron beam sources for energies gt 14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, F.P.; Romero, J.L. (Univ. of California-Davis, Crocker Nuclear Lab., Davis, CA (US))

    1990-11-01

    This paper examines the production of neutron beams for energies between {approx}20 and 100 MeV. Considerations for obtaining monoenergetic beams as well as some of the limiting factors, such as energy resolution are examined as well. Production cross sections at 0 deg are reviewed for proton- and deuteron-induced reactions on light elements. Some current facilities in the context of neutron beams obtained by collimation, by the associate particle method, and by the use of a beam swinger are also discussed.

  18. A Geant4 simulation analysis of the low energy muon experimental setup at PSI: optimization of the muon beam spot

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Ran; Salman, Zaher; Morenzoni, Elvezio; Ye, Bangjiao

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy muon (LEM) facility at PSI provides slow fully polarized positive muons with tunable energies in the keV range to carry out muon spin rotation and relaxation ($\\mu$SR) experiments with nanometer depth resolution on thin films, heterostructures and near-surface regions. The beam is focussed and transported to the sample by electrostatic lenses. A spin rotator upstream of the sample can be used to rotate the muon spin. An electric field along the muon omentum can also be applied to accelerate/decelerate the muons to different energies (0.5-30 keV). Moreover, external magnetic fields at the sample are necessary for transverse and longitudinal field $\\mu$SR experiments. All these fields affect the beam spot at the sample position, so that presently the LEM beam has a beam spot at the sample position with root-mean-square (RMS) values in $x$ and $y$ of about 6 mm. This practically limits the application of LEM to sample sizes of $\\gtrsim$ 1 cm$^2$. Here, we present beam transport simulation results ...

  19. Regional politics of energy savings and instruments of its realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simkiv Lilya Yevgenivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical and methodological foundations and applied aspects of the regional policy of energy saving aimed at the efficient use of energy resources in the region, diversification of energy supplies, modernization of energy infrastructure through the introduction of new technologies and protection of regional interests in the energy sector. The basic approaches and methods for the formation of regional policy of energy saving are determined. It allows deepening and expanding of the basic applied researches, and solving of more complex theoretical and applied problems of regional development. It is mentioned, that the development of regional energy saving policy involves the formation of appropriate legal, financial and credit policy; scientific research, economic, organizational and management measures; advertising and marketing support. It is proved, that for the practical implementation of regional policy the complex combination of economic feasibility, social effectiveness and environmental safety is required.

  20. A microstructure- and surface energy-dependent third-order shear deformation beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.-L.; Zhang, G. Y.

    2015-08-01

    A new non-classical third-order shear deformation model is developed for Reddy-Levinson beams using a variational formulation based on Hamilton's principle. A modified couple stress theory and a surface elasticity theory are employed. The equations of motion and complete boundary conditions for the beam are obtained simultaneously. The new model contains a material length scale parameter to account for the microstructure effect and three surface elastic constants to describe the surface energy effect. Also, Poisson's effect is incorporated in the new beam model. The current non-classical model recovers the classical elasticity-based third-order shear deformation beam model as a special case when the microstructure, surface energy and Poisson's effects are all suppressed. In addition, the newly developed beam model includes the models considering the microstructure dependence or the surface energy effect alone as limiting cases and reduces to two existing models for Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko beams incorporating the microstructure and surface energy effects. To illustrate the new model, the static bending and free vibration problems of a simply supported beam loaded by a concentrated force are analytically solved by directly applying the general formulas derived. For the static bending problem, the numerical results reveal that both the deflection and rotation of the simply supported beam predicted by the current model are smaller than those predicted by the classical model. Also, it is observed that the differences in the deflection and rotation predicted by the two beam models are very large when the beam thickness is sufficiently small, but they are diminishing with the increase in the beam thickness. For the free vibration problem, it is found that the natural frequency predicted by the new model is higher than that predicted by the classical beam model, and the difference is significant for very thin beams. These predicted trends of the size effect at the

  1. Particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of the low energy beam transport for the SSC-linac injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Chen; HE Yuan; YUAN You-Jin; YAO Qing-Gao; WANG Zhi-Jun; CHANG Wei; LIU Yong; XIA Jia-Wen

    2011-01-01

    A new SSC-linac system (injector into separated sector cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of SSC-Linac, the LEBT (low energy beam transport) consists of seven solenoids, four quadrupoles, a bending

  2. International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, N. P.; Arstila, K.; Battistig, G.; Bianconi, M.; Dytlewski, N.; Jeynes, C.; Kótai, E.; Lulli, G.; Mayer, M.; Rauhala, E.; Szilágyi, E.; Thompson, M.

    2007-09-01

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) includes a group of techniques for the determination of elemental concentration depth profiles of thin film materials. Often the final results rely on simulations, fits and calculations, made by dedicated codes written for specific techniques. Here we evaluate numerical codes dedicated to the analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, non-Rutherford elastic backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection analysis and non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis data. Several software packages have been presented and made available to the community. New codes regularly appear, and old codes continue to be used and occasionally updated and expanded. However, those codes have to date not been validated, or even compared to each other. Consequently, IBA practitioners use codes whose validity, correctness and accuracy have never been validated beyond the authors' efforts. In this work, we present the results of an IBA software intercomparison exercise, where seven different packages participated. These were DEPTH, GISA, DataFurnace (NDF), RBX, RUMP, SIMNRA (all analytical codes) and MCERD (a Monte Carlo code). In a first step, a series of simulations were defined, testing different capabilities of the codes, for fixed conditions. In a second step, a set of real experimental data were analysed. The main conclusion is that the codes perform well within the limits of their design, and that the largest differences in the results obtained are due to differences in the fundamental databases used (stopping power and scattering cross section). In particular, spectra can be calculated including Rutherford cross sections with screening, energy resolution convolutions including energy straggling, and pileup effects, with agreement between the codes available at the 0.1% level. This same agreement is also available for the non-RBS techniques. This agreement is not limited to calculation of spectra from particular structures with predetermined

  3. Recent developments and research projects at the low-energy RI beam facility CRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H., E-mail: yamag@cns.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kahl, D.; Nakao, T. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Y.; Kubono, S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Hayakawa, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Kawabata, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kita-Shirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502,Japan (Japan); Iwasa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kwon, Y.K. [Institute for Basic Science, 70, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Binh, D.N.; Khiem, L.H.; Duy, N.N. [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hong Quoc Viet, Nghia do, HaNoi (Viet Nam)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • CRIB is a unique low-energy RI beam separator of the University of Tokyo. • CRIB has been produced various RI beams mainly on the proton-rich side. • The major topics studied at CRIB are resonant scatterings and (alpha, p) reactions. • Strong alpha resonances were observed with {sup 7}Be + alpha resonant scattering. -- Abstract: CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. An overview of the recent developments and status of CRIB, including a detailed summary of beam parameters, is presented. Studies on proton and α resonant scatterings, direct measurements of (α,p) reactions, and other types of measurements (β-decay lifetimes, etc.) have been performed using RI beams at CRIB, motivated by interests in astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among the studies at CRIB, the measurement of {sup 7}Be + α resonant scattering is discussed.

  4. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengzheng; Crisp, Jenna; Russo, Tom; Webber, Robert; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR1

  5. Modelling and Testing of the Piezoelectric Beam as Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes modelling and testing of the piezoelectric beam as energy harvesting system. The cantilever beam with two piezo-elements glued onto its surface is considered in the paper. As result of carried out modal analysis of the beam the natural frequencies and modes shapes are determined. The obtained results in the way mentioned above allow to estimate such location of the piezo-actuator on the beam where the piezo generates maximal values of modal control forces. Experimental investigations carried out in the laboratory allow to verify results of natural frequencies obtained during simulation and also testing of the beam in order to obtain voltage from vibration with help of the piezo-harvester. The obtained values of voltage stored on the capacitor C0 shown that the best results are achieved for the beam excited to vibration with third natural frequency, but the worst results for the beam oscillating with the first natural frequency.

  6. Multi-layered controllable stiffness beams for morphing: energy, actuation force, and material strain considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gabriel; Gandhi, Farhan

    2010-04-01

    Morphing aerospace structures could benefit from the ability of structural elements to transition from a stiff load-bearing state to a relatively compliant state that can undergo large deformation at low actuation cost. The present paper focuses on multi-layered beams with controllable flexural stiffness—comprising polymer layers affixed to the surfaces of a base beam and cover layers, in turn, affixed to the surfaces of the polymer layers. Heating the polymer through the glass transition reduces its shear modulus, decouples the cover layers from the base beam and reduces the overall flexural stiffness. Although the stiffness and actuation force required to bend the beam reduce, the energy required to heat the polymer layer must also be considered. Results show that for beams with low slenderness ratios, relatively thick polymer layers, and cover layers whose extensional stiffness is high, the decoupling of the cover layers through softening of the polymer layers can result in flexural stiffness reductions of over 95%. The energy savings are also highest for these configurations, and will increase as the deformation of the beam increases. The decoupling of the cover layers from the base beam through the softening of the polymer reduces the axial strains in the cover layers significantly; otherwise material failure would prevent large deformation. Results show that when the polymer layer is stiff, the cover layers are the dominant contributors to the total energy in the beam, and the energy in the polymer layers is predominantly axial strain energy. When the polymer layers are softened the energy in the cover layers is a small contributor to the total energy which is dominated by energy in the base beam and shear strain energy in the polymer layer.

  7. Beam manipulation techniques, nonlinear beam dynamics, and space charge effect in high energy high power accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y.

    2014-04-07

    We had carried out a design of an ultimate storage ring with beam emittance less than 10 picometer for the feasibility of coherent light source at X-ray wavelength. The accelerator has an inherent small dynamic aperture. We study method to improve the dynamic aperture and collective instability for an ultimate storage ring. Beam measurement and accelerator modeling are an integral part of accelerator physics. We develop the independent component analysis (ICA) and the orbit response matrix method for improving accelerator reliability and performance. In collaboration with scientists in National Laboratories, we also carry out experimental and theoretical studies on beam dynamics. Our proposed research topics are relevant to nuclear and particle physics using high brightness particle and photon beams.

  8. STOCHASTIC COOLING OF HIGH-ENERGY BUNCHED BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN, J.M.

    2007-06-25

    Stochastic cooling of 100 GeV/nucleon bunched beams has been achieved in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The physics and technology of the longitudinal cooling system are discussed, and plans for a transverse cooling system are outlined.

  9. LET effects of high energy ion beam irradiation on polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shu; Kanzaki, Kenichi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Yoshida, Yoichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sugimoto, Masaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao; Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    Thin films of poly(di-n-hexylsilane) were irradiated with 2-20 MeV H{sup +} and He{sup +} ion beams. The beams caused heterogeneous reactions of crosslinking and main chain scission in the films. The relative efficiency of the crosslinking was drastically changed in comparison with that of main chain scission. The anomalous change in the molecular weight distribution was analyzed with increasing irradiation fluence, and the ion beam induced reaction radius; track radius was determined for the radiation sources by the function of molecular weight dispersion. Obtained values were 59{+-}15 A and 14{+-}6 A for 2 MeV He{sup +} and 20 MeV H{sup +} ion beams respectively. (author)

  10. A Layer Correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00433248; Abdallah, J.M.; Addy, T.N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Andreazza, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Baker, O.K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Barr, A.J.; Beccherle, R.; Beck, H.P.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P.J.; Benchekroun, D.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benslama, K.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Bernabeu, J.; Bertelsen, H.; Binet, S.; Biscarat, C.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Boonekamp, M.; Bosman, M.; Bourdarios, C.; Broklova, Z.; Burckhart Chromek, D.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Calvet, D.; Canneri, M.; Capeans Garrido, M.; Caprini, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M.V.; Catinaccio, A.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cetin, S.A.; Chen, H.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chouridou, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, B.; Cobal, M.; Cogneras, E.; Conde Muino, P.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Corso Radu, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Cwetanski, P.; Da Silva, D.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Darbo, G.; Davidek, T.; De, K.; Defay, P.O.; Dekhissi, B.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, M.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dotti, A.; Drake, G.; Drasal, Z.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Drohan, J.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Eifert, T.F.; Einsweiler, K.; El Kacimi, M.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Etienvre, A.I.; Fabich, A.; Facius, K.; Fakhr-Edine, A.I.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farthouat, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayard, L.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O.L.; Fenyuk, A.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira, B.C.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Filippini, G.; Flick, T.; Fournier, D.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B.J.; Gameiro, S.; Gan, K.K.; Garcia, R.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.; Gottfert, T.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez, M.D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Goujdami, D.; Grahn, K.J.; Grenier, P.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gruwe, M.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Hartel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hance, M.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, P.H.; Hara, K.; Harvey, A., Jr; Hawkings, R.J.; Heinemann, F.E.W.; Henriques Correia, A.; Henss, T.; Hervas, L.; Higon, E.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, J.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Hruska, I.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurwitz, M.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jansen, E.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Johansson, P.D.C.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Joseph, J.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kayumov, F.; Kazarov, A.; Keener, P.T.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Kerschen, N.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khramov, E.; Khristachev, A.; Khubua, J.; Kittelmann, T.H.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E.B.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Kolos, S.; Konovalov, S.P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T.Z.; Kruger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L.G.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Lari, T.; Le Bihan, A.C.; Lechowski, M.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lester, C.G.; Liang, Z.; Lichard, P.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Louchard, L.; Lourerio, K.F.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Ma, H.; Mackeprang, R.; Maio, A.; Maleev, V.P.; Malek, F.; Mandelli, L.; Maneira, J.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Martin, F.; Mathes, M.; Mazzanti, M.; McFarlane, K.W.; McPherson, R.; Mchedlidze, G.; Mehlhase, S.; Meirosu, C.; Meng, Z.; Meroni, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mikulec, B.; Milstead, D.; Minashvili, I.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V.A.; Moed, S.; Monnier, E.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Morozov, S.V.; Mosidze, M.; Mouraviev, S.V.; Moyse, E.W.J.; Munar, A.; Myagkov, A.; Nadtochi, A.V.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S.Y.; Newcomer, F.M.; Nikitine, I.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S.H.; Oleshko, S.B.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, S.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paolone, V.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passmored, S.M.; Pater, J.; Patrichev, S.; Peez, M.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T.C.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P.W.; Pina, J.; Pinto, B.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poppleton, A.; Poveda, J.; Pralavorio, P.; Pribyl, L.; Price, M.J.; Prieur, D.; Puigdengoles, C.; Puzo, P.; Rohne, O.; Ragusa, F.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Rembser, C.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Reznicek, P.; Ridel, M.; Risso, P.; Riu, I.; Robinson, D.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Ruiz, A.; Rusakovich, N.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryjov, V.; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarri, F.; Sauvage, G.; Says, L.P.; Schaefer, M.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schultes, J.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seixas, J.M.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Serin, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalanda, N.; Shaw, C.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Silva, J.; Simion, S.; Simonyan, M.; Sloper, J.E.; Smirnov, S.Yu; Smirnova, L.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Soloviev, I.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Spano, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Stancu, S.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Straessner, A.; Suchkov, S.I.; Suk, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Tas, P.; Tayalati, Y.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teuscher, R.; Thioye, M.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Tremblet, L.; Troncon, C.; Tsiareshka, P.; Tyndel, M.; Karagoez Unel, M.; Unal, G.; Unel, G.; Usai, G.; Van Berg, R.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J.A.; Vandelli, W.; Vannucci, F.; Vartapetian, A.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vernocchi, F.; Vetter-Cole, Y.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; de Vivie, J.B.; Volpi, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Wang, C.; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Wells, P.S.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, S.; Wiessmann, M.; Wilkens, H.; Williams, H.H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Yasu, Y.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhou, N.

    2011-01-01

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed and successfully applied to beam test data. It is based on a principal component analysis of the calorimeter layer energy deposits, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20 and 180 GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by 11% to 25% compared to the response at the electromagnetic scale.

  11. Edge sensitivity of “edgeless” silicon pad detectors measured in a high-energy beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Solano, B.; Abreu, M. C.; Avati, V.; Boccali, T.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Chen, W.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Mäki, T.; Mirabito, L.; Morelli, A.; Niinikoski, T. O.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V. G.; Rato Mendes, P.; Rodrigues, S.; Siegrist, P.; Silvestris, L.; Sousa, P.; Tapprogge, S.; Trocmé, B.

    2005-09-01

    We report measurements in a high-energy beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in “edgeless” planar silicon pad diode detectors. The edgeless side of these rectangular diodes is formed by a cut and break through the contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of this device above the full depletion voltage, but we have shown that the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at a low temperature. A pair of these edgeless silicon diode pad sensors was exposed to the X5 high-energy pion beam at CERN, to determine the edge sensitivity. The signal of the detector pair triggered a reference telescope made of silicon microstrip detector modules. The gap width between the edgeless sensors, determined using the tracks measured by the reference telescope, was then compared with the results of precision metrology. It was concluded that the depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is compatible with zero within the statistical precision of ±8 μm and systematic error of ±6 μm.

  12. Energy and helicity budgets of solar quiet regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tziotziou, K; Georgoulis, M K; Kontogiannis, I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets of solar quiet regions. Using a novel non-linear force-free method requiring single solar vector magnetograms we calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in 55 quiet-Sun vector magnetograms. As in a previous work on active regions, we construct here for the first time the (free) energy-(relative) helicity diagram of quiet-Sun regions. We find that quiet-Sun regions have no dominant sense of helicity and show monotonic correlations a) between free magnetic energy/relative helicity and magnetic network area and, consequently, b) between free magnetic energy and helicity. Free magnetic energy budgets of quiet-Sun regions represent a rather continuous extension of respective active-region budgets towards lower values, but the corresponding helicity transition is discontinuous due to the incoherence of the helicity sense contrary to active regions. We further estimate the instantaneous free...

  13. Polarization of high-energy electrons traversing a laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotkin, G.L.; Serbo, V.G. [Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation). Phys. Dept.; Perlt, H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leipzig University, 04109, Leipzig, BRD (Germany)

    1998-02-21

    When polarized electrons traverse a region where the laser light is focused their polarization varies even if their energy and direction of motion are not changed. This effect is due to interference of the incoming electron wave and an electron wave scattered at zero angle. Equations are obtained which determine the variation of the electron-density matrix, and their solutions are given. The change in the electron polarization depends not only on the Compton cross section but on the real part of the forward Compton amplitude as well. It should be taken into account, for example, in simulations of the e{yields}{gamma} conversion for future {gamma}{gamma} colliders. (orig.). 16 refs.

  14. Control of beam dynamics in high energy induction linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, G. J.

    1986-07-01

    The Advent of laser-ion-guiding in the Advanced test Accelerator along with the development of accelerator cavities optimized with respect to beam breakup coupling impedence now make it possible to consider a new class of high current, high emergy linear induction accelerators. The control of the beam breakup and other instabilities by laser guiding and by various magnetic focusing schemes will be discussed along with the scaling laws for the design of such machines to minimize the growth of the beam breakup instability. Many linacs, particularly induction linacs are limited in performance by the beam breakup (BBU) instability. The instability is found in two forms. In the first form the accelerating cavities communicate with one another through interaction with the beam and through propagation of cavity fields through the accelerator structure. In the second form which is the more virulent of the two, the cavities couple to each other only through their interactions with the beam. It is this second form of PPU that will be discussed in this paper.

  15. The properties of low energy neutral particles in a neutral beam source: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-hoon, E-mail: physh@kaist.ac.k [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Suk Jae [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Choong-Seock [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, Mercer Street, New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Application of a hyperthermal neutral beam source is one of the candidate methods of reducing plasma induced damage problems. The neutral beam is generated by vertical collisions between energetic ions and a reflector composed of metal. However, it is difficult to measure the neutral angle and energy distribution experimentally. We simulate the hyperthermal neutral beam (HNB) generation using a molecular dynamics algorithm. In order to obtain a low energy neutral beam, ions with various energies are vertically projected onto the reflector surface. A rough surface structure that has been experimentally measured is used for a realistic simulation. The energy distributions are obtained and the ratio of energy of reflected neutral particles agrees with experimental data.

  16. Spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlong; Lü, Baida; Zhu, Shifu

    2009-07-06

    The formulas of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence are derived by using Maxwell's equations. Expressions expressed by elements of electric cross spectral density matrixes of the magnetic and the mutual cross spectral density matrix are obtained for the partially coherent electromagnetic beams. Taken the partially coherent Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) electromagnetic beam as a typical example, the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density in atmospheric turbulence are numerically calculated. It is found that the turbulence shows a broadening effect on the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density. Some interesting results are obtained and explained with regard to their physical nature.

  17. High-Brightness High-Energy Electron Beams from a Laser Wakefield Accelerator via Energy Chirp Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. T.; Li, W. T.; Liu, J. S.; Zhang, Z. J.; Qi, R.; Yu, C. H.; Liu, J. Q.; Fang, M.; Qin, Z. Y.; Wang, C.; Xu, Y.; Wu, F. X.; Leng, Y. X.; Li, R. X.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2016-09-01

    By designing a structured gas density profile between the dual-stage gas jets to manipulate electron seeding and energy chirp reversal for compressing the energy spread, we have experimentally produced high-brightness high-energy electron beams from a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator with peak energies in the range of 200-600 MeV, 0.4%-1.2% rms energy spread, 10-80 pC charge, and ˜0.2 mrad rms divergence. The maximum six-dimensional brightness B6 D ,n is estimated as ˜6.5 ×1 015 A /m2/0.1 % , which is very close to the typical brightness of e beams from state-of-the-art linac drivers. These high-brightness high-energy e beams may lead to the realization of compact monoenergetic gamma-ray and intense coherent x-ray radiation sources.

  18. Non-Gaussian beam dynamics in low energy antiproton storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resta-López, J.; Hunt, J. R.; Welsch, C. P.

    2016-10-01

    In low energy antiproton facilities, where electron cooling is fundamental, the cooling forces together with heating phenomena causing emittance blow-up, such as Intra Beam Scattering (IBS), result in highly non-Gaussian beam distributions. In these cases, a precise simulation of IBS effects is essential to realistically evaluate the long term beam evolution, taking into account the non-Gaussian characteristics of the beam. Here, we analyse the beam dynamics in the Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA), which is a new small synchrotron currently being constructed at CERN to decelerate antiprotons to energies as low as 100 keV. Simulations are performed using the code BETACOOL, comparing different models of IBS.

  19. Dosimetric characteristics of four PTW microDiamond detectors in high-energy proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolat, F.; De Marzi, L.; Patriarca, A.; Nauraye, C.; Moignier, C.; Pomorski, M.; Moignau, F.; Heinrich, S.; Tromson, D.; Mazal, A.

    2016-09-01

    Small diamond detectors are useful for the dosimetry of high-energy proton beams. However, linear energy transfer (LET) dependence has been observed in the literature with such solid state detectors. A novel synthetic diamond detector has recently become commercially available from the manufacturer PTW-Freiburg (PTW microDiamond type 60019). This study was designed to thoroughly characterize four microDiamond detectors in clinical proton beams, in order to investigate their response and their reproducibility in high LET regions. Very good dosimetric characteristics were observed for two of them, with good stability of their response (deviation less than 0.4% after a pre-irradiation dose of approximately 12 Gy), good repeatability (coefficient of variation of 0.06%) and a sensitivity of approximately 0.85 nC Gy-1. A negligible dose rate dependence was also observed for these two microDiamonds with a deviation of the sensitivity less than 0.7% with respect to the one measured at the reference dose rate of 2.17 Gy min-1, in the investigated dose rate range from 1.01 Gy min-1 to 5.52 Gy min-1. Lateral dose profile measurements showed the high spatial resolution of the microDiamond oriented with its stem perpendicular to the beam axis and with its small sensitive thickness of about 1 μm in the scanning profile direction. Finally, no significant LET dependence was found with these two diamond dosimeters in comparison to a reference ionization chamber (model IBA PPC05). These good results were in accordance to the literature. However, this study showed also a non reproducibility between the devices in terms of stability, sensitivity and LET dependence, since the two other microDiamonds characterized in this work showed different dosimetric characteristics making them not suitable for proton beam dosimetry with a maximum difference of the peak-to-plateau ratio of 6.7% relative to the reference ionization chamber in a clinical 138 MeV proton beam.

  20. The beam energy feedback system for Beijing electron positron collider II linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Iqbal, M; Chi, Y; Liu, R; Huang, X

    2017-03-01

    A beam-energy feedback system has been developed for the injection linac to meet the beam quality needed for the Beijing electron positron collider II storage ring. This paper describes the implementation and commissioning of this system in detail. The system consists of an energy measurement unit, application software, and an actuator unit. A non-intersecting beam energy monitor was developed to allow real-time online energy adjustment. The beam energy adjustment is achieved by adjusting the output microwave phase of the RF power source station. The phase control mechanism has also been modified, and a new control method taking the return difference of the phase shifter into account is used to improve the system's performance. This system achieves the design aim and can adjust the beam center energy with a rate of 2 Hz. With the energy feedback system, the stability of the injection rate is better; the fluctuation range is reduced from 20 mA/min to 10 mA/min, while the stability of the beam center energy is maintained within ±0.1%.

  1. Energy Recovery from a Space-Charge Neutralized Positive Ion Beam by Means of Magnetic Electron Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Philip Michael

    The charge-exchange neutralization efficiency of positive ion based neutral beams used in plasma heating applications decreases as the beam energy increases. Direct energy recovery from the charged particles can be accomplished by electrostatically decelerating the positive ions; the problem is to effect this without accelerating the space -charge neutralizing electrons residing in the beam. Prior work with both electrostatic and magnetic electron suppression is reviewed. A finite difference ion optics code which solves the nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson equation is adapted to energy recovery application and used to analyze the transverse magnetic field electron suppression experiments carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1980 and 1982. Three numerical models are discussed and evaluated. The double plasma model, which assumes an equilibrium Boltzmann distribution of electrons at both the neutralizer potential and the ion collector potential, most successfully duplicates the experimental results with beams in the 40 keV, 10 A range. It is used to analyze the effects of the magnetic field strength, the ion "boost" energy, and the ion beam current density on the ion collection efficiency. Conclusions of the study are: (1) the electron leakage current scales as B('-1), necessitating magnetic suppression fields in excess of 0.1 tesla; (2) the neutralizer geometry should provide an electrostatic field to counteract the magnetic force on the ions; (3) fractional energy beam ions should be confined to the neutralizer interior; (4) the neutral line density in the recovery region should be less than 3 x 10('-3) torr(.)cm. Recovery efficiency decreases with increasing beam current density; a net recovery efficiency of 30% (ion collection efficiency of 75%) at 5 mA/cm('2) falls to zero at 10 mA/cm('2) for a 40 keV beam. New designs are presented and analyzed: an ion collection efficiency of close to 90% is predicted for an 80 keV D ion beam with an ion current

  2. Cross-beam energy transfer to a single f-20 beam: simulations of previous and upcoming experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Thomas; Turnbull, David; Kirkwood, Robert; Michel, Pierre; Wilks, Scott; Berger, Richard; Hinkel, Denise; Moody, John; Langer, Steve; Langdon, Bruce; Strozzi, David

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by materials research applications, cross-beam energy transfer can be used to transfer energy from one or more quads of beamlets at the NIF, which have an effective f-number of 8, to a single f-20 beam. Using plasma comprised of a preheated C5H12 gasbag, a preliminary experiment at the NIF demonstrated amplification of a 750 J f-20 beam by a factor of 2 in both power and energy. A witness plate providing gated x-ray images was used to obtain total energies and transmitted spot intensities for the pump quad, seed beamlet, and a calibration quad. These experimental diagnostics offer the opportunity to perform quantitative comparisons with simulations. We use the laser-plasma interaction code pF3D to simulate the energy transfer process, using plasma conditions obtained from the plasma hydrodynamics code HYDRA. Our simulations of the completed single-pump quad experiment recover the measured seed amplification and transmitted spot power distributions. We also show simulation results for the upcoming two-pump quad experiment.

  3. Selected List of Low Energy Beam Transport Facilities for Light-Ion, High-Intensity Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents a list of Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) facilities for light-ion, high-intensity accelerators. It was put together to facilitate comparisons with the PXIE LEBT design choices. A short discussion regarding the importance of the beam perveance in the choice of the transport scheme follows.

  4. Electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum at low landing energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; De Winter, D.A.M.; Mulders, J.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum from methylcyclopentadienyl-platinum-trimethyl was performed with a focused electron beam at low landing energies, down to 10 eV. The deposition growth rate is maximal at 140 eV, with the process being over ten times more efficient than at 20 kV. No signi

  5. Guide on the use of low energy electron beams for microbiological decontamination of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Helt-Hansen, Jakob; Gondim, Ondina

    This Guide describes the validation and routine monitoring of microbiological decontamination of surfaces by low energy electron beams (100-200 keV). The Guide is mainly based on experience gained in connection with installation of electron beam systems for surface decontamination of pre...

  6. Performance Studies of the Vibration Wire Monitor on the Test Stand with Low Energy Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic

  7. Regional energy projects in the Eurasian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Dobrica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian area has a very rich energy reserves, and is characterized by a complex network of relationships between major suppliers and consumers. The central place in this area has Russia as a country richest in energy resources in Eurasia. Beside her, the European Union is the largest economic and political grouping in the world, and a huge consumer of energy. The dynamic development of Chinese economy requires more energy imports by China. Dependence of the European Union and China on imported energy is high and will grow in the future. Russia is the world's dominant natural gas producer and one of the two largest oil producers in the world. Russia is the largest natural gas supplier of the EU and a significant oil and natural gas supplier of China. Energy projects in Eurasia are the result of the need to strengthen the stability of energy supplies, efforts to diversify sources of supply, and the geographic redistribution of Russian oil and gas exports. Although the interests of the main actors often do not agree, the reasons of energy security affect the development of joint energy projects.

  8. Sub-microsecond beam notching at low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    A technique for creating a burst of 100 ns notches (beam extinctions) in an H{sup -} beam at 454 kHz has been developed at {le} 20 keV utilizing a Magnetron ion source with a slit extraction system and a split extractor. Each half of the extractor is treated as part of a 50 ohm transmission line which can be pulsed at {+-} 700 volts creating a 1400 volt gradient across the extractor. A beam current reduction of better than 95% has been observed at the end of the Fermilab 400 MeV Linac. Notched multi-turn charge-exchange injection into the Booster, a 400 MeV to 8 GeV synchrotron, has been demonstrated with a charge reduction in the resulting beam gap of 83%. Presently, the trailing edge of the notch may be adversely affected by space charge resulting in a beam recovery with two different time constants. Efforts to minimize this effect are discussed.

  9. Determination of the LEP Beam Energy using Radiative Fermion-pair Events, 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, A; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, R J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, Dean A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J A; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, A; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2004-01-01

    We present a determination of the LEP beam energy using "radiative return" fermion-pair events recorded at centre-of-mass energies from 183 GeV to 209 GeV. We find no evidence of a disagreement between the OPAL data and the LEP Energy Workings Group's standard calibration. Including the energy- averaged 11 MeV uncertainty in the standard determination, the beam energy we obtain from the OPAL data is higher than that obtained from the LEP calibration by 0+-34(stat.)+-27(syst.)MeV

  10. Russia’s energy geostrategy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleneva Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Russian energy policy in the Baltic Sea region in the context of the world energy market globalization. The study focuses on the three Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia — which have a similar geographical location and history. The dynamic development of the region as a whole is strongly influenced by the stability of energy supply in each state. The article analyses the role Russia plays in the energy policy of the region from both geopolitical and geostrategic viewpoints. The author identifies the main characteristics of the Russian energy policy in these countries, and provides with a forecast for energy policy development in the region. A geostrategic approach dictates any successful energy policy in the Baltic Sea region to bring in line Russian interests with those of the European states.

  11. Energy situation in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, J S; Brainard, J P

    1977-08-01

    This report presents a review of the energy situation in the Mid-Atlantic Region. It describes the patterns of energy production, supply and demand by state and compares these to national and regional averages. It presents a picture of existing energy and environmental interactions and a view of potential energy and environmental conflicts. A review of the major issues by energy sector is included as is a description of the existing energy actors and major energy programs for Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Delaware, Maryland, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Washington, DC.

  12. Neutrons in proton pencil beam scanning: parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Uwe; Hälg, Roger A.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Lomax, Tony

    2016-08-01

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons produced during proton therapy in inducing cancer is unknown, but potentially large. In particular, since neutron biological effectiveness is energy dependent, it is necessary to estimate, besides the dose, also the energy spectra, in order to obtain quantities which could be a measure of the biological effectiveness and test current models and new approaches against epidemiological studies on cancer induction after proton therapy. For patients treated with proton pencil beam scanning, this work aims to predict the spatially localized neutron energies, the effective quality factor, the weighting factor according to ICRP, and two RBE values, the first obtained from the saturation corrected dose mean lineal energy and the second from DSB cluster induction. A proton pencil beam was Monte Carlo simulated using GEANT. Based on the simulated neutron spectra for three different proton beam energies a parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE was calculated. The pencil beam algorithm used for treatment planning at PSI has been extended using the developed parameterizations in order to calculate the spatially localized neutron energy, quality factors and RBE for each treated patient. The parameterization represents the simple quantification of neutron energy in two energy bins and the quality factors and RBE with a satisfying precision up to 85 cm away from the proton pencil beam when compared to the results based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations. The root mean square error of the energy estimate between Monte Carlo simulation based results and the parameterization is 3.9%. For the quality factors and RBE estimates it is smaller than 0.9%. The model was successfully integrated into the PSI treatment planning system. It was found that the parameterizations for neutron energy, quality factors and RBE were independent of proton energy in the investigated energy range of interest for proton therapy. The pencil beam algorithm has

  13. Energy saving estimation on radiation process. Electron beam curing of paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Hideaki (Nihon Parkerizing Co., Ltd., Tokyo); Maekawa, H.; Ito, Y.; Nishikawa, I.; Fujii, H.; Murata, K.

    1982-01-01

    When the quantity of paint used for industrial coating is assumed to be 420,000 tons, it is estimated that the area being coated is 2.8 billion m/sup 2/, the petroleum required for pretreatment steam, drying and baking is 1.68 million tons, and the required amount of energy saving is 120,000 tons per year in terms of petroleum. The authors examined how the adoption of electron beam curing for surface coating contributes to the energy saving. So far, it has been said that electron beam curing is more efficient than thermal or light curing in energy consumption, but the premise condition was not clear. The theoretical energy requirement for thermal curing, light curing and electron beam curing was calculated and compared. The comparison of the measured values was also performed. The amount of energy required for thermal curing, UV light curing and electron beam curing was roughly 100:10:1, and the cost of energy for them was 50:5:1. In spite of the large merit of electron beam curing, it has not spread as expected, because of the repayment cost of the facility and the cost of inert gas required for the process. Energy saving is brought about by electron beam curing, but the overall cost must be examined case by case.

  14. Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Brunetti, E.; Gil, D. Reboredo; Welsh, G. H.; Li, F. Y.; Cipiccia, S.; Ersfeld, B.; Grant, D. W.; Grant, P. A.; Islam, M. R.; Tooley, M. P.; Vieux, G.; Wiggins, S. M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lower-energy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5–10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°–60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wakefield accelerators, including the development of staged high-energy accelerators. PMID:28281679

  15. Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Brunetti, E; Gil, D Reboredo; Welsh, G H; Li, F Y; Cipiccia, S; Ersfeld, B; Grant, D W; Grant, P A; Islam, M R; Tooley, M P; Vieux, G; Wiggins, S M; Sheng, Z M; Jaroszynski, D A

    2017-03-10

    Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lower-energy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5-10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°-60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wakefield accelerators, including the development of staged high-energy accelerators.

  16. Regional Strategies for Renewable Energies: Development Processes in Greater Manchester

    OpenAIRE

    Faller, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Making the transition to renewable, low-carbon forms of energy could be the defining question of our times. Especially for complex problems such as energy supply the regional scale and new forms of control, coordination and cooperation—subsumed under the term regional governance—are widely discussed both in politics (e.g. G8 conferences, Climate Summits, etc.) and academia. The turn from conventional to renewable energies is one major topic of discussion. For this process of change, regional ...

  17. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied sulfuric acid aerosol nucleation in an atmospheric pressure reaction chamber using a 580 MeV electron beam to ionize the volume of the reaction chamber. We find a clear contribution from ion-induced nucleation and consider this to be the first unambiguous observation of the ion......-effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions that resemble the Earth's atmosphere. By comparison with ionization using a gamma source we further show that the nature of the ionizing particles is not important for the ion-induced component of the nucleation. This implies that inexpensive...... ionization sources - as opposed to expensive accelerator beams - can be used for investigations of ion-induced nucleation....

  18. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  19. Energy potential of region and its quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Kovalenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the development of the concept of the energy potential of the region (EPR, the analysis of the existing structure of relationships for the EPR elements in Ukraine and improvement of a quantitative assessment of energy potential of the region (country. The methods of an assessment of the existing condition of energy potential of the territory are the subject matter of the research. As a result of the analysis of concept’s definitions of energy potential of the region, it has further development and included the consumer potential of energy resources and capacity of management. The structure of relationships between elements of energy potential is developed for the Ukraine region. The new economic indicator — the realized energy potential is offered for an EPR assessment. By means of this indicator, the assessment of energy potential for the different countries of the world and a number of Ukraine areas of is performed.

  20. Extraction characteristics of a low-energy ion beam system with a remote plasma chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M. R., E-mail: mrvasquez@coe.upd.edu.ph [Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Low-energy argon beams were extracted from a dual-chamber ion source system. The first chamber is a quartz cylinder where dense inductively coupled plasmas were produced using 13.56 MHz radio frequency (rf) power. The discharge was driven into an adjacent chamber which acts as a reservoir for ion beam extraction using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. Extraction of ions from the second chamber with energies in the 100 eV range was achieved while minimizing fluctuations induced by the rf signal. A custom-built retarding potential analyzer was used to analyze the effectiveness of ion beam transport using the remote plasma chamber. Well-defined beams were extracted between 60 and 100 V extraction potentials at 50–100 W rf powers. An increase in rf power resulted in an increase in average ion energy, increase in ion current density while the energy spread remains constant.

  1. Precision shape modification of nanodevices with a low-energy electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alex; Yuzvinsky, Thomas David; Fennimore, Adam

    2010-03-09

    Methods of shape modifying a nanodevice by contacting it with a low-energy focused electron beam are disclosed here. In one embodiment, a nanodevice may be permanently reformed to a different geometry through an application of a deforming force and a low-energy focused electron beam. With the addition of an assist gas, material may be removed from the nanodevice through application of the low-energy focused electron beam. The independent methods of shape modification and material removal may be used either individually or simultaneously. Precision cuts with accuracies as high as 10 nm may be achieved through the use of precision low-energy Scanning Electron Microscope scan beams. These methods may be used in an automated system to produce nanodevices of very precise dimensions. These methods may be used to produce nanodevices of carbon-based, silicon-based, or other compositions by varying the assist gas.

  2. Chromaticity of the lattice and beam stability in energy-recovery linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2011-12-23

    Energy recovery linacs (ERLs) are an emerging generation of accelerators promising to revolutionize the fields of high-energy physics and photon sciences. These accelerators combine the advantages of linear accelerators with that of storage rings, and hold the promise of delivering electron beams of unprecedented power and quality. Use of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities converts ERLs into nearly perfect 'perpetuum mobile' accelerators, wherein the beam is accelerated to a desirable energy, used, and then gives the energy back to the RF field. One potential weakness of these devices is transverse beam break-up instability that could severely limit the available beam current. In this paper, I present a method of suppressing these dangerous effects using a natural phenomenon in the accelerators, viz., the chromaticity of the transverse motion.

  3. Simulation calculation for the energy deposition profile and the transmission fraction of intense pulsed electron beam at various incident angles

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Hai Liang; Zhang Jia Sheng; Huang Jian Jun; Sun Jian Feng

    2002-01-01

    The incident angles have a heavy effect on the intense pulsed electron beam energy deposition profile, energy deposition fraction and beam current transmission fraction in material. The author presents electron beam energy deposition profile and energy deposition fraction versus electron energy (0.5-2.0 MeV), at various incident angles for three aluminum targets of various thickness via theoretical calculation. The intense pulsed electron beam current transmission fractions versus electron energy (0.4-1.4 MeV) at various incident angles for three thickness of carbon targets were also theoretically calculated. The calculation results indicate that the deposition energy in unit mass of material surface layer increase with the rise of electron beam incident angle, and electron beam with low incident angle (closer to normal incident angle) penetrates deeper into the target material. The electron beams deposit more energy in unit mass of material surface layer at 60 degree-70 degree incident angle

  4. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  5. A novel rice transformation method mediated by low energy ion beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Transfer the foreign DNA into rice via ion beam was first reported in 1994 in our lab. In this study, we aimed to establish an efficient transformation system mediated by low energy ion beam. Factors influenced the transformation were carefully investigated, including type of ion, parameters of ion energy, dose and dose rate, and plant genotype and receptors. Molecular and genetic characterization of a large number of these plants (more than 250 independent transgenic plants) provided the basis information of this system.

  6. On the energy dependence of proton beam extraction with a bent crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Arduini, Gianluigi; Fidecaro, Giuseppe; Gyr, Marcel; Herr, Werner; Klem, J T; Mikkelsen, U; Weisse, E

    1998-01-01

    Proton beam extraction from the CERN SPS by means of a bent silicon crystal is reported at three different energies, 14 GeV, 120 GeV and 270 GeV. The experimental results are compared to computer simulations which contain a sound model of the SPS accelerator as well as the channeling phenomena in bent crystals. The overall energy dependence of crystal assisted proton beam extraction is understood and provides the basis to discuss such a scheme for future accelerators.

  7. Beam energy dependence of two-proton correlations at the AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, S Y; Alexander, J; Anderson, M; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J; Chung, J; Cole, B; Crowe, K M; Das, A; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J C; Klay, J L; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Liu, Y; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schröder, L; Srivastava, B; Stone, N; Symons, T J M; Wang, S; Whitfield, J; Wienold, T; Witt, R; Wood, L; Yang, X; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y

    1999-01-01

    First measurements of the beam energy dependence of the two proton correlation function in central Au+Au collisions are performed by the E895 Collaboration at the BNL AGS. No significant changes with beam energy were observed. The imaging technique of Brown-Danielewicz is used in order to extract information about the space-time content of the proton source at freeze-out. Extracted source functions show peculiar enhancement at low relative separation.

  8. Numerical simulation of inducing characteristics of high energy electron beam plasma for aerodynamics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongfeng, DENG; Jian, JIANG; Xianwei, HAN; Chang, TAN; Jianguo, WEI

    2017-04-01

    The problem of flow active control by low temperature plasma is considered to be one of the most flourishing fields of aerodynamics due to its practical advantages. Compared with other means, the electron beam plasma is a potential flow control method for large scale flow. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a multi-fluid plasma model is established to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics induced by electron beam plasma. The results demonstrate that the electron beam strongly influences the flow properties, not only in the boundary layers, but also in the main flow. A weak shockwave is induced at the electron beam injection position and develops to the other side of the wind tunnel behind the beam. It brings additional energy into air, and the inducing characteristics are closely related to the beam power and increase nonlinearly with it. The injection angles also influence the flow properties to some extent. Based on this research, we demonstrate that the high energy electron beam air plasma has three attractive advantages in aerodynamic applications, i.e. the high energy density, wide action range and excellent action effect. Due to the rapid development of near space hypersonic vehicles and atmospheric fighters, by optimizing the parameters, the electron beam can be used as an alternative means in aerodynamic steering in these applications.

  9. Application of Energy Finite Element Method in Active Vibration Control of Piezoelectric Intelligent Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Xie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the transmission and equilibrium relationship of vibration energy in beam-like structures, the Galerkin weighted residual method was applied to equation discretization. An equivalent transformation of feedback element was suggested to develop the Energy Finite Element model of a composite piezoelectric cantilever beam driven by harmonic excitation on lateral direction, with both systems with and without time delay being studied and the power input estimation of harmonic excitation was discussed for the resolution of Energy Finite Element function. Then the energy density solutions of the piezoelectric coupling beam through Energy Finite Element Method (EFEM and classical wave theory were compared to verify the EFEM model, which presented a good accordance. Further investigation was undertaken about the influence of control parameters including the feedback gain and arrangement of piezoelectric patches on characteristics of system energy density distribution.

  10. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. M.; Heo, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, H. N.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, M. H. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the

  11. High-energy proton beam analysis of geological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Norman M.

    1993-05-01

    Partitioning of trace elements between mineral phases reflects the physical, chemical and kinetic conditions of crystallization. Variations in environmental conditions during growth often result in complex and small-scale chemical zoning in minerals. The low abundance of trace elements and their spatial inhomogeneity on a μm scale makes their analysis by a muprobe technique essential for addressing many petrological problems. μ-PIXE (2-3 MeV) has been successfully applied to many mineralogical problems and is rapidly becoming a routine analytical tool for geologists. High-energy PIXE (40-60 MeV) provides a new dimension in mineralogical analysis. The K X-rays for many petrologically important trace elements occur in the 25-90 keV region, here the X-rays are not affected by interference from the X-rays of more abundant geochemically coherent elements. Furthermore, the K X-ray spectrum for an element is less complex than its corresponding L X-ray spectrum so data reduction is simplified. The use of high energy protons for elemental analysis makes high-energy PIGE accessible, here on-line emission of γ-rays can be used to provide information on element (or in some cases isotope) concentrations. For the analysis of chemically complex materials such as rocks and minerals it is necessary to thoroughly characterize the material beforehand such that likely proton induced reactions can be predicted. Nuclear reactions produced by proton interaction with mineral samples occur during on-line exposure of the sample. The by-products of such reactions may have significant half-lives which will make them amenable to off-line analysis. One such case is where Pt undergoes (p, xn) reactions to form Au which then decays back to Pt via electron capture. The off-line spectrum after such a run contains Au X-rays and the background to such spectra is low, which raises the possibility that this form of analysis will provide low detection limits. This is the proton analogue of neutron

  12. Wien filter for cooled low-energy radioactive ion beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nummela, S; Dendooven, P; Heikkinen, P; Huikari, J; Nieminen, A; Jokinen, A; Rinta-Antila, S; Rubchenya, V.; Aysto, J

    2002-01-01

    A Wien filter for cooled radioactive ion beams has been designed at Ion Guide Isotope Separator On Line technique (IGISOL). The purpose of such device is to eliminate doubly charged ions from the mass separated singly charged ions, based on q = +2-->q = +1 charge exchange process in an ion cooler, T

  13. Public-Private Partnership for Regional Development of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea ZAMFIR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the public-private partnership as a possible solution for regional development of renewable energy. Firstly, the study reveals the strong connection between renewable energy and sustainable regional development, and secondly, the study discloses some reasons for developing renewable energy through public-private partnerships in Romania’s regions. The findings of this study reveal that there is a strong need for a renewable energy partnership between public authorities, business community and civil society in order to achieve the regional development of renewable energy. The results of this study may be used for upcoming research in the area of implementing renewable energy projects through public-private partnerships in order to achieve sustainable regional development.

  14. Energy deposition of heavy ions in the regime of strong beam-plasma correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, D O; Schlanges, M

    2003-03-01

    The energy loss of highly charged ions in dense plasmas is investigated. The applied model includes strong beam-plasma correlation via a quantum T-matrix treatment of the cross sections. Dynamic screening effects are modeled by using a Debye-like potential with a velocity dependent screening length that guarantees the known low and high beam velocity limits. It is shown that this phenomenological model is in good agreement with simulation data up to very high beam-plasma coupling. An analysis of the stopping process shows considerably longer ranges and a less localized energy deposition if strong coupling is treated properly.

  15. A study of the energy deposition profile of proton beams in materials of hadron therapeutic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; de Vera, Pablo; Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    The energy delivered by a swift proton beam in materials of interest to hadron therapy (liquid water, polymethylmethacrylate or polystyrene) is investigated. An explicit condensed-state description of the target excitation spectrum based on the dielectric formalism is used to calculate the energy-loss rate of the beam in the irradiated materials. This magnitude is the main input in the simulation code SEICS (Simulation of Energetic Ions and Clusters through Solids) used to evaluate the dose as a function of the penetration depth and radial distance from the beam axis.

  16. Implement and commissioning of the beam energy feedback system in BEPCII linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaozhe; Liu, Rong; Huang, Xuefang; Qian, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure the beam quality and meet the requirements introduced by the BEPCII storage ring, the beam energy feedback system has been developed at the exit of the linac. This paper describes the implementation and commissioning of this system in detail. The energy feedback system consists of an energy measurement unit, an application software and an execution unit. In order to ensure the real-time monitoring and adjustment of beam energy, we need to introduce a non-interceptive type of online beam energy measurement method which is on the first try in China and the effective mechanism of energy adjustment to achieve this goal. The adjustment of energy is achieved by adjusting the output microwave phase of the RF power source station. The system was put into operation in March 16th, 2016 and achieved the desired results. It can effectively eliminate the low point of the injection rate caused by the fluctuation of the beam center energy and has played an important role in maintaining a high constant inj...

  17. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. M.; Hur, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jeong, M. H.; Park, J. W. [Kyungbook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Proton beam induced apoptosis significantly in Lewis lung carcinoma cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but slightly in leukemia Molt-4 cells. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for death rate relative to gamma ray were ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 in LLC or HepG2 but 0.7 in Molt-4 cells at 72h after irradiation. The typical apoptosis was observed by nuclear DNA staining with DAPI. By FACS analysis after stained with PI, sub-G1 cell fraction was significantly increased but G2/M phase was not altered by proton beam irradiation measured at 24 h after irradiation. Proton beam-irradiated tumor cells induced cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases (-3 and -9) and increased the level of p53 and p21. decreased pro-lamin B. Acitivity of caspases was significantly increased after proton beam irradiation. Furthermore, ROS were significantly increased and N-acetyl cystein (NAC) pretreatment restored the apoptotic cell death induced in proton beam-irradiated cells. In conclusion, single treatment of low energy proton beam with SOBP induced apoptosis of solid tumor cells via increased ROS, active caspase -3,-9 and p53, p2.

  18. Review of intense-ion-beam propagation with a view toward measuring ion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.

    1982-08-25

    The subject of this review is intense ion beam propagation and the possibilities of measuring time dependent ion energy in the beam. Propagation effects discussed include charge separation, charge and current autoneutralization, electron thermalization and current neutralization decay. The interaction of a plasma beam with material obstacles, like collimators, and with transverse magnetic fields is also described. Depending on beam energy, density and pulse length, these interactions can include material ablation with plasmadynamic flow and undeflected propagation across transverse magnetic fields by a polarization drift. On the basis of this review I conclude that three diagnostics: a single floating potential probe, net current probes (Faraday cups) and a Rutherford scattering spectrometer appear capable of giving prompt, time dependent ion energy measurements.

  19. MeV Argon ion beam generation with narrow energy spread

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiancai; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shun; Yu, Yong; Li, Jinfeng; Lu, Xiaoming; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Xinliang; Liang, Xiaoyan; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-01-01

    Laser driven particle acceleration has shown remarkable progresses in generating multi-GeV electron bunches and 10s of MeV ion beams based on high-power laser facilities. Intense laser pulse offers the acceleration field of 1012 Volt per meter, several orders of magnitude larger than that in conventional accelerators, enabling compact devices. Here we report that a highly-collimated argon ion beam with narrow energy spread is produced by irradiating a 45-fs fully-relativistic laser pulse onto an argon cluster target. The highly-charged (Argon ion with charge state of 16+) heavy ion beam has a minimum absolute energy spread of 0.19 MeV per nucleon at the energy peak of 0.39 MeV per nucleon. we identify a novel scheme from particle-in-cell simulations that greatly reduces the beam energy spread. The laser-driven intense plasma wakefield has a strong modulation on the ion beam in a way that the low energy part is cut off. The pre-accelerated argon ion beam from Coulomb explosion thus becomes more mono-energetic ...

  20. Wien filter for cooled low-energy radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nummela, S. E-mail: saara.nummela@phys.jyu.fi; Dendooven, P.; Heikkinen, P.; Huikari, J.; Nieminen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rubchenya, V.; Aeystoe, J

    2002-04-01

    A Wien filter for cooled radioactive ion beams has been designed at Ion Guide Isotope Separator On Line technique (IGISOL). The purpose of such device is to eliminate doubly charged ions from the mass separated singly charged ions, based on q=+2{yields}q=+1 charge exchange process in an ion cooler. The performance of the Wien filter has been tested off-line with a discharge ion source as well as on-line with a radioactive beam. The electron capture process of cooled q=+2 ions has been investigated in a radiofrequency quadrupole ion cooler with varying partial pressures of nitrogen. Also, the superasymmetric fission production yields of 68

  1. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    atmospheric conditions using a 580 MeV electron beam to ionize the volume of the reaction chamber. We find a clear and significant contribution from ion induced nucleation and consider this to be an unambiguous observation of the ion-effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions not far......The effect of ions in aerosol nucleation is a subject where much remains to be discovered. That ions can enhance nucleation has been shown by theory, observations, and experiments. However, the exact mechanism still remains to be determined. One question is if the nature of the ionization affects...... the nucleation. This is an essential question since many experiments have been performed using radioactive sources that ionize differently than the cosmic rays which are responsible for the majority of atmospheric ionization. Here we report on an experimental study of sulphuric acid aerosol nucleation under near...

  2. Emittance Scanner Optimization for Low Energy Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, Martin P

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam emittances are normally measured as two-dimensional distributions of the beam current fraction within a window dx centered at position coordinate x and a window dx' centered at trajectory angle x'. Unthresholded rms emittances evaluated from experimental data are very sensitive to noise, bias, and other undesired signals. Undesired signals occur when particles from outside the measured window dx*dx' contribute to the signal from the particles within the measured window. Increasing the window size increases the desired signal while most undesired contributions remain unchanged. However, the decreasing resolution causes an error in the emittance results, especially in the rms emittance. Using theoretical distributions we will present the tradeoff between resolution and accuracy.

  3. Pseudo Slice Energy Spread in Dynamics of Electron Beams Moving through Magnetic Bends

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rui

    2014-01-01

    In the previous canonical formulation of beam dynamics for an electron bunch moving ultrarelativistically through magnetic bending systems, we have shown that the transverse dynamics equation for a particle in the bunch has a driving term which behaves as the centrifugal force caused by the particle's initial potential energy due to collective particle interactions within the bunch. As a result, the initial potential energy at the entrance of a bending system, which we call pseudo (kinetic) energy, is indistinguishable from the usual kinetic energy offset from the design energy in its perturbation to particle optics through dispersion and momentum compaction. In this paper, in identifying this centrifugal force on particles as the remnant of the CSR cancellation effect in transverse particle dynamics, we show how the dynamics equation in terms of the canonical momentum for beam motion on a curved orbit is related to the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem for wakefields for beam motion on a straight path. It is shown tha...

  4. Beam-dynamics driven design of the LHeC energy-recovery linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Dario; Latina, Andrea; Schulte, Daniel; Bogacz, S. Alex

    2015-12-01

    The LHeC is envisioned as a natural upgrade of the LHC that aims at delivering an electron beam for collisions with the existing hadronic beams. The current baseline design for the electron facility consists of a multipass superconducting energy-recovery linac (ERL) operating in a continuous wave mode. The unprecedently high energy of the multipass ERL combined with a stringent emittance dilution budget poses new challenges for the beam optics. Here, we investigate the performances of a novel arc architecture based on a flexible momentum compaction lattice that mitigates the effects of synchrotron radiation while containing the bunch lengthening. Extensive beam-dynamics investigations have been performed with placet2, a recently developed tracking code for recirculating machines. They include the first end-to-end tracking and a simulation of the machine operation with a continuous beam. This paper briefly describes the Conceptual Design Report lattice, with an emphasis on possible and proposed improvements that emerged from the beam-dynamics studies. The detector bypass section has been integrated in the lattice, and its design choices are presented here. The stable operation of the ERL with a current up to ˜150 mA in the linacs has been validated in the presence of single- and multibunch wakefields, synchrotron radiation, and beam-beam effects.

  5. A Monte Carlo study for the calculation of the average linear energy transfer (LET) distributions for a clinical proton beam line and a radiobiological carbon ion beam line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F.; Mazzaglia, S. E.; Petrovic, I.; Ristic Fira, A.; Varisano, A.

    2014-06-01

    Fluence, depth absorbed dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distributions of proton and carbon ion beams have been investigated using the Monte Carlo code Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking). An open source application was developed with the aim to simulate two typical transport beam lines, one used for ocular therapy and cell irradiations with protons and the other for cell irradiations with carbon ions. This tool allows evaluation of the primary and total dose averaged LET and predict their spatial distribution in voxelized or sliced geometries. In order to reproduce the LET distributions in a realistic way, and also the secondary particles’ contributions due to nuclear interactions were considered in the computations. Pristine and spread-out Bragg peaks were taken into account both for proton and carbon ion beams, with the maximum energy of 62 MeV/n. Depth dose distributions were compared with experimental data, showing good agreement. Primary and total LET distributions were analysed in order to study the influence of contributions of secondary particles in regions at different depths. A non-negligible influence of high-LET components was found in the entrance channel for proton beams, determining the total dose averaged LET by the factor 3 higher than the primary one. A completely different situation was obtained for carbon ions. In this case, secondary particles mainly contributed in the tail that is after the peak. The results showed how the weight of light and heavy secondary ions can considerably influence the computation of LET depth distributions. This has an important role in the interpretation of results coming from radiobiological experiments and, therefore, in hadron treatment planning procedures.

  6. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 4. The Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, K.E.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled in this chapter into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline are provided for in the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state. Assessments for individual states are presented. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters.

  7. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  8. Analytical model of ionization and energy deposition by proton beams in subcellular compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, Pablo; Surdutovich, Eugene; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2014-04-01

    We present an analytical model to evaluate in a fast, simple and effective manner the energy delivered by proton beams moving through a cell model made of nucleus and cytoplasm, taking into account the energy carried by the secondary electrons generated along the proton tracks. The electronic excitation spectra of these subcellular compartments have been modelled by means of an empirical parameterization of their dielectric properties. The energy loss rate and target ionization probability induced by swift protons are evaluated by means of the dielectric formalism. With the present model we have quantified the energy delivered, the specific energy, and the number of ionizations produced per incoming ion in a typical human cell by a typical hadrontherapy proton beam having energies usually reached around the Bragg peak (below 20 MeV). We find that the specific energy per incoming ion delivered in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm are rather similar for all the proton energy range analyzed.

  9. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  10. Space charge compensation on the low energy beam transport of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)733270; Scrivens, Richard; Jesus Castillo, Santos

    Part of the upgrade program in the injector chains of the CERN accelerator complex is the replacement of the the proton accelerator Linac2 for the brand new Linac4 which will accelerate H$^-$ and its main goal is to increase the beam intensity in the next sections of the LHC accelerator chain. The Linac4 is now under commissioning and will use several ion sources to produce high intensity unbunched H$^-$ beams with different properties, and the low energy beam transport (LEBT) is the system in charge of match all these different beams to the Radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). The space charge forces that spread the beam ions apart of each other and cause emittance growth limits the maximum intensity that can be transported in the LEBT, but the space charge of intense unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the generated ions by the impact ionization of the residual gas, which creates a source of secondary particles inside the beam pipe. For negative ion beams, the effect of the beam electric field is to ex...

  11. Emittance and Energy Diagnostics for Electron Beams with Large Momentum Spread

    CERN Document Server

    Olvegård, Maja; Thibaut, Lefevre; Enrico, Bravin

    Olvegård, M. 2013. Emittance and Energy Diagnostics for Electron Beams with Large Momentum Spread. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 1036. 75 pp. Uppsala. ISBN 978-91-554-8646-4. Following the discovery of the Higgs-like boson at the Large Hadron Collider, there is demand for precision measurements on recent findings. The Compact Linear Collider, CLIC, is a candidate for a future linear electron-positron collider for such precision measurements. In CLIC, the beams will be brought to collisions in the multi-TeV regime through high gradient acceleration with high frequency RF power. A high intensity electron beam, the so-called drive beam, will serve as the power source for the main beam, as the drive beam is decelerated in special structures, from which power is extracted and transfered to the main beam. When the drive beam is decelerated the beam quality deteriorates and the momentum spread increases, which make...

  12. High and low energy gamma beam dump designs for the gamma beam delivery system at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Zafar; Matei, Catalin; Ur, Calin A.; Mitu, Iani-Octavian; Udup, Emil; Petcu, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is under construction in Magurele, Bucharest, Romania. The facility will use two 10 PW lasers and a high intensity, narrow bandwidth gamma beam for stand-alone and combined laser-gamma experiments. The accurate estimation of particle doses and their restriction within the limits for both personel and general public is very important in the design phase of any nuclear facility. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations are performed using FLUKA and MCNPX to design 19.4 and 4 MeV gamma beam dumps along with shielding of experimental areas. Dose rate contour plots from both FLUKA and MCNPX along with numerical values of doses in experimental area E8 of the facility are performed. The calculated doses are within the permissible limits. Furthermore, a reasonable agreement between both codes enhances our confidence in using one or both of them for future calculations in beam dump designs, radiation shielding, radioactive inventory, and other calculations releated to radiation protection. Residual dose rates and residual activity calculations are also performed for high-energy beam dump and their effect is negligible in comparison to contributions from prompt radiation.

  13. A particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of medium energy beam transport for the SSC-Linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Chen; XU Meng-Xin; HE Shou-Bo; XIA Jia-Wen; HE Yuan; YUAN You-Jin; LU Yuan-Rong; LIU Yong; WANG Zhi-Jun; DU Xiao-Nan; YAO Qing-Gao; LIU Ge

    2012-01-01

    A new linear accelerator system,called the SSC-Linac injector,is being designed at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou).As part of the SSC-Linac,the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) consists of seven magnetic quadrupoles,a re-buncher and a diagnose box.The total length of this segment is about 1.75 m.The beam dynamics simulation in MEBT has been studied using the TRACK 3D particlein-cell code,and the simulation result shows that the beam accelerated from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) matches well with the acceptance of the following drift tube linac (DTL) in both the transverse and longitudinal phase spaces,and that most of the particles can be captured by the final sector focusing cyclotronfor further acceleration.The longitudinal emittance of the RFQ and the longitudinal acceptance of the DTL was calculated in detail,and a multi-particle beam dynamics simulation from the ion source to the end of the DTL was done to verify the original design.

  14. A particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of medium energy beam transport for the SSC-Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chen; He, Yuan; Yuan, You-Jin; Lu, Yuan-Rong; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Du, Xiao-Nan; Yao, Qing-Gao; Liu, Ge; Xu, Meng-Xin; He, Shou-Bo; Xia, Jia-Wen

    2012-01-01

    A new linear accelerator system, called the SSC-Linac injector, is being designed at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of the SSC-Linac, the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) consists of seven magnetic quadrupoles, a re-buncher and a diagnose box. The total length of this segment is about 1.75 m. The beam dynamics simulation in MEBT has been studied using the TRACK 3D particle-in-cell code, and the simulation result shows that the beam accelerated from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) matches well with the acceptance of the following drift tube linac (DTL) in both the transverse and longitudinal phase spaces, and that most of the particles can be captured by the final sector focusing cyclotron for further acceleration. The longitudinal emittance of the RFQ and the longitudinal acceptance of the DTL was calculated in detail, and a multi-particle beam dynamics simulation from the ion source to the end of the DTL was done to verify the original design.

  15. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  16. Geothermal Energy in the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    verted to electricity at the present time at eight sites, briefly descr: in the Pacific region: The Geysers, California; Cerro Prieto , Mexico...New Zealand, the Geysers in California, Lardarello, in Ttaly, and Cerro Prieto , in Mexico, very high temperatures have been hrought close to the...Mexico es The Mexicali-Imperial valley geothermal province extends into north- ern Mexico in the vicinity of Mexicali, and here, at Cerro Prieto , the

  17. Electron-Excited X-Ray Microanalysis at Low Beam Energy: Almost Always an Adventure!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2016-08-01

    Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry has been applied to the analysis of various materials at low-incident beam energies, E 0≤5 keV, using peak fitting and following the measured standards/matrix corrections protocol embedded in the National Institute of Standards and Technology Desktop Spectrum Analyzer-II analytical software engine. Low beam energy analysis provides improved spatial resolution laterally and in-depth. The lower beam energy restricts the atomic shells that can be ionized, reducing the number of X-ray peak families available to the analyst. At E 0=5 keV, all elements of the periodic table except H and He can be measured. As the beam energy is reduced below 5 keV, elements become inaccessible due to lack of excitation of useful characteristic X-ray peaks. The shallow sampling depth of low beam energy microanalysis makes the technique more sensitive to surface compositional modification due to formation of oxides and other reaction layers. Accurate and precise analysis is possible with the use of appropriate standards and by accumulating high count spectra of unknowns and standards (>1 million counts integrated from 0.1 keV to E 0).

  18. Damage evaluation in metal structures subjected to high energy deposition due to particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Peroni, L; Dallocchio, A

    2011-01-01

    The unprecedented energy intensities of modern hadron accelerators yield special problems with the materials that are placed close to or into the high intensity beams. The energy stored in a single beam of LHC particle accelerator is equivalent to about 80 kg of TNT explosive, stored in a transverse beam area with a typical value of 0.2 mm×0.2 mm. The materials placed close to the beam are used at, or even beyond, their damage limits. However, it is very difficult to predict structural efficiency and robustness accurately: beam-induced damage for high energy and high intensity occurs in a regime where practical experience does not exist. The interaction between high energy particle beams and metals induces a sudden non uniform temperature increase. This provokes a dynamic response of the structure entailing thermal stress waves and thermally induced vibrations or even the failure of the component. This study is performed in order to estimate the damage on a copper component due to the impact with a 7 TeV pro...

  19. Regional Differences in China's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Dan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the maximum energy efficiency level and the energy saving potentials in each region in China that can be practically attained at current economic and technological development levels. Most of the nation's energy efficient provinces are found along the coast of southeast China, while most of its least energy efficient provinces are in the hinterland that is rich in coal resources, and which depends heavily on coal consumption. China's low efficiency in energy resource allocation stems from its secondary industry, which is handicapped by the lowest energy efficiency and the most striking regional differentials. 4comparison of the factors affecting the energy efficiency shows that the provinces being compared in this study differ tremendously in energy consumption structure, technological level of the secondary industry, and abundance of energy resources, and that the other factors are only adequate, rather than necessary, conditions. It is imperative to rectify the behaviors of provinces in balancing local energy allocation, to channel energy resources to energy efficient provinces, and to improve the national energy efficiency as a whole. When taking energy-saving steps, provinces must take into full consideration both the national and local factors that affect energy efficiency. Furthermore, it is unrealistic for China to set a unified energy saving goal for different provinces.

  20. Fiscal 1998 research report. Application technology of next-generation high-density energy beams; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Jisedai komitsudo energy beam riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Survey was made on application technologies of next- generation high-density energy beams. For real application of laser power, application to not exciting source of YAG crystal but machining directly is highly efficient. For generation of semiconductor laser high-power coherent beam, phase synchronization and summing are large technological walls. Short pulse, high intensity and high repeatability are also important. Since ultra-short pulse laser ends before heat transfer to the periphery, it is suitable for precise machining, in particular, ultra-fine machining. To use beam sources as tool for production process, development of transmission, focusing and control technologies, and optical fiber and device is indispensable. Applicable fields are as follows: machining (more than pico seconds), surface modification (modification and functionalization of tribo- materials and biocompatible materials), complex machining, fabrication of quantum functional structured materials (thin film, ultra-fine particle), agriculture, ultra-precise measurement, non-destructive measurement, and coherent chemistry in chemical and environment fields. (NEDO)

  1. Exploring the Spatial Resolution of the Photothermal Beam Deflection Technique in the Infrared Region

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    In photothermal beam deflection spectroscopy (PTBD) generating and detection of thermal waves occur generally in the sub-millimeter length scale. Therefore, PTBD provides spatial information about the surface of the sample and permits imaging and/or microspectrometry. Recent results of PTBD experiments are presented with a high spatial resolution which is near the diffraction limit of the infrared pump beam (CLIO-FEL). We investigated germanium substrates showing restricted O+-doped regions with an infrared absorption line at a wavelength around 11.6 microns. The spatial resolution was obtained by strongly focusing the probe beam (i.e. a HeNe laser) on a sufficiently small spot. The strong divergence makes it necessary to refocus the probe beam in front of the position detector. The influence of the focusing elements on spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio is discussed. In future studies we expect an enhanced spatial resolution due to an extreme focusing of the probe beam leading to a highly sensitive...

  2. Design of the low energy beam transport line for the China spallation neutron source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-Hai; OUYANG Hua-Fu; FU Shi-Nian; ZHANG Sua-Shun; HE Wei

    2008-01-01

    The design of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line, which locates between the ion source and the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been completed with the TRACE3D code. The design aims at perfect matching, primary chopping, a small emittance growth and sufficient space for beam diagnostics. The line consists of three solenoids, three vacuum chambers, two steering magnets and a pre-chopper. The total length of LEBT is about 1.74 m. This LEBT is designed to transfer 20 mA of H-pulsed beam from the ion source to the RFQ. An induction cavity is adopted as the pre-chopper.The electrostatic octupole steerer is discussed as a candidate. A four-quadrant aperture for beam scraping and beam position monitoring is designed.

  3. Design of low energy beam transport for new LANSCE H+ injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batygin, Y. K.; Draganic, I. N.; Fortgang, C. M.; Garnett, R. W.; Kurennoy, S. S.; McCrady, R. C.; O'Hara, J. F.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    2014-07-01

    The present LANSCE injector utilizes two 750-keV Cockcroft-Walton (CW) based injectors for simultaneous injection of H+ and H- beams into 800-MeV accelerator. To reduce long-term operational risks, the new project to replace the existing H+ CW injector with a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is underway [1]. The new injector requires a Low-Energy Beam Transport (LEBT). An ion source and 2-solenoid magnetic LEBT have been designed and optimized to transport beams over a wide range of space-charge neutralization and transverse emittance, while allowing sufficient space for diagnostics and a beam deflector. The design layout minimizes the beam size in the LEBT and potential emittance growth due to solenoid aberrations and nonlinear space-charge forces. This paper describes the details of the LEBT design activity.

  4. Design of low energy beam transport for new LANSCE H{sup +} injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batygin, Y.K., E-mail: batygin@lanl.gov; Draganic, I.N.; Fortgang, C.M.; Garnett, R.W.; Kurennoy, S.S.; McCrady, R.C.; O’Hara, J.F.; Rybarcyk, L.J.

    2014-07-01

    The present LANSCE injector utilizes two 750-keV Cockcroft–Walton (CW) based injectors for simultaneous injection of H{sup +} and H{sup −} beams into 800-MeV accelerator. To reduce long-term operational risks, the new project to replace the existing H{sup +} CW injector with a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is underway [1]. The new injector requires a Low-Energy Beam Transport (LEBT). An ion source and 2-solenoid magnetic LEBT have been designed and optimized to transport beams over a wide range of space-charge neutralization and transverse emittance, while allowing sufficient space for diagnostics and a beam deflector. The design layout minimizes the beam size in the LEBT and potential emittance growth due to solenoid aberrations and nonlinear space-charge forces. This paper describes the details of the LEBT design activity.

  5. The Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostic Challenges for LHC Operation at high Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, OR

    2014-01-01

    This contribution will present the role of beam diagnostics in facing the challenges posed by running the LHC close to its design energy of 7TeV. Machine protection will be ever more critical, with the quench level of the magnets significantly reduced, so relying heavily on the beam loss system, abort gap monitor, interlocks on the beam position and fast beam current change system. Non-invasive profile monitoring also becomes more of a challenge, with standard synchrotron light imaging limited by diffraction and rest gas ionization monitoring dominated by space charge effects. There is also a requirement to better understand beam instabilities, of which several were observed during Run I, leading to the need for synchronised bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn information from many distributed instrumentation systems. All of these challenges will be discussed along with the strategies adopted to overcome them.

  6. Separated high-energy electron beams using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, F J M; Picasso, Emilio

    1972-01-01

    Electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 GeV range may be separated from other particles by using their energy-loss due to synchrotron radiation in a high-field magnet. In this paper the associated fluctuations in energy and angle are shown to be small enough for the method to be useful. Detailed design formulae are presented for several magnet configurations. (7 refs).

  7. BROADBAND CONCEPT OF ENERGY HARVESTING IN BEAM VIBRATING SYSTEMS FOR POWERING SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Rysak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent demand for powering small sensors for wireless health monitoring triggered activities in the field of small size efficient energy harvesting devices. We examine energy harvesting in an aluminium beam with a piezoceramic patch subjected to kinematic harmonic excitation and impacts. Due to a mechanical stopper applied, inducing a hardening effect in the spring characteristic of the beam resonator, we observed a broader frequency range for the fairly large power output. Impact nonlinearities caused sensitivity to initial conditions and appearance of multiple solutions. The occurrence of resonant solution associated with impacts increased efficiency of the energy harvesting process.

  8. Comparing Ray-Based and Wave-Based Models of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, R. K.; Edgell, D. H.; Shaw, J. G.; Froula, D. H.; Myatt, J. F.

    2016-10-01

    Ray-based models of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) are used in radiation-hydrodynamics codes to calculate laser-energy deposition. The accuracy of ray-based CBET models is limited by assumptions about the polarization and phase of the interacting laser beams and by the use of a paraxial Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. A 3-D wave-based solver (LPSE-CBET) is used to study the nonlinear interaction between overlapping laser beams in underdense plasma. A ray-based CBET model is compared to the wave-based model and shows good agreement in simple geometries where the assumptions of the ray-based model are satisfied. Near caustic surfaces, the assumptions of the ray-based model break down and the calculated energy transfer deviates from wave-based calculations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  9. Beam energy dependence of Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii from a blast-wave model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S; Chen, J H; Zhong, C

    2016-01-01

    Beam energy dependence of correlation lengths (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii) is calculated by using a blast-wave model and the results are comparable with those from RHIC-STAR beam energy scan data as well as the LHC-ALICE measurements. The parameters for the blast-wave model as a function of beam energy are configured by fitting Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii at each energy point. Transverse momentum dependence of Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii are presented with the extracted parameters for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = $ 200 GeV and 2.76 TeV. From the results it can be found that particle emission duration can not be ignored while calculating Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii with the same parameters. And tuning kinetic freeze-out temperature in a range will result in system lifetime changing in reverse direction as that in RHIC-STAR measurements.

  10. Energy-spread measurement of triple-pulse electron beams based on the magnetic dispersion principle

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Huang; Ding, Hengsong; Yang, Anmin; Wang, Minhong

    2016-01-01

    The energy-spread of the triple-pulse electron beam generated by the Dragon-II linear induction accelerator is measured using the method of energy dispersion in the magnetic field. A sector magnet is applied for energy analyzing of the electron beam, which has a bending radius of 300 mm and a deflection angle of 90 degrees. For each pulse, both the time-resolved and the integral images of the electron position at the output port of the bending beam line are recorded by a streak camera and a CCD camera, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate an energy-spread of less than +-2.0% for the electron pulses. The cavity voltage waveforms obtained by different detectors are also analyzed for comparison.

  11. A Space Charge Compensation Study of Low Energy Hydrogen Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Ismail, A; Uriot, D; Pichoff, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    High-power accelerators are being studied for several projects including accelerator driven neutron or neutrino sources. The low energy part of these facilities has to be carefully optimized to match the beam requirements of the higher energy parts. The complexity of high intensity beam dynamics in the low energy line is essentially due to the non-linear space charge effects. The PIC code CARTAGO* has been developed in order to simulate the beam transport at low energy including the temporal evolution effects of the space charge compensation. This paper relates the structure and the numerical methods of a 2D (r,z) new version of the code. The effects of the longitudinal space charge, the image charge and external 2D (r,z) magnetic field were included. The results of H+

  12. Beam Position Monitor and Energy Analysis at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David Juarez [Univ. of Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility has produced its first beam with an energy of 20 MeV. This energy is obtained by the acceleration at the Electron Gun and the Capture Cavity 2 (CC2). When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one International Liner Collider (ILC)-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We calculated the total energy of the beam and the corresponding energy to the Electron Gun and CC2. Subsequently, a Beam Position Monitors (BPM) error analysis was done, to calculate the device actual resolution.

  13. Low-energy electron beams through ultra-thin foils, applications for electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aken, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis has discussed two electron microscopy applications that make use of ultra-thin foils: the tunnel junction emitter and the low-energy foil corrector. Both applications have in common that the electron beam is sent through the thin foil at low energy. Part of the electrons will scatter in

  14. Developing a regional energy plan for two counties in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    facilities begin to develop. In this paper, a regional energy plan is begun for two counties located on the west coast of Ireland to identify how they can reduce their overall CO2 emission by 20% by the year 2020. The two counties in question are called Limerick and Clare, which have a combined population......Developing a sustainable energy supply will most likely require a transition from large-scale centralised plants to decentralised distributed generation. Consequently, local planning authorities will play a more important role in energy planning in the coming years, as more decentralised energy...... of approximately 296,000 people over an area of approximately 6,200 km. Two primary objectives were set to create the energy plan. Firstly, an energy balance is developed here for the region based on the year 2020 using the existing consumption of energy and national energy projections. The results indicate...

  15. Experimental study of ultrasonic beam sectors for energy conversion into Lamb waves and Rayleigh waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Nico Felicien

    2014-02-01

    When a bounded beam is incident on an immersed plate Lamb waves or Rayleigh waves can be generated. Because the amplitude of a bounded beam is not constant along its wave front, a specific beam profile is formed that influences the local efficiency of energy conversion of incident sound into Lamb waves or Rayleigh waves. Understanding this phenomenon is important for ultrasonic immersion experiments of objects because the quality of such experiments highly depends on the amount of energy transmitted into the object. This paper shows by means of experiments based on monochromatic Schlieren photography that the area within the bounded beam responsible for Lamb wave generation differs from that responsible for Rayleigh wave generation. Furthermore it provides experimental verification of an earlier numerical study concerning Rayleigh wave generation.

  16. Note: High-efficiency energy harvester using double-clamped piezoelectric beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yingmei; Wu, Xuan; Parmar, Mitesh; Lee, Dong-weon, E-mail: mems@jnu.ac.kr [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, an improvement in energy conversion efficiency has been reported, which is realized by using a double-clamped piezoelectric beam, based on uniaxial stretching strain. The buckling mechanism is applied to maximize axial stress in the double-clamped beam. The voltage generated by using the double-clamped piezoelectric beam is higher than that generated by using other conventional structures, such as bending cantilevers coated/sandwiched with piezoelectric film, which is proven both theoretically and experimentally. The power generation efficiency is enhanced by further optimizing the double-clamped structure. The optimized high-efficiency energy harvester utilizing double-clamped piezoelectric beams generates a peak output power of 80 μW, under an acceleration of 0.1g.

  17. Note: high-efficiency energy harvester using double-clamped piezoelectric beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingmei; Wu, Xuan; Parmar, Mitesh; Lee, Dong-weon

    2014-02-01

    In this study, an improvement in energy conversion efficiency has been reported, which is realized by using a double-clamped piezoelectric beam, based on uniaxial stretching strain. The buckling mechanism is applied to maximize axial stress in the double-clamped beam. The voltage generated by using the double-clamped piezoelectric beam is higher than that generated by using other conventional structures, such as bending cantilevers coated/sandwiched with piezoelectric film, which is proven both theoretically and experimentally. The power generation efficiency is enhanced by further optimizing the double-clamped structure. The optimized high-efficiency energy harvester utilizing double-clamped piezoelectric beams generates a peak output power of 80 μW, under an acceleration of 0.1g.

  18. The edge transient-current technique (E-TCT) with high energy hadron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorišek, Andrej; Cindro, Vladimir; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandić, Igor [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuž, Marko [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Muškinja, Miha; Zavrtanik, Marko [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-09-21

    We propose a novel way to investigate the properties of silicon and CVD diamond detectors for High Energy Physics experiments complementary to the already well-established E-TCT technique using laser beam. In the proposed setup the beam of high energy hadrons (MIPs) is used instead of laser beam. MIPs incident on the detector in the direction parallel to the readout electrode plane and perpendicular to the edge of the detector. Such experiment could prove very useful to study CVD diamond detectors that are almost inaccessible for the E-TCT measurements with laser due to large band-gap as well as to verify and complement the E-TCT measurements of silicon. The method proposed is being tested at CERN in a beam of 120 GeV hadrons using a reference telescope with track resolution at the DUT of few μm. The preliminary results of the measurements are presented.

  19. The edge transient-current technique (E-TCT) with high energy hadron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorišek, Andrej; Cindro, Vladimir; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandić, Igor; Mikuž, Marko; Muškinja, Miha; Zavrtanik, Marko

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel way to investigate the properties of silicon and CVD diamond detectors for High Energy Physics experiments complementary to the already well-established E-TCT technique using laser beam. In the proposed setup the beam of high energy hadrons (MIPs) is used instead of laser beam. MIPs incident on the detector in the direction parallel to the readout electrode plane and perpendicular to the edge of the detector. Such experiment could prove very useful to study CVD diamond detectors that are almost inaccessible for the E-TCT measurements with laser due to large band-gap as well as to verify and complement the E-TCT measurements of silicon. The method proposed is being tested at CERN in a beam of 120 GeV hadrons using a reference telescope with track resolution at the DUT of few μm. The preliminary results of the measurements are presented.

  20. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-12-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions (one of them recurrent) inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with other available differently defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in Active Regions NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. The quantity 1/4π{B}n\\cdot{B}p is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear to the difference between the potential (Bp) and the non-potential magnetic field (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density shows clear changes before the powerful solar flares in Active Region NOAA 11158, which is consistent with the change in magnetic fields in the flaring lower atmosphere.

  1. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-01-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with the possible different defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in active region NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. It is noticed that the quantity 1/4pi Bn.Bp is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear on the difference between the potential magnetic field (Bp) and non-potential one (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density changes obviously before the powerful solar flares in the active region NOAA 11158, it is consistent with the change of magnetic fields in the lower atmosphere with flares.

  2. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  3. A comparison of phantom scatter from flattened and flattening filter free high-energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Neil, E-mail: neil.richmond@stees.nhs.uk [Department of Medical Physics, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Allen, Vince [The Northern Centre for Cancer Care, The Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Daniel, Jim [Department of Medical Physics, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Dacey, Rob [The Northern Centre for Cancer Care, The Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Walker, Chris [Department of Medical Physics, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams have different dosimetric properties from those of flattened beams. The aim of this work was to characterize the collimator scatter (S{sub c}) and total scatter (S{sub cp}) from 3 FFF beams of differing quality indices and use the resulting mathematical fits to generate phantom scatter (S{sub p}) data. The similarities and differences between S{sub p} of flattened and FFF beams are described. S{sub c} and S{sub cp} data were measured for 3 flattened and 3 FFF high-energy photon beams (Varian 6 and 10 MV and Elekta 6 MV). These data were fitted to logarithmic power law functions with 4 numerical coefficients. The agreement between our experimentally determined flattened beam S{sub p} and published data was within ± 1.2% for all 3 beams investigated and all field sizes from 4 × 4 to 40 × 40 cm{sup 2}. For the FFF beams, S{sub p} was only within 1% of the same flattened beam published data for field sizes between 6 × 6 and 14 × 14 cm{sup 2}. Outside this range, the differences were much greater, reaching − 3.2%, − 4.5%, and − 4.3% for the fields of 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} for the Varian 6-MV, Varian 10-MV, and Elekta 6-MV FFF beams, respectively. The FFF beam S{sub p} increased more slowly with increasing field size than that of the published and measured flattened beam of a similar reference field size quality index, i.e., there is less Phantom Scatter than that found with flattened beams for a given field size. This difference can be explained when the fluence profiles of the flattened and FFF beams are considered. The FFF beam has greatly reduced fluence off axis, especially as field size increases, compared with the flattened beam profile; hence, less scatter is generated in the phantom reaching the central axis.

  4. Medium and high energy electron beam processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki [Nissin-High Voltage Co., Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron Beam Processing System (EPS) is a useful and powerful tool for industrial irradiation process. The specification of EPS is decided by consideration to irradiate what material with how thick and wide, how much dose, how to handle, in what atmosphere. In designing an EPS, it is necessary to consider safety measure such as x-ray shielding, ozone control and interlock system. The initial costs to install typical EPS are estimated for acceleration voltages from 500 kV to 5 MV, including following items; those are electron beam machine, x-ray shielding, auxiliary equipment, material handling, survey for installation, ozone exhaust duct, cooling water system, wiring and piping. These prices are reference only because the price should be changed for each case. The price of x-ray shielding should be changed by construction cost. Auxiliary equipment includes window, cooling blower, ozone exhaust blower and SF6 gas handling equipment. In installation work at site, actual workers of 3 - 4 persons for 2 months are necessary. Material handling system is considered only rolls provided in the shielding room as reference. In addition to the initial installation, operators and workers may be required to wear a personal radiation monitor. An x-ray monitor of suitable design should be installed outside the shield room to monitor x-ray level in the working area. (Y. Tanaka)

  5. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The village of Elim, Alaska is 96 miles west of Nome, on the Seward Peninsula. The Darby Mountains north of the village are rich with hydrothermal systems associated with the Darby granitic pluton(s). In addition to the hot springs that have been recorded and studied over the last 100 years, additional hot springs exist. They are known through a rich oral history of the region, though they are not labeled on geothermal maps. This research primarily focused on Kwiniuk Hot Springs, Clear Creek Hot Springs and Molly’s Hot Springs. The highest recorded surface temperatures of these resources exist at Clear Creek Hot Springs (67°C). Repeated water sampling of the resources shows that maximum temperatures at all of the systems are below boiling.

  6. Effect of the thermoplastic masks on dose distribution in the build-up region for photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Półtorak, Michał; Fujak, Edyta; Kukołowicz, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of thermoplastic masks material (Klarity Medical&Equipment Co., Guangzhou, China) with different diameters of holes (ϕ 0.25 cm and ϕ 0.40 cm) on the dose distribution in the build-up region for photon beams. Measurements were made for external radiation beams produced by the linear accelerator (TrueBeam, Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA) using the Markus parallel plane ionization chamber and the Unidos electrometer (both from PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Measurements were made in a solid water phantom for two photon energies 6 MV and 15 MV, at 90 cm source to skin distance, for four fields of 5 cm × 5 cm, 10 cm × 10 cm, 15 cm × 15 cm and 20 cm × 20 cm. Compared to the open field, the maximum dose with mask was closer to the surface of the phantom by about 1.4 mm and 1.2 mm for 6 MV and 15 MV X-Rays, respectively. The surface dose increase from 10% to 42% for 6 MV and from 5% to 28% for 15 MV X-Rays.

  7. Polarization beam combination technique for gain saturation effect compensation in high-energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junchi; Peng, Yujie; Su, Hongpeng; Leng, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    To compensate for the gain saturation effect in the high-energy laser amplifier, a modified polarization beam combination (PBC) method is introduced to reshape temporal waveform of the injected laser pulse to obtain a controlled high-energy laser pulse shape after amplification. One linearly polarized beam is divided into two orthogonal polarized beams, which spatially recombine together collinearly after propagating different optical paths with relative time delay in PBC structure. The obtained beam with polarization direction being rotated by the following half wave plate is divided and combined again to reform a new beam in another modified polarization beam structure. The reformed beam is injected into three cascaded laser amplifiers. The amplified pulse shape can be controlled by the incident pulse shape and amplifier gain, which is agreeable to the simulation by the Frank-Nodvik equations. Based on the simple method, the various temporal waveform of output pulse with tunable 7 to 20 ns pulse duration can be obtained without interferometric fringes.

  8. Experiments with low energy ion beam transport into toroidal magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N; Meusel, O; Ratzinger, U

    2016-01-01

    The stellarator-type storage ring for accumulation of multi- Ampere proton and ion beams with energies in the range of $100~AkeV$ to $1~AMeV$ is designed at Frankfurt university. The main idea for beam confinement with high transversal momentum acceptance was presented in EPAC2006. This ring is typically suited for experiments in plasma physics and nuclear astrophysics. The accumulator ring with a closed longitudinal magnetic field is foreseen with a strength up to $6-8~T$. The experiments with two room temperature 30 degree toroids are needed. The beam transport experiments in toroidal magnetic fields were first described in EPAC2008 within the framework of a proposed low energy ion storage ring. The test setup aims on developing a ring injection system with two beam lines representing the main beam line and the injection line. The primary beam line for the experiments was installed and successfully commissioned in 2009. A special diagnostics probe for \\textit{"in situ"} ion beam detection was installed.This...

  9. Design of a compact Faraday cup for low energy, low intensity ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, E. D.; Sosa, A.; Andreazza, W.; Bravin, E.; Lanaia, D.; Voulot, D.; Welsch, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Beam intensity is one of the key parameters in particle accelerators, in particular during machine commissioning, but also during operation for experiments. At low beam energies and low intensities a number of challenges arise in its measurement as commonly used non-invasive devices are no longer sensitive enough. It then becomes necessary to stop the beam in order to measure its absolute intensity. A very compact Faraday cup for determining ion beam currents from a few nanoamperes down to picoamperes for the HIE-ISOLDE post-accelerator at CERN has been designed, built and tested with beam. It has a large aperture diameter of 30 mm and a total length of only 16 mm, making it one of the most compact designs ever used. In this paper we present the different steps that were involved in the design and optimization of this device, including beam tests with two early prototypes and the final monitor. We also present an analysis of the losses caused by secondary particle emission for different repelling electrode voltages and beam energies. Finally, we show that results obtained from an analytical model for electron loss probability combined with Monte Carlo simulations of particles trajectories provide a very good agreement with experimental data.

  10. Resonant principle for operation of energy recuperator for a magnetized electron beam: A numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzhannikov, A. V.; Astrelin, V. T.; Koidan, V. S.; Sinitsky, S. L.

    2002-04-01

    The problem of energy recuperator for a high current sheet electron beam used to drive a millimeter-waves generator is considered. There are two main obstacles to solving the problem. The first one is the presence of a magnetic field guiding beam electrons. The second obstacle is significant energy and angular spreads of the electrons in the waste beam. To overcome these obstacles, we suggest a novel scheme of a recuperator. The main idea of the proposed scheme is the use of a decelerating electrical field together with a guiding magnetic field that has longitudinal and spatial periodic transverse components. Resonance of a bounce electron motion with the cyclotron motion in this field gives a strong increase in the Larmour radius of electrons with the energy in a narrow interval. The decelerated electrons with the resonance energy fall away from the beam and are absorbed by a collector at a proper potential. It is shown that efficiency of this novel scheme can reach about 80% even if the sheet beam has a broad energy spectrum.

  11. Noninvasive measurement of micron electron beam size of high energy using diffraction radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, G A

    2003-01-01

    Treatments of the usage of diffraction radiation from the relativistic electrons moving though a conductive slit for the transverse beam size measurement encounter hard limitation of the method sensitivity for the electron energy larger than 1 GeV. We consider in this article a possibility of application of the artificial phase shift, which can take place when transverse electron position varies. This allows us to realize the measurements of transverse size of supper-relativistic electron beams with the small emittance.

  12. Studies on alpha-induced astrophysical reactions using the low-energy RI beam separator CRIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several alpha-induced astrophysical reactions have been studied at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator, which is a low-energy RI beam separator at Center for Nuclear Study (CNS of the University of Tokyo. Two major methods to study them are the α resonant scattering, and direct measurements of (α,p reactions using an active or inactive helium gas target. Among the recent studies at CRIB, the measurement of 7Be+α resonant scattering is discussed.

  13. Energy regeneration model of self-consistent field of electron beams into electric power*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmin, B. N.; Ryzhov, D. R.; Trifanov, I. V.; Snezhko, A. A.; Savelyeva, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    We consider physic-mathematical models of electric processes in electron beams, conversion of beam parameters into electric power values and their transformation into users’ electric power grid (onboard spacecraft network). We perform computer simulation validating high energy efficiency of the studied processes to be applied in the electric power technology to produce the power as well as electric power plants and propulsion installation in the spacecraft.

  14. High Efficiency Energy Extraction from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Strongly Tapered Undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudar, N.; Musumeci, P.; Duris, J.; Gadjev, I.; Polyanskiy, M.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fedurin, M.; Swinson, C.; Kusche, K.; Babzien, M.; Gover, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54-cm-long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30% of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results, supported by simulations of the radiation field evolution, demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  15. High efficiency energy extraction from a relativistic electron beam in a strongly tapered undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Sudar, Nicholas; Duris, Joe; Gadjev, Ivan; Polyaniy, Mikhail; Pogorelsky, Igor; Fedurin, Mikhail; Swinson, Christina; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Gover, Avi

    2016-01-01

    We present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54 cm long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30$\\%$ of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  16. Experience with high-energy electron beam therapy at the University of Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griem, M L; Kuchnir, F T; Lanzl, L H; Skaggs, L S; Sutton, H G; Tokars, R

    1979-01-01

    Current utilization of the linear accelerator as well as 5-year cumulative experience in radiotherapy is presented. Cutaneous lymphomas and mammary gland carcinomas were the prime experience region; however, cancers at other locations were treated with mixed-beam therapy; employing fast neutrons and photon beams. The technique appears promising for abdominal tumors and deep-seated malignancies. Carcinoma of the pancreas responds favorably to this technique. (PCS)

  17. Energy autarky: A conceptual framework for sustainable regional development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Matthias Otto, E-mail: matthias.mueller@ikaoe.unibe.ch [Interdisciplinary Centre for General Ecology (IKAO), University of Bern, Schanzeneckstr. 1, Postfach 8573, 3001 Bern (Switzerland); Dynamics of Innovative Systems (DIS), Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Staempfli, Adrian; Dold, Ursula [Oekozentrum Langenbruck, Schwengiweg 12, 4438 Langenbruck (Switzerland); Hammer, Thomas [Interdisciplinary Centre for General Ecology (IKAO), University of Bern, Schanzeneckstr. 1, Postfach 8573, 3001 Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Energy autarky is presented as a conceptual framework for implementing sustainable regional development based on the transformation of the energy subsystem. It is conceptualized as a situation in which the energy services used for sustaining local consumption, local production and the export of goods and services are derived from locally renewable energy resources. Technically, the implementation of higher degrees of energy autarky rests on increasing energy efficiency, realizing the potential of renewable energy resources and relying on a decentralized energy system. Practically, a transition towards regional energy autarky requires administrations and civil society actors to initialize and develop projects at the local level, ensure their acceptance and support by the regional population and implement the project in collaboration with relevant actors. Besides the description of the concept and the benefits its implementation brings, this article provides a process for implementation, and some examples from Austria, Germany and Switzerland. - Highlights: > We introduce energy autarky as a conceptual framework for sustainable development. > Transforming the energy subsystem creates various benefits for communities. > Local participation should lead to social acceptance of renewables. > We review and discuss projects implementing energy autarky. > Further research needs to compare successful implementations with failures.

  18. Periodic inversion and phase transition of finite energy Airy beams in a medium with parabolic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Belić, Milivoj R; Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Weiping; Zhu, Dayu; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-04-20

    We study periodic inversion and phase transition of normal, displaced, and chirped finite energy Airy beams propagating in a parabolic potential. This propagation leads to an unusual oscillation: for half of the oscillation period the Airy beam accelerates in one transverse direction, with the main Airy beam lobe leading the train of pulses, whereas in the other half of the period it accelerates in the opposite direction, with the main lobe still leading - but now the whole beam is inverted. The inversion happens at a critical point, at which the beam profile changes from an Airy profile to a Gaussian one. Thus, there are two distinct phases in the propagation of an Airy beam in the parabolic potential - the normal Airy and the single-peak Gaussian phase. The length of the single-peak phase is determined by the size of the decay parameter: the smaller the decay, the smaller the length. A linear chirp introduces a transverse displacement of the beam at the phase transition point, but does not change the location of the point. A quadratic chirp moves the phase transition point, but does not affect the beam profile. The two-dimensional case is discussed briefly, being equivalent to a product of two one-dimensional cases.

  19. Energy distribution of secondary particles in ion beam deposition process of Ag: experiment, calculation and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundesmann, C.; Feder, R.; Lautenschlaeger, T.; Neumann, H. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Ion beam sputter deposition allows tailoring the properties of the film-forming, secondary particles (sputtered target particles and backscattered primary particles) and, hence, thin film properties by changing ion beam (ion energy, ion species) and geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle, polar emission angle). In particular, the energy distribution of secondary particles and their influence on the ion beam deposition process of Ag was studied in dependence on process parameters. Energy-selective mass spectrometry was used to measure the energy distribution of sputtered and backscattered ions. The energy distribution of the sputtered particles shows, in accordance with theory, a maximum at low energy and an E{sup -2} decay for energies above the maximum. If the sum of incidence angle and polar emission angle is larger than 90 , additional contributions due to direct sputtering events occur. The energy distribution of the backscattered primary particles can show contributions by scattering at target particles and at implanted primary particles. The occurrence of these contributions depends again strongly on the scattering geometry but also on the primary ion species. The energy of directly sputtered and backscattered particles was calculated using equations based on simple two-particle-interaction whereas the energy distribution was simulated using the well-known Monte Carlo code TRIM.SP. In principal, the calculation and simulation data agree well with the experimental findings. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Baffes, C; Leibfritz, J; Oplt, S; Rakhno, I

    2013-01-01

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type RF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a Helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. In addition, the potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  1. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  2. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  3. Limiting technologies for particle beams and high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1985-07-01

    Since 1930 the energy of accelerators had grown by an order of magnitude roughly every 7 years. Like all exponential growths, be they human population, the size of computers, or anything else, this eventually will have to come to an end. When will this happen to the growth of the energy of particle accelerators and colliders. Fortunately, as the energy of accelerators has grown the cost per unit energy has decreased almost as fast as has the increase in energy. The result is that while the energy has increased so dramatically the cost per new installation has increased only by roughly an order of magnitude since the 1930's (corrected for inflation), while the number of accelerators operating at the frontier of the field has shrunk. As is shown in the by now familiar Livingston chart this dramatic decrease in cost has been achieved largely by a succession of new technologies, in addition to the more moderate gains in efficiency due to improved design, economies of scale, etc. We are therefore facing two questions: (1) Is there good reason scientifically to maintain the exponential growth, and (2) Are there new technologies in sight which promise continued decreases in unit costs. The answer to the first question is definitely yes; the answer to the second question is maybe.

  4. Rare isotope beam energy measurements and scintillator developments for ReA3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Ying

    The ReAccelerator for 3 MeV/u beams (ReA3) at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) in Michigan State University can stop rare isotope beams produced by in-flight fragmentation and reaccelerate them in a superconducting linac. The precise knowledge of the energy and the energy spread of the ion beams extracted from the ReA3 linac is essential for experimental requirement in many applications. Beam energy determination methods such as implantation on a Si detector and/or using calibrated linac settings are precise within a few tens of keV/u. In order to determine beam energies with good resolution of less than 0.5 % FWHM, a 45 degree bending magnet with a movable slit is used to determine the absolute beam energy based on the magnetic rigidity. Two methods have been developed for the energy calibration of the beam analyzing magnet: gamma-ray nuclear resonance reactions and a time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The resonance energies of gamma-ray resonant reactions provide well-known and precise calibration points. The gamma ray yields of the 27Al(p,gamma)28Si at Ep= 992 keV and 632 keV resonances and 58Ni(p,gamma)59Cu at Ep= 1843 keV resonance have been measured with the high efficiency CAESAR (CAESium iodide ARray) and SuN (Summing NaI(Tl)) detectors. By fitting the observed resonant gamma-ray yields, not only the beam energy can be precisely correlated with the magnetic field but also beam energy spread can be obtained. The measured beam energy spread is consistent with beam optics calculations. A time-of-flight system for determining the absolute energy of ion beams and calibrating the 45 degree magnetic analyzer has been developed in ReA3 by using two identical secondary electron monitors (grid-MCP detectors) with appropriate separation. The TOF technique is applicable to the variety of beam energies and ion particles. Velocities of ion beam are determined by simultaneously measuring the arrival time of beam bunches at the two detectors with

  5. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  6. Energy and time of flight measurements of REX-ISOLDE stable beams using Si detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cantero, E D; Fraser, M A; Lanaia, D; Sosa, A; Voulot, D; Zocca, F

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present energy and time spectroscopy measurements for the stable beams of REX-ISOLDE obtained using Si detectors. By using an alpha source as a calibration reference, the absolute energy E of stable beam particles (A/q = 4) was determined in spectroscopy mode in the energy range 1 MeV < E < 8 MeV (0.30 MeV/u < E/A < 1.87 MeV/u). The time of flight of the beam particles (2.18 MeV/u < E/A < 2.27 MeV/u) was determined by installing identical Si detectors in two diagnostic boxes separated by 7.7 m. The results obtained with these two techniques are compared with the values obtained by dipole scans using a bending magnet. The measurements took place between January and February of 2013.

  7. Time-delayed beam splitting with energy separation of x-ray channels

    CERN Document Server

    Stetsko, Yuri P; Stephenson, G Brian

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a time-delayed beam splitting method based on the energy separation of x-ray photon beams. It is implemented and theoretically substantiated on an example of an x-ray optical scheme similar to that of the classical Michelson interferometer. The splitter/mixer uses Bragg-case diffraction from a thin diamond crystal. Another two diamond crystals are used as back-reflectors. For energy separation the back-reflectors are set at slightly different temperatures and angular deviations from exact backscattering. Because of energy separation and a minimal number (three) of optical elements, the split-delay line has high efficiency and is simple to operate. Due to the high transparency of diamond crystal, the split-delay line can be used in a beam sharing mode at x-ray free-electron laser facilities. The delay line can be made more compact by adding a fourth crystal.

  8. Design Features of Regional Energy Reactor, REX-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Yeon Gun; Lim, Sung Won; Park, Goon Cherl [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Hyeong Min; Jang, Byeong Il [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, today's global pattern of energy supply is not sustainable. The provision of affordable energy services is a fundamental prerequisite for economic growth and development. In addition, the environmental problems such as energy crisis, global warming and acid rain are issued and more demand for reliable electricity supply increases. As one of the realistic solutions, the extension of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy has been suggested. Small and medium nuclear reactors with non-electric applications arise as an alternative energy source. The main non-electric applications are defined as district heating, desalination (of sea, brackish and waste water), industrial heat supply, ship propulsion and the energy supply for spacecraft. RERI (Regional Energy Research Institute for the Next Generation) is to develop a small-scale electric power system by an environmentally-friendly and stable small nuclear reactor. The newly designed REX-10 (Regional Energy Reactor, 10MWth) has been developed to maintain system safety in order to be placed in a densely populated region, or island, etc. The REX-10 reactor system was designed based on SMART, however, the operation mode and the system pressure and capacity were determined properly for a regional energy reactor. In this study, the design characteristics of REX-10 and the related researches will be introduced.

  9. High-Energy Molecular Beam Source Using a Non-Diaphragm Type Small Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yuta; Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2010-11-01

    The molecular beam technique is one of the powerful tools to analyze gas-surface interactions. In order to generate high-energy molecular beam in a range of 1 - 5 eV, which corresponds to the typical activation energy of surface reactions, we are developing a beam source using a non-diaphragm type shock tube, which can operate at a repetition rate high enough for efficient data acquisition. We made the volume of a tube much smaller than that of conventional ones so that the evacuation time between each shot becomes as short as possible. Our measurement of shock Mach numbers showed that even small diameter (2 or 4 mm) tubes, in which the wall boundary layer has a large influence on the propagation of shock waves, could generate molecular beam with the translational energy of more than 1 eV. This is because the reduction of shock formation distance by rapid opening of the valve, which separates a high pressure room from a low pressure room, weakened the effect of viscous damping on the accelerating shock wave. In addition, the convergent shock tubes of which diameters linearly decrease from 4 to 2 mm exhibited higher Mach numbers than straight ones. This indicates that the application of the convergent tube with the optimized geometry would be promising for generating high-energy molecular beam.

  10. Comparison of Energy Dependence of PAGAT Polymer Gel Dosimeter with Electron and Photon Beams using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azadbakht

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate dependence of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter 1/T2 on different electron and photon energies for a standard clinically used 60Co therapy unit and an electa linear accelerator.Using MRI, the formulation to give the maximum change in the transverse relaxation rate R2(1/T2 was determined to be 4.5% N,N'-methylen-bis-acrylamide(bis, 4.5% acrylamid(AA, 5% gelatine, 5 mM tetrakis (hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC, 0.01 mM hydroquinone (HQ and 86% HPLC(Water. When the preparation of final polymer gel solution is completed, it is transferred into phantoms and allowed to set by storage in a refrigerator at about 4°C. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both determined to be 24 h. The sensitivity of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter with irradiation of photon and electron beams was represented by the slope of calibration curve in the linear region measured for each modality. The response of PAGAT gel with photon and electron beams is very similar in the lower dose region. The R2-dose response was linear up to 30 Gy and the R2-dose response of the PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter is linear between 10 to 30 Gy. In electron beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 3 Gy is not exact, but in photon beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 2Gy is not exact. Dosimeter energy dependence was studied for electron energies of 4, 12 and 18MeV and photon energies of 1.25, 4, 6 and 18 MV. Evaluation of dosimeters were performed on Siemens Symphony, Germany 1.5T Scanner in the head coil. In this study no trend in polymer-gel dosimeter 1/T2 dependence was found on mean energy for electron and photon beams.

  11. Beam-Energy and Centrality Dependence of Directed Flow of Identified Particles

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings present directed flow ($v_1$) measurements in Au+Au collisions from STAR's Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, for $p$, $\\bar{p}$, $\\Lambda$, $\\bar\\Lambda$, $K^\\pm$, $K^0_S$ and $\\pi^\\pm$. At intermediate centrality, protons show a minimum in directed flow slope, $dv_1/dy\\,|_{y\\leq0.8}$, as a function of beam energy. Proton $dv_1/dy$ changes sign near 10 GeV, and the directed flow for $\\Lambda$ is consistent with the proton result. The directed flow slope for net protons shows a clear minimum at 14.5 GeV and becomes positive at beam energies below 10 GeV and above 30 GeV. New results for net-kaon directed flow slope resemble net protons from high energy down to 14.5 GeV, but remain negative at lower energies. The slope $dv_1/dy$ shows a strong centrality dependence, especially for $p$ and $\\Lambda$ at the lower beam energies. Available model calculations are in poor agreement.

  12. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  13. SU-E-T-748: Theoretical Investigation On Using High Energy Proton Beam for Total-Body-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M; Zou, J; Chen, T; Yue, N [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The broad-slow-rising entrance dose region proximal to the Bragg peak made by a mono-energetic proton beam could potentially be used for total body irradiation (TBI). Due to the quasi-uniform dose deposition, customized thickness compensation may not be required to deliver a uniform dose to patients with varied thickness. We investigated the possibility, efficacy, and hardware requirement to use such proton beam for TBI. Methods: A wedge shaped water phantom with thickness varying from 2 cm to 40 cm was designed to mimic a patient. Geant4 based Monte Carlo code was used to simulate broad mono-energetic proton beams with energy ranging from 250 MeV to 300 MeV radiating the phantom. A 6 MV photon with 1 cm water equivalent build-up used for conventional TBI was also calculated. A paired-opposing beam arrangement with no thickness compensation was used to generate TBI plans for all beam energies. Dose from all particles were scored on a grid size of 2 mm{sup 3}. Dose uniformity across the phantom was calculated to evaluate the plan. The field size limit and the dose uniformity of Mevion S250 proton system was examined by using radiochromic films placed at extended treatment distance with the open large applicator and 90° gantry angle. Results: To achieve a maximum ± 7.5% dose variation, the largest patient thickness variation allowed for 250 MeV, 275 MeV, and 300 MeV proton beams were 27.0 cm, 34.9 cm and 36.7 cm. The value for 6 MV photon beam was only 8.0 cm to achieve the same dose variation. With open gantry, Mevion S250 system allows 5 m source-to-surface distance producing an expected 70 cm{sup 2} field size. Conclusion: Energetic proton beam can potentially be used to deliver TBI. Treatment planning and delivery would be much simple since no thickness compensation is required to achieve a uniform dose distribution.

  14. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-04-28

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  15. MANAGING RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE EU10 REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCUREAN Mirela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The problems of renewable energy and regional development have gained a global dimension, as well as the concerns about the economic growth. Therefore, this study investigates the issue of managing renewable energy in the EU10 region, within the context of recovery and anticipated growth of the region. The findings of this study disclose that an important source of economic growth in the EU10 region's countries may be to start some new investments in renewable energy. In order to develop the field of renewable energy may be used EU funds, and may be envisaged different public-private partnership models, that may contribute to lower societal costs and increased deployment rates. The study was conducted by combining a wide variety of sources, such as statistics, reports and articles. The results reported in this study could be used for further research in the area of implementing green energy projects in the EU10 region. Another direction for further research could be to identify the most attractive countries for different renewable energy investment projects in the EU10 region.

  16. RESRO: A spatio-temporal model to optimise regional energy systems emphasising renewable energies

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    RESRO (Reference Energy System Regional Optimization) optimises the simultaneous fulfilment of the heat and power demand in regional energy systems. It is a mixed-integer program realised in the modelling language GAMS. The model handles information on geographically disaggregated data describing heat demand and renewable energy potentials (e.g. biomass, solar energy, ambient heat). Power demand is handled spatially aggregated in an hourly time resolution within 8 type days. The major idea is...

  17. Energy and Beam-Offset dependence of the Luminosity weighted depolarization for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, Jakob; Uggerhoj, Ulrik; Dalena, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We report on simulations of e+e- depolarization due to beam-beam effects. These effects are studied for CLIC at 3 TeV, using GUINEA PIG++. We find a strong energy dependence of the luminosity weighted depolarization. In the luminosity peak at CLIC the total luminosity weighted depolarization remains below the one per-mil level. The effect of a vertical offset on the energy dependent depolarization is investigated. The depolarization in the luminosity peak remains below per-cent level even for 5sy offsets.

  18. On the energy dependence of proton beam extraction with a bent crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, G.; Elsener, K.; Fidecaro, G.; Gyr, M.; Herr, W.; Klem, J.; Mikkelsen, U.; Weisse, E.

    1998-03-01

    Proton beam extraction from the CERN SPS by means of a bent silicon crystal is reported at three different energies, 14 GeV, 120 GeV and 270 GeV. The experimental results are compared to computer simulations which contain a sound model of the SPS accelerator as well as the channeling phenomena in bent crystals. The overall energy dependence of crystal assisted proton beam extraction is understood and provides the basis to discuss such a scheme for future accelerators. © 1998

  19. Self-similar approach to the explosion of droplets by a high energy laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitanvis, S.M.

    1987-09-25

    We have constructed a model in which a small droplet is exploded by the absorption of energy from a high energy laser beam. The beam flux is so high that we assume the formation of a plasma. We have a single-fluid model of a plasma droplet interacting with laser radiation. Selfsimilarity is invoked to reduce the spherically symmetric problem involving hydrodynamics and Maxwell's equations to quadrature. We show analytically that our model reproduces in a qualitative manner certain features observed experimentally by Eickmans et al.

  20. Implications of increased beam energy on QPS, EE, time constants, PC

    CERN Document Server

    Steckert, J

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the beam energy of LHC is coupled with an increase in current in the main dipole and quadrupole circuits. This paper will show the implications of increased beam energy on the circuit protection (CP) systems. Relevant system details and their limits will be discussed for several operational scenarios. The main focus lays on the system’s behavior during the fast power abort (FPA) which is the most challenging mode of operation. Furthermore measures to mitigate the EM-transients during FPAs are shown.

  1. Calculation of electron trajectory and energy deposition in no screening region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: m_r_kia@aut.ac.ir; Noshad, Houshyar, E-mail: hnoshad@aut.ac.ir

    2016-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) of energy for inelastic collision is obtained by solving the integro-differential form of the quantity equation with the Bhabha differential cross section for particles with spin 1/2. Hence, the total PDF in no screening region is determined by folding theory with the following two assumptions: (1) the electron loses energy by collision and radiation and (2) the electron velocity does not change with a thin absorber. Therefore, a set of coupled stochastic differential equations based on the deviation and energy loss PDFs for electron is presented to obtain the electron trajectory inside the target. The energy PDFs for an electron beam with incident energy of 15.7 MeV inside aluminum and copper are calculated. Besides, the dose distributions for an electron beam with incident energies of 20, 10.2, 6, and 0.5 MeV in water are obtained. The results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  2. Control of Beam Energy and Flux Ratio in an Ion-Beam-Background Plasma System Produced in a Double Plasma Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zian; Ma, Jinxiu; Li, Yuanrui; Sun, Yan; Jiang, Zhengqi

    2016-11-01

    Plasmas containing ion beams have various applications both in plasma technology and in fundamental research. The ion beam energy and flux are the two factors characterizing the beam properties. Previous studies have not achieved the independent adjustment of these two parameters. In this paper, an ion-beam-background-plasma system was produced with hot-cathode discharge in a double plasma device separated by two adjacent grids, with which the beam energy and flux ratio (the ratio between the beam flux and total ion flux) can be controlled independently. It is shown that the discharge voltage (i.e., voltage across the hot-cathode and anode) and the voltage drop between the two separation grids can be used to effectively control the beam energy while the flux ratio is not affected by these voltages. The flux ratio depends sensitively on hot-filaments heating current whose influence on the beam energy is relatively weak, and thus enabling approximate control of the flux ratio supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11575183, 11175177)

  3. Nuclear fragmentation of high-energy heavy-ion beams in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, D; Schall, I; Geissel, H; Irnich, H; Kraft, G; Magel, A; Mohar, M F; Munzenberg, G; Nickel, F; Scheidenberger, C; Schwab, W; Sihver, L

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the physical-technical program of the heavy-ion therapy project at GSI we have investigated the nuclear fragmentation of high-energy ion beams delivered by the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS, using water as a tissue-equivalent target. For a direct comparison of fragmentation properties, beams of 10B, 12C, 14N, and 16O were produced simultaneously as secondary beams from a primary 18O beam and separated in flight by magnetic beam analysis. The Z-distributions of beam fragments produced in the water target were measured via energy loss in a large ionisation chamber and a scintillator telescope. From these data we obtained both total and partial charge-changing cross sections. In addition we have performed Bragg measurements using two parallel-plate ionization chambers and a water target of variable length. The detailed shape of the measured Bragg curves and the measured cross sections are in good agreement with model calculations based on semi-empirical formulae.

  4. Design and analysis of a connected broadband multi-piezoelectric-bimorph- beam energy harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Afzalul, Karim

    2014-06-01

    The rapid growth of remote, wireless, and microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices over the past decades has motivated the development of a self-powered system that can replace traditional electrochemical batteries. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are ideal for capturing energy from mechanical vibrations in the ambient environment. Numerous studies have been made of this application of piezoelectric energy conversion; however, the narrow frequency operation band has limited its application to generate useful power. In this paper, a broadband energy harvester with an array/matrix of piezoelectric bimorphs connected by springs has been designed and analyzed based on the 1-D piezoelectric beam equations. The predicted result shows that the operational frequency band can be enlarged significantly by carefully adjusting the small end masses, length of the beam and spring stiffness. An optimal selection of the load impedance to realize the maximum power output is discussed. The results provide an important foundation for future broadband energy harvester design.

  5. NEW KINDS OF DIRAC ENERGY LEVELS AND THEIR CROSSING REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树政; 林理彬

    2001-01-01

    In the space-time of a non-Kerr-Newman black hole, the Dirac energy levels and their crossing regions are inves-tigated. Near the event horizon of the black hole there are crossing Dirac energy levels, which lead to the occurrence of non-thermal radiation.

  6. Regional Energy Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    The regional study has been conducted by the WEC Latin American Member Committees. Having identified that the weak link between existing national energy infrastructures remains a major stumbling block to strengthening regional economic integration, this study aims to propose alternative views -- primarily on the integration of electricity and natural gas markets.

  7. Vibration energy harvesting by a Timoshenko beam model and piezoelectric transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykov, S.; Litak, G.; Manoach, E.

    2015-11-01

    An electro-mechanical system of vibrational energy harvesting is studied. The beam is excited by external and kinematic periodic forces and damped by an electrical resistor through the coupled piezoelectric transducer. Nonlinearities are introduced by stoppers limiting the transverse displacements of the beam. The interaction between the beam and the stoppers is modeled as Winkler elastic foundation. The mechanical properties of the piezoelectric layer are taken into account and the beam is modeled as a composite structure. For the examined composite beam, the geometrically nonlinear version of the Timoshenko's beam theory is assumed. The equations of motion are derived by the principle of virtual work considering large deflections. An isogeometric approach is applied for space discretization and B-Splines are used as shape functions. Finally, the power output and the efficiency of the system due to harmonic excitations are discussed. The influence of the position of the stoppers and their length on the dynamics of the beam and consequently on the power output are analyzed and presented.

  8. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapit, Giovanni M; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S; Poral, Matthew D; Ramos, Henry J

    2012-02-01

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  9. Energy loss of intergalactic pair beams: Particle-in-Cell simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kempf, Andreas; Spanier, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The change of the distribution function of electron-positron pair beams determines whether GeV photons can be produced as secondary radiation from TeV photons. We will discuss the instabilities driven by pair beams. The system of a thermal proton-electron plasma and the electron-positron beam is collision free. We have, therefore, used the Particle-in-Cell simulation approach. It was necessary to alter the physical parameters, but the ordering of growth rates has been retained. We were able to show that plasma instabilities can be recovered in particle-in-cell simulations, but their effect on the pair distribution function is negligible for beam-background energy density ratios typically found in blazars.

  10. A variational energy approach for electromechanical analysis of thick piezoelectric beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAU C.W.H.; LIM C.W; LEUNG A.Y.T.

    2005-01-01

    A new two dimensional coupled electromechanical model for athick, laminated beam with piezoelectric and isotropic lamina subjected to static external electric loading is developed. The model combined the first order shear deformation theory for the relatively thick elastic core and linear piezoelectric theory for the piezoelectric lamina. The actuation response is induced through the application of extemal electric voltage. Rayleigh-Ritz method is adopted to model the displacement and potential fields of the beam and governing equations were finally derived from the variational energy principle. The model allows the piezoelectric lamina to be formulated via a two-dimensional model because of the strong electro-mechanical coupling and the presence of a two-dimensional electric field. Numerical examples of piezoelectric laminated beam are presented. It is shown in this paper that a one-dimensional model for the piezoelectric beam-like layer is inadequate.

  11. Low energy ion beam induced changes in structural and thermal properties of polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheem, A. M. Abdel; Atta, A.; Maksoud, M. I. A. Abdel

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study is extended for obtaining relation between the collision of ion beam with polycarbonate polymer (PC) and the introduced modification of technological applications. Polycarbonate films are irradiated by a 6 keV argon ion beam extracted from locally design cold cathode ion source with different ion fluences. The films are characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Mechanical tester, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The increase in ion beam irradiation leads to an increase in the tensile strength and reduction in elongation at break for PC. TGA Analysis shows that the thermal decomposition temperature of irradiated polycarbonate changes with ion fluence. The DSC graphs show improvements in thermal stability with increase in the activation energy after ion beam irradiation. Ion penetration depths and distributions of scattered atoms are calculated using SRIM Monte Carlo simulation programs.

  12. Simulations of the high energy beam transport section (HEBT) at FRANZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Ole; Claessens, Christine; Heilmann, Manuel; Meusel, Oliver; Noll, Daniel; Reifarth, Rene; Schmidt, Stefan; Schwarz, Malte; Sonnabend, Kerstin [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Frankfurt Neutron Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Zentrum (FRANZ) currently under construction will deliver a proton beam of up to 20 mA constant current with energies between 1.8 MeV and 2.2 MeV. This facility aims at exploring proton- and neutron-induced reactions of astrophysical interest. The high proton flux is well suited for studying nuclear reactions related to the nucleosynthesis of the p-nuclei, which might yield hints on the physics of type Ia supernovae. Furthermore, FRANZ will offer the opportunity to measure radiative neutron capture reactions for unstable branch point nuclei of the s-process. We will present the current status of the beam line up to the BaF{sub 2} calorimeter. This contribution focuses on simulations to optimise beam transport and phase space distribution with respect to an optimised beam spot size.

  13. Characterization of the high-energy neutron beam of the PRISMA beamline using a diamond detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Frost, C. D.; Minniti, T.; Schooneveld, E.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Tardocchi, M.; Rebai, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-07-01

    The high-energy neutron component (En > 10 MeV) of the neutron spectrum of PRISMA, a beam-line at the ISIS spallation source, has been characterized for the first time. Neutron measurements using a Single-crystal Diamond Detector at a short-pulse source are obtained by a combination of pulse height and time of flight analysis. An XY scan provides a 2D map of the high-energy neutron beam which has a diameter of about 40 mm. The high neutron flux, that has been found to be (3.8 ± 0.7) · 105 cm-2s-1 for En > 10 MeV in the centre, opens up for a possible application of the beam-line as a high-energy neutron irradiation position. Results are of interest for the development of the ChipIR beam-line, which will feature an atmospheric-like neutron spectrum for chip irradiation experiment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that diamond detectors can be used at spallation sources to investigate the transport of high-energy neutrons down instruments which is of interest in general to designers as high-energy neutrons are a source of background in thermal beamlines.

  14. Improved Beam Jitter Control Methods for High Energy Laser Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour...7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public...Gyro FSM Fast Steering Mirror FX-LMS Filtered-X Least Mean Squares FX-RLS Filtered-X Recursive Least Square HEL High Energy Laser JCT

  15. On the polarized beam acceleration in medium energy synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-12-31

    This lecture note reviews physics of spin motion in a synchrotron, spin depolarization mechanisms of spin resonances, and methods of overcoming the spin resonances during acceleration. Techniques used in accelerating polarized ions in the low/medium energy synchrotrons, such as the ZGS, the AGS, SATURNE, and the KEK PS and PS Booster are discussed. Problems related to polarized proton acceleration with snakes or partial snake are also examined.

  16. The wave energy flux of high frequency diffracting beams in complex geometrical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Omar; Mariani, Alberto; Poli, Emanuele; Farina, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    We consider the construction of asymptotic solutions of Maxwell's equations for a diffracting wave beam in the high frequency limit and address the description of the wave energy flux transported by the beam. With this aim, the complex eikonal method is applied. That is a generalization of the standard geometrical optics method in which the phase function is assumed to be complex valued, with the non-negative imaginary part accounting for the finite width of the beam cross section. In this framework, we propose an argument which simplifies significantly the analysis of the transport equation for the wave field amplitude and allows us to derive the wave energy flux. The theoretical analysis is illustrated numerically for the case of electron cyclotron beams in tokamak plasmas by using the GRAY code [D. Farina, Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 154 (2007)], which is based upon the complex eikonal theory. The results are compared to those of the paraxial beam tracing code TORBEAM [E. Poli et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 136, 90 (2001)], which provides an independent calculation of the energy flow.

  17. The wave energy flux of high frequency diffracting beams in complex geometrical optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, Omar; Poli, Emanuele [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mariani, Alberto [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ' P. Caldirola,' Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, via R. Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Farina, Daniela [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ' P. Caldirola,' Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, via R. Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    We consider the construction of asymptotic solutions of Maxwell's equations for a diffracting wave beam in the high frequency limit and address the description of the wave energy flux transported by the beam. With this aim, the complex eikonal method is applied. That is a generalization of the standard geometrical optics method in which the phase function is assumed to be complex valued, with the non-negative imaginary part accounting for the finite width of the beam cross section. In this framework, we propose an argument which simplifies significantly the analysis of the transport equation for the wave field amplitude and allows us to derive the wave energy flux. The theoretical analysis is illustrated numerically for the case of electron cyclotron beams in tokamak plasmas by using the GRAY code [D. Farina, Fusion Sci. Technol. 52, 154 (2007)], which is based upon the complex eikonal theory. The results are compared to those of the paraxial beam tracing code TORBEAM [E. Poli et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 136, 90 (2001)], which provides an independent calculation of the energy flow.

  18. Imperative function of electron beams in low-energy plasma focus device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Z Khan; L K Lim; S L Yap; C S Wong

    2015-12-01

    A 2.2 kJ plasma focus device was analysed as an electron beam and an X-ray source that operates with argon gas refilled at a specific pressure. Time-resolved X-ray signals were observed using an array of PIN diode detectors, and the electron beam energy was detected using a scintillator-assisted photomultiplier tube. The resultant X-rays were investigated by plasma focus discharge for pressures ranging from 1.5 mbar to 2.0 mbar. This range corresponded to the significant values of X-ray yields and electron beam energies from the argon plasma. The electron temperature of argon plasma at an optimum pressure range was achieved by an indirect method using five-channel BPX65 PIN diodes of aluminum foils with different thicknesses. X-ray yield, electron beam energy, and electron temperature of argon plasma were achieved at 1.5–2.0 mbar because of the strong bombardment of the energetic electron beam.

  19. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  20. Residential energy use to the Year 2000: a regional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Kurish, J.B.

    1977-11-01

    A previous ORNL report (ORNL/CON-13) evaluates the national energy and direct economic effects of implementing various residential energy conservation programs. This report evaluates the effects of these programs in each of the ten Federal regions. The programs considered are those proposed in the National Energy Plan: appliance efficiency targets, thermal standards for construction of new residences, and weatherization of existing housing units. Implementation of these programs might cut cumulative (1977-2000) national residential energy use by 41 QBtu. Relative energy savings are highest in Regions 7 and 8 (11 and 10% respectively, of their baselines) and smallest in Region 9 (7%). The net economic benefit to the nation's households of these three Federal programs is $21 billion. Benefits exceed costs in each region; the benefit/cost ratio ranges from a low of 1.4 in Region 10 to a high of 2.0 in Region 6. 21 tables, 8 figs, 19 refs., plus 10 p. computer printout.

  1. Compact disposal of high-energy electron beams using passive or laser-driven plasma decelerating stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto, A.; Schroeder, C. B.; Vay, J. -L.; Geddes, C. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey and, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2014-07-13

    A plasma decelerating stage is investigated as a compact alternative for the disposal of high-energy beams (beam dumps). This could benefit the design of laser-driven plasma accelerator (LPA) applications that require transportability and or high-repetition-rate operation regimes. Passive and laser-driven (active) plasma-based beam dumps are studied analytically and with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in a 1D geometry. Analytical estimates for the beam energy loss are compared to and extended by the PIC simulations, showing that with the proposed schemes a beam can be efficiently decelerated in a centimeter-scale distance.

  2. Design of a large acceptance, high efficiency energy selection system for the ELIMAIA beam-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Andó, L.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Gallo, G.; Korn, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.

    2016-08-01

    A magnetic chicane based on four electromagnetic dipoles is going to be realized by INFN-LNS to be used as an Energy Selection System (ESS) for laser driven proton beams up to 300 MeV and C6+ up to 70 MeV/u. The system will provide, as output, ion beams with a contrallable energy spread varying from 5% up to 20% according to the aperture slit size. Moreover, it has a very wide acceptance in order to ensure a very high transmission efficiency and, in principle, it has been designed to be used also as an active energy modulator. This system is the core element of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and Multidisciplinary applications) beam transport, dosimetry and irradiation line that will be developed by INFN-LNS (It) and installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (Cz). ELIMED will be the first user's open transport beam-line where a controlled laser-driven ion beam will be used for multidisciplinary research. The definition of well specified characteristics, both in terms of performance and field quality, of the magnetic chicane is crucial for the system realization, for the accurate study of the beam dynamics and for the proper matching with the Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) used as a collection system already designed. Here, the design of the magnetic chicane is described in details together with the adopted solutions in order to realize a robust system form the magnetic point of view. Moreover, the first preliminary transport simulations are also described showing the good performance of the whole beam line (PMQs+ESS).

  3. The energy balance of the solar transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown how the observed distribution of the emission measure with temperature can be used to limit the range of energy deposition functions suitable for heating the solar transition region and inner corona. The minimum energy loss solution is considered in view of the work by Hearn (1975) in order to establish further scaling laws between the transition region pressure, the maximum coronal temperature and the parameter giving the absolute value of the emission measure. Also discussed is the absence of a static energy balance at the base of the transition region in terms of measurable atmospheric parameters, and the condition for a static energy balance is given. In addition, the possible role of the emission from He II in stabilizing the atmosphere by providing enhanced radiation loss is considered.

  4. Effectiveness of high energy electron beam against spore forming bacteria and viruses in slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Olszewska, Halina; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Zimek, Zbigniew; Śrutek, Mścisław

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high energy electron beam effect against the most resistant indicators - spore forming bacteria (Clostridium sporogenes) and viruses (BPV) - which may occur in slurry. The applied doses of electron beam were 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 kGy. The theoretic inactivating dose of high energy electron beam for Clostridium sporogenes spores calculated based on the polynomial curve equation was 11.62 kGy, and determined on the basis of regression line equation for BPV virus was equal 23.49 kGy. The obtained results showed a quite good effectiveness of irradiation in bacterial spores inactivation, whereas relatively poor against viruses.

  5. Enhanced relativistic-electron-beam energy loss in warm dense aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisseau, X; Debayle, A; Honrubia, J J; Hulin, S; Morace, A; Nicolaï, Ph; Sawada, H; Vauzour, B; Batani, D; Beg, F N; Davies, J R; Fedosejevs, R; Gray, R J; Kemp, G E; Kerr, S; Li, K; Link, A; McKenna, P; McLean, H S; Mo, M; Patel, P K; Park, J; Peebles, J; Rhee, Y J; Sorokovikova, A; Tikhonchuk, V T; Volpe, L; Wei, M; Santos, J J

    2015-03-01

    Energy loss in the transport of a beam of relativistic electrons in warm dense aluminum is measured in the regime of ultrahigh electron beam current density over 2×10^{11}  A/cm^{2} (time averaged). The samples are heated by shock compression. Comparing to undriven cold solid targets, the roles of the different initial resistivity and of the transient resistivity (upon target heating during electron transport) are directly observable in the experimental data, and are reproduced by a comprehensive set of simulations describing the hydrodynamics of the shock compression and electron beam generation and transport. We measured a 19% increase in electron resistive energy loss in warm dense compared to cold solid samples of identical areal mass.

  6. Probing the energy flow in Bessel light beams using atomic photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhykov, A.; Seipt, D.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-09-01

    The growing interest in twisted light beams also requires a better understanding of their complex internal structure. Particular attention is currently being given to the energy circulation in these beams as usually described by the Poynting vector field. In the present study we propose to use the photoionization of alkali-metal atoms as a probe process to measure (and visualize) the energy flow in twisted light fields. Such measurements are possible since the angular distribution of photoelectrons, emitted from a small atomic target, appears sensitive to and is determined by the local direction of the Poynting vector. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method, detailed calculations were performed for the ionization of sodium atoms by nondiffractive Bessel beams.

  7. Time-delayed beam splitting with energy separation of x-ray channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetsko, Yuri P.; Shvyd' ko, Yuri V.; Brian Stephenson, G. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-10-21

    We introduce a time-delayed beam splitting method based on the energy separation of x-ray photon beams. It is implemented and theoretically substantiated on an example of an x-ray optical scheme similar to that of the classical Michelson interferometer. The splitter/mixer uses Bragg-case diffraction from a thin diamond crystal. Another two diamond crystals are used as back-reflectors. Because of energy separation and a minimal number (three) of optical elements, the split-delay line has high efficiency and is simple to operate. Due to the high transparency of diamond crystal, the split-delay line can be used in a beam sharing mode at x-ray free-electron laser facilities.

  8. Description of the performances of a thermo-mechanical energy harvester using bimetallic beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A.; Boughaleb, J.; Monfray, S.; Boeuf, F.; Cugat, O.; Skotnicki, T.

    2016-06-01

    Many recent researches have been focused on the development of thermal energy harvesters using thermo-mechanical or thermo-electrical coupling phenomena associated to a first-order thermodynamic transition. In the case of the bimetallic strip heat engine, the exploitation of the thermo-mechanical instability of bimetallic membranes placed in a thermal gradient enables to convert heat into kinetic energy. This paper is a contribution to the modeling and the comprehension of these heat engines. By restraining the study to the simply-supported bimetallic beams and using a Ritz approximation of the beam shape, this paper aims to give an analytical solution to the first mode of the composite beams and then to evaluate the efficiency of the harvesters exploiting these kinds of instability.

  9. Nonlinear targeted energy transfer of two coupled cantilever beams coupled to a bistable light attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, P.-O.; Ponçot, R.; Pachebat, M.; Côte, R.

    2016-07-01

    In order to control the sound radiation by a structure, one aims to control vibration of radiating modes of vibration using "Energy Pumping" also named "Targeted Energy Transfer". This principle is here applied to a simplified model of a double leaf panel. This model is made of two beams coupled by a spring. One of the beams is connected to a nonlinear absorber. This nonlinear absorber is made of a 3D-printed support on which is clamped a buckled thin small beam with a small mass fixed at its centre having two equilibrium positions. The experiments showed that, once attached onto a vibrating system to be controlled, under forced excitation of the primary system, the light bistable oscillator allows a reduction of structural vibration up to 10 dB for significant amplitude and frequency range around the first two vibration modes of the system.

  10. Acceleration of dust grains by means of the high energy ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorashadizadeh, S.M., E-mail: smkhorashadi@birjand.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzinezhad, F. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A.R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-08

    The acceleration of charged dust grains by a high energy ion beam is investigated by obtaining the dispersion relation. The Cherenkov and cyclotron acceleration mechanisms of dust grains are compared with each other. The role of dusty plasma parameters and the magnetic field strength in the acceleration process are discussed. In addition, the stimulated waves by an ion beam in a fully magnetized dust–ion plasma are studied. It is shown that these waves are unstable at different angles with respect to the external magnetic field. It is also indicated that the growth rates increase by either increasing the ion and dust densities or decreasing the magnetic field strength. Finally, the results of our research show that the high energy ion beam can accelerate charged dust grains.

  11. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Siegele, R.; Dytlewski, N.

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few {mu}m. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials. 86 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs.

  12. Focal plane internal energy flows of singular beams in astigmatically aberrated low numerical aperture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Monika; Senthilkumaran, P

    2014-09-01

    Singular beams have circulating energy components. When such beams are focused by low numerical aperture systems suffering from astigmatic aberration, these circulating energy components get modified. The phase gradient introduced by this type of aberration splits the higher charge vortices. The dependence of the charge, the aberration coefficient, and the size of the aperture on the nature of the splitting process are reported in this paper. The transverse components of the Poynting vector fields that can be derived from the phase gradient vector field distributions are further decomposed into solenoidal and irrotational components using the Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition method. The solenoidal components relate to the orbital angular momentum of the beams, and the irrotational components are useful in the transport of intensity equations for phase retrieval.

  13. Novel correction method for X-ray beam energy fluctuation of high energy DR system with a linear detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Min; CHEN Hao; MENG Fan-Yong; WEI Dong-Bo

    2011-01-01

    A high energy digital radiography (DR) testing system has generated diverse scientific and technological interest in the field of industrial non-destructive testing.However,due to the limitations of manufacturing technology for accelerators,an energy fluctuation of the X-ray beam exists and leads to bright and dark streak artifacts in the DR image.Here we report the utilization of a new software-based method to correct the fluctuation artifacts.The correction method is performed using a high pass filtering operation to extract the high frequency information that reflects the X-ray beam energy fluctuation,and then subtracting it from the original image.Our experimental results show that this method is able to rule out the artifacts effectively and is readily implemented on a practical scanning system.

  14. Output beam energy measurement of a 100-MeV KOMAC drift tube linac by using a stripline beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    The 100-MeV proton linac at the KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) is composed of a 50-keV proton injector, a 3-MeV RFQ (radio-frequency quadrupole) and a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The proton beam is accelerated from 3 MeV to 100 MeV through 11 DTL tanks. The precise measurement of the proton-beam's energy at the output of each DTL tank is important for the longitudinal beam dynamics and can be performed by using a time-of-flight method with a BPM (beam position monitor), which is installed between each DTL tank. The details of the output beam energy measurement of the KOMAC DTL with stripline-type BPM and BPM signal processing, along with a comparison with the simulation results, will be presented in this paper.

  15. Design of medium energy beam transport line between the RFQ and the Linac in the radioactive ion beam facility at VECC, Kolkata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dechoudhury; Vaishali Naik; Manas Mondal; Hemendra Kumar Pandey; Avik Chatterjee; Dirtha Sanyal; Debasis Bhowmick; Alok Chakrabarti

    2010-09-01

    The design of a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line comprising of a re-buncher and four quadrupoles, two upstream and the other two downstream of the re-buncher, has been presented. The design was done to ensure almost 100% transport of heavy-ion beams of about 99 keV/u energy from RFQ having a / not less than 1/14 through the re-buncher and then through IH Linac of about 0.6 m length in which beam would be accelerated to about 185 keV/u. The re-buncher has been designed to operate at 37.8 MHz, the resonating frequency of both the RFQ and the IH Linac. The entire beam line has been installed and recently O5+ beam from RFQ has been transported through the re-buncher and subsequently accelerated in the IH Linac successfully.

  16. Development of Non-Conservative Joints in Beam Networks for Vibration Energy Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Hun Song

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aims to find a general solution for the vibrational energy flow through a plane network of beams on the basis of an energy flow analysis. A joint between two semi-infinite beams are modeled by three sets of springs and dashpots. Thus, the results can incorporate the case of complaint and non-conservative in all the three degrees of freedom. In the cases of finite coupled structures connected at a certain angle, the derived non-conservative joints and developed wave energy equation were applied. The joint properties, the frequency, the coupling angle, and the internal loss factor were changed to evaluate the proposed methods for predicting medium-to-high frequency vibrational energy and intensity distributions.

  17. PIP-II Injector Test’s Low Energy Beam Transport: Commissioning and Selected Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Alvarez, M. [Fermilab; Andrews, R. [Fermilab; Carneiro, J.-P. [Fermilab; Chen, A. [Fermilab; Hanna, B. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Scarpine, V. [Fermilab; D' Arcy, R. [University Coll. London; Wiesner, C. [Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)

    2016-09-16

    The PIP2IT test accelerator is under construction at Fermilab. Its ion source and Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) in its initial (straight) configuration have been commissioned to full specification parameters. This paper introduces the LEBT design and summarizes the outcome of the commissioning activities.

  18. AREAL low energy electron beam applications in life and materials sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Aroutiounian, R.M. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Amatuni, G.A. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Aloyan, L.R.; Aslanyan, L.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Avagyan, V.Sh. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Babayan, N.S. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Institute of Molecular Biology NAS, 0014 Yerevan (Armenia); Buniatyan, V.V. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Dalyan, Y.B.; Davtyan, H.D. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Derdzyan, M.V. [Institute for Physical Research NAS, 0203 Ashtarak (Armenia); Grigoryan, B.A. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Grigoryan, N.E. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (YerPhi), 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Hakobyan, L.S. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Haroutyunian, S.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Harutiunyan, V.V. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (YerPhi), 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Hovhannesyan, K.L. [Institute for Physical Research NAS, 0203 Ashtarak (Armenia); Khachatryan, V.G. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Martirosyan, N.W. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Melikyan, G.S. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); and others

    2016-09-01

    The AREAL laser-driven RF gun provides 2–5 MeV energy ultrashort electron pulses for experimental study in life and materials sciences. We report the first experimental results of the AREAL beam application in the study of molecular-genetic effects, silicon-dielectric structures, ferroelectric nanofilms, and single crystals for scintillators.

  19. Low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatment for improving surface microstructure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J; Allain-Bonasso, N; Zhang, X D; Hao, S Z; Grosdider, T; Dong, C [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM, UMR-CNRS 3143), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Zou, J X, E-mail: jiang.wu@univ-metz.fr, E-mail: thierry.grosdidier@univ-metz.fr [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Low energy high current pulsed electron beam (LEHCPEB) is a fairly new technique for surface modifications authorizing improvement in wear and corrosion properties as well as texture changes and hardening. This contribution highlights some microstructure modifications encountered at the surface of HCPEB treated steels and bulk metallic glasses taking into account the effects of surface melting and the effects of the induced stress.

  20. Experimental Study of the Flexural Behaviour of Damaged RC Beams Strengthened in Bending Moment Region with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay P. Gholkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the flexural behaviour of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP strengthened reinforced concrete (RC beams. For flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, total twenty-two beams were cast and tested over an effective span of 900 mm up to failure of the beam under two-point loading. The beams were designed as under-reinforced beams. The beams were bonded with BFRP sheets in single layer and double layers in the bending moment region at the bottom face of the beam. Out of the twenty-two beams two beams were control beams and remaining beams were strengthened after being damaged for various degrees of damage (0 %, 70 %, 80 %, 90% and 100 %. The experimental results show that the beams strengthened show high load carrying capacity.

  1. Beam neutron energy optimization for boron neutron capture therapy using Monte Carlo method

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Pazirandeh; Elham Shekarian

    2006-01-01

     In last two decades the optimal neutron energy for the treatment of deep seated tumors in boron neutron capture therapy in view of neutron physics and chemical compounds of boron carrier has been under thorough study. Although neutron absorption cross section of boron is high (3836b), the treatment of deep seated tumors such as gliobelastoma multiform (GBM) requires beam of neutrons of higher energy that can penetrate deeply into the brain and thermalize in the proximity of the tumor. Dosage...

  2. Prediction of non-identical particle correlations for the Beam Energy Scan program

    CERN Document Server

    Poniatowska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Femtoscopy of two non-identical particles in heavy ion collisions enables one to study the space-time asymmetry in the particle's emission process. Theoretical studies based on EPOS model performed for collision energies from the Beam Energy Scan program in STAR allow us to investigate the dependence of source sizes and dynamics effects. Obtained information will enable us to predict the collective behaviour of femtoscopic particle's source.

  3. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2008-02-15

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of MOSFET detectors for high-energy photon beams using the PENELOPE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panettieri, Vanessa [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Duch, Maria Amor [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jornet, Nuria [Servei de RadiofIsica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau Sant Antoni Maria Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Ginjaume, Merce [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Carrasco, Pablo [Servei de RadiofIsica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau Sant Antoni Maria Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Badal, Andreu [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ortega, Xavier [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ribas, Montserrat [Servei de RadiofIsica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau Sant Antoni Maria Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-07

    The aim of this work was the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of the response of commercially available dosimeters based on metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) for radiotherapeutic photon beams using the PENELOPE code. The studied Thomson and Nielsen TN-502-RD MOSFETs have a very small sensitive area of 0.04 mm{sup 2} and a thickness of 0.5 {mu}m which is placed on a flat kapton base and covered by a rounded layer of black epoxy resin. The influence of different metallic and Plastic water(TM) build-up caps, together with the orientation of the detector have been investigated for the specific application of MOSFET detectors for entrance in vivo dosimetry. Additionally, the energy dependence of MOSFET detectors for different high-energy photon beams (with energy >1.25 MeV) has been calculated. Calculations were carried out for simulated 6 MV and 18 MV x-ray beams generated by a Varian Clinac 1800 linear accelerator, a Co-60 photon beam from a Theratron 780 unit, and monoenergetic photon beams ranging from 2 MeV to 10 MeV. The results of the validation of the simulated photon beams show that the average difference between MC results and reference data is negligible, within 0.3%. MC simulated results of the effect of the build-up caps on the MOSFET response are in good agreement with experimental measurements, within the uncertainties. In particular, for the 18 MV photon beam the response of the detectors under a tungsten cap is 48% higher than for a 2 cm Plastic water(TM) cap and approximately 26% higher when a brass cap is used. This effect is demonstrated to be caused by positron production in the build-up caps of higher atomic number. This work also shows that the MOSFET detectors produce a higher signal when their rounded side is facing the beam (up to 6%) and that there is a significant variation (up to 50%) in the response of the MOSFET for photon energies in the studied energy range. All the results have shown that the PENELOPE code system

  5. Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimetry in electron beams - energy dependence and improved film read-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Petri; Ojala, Jarkko; Kaijaluoto, Sampsa; Jokelainen, Ilkka; Kosunen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    For megavoltage photon radiation, the fundamental dosimetry characteristics of Gafchromic EBT3 film were determined in 60Co gamma ray beam with addition of experimental and Monte Carlo (MC)-simulated energy dependence of the film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, and 16 MeV electron beams in water phantom. For the film read-out, two phase correction of scanner sensitivity was applied: a matrix correction for scanning area and dose-dependent correction by iterative procedure. With these corrections, the uniformity of response can be improved to be within ± 50 pixel values (PVs). To improve the read-out accuracy, a procedure with flipped film orientations was established. With the method, scanner uniformity can be improved further and dust particles, scratches and/or dirt on scan-ner glass can be detected and eliminated. Responses from red and green channels were averaged for read-out, which decreased the effect of noise present in values from separate channels. Since the signal level with the blue channel is considerably lower than with other channels, the signal variation due to different perturbation effects increases the noise level so that the blue channel is not recommended to be used for dose determination. However, the blue channel can be used for the detection of emulsion thickness variations for film quality evaluations with unexposed films. With electron beams ranging from 6 MeV to 16 MeV and at reference measurement conditions in water, the energy dependence of the EBT3 film is uniform within 0.5%, with uncertainties close to 1.6% (k = 2). Including 6 MV photon beam and the electron beams mentioned, the energy dependence is within 1.1%. No notable differences were found between the experimental and MC-simulated responses, indicating negligible change in intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV-16 MeV electron beams. Based on the dosimetric characteristics of the EBT3 film, the read-out procedure established

  6. Beam Dynamics Studies and Design Optimisation of New Low Energy Antiproton Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; Welsch, Carsten P

    2016-01-01

    Antiprotons, stored and cooled at low energies in a storage ring or at rest in traps, are highly desirable for the investigation of a large number of basic questions on fundamental interactions. This includes the static structure of antiprotonic atomic systems and the time-dependent quantum dynamics of correlated systems. The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is currently the worlds only low energy antiproton factory dedicated to antimatter experiments. New antiproton facilities, such as the Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) at CERN and the Ultra-low energy Storage Ring (USR) at FLAIR, will open unique possibilities. They will provide cooled, high quality beams of extra-low energy antiprotons at intensities exceeding those achieved presently at the AD by factors of ten to one hundred. These facilities, operating in the energy regime between 100 keV down to 20 keV, face several design and beam dynamics challenges, for example nonlinearities, space charge and scattering effects limiting beam life time....

  7. Electrical and optoelectrical modification of cadmium sulfide nanobelts by low-energy electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijie; Liu, Manman; Zhao, Mei; Dong, Youqing; Zou, Chao; Yang, Keqin; Yang, Yun; Huang, Shaoming; Zhu, Da-Ming

    2016-09-01

    In this report, we describe a method for modifying electrical and optoelectrical properties of CdS nanobelts using low-energy (lower than 10 keV) e-beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The electrical conductivity of the nanobelts was dramatically improved via the irradiation of e-beams. The modified conductivity of the nanobelts depends on the energy of the e-beam; it exhibits a larger photocurrent and higher external quantum efficiency but slower time-response than that before the modification. A possible mechanism about the modification is the increase of electron accumulation (injected electrons) in the nanobelts due to e-beam irradiation. In addition, the optoelectrical modification could be caused by the trapped electrons in the nanobelts and the decrease of contact resistance between the nanobelts and metal electrodes induced by e-beam irradiation. The results of this work are significant for the in situ study of semiconductor nanostructures in the electron microscope. Besides, the method of electrical and optoelectrical modification presented here has potential application in electronics and optoelectronics.

  8. Experimental demonstration of interaction region beam waist position knob for luminosity leveling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yue [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bai, Mei [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany). Inst. for Advanced Simulation; Duan, Zhe [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Luo, Yun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, Aljosa [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, Guillaume [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shen, Xiaozhe [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-03

    In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of the model-dependent control of the interaction region beam waist position (s* knob) at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The s* adjustment provides an alternative way of controlling the luminosity and is only known method to control the luminosity and reduce the pinch effect of the future eRHIC. In this paper, we will first demonstrate the effectiveness of the s* knob in luminosity controlling and its application in the future electron ion collider, eRHIC, followed by the detail experimental demonstration of such knob in RHIC.

  9. ERG--Energy Resources Game: Simulation Gaming of Regional Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lyle P.; Laessig, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    ERG--the Energy Resources Game--is a computer based game which explores questions regarding regional energy supply and demand, such as population and economic growth goals; acceptable levels of dependence on imported energy; and acceptable levels of environmental impact. (JA)

  10. Production of high-energy colliding. gamma gamma. and. gamma. e beams with a high luminosity at VLEPP accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, I.F.; Kotkin, G.L.; Serbo, V.G.; Tel' nov, V.I.

    1981-11-05

    Colliding ..gamma gamma.. and ..gamma..e beams with an energy and luminosity of the same order of magnitude as for e/sup +/e/sup -/ beams can be produced by scattering a laser light at the accelerators with colliding e/sup +/e/sup -/ beams with an energy > or approx. =100 GeV. Such accelerators are currently in the design stage.

  11. RF photo-injector beam energy distribution studies by slicing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippetto, D. [INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 40, Frascati, Rome (Italy); INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 40, Frascati, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: Daniele.Filippetto@lnf.infn.it; Bellaveglia, M. [INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 40, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Musumeci, P. [UCLA-Department of Physics and Astronomy, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA, Via E. Fermi, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The SPARC photo-injector is an R and D facility dedicated to the production of high brightness electron beams for radiation generation via FEL or Thomson scattering processes. It is the prototype injector for the recently approved SPARX project, aiming at the construction in the Frascati/University of Rome Tor Vergata area of a new high brightness electron linac for the generation of SASE-FEL radiation in the 1-10 nm wavelength range. The first phase of the SPARC project has been dedicated to the e-beam source characterization; the beam transverse and longitudinal parameters at the exit of the gun have been measured, and the photo-injector settings optimized to achieve best performance. Several beam dynamics topics have been experimentally studied in this first phase of operation, as, for example, the effect of photocathode driver laser beam shaping and the evolution of the beam transverse emittance. These studies have been made possible by the use of a novel diagnostic tool, the 'emittance-meter' which enables the measurement of the transverse beam parameters at different positions along the propagation axis in the very interesting region at the exit of the RF gun. The new idea of extending the e-meter capabilities came out more recently. Information on the beam longitudinal phase space and correlations with the transverse planes can be retrieved by the slicing technique. In this paper, we illustrate the basic concept of the measurement together with simulations that theoretically validate the methodology. Some preliminary results are discussed and explained with the aid of code simulations.

  12. Development of the business area construction and energy of EnergieRegion Nuernberg. Transfer from project management to a regional network; Entwicklung des Geschaeftsfeldes Bau und Energie der EnergieRegion Nuernberg. Umsetzung von Projektmanagement in einem regionalen Netzwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiverth, A.

    2006-07-01

    The association EnergieRegion Nuernberg is a regional authority network, which is employed with the promotion of sustainable handling of the factor energy in the region Nuernberg and with the proliferation of this region as internationally recognized location for energy engineering, energy industry and energy science. The intention is to use the important industrial, service-oriented and scientific potential optimally. For this reason a functional co-ordination and communication platform had to be created for the cross-linking of the appropriate participants from economics, research and public administration. Therefore, the author of the contribution under consideration accompanies the development process of the business field construction and energy of this association in the background of the current trends in the construction and energy sector in the region Nuernberg. Under this aspect, the author reports on the following aspects: (a) Success factors of the project management in a regional network; (b) Operationalisation of the success of the project by means of a model; (c) Analysis of the different aspects of energetic measures; (d) Determination of chances and risks of the range building and energy in the region Nuernberg; (e) Comparison of the success of the model projects with the model for the determination of project success; (f) Determination of strengths and weaknesses of the project management in the business field construction and energy of the energy region Nuernberg.

  13. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2. Regions 7 through 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: Unglaciated Central Region; Glaciated Appalachians, Unglaciated Appalachians; Coastal Plain; Hawaii; and Alaska. (LCL)

  14. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1. Regions 1 through 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains information on the geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the following regions of the US: the Western Mountains; Alluvial Basins; Columbia LAVA Plateau; Colorado Plateau; High Plains; and Glaciated Central Region. (LCL)

  15. The clinical potential of high energy, intensity and energy modulated electron beams optimized by simulated annealing for conformal radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Bill Jean, Jr.

    Purpose. The advent of new, so called IVth Generation, external beam radiation therapy treatment machines (e.g. Scanditronix' MM50 Racetrack Microtron) has raised the question of how the capabilities of these new machines might be exploited to produce extremely conformal dose distributions. Such machines possess the ability to produce electron energies as high as 50 MeV and, due to their scanned beam delivery of electron treatments, to modulate intensity and even energy, within a broad field. Materials and methods. Two patients with 'challenging' tumor geometries were selected from the patient archives of the Cancer Therapy and Research Center (CTRC), in San Antonio Texas. The treatment scheme that was tested allowed for twelve, energy and intensity modulated beams, equi-spaced about the patient-only intensity was modulated for the photon treatment. The elementary beams, incident from any of the twelve allowed directions, were assumed parallel, and the elementary electron beams were modeled by elementary beam data. The optimal arrangement of elementary beam energies and/or intensities was optimized by Szu-Hartley Fast Simulated Annealing Optimization. Optimized treatment plans were determined for each patient using both the high energy, intensity and energy modulated electron (HIEME) modality, and the 6 MV photon modality. The 'quality' of rival plans were scored using three different, popular objective functions which included Root Mean Square (RMS), Maximize Dose Subject to Dose and Volume Limitations (MDVL - Morrill et. al.), and Probability of Uncomplicated Tumor Control (PUTC) methods. The scores of the two optimized treatments (i.e. HIEME and intensity modulated photons) were compared to the score of the conventional plan with which the patient was actually treated. Results. The first patient evaluated presented a deeply located target volume, partially surrounding the spinal cord. A healthy right kidney was immediately adjacent to the tumor volume, separated

  16. Regional Energy Planning Tool for Renewable Integrated Low-Energy District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    with low-energy houses in focus with intensified energy efficiency measures. Employing low-temperature operation allows the ease to exploit not only any type of heat source but also low-grade sources, i.e., renewable and industrial waste heat, which would otherwise be lost. In this chapter, a regional......Low-energy district heating systems, operating at low temperature of 55 °C as supply and 25°C as return, can be the energy solution as being the prevailing heating infrastructure in urban areas, considering future energy schemesaiming at increased exploitation of renewable energy sources together...... energy planning tool is described considered with various energy conversion systems based on renewable energy sources to be supplied to an integrated energy infrastructure involving a low-energy district heating, a district cooling, and an electricity grid. The developed tool is performed for two case...

  17. Plasma effects on extragalactic ultra-high-energy cosmic ray hadron beams in cosmic voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakau, Steffen; Schlickeiser, Reinhard [Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam (Γ{sub b} ∼ 10{sup 6}) in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium is investigated with respect to the excitation of collective electrostatic and aperiodic electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 15} eV) from their distant sources to Earth. We calculate minimum instability growth times which are orders of magnitude shorter than the cosmic ray propagation time in the IGM. Due to nonlinear effects, especially the modulation instability, the cosmic ray beam stabilize and can propagate with nearly no energy loss through the intergalactic medium.

  18. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-06-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms.

  19. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-06-15

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  20. An improved small-deflection electromechanical model for piezoelectric bending beam actuators and energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Ahmadreza; Fréchette, Luc G.

    2008-10-01

    The analytical model presented in this paper describes the energy conversion mechanism of a piezoelectric beam (bimorph) under small-deflection static and vibrating conditions. The model provides an improved approach to design and analyze the performance of piezoelectric actuators and energy harvesters (sensors). Conventional models assume a linear voltage distribution over the piezoelectric beam thickness, which is shown here to be invalid. The proposed modeling method improves accuracy by using a quadratic voltage distribution. The equivalent capacitance of a beam shows a 40% discrepancy between a conventional model and the proposed model for PZT5A material. This inaccuracy level is not negligible, especially when the design of micro-power electrical energy harvesting is concerned. The method solves simultaneously the solid mechanics and Maxwell's equations with the constitutive equations for piezoelectric materials. The paper also proposes a phasor-based procedure for measuring the damping of a piezoelectric beam. An experimental setup is developed to verify the validity of the model. The experimental results confirm the accuracy of the improved model and also reveal limitations in using models for small deflections.

  1. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L. D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-06-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  2. Extracting Energy from Black Hole through Transition Region

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L X

    2000-01-01

    A new scenario for extracting energy from a Kerr black hole is proposed. With magnetic field lines connecting plasma particles inside the ergosphere with remote loads, the frame dragging twists the field lines so that energy and angular momentum are extracted from the plasma particles. If the magnetic field is strong enough, the energy extracted from the particles can be so large that the particles have negative energy as they fall into the black hole. So effectively the energy is extracted from the black hole. The particles inside the ergosphere can be continuously replenished with accretion from a disk surrounding the black hole, so a transition region with sufficient amount of plasma is formed between the black hole's horizon and the inner edge of the disk. Thus the energy can be continuously extracted from the black hole through the transition region. This may be the most efficient way for extracting energy from a Kerr black hole: in principle almost all of the rotational energy (up to $\\approx 29%$ of th...

  3. Direct regional energy/economic modeling (DREEM) design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P.D.; Pleatsikas, C.J.

    1979-10-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the use of regional and multiregional economic models for estimating the indirect and induced impacts of Federally-mandated energy policies. It includes an examination of alternative types of energy policies that can impact regional economies and the available analytical frameworks for measuring the magnitudes and spatial extents of these impacts. One such analytical system, the National Regional Impact Evaluation System (NRIES), currently operational in the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), is chosen for more detailed investigation. The report summarizes the models capabilities for addressing various energy policy issues and then demonstrates the applicability of the model in specified contexts by developing appropriate input data for three scenarios. These scenarios concern the multi-state impacts of alternative coal-mining-development decisions, multi-regional impacts of macroeconomic change, and the comprehensive effects of an alternative national energy supply trajectory. On the basis of this experience, the capabilities of NRIES for analyzing energy-policy issues are summarized in a concluding chapter.

  4. Cities, regions, and the energy problem: a bibliography and index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, F.

    1979-01-01

    Literature covering the social aspects of energy analysis is compiled under sections relevant to cities, regions, and general policies in this annotated bibliograpy of 309 publications. A subject category index indentifies 28 subtopics. A breakdown of the index lists the number of entries under each category, their percentage share of the subject index, and their percentage share of citations. This is followed by a geographical index listing a mixture of cities, regions, states, and countries. (DCK)

  5. Development of the techniques for food processing with low-energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    This study aimed to construct a new electron beam irradiation apparatus which allows to perform homogeneous irradiation up to a certain depth of a spherical or granular material through rotating it. And the sterilizing effects of this apparatus on various kinds of spices such as black and white peppers (grains), turmeric (root), coriander (seed), basil (leaves) were investigated to compare with the effects of {gamma}-ray irradiation. Electron beam irradiation was made changing the energy form 200 keV for 15 min to 500 keV for 5 min and a dose-depth curve was drawn for each electron energy. Indicator balls were used to examine the radiation effects. It became possible to make homogeneous irradiation onto a spherical surface of food by using the rotary system of the apparatus. It was demonstrated that satisfactory sterilizing effects as much as those of {gamma}-ray were obtainable by superficial treatments with low-energy electron. (M.N.)

  6. Energy harvesting from coherent resonance of horizontal vibration of beam excited by vertical base motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, C. B.; Qin, W. Y. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-15

    This letter investigates the energy harvesting from the horizontal coherent resonance of a vertical cantilever beam subjected to the vertical base excitation. The potential energy of the system has two symmetric potential wells. So, under vertical excitation, the system can jump between two potential wells, which will lead to the large vibration in horizontal direction. Two piezoelectric patches are pasted to harvest the energy. From experiment, it is found that the vertical excitation can make the beam turn to be bistable. The system can transform vertical vibration into horizontal vibration of low frequency when excited by harmonic motion. The horizontal coherence resonance can be observed when excited by a vertical white noise. The corresponding output voltages of piezoelectric films reach high values.

  7. Internal energy flows of coma-affected singular beams in low-numerical-aperture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Monika; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Senthilkumaran, P

    2015-04-01

    The circulating phase gradient component of a singular beam gets modified when focused by a low-numerical-aperature system suffering from coma aberration. The gradient due to this coma aberration splits the higher charge vortex into elementary vortices and distributes them spatially. This splitting depends on the charge and polarity of the incident singular beam as well as the sign and magnitude of the aberration coefficient. The transverse component of the Poynting vector field distribution at the focal plane is decomposed into the curl or solenoidal component and divergence or irrotational component using the Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition technique. The solenoidal component that relates to the orbital angular momentum carries the circulating energy, while the irrotational component shows the sources and sinks of the energy. Intriguing results of the study of energy flow around the edge dislocations apart from the point phase defects in the irrotational components are also presented.

  8. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  9. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-01-15

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  10. Regional action in France for the mastery of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, P.

    1986-01-01

    Regional authorities in France have often been described as playing a second rate role. However, they draw their strength and their originality from their capacity to encourage, to innovate, to attempt and to succeed in new fields which other collective authorities do not quite grasp. This is the case for energy problems as the regions have proved their capacity to act in this field. They've also shown that they can work in symbiosis with State and municipal authorities and that they can produce high performance results. Such results are obtained by flexibility in intervention regulations on the psychological level - the perception of problems linked to energy - in strictly economic affairs by using the multiplying effects of invested credits and in the field of employment by the opening of new markets. As interesting as all this might be, the field of energy in this case is merely an example of what the French regions can do. At a time when decentralization processes have given the regions major management duties, it is important that the regions don't fall into the trap of creating supplementary and sterile administrative structures. It is also important for the regions not to forget their essential role which is to encourage innovation.

  11. Scintillator-Lucite sandwich detector for n/gamma separation in the GeV energy region

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, H; Harada, E; Inoue, S; Inagaki, T; Kobayashi, S; Kurilin, A S; Lim, G Y; Ogawa, I; Okuno, H; Omata, K; Sato, T; Shinkawa, T; Tsamalaidze, Z; Tsukamoto, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2002-01-01

    A Scintillator-Lucite Sandwich Detector (SLSD) has been developed for n/gamma separation in the GeV energy region. An efficient n/gamma separation is achieved by measuring a correlation between the scintillation and Cherenkov light yields. The basic performance of the detector has been tested with e, pi and p beams with momenta between 0.5 and 2.0 GeV/c; the results were compared with a Monte-Carlo simulation. The n/gamma separation capability of this detector has been studied by simulations in the energy range from 5 MeV to 12 GeV. The SLSD detector was successfully used for a beam survey of the new K sub L sup 0 beam line built for a K sub L sup 0-> pi sup 0 nu nu-bar experiment at the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron.

  12. Monte Carlo dose calculation improvements for low energy electron beams using eMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter

    2010-08-21

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm in Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and is able to predict dose distributions for high energy electron beams with high accuracy. However, there are limitations for low energy electron beams. This work aims to improve the accuracy of the dose calculation using eMC for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams of Varian linear accelerators. Improvements implemented into the eMC include (1) improved determination of the initial electron energy spectrum by increased resolution of mono-energetic depth dose curves used during beam configuration; (2) inclusion of all the scrapers of the applicator in the beam model; (3) reduction of the maximum size of the sphere to be selected within the macro MC transport when the energy of the incident electron is below certain thresholds. The impact of these changes in eMC is investigated by comparing calculated dose distributions for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams at source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 and 110 cm with applicators ranging from 6 x 6 to 25 x 25 cm(2) of a Varian Clinac 2300C/D with the corresponding measurements. Dose differences between calculated and measured absolute depth dose curves are reduced from 6% to less than 1.5% for both energies and all applicators considered at SSD of 100 cm. Using the original eMC implementation, absolute dose profiles at depths of 1 cm, d(max) and R50 in water lead to dose differences of up to 8% for applicators larger than 15 x 15 cm(2) at SSD 100 cm. Those differences are now reduced to less than 2% for all dose profiles investigated when the improved version of eMC is used. At SSD of 110 cm the dose difference for the original eMC version is even more pronounced and can be larger than 10%. Those differences are reduced to within 2% or 2 mm with the improved version of eMC. In this work several enhancements were made in the eMC algorithm leading to significant improvements in the accuracy of the dose

  13. Optimal piezoelectric beam shape for single and broadband vibration energy harvesting: Modeling, simulation and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalif, Asan G. A.; Nordin, N. H. Diyana

    2015-03-01

    Harvesting energy from the surroundings has become a new trend in saving our environment. Among the established ones are solar panels, wind turbines and hydroelectric generators which have successfully grown in meeting the world's energy demand. However, for low powered electronic devices; especially when being placed in a remote area, micro scale energy harvesting is preferable. One of the popular methods is via vibration energy scavenging which converts mechanical energy (from vibration) to electrical energy by the effect of coupling between mechanical variables and electric or magnetic fields. As the voltage generated greatly depends on the geometry and size of the piezoelectric material, there is a need to define an optimum shape and configuration of the piezoelectric energy scavenger. In this research, mathematical derivations for unimorph piezoelectric energy harvester are presented. Simulation is done using MATLAB and COMSOL Multiphysics software to study the effect of varying the length and shape of the beam to the generated voltage. Experimental results comparing triangular and rectangular shaped piezoelectric beam are also presented.

  14. SU-E-T-781: Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) for Correlating Linac Photon Beam Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaddanapudi, S; Cai, B; Sun, B; Noel, C; Goddu, S; Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have proven to be useful for measuring several parameters of interest in linear accelerator (linac) quality assurance (QA). The purpose of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using EPIDs for determining linac photon beam energies. Methods: Two non-clinical Varian TrueBeam linacs (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with 6MV and 10MV photon beams were used to perform the measurements. The linacs were equipped with an amorphous silicon based EPIDs (aSi1000) that were used for the measurements. We compared the use of flatness versus percent depth dose (PDD) for predicting changes in linac photon beam energy. PDD was measured in 1D water tank (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne FL) and the profiles were measured using 2D ion-chamber array (IC-Profiler, Sun Nuclear) and the EPID. Energy changes were accomplished by varying the bending magnet current (BMC). The evaluated energies conformed with the AAPM TG142 tolerance of ±1% change in PDD. Results: BMC changes correlating with a ±1% change in PDD corresponded with a change in flatness of ∼1% to 2% from baseline values on the EPID. IC Profiler flatness values had the same correlation. We observed a similar trend for the 10MV beam energy changes. Our measurements indicated a strong correlation between changes in linac photon beam energy and changes in flatness. For all machines and energies, beam energy changes produced change in the uniformity (AAPM TG-142), varying from ∼1% to 2.5%. Conclusions: EPID image analysis of beam profiles can be used to determine linac photon beam energy changes. Flatness-based metrics or uniformity as defined by AAPM TG-142 were found to be more sensitive to linac photon beam energy changes than PDD. Research funding provided by Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Sasa Mutic receives compensation for providing patient safety training services from Varian Medical Systems, the sponsor of this study.

  15. Energy-Momentum of a Stationary Beam of Light in Teleparallel Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aydogdu, O; Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize the teleparallel gravity analogs of the energy and momentum definitions of Bergmann-Thomson and Landau-Lifshitz in order to explicitly evaluate the energy distribution(due to matter and fields including gravity) based on the Bonnor space-time. it is shown that for a stationary beam of light, these energy-momentum definitions give the same result. Furthermore, this result supports the viewpoint of Cooperstock and also agree with the previous works by Bringley and Gad.

  16. Effects of high-energy-pulse-electron beam radiation on biomacromolecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the molecular mechanism of high mutation frequency induced by high-energy-pulse-electron (HEPE) beam radiation, the effects of HEPE radiation on yeast cells, plasma membrane, plasmid DNA, and protein activity were investigated by means of cell counting, gel electrophoresis, AO/EB double fluorescent staining, etc. The results showed that the viability of yeast cells declined statistically with increase of absorbed doses. The half lethal dose (LD50) was 134 Gy. HEPE beam radiation had little influence on the function of plasma membrane and protein, while it could induce much DNA damage of single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) that were required for gene mutation. The G-value for DSB formation of HEPE beam radiation in aqueous solution was 5.7 times higher than that caused by 60Co gamma rays. HEPE can be a new effective method for induced mutation breeding and deserves further research in the future.

  17. Note: High-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvesting using Helmholtz resonator and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Lu, Caijiang; Peng, Xiao; He, Wei; Zhang, Jitao; Wang, Decai; Yang, Feng

    2014-06-01

    A high-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvester consisting of a compliant-top-plate Helmholtz resonator (HR) and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams is proposed. Due to the high mechanical quality factor of beams and the strong multimode coupling of HR cavity, top plate and beams, the high efficiency in a broad bandwidth is obtained. Experiment exhibits that the proposed harvester at 170-206 Hz has 28-188 times higher efficiency than the conventional harvester using a HR with a piezoelectric composite diaphragm. For input acoustic pressure of 2.0 Pa, the proposed harvester exhibits 0.137-1.43 mW output power corresponding to 0.035-0.36 μW cm(-3) volume power density at 170-206 Hz.

  18. Dynamics of Finite Energy Airy Beams Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum in Multilevel Atomic Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenkun; Wang, Shun; Hu, Weifei; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-10-01

    We numerically investigate the dynamics of inward circular finite-energy Airy beams carrying different orbital angular momentum (OAM) numbers in a close-Λ three-level atomic vapor with the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window. We report that due to the EIT induced by the microwave field, the transverse intensity distribution properties of Airy beam can be feasibly manipulated and modulated through adjusting OAM numbers l and the frequency detuning, as well as the propagation distance, in the multi-level atomic systems. What's more, the rotation of the beam also can be observed with different positions in atomic ensembles. The investigation may provide a useful tool for studying particle manipulation, signal processing and propagation in graded-index (GRIN) fibers.

  19. Note: High-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvesting using Helmholtz resonator and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping, E-mail: liping@cqu.edu.cn; Wen, Yumei; Lu, Caijiang; Peng, Xiao; He, Wei; Zhang, Jitao; Wang, Decai; Yang, Feng [Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-06-15

    A high-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvester consisting of a compliant-top-plate Helmholtz resonator (HR) and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams is proposed. Due to the high mechanical quality factor of beams and the strong multimode coupling of HR cavity, top plate and beams, the high efficiency in a broad bandwidth is obtained. Experiment exhibits that the proposed harvester at 170–206 Hz has 28–188 times higher efficiency than the conventional harvester using a HR with a piezoelectric composite diaphragm. For input acoustic pressure of 2.0 Pa, the proposed harvester exhibits 0.137–1.43 mW output power corresponding to 0.035–0.36 μW cm{sup −3} volume power density at 170–206 Hz.

  20. Dosimetric aspects of the therapeutic photon beams from a dual-energy linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghazi, M.S.A.L.; Arjune, B.; Fiedler, J.A.; Sharma, P.D.

    1988-03-01

    Parameters of the photon beams (6 and 20 MV) from a dual-energy linear accelerator (Mevatron-KD, Siemens Medical Laboratories, CA) are presented. The depth dose characteristics of the photon beams are d/sub max/ of 1.8 and 3.8 cm and percentage depth dose of 68% and 80% at 10-cm depth and 100-cm source--surface distance for a field size of 10 x 10 cm/sup 2/ for 6 and 20 MV, respectively. The 6 and 20 MV beams were found to correspond to nominal accelerating potentials of 4.7 and 17 MV, respectively. The stability of output is within +- 1% and flatness and symmetry are within +- 3%. These figures compare favorably with the manufacturer's specifications.

  1. Optimization of Energy Scope for Titanium Nitride Films Grown by Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; MA Zhong-Quan; WANG Ye; WANG De-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The deposited energy during film growth with ion bombardment, correlated to the atomic displacement on the surface monolayer and the underlying bulk, has been calculated by a simplified ion-solid interaction model under binary collision approximation. The separated damage energies caused by Ar ion, different for the surface and the bulk, have been determined under the standard collision cross section and a well-defined surface and bulk atom displacement threshold energy of titanium nitride (TiN). The optimum energy scope shows that the incident energy of Ar+ around 110eV for TiN (111) and 80eV for TiN (200) effectively enhances the mobility of adatom on surface but excludes the damage in underlying bulk. The theoretical prediction and the experimental result are in good agreement in low energy ion beam-assisted deposition.

  2. Analyzer of high-load electron beams with resolution in two energy components, space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Arkhipov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The new apparatus is developed for experimental determination of electron energy and spatial distributions in dense medium-energy long-pulsed magnetically confined beams – typically, 10 A/cm2, 60 keV, 100 µs, 0.1 T. To provide most detailed and unambiguous information, direct electrostatic cut-off method is used for electron energy analysis. In combination with variation of the magnetic field in the analysis area, this method allows to determine both (axial and transverse components of electron energy. Test experiments confirmed ∼1% energy resolution being predicted from calculations, accounting for electrode shapes, space-charge effects and non-adiabatic energy transfer effects in varied magnetic field. Space and time resolution of the apparatus are determined by the input aperture size (∼1 mm and cut-off electric field pulse-length (∼5–10 µs respectively.

  3. Self-similarity of negative particle production from the Beam Energy Scan Program at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Tokarev, M V

    2015-01-01

    We present the spectra of negative charged particle production in Au+Au collisions from STAR for the first phase of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan Program measured over a wide range of collision energy sqrt s{NN}=7.7-200 GeV, and transverse momentum of produced particle in different centralities at |eta|<0.5. The spectra demonstrate strong dependence on collision energy which enhances with pT. An indication of self-similarity of negative charged particle production in Au+Au collisions is found. The constituent energy loss as a function of energy and centrality of collisions and transverse momentum of inclusive particle was estimated in the $z$-scaling approach. The energy dependence of the model parameters - the fractal and fragmentation dimensions and "specific heat", was studied.

  4. Fluence correction factor for graphite calorimetry in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A.; Thomas, R.; Homer, M.; Bouchard, H.; Rossomme, S.; Renaud, J.; Kanai, T.; Royle, G.; Palmans, H.

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work is to develop and adapt a formalism to determine absorbed dose to water from graphite calorimetry measurements in carbon-ion beams. Fluence correction factors, {{k}\\text{fl}} , needed when using a graphite calorimeter to derive dose to water, were determined in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam. Measurements were performed in a 290 MeV/n carbon-ion beam with a field size of 11  ×  11 cm2, without modulation. In order to sample the beam, a plane-parallel Roos ionization chamber was chosen for its small collecting volume in comparison with the field size. Experimental information on fluence corrections was obtained from depth-dose measurements in water. This procedure was repeated with graphite plates in front of the water phantom. Fluence corrections were also obtained with Monte Carlo simulations through the implementation of three methods based on (i) the fluence distributions differential in energy, (ii) a ratio of calculated doses in water and graphite at equivalent depths and (iii) simulations of the experimental setup. The {{k}\\text{fl}} term increased in depth from 1.00 at the entrance toward 1.02 at a depth near the Bragg peak, and the average difference between experimental and numerical simulations was about 0.13%. Compared to proton beams, there was no reduction of the {{k}\\text{fl}} due to alpha particles because the secondary particle spectrum is dominated by projectile fragmentation. By developing a practical dose conversion technique, this work contributes to improving the determination of absolute dose to water from graphite calorimetry in carbon-ion beams.

  5. Nonlinear and long-term beam dynamics in low energy storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papash, A. I.; Smirnov, A. V.; Welsch, C. P.

    2013-06-01

    Electrostatic storage rings operate at very low energies in the keV range and have proven to be invaluable tools for atomic and molecular physics. Because of the mass independence of electric rigidity, these machines are able to store a wide range of different particles, from light ions to heavy singly charged biomolecules, opening up unique research opportunities. However, earlier measurements have shown strong limitations in maximum beam intensity, fast decay of the stored ion current, and reduced beam lifetime. The nature of these effects has not been fully understood and an improved understanding of the physical processes influencing beam motion and stability in such rings is needed. In this paper, a comprehensive study into nonlinear and long-term beam dynamics studies is presented on the examples of a number of existing and planned electrostatic storage rings using the BETACOOL, OPERA-3D, and MAD-X simulation software. A detailed investigation into ion kinetics, under consideration of effects from electron cooling and multiple scattering of the beam on a supersonic gas jet target, is carried out and yields a consistent explanation of the physical effects in a whole class of storage rings. The lifetime, equilibrium momentum spread, and equilibrium lateral spread during collisions with the target are estimated. In addition, the results from experiments at the Test Storage Ring, where a low-intensity beam of CF+ ions at 93keV/u has been shrunk to extremely small dimensions, are reproduced. Based on these simulations, the conditions for stable ring operation with an extremely low-emittance beam are presented. Finally, results from studies into the interaction of 3-30 keV ions with a gas jet target are summarized.

  6. A kinematically beamed, low energy pulsed neutron source for active interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Dan; Hagmann, Chris; Kerr, Phil; Nakae, Les; Rowland, Mark; Snyderman, Neal; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Hamm, Robert

    2005-12-01

    We are developing a new active interrogation system based on a kinematically focused low energy neutron beam. The key idea is that one of the defining characteristics of special nuclear materials (SNM) is the ability for low energy or thermal neutrons to induce fission. Thus by using low energy neutrons for the interrogation source we can accomplish three goals: (1) energy discrimination allows us to measure the prompt fast fission neutrons produced while the interrogation beam is on; (2) neutrons with an energy of approximately 60-100 keV do not fission 238U and Thorium, but penetrate bulk material nearly as far as high energy neutrons do and (3) below about 100 keV neutrons lose their energy by kinematical collisions rather than via the nuclear (n, 2n) or (n, n‧) processes thus further simplifying the prompt neutron induced background. 60 keV neutrons create a low radiation dose and readily thermal capture in normal materials, thus providing a clean spectroscopic signature of the intervening materials. The kinematically beamed source also eliminates the need for heavy backward and sideway neutron shielding. We have designed and built a very compact pulsed neutron source, based on an RFQ proton accelerator and a lithium target. We are developing fast neutron detectors that are nearly insensitive to the ever-present thermal neutron and neutron capture induced gamma ray background. The detection of only a few high energy fission neutrons in time correlation with the linac pulse will be a clear indication of the presence of SNM.

  7. 78 FR 78466 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... should be limited to one printed page. Written comments are also invited and may be mailed to the Regional Energy Resource Council, Tennessee Valley Authority, 400 West Summit Hill Drive, WT-11 B... Tennessee Valley Authority, 400 West Summit Hill Drive, Knoxville, TN 37902 and will be open to the...

  8. Targets IMage Energy Regional (TIMER) Model, Technical Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries B de; Vuuren D van; Elzen M den; Janssen M; MNV

    2002-01-01

    Er wordt een gedetailleerde beschrijving gegeven van het Targets IMage Energy Regional (TIMER) simulatiemodel. Het model is ontwikkeld en toegepast in nauwe relatie met het Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE) 2.1-2.2. . Het TIMER model is een systeem-dynamisch simulatiemode

  9. Leveraging Lighting for Energy Savings: GSA Northwest/Artic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how the Northwest/Arctic Region branch of the General Services Administration (GSA) improved safety and energy efficiency in its Fairbanks Federal Building parking garage used by federal employees, U.S. Marshals, and the District Court. A 74% savings was realized by replacing 220 high-pressure sodium fixtures with 220 light-emitting diode fixtures.

  10. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  11. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  12. Low-energy nuclear reactions with double-solenoid- based radioactive nuclear beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Valdir Guimarães

    2010-07-01

    The University of Notre Dame, USA (Becchetti et al, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A505, 377 (2003)) and later the University of São Paulo, Brazil (Lichtenthaler et al, Eur. Phys. J. A25, S-01, 733 (2005)) adopted a system based on superconducting solenoids to produce low-energy radioactive nuclear beams. In these systems the solenoids act as thick lenses to collect, select, and focus the secondary beam into a scattering chamber. Many experiments with radioactive light particle beams (RNB) such as 6He, 7Be, 8Li, 8B have been performed at these two facilities. These low-energy RNB have been used to investigate low-energy reactions such as elastic scattering, transfer and breakup, providing useful information on the structure of light nuclei near the drip line and on astrophysics. Total reaction cross-sections, derived from elastic scattering analysis, have also been investigated for light system as a function of energy and the role of breakup of weakly bound or exotic nuclei is discussed.

  13. Orbital rotation without orbital angular momentum: mechanical action of the spin part of the internal energy flow in light beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    The internal energy flow in a light beam can be divided into the "orbital" and "spin" parts, associated with the spatial and polarization degrees of freedom of light. In contrast to the orbital one, experimental observation of the spin flow seems problematic because it is converted into an orbital...... flow upon tight focusing of the beam, usually applied for energy flow detection by means of the mechanical action upon probe particles. We propose a two-beam interference technique that results in an appreciable level of spin flow in moderately focused beams and detection of the orbital motion of probe...

  14. Beam energy dependence of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Sumit; Datta, Kaustuv

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN probe matter at extreme conditions of temperature and energy density. Most of the global properties of the collisions can be extracted from the measurements of charged particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) distributions. We have shown that the available experimental data on beam energy and centrality dependence of \\Eta-distributions in heavy-ion (Au+Au or Pb+Pb) collisions from \\sNN=7.7 GeV to 2.76 TeV are reasonably well described by the AMPT model, which is used for further exploration. The nature of the \\Eta-distributions has been described by a double Gaussian function using a set of fit parameters, which exhibit a regular pattern as a function of beam energy. By extrapolating the parameters to a higher energy of \\sNN~=~5.02 TeV, we have obtained the charged particle multiplicity densities, \\Eta-distributions and energy densities for various centralities. Incident...

  15. Precise and fast beam energy measurement at the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viti, Michele

    2010-02-15

    The international Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron collider with a center-of-mass energy between 200 and 500 GeV and a peak luminosity of 2 . 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. For the physics program at this machine, an excellent bunch-by-bunch control of the beam energy is mandatory. Several techniques are foreseen to be implemented at the ILC in order to achieve this request. Energy spectrometers upstream and downstream of the electron/positron interaction point were proposed and the present default option for the upstream spectrometer is a beam position monitor based (BPM-based) spectrometer. In 2006/2007, a prototype of such a device was commissioned at the End Station A beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in order to study performance and reliability. In addition, a novel method based on laser Compton backscattering has been proposed, since as proved at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) and the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), complementary methods are necessary to cross-check the results of the BPM-based spectrometer. In this thesis, an overview of the experiment at End Station A is given, with emphasis on the performance of the magnets in the chicane and first energy resolution estimations. Also, the novel Compton backscattering method is discussed in details and found to be very promising. It has the potential to bring the beam energy resolution well below the requirement of {delta}E{sub b}/E{sub b}=10{sup -4}. (orig.)

  16. An energy harvester using piezoelectric cantilever beams undergoing coupled bending-torsion vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkefi, A.; Najar, F.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Ben Ayed, S.

    2011-11-01

    Recently, piezoelectric cantilevered beams have received considerable attention for vibration-to-electric energy conversion. Generally, researchers have investigated a classical piezoelectric cantilever beam with or without a tip mass. In this paper, we propose the use of a unimorph cantilever beam undergoing bending-torsion vibrations as a new piezoelectric energy harvester. The proposed design consists of a single piezoelectric layer and a couple of asymmetric tip masses; the latter convert part of the base excitation force into a torsion moment. This structure can be tuned to be a broader band energy harvester by adjusting the first two global natural frequencies to be relatively close to each other. We develop a distributed-parameter model of the harvester by using the Euler-beam theory and Hamilton's principle, thereby obtaining the governing equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Then, we calculate the exact eigenvalues and associated mode shapes and validate them with a finite element (FE) model. We use these mode shapes in a Galerkin procedure to develop a reduced-order model of the harvester, which we use in turn to obtain closed-form expressions for the displacement, twisting angle, voltage output, and harvested electrical power. These expressions are used to conduct a parametric study for the dynamics of the system to determine the appropriate set of geometric properties that maximizes the harvested electrical power. The results show that, as the asymmetry is increased, the harvester's performance improves. We found a 30% increase in the harvested power with this design compared to the case of beams undergoing bending only. We also show that the locations of the two masses can be chosen to bring the lowest two global natural frequencies closer to each other, thereby allowing the harvesting of electrical power from multi-frequency excitations.

  17. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  18. Energy Distribution Analysis Of High Power Laser Beam From Spots On Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, J.; Oliveira, C.; Dietz, J.

    1989-01-01

    When a laser beam radiates an isolant material like paper during a small period of time (incident energy density ("fluence"). This pnenomenon can be used to vizualise the laser beam profile before or after crossing an optic device. The beam mode , its possible fluctuations, and toe interference phenchluna introduced by optic elements can be easily evidenciated (it is only necessary that fluence be inciudee hetween 1 and 20 J/cm2). In a quantitative view-point the observed degradations (level of coloration, burn) can be standardized in fluence. So for a given interaction time it is possible to define the local density power ("irradiance" in W/cm2), necessary to induce the observed degradation. Consequently it is possible to reconstitute the energy repartition profile of the beam; this was achieved for the case of c.w. CO2 laser Oi 4 kW for different powers. This procedure requires a good quality paper (type "printer inkjet paper") and the accuracy can be ameliorated utilizing a "printer thermal paper". An image aoijuis software allowing toe deduction of the intrinsic characteristics of the beau is being studied.

  19. Genealogy of gas cells for low-energy RI-beam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Michiharu, E-mail: mw@riken.jp

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • In order to overcome serious limitations in the universality of the traditional isotope separator on-line technique, various endeavors have been made on gas catcher cells for converting relativistic RI-beams from in-flight separators to low-energy RI-beams. • The origin of the gas catcher is found in the IGISOL (Ion guide isotope separator on-line) technique. • Many developments have been made over the years to overcome the various difficulties and drawbacks found in the IGISOL technique. -- Abstract: In order to overcome serious limitations in the universality of the traditional isotope separator on-line technique, various endeavors have been made on gas catcher cells for converting relativistic RI-beams from in-flight separators to low-energy RI-beams. The origin of the gas catcher is found in the IGISOL (Ion guide isotope separator on-line) technique. Many developments have been made over the years to overcome the various difficulties and drawbacks found in the IGISOL technique.

  20. Studying astrophysical reactions with low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and other interests have been performed using the radioactive-isotope (RI beams at the low-energy RI beam separator CRIB, operated by Center for Nuclear Study (CNS, the University of Tokyo. A typical measurement performed at CRIB is the elastic resonant scattering with the inverse kinematics. One recent experiment was on the α resonant scattering with 7Li and 7Be beams. This study is related to the astrophysical 7Li/7Be(α,γ reactions, important at hot p-p chain and νp-process in supernovae. There have also been measurements based on other experimental methods. The first THM measurement using an RI beam has been performed at CRIB, to study the 18F(p, α15O reaction at astrophysical energies via the three body reaction 2H(18F, α15On. The 18F(p, α 15O reaction rate is crucial to understand the 511-keV γ-ray production in nova explosion phenomena, and we successfully evaluated the reaction cross section at novae temperature and below experimentally for the first time.

  1. Systematic investigations of low energy Ar ion beam sputtering of Si and Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, R., E-mail: rene.feder@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Frost, F.; Neumann, H.; Bundesmann, C.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Ion beam sputter deposition (IBD) delivers some intrinsic features influencing the growing film properties, because ion properties and geometrical process conditions generate different energy and spatial distributions of the sputtered and scattered particles. Even though IBD has been used for decades, the full capabilities are not investigated systematically and specifically used yet. Therefore, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the correlation between the properties of the ion beam, the generated secondary particles and backscattered ions and the deposited films needs to be done. A vacuum deposition chamber has been set up which allows ion beam sputtering of different targets under variation of geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle, position of substrates and analytics in respect to the target) and of ion beam parameters (ion species, ion energy) to perform a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the correlation between the properties of the ion beam, the properties of the sputtered and scattered particles, and the properties of the deposited films. A set of samples was prepared and characterized with respect to selected film properties, such as thickness and surface topography. The experiments indicate a systematic influence of the deposition parameters on the film properties as hypothesized before. Because of this influence, the energy distribution of secondary particles was measured using an energy-selective mass spectrometer. Among others, experiments revealed a high-energetic maximum for backscattered primary ions, which shifts with increasing emission angle to higher energies. Experimental data are compared with Monte Carlo simulations done with the well-known Transport and Range of Ions in Matter, Sputtering version (TRIM.SP) code [J.P. Biersack, W. Eckstein, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 34 (1984) 73]. The thicknesses of the films are in good agreement with those calculated from simulated particle fluxes. For the positions of the

  2. Global and Regional Evaluation of Energy for Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaling; Hejazi, Mohamad; Kyle, Page; Kim, Son H.; Davies, Evan; Miralles, Diego G.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; He, Yujie; Niyogi, Dev

    2016-09-06

    Despite significant effort to quantify the inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global requirements of energy for water (E4W) are still poorly understood, which may result in biases in projections and consequently in water and energy management and policy. This study estimates water-related energy consumption by water source, sector, and process, for 14 global regions from 1973 to 2012. Globally, E4W amounted to 10.2 ± 5 EJ of primary energy consumption in 2010, accounting for 1.2–3% of total global primary energy consumption, of which 58% pertains to surface water, 30% to groundwater, and 12% to non-fresh water, assuming median energy intensity levels. The sectoral E4W allocation includes municipal (45%), industrial (30%), and agricultural (25%), and main process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (39%), water purification (27%), water distribution (12%) and wastewater treatment (18%). While the USA was the largest E4W consumer from the 1970’s until the 2000’s, the largest consumers at present are the Middle East, India, and China, driven by rapid growth in desalination, groundwater-based irrigation, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. The improved understanding of global E4W will enable enhanced consistency of both water and energy representations in integrated assessment models.

  3. Global and Regional Evaluation of Energy for Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaling; Hejazi, Mohamad; Kyle, Page; Kim, Son H; Davies, Evan; Miralles, Diego G; Teuling, Adriaan J; He, Yujie; Niyogi, Dev

    2016-09-06

    Despite significant effort to quantify the interdependence of the water and energy sectors, global requirements of energy for water (E4W) are still poorly understood, which may result in biases in projections and consequently in water and energy management and policy. This study estimates water-related energy consumption by water source, sector, and process for 14 global regions from 1973 to 2012. Globally, E4W amounted to 10.2 EJ of primary energy consumption in 2010, accounting for 1.7%-2.7% of total global primary energy consumption, of which 58% pertains to fresh surface water, 30% to fresh groundwater, and 12% to nonfresh water, assuming median energy intensity levels. The sectoral E4W allocation includes municipal (45%), industrial (30%), and agricultural (25%), and main process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (39%), water purification (27%), water distribution (12%), and wastewater treatment (18%). While the United States was the largest E4W consumer from the 1970s until the 2000s, the largest consumers at present are the Middle East, India, and China, driven by rapid growth in desalination, groundwater-based irrigation, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. The improved understanding of global E4W will enable enhanced consistency of both water and energy representations in integrated assessment models.

  4. Low-energy ion beam-based deposition of gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M. R., E-mail: mrvasquez@coe.upd.edu.ph [Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    An ion source with a remote plasma chamber excited by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency power was used for low-energy broad ion beam extraction. Optical emission spectral analyses showed the sputtering and postionization of a liquid gallium (Ga) target placed in a chamber separated from the source bombarded by argon (Ar) plasma guided by a bent magnetic field. In addition, an E × B probe successfully showed the extraction of low-energy Ga and Ar ion beams using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. By introducing dilute amounts of nitrogen gas into the system, formation of thin Ga-based films on a silicon substrate was demonstrated as determined from X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity studies.

  5. ION BEAM HEATED TARGET SIMULATIONS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER PHYSICS AND INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J.J.; Armijo, J.; Bailey, D.S.; Friedman, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Leung, P.T.; Logan, B.G.; Marinak, M.M.; More, R.M.; Ng, S.F.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Veitzer, S.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yu, S.S.; Zylstra, A.B.

    2008-08-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  6. Ion Beam Heated Target Simulations for Warm Dense Matter Physics and Inertial Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J J; Armijo, J; Bailey, D S; Friedman, A; Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Kaganovich, I; Leung, P T; Logan, B G; Marinak, M M; More, R M; Ng, S F; Penn, G E; Perkins, L J; Veitzer, S; Wurtele, J S; Yu, S S; Zylstra, A B

    2008-08-12

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  7. MODELLING AND OPTIMISATION OF A BIMORPH PIEZOELECTRIC CANTILEVER BEAM IN AN ENERGY HARVESTING APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUNG KET THEIN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials are excellent transducers in converting vibrational energy into electrical energy, and vibration-based piezoelectric generators are seen as an enabling technology for wireless sensor networks, especially in selfpowered devices. This paper proposes an alternative method for predicting the power output of a bimorph cantilever beam using a finite element method for both static and dynamic frequency analyses. Experiments are performed to validate the model and the simulation results. In addition, a novel approach is presented for optimising the structure of the bimorph cantilever beam, by which the power output is maximised and the structural volume is minimised simultaneously. Finally, the results of the optimised design are presented and compared with other designs.

  8. Low-energy ion beam-based deposition of gallium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, M R; Wada, M

    2016-02-01

    An ion source with a remote plasma chamber excited by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency power was used for low-energy broad ion beam extraction. Optical emission spectral analyses showed the sputtering and postionization of a liquid gallium (Ga) target placed in a chamber separated from the source bombarded by argon (Ar) plasma guided by a bent magnetic field. In addition, an E × B probe successfully showed the extraction of low-energy Ga and Ar ion beams using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. By introducing dilute amounts of nitrogen gas into the system, formation of thin Ga-based films on a silicon substrate was demonstrated as determined from X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity studies.

  9. MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzanankos, G.; /Athens U.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; /Brookhaven; Escobar, C.O.; Gomes, R.A.; Gouffon, P.; /Campinas State U. /Goias U. /Sao Paulo U.; Blake, A.; Thomson, M.; /Cambridge U.; Patterson, R.B.; /Caltech; Adamson, P.; Childress, S.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /Los Alamos /Minnesota U. /Minnesota U., Duluth /Bhubaneswar, NISER /Iowa State U.

    2011-05-01

    This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NO{nu}A will deliver about 18 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

  10. Electromagnetic radiation and nonlinear energy flow in an electron beam-plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the unstable electron-plasma waves of a beam-plasma system can generate electromagnetic radiation in a uniform plasma. The generation mechanism is a scattering of the unstable electron plasma waves off ion-acoustic waves, producing electromagnetic waves whose frequency is near the local plasma frequency. The wave vector and frequency matching conditions of the three-wave mode coupling are experimentally verified. The electromagnetic radiation is observed to be polarized with the electric field parallel to the beam direction, and its source region is shown to be localized to the unstable plasma wave region. The frequency spectrum shows negligible intensity near the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. These results suggest that the observed electromagnetic radiation of type III solar bursts may be generated near the local plasma frequency and observed downstream where the wave frequency is near the harmonic of the plasma frequency.

  11. Numerical simulations of generation of high-energy ion beams driven by a petawatt femtosecond laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domański Jarosław

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents results of a Particle-in-Cell simulation of ion beam acceleration via the interaction of a petawatt 25 fs laser pulse of high intensity (up to ~1021 W/cm2 with thin hydrocarbon (CH and erbium hydride (ErH3 targets of equal areal mass density (of 0.6 g/m2. A special attention is paid to the effect that the laser pulse polarization and the material composition of the target have on the maximum ion energies and the number of high energy (>10 MeV protons. It is shown that both the mean and the maximum ion energies are higher for the linear polarization than for the circular one. A comparison of the maximum proton energies and the total number of protons generated from the CH and ErH3 targets using a linearly polarized beam is presented. For the ErH3 targets the maximum proton energies are higher and they reach 50 MeV for the laser pulse intensity of 1021 W/cm2. The number of protons with energies higher than 10 MeV is an order of magnitude higher for the ErH3 targets than that for the CH targets.

  12. Study of Radiation Damage in Lead Tungstate Crystals Using Intense High Energy Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Batarin, V; Butler, J; Cheung, H; Datsko, V S; Davidenko, A; Derevshchikov, A A; Dzhelyadin, R I; Fomin, Y; Frolov, V; Goncharenko, Yu M; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Khroustalev, K; Konoplyannikov, A K; Konstantinov, A S; Kravtsov, V; Kubota, Y; Leontiev, V M; Lukanin, V S; Maisheev, V; Matulenko, Yu A; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Mikhalin, N; Minaev, N G; Mochalov, V; Morozov, D A; Mountain, R; Nogach, L V; Pikalov, V A; Ryazantsev, A; Semenov, P A; Shestermanov, K E; Soloviev, L; Solovyanov, V L; Stone, S; Ukhanov, M N; Uzunian, A V; Vasilev, A; Yakutin, A; Yarba, J V

    2003-01-01

    We report on the effects of radiation on the light output of lead tungstate crystals. The crystals were irradiated by pure, intense high energy electron and hadron beams as well as by a mixture of hadrons, neutrons and gammas. The crystals were manufactured in Bogoroditsk, Apatity (both Russia), and Shanghai (China). These studies were carried out at the 70-GeV proton accelerator in Protvino.

  13. Study of radiation damage in lead tungstate crystals using intense high-energy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batarin, V.A.; Brennan, T.; Butler, J.; Cheung, H.; Datsko, V.S.; Davidenko, A.M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Dzhelyadin, R.I.; Fomin, Y.V.; Frolov, V.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Grishin, V.N.; Kachanov, V.A.; Khodyrev, V.Y.; Khroustalev, K.; Konoplyannikov, A.K.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Kubota, Y.; Leontiev, V.M.; Lukanin, V.S.; Maisheev, V.A.; Matulenko, Y.A.; Melnick, Y.M.; Meschanin, A.P.; Mikhalin, N.E.; Minaev, N.G.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Mountain, R.; Nogach, L.V.; Pikalov, V.A.; Ryazantsev, A.V.; Semenov, P.A. E-mail: semenov@mx.ihep.su; Shestermanov, K.E.; Soloviev, L.F.; Solovianov, V.L.; Stone, S.; Ukhanov, M.N.; Uzunian, A.V.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Yakutin, A.E.; Yarba, J

    2003-10-21

    We report on the effects of radiation on the light output of lead tungstate crystals. The crystals were irradiated by pure, intense high-energy electron and hadron beams as well as by a mixture of hadrons, neutrons and gammas. The crystals were manufactured in Bogoroditsk, Apatity (both Russia), and Shanghai (China). These studies were carried out at the 70-GeV proton accelerator in Protvino.

  14. Strategic Energy Planning in the Öresund Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Sperling, Karl; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    In this project the municipalities’ role in the transition to a renewable energy system is studied. For the study municipalities in Sweden and Denmark located in the Öresund Region have been chosen as cases. A number of interviews have been carried out to give the perspective of municipal planning...... on the national goals and direction of development and the municipalities’ role and potential to act in this context. The results contain a number of policy recommendations to improve the municipalities’ ability to do strategic energy planning (SEP) e.g. in Sweden to have more ambitious goals and in Denmark...... to have requirements of doing SEP. A number of areas with potential knowledge transfer have also been identified. For example to use the Swedish experience with environmental assessment of energy plans in Denmark or to use the Danish experience with a progression in time in the building energy codes...

  15. Laser-Driven Very High Energy Electron/Photon Beam Radiation Therapy in Conjunction with a Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Nakajima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new external-beam radiation therapy system using very-high-energy (VHE electron/photon beams generated by a centimeter-scale laser plasma accelerator built in a robotic system. Most types of external-beam radiation therapy are delivered using a machine called a medical linear accelerator driven by radio frequency (RF power amplifiers, producing electron beams with an energy range of 6–20 MeV, in conjunction with modern radiation therapy technologies for effective shaping of three-dimensional dose distributions and spatially accurate dose delivery with imaging verification. However, the limited penetration depth and low quality of the transverse penumbra at such electron beams delivered from the present RF linear accelerators prevent the implementation of advanced modalities in current cancer treatments. These drawbacks can be overcome if the electron energy is increased to above 50 MeV. To overcome the disadvantages of the present RF-based medical accelerators, harnessing recent advancement of laser-driven plasma accelerators capable of producing 1-GeV electron beams in a 1-cm gas cell, we propose a new embodiment of the external-beam radiation therapy robotic system delivering very high-energy electron/photon beams with an energy of 50–250 MeV; it is more compact, less expensive, and has a simpler operation and higher performance in comparison with the current radiation therapy system.

  16. Photonuclear dose calculations for high-energy photon beams from Siemens and Varian linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibani, Omar; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie

    2003-08-01

    The dose from photon-induced nuclear particles (neutrons, protons, and alpha particles) generated by high-energy photon beams from medical linacs is investigated. Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNPX code are performed for three different photon beams from two different machines: Siemens 18 MV, Varian 15 MV, and Varian 18 MV. The linac head components are simulated in detail. The dose distributions from photons, neutrons, protons, and alpha particles are calculated in a tissue-equivalent phantom. Neutrons are generated in both the linac head and the phantom. This study includes (a) field size effects, (b) off-axis dose profiles, (c) neutron contribution from the linac head, (d) dose contribution from capture gamma rays, (e) phantom heterogeneity effects, and (f) effects of primary electron energy shift. Results are presented in terms of absolute dose distributions and also in terms of DER (dose equivalent ratio). The DER is the maximum dose from the particle (neutron, proton, or alpha) divided by the maximum photon dose, multiplied by the particle quality factor and the modulation scaling factor. The total DER including neutrons, protons, and alphas is about 0.66 cSv/Gy for the Siemens 18 MV beam (10 cm x 10 cm). The neutron DER decreases with decreasing field size while the proton (or alpha) DER does not vary significantly except for the 1 cm x 1 cm field. Both Varian beams (15 and 18 MV) produce more neutrons, protons, and alphas particles than the Siemens 18 MV beam. This is mainly due to their higher primary electron energies: 15 and 18.3 MeV, respectively, vs 14 MeV for the Siemens 18 MV beam. For all beams, neutrons contribute more than 75% of the total DER, except for the 1 cm x 1 cm field (approximately 50%). The total DER is 1.52 and 2.86 cSv/Gy for the 15 and 18 MV Varian beams (10 cm x 10 cm), respectively. Media with relatively high-Z elements like bone may increase the dose from heavy charged particles by a factor 4. The total DER is sensitive to

  17. Feasibility Study on Cardiac Arrhythmia Ablation Using High-Energy Heavy Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, H. Immo; Graeff, Christian; Simoniello, Palma; Constantinescu, Anna; Takami, Mitsuru; Lugenbiel, Patrick; Richter, Daniel; Eichhorn, Anna; Prall, Matthias; Kaderka, Robert; Fiedler, Fine; Helmbrecht, Stephan; Fournier, Claudia; Erbeldinger, Nadine; Rahm, Ann-Kathrin; Rivinius, Rasmus; Thomas, Dierk; Katus, Hugo A.; Johnson, Susan B.; Parker, Kay D.; Debus, Jürgen; Asirvatham, Samuel J.; Bert, Christoph; Durante, Marco; Packer, Douglas L.

    2016-12-01

    High-energy ion beams are successfully used in cancer therapy and precisely deliver high doses of ionizing radiation to small deep-seated target volumes. A similar noninvasive treatment modality for cardiac arrhythmias was tested here. This study used high-energy carbon ions for ablation of cardiac tissue in pigs. Doses of 25, 40, and 55 Gy were applied in forced-breath-hold to the atrioventricular junction, left atrial pulmonary vein junction, and freewall left ventricle of intact animals. Procedural success was tracked by (1.) in-beam positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging; (2.) intracardiac voltage mapping with visible lesion on ultrasound; (3.) lesion outcomes in pathohistolgy. High doses (40–55 Gy) caused slowing and interruption of cardiac impulse propagation. Target fibrosis was the main mediator of the ablation effect. In irradiated tissue, apoptosis was present after 3, but not 6 months. Our study shows feasibility to use high-energy ion beams for creation of cardiac lesions that chronically interrupt cardiac conduction.

  18. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  19. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  20. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  1. Measurement of breast tissue composition with dual energy cone-beam computed tomography: A postmortem study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Huanjun; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a three-material compositional measurement of water, lipid, and protein content of breast tissue with dual kVp cone-beam computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic purposes. Methods: Simulations were performed on a flat panel-based computed tomography system with a dual kVp technique in order to guide the selection of experimental acquisition parameters. The expected errors induced by using the proposed calibration materials were also estimated by simulation. Twenty pairs of postmortem breast samples were imaged with a flat-panel based dual kVp cone-beam CT system, followed by image-based material decomposition using calibration data obtained from a three-material phantom consisting of water, vegetable oil, and polyoxymethylene plastic. The tissue samples were then chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein contents after imaging to allow direct comparison with data from dual energy decomposition. Results: Guided by results from simulation, the beam energies for the dual kVp cone-beam CT system were selected to be 50 and 120 kVp with the mean glandular dose divided equally between each exposure. The simulation also suggested that the use of polyoxymethylene as the calibration material for the measurement of pure protein may introduce an error of -11.0%. However, the tissue decomposition experiments, which employed a calibration phantom made out of water, oil, and polyoxymethylene, exhibited strong correlation with data from the chemical analysis. The average root-mean-square percentage error for water, lipid, and protein contents was 3.58% as compared with chemical analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the water, lipid, and protein contents can be accurately measured using dual kVp cone-beam CT. The tissue compositional information may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer diagnosis.

  2. Local and Regional Impacts of Large Scale Wind Energy Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakes, J.; Hammond, S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P.; Robinson, M.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. is currently on a path to produce 20% of its electricity from wind energy by 2030, almost a 10-fold increase over present levels of electricity generated from wind. Such high-penetration wind energy deployment will entail extracting elevated energy levels from the planetary boundary layer and preliminary studies indicate that this will have significant but uncertain impacts on the local and regional environment. State and federal regulators have raised serious concerns regarding potential agricultural impacts from large farms deployed throughout the Midwest where agriculture is the basis of the local economy. The effects of large wind farms have been proposed to be both beneficial (drying crops to reduce occurrences of fungal diseases, avoiding late spring freezes, enhancing pollen viability, reducing dew duration) and detrimental (accelerating moisture loss during drought) with no conclusive investigations thus far. As both wind and solar technologies are deployed at scales required to replace conventional technologies, there must be reasonable certainty that the potential environmental impacts at the micro, macro, regional and global scale do not exceed those anticipated from carbon emissions. Largely because of computational limits, the role of large wind farms in affecting regional-scale weather patterns has only been investigated in coarse simulations and modeling tools do not yet exist which are capable of assessing the downwind affects of large wind farms may have on microclimatology. In this presentation, we will outline the vision for and discuss technical and scientific challenges in developing a multi-model high-performance simulation capability covering the range of mesoscale to sub-millimeter scales appropriate for assessing local, regional, and ultimately global environmental impacts and quantifying uncertainties of large scale wind energy deployment scenarios. Such a system will allow continuous downscaling of atmospheric processes on wind

  3. Energy efficiency assessment for the Antalya Region hotels in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onut, S.; Soner, S. [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Faculty

    2006-08-15

    The hotels in the Antalya Region of Turkey have become a major consumer of energy, water and other resources. However, at present, there are no existing guidelines for the efficient use and management of these resources. Energy management includes increasing in profitability due to the reduced operational costs and it is also a potential for improved market share. Many different evaluation models have been published in energy management literature. However there have been not so many systematic approaches to compare the relative efficiency of the systems. Data envelopment analysis is a special linear programming model for deriving the comparative efficiency of multiple-input multiple-output decision-making units. An evaluation of energy efficiency in 32 five-star hotels in the Antalya Region has been carried out and the results are discussed in this paper. According to this study eight hotels are efficient and twenty-four hotels are inefficient. Also for these 24 inefficient hotels, ideal energy consumptions (electricity, water and liquefied petroleum gas consumptions) are proposed to make these hotels efficient. In this study data envelopment analysis models are evaluated by using a linear programming package LINGO 5.0. (author)

  4. Energy efficiency assessment for the Antalya Region hotels in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oenuet, S.; Soner, S. [Yildiz Technical University, Mechanical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-07-01

    The hotels in the Antalya Region of Turkey have become a major consumer of energy, water and other resources. However, at present, there are no existing guidelines for the efficient use and management of these resources. Energy management includes increasing in profitability due to the reduced operational costs and it is also a potential for improved market share. Many different evaluation models have been published in energy management literature. However there have been not so many systematic approaches to compare the relative efficiency of the systems. Data envelopment analysis is a special linear programming model for deriving the comparative efficiency of multiple-input multiple-output decision-making units. An evaluation of energy efficiency in 32 five-star hotels in the Antalya Region has been carried out and the results are discussed in this paper. According to this study eight hotels are efficient and twenty-four hotels are inefficient. Also for these 24 inefficient hotels, ideal energy consumptions (electricity, water and liquefied petroleum gas consumptions) are proposed to become efficient these hotels. In this study data envelopment analysis models are evaluated by using a linear programming package LINGO 5.0. (author)

  5. THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS ENERGY IN THREE ALBANIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jupe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass combustion is amongst the oldest and the most mature technique for conversion of biomass to energy; but still a great challenge lies ahead in developing new; more efficient and environmentally sustainable -systems. In light of the European Action and the National Strategy in the energy sector; Albania has enacted a friendly policy regarding renewable energy sources; including biomass. Execution of such projects is delegated to both regional and local authorities for various technical; economic and socio-environmental considerations as well as for an integrated approach to the land use planning. This paper identifies the main sources of biomass energy in three different regions of Albania i.e. Korça; Tirana and Vlora. It shows the weight of each possibility on the total potential for energy production by biomass as well as the type and distribution of each biomass. The manner how the potential offered by forestry; agriculture and agro-industry would be utilized will; apart from availability of appropriate technology; also depend on the ability of economic operators to organize themselves efficiently while respecting environmental sustainability.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Mitigation via Wavelength Detuning in Directly Driven Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenberger, M.; Marozas, J. A.; McKenty, P. W.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Radha, P. B.; Cao, D.; Knauer, J. P.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) affects directly driven, inertial confinement fusion implosions by reducing the absorbed light and the coupling of driver energy to the target. A mitigation strategy is to detune the laser wavelength of interacting beams (Δλ ≠ 0 ) to reduce the CBET interaction volume. In polar-direct-drive (PDD) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) the CBET-imposed energy losses occur predominantly in the equatorial region. The NIF does not support a hemispheric wavelength detuning but does have Δλ capabilities between inner and outer quads. Using a north-south asymmetric beam pointing, it is therefore possible to introduce a hemispheric wavelength difference of up to Δλ = 4.6 Å in the UV. We report on experiments to test this CBET mitigation scheme in PDD experiments on the NIF. Using this asymmetric beam pointing, we have completed experiments with both Δλ = 0 and 4.6 Å. The effect of CBET on the driver-target coupling is diagnosed via implosion velocities, implosion shape, and scattered-light spectra and by comparing experimental data to 2-D DRACO simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  7. Very High Energy Electron-positron Colliding Beams for the Study of the Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, B

    1976-01-01

    We consider the design of very high energy electron-positron colliding-beam storage rings for use primarily as a tool for investigating the weak interactions. These devices appear to be a very powerful tool for determining the properties of these interactions. Experimental possibilities are described, a cost minimization technique is developed, and a model machine is designed to operate at centre-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV. Costs are discussed, and problems delineated that must be solved before such a machine can be finally designed.

  8. "TIVAL" — A development in spectrum tailoring for intermediate-energy neutron beam production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, G.

    1989-07-01

    Beams of intermediate-energy neutrons produced by filtering offer significant advantages over thermal neutrons for boron neutron capture therapy. Preconditioning the spectrum within the reactor prior to filtering can increase the intensity and lower the mean neutron energy, to give reduced proton recoil damage in normal tissue. Aluminium with a small proportion of D 2O has been proposed as a spectrum shifter to achieve this. We describe here calculations that demonstrate considerable further softening of the spectrum by TIVAL, a mixture of aluminium together with small quantities of titanium and vanadium.

  9. Overview of results from phase I of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC was successfully completed during the years 2010, 2011 and 2014, with Au+Au collisions at center-of-mass energies (√sNN of 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV. The BES has three distinct goals: search for the turning off of the signatures of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP, search for the first-order phase transition, and search for the critical point. We report several interesting results that address each of these goals of the BES program.

  10. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyar, V A; Eremin, V V

    2002-01-01

    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well

  11. Low-energy cosmic rays in the Orion region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.

    1998-01-01

    The recently observed nuclear gamma-ray line emission from the Orion complex implies a high flux of low-energy cosmic rays (LECR) with unusual abundance. This cosmic ray component would dominate the energy density, pressure, and ionising power of cosmic rays, and thus would have a strong impact...... sections, thus it depends only weakly on the LECR spectrum and not on any other parameter. Observations with HEPC will allow us to derive the bremsstrahlung spectrum over the weakly extended gamma-ray emission regions....

  12. Monopoly or competition. The situation of regional energy supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahn von Seelen, U.

    1989-07-01

    Spurred on by constant challenges and invitations to restructure and improve their supply areas, the regional utilities succeeded in creating conditions and tariffs competing with those of the urban and neighboring interconnected utilities. The success of the regional utilities can be attributed to the fusion of communities into efficient supply areas, the size of utilities allowing them to fully utilize all technical and organizational vehicles of energy conservation, load-oriented networks extending beyond individual communities, and the balancing of different consumer-related loads within large supply areas. (orig./UA).

  13. A Computer Program to Measure the Energy Spread of Multi-turn Beam in the Fermilab Booster at Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jovan; Bhat, Chandrashekhara; Hendricks, Brian

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a computer program interfaced with the ACNET environment for Fermilab accelerators in order to measure the energy spread of the injected proton beam from the LINAC, at the energy of 400 MeV. This program allows the user to configure a digitizing oscilloscope and timing devices to optimize data acquisition from a resistive wall current monitor. When the program is launched, it secures control of the oscilloscope and then generates a ``one-shot'' timeline which initiates injection into the Booster. Once this is complete, a kicker is set to create a notch in the beam and the line charge distribution data is collected by the oscilloscope. The program then analyzes this data in order to obtain notch width, beam revolution period, and beam energy spread. This allows the program to be a possible useful diagnostic tool for the beginning of the acceleration cycle for the proton beam. Thank you to the SIST program at Fermilab.

  14. Energy response of an aluminium oxide detector in kilovoltage and megavoltage photon beams: an EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyingi, Ephraim O; Mobit, Paul N; Sandison, George A

    2006-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study of the energy response of an aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) detector in kilovoltage and megavoltage photon beams relative to (60)Co gamma rays has been performed using EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations. The sensitive volume of the Al(2)O(3) detector was simulated as a disc of diameter 2.85 mm and thickness 1 mm. The phantom material was water and the irradiation depth chosen was 2.0 cm in kilovoltage photon beams and 5.0 cm in megavoltage photon beams. The results show that the energy response of the Al(2)O(3) detector is constant within 3% for photon beam energies in the energy range of (60)Co gamma rays to 25 MV X rays. However, the Al(2)O(3) detector shows an enhanced energy response for kilovoltage photon beams, which in the case of 50 kV X rays is 3.2 times higher than that for (60)Co gamma rays. There is essentially no difference in the energy responses of LiF and Al(2)O(3) detectors irradiated in megavoltage photon beams when these Al(2)O(3) results are compared with literature data for LiF thermoluminescence detectors. However, the Al(2)O(3) detector has a much higher enhanced response compared with LiF detectors in kilovoltage X-ray beams, more than twice as much for the case of 50 kV X rays.

  15. Electrical performance of the InGaP solar cell irradiated with low energy electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Yasuki; Okuda, Shuichi; Kojima, Takeo; Oka, Takashi [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai City, Osaka (Japan); Kawakita, Shirou; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kusawake, Hiroaki [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The investigation of the radiation degradation characteristics of InGaP space solar cells is important. In order to understand the mechanism of the degradation by radiation the samples of the InGaP solar cell were irradiated in vacuum and at ambient temperature with electron beams from a Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator at Osaka Prefecture University. The threshold energies for recoil were obtained by theoretical calculation. The energies and the fluences of the electron beams were from 60 to 400 keV and from 3 x 10{sup 14} to 3 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, respectively. The light-current-voltage measurements were performed. The degradation of Isc caused by the defects related to the phosphorus atoms was observed and the degradation was suppressed by irradiation at an energy higher than the threshold energy for recoiling Indium atoms. At an energy of 60 keV, where the recoil does not occur, the V{sub oc} was degraded. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Beam energy distribution influences on density modulation efficiency in seeded free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guanglei; Deng, Haixiao; Zhang, Weiqing; Wu, Guorong; Dai, Dongxu; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Zhentang; Yang, Xueming

    2015-01-01

    The beam energy spread at the entrance of undulator system is of paramount importance for efficient density modulation in high-gain seeded free-electron lasers (FELs). In this paper, the dependences of high harmonic micro-bunching in the high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG), echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) and phase-merging enhanced harmonic generation (PEHG) schemes on the electron energy spread distribution are studied. Theoretical investigations and multi-dimensional numerical simulations are applied to the cases of uniform and saddle beam energy distributions and compared to a traditional Gaussian distribution. It shows that the uniform and saddle electron energy distributions significantly enhance the performance of HGHG-FELs, while they almost have no influence on EEHG and PEHG schemes. A numerical example demonstrates that, with about 84keV RMS uniform and/or saddle slice energy spread, the 30th harmonic radiation can be directly generated by a single-stage seeding scheme for a soft x-ray FEL f...

  17. 9 GeV Energy Gain in a Beam-Driven Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Litos, M; Allen, J M; An, W; Clarke, C I; Corde, S; Clayton, C E; Frederico, J; Gessner, S J; Green, S Z; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Lu, W; Marsh, K A; Mori, W B; Schmeltz, M; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N; Yakimenko, V

    2015-01-01

    An electron beam has gained a maximum energy of 9 GeV per particle in a 1.3 m-long electron beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. The amount of charge accelerated in the spectral peak was 28.3 pC, and the root-mean-square energy spread was 5.0%. The mean accelerated charge and energy gain per particle of the 215 shot data set was 115 pC and 5.3 GeV, respectively, corresponding to an acceleration gradient of 4.0 GeV/m at the spectral peak. The mean energy spread of the data set was 5.1%. These results are consistent with the extrapolation of the previously reported energy gain results using a shorter, 36 cm-long plasma source to within 10%, evincing a non-evolving wake structure that can propagate distances of over a meter in length. Wake-loading effects were evident in the data through strong dependencies observed between various spectral properties and the amount of accelerated charge.

  18. A Method to Improve Electron Density Measurement of Cone-Beam CT Using Dual Energy Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Men

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a dual energy imaging method to improve the accuracy of electron density measurement with a cone-beam CT (CBCT device. Materials and Methods. The imaging system is the XVI CBCT system on Elekta Synergy linac. Projection data were acquired with the high and low energy X-ray, respectively, to set up a basis material decomposition model. Virtual phantom simulation and phantoms experiments were carried out for quantitative evaluation of the method. Phantoms were also scanned twice with the high and low energy X-ray, respectively. The data were decomposed into projections of the two basis material coefficients according to the model set up earlier. The two sets of decomposed projections were used to reconstruct CBCT images of the basis material coefficients. Then, the images of electron densities were calculated with these CBCT images. Results. The difference between the calculated and theoretical values was within 2% and the correlation coefficient of them was about 1.0. The dual energy imaging method obtained more accurate electron density values and reduced the beam hardening artifacts obviously. Conclusion. A novel dual energy CBCT imaging method to calculate the electron densities was developed. It can acquire more accurate values and provide a platform potentially for dose calculation.

  19. Critical properties of the high-energy electron-beam-irradiated superconductor weak links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Lee, Soon Gul [Korea University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    We have studied the effects of high-energy electron-beam irradiation on the superconducting transition properties of an YBCO bicrystal junction, a focused ion-beam (FIB)-patterned YBCO nanobridge, a MgB{sub 2} intergrain nanobridge, and a BaKFeAs multigrain microbridge. We used one sample for each junction type and repeated the irradiation-and-measurement process at 6 accumulated-dose steps: 0, 3 x 10{sup 14}, 10{sup 15}, 3 x 10{sup 15}, 10{sup 16}, and 10{sup 17} e/cm{sup 2}. A uniform electron beam with a 1-MeV kinetic energy was irradiated indiscrimately over the samples. We measured the resistive transition temperature, the normal-state resistance, and the critical current. The irradiation effect was significant for all the samples except the BaKFeAs microbridge. The critical current data for the YBCO bicrystal junction and the MgB{sub 2} intergrain nanobridge had a maximum at 3 x 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 2}, and the YBCO nanobridge showed a monotonic decrease. For all the samples, the normal state resistance increased monotonically with increasing dose by up to ∼20% at 10{sup 16} e/cm{sup 2}, and the change in T{sub c} was negligible. The results showed that the YBCO and MgB{sub 2} weak links were susceptive to irradiation, indicating the possibility of controlling the critical current of those junctions by using high-energy electron-beam irradiation.

  20. Monte Carlo Commissioning of Low Energy Electron Radiotherapy Beams using NXEGS Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is a report on the commissioning of low energy electron beams of a medical linear accelerator for Monte Carlo dose calculation using NXEGS software (NXEGS version 1.0.10.0, NX Medical Software, LLC. A unique feature of NXEGS is automated commissioning, a process whereby a combination of analytic and Monte Carlo methods generates beam models from dosimetric data collected in a water phantom. This study uses NXEGS to commission 6, 9, and 12 MeV electron beams of a Varian Clinac 2100C using three applicators with standard inserts. Central axis depth-dose, primary axis and diagonal beam profiles, and output factors are the measurements necessary for commissioning of the code. We present a comparison of measured dose distributions with the distributions generated by NXEGS, using confidence limits on seven measures of error. We find that confidence limits are typically less than 3% or 3 mm, but increase with increasing source to surface distance (SSD and depth at or beyond R50. We also investigate the dependence of NXEGS' performance on the size and composition of data used to commission the program, finding a weak dependence on number of dose profiles in the data set, but finding also that commissioning data need be measured at only two SSDs.