WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam dumps

  1. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  2. Premature beam dumps in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of all non-programmed beam dumps during the 2011 proton run is presented. The selection criteria of fills that got considered were that the beam intensity of each of the two beams exceeded at least 1e12 particles per beam in order to exclude all probe beam dumps and most of the MPS test dumps. A distribution of beam dump causes by system is shown, as well as the time it took to re-establish injection after a non-programmed dump for fills which made it into STABLE BEAMS. This was done in an attempt to evaluate the cost of those non-programmed dumps in terms of time.

  3. Beam catcher/dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, low cost aperture limiting device with an absorber block has been developed and installed in the AGS ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The device intercepts injection tails, transition losses, and the inward spiraling beam of an aborted accelerations or extraction cycle. The resultant consolidation of losses at one point reduces activation of components around the ring and radiation exposure to personnel

  4. Beam dumping at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safely ejecting the approx. 40 MJ stored energy per beam at ISABELLE is clearly a major problem, both for experimental apparatus and for superconducting magnets. Intensive study of this problem is just beginning. A brief review of the current status is presented

  5. Collective deceleration: toward a compact beam dump

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, H.-C.; Tajima, T.; Habs, D.; Chao, A.W.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing development of laser accelerators, the electron energy is already beyond GeV and even higher in near future. Conventional beam dump based on ionization or radiation loss mechanism is cumbersome and costly, also has radiological hazards. We revisit the stopping power of high-energy charged particles in matter and discuss the associated problem of beam dump from the point of view of collective deceleration. The collective stopping length in an ionized gas can be several orde...

  6. Replacing the Beam Dump at the Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The PS Booster Dump, designed in the 1960’s to cope with beam energies in the order of 800 MeV, has been dismantled and replaced with a new one, capable of withstanding the 2 GeV beam provided by the upcoming LINAC4 at CERN. This video shows the installation of that new dump core inside a one-metre diameter cavity, surrounded by five shielding rings made of concrete and steel. It is the culmination of months of preparation, an interdisciplinary work involving several teams from the Engineering, Beams and Technology Departments, as well as the collaboration and supervision of radio-protection experts.

  7. Collective Deceleration: Toward a Compact Beam Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.-C.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt.; Tajima, T.; Habs, D.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt. /Munich U.; Chao, A.W.; /SLAC; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt.

    2011-11-28

    With the increasing development of laser accelerators, the electron energy is already beyond GeV and even higher in near future. Conventional beam dump based on ionization or radiation loss mechanism is cumbersome and costly, also has radiological hazards. We revisit the stopping power of high-energy charged particles in matter and discuss the associated problem of beam dump from the point of view of collective deceleration. The collective stopping length in an ionized gas can be several orders of magnitude shorter than the Bethe-Bloch and multiple electromagnetic cascades stopping length in solid. At the mean time, the tenuous density of the gas makes the radioactivation negligible. Such a compact and non-radioactivating beam dump works well for short and dense bunches, which is typically generated from laser wakefield accelerator.

  8. ATA diagnostic beam dump conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic beam dump, able to withstand 72,000 pulses (10 kA, 50 MeV/pulse) per shift was designed and analyzed. The analysis shows that the conceptual beam dump design consisting of 80 vitreous carbon plate-foam elements is able to withstand the thermal and mechanical stresses generated. X-rays produced by bremsstrahlung are absorbed by a three element copper plate-foam x-ray absorber. Cooling between bursts of electron pulses is provided by pressurized helium

  9. Collective deceleration: Toward a compact beam dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.-C.; Tajima, T.; Habs, D.; Chao, A. W.; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J.

    2010-10-01

    With the increasing development of laser electron accelerators, electron energies beyond a GeV have been reached and higher values are expected in the near future. A conventional beam dump based on ionization or radiation loss mechanisms is cumbersome and costly, not to mention the radiological hazards. We revisit the stopping power theory of high-energy charged particles in matter and discuss the associated problem of beam dumping from the point of view of collective deceleration. The collective stopping length in an ionized gas can be several orders of magnitude shorter than that described by the Bethe-Bloch formulas and associated with multiple electromagnetic cascades in solids. At the same time, the tenuous density of the gas makes the radioactivation negligible. Such a compact beam dump without radioactivation works well for short and dense bunches, as they are typically generated from a laser wakefield accelerator. In addition, the nonuniform transverse wakefield can induce microbunching of the electron bunch by betatron oscillation. The microstructure could serve as a prebunched source for coherent radiation or feeding a free electron laser.

  10. Design Considerations for the PS2 Beam Dumps

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Goddard, B; Vincke, H

    2008-01-01

    The different beam dump functionalities required for the proposed PS2 machine and its transfer lines are briefly described, followed by first estimates about the expected beam loads. This data has been taken as input for comparing the different technical options for the dump systems, in particular to simulate the radiological impact for internal or external beam dump options. The numbers derived have been used to help decide which of the feasible technical alternatives are preferred.

  11. LHC beam dumping system Extraction channel layout and acceptance

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Uythoven, J; Veness, R; Weterings, W

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must safely abort the LHC beams under all conditions, including those resulting from abnormal behaviour of machine elements or subsystems of the beam dumping system itself. The extraction channels must provide sufficient aperture both for the circulating and extracted beams, over the whole energy range and under various beam parameters. These requirements impose tight constraints on the tolerances of various extraction channel components, and also on the allowed range of beam positions in the region of these components. Operation of the beam dumping system under various fault states has been considered, and the resulting apertures calculated. After describing briefly the beam dumping system and the extraction channel geometry, the various assumptions made in the analysis are presented, before deriving tolerance limits for the relevant equipment and beam parameters.

  12. Challenges and plans for injection and beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2015-01-01

    The injection and beam dumping systems of the LHC will need to be upgraded to comply with the requirements of operation with the HL-LHC beams. The elements of the injection system concerned are the fixed and movable absorbers which protect the LHC in case of an injection kicker error and the injection kickers themselves. The beam dumping system elements under study are the absorbers which protect the aperture in case of an asynchronous beam dump and the beam absorber block. The operational limits of these elements and the new developments in the context of the HL-LHC project are described.

  13. Beam dump experiment at future electron–positron colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Kanemura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new beam dump experiment at future colliders with electron (e− and positron (e+ beams, BDee, which will provide a new possibility to search for hidden particles, like hidden photon. If a particle detector is installed behind the beam dump, it can detect the signal of in-flight decay of the hidden particles produced by the scatterings of e± beams off materials for dumping. We show that, compared to past experiments, BDee (in particular BDee at e+e− linear collider significantly enlarges the parameter region where the signal of the hidden particle can be discovered.

  14. Uncoupled thermoelasticity solutions applied on beam dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzia, A.; Antonakakis, T.

    2016-06-01

    In particle accelerators the process of beam absorption is vital. At CERN particle beams are accelerated at energies of the order of TeV. In the event of a system failure or following collisions, the beam needs to be safely absorbed by dedicated protecting blocks. The thermal shock caused by the rapid energy deposition within the absorbing block causes thermal stresses that may rise above critical levels. The present paper provides a convenient expression of such stresses under hypotheses described hereafter. The temperature field caused by the beam energy deposition is assumed to be Gaussian. Such a field models a non-diffusive heat deposition. These effects are described as thermoelastic as long as the stresses remain below the proportional limit and can be analytically modeled by the coupled equations of thermoelasticity. The analytical solution to the uncoupled thermoelastic problem in an infinite domain is presented herein and matched with a finite unit radius sphere. The assumption of zero diffusion as well as the validity of the match with a finite geometry is quantified such that the obtained solutions can be rigorously applied to real problems. Furthermore, truncated series solutions, which are not novel, are used for comparison purposes. All quantities are nondimensional and the problem reduces to a dependence of five dimensionless parameters. The equations of elasticity are presented in the potential formulation where the shear potential is assumed to be nil due to the source being a gradient and the absence of boundaries. Nevertheless equivalent three-dimensional stresses are computed using the compressive potential and optimized using standard analytical optimization methods. An alternative algorithm for finding the critical points of the three-dimensional stress function is presented. Finally, a case study concerning the proton synchrotron booster dump is presented where the aforementioned analytical solutions are used and the preceding assumptions

  15. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E; Hatae, T; Vayakis, G; Bassan, M; Itami, K

    2013-10-01

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated.

  16. TCDQ-TCT retraction and losses during asynchronous beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Chiara; Quaranta, Elena; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the β* reach.

  17. Notes on dumping gold beam in the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C.J.; Ahrens, L.; Thieberger, P.

    2010-08-01

    Localized losses of gold beam in the AGS during RHIC Run 8 produced vacuum leaks which required the replacement of several vacuum chambers. A review of what happened and why was given by Leif Ahrens at the Run 8 Retreat. The following notes trace the subsequent development of clean dumping of gold beam on the beam dump in the J10 straight. The novel idea of stripping Au77+ ions in order to put them directly into the upstream face of the dump was introduced by Leif Ahrens and developed by all three of us. George Mahler made the actual stripping device and Dave Gassner developed its control. Leif Ahrens successfully commissioned the device with gold beam during Run 10. The reader may find it helpful to first view the figures herein and then refer to the text for details.

  18. Calculation of New Beam Dump Shielding for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 100 MeV high intensity cyclotron, CYCIAE-100, places a demanding requirement on the collection device to accept the proton beam. According to the original design, the beam dump would be settled in the cyclotron vault. It uses pure aluminum as the target material,

  19. The LHC Beam Dumping System Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Voumard, N

    2005-01-01

    Two LHC beam dumping systems (LBDS) will fast-extract the counter-rotating beams safely from the LHC collider during setting-up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. They consist of 15 fast pulsed magnets per ring for beam extraction from the accelerator combined with 10 fast pulsed magnets for horizontal and vertical beam dilution. Dump requests will come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system for emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These spontaneously issued dump requests will be synchronised with the 3 µs beam abort gap within a fail-safe trigger synchronisation unit (TSU) based on a digital phase lock loop (DPLL) locked on the beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. Afterwards, the synchronised trigger pulse will be distributed to the fast pulsed magnet high voltage generators through a redundant fault tolerant trigger distribution system based on the...

  20. Neutronics Assessments for a RIA Fragmentation Line Beam Dump Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Boles, Jason; Reyes, Susana; Stein, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Heavy ion and radiation transport calculations are in progress for conceptual beam dump designs for the fragmentation line of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Using the computer code PHITS, a preliminary design of a motor-driven rotating wheel beam dump and adjacent downstream multipole has been modeled. Selected results of these calculations are given, including neutron and proton flux in the wheel, absorbed dose and displacements per atom in the hub materials, and heating from prompt radiation and from decay heat in the multipole.

  1. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Döbrich, Babette; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-01-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments su...

  2. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döbrich, Babette; Jaeckel, Joerg; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-02-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in `dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  3. Search for Dark Matter with LHC proton Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM) comprising particles in the mass range of a few MeV to GeV is waiting to be explored, given the many theoretical models accommodating cosmological abundance. We hereby propose an experiment with the LHC proton beam of 7 TeV striking onto the beam dump target, emitting neutrinos and possibly, Dark Matter candidates. This experiment would also permit to observe signatures involving elastic and inelastic processes involving DM candidates, electrons and strongly interacting particles present in nuclei of the dump target. There will be residual neutrino background present in each of these signatures, hence the proposed experimental detector sub-systems would be such that they would involve as final states, elastically or inelasticity scattered, standard model particles. The bump or the excess in the tail of the kinematic distributions will eventually give us glimpse of presence of new particles which could possibly be Dark Matter candidates. Given the parameters of the LHC machine, the sensitivity...

  4. Radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, S

    1997-01-01

    The OPAL microvertex silicon detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system is described. This system was designed and implemented in order to measure the radiation dose received at every beam crossing and to induce a fast beam dump if the radiation dose exceeds a given threshold.

  5. Conceptual Design Considerations for the 50 TeV FCC Beam Dump Insertion

    CERN Document Server

    Burkart, Florian; Barna, Daniel; Bartmann, Wolfgang; Goddard, Brennan; Kramer, Thomas; Lechner, Anton; Sanz Ull, Alejandro; Schulte, Daniel; Stoel, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Safely extracting and absorbing the 50 TeV proton beams of the FCC-hh collider will be a major challenge. Two extended straight sections (ESS) are dedicated to beam dumping system and collimation. The beam dumping system will fast-extract the beam and transport it to an external absorber, while the collimation system will protect the superconducting accelerator components installed further downstream. The high stored beam energy of about 8.5 GJ per beam means that machine protection considerations will severely constrain the functional design of the ESS and the beam dump line geometry, in addition to dominating the performance specifications of the main sub-systems like kickers and absorber blocks. The general features, including concept choice, optics in the ESS and beam dump line, passive protection devices, layout and integration are described and discussed.

  6. Heavy Flavour Cascade Production in a Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    SHiP will use a 400~GeV/c proton beam impinging on a several interaction length long Molybdenum target. Heavy flavour hadrons produced in the dump can decay semi-leptonically, which can produce both the Heavy Neutral Leptons as signal, but also potential background from muons and neutrinos. The absolute rate of heavy flavour production is taken from measurements. Pythia is used to predict the phase space distribution of the charm and beauty hadrons which are produced both in the primary interaction of the 400~GeV/c proton and in interactions of the secondaries produced in the cascade. The full cascade production of both HNL and background is compared to that reported in the SHiP Technical Proposal, where only the primary $pN$ interactions were taken into account.

  7. Performance Studies of the SPS Beam Dump System for HL-LHC Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, FM; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Cornelis, K; Ducimetiere, L; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Losito, R; Maglioni, C; Meddahi, M; Pasdeloup, F; Senaj, V; Steele, GE

    2014-01-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) beam dump system is a concern for the planned High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) operation. The system has initially been designed for very different beam parameters compared to those which will reign after the completion of the LHC injectors upgrade, when the SPS will have to operate with unprecedented beam brightness. This paper describes the relevant operational and failure modes of the dump system together with the expected beam loading levels. Tracking studies are presented, considering both normal operation and failure scenarios, with particular attention to the location and level of proton losses. First FLUKA investigations and thermo-mechanical analysis of the high-energy absorber block are described.

  8. Radiation-hard Beam Position Detector for Use in the Accelerator Dump Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Degtiarenko, Pavel; Popov, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Proper transport of the electron beam with over 0.5MW of power to the beam dump is a prerequisite for operations at Jefferson Lab. Operations has relied on imaging the beam on a beam viewer located at the entrance to the beam dump. The large beam size at the dump entrance, due to beam scattering in the experimental target, sometimes results in no observable image on the view-screen. Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD) material with its large thermal conductivity and high melting point is well suited for surviving the thermal effects of beam exposure with this power density. We are exploring the CVD properties and how it can be used as a robust beam position monitor. Results of some beam tests with 0.5MW beams will be presented.

  9. Design of Air-Cooled Beam Dump for Extraction Line of PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Perillo-Marcone, A; Venturi, V; Antonakakis, T; Vlachoudis, V; Nowak, E; Mason, G; Battistin, M; Czapski, M; Sgobba, S

    2013-01-01

    A new beam dump has been designed, which withstands the future proton beam extracted from the Proton Syncrotron Booster (PSB) at CERN, consisting of up to 1E14 protons per pulse at 2 GeV after its upgrade in 2018/2019. In order to be able to efficiently release the deposited heat, the new dump will be made out of a single cylindrical block of a copper alloy and cooled by forced ventilation. In order to determine the energy density distribution deposited by the beam in the dump, Monte Carlo simulations were performed using FLUKA, and thermomechanical analyses carried out by importing the energy density into Ansys. In addition, CFD simulations of the airflow were carried out in order to accurately estimate the heat transfer convection coefficient on the surface of the dump. This paper describes the design process and highlights the constraints of integrating a new dump for increased beam power into the existing facility.

  10. Thermal, mechanical and fluid flow aspects of the high power beam dump for FRIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilov, Mikhail; Aaron, Adam; Amroussia, Aida; Bergez, Wladimir; Boehlert, Carl; Burgess, Thomas; Carroll, Adam; Colin, Catherine; Durantel, Florent; Ferrante, Paride; Fourmeau, Tiffany; Graves, Van; Grygiel, Clara; Kramer, Jacob; Mittig, Wolfgang; Monnet, Isabelle; Patel, Harsh; Pellemoine, Frederique; Ronningen, Reginald; Schein, Mike

    2016-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at Michigan State University is based on a 400 kW heavy ion accelerator and uses in-flight production and separation to generate rare isotope beams. The first section of the fragment separator houses the rare isotope production target, and the primary beam dump to stop the unreacted primary beam. The experimental program will use 400 kW ion beams from 16O to 238U. After interaction with the production target, over 300 kW in remaining beam power must be absorbed by the beam dump. A rotating water-cooled thin-shell metal drum was chosen as the basic concept for the beam dump. Extensive thermal, mechanical and fluid flow analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of the high power density in the beam dump shell and in the water. Many properties were optimized simultaneously, such as shell temperature, mechanical strength, fatigue strength, and radiation resistance. Results of the analyses of the beam dump performance with different design options will be discussed. For example, it was found that a design modification to the initial water flow pattern resulted in a substantial increase in the wall heat transfer coefficient. A detailed evaluation of materials for the shell is in progress. The widely used titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V (wt%), is presently considered as the best candidate, and is the subject of specific tests, such as studies of performance under heavy ion irradiation.

  11. The design of the electron beam dump unit of Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cite, L. H.; Yilmaz, M.

    2016-03-01

    The required simulations of the electron beam interactions for the design of electron beam dump unit for an accelerator which will operate to get two Infra-Red Free Electron Lasers (IR-FEL) covering the range of 3-250 microns is presented in this work. Simulations have been carried out to understand the interactions of a bulk of specially shaped of four different and widely used materials for the dump materials for a 77 pC, 40 MeV, 13 MHz repetition rate e-beam. In the simulation studies dump materials are chosen to absorb the 99% of the beam energy and to restrict the radio-isotope production in the bulk of the dump. A Lead shielding also designed around the dump core to prevent the leakage out of the all the emitted secondary radiations, e.g., neutrons, photons. The necessary dump material requirements, for the overall design considerations and the possible radiation originated effects on the dump unit, are discussed and presented.

  12. Reliability Analysis of the LHC Beam Dumping System Taking into Account the Operational Experience during LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R; Magnin, N; Uythoven, J A

    2014-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system operated reliably during the Run 1 period of the LHC (2009 2013). A number of internal failures of the beam dumping system occurred that, because of built-in safety features, resulted in a safe removal of the particle beams from the machine, so called “internal beam

  13. The Beam Energy Tracking System of the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Carlier, E; Gräwer, G; Voumard, N; Gjelsvik, R

    2005-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System (LBDS) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, will be installed around the straight section 6. It comprises per ring 15 horizontally deflecting extraction kickers, followed by 1 quadrupole, 15 vertically deflecting steel septum magnets, 10 dilution kickers and, in a separate cavern several hundred meters away, an external absorber assembly. A beam dump request can occur at any moment during the operation of the collider, from injection at 450 GeV up to top energy at 7 TeV. The Beam Energy Tracking System (BETS) monitors the deflection strength of each active element of the LBDS with respect to the beam energy in order to guarantee the correct extraction trajectory over the complete operational range and under all operational conditions. Its main functions are the acquisition of the beam energy, the generation of the kick strength reference signals for the extraction and dilution kickers, the continuous checking that the kicker high voltage generat...

  14. Further Study of Prompt Neutrino Production in a Proton Beam Dump Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In previous beam dump experiments at CERN, the production of prompt @n^e and @n(@m) in proton-nucleus collisions has been established. A difference in the prompt @n^e and @n(@m) fluxes which would indicate new physics, cannot be ruled out on the basis of existing data.\\\\ \\\\ The main aim of this beam dump experiment is to check with much better accuracy the equality of the prompt @n^e and @n(@m) fluxes. The use of two copper dumps with average density 1 and 1/3 permits the separation of the prompt and conventional neutrino fluxes by extrapolation to infinite density. The dumps will be located at the downstream end of the decay tunnel of the SPS neutrino facility.

  15. First Operational Experience with the LHC Beam Dump Trigger Synchronisation Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Magnin, N; Juteau, P; Voumard, N

    2011-01-01

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented f...

  16. LHC Beam Dump System: Analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. It is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missin...

  17. Beam-dump/diagnostics box for a 10-kA 50-MeV, 50-ns electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a dump for the ATA beam that consists of a series of carbon plates whose collective thickness totals approximately 1.5 ranges at 50 MeV. The energy dissipated in the plates is radiated to a water-cooled wall. The dump is designed to dissipate up to 175 kW of average power. A small hole along the axis of the plates forms a beamlet that passes through an energy analyzer. The analyzer consists of a 600 bending magnet and two high-sensitivity beam-current/position monitors. The ratio of the beamlet current to full current is used to estimate the beam emittance

  18. Beam Purity for Light Dark Matter Search in Beam Dump Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the search for light dark matter in beam dump experiments with a special emphasis on the necessity of beam purity for precise background rejection at the sensitivities aimed at these experiments. As a case study we cite the P348 experiment which has test beam time in Fall 2015 at the SPS H4 beam line at CERN and aims to search for the U′(1) gauge boson, A′, which as per one model of dark matter mediates a weak interaction between ordinary matter and dark matter via mixing of these “dark photons” with ordinary photon. The experiment aims to probe the still unexplored area of mixing strength 10-5≤ϵ≤10-3 and masses MA′≤100 MeV by using 10–300 GeV electron beam from the CERN SPS. This paper presents the simulation results for rejection of background due to beam impurity, by tracking the incoming particles with Micromegas detectors at a level <10-10

  19. Dark matter search in a Beam-Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglieri, M.; Bersani, A; Caiffi, B.; Celentano, A.; De Vita, R.; Fanchini, E.; Marsicano, L.; Musico, P.; M. Osipenko; Panza, F.; M. Ripani; Santopinto, E.; Taiuti, M.; Bellini, V.; Bondí, M.

    2016-01-01

    MeV-GeV dark matter (DM) is theoretically well motivated but remarkably unexplored. This proposal presents the MeV-GeV DM discovery potential for a $\\sim$1 m$^3$ segmented CsI(Tl) scintillator detector placed downstream of the Hall A beam-dump at Jefferson Lab, receiving up to 10$^{22}$ electrons-on-target (EOT) in 285 days. This experiment (Beam-Dump eXperiment or BDX) would be sensitive to elastic DM-electron and to inelastic DM scattering at the level of 10 counts per year, reaching the li...

  20. Design of An 18 MW Beam Dump for 500 GeV Electron/Positron Beams at An ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, John; /SLAC; Arnold, Ray; /SLAC; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC; Walz, Dieter; /SLAC; Kulkarni, Kiran; /Bhabha Atomic Res. Ctr.; Rai, Pravin; /Bhabha Atomic Res. Ctr.; Satyamurthy, Polepalle; /Bhabha Atomic Res. Ctr.; Tiwari, Vikar; /Bhabha Atomic Res. Ctr.; Vincke, Heinz; /CERN

    2012-07-05

    This article presents a report on the progress made in designing 18 MW water based Beam Dumps for electrons or positrons for an International Linear Collider (ILC). Multi-dimensional technology issues have to be addressed for the successful design of the Beam Dump. They include calculations of power deposition by the high energy electron/positron beam bunch trains, computational fluid dynamic analysis of turbulent water flow, mechanical design, process flow analysis, hydrogen/oxygen recombiners, handling of radioactive 7Be and 3H, design of auxiliary equipment, provisions for accident scenarios, remote window exchanger, radiation shielding, etc. The progress made to date is summarized, the current status, and also the issues still to be addressed.

  1. Design of an 18 MW Beam Dump for 500 GeV Electron/Positron Beams at an ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Amann, John; Seryi, Andrei; Walz, Dieter; Kulkarni, Kiran; Rai, Pravin; Satyamurthy, Polepalle; Tiwari, Vikar; Vincke, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a report on the progress made in designing 18 MW water based Beam Dumps for electrons or positrons for an International Linear Collider (ILC). Multi-dimensional technology issues have to be addressed for the successful design of the Beam Dump. They include calculations of power deposition by the high energy electron/positron beam bunch trains, computational fluid dynamic analysis of turbulent water flow, mechanical design, process flow analysis, hydrogen/oxygen recombiners, handling of radioactive 7Be and 3H, design of auxiliary equipment, provisions for accident scenarios, remote window exchanger, radiation shielding, etc. The progress made to date is summarized, the current status, and also the issues still to be addressed

  2. Burnout experiment in subcooled forced-convection boiling of water for beam dumps of a high power neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies were made on burnout heat flux in highly subcooled forced-convection boiling of water for the design of beam dumps of a high power neutral beam injector for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60. These dumps are composed of many circular tubes with two longitudinal fins. The tube was irradiated with nonuniformly distributed hydrogen ion beams of 120 to 200 kW for as long as 10 s. The coolant water was circulated at flow velocities of 3 to 7.5 m/s at exit pressures of 0.4 to 0.9 MPa. The burnout and film-boiling data were obtained at local heat fluxes of 8 to 15 MW/m2. These values were as high as 2.5 times larger than those for the circumferentially uniform heat flux case with the same parameters. These data showed insensitivity to local subcooling as well as to pressure, and simple burnout correlations were derived. From these results, the beam dumps have been designed to receive energetic beam fluxes of as high as 5 MW/m2 with a margin of a factor of 2 for burnout

  3. The Energy Deposition for No-air-gap Design of the TESLA Beam Dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the linear electron- positron collider project TESLA, the beam dump designed as a water tank is working in a very special regime. Each pulse of the electron or positron beam should, after crossing the interaction region, be dumped in a cylindrical 10-m long water dump. The mean power to be absorbed is important being 8 MW for 250 GeV beam energy (intensity 2.04 * 1014 electrons/s) and for 400 GeV case it will be 12 MW and 2.8*1014 electrons/s. The initial project was providing a 20-cm wide air gap between the titanium vessel containing water and the concentrate outer shield. Energy deposition calculations using FLUKA code showed that the energy deposited in and thus temperature rise of the concrete shield were very high. Additional solid inner shield made of aluminium (or iron) has to be placed just behind the titanium vessel. The important production of radioactive nuclei in the air has prompted the designers to minimize the air gap. Realistically, this minimal size of the air gap was assessed to be a 2-cm wide. Also new thickness of the inner shield has been proposed - 60 cm for aluminium and 20 cm for iron. These changes called for a new set of calculations for energy deposition in both the concentrate and aluminum iron) shields. (author)

  4. Dark Matter Search in a Beam-Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglieri, M. [Univ. of Genova (Italy). National Institute for Nuclear Physics. et al

    2016-07-05

    MeV-GeV dark matter (DM) is theoretically well motivated but remarkably unexplored. This proposal presents the MeV-GeV DM discovery potential for a $\\sim$1 m$^3$ segmented CsI(Tl) scintillator detector placed downstream of the Hall A beam-dump at Jefferson Lab, receiving up to 10$^{22}$ electrons-on-target (EOT) in 285 days. This experiment (Beam-Dump eXperiment or BDX) would be sensitive to elastic DM-electron and to inelastic DM scattering at the level of 10 counts per year, reaching the limit of the neutrino irreducible background. The distinct signature of a DM interaction will be an electromagnetic shower of few hundreds of MeV, together with a reduced activity in the surrounding active veto counters. A detailed description of the DM particle $\\chi$ production in the dump and subsequent interaction in the detector has been performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Different approaches have been used to evaluate the expected backgrounds: the cosmogenic background has been extrapolated from the results obtained with a prototype detector running at INFN-LNS (Italy), while the beam-related background has been evaluated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed experiment will be sensitive to large regions of DM parameter space, exceeding the discovery potential of existing and planned experiments in the MeV-GeV DM mass range by up to two orders of magnitude.

  5. High and low energy gamma beam dump designs for the gamma beam delivery system at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Zafar; Matei, Catalin; Ur, Calin A.; Mitu, Iani-Octavian; Udup, Emil; Petcu, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is under construction in Magurele, Bucharest, Romania. The facility will use two 10 PW lasers and a high intensity, narrow bandwidth gamma beam for stand-alone and combined laser-gamma experiments. The accurate estimation of particle doses and their restriction within the limits for both personel and general public is very important in the design phase of any nuclear facility. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations are performed using FLUKA and MCNPX to design 19.4 and 4 MeV gamma beam dumps along with shielding of experimental areas. Dose rate contour plots from both FLUKA and MCNPX along with numerical values of doses in experimental area E8 of the facility are performed. The calculated doses are within the permissible limits. Furthermore, a reasonable agreement between both codes enhances our confidence in using one or both of them for future calculations in beam dump designs, radiation shielding, radioactive inventory, and other calculations releated to radiation protection. Residual dose rates and residual activity calculations are also performed for high-energy beam dump and their effect is negligible in comparison to contributions from prompt radiation.

  6. Mechanical Design of a Heavy Ion Beam Dump for the RIA Fragmentation Line

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Werner; Conner, David L

    2005-01-01

    The RIA fragmentation line requires a beam stop for the primary beam downstream of the first dipole magnet. The beam may consist of U, Ca, Sn, Kr, or O ions. with a variety of power densities. The configuration with highest power density is for the U beam, with a spot size of 3 cm x 3 cm and a total power of up to 300 kW. The mechanical design of the dump that meets these criteria consists of a 50 cm diameter aluminum wheel with water coolant channels. A hollow drive shaft supplies the coolant water and connects the wheel to an electrical motor located in an air space in the floor above the dump. The beam strikes the wheel along the outer perimeter and passes through a thin window of aluminum where 10% of its power is absorbed and the remainder of the beam is absorbed in flowing water behind the window. Rotation of the wheel at 400 RPM results in maximum aluminum temperatures below 100 C and acceptably low thermal stresses of 5 ksi. Rotating the wheel also results in low radiation damage levels by spreading t...

  7. Dark matter search in a Beam-Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglieri, M; Caiffi, B; Celentano, A; De Vita, R; Fanchini, E; Marsicano, L; Musico, P; Osipenko, M; Panza, F; Ripani, M; Santopinto, E; Taiuti, M; Bellini, V; Bondí, M; De Napoli, M; Mammoliti, F; Leonora, E; Randazzo, N; Russo, G; Sperduto, M; Sutera, C; Tortorici, F; Baltzell, N; Dalton, M; Freyberger, A; Girod, F X; Kubarovsky, V; Pasyuk, E; Smith, E S; Stepanyan, S; Ungaro, M; Whitlatch, T; Izaguirre, E; Krnjaic, G; Snowden-Ifft, D; Loomba, D; Carpinelli, M; Sipala, V; Schuster, P; Toro, N; Essig, R; Wood, M H; Holtrop, M; Paremuzyan, R; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Di Bari, D; Lagamba, L; Nappi, E; Perrino, R; Balossino, I; Barion, L; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Lenisa, P; Movsisyan, A; Spizzo, F; Turisini, M; De Persio, F; Cisbani, E; Garibaldi, F; Meddi, F; Urciuoli, G M; Hasch, D; Lucherini, V; Mirazita, M; Pisano, S; Simi, G; D'Angelo, A; Lanza, L; Rizzo, A; Schaerf, C; Zonta, I; Filippi, A; Fegan, S; Kunkel, M; Bashkanov, M; Beltrame, P; Murphy, A; Smith, G; Watts, D; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Glazier, D; Ireland, D; McKinnon, B; Sokhan, D; Colaneri, L; Pereira, S Anefalos; Afanasev, A; Briscoe, B; Strakovsky, I; Kalantarians, N; Weinstein, L; Adhikari, K P; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; Ye, L; Hicks, K; Cole, P; Dobbs, S; Fanelli, C

    2016-01-01

    MeV-GeV dark matter (DM) is theoretically well motivated but remarkably unexplored. This proposal presents the MeV-GeV DM discovery potential for a $\\sim$1 m$^3$ segmented CsI(Tl) scintillator detector placed downstream of the Hall A beam-dump at Jefferson Lab, receiving up to 10$^{22}$ electrons-on-target (EOT) in 285 days. This experiment (Beam-Dump eXperiment or BDX) would be sensitive to elastic DM-electron and to inelastic DM scattering at the level of 10 counts per year, reaching the limit of the neutrino irreducible background. The distinct signature of a DM interaction will be an electromagnetic shower of few hundreds of MeV, together with a reduced activity in the surrounding active veto counters. A detailed description of the DM particle $\\chi$ production in the dump and subsequent interaction in the detector has been performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Different approaches have been used to evaluate the expected backgrounds: the cosmogenic background has been extrapolated from the result...

  8. The Performance of the New TCDQ System in the LHC Beam Dumping Region

    CERN Document Server

    Presland, Andrew; Weterings, Wim

    2005-01-01

    The superconducting quadrupole magnet Q4 and other downstream LHC machine elements risk destruction in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the abort gap. In order to protect these elements, a single sided mobile graphite diluter block TCDQ, in combination with a two-sided secondary collimator TCS and iron shield TCDQM, will be installed in front of Q4. This protection system should also intercept spurious particles in the beam abort gap to prevent quenches from occurring during regular beam aborts, and must also intercept the particles from the secondary halo during low beam lifetime without provoking quenches. The conceptual design of the TCDQ system is briefly presented, with the load conditions and performance criteria. The FLUKA simulations are described results discussed in the context of the expected performance levels for LHC operation.

  9. FLUKA simulations and measurements for a dump for a 250 GeV/c hadron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Para, A; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, L

    2001-01-01

    FLUKA is a Monte Carlo code, transporting hadron and lepton cascades from several TeV down to a few keV (thermal energies for neutrons). The code is widely employed in various applications, such as particle detector design, shielding, radiation therapy, high energy physics experiments. The FLUKA results were compared with experimental data of dose equivalent and spectral fluence of neutrons produced by a 250 GeV/c proton/pion beam impinging on a beam dump installed in one of the secondary beam lines of the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The dump is a shielding structure made of iron/concrete, designed to absorb completely the high-energy beam. The actual geometry of the clump was modeled in the simulations and the scoring of neutron track length was performed at various locations around it. Importance sampling and Russian Roulette mere used as variance reduction techniques. The simulations results were compared with experimental measurements performed with a Bonner sphere system for neutron spectrometry...

  10. Design and simulations of the neutron dump for the back-streaming white neutron beam at CSNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. Y.; Jing, H. T.; Tang, J. Y.; Wang, X. Q.

    2016-10-01

    For nuclear data measurements with a white neutron source, to control the background at the detector is a key issue. The neutron dump which locates at the end of the white neutron beam line at CSNS has a very important impact to the neutron and gamma backgrounds in the endstation. A sophisticated neutron dump was designed to reduce the backgrounds to the level of about 10-8 relative to the neutron flux. In this paper, the method to suppress both neutron and gamma backgrounds near a white-spectrum neutron dump is introduced. The optimized geometry structure and materials of the dump are described, and the neutron and gamma space distributions have been calculated by using the FLUKA code for different operation settings which are defined by beam spots of Φ30 mm, Φ60 mm and 90 mm×90 mm, respectively.

  11. SIMULATION OF NEUTRON BACKGROUNDS FROM THE ILC EXTRACTION LINE BEAM DUMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbha, S; Keller, L.; Maruyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    The operation of the International Linear Collider (ILC) as a precision measurement machine is dependent upon the quality of the charge-coupled device (CCD) silicon vertex detector. An integrated fl ux of 1010 neutrons/cm2 incident upon the vertex detector will degrade its performance by causing displacement damage in the silicon. One source of the neutron background arises from the dumping of the spent electron and positron beams into the extraction line beam dumps. The Monte Carlo program FLUKA was used to simulate the collision of the electron beam with the dump and to determine the resulting neutron fl ux at the interaction point (IP). A collimator and tunnel were added and their effect on the fl ux was analyzed. A neutron source was then generated and directed along the extraction line towards a model of the vertex detector to determine the neutron fl ux in its silicon layers. Models of the beampipe and BeamCal, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter in the very forward region of the detector, were placed in the extraction line and their effects on scattering were studied. The IP fl uence was determined to be 3.7x1010 +/- 2.3x1010 neutrons/cm2/year when the tunnel and collimator were in place, with no appreciable increase in statistics when the tunnel was removed. The BeamCal was discovered to act as a collimator by signifi cantly impeding the fl ow of neutrons towards the detector. The majority of damage done to the fi rst layer of the detector was found to come from neutrons with a direct line of sight from the fi rst extraction line quadrupole QDEX1, with only a small fraction scattering off of the beampipe and into the detector. The 1 MeV equivalent neutron fl uence was determined to be 9.3x108 neutrons/cm2/year from the electron beam alone. The two beams collectively contribute double to this fl uence, which is 19% of the threshold value in one year. Future work will improve the detector model and other sources of neutron backgrounds will be

  12. Dark matter search in a Beam-Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglieri, M; De Vita, R; Izaguirre, E; Krnjaic, G; Smith, E; Stepanyan, S; Bersani, A; Fanchini, E; Fegan, S; Musico, P; Osipenko, M; Ripani, M; Santopinto, E; Taiuti, M; Schuster, P; Toro, N; Dalton, M; Freyberger, A; Girod, F -X; Kubarovsky, V; Ungaro, M; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Di Bari, D; Lagamba, L; Nappi, E; Perrino, R; Carpinelli, M; Sipala, V; Aiello, S; Bellini, V; De Napoli, M; Giusa, A; Mammoliti, F; Leonora, E; Noto, F; Randazzo, N; Russo, G; Sperduto, M; Sutera, C; Ventura, C; Barion, L; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Lenisa, P; Movsisyan, A; Spizzo, F; Turisini, M; De Persio, F; Cisbani, E; Fanelli, C; Garibaldi, F; Meddi, F; Urciuoli, G M; Pereira, S Anefalos; De Sanctis, E; Hasch, D; Lucherini, V; Mirazita, M; Montgomery, R; Pisano, S; Simi, G; D'Angelo, A; Lanza, L Colaneri L; Rizzo, A; Schaerf, C; Zonta, I; Calvo, D; Filippi, A; Holtrop, M; Peremuzyan, R; Glazier, D; Ireland, D; McKinnon, B; Afanasev, D Sokhan A; Briscoe, B; Kalantarians, N; Fassi, L El; Weinstein, L; Beltrame, P; Murphy, A; Watts, D; Zana, L; Hicks, K

    2014-01-01

    MeV-GeV dark matter (DM) is theoretically well motivated but remarkably unexplored. This Letter of Intent presents the MeV-GeV DM discovery potential for a 1 m$^3$ segmented plastic scintillator detector placed downstream of the beam-dump at one of the high intensity JLab experimental Halls, receiving up to 10$^{22}$ electrons-on-target (EOT) in a one-year period. This experiment (Beam-Dump eXperiment or BDX) is sensitive to DM-nucleon elastic scattering at the level of a thousand counts per year, with very low threshold recoil energies ($\\sim$1 MeV), and limited only by reducible cosmogenic backgrounds. Sensitivity to DM-electron elastic scattering and/or inelastic DM would be below 10 counts per year after requiring all electromagnetic showers in the detector to exceed a few-hundred MeV, which dramatically reduces or altogether eliminates all backgrounds. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations are in progress to finalize the detector design and experimental set up. An existing 0.036 m$^3$ prototype based on the s...

  13. New exclusion limits for dark gauge forces from proton Bremsstrahlung in beam-dump data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Brunner, Juergen [Aix-Marseille Univ. CNRS/IN2P3 (France). CPPM

    2013-11-15

    We re-analyze published proton beam dump data taken at the U70 accelerator at IHEP Serpukhov with the {nu}-calorimeter I experiment in 1989 to set mass-coupling limits for dark gauge forces. The corresponding data have been used for axion and light Higgs particle searches before. More recently, limits on dark gauge forces have been derived from this data set, considering a dark photon production from {pi}{sup 0}-decay. Here we determine extended mass and coupling exclusion bounds for dark gauge bosons ranging to masses m{sub {gamma}'} of 624 MeV at admixture parameters {epsilon}{approx_equal}10{sup -6} considering high-energy Bremsstrahlung of the U-boson of the initial proton beam and different detection mechanisms.

  14. The Validity of the Weizsacker-Williams Approximation and the Analysis of Beam Dump Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Miller, Gerald A

    2016-01-01

    Beam dump experiments have been aimed at searching for new particles or putting constraint limits on their existence by comparing null results with expectations based on the cross section calculated using the Weizsacker-Williams (WW) and other approximations to simplify the phase space integral and amplitude calculation. We examine the validity of the widely used WW approximation along with other popular assumptions. Using scalar boson production as an example, we perform the complete calculation to obtain the cross section and the resulting number of particles produced without such approximations, apply these results to exclusion plot and data fitting, and examine the error when using these commonly used approximations. We find that there could be more than 100\\% errors in cross sections and 20\\% errors in exclusion plot boundaries for certain parameters. In the event of a discovery, the mass and coupling of the new boson as determined by the approximate and exact calculations could differ at more than the $...

  15. SHiP: a new multipurpose beam-dump experiment at the SPS.

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Hans

    2016-01-01

    SHiP is an experiment to look for very weakly interacting particles at a new to be constructed beam-dum p facility at the CERN SPS. The SHiP Technical Proposal has been submitted to the CERN SPS Committee in April 2015. The 400 GeV/c proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integ rating $2\\times 10^{20}$ proton on target in five years. A detector located downstream of the target, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below a few GeV/c$^2$. The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals, i.e. search for Dark Photons, Light scalars and pseudo-scalars, and Heavy Neutral Leptons (HNL). The sensitivity to HNL will allow for the first time to probe, in the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, a coupling range for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained...

  16. Accelerator physics studies on the effects from an asynchronous beam dump onto the LHC experimental region collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Bruce, R; Cerutti, F; Rossi, A; Vlachoudis, V; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2012-01-01

    Asynchronous beam aborts at the LHC are estimated to occur on average once per year. Accelerator physics studies of asynchronous dumps have been performed at different beam energies and beta-stars. The loss patterns are analyzed in order to identify the losses in particular on the Phase 1 Tertiary Collimators (TCT), since their tungsten-based active jaw insert has a lower damage threshold than the carbon-based other LHC collimators. Settings of the tilt angle of the TCTs are discussed with the aim of reducing the thermal loads on the TCT themselves.

  17. THE MECHANICAL AND SHIELDING DESIGN OF A PORTABLE SPECTROMETER AND BEAM DUMP ASSEMBLY AT BNLS ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU,J.P.; CASEY,W.R.; HARDER,D.A.; PJEROV,S.; RAKOWSKY,G.; SKARITKA,J.R.

    2002-09-05

    A portable assembly containing a vertical-bend dipole magnet has been designed and installed immediately down-beam of the Compton electron-laser interaction chamber on beamline 1 of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The water-cooled magnet designed with field strength of up to 0.7 Tesla will be used as a spectrometer in the Thompson scattering and vacuum acceleration experiments, where field-dependent electron scattering, beam focusing and energy spread will be analyzed. This magnet will deflect the ATF's 60 MeV electron-beam 90{sup o} downward, as a vertical beam dump for the Compton scattering experiment. The dipole magnet assembly is portable, and can be relocated to other beamlines at the ATF or other accelerator facilities to be used as a spectrometer or a beam dump. The mechanical and shielding calculations are presented in this paper. The structural rigidity and stability of the assembly were studied. A square lead shield surrounding the assembly's Faraday Cup was designed to attenuate the radiation emerging from the 1 inch-copper beam stop. All photons produced were assumed to be sufficiently energetic to generate photoneutrons. A safety evaluation of groundwater tritium contamination due to the thermal neutron capturing by the deuterium in water was performed, using updated Monte Carlo neutron-photon coupled transport code (MCNP). High-energy neutron spallation, which is a potential source to directly generate radioactive tritium and sodium-22 in soil, was conservatively assessed in verifying personal and environmental safety.

  18. Dumping Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Dumping Syndrome Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is dumping syndrome? Dumping syndrome occurs when food, especially sugar, ...

  19. Radiation Simulations and Development of Concepts for High Power Beam Dumps, Catchers and Pre-separator Area Layouts for the Fragment Separators for RIA

    CERN Document Server

    Ronningen, Reginald; Beene, James R; Blideanu, Valetin; Boles, Jason; Bollen, Georg; Burgess, Thomas; Carter, Ken; Conner, David L; Gabriel, Tony A; Geissel, Hans; Gomes, Itacil C; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Iwase, Hiroshi; Lawton, Don; Levand, Anthony; Mansur, Louis; Momozaki, Yoichi; Morrissey, David; Nolen, Jerry; Reed, Claude; Remec, Igor; Rennich, Mark; Reyes, Susana; Sherrill, Bradley; Stein, Werner; Stoyer, Mark; Stracener, Dan; Wendel, Mark; Zeller, Al

    2005-01-01

    The development of high-power beam dumps and catchers, and pre-separator layouts for proposed fragment separators of the Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility are important in realizing how to handle the 400 kW in the primary beam. We will present examples of pre-conceptual designs of beam dumps, fragment catchers, and the pre-separator layout. We will also present examples of ongoing work on radiation simulations using the heavy-ion-transport code PHITS, characterizing the secondary radiation produced by the high-power ion beams interacting with these devices. Results on radiation heating of targets, magnet coils, associated hardware and shielding, component activation, and levels of radiation dose will be presented. These initial studies will yield insight into the impact of the high-power dissipation on fragment separator design, remote handling concepts, nuclear safety and potential facility hazard classification, shielding design, civil construction design, component design, and material choices. Furth...

  20. Social dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    bidrag til, at OK-2010 "landes" fredeligt, fordi aftalen giver fagforeningerne en væsentlig indrømmelse i indsatsen mod social dumping. Aftalen har rigtignok til formål at imødekomme et af fagbevægelsens centrale overenskomstkrav om nye redskaber i indsatsen mod "social dumping". Men hvad er det aftalen...

  1. High power semiconductor switches in the 12 kV, 50 kA pulse generator of the SPS beam dump kicker system

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Faure, P; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    2001-01-01

    Horizontal deflection of the beam in the dump kicker system of the CERN SPS accelerator is obtained with a series of fast pulsed magnets. The high current pulses of 50 kA per magnet are generated with capacitor discharge type generators which, combined with a resistive free-wheel diode circuit, deliver a critically damped half-sine current with a rise-time of 25 ms. Each generator consists of two 25 kA units, connected in parallel to a magnet via a low inductance transmission line.

  2. Dumping syndrome (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumping syndrome occurs when the contents of the stomach empty too quickly into the small intestine. The ... causing nausea, cramping, diarrhea, sweating, faintness, and palpitations. Dumping usually occurs after the consumption of too much ...

  3. Getting Dumped On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chinese shoe manufacturers cry foul over anti-dumping duties imposed by the EU and set up an alliance to lobby for an overturn Hong Guangsheng, General Manager of Guangzhou Yunfang Shoes Co., is feeling the heat over his company's exports to Europe. According to a contract he signed with an Italian client in early April, the vol-

  4. Dumping in a Global World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAnti-dumping actions are now the trade policy of choice of developing and transition economies. To understand why these economies have increasingly applied anti-dumping laws, we build a simple theoretical model of vertical intra-industry trade and investigate the strategic incentives of

  5. Dumping at Sea Act 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act enables the United Kingdom Government to ratify both the Oslo Convention of 1972 for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft and the London Convention of 1972 on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. (NEA)

  6. Energy Deposition in the TESLA Water Dump As a Function of its Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water dump of the future electron-positron collider TESLA has a very special regime. Each pulse of the electron or positron beam should, after crossing the interaction zone, be dumped in a cylindrical water dump. There is a quite important energy to be absorbed by the dump i.e. 8 MW for 250 GeV energy of the beam and 12 MW if the energy of the electrons is raised to 400 GeV. We should be prepared for an intensity of 2.04x1014 electrons/s for 250 GeV and 2.8x1014 electrons/s for 400 GeV case. The energy to be absorbed is important, therefore we tried to calculate the energy losses by all surfaces of the cylindrical water dump as a function of its size. (author)

  7. 30 CFR 77.1608 - Dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities. 77.1608 Section 77.1608... Haulage § 77.1608 Dumping facilities. (a) Dumping locations and haulage roads shall be kept reasonably free of water, debris, and spillage. (b) Where the ground at a dumping place may fail to support...

  8. Upgrade Strategies for the Proton Synchrotron Booster Dump at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sarrio Martinez, A; Maglioni, C

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s LHC Injection chain Upgrade (LIU) involves a revision of the Proton Synchrotron Booster dump, which was designed in the 1960’s to cope with beam energies reaching 800 MeV and intensities of 1e+13 particles per pulse. Thermo-mechanical studies highlighted the need for an upgrade of the dump, so that it is capable of withstanding energies in the order of 2 GeV and intensities up to 1e+14 particles per pulse. This paper proposes a new design of the dump in the light of various constraints and choices such as the geometry, materials and the integration of the required cooling system. Further topics discussed include the strategy for dismantling the old device, which has been continuously irradiated for almost 40 years and presents a difficult access. Therefore, a detailed ALARA procedure is being prepared in order to carry out the upgrade works in the area.

  9. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  10. Dumping in Developing and Transition Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe build a simple theoretical model to understand why developing and transition economies have increasingly applied anti-dumping laws. To that end, we investigate the strategic incentives of oligopolistic exporting firms to undertake dumping in these economies. We show that dumping may b

  11. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  12. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...

  13. Fluka and thermo-mechanical studies for the CLIC main dump

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, Alessio; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    In order to best cope with the challenge of absorbing the multi-MW beam, a water beam dump at the end of the CLIC post-collision line has been proposed. The design of the dump for the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) was checked against with a set of FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, for the estimation of the peak and total power absorbed by the water and the vessel. Fluence spectra of escaping particles and activation rates of radio-nuclides were computed as well. Finally, the thermal transient behavior of the water bath and a thermo-mechanical analysis of the preliminary design of the window were done.

  14. 40 CFR 227.14 - Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. 227.14 Section 227.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.14 Criteria for evaluating the need for...

  15. Effects of number of side dumps and side dump angles on outlet parameters in a side-dump combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedpoor, M.; Doustdar, M. M.; Soltani, H.; Chegini, M.

    2012-11-01

    A numerical study on the effect of side-dump number on fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been investigated in present paper. The mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit is named as the effective mass fraction. In the first step we have considered a side-dump combustor with two dumps and dump angle of 0o (plumb to cylinder) and by increasing the entrance airflow velocity from 20 to 30, 40 and 50 (m/s) respectively, the mean diameter of fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied. After this step, we have changed the number of dumps from two to four and we have repeated last examination again. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multiphase, multicomponent code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

  16. Beam systems without failures - What can be done?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam dumps at 3.5 TeV triggered by interlocks not related to the magnet powering are discussed. This concerns the systems like the RF, the transverse feedbacks, beam instrumentation, beam dumping system, collimators and control systems. An analysis of the reasons of these dumps is presented together with a possible strategy to mitigate the effect of these failures. It is very important to notice that no system has been identified to have any structural problem

  17. Beam induced heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Esteban Mueller, J; Gentini, L; Goddar, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Nougaret, J L; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Sapinski, M; Shaposhinkova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the rapid increase of the luminosity performance of LHC came at the expense of increased temperature and pressure readings on several near-beam LHC equipments. In some cases, this beam induced heating was suspected to cause beam dumps and even degradation of the equipment. This contribution aims at gathering the observations of beam induced heating due to beam coupling impedance, their current level of understanding and possible actions that could be implemented during the winter stop 2011-2012.

  18. Anti-Dumping on and from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick H. Zhao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The past years saw an increased cases of anti-dumping on China mostly from the developed countries, some from developing countries. But Pakistan, a friendly neighbor to China, recently adds up to that list of ranks for an anti-dumping investigation on China.

  19. DUMPING SYNDROME IN A YOUNG-CHILD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, TW; DODDEMA, JW; HEIJMANS, HSA

    1995-01-01

    We describe a 17-month-old child with dumping syndrome after plication of the right diaphragm. He presented with periods of abdominal distension and pallor, recurrent convulsions, glucosuria and refusal of Feeding. After changing the diet the symptoms disappeared. Conclusion Although dumping syndrom

  20. LCT protective dump-switch tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each of the six coils in the Large Coil Task (LCT) has a separate power supply, dump resistor, and switching circuit. Each switching circuit contains five switches, two of which are redundant. The three remaining switches perform separate duties in an emergency dump situation. These three switches were tested to determine their ability to meet the LCT conditions

  1. Design of a Compact Dump Resistor System for LCD Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2010-01-01

    In this technical note we suggest a possible solution for the choice of the detector magnet dump resistor. The push-pull scenario for Linear Collider Detectors imposes new solutions for magnet powering and protection lines, else than what developed for LHC detectors. The magnet dump resistor is the protecting equipment that has the function of extracting a significant amount of magnetic stored energy, from the coil winding to a dump. The LCD magnet has to move with the experiment from the garage to the beam position, so it has to be compact and reliable at the same time. We make here a proposal for a passive water-cooled dumper, we calculate the minimum amount of water required, the resistor hot-spot temperature, the overall mechanical design. The electrical part is not covered by this note, as it can be assumed that the solutions adopted by LHC detector magnets, in terms of quench instrumentation, energy extraction and maximum voltage, are not significantly affected by the push-pull scenario.

  2. Infrared imaging diagnostics for INTF ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, D.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Pandey, R.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Bhuyan, M.; Bansal, G.; Soni, J.; Tyagi, H.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.

    2015-04-01

    In India, testing facility named INTF [1] (Indian test facility) is being built in Institute for Plasma Research to characterize ITER-Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB). INTF is expected to deliver 60A negative hydrogen ion beam current of energy 100keV. The beam will be operated with 5Hz modulation having 3s ON/20s OFF duty cycle. To characterize the beam parameters several diagnostics are at different stages of design and development. One of them will be a beam dump, made of carbon fiber composite (CFC) plates placed perpendicular to the beam direction at a distance lm approximately. The beam dump needs to handle ˜ 6MW of beam power with peak power density ˜ 38.5MW/m2. The diagnostic is based on thermal (infra-red - IR) imaging of the footprint of the 1280 beamlets falling on the beam dump using four IR cameras from the rear side of the dump. The beam dump will be able to measure beam uniformity, beamlet divergence. It may give information on relative variation of negative ion stripping losses for different beam pulses. The design of this CFC based beam dump needs to address several physics and engineering issues, including some specific inputs from manufacturers. The manuscript will describe an overview of the diagnostic system and its design methodology highlighting those issues and the present status of its development.

  3. Heat transfer law in leaching dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ai-xiang; WANG Hong-jiang; XI Yong; YANG Bao-hua; LI Jian-feng; YIN Sheng-hua; ZHA Ke-bing

    2005-01-01

    Based on the law of temperature changes in the leaching dump and the forming process of heat flux, the basic balance equation of heat flow in dump was established, the dissipated heat flow from dump to the atmosphere was analyzed to estimate the surface temperature of the ore particle in dump and discover the law of forced heat convection of heat flow transfer in dump. And the lixiviate flow formula taking a certain heat flow out of dump was deduced by using the inversion method. Through theoretic analysis, combining Dexing copper mine heap leaching production practice, the results show that the heat flow of chalcopyrite leaching emitted is not so great, but the heat flow of pyrite leaching and sulphur oxidation produced take up a higher proportion of total heat flow; the dissipated heat flow takes up a lower proportion, and most of heat flow is absorbed by itself, thus the inside temperature rises gradually; and the saturation flow form for leaching is adopted, which makes the lixiviate seepage in the transitional flow or even in the turbulent flow, so as to accelerate the heat flow diffusing and keep the leaching dump temperature suitable for bacteria living.

  4. Anti-Dumping on and from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick; H.Zhao

    2007-01-01

    The past years saw an increased cases of anti-dumping on China mostly from the developed countries,some from developing countries.But Pakistan,a friendly neighbor to China,recently adds up to that list of ranks for an anti-dumping investigation on China.It is the national interests that count most,after all. It gives out a signal that anti-dumping would be a frequent tool to defend or to attack. Evidences show China is a target for this trade remedy,but is also targeting others.

  5. Muon Beam at the Fermilab Test Beam Area

    OpenAIRE

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukić, Strahinja; Ujić, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    The intensities and profiles of the muon beam behind the beam dump of the Fermilab test beam area when the facility is running in the "pion" beam mode are measured and summarized in this note. This muon beam with momenta in the range 10 - 50 GeV/c provides an opportunity to perform various measurements in parallel with other users of the test beam area.

  6. European Anti-dumping Law and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Eeckhout

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines recent developments in the European Union's anti-dumping policy, as it is applied towards China. It concentrates on recent court cases involving dumping from China and on the basic non-market economy issue. The author essentially argues that the European Union's policy does not take account sufficiently of China's development towards a market economy, and that there are various legal flaws in the way the policy is applied.

  7. Studies on scattering of laser radiation from viewing dump in tokamak Thomson scattering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Singh, R.; Kumar, A.

    2012-08-01

    Thomson scattering is among one of the primary diagnostics used for tokamak plasma temperature and density measurements. Spuriously scattered stray signal further deteriorates the already existing poor signal-to-noise ratio in this technique. The present paper reports experimental investigations on the angular distribution of the scattered/stray radiation from graphite and a stack of laser blades dumps for different angles of incidence. Experimental results show a dependence of the stray signal on the dump-edge orientation. It is found that horizontally oriented dump edge produces a minimum level of stray light (around two orders less than in case of plane graphite tiles) in the horizontal plane, in which detectors for most of the diagnostics are installed. Studies are also made for p-polarized and s-polarized incident laser beams of 632.8 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths.

  8. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases.

  9. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases. PMID:27475558

  10. Establishment of ocean dumping area capacity assessment model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhizu; ZUO Juncheng; XU Ren; JIN Zuowen; CHEN Meixiang

    2016-01-01

    Dumping area capacity is mainly affected by the hydrodynamic process (tidal sediment, storm surge and wave, etc.) as well as the size and depth of dumping area. Based on three-dimensional ocean circulation model known as FVCOM (Finite Volume Coast and Ocean Model) and the stochastic dynamic statistical analysis model, taking advantage of dumping ground topography evolution and dumping quantity, the author aims to discuss the influence of hydrodynamic processes and dumping activity so as to built a new model of ocean dumping area capacity. With the data of depth and dumped amount in the dumping area, the changes of bottom topographic which caused by tidal current under the natural condition based on the FVCOM hydrodynamic and sediment module, the author strive to analyze the statistical relation of the changes for dumping amount, tidal current and bottom topographic. Through real data to fit revision coefficient values, which will be regarded as topographic changes reference value affected by wave and storm surges. Thus taking this evaluation as the long-term changes in the dumping capacity. In the premise of setting up the threshold of bottom topographic changes, the dumping area capacity is calculated. Take Yangtze Estuary No. 1 dumping area as an example, As the water depth reduces by 0.5 m annually, the dumping area capacity is about 6.7 million m3/a, the model results are in reasonable agreement with the actual amount. Then the model is validated in Luoyuan Bay dumping area, Shengsishangchuan Mountain dumping area, Dongding dumping area, Dongshan dumping area, and Wenzhou Port dumping area, it is turns out the results are similar to that of the actual observations.

  11. Monitoring the extracted proton beam at the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Fluorescent screens in front of the target positions allow a precise adjustement in front of them. A similar photo was recorded at the beam dump at the beam injection into the SPS, see Weekly Bulletin of April 1976.

  12. KTeV beam systems design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocean, V.; Childress, S.; Coleman, R. [and others

    1997-09-01

    The primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E799-II and E832 are discussed. The specifications are presented and justified. The technical details of the implementation of the primary beam transport and stability are detailed. The target, beam dump, and radiation safety issues are discussed. The details of the collimation system for the pair of secondary beams are presented.

  13. Geotechnical aspects for the optimization of dump design at Chinh Bac Mine waste dump in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsschwanz, M.; Ziegler, M. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Ahmad, S.; Fernandez, J.B.P.; Martens, P.N. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering; Deissmann, G. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Vietnam's Quang Ninh province is one of the country's most important coal producing regions. Several open pit mines are being operated in the area by Nui Beo Coal Company (NBCC). The construction of large waste dumps for overburden removed by blasting have led to environmental problems at the mining sites, including dust emissions from mining and dumping operations; ground and surface water contamination by acid mine drainage; and slope stability problems caused by heavy rainfall and dump movements. This paper discussed investigations regarding the influence of the dump layout on slope stability and erosion. The paper described the project site and ongoing activities for the development of optimized stabilization and rehabilitation concepts with a particular focus on geotechnical aspects. The site was described in terms of coal and waste rock production; Chinh Bac waste rock dump; crack mapping; material properties of dumped material; density; and settlements. Ongoing activities focus on the effect of benches on slope stability; influence of benches on erosion; and layered dumping. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Geotechnical aspects for the optimization of dump design at Chinh Bac Mine waste dump in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam's Quang Ninh province is one of the country's most important coal producing regions. Several open pit mines are being operated in the area by Nui Beo Coal Company (NBCC). The construction of large waste dumps for overburden removed by blasting have led to environmental problems at the mining sites, including dust emissions from mining and dumping operations; ground and surface water contamination by acid mine drainage; and slope stability problems caused by heavy rainfall and dump movements. This paper discussed investigations regarding the influence of the dump layout on slope stability and erosion. The paper described the project site and ongoing activities for the development of optimized stabilization and rehabilitation concepts with a particular focus on geotechnical aspects. The site was described in terms of coal and waste rock production; Chinh Bac waste rock dump; crack mapping; material properties of dumped material; density; and settlements. Ongoing activities focus on the effect of benches on slope stability; influence of benches on erosion; and layered dumping. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Memory Forensics of a Java Card Dump

    OpenAIRE

    Lanet, Jean-Louis; Bouffard, Guillaume; Lamrani, Rokia; Chakra, Ranim; Mestiri, Afef; Monsif, Mohammed; Fandi, Abdellatif

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays several papers have shown the ability to dump the EEPROM area of several Java Cards leading to the disclosure of already loaded applet and data structure of the card. Such a reverse engineering process is costly and prone to errors. Currently there are no tools available to help the process. We propose here an approach to find in the raw data obtained after a dump, the area containing the code and the data. Then, once the code area has been identified, we propose to rebuilt the origi...

  16. LAW PROTECTION FOR DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES DUE TO DUMPING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kamilah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available International trade is business transactions conducted across borders, which has the goal accumulated maximum profit (profit optimal. In this implementation, corporations often do business by unfair competition, such as dumping, which could damage the order of the importing country trading system. The problem is what factors are causing a corporation carrying out the practice of dumping, and also; and How is legal protection against a country as a result of dumping practices. Factors that cause dumping, to profit by setting lower prices in the import market and the monopoly in the market of the importing country. A form of protection for countries that suffered losses as a result of dumping practices which could impose "anti-dumping duty", as a punishment for the exporting country. Due to losses caused by dumping, the government should make a law that specifically regulates the protection of domestic industry due to the practice of dumping.

  17. 30 CFR 56.19103 - Dumping facilities and loading pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities and loading pockets. 56.19103 Section 56.19103 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19103 Dumping facilities and loading pockets. Dumping facilities and...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19103 - Dumping facilities and loading pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities and loading pockets. 57.19103 Section 57.19103 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19103 Dumping facilities and loading pockets. Dumping...

  19. 7 CFR 46.22 - Accounting for dumped produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for dumped produce. 46.22 Section 46.22... Market Receivers § 46.22 Accounting for dumped produce. A clear and complete record shall be maintained... justifying dumping shall be forwarded to the consignor or joint account partner with the accounting and...

  20. Landfills - OPEN_DUMPS_IDEM_IN: Open Dump Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — OPEN_DUMPS_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains open dump site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of Environmental Management,...

  1. EU economic freedoms and social dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cremers

    2015-01-01

    In the book, Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe, edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic freedoms has negatively af

  2. EU Economic Freedoms and Social Dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Bernaciak, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    In the book, 'Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe', edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS and Tilburg University) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic f

  3. Unique railcar dump cuts port costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.

    1986-07-01

    A key element in a Suneel Alaska Corp. coal transfer facility is a railcar dumping system, a pit and conveyor arrangement that transfers coal from railcars to temporary stockpiles. The same principles used in the design should have applications at other bulk unloading facilities. The $1.5 million system is compact, minimizes groundwater problems, and allows fast unloading from the railcar.

  4. Analysis of the London dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives an in-depth review of the provisions of the London Dumping Convention and of its origins in the context of the international legal framework for controlling all aspects of marine pollution. Particular attention is paid to the provisions concerning radioactive waste. (NEA)

  5. La condicionalidad social como remedio al dumping = Social clause as remedy to dumping

    OpenAIRE

    D??az Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    El estudio trata de abordar las diferentes formas con las que luchar contra el dumping social. A tal fin, se analiza, en primer lugar el concepto e implicaciones del dumping social. Acto seguido, se abordan las distintas alternativas empleadas para combatirlo, empezando por la condicionalidad social en general, atendiendo a su primer origen normativo, explicando en qu?? consiste y sus posturas tanto a favor como en contra. El segundo modo para hacerle frente, o condicionalidad unilateral, vie...

  6. Rule of oxygen transmission in dump leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the chemical equations, the flux and concentration of oxygen required during bacterial leaching sulfuric mineral were investigated; the rule of air bubble transmitted in granular was researched in the Dump Leaching Plant of Dexing Copper Mine. The results show that lack of oxygen in dump leaching is the critical factor of restricting leaching reaction. Pyrite is the primary oxygen-consuming mineral in bioleaching. When its content is too high, it needs a great deal of oxygen for reaction and competes for the finite oxygen with objective minerals, and thus the leaching velocity decreases greatly. The average size of ore particles and diameter of bubbles are the key parameters affecting the mass transfer coefficient. Reverse analysis was adopted, and it shows that 44.8 m3 air per unit ore can meet the requirement of production if the molar ratio of pyrite to chalcopyrite is 10.

  7. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden Ralph [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Yuan, Zongwei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  8. Between social dumping and social protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Jul; Sandberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    In a world increasingly challenged by neoliberal restructurings of labour markets within the global economy, labour organisation is continuously challenged. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among Polish construction workers in Denmark, both at their place of work and in their homes in De...... flexibility and availability, and that the composition of the migrant family significantly impacts how migratory practices are made feasible and desirable. Keywords: East-West migrants, labour mobility, social dumping, migrant families, ethnographic fieldwork...

  9. At dumpe på FARMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Bjørn Friis

    Uddrag fra forord: "At dumpe på FARMA peger på flere centrale styrker i farmaceutuddannelsen. For det første at de studerende reelt er interesserede i farmaceutfaget når de optages på studiet, og de oplever velvilje fra underviserne. For det andet at studenterkulturen på studiet er stærk, således...

  10. Dumping influence on a non iterative dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, Cécile

    2007-01-01

    We consider n agents displayed on S choosing one by one a standard A or B according to a local assignment rule. There is no asymptotics in space or in time, since the scan of the network is unique. We study the final behaviour by simulations. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the effect of an initial dumping on the final configuration.

  11. Modern methods for recultivation of tailing dumps

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinov, Ljubisa; Micevska, Olgica; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Lands resulting from the flotation tailings and disposal of tailing have no biotic potential, so it is necessary to apply modern methods for remediation for these lands to have a particular purpose. To have a successful recultivation, it is necessary first to remove the water from the tailing dump. Dewatering can be done by several methods depending on the application/usage of the terrain after recultivation. The process of dewatering can be performed by application of geotextile with w...

  12. Injection and dump considerations for a 16.5 TeV HE-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Bartmann, W; Borburgh, J; Bracco, C; Ducimetière, L; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Senaj, V; Uythoven, J

    2011-01-01

    Injection and beam dumping is considered for a 16.5 TeV hadron accelerator in the current LHC tunnel, with an injection energy in the range 1 - 1.3 TeV. The present systems are described and the possible upgrade scenarios investigated for higher beam rigidity. In addition to the required equipment performance, the machine protection related aspects are explored. The expected constraints on the machine layout are also given. The technological challenges for the different equipment subsystems are detailed, and areas where R&D is necessary are highlighted.

  13. The M.I.T. - Tohuku beam dump chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A holographic bubble chamber is described that will search for the tau neutrino. Tests are described that demonstrate that with standard lasers photographs of 30 micron diameter bubbles can be taken throughout a 36 inches diameter x 33 inches deep chamber. It is shown that bubbles of this diameter are sufficient for this experiment and that a measurement of the impact parameter will yield the tau meson lifetime. (U.K.)

  14. Neutrino oscillation studies with laser-driven beam dump facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S V; Migliozzi, P; Pegoraro, F; Tajima, T; Terranova, F

    2004-01-01

    A new mechanism is suggested for efficient proton acceleration in the GeV energy range; applications to non-conventional high intensity proton drivers and, hence, to low-energy (10-200 MeV) neutrino sources are discussed. In particular we investigate possible uses to explore subdominant $\\bar{\

  15. Engineering with Modern Materials for Environmental Protection from Tailing Dumps

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinov, Ljubisa

    2012-01-01

    With the technological process for preparation of mineral raw materials large of flotation tailing are generated. This flotation tailing is disposed in to the special arranged location so called flotation tailing dumps. Flotation tailing dumps should provide sustainable development for the environment. Prerequisite for one flotation tailing dump to be constructed and to be functional according to the contemporary world standards is the application of the modern materials dur...

  16. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.16 Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping. (a) A need for...

  17. Anti-Dumping Procedures In The Eurasec Customs Union

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Yalbulganov

    2014-01-01

    The creation of the EurAsEC Customs Union and Russia’s ascension into the WTO has led to a radical change in Russia’s anti-dumping legislation. Anti-dumping regulation ceased to fall under national jurisdiction and was transferred to the Eurasian Economic Commission, a supranational regulator. This article analyzes the new anti-dumping legislation of the EurAsEC Customs Union, anti-dumping procedures, their principles, participants, and main stages, as well as the legal treatment of informati...

  18. Risks from proposed nuclear waste dump unacceptable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has a critical look at the proposal by Pangea Resources Australia Pty Ltd (PARPL) to establish in Australia a permanent underground disposal site for radioactive waste from around the world. In his opinion, the inevitable risk in the proposal stems from the magnitudes: 250,000 tonnes of enormously dangerous RADwaste in the northern hemisphere 20,000 km from its destined dump in Australia, where it must remain intact for at least 10,000 years. These magnitudes - of tonnage, lethality, distance of transport, and time - entail great inherent risk. He also argue that the job of the Australian scientists is to apply due diligence to PARPL proposal

  19. Failure reasons investigations of dumping conveyor breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rusiński

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purposes of the paper are to discuss designing and exploitation problems of machines used in strip mines and investigation of its reasons based on steering frame brake-down of the dumping conveyor.Design/methodology/approach: Numerical and experimental approach was used to investigate reasons of the break-down of the dumping conveyor. Numerical simulations based on the finite element method were used. Fractographic and microscopic evaluation and chemical analysis, were used to perform material evaluations. The objectives are achieved by analysis of the numerical simulations results of the broken part of machine and data coming from material evaluations. Based on the mentioned results conclusions concerning results of the failure were given. Additionally the new design of the steering frame half-shafts systems was discussedFindings: The causes of break-down of the steering frame of dumping conveyor were found. Designing and manufacturing problems were the main reasons of the failure. The half shafts systems in undercarriages of the open pit machines are prone to break-downs. They require detailed analysis to be successfully implemented into steering system. Recommendations for the single shaft system are given in the paper.Research limitations/implications: in the half-shaft undercarriage system, the friction in the supporting areas limits horizontal forces acting on safetying. Investigations of the static and sliding friction coefficients should be performed to estimate correct forces and optimal designing rules.Practical implications: The study provides practical implication into designing of half-shafts undercarriage systems and their safetyings. Discussed design of the safetying should be redesigned or the half-shaft system should be changed into one shaft design.Originality/value: The paper provides information backed by evaluation and test results, stating the nexus of causes of the dumping conveyor failure. The

  20. The Defects of WTO Anti-Dumping Rules and Related Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Wenhong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since Canada made the first anti-dumping code in 1904, United States, Australia and France made their domestic anti-dumping codes successively.In 1947,the contracting parties made anti-dumping rules part of GATT (Article VI).

  1. 78 FR 58378 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Measures on Large...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Anti-Dumping and Countervailing... using the weighted average-to-transaction comparison methodology in anti-dumping investigations, administrative reviews and other segments of anti- dumping proceedings.'' Korea also challenges...

  2. Fast Dump of the ATLAS Toroids

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; Volpini, Giovanni; Dudarev, Alexey; Kate, Herman Ten

    2010-01-01

    The toroidal magnet system of the ATLAS Detector at CERN consists of a Barrel Toroid (BT) and two End Cap Toroids (ECT-A and ECT-C). Each toroid is built up from eight racetrack coils wound with an aluminum stabilized NbTi conductor and indirectly cooled by forced flow liquid helium. The three toroids operate in series at 20.5 kA with a total stored energy of 1.5 GJ. In order to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the quench protection system, series of fast dump tests have been performed first of the single toroids and finally of the entire toroidal magnet system. In this paper a model to simulate the fast dump of the ATLAS toroids in single mode operation and in full system configuration is presented. The model is validated through comparison with measured data extracted from the ramp-and-quench runs. The calculated energy dissipation in the various coils is in very good agreement (within 1-2\\%) with the enthalpy changes estimated from the temperature measurements of the different parts of the cold ...

  3. Experimental study on explosive mechanism of spontaneous combustion gangue dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Rong-kun; YU Ming-gao; LU Lai-xiang

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reason for the frequency explosion of spontaneous combustion coal gangue dump and get to know their explosion mechanism, established the experiment platform about spontaneous combustion coal gangue dump interoperable water. The gangue dump was heated using the external heat source, and rainy weather through water mist was simulated. Simulated experiment about explosion of spontaneous combustion coal gangue dump was carried out on the different conditions of the rainfall or not. The unusual gases produced in the course of gangue combustion and the changes in temperature were observed, and their impacts on the explosion of gangue dump were analyzed. The experimental results show that overall warming phenomenon of the gangue dump after watering occurred, the amount of H2 iS three times than that before watering,and the amount of CO is far greater than that on the conditions of no-watering, at the same time combining with local observation and tests. It is found that the content of the oxygen reduce with the temperature increasing; however, gangue dump internal hydrogen content increase unusually on the rainfall conditions at 90 ℃, but the local measuring points reach the explosion limit. The existence of the CO and H2 iS the main reason for inducing the explosion of spontaneous combustion coal gangue dump.

  4. 7 CFR 48.4 - Destroying or dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destroying or dumping. 48.4 Section 48.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... dumping. Any person receiving produce in interstate commerce or in the District of Columbia for or...

  5. Switching tests for the LCTF protective dump circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each of the six coils in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) has a separate power supply, dump resistor, and switching circuit. Each switching circuit contains five switches, two of which are redundant. The three remaining switches perform separate duties in an emergency dump situation. These three switches were tested to determine their ability to meet the LCTF conditions

  6. 45 CFR 152.28 - Preventing insurer dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preventing insurer dumping. 152.28 Section 152.28...-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Oversight § 152.28 Preventing insurer dumping. (a) General rule... constituting exclusive remedies for violations of this section or as preventing States from applying...

  7. Argentina Imp Anti-dumping Duties on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 22, Argentina made the final anti-dumping adjudication once tires from China; on July 6, the Argentina authorities released the No. 221 resolution in 2011 issued by the Ministry of Industry: Impose 23% anti-dumping duties off estate car tires, 10% on the tires of machinery or vehicles used for agriculture and forestation,

  8. Upgrade of the TCDQ: A dumping protection system for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Antonakakis, T

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the LHC, an asynchronous beam dump could be destructive. In order to ensure the safety of the machine and its surroundings a model of the TCDQ dump has been designed. The length of the TCDQ dump is increased by 50% and its material distribution along its length is changed from graphite to a carbon composite that clearly withstands higher stresses then its counterpart. There are two different density composites used along the dump‘s length in a similar distribution than that of the TCDS, varying from high density to low then back to high. The power deposition within the duration of a pulse is given by FLUKA simulations and is used to predict temperature and stress distributions in space and time. The results are compared with previous studies in which graphite material was used. The difference in the thermal expansion coefficient of the two materials explains the reduced stresses in the newer design. Due to the high cost of carbon composites an alternative solution is thought without jeopar...

  9. Performance of the KTeV high-energy neutral kaon beam at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocean, V.

    1998-06-01

    The performance of the primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E832 and E799-II is reviewed. The beam was commissioned in the summer of 1996 and initially operated for approximately one year. The report includes results on the primary beam, target station including primary beam dump and muon sweeping system, neutral beam collimation system, and alignment.

  10. RF-driven ion source with a back-streaming electron dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Joe; Ji, Qing

    2014-05-20

    A novel ion source is described having an improved lifetime. The ion source, in one embodiment, is a proton source, including an external RF antenna mounted to an RF window. To prevent backstreaming electrons formed in the beam column from striking the RF window, a back streaming electron dump is provided, which in one embodiment is formed of a cylindrical tube, open at one end to the ion source chamber and capped at its other end by a metal plug. The plug, maintained at the same electrical potential as the source, captures these backstreaming electrons, and thus prevents localized heating of the window, which due to said heating, might otherwise cause window damage.

  11. Elasticity of substitution and anti-dumping decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a monopolistic competition model with market segmentation and international price discrimination, this paper analyzes whether there is an inverse relation between the elasticity of substitution and final ad valorem anti-dumping duties across products. We test this for 19 countries...... using data on anti-dumping from the Global Antidumping Database and US data at the 6-digit HS product level for the elasticity of substitution from Broda and Weinstein (Q J Econ 121(2):541–585, 2006). The results in our empirical investigation support a negative relation between the elasticity...... of substitution and the final ad valorem anti-dumping duties....

  12. Radiation protection with regard to sea dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) has been dumping into the Atlantic Ocean radioactive waste cast into concrete since 1965. In the report the Health Physics problems with regard to the transport and dumping of the radioactive waste are discussed. In particular to the following points has been paid attention: tasks and working methods of the radiation protection service, dose evaluation for the people involved by two different kinds of dumping methods, doses received by the personal involved, some contamination problems caused by leaking drums. (orig.)

  13. Passive and active plasma deceleration for the compact disposal of electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto, A., E-mail: abonatto@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília, DF 700040-020 (Brazil); Schroeder, C. B.; Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Plasma-based decelerating schemes are investigated as compact alternatives for the disposal of high-energy beams (beam dumps). Analytical solutions for the energy loss of electron beams propagating in passive and active (laser-driven) schemes are derived. These solutions, along with numerical modeling, are used to investigate the evolution of the electron distribution, including energy chirp and total beam energy. In the active beam dump scheme, a laser-driver allows a more homogeneous beam energy extraction and drastically reduces the energy chirp observed in the passive scheme. These concepts could benefit applications requiring overall compactness, such as transportable light sources, or facilities operating at high beam power.

  14. 30 CFR 56.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of ramps and dumping facilities... Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 56.9303 Construction of ramps and dumping facilities. Ramps and...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of ramps and dumping facilities... MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9303 Construction of ramps and dumping facilities. Ramps...

  16. The IAEA's responsibilities in connection with the dumping at sea of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of IAEA's responsibilities regarding the sea dumping of radioactive wastes, this paper reviews international laws of relevance to sea dumping of wastes, and examines IAEA's role under the London Dumping Convention. The paper also describes the OECD/NEA Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism on radioactive waste sea dumping operations. (NEA)

  17. Numerical analysis of rainfall effects in external overburden dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhakanta Koner⇑; Debashish Chakravarty

    2016-01-01

    The effect of slope angle for external overburden dump in response to average and heavy rainfall has been analyzed using a two dimensional finite difference method of transient water flow through unsaturated–saturated soil. The external dump stability is evaluated for five geomaterial types on the basis of globally accepted safety factor analysis technique, based on shear strength reduction approach using finite differ-ence method. The results obtained from the finite difference method of analysis indicate that the external dump with more than 30? slope angle is greatly influenced by the rainfall under the studied conditions for geomaterial 3, 4 and 5, whereas dumps with geomaterial 1 and 2 remain safe. The analysis shows that major slope failure is out of preview for the studied rainfall conditions.

  18. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  19. The evidence of toxic wastes dumping in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfe, Gabriella; Di Stefano, Carla

    2016-09-01

    The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) were subjected to extensive illegal dumping operations of toxic and radioactive wastes since the 1980s. The highly toxic wastes (HTW) dumping operations that have taken place both along the coast and the hinterland, have extremely adverse effects on health, livelihoods and the future prospect of sustainable development of the local population. The toxic wastes dumping in Campania is real and it has compromised (irreversibly) the human health, natural environment, food security and the long-term development prospects of the affected population. To reverse this tragic trend, it is necessery the identification, isolation and reclamation of the polluted sites and full assessment of the nature and the scale of the polluting chemicals and other hazardous wastes. The purpose of this review is to contribute significantly to the available evidence of the long-running toxic waste dumping in Campania and its negative impact on the health of population. PMID:27424919

  20. Continuous Wheel Momentum Dumping Using Magnetic Torquers and Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa-Suk; Choi, Wan-Sik; Eun, Jong-Won

    1996-12-01

    Two momentum management schemes using magnetic torquers and thrusters are sug-gested. The stability of the momentum dumping logic is proved at a general attitude equilibrium. Both momentum dumping control laws are implemented with Pulse-Width- Pulse-Frequency Modulated on-off control, and shown working equally well with the original continuous and variable strength control law. Thrusters are assummed to be asymmetrically configured as a contingency case. Each thruster is fired following separated control laws rather than paired thrusting. Null torque thrusting control is added on the thrust control calculated from the momentum control law for the gener-ation of positive thrusting force. Both magnetic and thrusting control laws guarantee the momentum dumping, however, the wheel inner loop control is needed for the "wheel speed" dumping, The control laws are simulated on the KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite (KOMPSAT) model.

  1. Construction of tailing dumps dams by using modern materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinov, Ljubisa; Fidancev, Boris; Krstev, Boris; Golomeova, Mirjana; Golomeov, Blagoj

    2013-01-01

    During the construction of tailing dumps dams, modern materials can be used, which materials will improve the stability of dams and ensure high level of environmental protection. At tailing dumps where dams are built upstream or central it is possible the peripheral parts to be constructed by using geotubes. Thus improves the stability of the dam, prevents erosion and protects the air and surrounding area from fugitive emission of flotation sand with air currents. Also, to protect the ...

  2. Spectral barcode label for fighting illegal waste dumps

    OpenAIRE

    Ziolkowski, Bartosz; Lau, King-Tong; Diamond, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    Illegal waste dumping is one of the biggest problem in environment protection. Shipments of waste are left in wastelands, forests or dumped into the sea. These activities are difficult to suppress because technologies available to track the waste, and hence the people responsible, are very limited.(1) This research focuses on developing an effective, low-cost way of labelling and detecting bulk waste material shipments. The technology is based on an easily retrievable material in the form ...

  3. COS Side 2 Dump Test and Verification of COS Memory Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacinski, John

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is a test and verification of the COS dump of memory capability.Areas of Control Section {CS} to dump include: EXEC RAM, EEPROM, and CS PROM {with the CS in Operate}. Areas of DIB memory to dump include: DIB RAM and DIB PROM {with the DIB in Operate}. Areas of DCE memory to dump include: the DCE code image. Note that the DIB and DCE memory must first be copied to CS buffer RAM as images, which are then dumped.

  4. Dump structure concept in Saarland; Haldenstrukturkonzept Saarland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanns, J. [Architekten - Ingenieure - Landschaftsarchitekten, Hattingen (Germany)

    2003-11-06

    The contribution is a report on the experience acquired concerning the relationships between clean-up obligation, renaturalisation and reactivation of dump and pond sites no longer required for mining purposes in the Saar. The customer contributed a clear specification of aims to the expert report, viz. land development in the sense of economically orientated site development, which permits release of areas no longer required for mining purposes from the mines inspectorate and from land ownership. As a result sustained site-related concepts were developed for the economic structure change, the restructuring of the urban landscape and for improvement of the ecological situation with utilisation of maximum synergetic effects. (orig.) [German] Der Beitrag versteht sich als Erfahrungsbericht aus dem Spannungsfeld zwischen Sanierungsverpflichtung, Renaturierung und Reaktivierung bergbaulich nicht mehr benoetigter Halden- und Weiherstandorte an der Saar. Seitens des Auftraggebers wurde an das Gutachten eine klare Zielvorgabe gestellt: naemlich Flaechenentwicklung im Sinn einer wirtschaftlich orientierten Standortentwicklung, die im Ergebnis die Entlassung bergbaulich nicht mehr benoetigter Flaechen aus der Bergaufsicht und aus dem Grundbesitz ermoeglicht. Als Ergebnis wurden nachhaltige, standortbezogene Konzepte unter Ausnutzung maximaler Synergieeffekte fuer den wirtschaftlichen Strukturwandel, die Restrukturierung der Stadtlandschaft und zur Verbesserung der oekologischen Situation erarbeitet. (orig.)

  5. Natural vegetation recovery on waste dump in opencast coalmine area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jian-long; LU Zhao-hua

    2005-01-01

    The changes of vegetation compositions, plant species diversity, species important value and succession of plant community were studied on waste dumps in Haizhou opencast coalmine which is located in the west of Liaoning Province, China (41°41(-42°56( N, 121°1(-122°56(E). Four kinds of terraces with different ages (5, 10, 20 and 40 years) were selected for investigation of plants. Total of 63 species of natural colonized plants were recorded on the waste dump and they belong to 23 families. The main families were Compositae (15 species), Fabaceae (11 species) and Leguminosae (8 species), which accounted for 54.0% of total species and play an important role in natural vegetation recovery in waste dump area. The dominant species on 5-, 10-, 20-, 40-year-old terraces were Tribulus terrestris + Echinochloa hispidula + Salsola collina, Echinochloa hispidula + Artemisia sieversiana + Artemisia scoparia, Echinochloa hispidula + Clinelymus dahuricus + Artemisia scoparia + Artemisia sieversiana + Melilotus officinalis, Clinelymus dahuricus+Phragmites communis + Echinochloa hispidula+ Setaria viridis, respectively. According to the important value of species calculated. It is determined that Tribulus terrestris can act as pioneer species on waste dump and Clinelymus dahuricus, Phragmites communis and Echinochloah hispidula are important dominant species in vegetation restoration in Haizhou opencast coalmine. The study results can provide scientific basis for selecting and disposing appropriately plant species and rehabilitating vegetation on waste dumps of coalmine.

  6. Collembola and Oribatei of brown coal dumps in Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebaeva, S.K.; Andrievsky, V.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novobirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Nature and rates of forming Collembola and Oribatei groups in catena of technogenic ecosystems on brown coal dumps in Siberia were studied. With increasing age of dumps, the taxonomic diversity and abundance of microarthropod groups increase, the dominance structure is transformed. Colonization of technogenic landscapes by Collembola proceeds faster than that by Oribatei, especially at initial and middle stages of forming the groups resulting in the sharp increase of species abundance and diversity. At the late successional stage the rates of colonizing dumps by Collembola and Oribatei become identical due to increasing the rate of forming the Oribatei group. The dominance structure in microarthropod groups is transformed during succession and becomes similar to the structure, characteristic of the groups from undisturbed meadow ecosystems. In Oribatei this is displayed more distinctly, but in both groups the indicator species for technogenic ecosystems are distinguished.

  7. A Clamped Be Window for the Dump of the HiRadMat Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Delonca, M; Grenier, D; Maglioni, C; Sarrio Martinez, A

    2012-01-01

    At CERN, the High Radiation to Materials facility (HiRadMat) is designed to test accelerator components under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams and will start operation in 2012. In this frame an LHC TED-type dump was installed at the end of the line, working in nitrogen over-pressure, and a 254μm-thick beryllium window was placed as barrier between the inside of the dump and the external atmosphere. Because of the special loading conditions, a clamped window design was especially developed, optimized and implemented, the more standard welded window not being suitable for such loads. Considering then the clamping force and the applied differential pressures, the stresses on the window components were carefully evaluated thanks to empirical as well as numerical models, to guarantee the structural integrity of the beryllium foil. This paper reports on choices and optimizations that led to the final design, presenting also comparative results from different solutions and the detailed results for the adop...

  8. A Clamped Be Window for the Dump of the HiRadMat Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Delonca, M; Grenier, D; Maglioni, C; Sarrio Martinez, A

    2012-01-01

    At CERN, the High Radiation to Materials facility (HiRadMat) is designed to test accelerator components under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams and will start operation in 2012. In this frame an LHC TED-type dump was installed at the end of the line, working in nitrogen overpressure, and a 254μm-thick beryllium window was placed as barrier between the inside of the dump and the external atmosphere. Because of the special loading conditions, a clamped window design was especially developed, optimized and implemented, the more standard welded window not being suitable for such loads. Considering then the clamping force and the applied differential pressures, the stresses on the window components were carefully evaluated thanks to empirical as well as numerical models, to guarantee the structural integrity of the beryllium foil. This paper reports on choices and optimizations that led to the final design, presenting also comparative results from different solutions and the detailed results for the adopt...

  9. LHC Report: Beam on

    CERN Multimedia

    Rossano Giachino for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The powering tests described in the last edition of the Bulletin were successfully finished at the end of the first week of March opening the way for 4 TeV operations this year. The beam was back in the machine on Wednesday 14 March. The first collisions at 4 TeV are scheduled for the first week of April.   The first beam of 2012 is dumped after making a few rounds in the LHC. The magnet powering tests were followed by the machine checkout phase. Here the operations team in collaboration with the equipment groups performs a sequence of tests to ensure the readiness of the LHC for beam. The tests include driving all the LHC systems – beam dump, injection, collimation, RF, power converters, magnet circuits, vacuum, interlocks, controls, timing and synchronization – through the operational cycle. The “checkout phase” is really a massive de-bugging exercise, which is performed with the objective of ensuring the proper functioning of the whole machine and t...

  10. Beam Interlocks for LHC and SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Dinius, A; Gimeno-Vicente, J; Nouchi, P; Puccio, B; Schmidt, R; Wenninger, J

    2003-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN (LHC) will operate at 7 TeV/c with a luminosity of 10 cms. This requires two beams with about 3^10 protons/beam, corresponding to a stored energy of about 350 MJ, sufficient to heat and melt 500 kg of copper. Protection of equipment from damage in case of uncontrolled beam losses is challenging. Injection of the beam from the SPS to the LHC could already damage equipment and is only permitted when all LHC systems are correctly prepared. In case of an uncontrolled loss of the circulating LHC beams, it is required to extract the beams into a specially designed target as soon as possible. Beam loss monitors and equipment for hardware surveillance are distributed around the 26 km long accelerator. In case of failures or beam losses, the beam interlock system is informed and sends a dump request to the beam dumping system. The beam interlock system also inhibits injection when the LHC is not ready for beam. In this paper the requirements for the beam interlock system are discussed...

  11. Environmental application of aerial reconnaissance to search for open dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Thomas J.; Randolph, J. C.; Echelberger, Wayne F.

    1983-11-01

    Three approaches to using aerial photography are evaluated for searching for open dumps in the state of Indiana. Photography with hand-held cameras from a small airplane proved more effective and flexible than either photo-interpretation of existing air photos or subcontracting to a federal agency for new aerial photography. The rationale for our choice of aerial reconnaissance, other uses of low-level aerial surveillance, the utility of small-format camera aerial photography for environmental analysis, and methods used for locating open dumps are discussed.

  12. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-09

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  13. 75 FR 16493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This request for comment is being made... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB Number: 1651-0086....

  14. 78 FR 36560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). This request for... concerning the following information collection: Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy...

  15. Effects on the environment of the dumping of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nationally and internationally accepted procedures and technologies are available for the safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes. Authorized waste disposal practices are designed to ensure that there will be no significant impacts on man and his environment. 'Dumping' of nuclear wastes may result in the elimination of one or more of the multibarriers of protection inherent in an effective radioactive waste management system, thereby increasing the risk of radiological exposure to man and his environment. Quantitative assessments of the degree of environmental contamination and of the resulting hazards to man depend on the specific conditions surrounding the 'uncontrolled disposal' of radioactive waste. These include the nature and activity level of the waste, the physical form of the waste, the package that the waste is contained in and the characteristics of the dumping site. Depending on the scenario envisaged, the consequences of 'uncontrolled disposal' could vary from being insignificant to a situation where there is a significant hazard to an exposed population group. International transactions involving nuclear wastes are taking place between countries on the basis of bilateral agreements and under strict regulatory supervision so that radioactive wastes are transferred safely from one controlled area to another. Such transactions may increase in the future with increased international co-operation in sharing common waste repositories. No evidence exists that confirms that transboundary dumping of radioactive waste has occurred. Investigation of alleged dumping of radioactive wastes by the International Atomic Energy Agency has revealed that the 'suspect wastes' did not contain radioactive material. 2 tabs

  16. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...

  17. Sperm dumping as a defense against meiotic drive

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Tom; Lewis, Zenobia; Wedell, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sperm from Drosophila simulans that carry a sex-ratio distorter is preferentially lost from females' sperm-storage organs. This suggests that sperm dumping is a major factor affecting sperm competition in this species, and may have evolved in response to sex-ratio distorters.

  18. Pioneer vegetation on ash dumps in Oswiecim (southern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarczuk, T.; Kuczynski, B.

    1972-01-01

    The authors found fifty-three plant species growing on the ash dumps in Oswiecim, while in 1963 twenty-two species only were encountered there. Most of the self-sown plants belong to calciphilous, ruderal and xerophilous species. The pH of the ashes amounts to 9.5. Some of them, e.g. Matricaria chamomilla are index plants for acid habitats; others were hitherto encountered in wet habitats, e.g. Rumex obtusifolias, Myricaria germanica, Epilobium roseum, and others. Their occurrence on ash dumps is possible thanks to the considerable amount of precipitation (465 mm) during the vegetative period. The mosses are the pioneers of these dumps, e.g. Funaria hygromertrica and Bryum argenteum, which usually appear on the site of fire. The authors are of the opinion that a better knowledge of the plants appearing spontaneously on dumps and waste heaps may provide many useful conclusions which will help to obtain positive results at the recultivation of spoil heaps and industrial wastes. 9 references, 3 tables.

  19. 7 CFR 46.23 - Evidence of dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER... has no commercial value or when it is dumped by order of a local health officer or other...

  20. Results of evaluation of tailing dumps dust intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masloboev V. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of most acceptable and well-known methods of dust intensity evaluation has been defined and tested (dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme based on the analysis of exiting approaches (deserts, tailing dumps, etc.. The description of the chosen methods has been given. The determination of dynamic velocity u* and velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface u10 which are necessary to evaluate the dust intensity has been demonstrated. The method is based on two-dimensional numerical model of atmosphere aerodynamics in the area of "tailing dumps of ANOF-2 ‒ the town of Apatity". The study provides calculations of horizontal velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface at the wind speed varying from 5 to 23 m/sec. The work also suggests the results of graphical data processing related to tailing grain size distribution from the surface of the firmly established surface of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2. Comparative analysis has been given and the peculiarities of interval (based on grains sizes dust intensity of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2 have been shown using the dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme within the wind speed range. The received values of dust intensity at the lower range limit are close to the "maximum specific dust off" value which is used by project specialists for documentation development

  1. Design of Neutral Beam-Line of EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡纯栋; 盛鹏; 许永建; 梁立振; 谢远来; 韦江龙; 谢亚红; 李军; 刘智民; 刘胜; 蒋才超

    2011-01-01

    Neutral beam injector for EAST is designed to deliver deuterium beams with a power of 2 MW to 4 MW at an energy of 50 keV to 80 keV into the plasma with a beam dimension of 12 cm× 48 cm. Considering the beam generation and transmission, a columniform beam-line of Ф 250 cm × 400 cm is designed with a neutralizer, ion dump, calorimeter, bending magnet and cryopanels. The arrangement of the internal elements for the beam-line is reported. A rectangular sleeve coupled to the ion source is employed as the neutralizer. At the downstream of the neutralizer, a dipole magnet separates the residual ions from the beam passage with a reflection radius of 42 cm for the full energy particles. The calorimeter and the ion dump serve as high heat flux components, which will work as thermal inertia targets in the first phase of operation.

  2. Assessing pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changli; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Feng'e.; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Miying; Ye, Hao; Hou, Hongbing; Dong, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Jiang, Jianmei; Pei, Lixin

    2007-04-01

    Research is few in the literature regarding the investigation and assessment of pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dumps. Based upon previous work in seven waste dumping sites (nonsanitary landfills) in Beijing, Shanghai and Shijiazhuang, this study expounds the investigation and assessment method and report major pollutants. Using relative background values, this study assesses soil pollution degree in the seven dumping sites. Preliminary conclusions are: (1) pollution degrees are moderate or heavy; (2) pollution distance by domestic waste that is dumped on a plane ground is 85 m; (3) the horizontal transport distance of pollutants might be up to 120 m if waste leachates are directly connected with water in saturated soils; (4) vertical transport depth is about 3 m in unsaturated silty clayey soils. Furthermore, using relative background values and hygiene standards of food and vegetable this study assesses the pollutions of different parts of reed, sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon. It is found: (1) in comparison with the relative background values in a large distance to the waste dumping sites, domestic wastes have polluted the roots and stems of reed and sorghum, whereas fine coal ash has polluted the leaves, rattans and fruits of watermelon and sweet-melon; (2) domestic wastes and fine coal ash have heavily polluted the edible parts of sorghum, water melon and sweet-melon. As, Hg, Pb and F have far exceeded standard values, e.g., Hg has exceeded the standard value by up to 650 1,700 times and Cd by 120 275 times, and the comprehensive pollution index is up to 192.9 369.7; (3) the polluted sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon are inedible.

  3. Dynamic stress analysis of dump truck; Doteki oryoku kaiseki shuho no dump truck eno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, S. [ESTECH Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shibuya, T. [Komatsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    The dynamic stress analysis method was developed for running vehicles by using the conventional mechanism analysis software used for vehicle motion simulation and a commercially available general-purpose FEM analysis software. An application of this analysis method to an off-road dump track is also presented. This dynamic stress recovery method is composed of existing functions of both general-purpose FEM analysis software MSC/NASTRAN and mechanism analysis software MDI/ADAMS, and can obtain time-serial dynamic stresses which are never obtained only by individual software. This method can sufficiently cope with a large-scale finite element (FE) model, and can effectively utilize existing FE models. Not only characteristic modification of the FE model but also that of ADAMS rigid parts are certainly reflected to the stress recovery results. In order to avoid several problems on computer operation, it is advisable that spatial and time ranges of stress recovery are prepared to be as small as possible. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Slow beam raster system at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, C.; Beaufait, J.; Carlini, R.; Cuevas, C.; Vulcan, W.; Wines, R.

    1994-07-07

    A bedstead air-core raster magnet is being installed now, it will be used at CEBAF to scan the beam on the Hall C polarized target and the beam dump with fixed frequency 60 Hz in horizontal, 103.4 Hz in vertical. The x and y raster magnets are driven by Variac transformer and SUMIT-OMO inverter respectively. Both of them provide an approximate sine current waveform with peak current 20 A, corresponding to a maximum deflection angle 1 mr.

  5. Beam-Beam Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  6. Advanced neutral-beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive development will be required to achieve the 50- to 75-MW, 175- to 200-keV, 5- to 10-sec pulses of deuterium atoms envisioned for ETF and INTOR. Multi-megawatt injector systems are large (and expansive); they consist of large vacuum tanks with many square meters of cryogenic pumping panels, beam dumps capable of dissipating several megawatts of un-neutralized beam, bending magnets, electrical power systems capable of fast turnoff with low (capacity) stored energy, and, of course, the injector modules (ion sources and accelerators). The technology requirements associated with these components are described

  7. NCTO Endorses Mexican Anti-dumping Case With China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The president of the National Council of Textile Organizations (NCTO) has written a letter to the Mexican Economic Secretary Hugo Diaz strongly endorsing his country's decision to seek a World Trade Organization (WTO) anti-dumping investigation of denim imports from China according to James A. Morrissey, a Washington Correspondent on June 8th. NCTO President Cass Johnson said the action is an important step toward preventing damage to both Mexican and U.S. denim manufacturers.

  8. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA and the IMO, in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), jointly convened a Technical Committee to provide guidance to national authorities. This document contains the results of the Technical Committee Meeting in Vienna, August - September 1982 and constitutes guidance to the Contracting Parties to the LDC Convention on the nature and content of the environmental assessment required for permit applications for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

  9. FATIGUE WELDING JOINT RESISTANCE OF MINING DUMP TRUCK BEARING CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rakitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a possibility to apply European norms on designing of welded constructions for frames of heavy-load mining dump trucks. Comparison of results concerning tests of welding joint specimen made of local steel with recommended standards of fatigue curves is executed in the paper. The paper reveals that while forecasting resource of automotive constructions with the accepted practical accuracy it is possible to use generalized fatigue resistance characteristics of standard welding joints. 

  10. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  11. Engineering for waste water treatment from tailing dumps

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinov, Ljubisa; Micevska, Olgica; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Apart from all measures to control and improve the quality (several days of purification by water settlement) of water that is discharged from tailing dumps in some periods, it is possible contaminated water to be discharge into the nearest watercourses. As a result of the discharge of contaminated water, deposition of harmful substances in the riverbeds can occur, which process causes contamination of the surrounding soil. To achieve a high level of environmental protection from waste ...

  12. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  13. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, which describes the content of an environmental assessment report, will assist national authorities to meet their obligations under the London Dumping Convention (LDC, 1972) by initiating those steps which are to be undertaken to ensure that ''the procedure to be followed and the nature of such reports shall be agreed by the parties in consultation'' (Article VI. 4). In the context of sea disposal of radioactive wastes, environmental assessments are taken to mean those evaluations which are undertaken to assist in the decision-making processes used by national authorities to determine: 1) How the option of sea disposal compares environmentally, technically, socially and economically with other disposal options (this constitutes the comparison with land-based alternatives); and 2) Whether the impact of a proposed sea disposal option is acceptable (this requires a detailed evaluation of the proposed operation including site selection, quantities and types of waste to be dumped, operational requirements and calculation of radiological and other risks). The term ''environmental assessment'' in these respects is deemed to include both the evaluation of the impact of sea dumping and the document that describes this evaluation

  14. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  15. Augmenting the Stability of OB Dump by Using Fly Ash: A Geo Technical Approach to Sustainably Manage OB Dump at Jharia Coal Field, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Gupta*

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is mainly focused over the possible utilization of fly ash along with OB dump to enhance the stability of OB dump and thus provide a sustainable approach for better waste management of both these materials simultaneously. Instability of coal mine overburden (OB dumps is an important problem in most of the coal mines like Jharia coalfields in India. This is mainly occurring due to sliding nature of the rock material, lack of vegetation etc. Numbers of Environmental and health issues are associated with these unstable OB dumps. As it may easily flow with running water can contaminate the nearby water resource as well as carbonaceous content of the dump causes air pollution due to simultaneous combustion. On the other hand management of coal ash that is produced from thermal plants is also an important task. Dumping of fly ash in open may cause number of environmental problems. Various geotechnical and physical parameters such as particle size analysis, specific gravity, density, and friction angle/cohesion test have been performed to check the stability of OB dump and to analyze impacts of fly ash utilization to stabilize the OB dump.

  16. Radiation damage and waste management options for the sombrero final focus system and neutron dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Meier, W.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reyes, S. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Dept. Ingenieria Energetica, Bilbao (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the SOMBRERO inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design did not completely address the issues associated with the final focus system. While past work calculated neutron fluences for a grazing incidence metal mirror (GIMM) and a final focus mirror, scattering off of the final optical component was not included, and thus, fluences in the final focus mirror were significantly underestimated. In addition, past work did not consider neutron-induced gamma-rays. Finally, power plant lifetime waste volumes may have been underestimated as neutron activation of the neutron dumps and building structure were not addressed. In the present work, a modified version of the SOMBRERO target building is presented where a significantly larger open solid-angle fraction (5%) is used to enhance beam smoothing of a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). The GIMMs are replaced with transmissive fused silica wedges and have been included in three-dimensional neutron and photon transport calculations. This work shows that a power plant with a large open solid-angle fraction, needed for beam smoothing with a DPSSL, is acceptable from tritium breeding, and neutron activation points-of-view. (authors)

  17. Reclamation of the illegal dump for sustainable development the environment in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal dumping is dumping of any waste such as oil, furniture, appliances, trash, litter or landscaping cuttings, upon any land of state, city, village or private ownership without consent of the owner. Illegal dumping has a great negative and fatal impact on our environment and all living organisms both fauna and flora. It also exposes people to various risks of chemicals (fluids or dust and is a big threat to all under-ground and surface water resources. Illegal dumps also attract all kinds of bugs such as rodents and insects. For example, illegal dumps with waste tires provide a practically perfect place for mosquitoes to breed. Mosquitoes can multiply 100 times faster than normal in the warm, stagnant water in waste tires. Exemplary for the illegal dump in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’ the main purpose of this article is to offer a possible option for the remediation of contaminated area.

  18. Charging for the waste dumping of open-pit metal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbing Hou; Zhaoxiang Zhang; Haifeng Duan; Liming Xue

    2006-01-01

    Based on the externality theory and the environmental value theory, the hypothesis of charging for waste dumping of open-pit metal mines was put forth. The charging methods were designed according to the characteristics of waste dumping of openpit metal mines, including charging based on the dumping amount of the total waste, multi-charging factors, exceeding standard punishment charging, and so on. The main charging parameter is based on the dumping area rather than the total amount of waste dumping.The charging model of waste dumping of open-pit mines was formulated, and the charging rate was divided into two parts, i.e., the standard charging rate and the differential charging rate. The standard charging rate was derived using the equilibrium dynamic model,whereas the differential one was obtained by establishing the fuzzy synthesized evaluation model.

  19. Environmental and economic assessment of 'open waste dump' mining in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Open waste dumps in Sri Lanka generate adverse environmental and socio-economic impacts due to inadequate maintenance. In this study, a concept of 'open waste dump mining' is suggested in order to minimise the environmental and socio-economic impacts, together with resource recovery. A model based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing has been used to assess the environmental and economic feasibility of the suggested open waste dump mining concept. Two scenarios have been defined fo...

  20. NEUTRALIZING OF WASTE PESTICIDES FROM DUMPING GROUNDS BY MEANS OF EXPLOSIVE BURNING

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Biegańska; Andrzej Harat; Wacław Zyzak

    2014-01-01

    Dumping areas of dangerous wastes are big threat for environment in particularly at the moment of release dangerous substances in draining form. Migration of those substances in soil causes pollution of water environment. The attention in article was turned on specific kind of wastes – pesticides, which are accumulated during many years in dumping grounds. The majority of those dumping grounds have been catalogued. The gigantic environmental threat is caused by lack of environmental monitorin...

  1. Game Analysis of Implementing Price Undertaking Agreements in Anti-dumping Disputes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Jun-fang; CANG Ping; ZHONG Gen-yuan

    2008-01-01

    The Price Undertaking Agreement is one of the strategies a company accused of dumping often adopts in dealing with anti-dumping disputes. Using static game analysis, this paper compares the impact that anti-dumping duties and price undertaking agreements may have on an importing country's social welfare and an accused company's market performance. We conclude that, compared with anti-dumping duties, price undertakings improve the importing country's social welfare and reduce the accused company's market share in the import country. We also note that, in addition to the financial benefit, price undertakings can prevent escalation of trade disputes in international trade negotiations.

  2. Preliminary studies on trace element contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, T.; Kunito, T.; Nakashima, E.; Minh, T. B.; Tanabe, S.; Subramanian, A.; Viet, P. H.

    2003-05-01

    The disposal of wastes in dumping sites has increasingly caused concem about adverse health effects on the populations living nearby. However, no investigation has been conducted yet on contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in Asian developing countries. In this study, concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb and Pb) were detennined in scalp hair from the population living nearby and in soil from dumping sites and control sites of India and Vietnam. Soil samples in dumping site in India showed significantly higher concentrations of some trace elements than soils in control site, whereas this trend was not notable in Vietnam. This is probably due to the fact that the wastes were covered with the soil in the dumping site of Vietnam. Cadmium concentrations in some hair samples of people living near dumping site in India and Vietnam exceeded the level associated with learning disorder in children. Levels of most of the trace elements in hair were significantly higher in dumping site than those in control site in India and Vietnam, suggesting direct or indirect exposure to those elements from dumping wastes. To our knowledge, this is the first study of trace element contamination in dumping sites in India and Vietnam.

  3. Jatibarang Final Solid Waste Dumping Site of Semarang City and Its Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Sutarto Edhisono

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste is big problem in most cities in Indonesia. The problem which often raises, is the difficulty to find the land for solid waste dumping site. The local inhabitants could not accept if the dumping site location is closed to their residential. Therefore, the existing final dumping site is pushed to accommodate and receive solid waste from the entire of the city, although really the service time of the facility is over.This situation is occured on the Jatibarang Final Solid Waste Dump...

  4. Development of laser beam injection system for the Edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the design and development of the laser injection system for the ITER Edge Thomson Scattering system (ETS). The ITER ETS achieves a temporal resolution of 100 Hz by firing two 50 Hz laser beams alternatively. The use of dual lasers enables us to perform the Thomson scattering measurements at a temporal resolution of 50 Hz in case that one of the laser systems stops functioning. A new type of beam combiner was developed to obtain a single beam that is collinear and fixed linearly polarized from two laser beams using a motor-driven rotating half-wave plate. The rotating half-wave plate method does not induce misalignment even if the rotating mechanism malfunctions. The combined beam is relayed from the diagnostic hall to the plasma using mirror optics and is absorbed at the beam dump integrated on the inner blanket. The beam alignment system was designed to direct the laser beam onto the center of the beam dump head. The beam position at the beam dump is monitored by four alignment laser beams which propagate parallel to the diagnostic Nd:YAG laser beam and imaging systems installed outside the diagnostic port

  5. Development of laser beam injection system for the Edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Suitoh, S.; Ohara, M.; Hagita, K.; Inoue, K.; Bassan, M.; Walsh, M.; Itami, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and development of the laser injection system for the ITER Edge Thomson Scattering system (ETS). The ITER ETS achieves a temporal resolution of 100 Hz by firing two 50 Hz laser beams alternatively. The use of dual lasers enables us to perform the Thomson scattering measurements at a temporal resolution of 50 Hz in case that one of the laser systems stops functioning. A new type of beam combiner was developed to obtain a single beam that is collinear and fixed linearly polarized from two laser beams using a motor-driven rotating half-wave plate. The rotating half-wave plate method does not induce misalignment even if the rotating mechanism malfunctions. The combined beam is relayed from the diagnostic hall to the plasma using mirror optics and is absorbed at the beam dump integrated on the inner blanket. The beam alignment system was designed to direct the laser beam onto the center of the beam dump head. The beam position at the beam dump is monitored by four alignment laser beams which propagate parallel to the diagnostic Nd:YAG laser beam and imaging systems installed outside the diagnostic port.

  6. Drosscape resilience : from coal mine waste dump to performative ground

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Dejun, Steven; 林德俊

    2015-01-01

    As it is well known to all, coal mining is the leading industry in Shanxi, China. Shanxi people are overly relying on extracting coal resource from nature to make profits. Coal mining not only contaminates the natural environment, but also restricts the social development, as it is a resource-driven industry. As the symbol of coal mines, waste dump contributes most of the pollution to the city. A series of threats such as landslide, water pollution and shortage, air-pollution, and land contam...

  7. ASPECTS OF REHABILITATION OF WASTE DUMPS USING HERBACEOUS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Smaranda Masu; Maria Popa; Florica Morariu

    2015-01-01

    There are many arguments that underlie research on rehabilitation of large areas of land that were set aside from the agricultural circuit and became heaps of storage for inert waste materials like bottom and boiler slag and fly ash. On the other hand result of biological materials with potential for land recycling i.e. sewage sludge. On the dumps of boiler slag composed of particles of 2-3 mm was gradually installed a layer of grass with the help of sewage sludge as a fertilizing agent and m...

  8. Numerical Simulations of Static Tested Ramjet Dump Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Afroz; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2016-06-01

    The flow field of a Liquid Fuel Ram Jet engine side dump combustor with kerosene fuel is numerically simulated using commercial CFD code CFX-11. Reynolds Averaged 3-D Navier-Stokes equations are solved alongwith SST turbulence model. Single step infinitely fast reaction is assumed for kerosene combustion. The combustion efficiency is evaluated in terms of the unburnt kerosene vapour leaving the combustor. The comparison of measured pressures with computed values show that the computation underpredicts (~5 %) pressures for non reacting cases but overpredicts (9-7 %) for reacting cases.

  9. Results of evaluation of tailing dumps dust intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Masloboev V. A.; Baklanov A. A.; Amosov P. V.

    2016-01-01

    A set of most acceptable and well-known methods of dust intensity evaluation has been defined and tested (dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme) based on the analysis of exiting approaches (deserts, tailing dumps, etc.). The description of the chosen methods has been given. The determination of dynamic velocity u* and velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface u10 which are necessary to evaluate the dust intensity has been demonstrated. The method is based on two-...

  10. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al

    2012-07-01

    The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.

  11. Update on Beam Induced RF Heating in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J; Nosych, A; Nougaret, J; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M; Fassnacht, P; Jakobsen, S; Deile, M

    2013-01-01

    Since June 2011 the rapid increase of the luminosity performance of the LHC has come at the expense of both increased temperature and pressure of specific, near-beam, LHC equipment. In some cases, this beam induced heating has caused delays while equipment cool-down, beam dumps and even degradation of some devices. This contribution gathers the observations of beam induced heating, attributed to longitudinal beam coupling impedance, their current level of understanding and possible actions planned to be implemented during the 1st LHC Long Shutdown (LS1) in 2013-2014.

  12. ASPECTS OF REHABILITATION OF WASTE DUMPS USING HERBACEOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many arguments that underlie research on rehabilitation of large areas of land that were set aside from the agricultural circuit and became heaps of storage for inert waste materials like bottom and boiler slag and fly ash. On the other hand result of biological materials with potential for land recycling i.e. sewage sludge. On the dumps of boiler slag composed of particles of 2-3 mm was gradually installed a layer of grass with the help of sewage sludge as a fertilizing agent and microbial activity stimulating agent, based on an extract of brown seaweed EKO GEA Slovenia. In the second year the amount of biomass harvested was 2 to 2.9 times higher than in the first year of cultivation. Moreover plants not harvested in the second year of culture bore fruit. Also, the root network strongly stabilized the slag and boiler ash particles against land spreading. Rapid and effective rehabilitation of the landscape destroyed was achieved with the use of herbaceous crops of the species Lolium perenne. Monitoring bioaccumulation of heavy metals i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ni, Zn, etc. in aerial plant tissue was needed to decide the sector where the biomass harvested from inert waste dump covered with vegetation.

  13. Municipal solid waste open dumping, implication for land degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yazdani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Open dumping is the common procedure for final disposal of MSW in Iran. Several environmental pollutions and land degradation have caused because of poor planning, insufficient financial resources, improper organizational chart for MSW management system, and the lack of rules, guidelines and regulations. In Iran standards and regulations of environmental issues are not perfectly attended, evaluation an open dumping can show existing restrictions and troubles in these areas. So recognition of the municipal solid waste landfill state is required to prevent the increase of environmental problems and decrease the negative environmental impacts. The suitability of Tonekabon existing municipal landfill site in the west area of Mazandaran province, located in north of Iran, and the south coast of the Caspian Sea is the significance of the present study as a case study of land degradation. In order to carry out this evaluation, two guidelines are used. After reviewing all the considered criteria in each of the guidelines, the authenticity of the deposit site of the study area and also the entire city was examined; and eventually the appropriate areas were identified. The conclusion of the results indicated the incoherence in appropriateness of the existing landfill site, with two mentioned methods and field work.

  14. LHC Report: Towards stable beams and collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, the LHC re-commissioning with beam has continued at a brisk pace. The first collisions of 2011 were produced on 2 March, with stable beams and collisions for physics planned for the coming days. Low intensity beams with just a few bunches of particles were used to test the energy ramp to 3.5 TeV and the squeeze. The results were successful and, as a by-product, the first collisions of 2011 were recorded 2 March. One of the main activities carried out by the operation teams has been the careful set-up of the collimation system, and the injection and beam dump protection devices. The collimation system provides essential beam cleaning, preventing stray particles from impacting other elements of the machine, particularly the superconducting magnets. In addition to the collimation system, also the injection and beam dump protection devices perform a vital machine protection role, as they detect any beam that might be mis-directed during rare, but not totally unavoidable, hardware hiccups...

  15. 75 FR 36106 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 16493) on April 1, 2010, allowing for a 60-day comment period. One comment was... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This is a...

  16. 75 FR 33747 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...) at 71 FR 27396 (May 11, 2006). The EPA is also restoring the coordinates for Site H at 40 CFR 228.15... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and...

  17. 77 FR 61818 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping and...-dumping and countervailing duties on certain automobiles from the United States. That request may be...

  18. 76 FR 5518 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... certain antidumping duty proceedings (75 FR 81533). That proposed rule and proposed modification indicated... Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Duty Proceedings AGENCY: Import... regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment rate...

  19. 19 CFR 159.58 - Dumping and countervailing duties; action by port director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dumping and countervailing duties; action by port director. 159.58 Section 159.58 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Dumping and countervailing duties; action by port director. (a) Antidumping matters. Upon receipt...

  20. 78 FR 55280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Register (78 FR 36560) on June 18, 2013, allowing for a 60-day comment period. This notice allows for an... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (ADPs). This is a...

  1. The mathematical model of vertical solt transfer on mine dumps Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Yevhrashkina,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On the based theory of physical-chemical hydrodynamics of porous media offer a range of mathematical models of vertical salt transfer on mine dumps Western Donbass. designed several variants of dumps free overgrowth for the optimal performance for transpiration of wild plants.

  2. Dumping and injury margins in markets with horizontal as well as vertical product differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the GATT/WTO rules for anti-dumping measures in a duopoly model with both horizontal and vertical product differentiation. The GATT/WTO rules allow for anti-dumping measures if domestic producers, exposed to price discrimination, also demonstrate injury where price-undercuttin...

  3. Regularities of restoration of plant cover on the dumps of the Kuznetsk Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kupriyanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of the restoration vegetation on the dumps of the coal enterprises of the Kuznetsk Basin. Studies have shown that the dumps have a wide range of environmental conditions and are potentially suitable for establishment of plants. To negative environmental factors at the mine dumps include the lack of productive moisture, failed penetration, contrasting temperature regime on the different elements of the relief, and low potential fertility of the embryonic soils. Positive – high humidity in the depressions, the high content of fine-grained deposits in the lower part of the elephant dumps, excessive accumulation of snow in the winter on separate dumping sites. On disturbed lands identified eight technogenic ecotopes, characterized by various microrelief, moisture level, amount of fine fractions of technogenic eluvium determining favorable, moderately favorable and unfavorable conditions for vegetation of disturbed land. Selected three stages of syngenesis: pioneer stage, simple plant communities and complex plant communities. The stage of zonal phytocenosis on the dumps was not detected. The basis of diagnostic signs consists of the projective cover, the nature of the host plants, the number of species part of the zonal species. The selected criteria are universal and can be applicable to most dumps. Speed of syngenetic succession does not depend on calendar age of the dumps, and environmental conditions, which are formed on separate sites.

  4. Stability analysis and treatment of No.2 dump of Nanfen iron mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan XU; Lei NIE; Huangping DING; Yin WANG; Jian LIU; Wei LU; Zhenying ZHANG; Xue GONG; Shiwei SHEN

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the study on the engineering geological characteristics of No.2 dump of Nanfen iron mine and the analysis of the failure mode of dump landslide, the stability of the present dump, the stability of the dump 20 years later and the stability of double-bench dump are analyzed. Then, the debris flow risk is evaluated by fuzzy mathematics method. Finally, the comprehensive treatment for the dump is suggested. It is concluded that ① In rainy and snowmelt period, the stability would be decreasing sharply when ground water is not drained out in time; ② Double-bench dumping mode will improve stability of the dump little; ③ Debris flow risk is middle danger. The interim debris flow with medium scale may occur. ④ Monitoring, draining and baffling work ought to be well done. ⑤ In order to prevent the damage of landslide and debris flow, three measures are adopted, including setting rockfall net, setting the debris flow barrier and removing the residents.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF PROCESSING OF DUMP SAND-CLAY MIXES BY THE CENTRIFUGAL AND SHOCK CRUSHING

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Vorobev; V. F. Odinochko; Y. Y. Guminskiy; K. D. Shishpor

    2015-01-01

    Results of experimental research of processing of centrifugal and shock crushing of dump sandy-clay mixes are given. Use of products of processing of received mixes in foundry production and in production of asphalt concrete mixes allows to exclude transportation of the mix to dumping.

  6. Environmental impact of differently remediated hard coal overburden and tailings dumps a few decades after remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willscher, S. [Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment; Hertwig, T. [BEAK Consultants GmbH, Freiburg (Germany); Felix, M.; Sohr, A. [Saxonian State Dept. of Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Coal mining in the Saxony region of Germany has caused heavy metal and arsenic pollution in adjacent groundwater and surface waters. Coal waste dumping sites are leaching heavy metals and metalloids in the form of fine precipitates into local rivers. This paper studied the different remediation strategies used at 3 different dump sites in the area. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental impact of the dumps and evaluate the long-term effects of remediation measures. The dumps consisted of coarse to fine-grained materials from former processing activities, and contained pyrite in varying concentrations. Samples from different depth as well as groundwater samples were taken from the sites and investigated for their mechanical, geological, geochemical, biogeochemical, and physico-chemical characteristics. Seepage formation rates and contaminant loads at the dump sites were compared. The study showed that the revegetation of dump surfaces can help to prevent against erosion, but cannot prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) generation. The additional seals and covers placed at 2 of the dumps resulted in a high reduction of seepage waters, and almost no acidification of dump materials. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Preliminary design of electrostatic sensors for MITICA beam line components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnolo, S., E-mail: spagnolo@igi.cnr.it; Spolaore, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Megavolt ITER Injector and Concept Advancement, the full-scale prototype of ITER neutral beam injector, is under construction in Italy. The device will generate deuterium negative ions, then accelerated and neutralized. The emerging beam, after removal of residual ions, will be dumped onto a calorimeter. The presence of plasma and its parameters will be monitored in the components of the beam-line, by means of specific electrostatic probes. Double probes, with the possibility to be configured as Langmuir probes and provide local ion density and electron temperature measurements, will be employed in the neutralizer and in the residual ion dump. Biased electrodes collecting secondary emission electrons will be installed in the calorimeter with the aim to provide a horizontal profile of the beam.

  8. Beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.

    1994-12-01

    The term beam-beam effects is usually used to designate different phenomena associated with interactions of counter-rotating beams in storage rings. Typically, the authors speak about beam-beam effects when such interactions lead to an increase of the beam core size or to a reduction of the beam lifetime or to a growth of particle`s population in the beam halo and a correspondent increase of the background. Although observations of beam-beam effects are very similar in most storage rings, it is very likely that every particular case is largely unique and machine-dependent. This constitutes one of the problems in studying the beam-beam effects, because the experimental results are often obtained without characterizing a machine at the time of the experiment. Such machine parameters as a dynamic aperture, tune dependencies on amplitude of particle oscillations and energy, betatron phase advance between the interaction points and some others are not well known, thus making later analysis uncertain. The authors begin their discussion with demonstrations that beam-beam effects are closely related to non linear resonances. Then, they will show that a non linearity of the space charge field is responsible for the excitation of these resonances. After that, they will consider how beam-beam effects could be intensified by machine imperfections. Then, they will discuss a leading mechanism for the formation of the beam halo and will describe a new technique for beam tails and lifetime simulations. They will finish with a brief discussion of the coherent beam-beam effects.

  9. Physical Composition, Nutrients and Contaminants of Typical Waste Dumping Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meuser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The composition of wastes is quite variable depending upon the generating source and mode of collection. Most of the material from the domestic activities will be organic in nature and contains essential plant nutrients, whereas the dumping material of commercial and industrial wastes usually contains appreciable amounts of heavy and potentially toxic metals and organic pollutants. Approach: Objective of the present study was to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the waste material and the distribution and extent of toxic pollutants in three selected typical dumping sites in the state of Haryana, India. Results: 62-65% of the waste fine material consisted of mineral particles and biodegradable organic waste, 20-25% consisted of construction and demolition waste and the remaining 10-15% were other materials such as study, plastic, metals, glass and timber, with an amount of polyethene of 3.4-5.7%. The ratio of the plant available concentrations of P, K and S and their total amounts were 3-7% for P and 1-4% for S, whereas the macronutrient potassium reached values of 29-39%. Metals As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were present in all samples (total concentration in aqua regia extract. As, Ba, Ni and Pb did not show clear differences between the three investigates sites. Cd, Cr and Zn concentrations were high but different at the different sites (Cu maximum: 1,964 mg kg−1, Zn maximum: 2,200 mg kg−1. The mobility of the metals was calculated as the ratio of DTPA/aqua regia extraction. Cd showed the highest ratio (18-22%, while the other calculated metals showed much lower ratios (Cu 6.7, Pb 7.9 Ni 2.1, Zn 3.6 and Cr 0.5%. In general, PAH and benzo(apyrene concentrations fell below the detection limit. Also the phenol index did not exceed the detection limit of 1.2 mg kg−1 (with two exceptions. In 14 out of 36 samples a GC-MS screening was conducted in order to get an overview of the organic

  10. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. 351.106 Section 351.106 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE... minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. (a) Introduction... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were...

  11. LHC Report: The beam is back at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Reyes Alemany

    2015-01-01

    A series of sector beam tests paved the way for the start-up of the LHC in 2008 and 2009. These tests and the follow-up of the issues that arose were part of the process that led to a smooth start-up with beam.   Given this experience, sector tests were scheduled to take place several weeks before the 2015 start-up. On the weekend of 6-9 March, beam from the SPS was injected into both LHC injection regions, followed by a first pass through the downstream LHC sectors. For the clockwise LHC beam (called “beam 1”) this meant passing through ALICE and into Sector 2-3, while the anticlockwise beam (called “beam 2”) was threaded through LHCb and all the way from Point 8 to Point 6, where it was extracted by the beam dump kickers onto the beam dump block. The dry runs in the previous weeks were mainly targeted at preparation for the sector tests. The systems tested included: injection, timing, synchronisation and beam instrumentation. The beam interlock ...

  12. From dumping to sanitary landfills - solid waste management in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address the problem of solid waste in Israel, the Ministry of the Environment has formulated a policy based on integrated waste management. The policy calls for reduction of waste at source, reuse, recycling (including composting), waste-to-energy technologies, and landfilling. Due to the implementation of this policy, all the large dumps were closed, state-of-the art landfills were built, and recovery rates have increased from 3% in the beginning of the 1990s to almost 20% in 2003. More than 95% of the municipal solid waste is disposed and treated in an environmentally sound manner - in comparison to a mere 10% just a decade ago. The policy was implemented utilizing both enforcement and financial support ('stick and carrot' approach)

  13. Prediction of Dumping a Product in Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.S. GANGA DEVI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy Decision Trees (FDT’s are one of the most popular choices for learning and reasoning from dataset. They have undergone a number of alterations to language and measurement uncertainties. However, they are poor in classification accuracy. In this paper, Neuro -fuzzy decision tree ( a fuzzy decision tree structure with neural like parameter adaptation strategy improves FDT’s classification accuracy and extracts more accuracy human interpretable classification rules. In the forward cycle fuzzy decision tree is constructed and in the feedback cycle, parameters of fuzzy decision tree have been adapted using stochastic gradient descent algorithm by traversing back from leaf to root nodes. In this paper, the system may predict whether a product in dumped or not for the textile industry is explained.

  14. Merits of partial shielding in dumping sediment spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Hjelmager; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos; Hadjioannou, Louis

    2015-12-15

    The commonly adopted method of dumping dredge spoil at sea using split-hull barges leads to considerable sediment loss to the water column and a subsequent dispersion of fine material that can pose a risk to sensitive "downstream" habitats such as coral reefs. Containing sediment loads using stitched closed geotextile bags is practiced for minimizing loss of contaminated sediment, but is expensive in terms of operational efficiency. Following promising observations from initial laboratory trials, the plunging of partially shielded sediment loads, released on open sea, was studied. The partial shielding was achieved with rigid, open containers as well as flexible, open bags. The loss of sediment from these modes of shielding was measured, and it was observed that even limited and unstitched shielding can be effective in debilitating the entrainment of water into the descending load. In particular, long-sleeved flexible bags practically self-eliminated the exposure of the load and thus losses. PMID:26597564

  15. THE ZOO-ECONOMIC CHALLENGES OF FISCAL DUMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA LUMINIŢA SÂRBOVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In United Europe, the economic policy proves common goals of prosperity and development, still each country is administrating its own policy mix in order to reshape the fiscal pressure and to safeguard the economic body of the society. The fiscal dumping is a feature of the market competition concerning the non-cooperating actions taken among the economic agents targeted to increase the fiscal appealing of their (home-land territory by instrument of apparently favoring fiscal policies. In Romania this disguised tool of the policy promotion is mixed with an explicit expectation of rural and agriculture subvention, abundant in SMEs and rural fields, in line with the local needs of increasing the foreign investments and consolidating growth.

  16. Thermomechanical assessment of the effects of a jaw-beam angle during beam impact on Large Hadron Collider collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Marija; Assmann, R. W.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Lari, L.; Rossi, A.; Mollicone, P.; Sammut, N.

    2015-02-01

    The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely and successfully operate high-energy particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, the requirements to handle high-intensity beams can be demanding, and accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess if the collimator design is robust against possible error scenarios. One of the catastrophic, though not very probable, accident scenarios identified within the LHC is an asynchronous beam dump. In this case, one (or more) of the 15 precharged kicker circuits fires out of time with the abort gap, spraying beam pulses onto LHC machine elements before the machine protection system can fire the remaining kicker circuits and bring the beam to the dump. If a proton bunch directly hits a collimator during such an event, severe beam-induced damage such as magnet quenches and other equipment damage might result, with consequent downtime for the machine. This study investigates a number of newly defined jaw error cases, which include angular misalignment errors of the collimator jaw. A numerical finite element method approach is presented in order to precisely evaluate the thermomechanical response of tertiary collimators to beam impact. We identify the most critical and interesting cases, and show that a tilt of the jaw can actually mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. Relevant collimator damage limits are taken into account, with the aim to identify optimal operational conditions for the LHC.

  17. Design and construction of a resistive energy dump device for bipolar superconducting magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. J.

    1977-05-01

    When superconducting magnets quench, the resistance of the conductor material rises rapidly to its normal value. This increase in resistance can result in catastrophic heating in the magnet unless stored field energy is quickly removed from the system. Phase inversion is the normal mode of energy removal. SCR's in the power supply are phased back, the output of the supply is inverted, and magnetic field energy is directed back into the utility grid. Under certain conditions, however, the power supply may fail to invert properly, and an alternate energy removal scheme must protect the superconducting magnet system. Composed of an isolation switch, a semiconductor switching module, and a dump resistor, the resistive dump device provides a viable protection scheme. Operationally, several conditions are capable of activating the isolation switch and triggering the bipolar SCR switching module. Manual dump commands, for instance, permit the operator to dump field energy in the event of observed abnormalities. A special voltage tap quench detector senses the aforementioned abnormal power supply output inversion and also fires the dump circuit. Regardless of the nature of the trigger input, however, activation of the energy dump device diverts coil current through the dump resistor. I/sup 2/R losses over time then safely dissipate stored magnetic field energy.

  18. Velocity space dynamics of a pure-electron plasma during a dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Grant W.; Curtis, Jeffrey M.; Peterson, Bryan G.

    1996-11-01

    The effects in velocity space of dumping a pure electron plasma are being investigated both computationally and experimentally. Computationally we are using uc(rattle,) an axisymmetric, electrostatic particle-in-cell code, to model the distortions of the distribution function that occur during the dump process. We find at any radius that the tail of the distribution after the dump is close to matching the tail of a shifted Maxwellian with a width corresponding to the temperature of the plasma before being dumped and a shift related to the space charge potential at that radius. The other parts of the distribution depend on factors such as how rapidly the dump gate is brought to ground potential. The dynamics can be considerably complicated if the dump is slow compared to the bounce time of hydrodynamic rarefaction wave(J. D. Moody and C. F. Driscoll, Phys Plasmas 2), 4482 (1995) that propagates in the plasma during the dump. We will present the results of these computations and corresponding experimental results.

  19. Flora and vegetation on dumps of uranium mining in the southern part of the former GDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Sänger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available From 1946 to 1990 an intensive uranium mining had been carried out with underground mining and also with opencast mining by the Wismut enterprise in the southern part of the former GDR. The mining activity lead also in the surroundings of Ronneburg to a permanent growth of devastated areas, among others in the form of dumps and tailings. These areas form by reason of mining-specific contaminations, extrem biotops which demand high claims on the pioneer organisms during the phase of natural first settlement. From 1990 to 1992 vegetation mappings were carried out on 15 dumps of the Thuringia mining area according to Braun-Blanquet (1964. The utilization of the computer programm Flora _D (Frank and Klotz 1990 enabled the ecological characterisation of the dumps. On the 15 investigated dumps found were 498 higher plants, belonging to 65 families. One hundred species are species with a high dominance. The number of species per dump fluctuates between 1 I and 282. Pioneer plants occur on the berms mostly in the second year after stoppage of the dumping, on the slopes after five to ten years. After nearly ten years the first step of settlement seems to be finished. Among the mechanisms of spreading dominate wind- and burdock spread. According to the form of life forms the dump species are predominantly hemicryptophytes, further therophytes, geophytes and phanerophytes.

  20. Application of diamond based beam loss monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Maria [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Baer, Tobias [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Castro Carballo, Elena Maria [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Lohmann, Wolfgang [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Schmidt, Ruediger [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    The LHC has an operational stored energy of 130MJ per beam. Only a small percentage of beam losses in the LHC equipment can damage material or lead to magnet quenches. Therefore, it is important to monitor different types of beam losses, e.g. scattering on residual gas particles, UFOs, collisions and injection losses. A detailed understanding of beam loss mechanisms is necessary to reduce them and ensure save operation. Two different beam loss monitors are installed in the LHC tunnel: ionization chambers and diamond sensors. Ionization chambers trigger a beam dump if beam losses exceed a certain threshold. They have a time resolution of 40um (half LHC turn) which is not sufficient to resolve bunch-by-bunch beam losses. Diamond sensors have a nanosecond time resolution and can therefore detect bunch-by-bunch beam losses. This time resolution allows an analysis of various types of beam losses and an understanding of the mechanisms. For the first time beam loss intensities were measured bunch-by-bunch caused by different origins of losses. Beam loss measurements using diamond sensors will be presented. The results are compared to simulations and good qualitative agreement was found. The potential of diamond sensors for LHC and experiment applications are discussed.

  1. From a dump to a energy park and recycling park. The Rhine-Main dump park in Floersheim-Wicker; Von der Muellkippe zum Energie- und Recyclingpark. Der Rhein-Main-Deponiepark in Floersheim-Wicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehler, Gerd [Rhein-Main Deponie GmbH, Floersheim am Main (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    If dumps are shut down, aftercare measures are necessary for a time period of several decades. The question arises whether the infrastructure, operating equipment and operating personnel of dumps can be used in the aftercare phase for subsequent utilisations. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the Rhine-Main dump park in Floersheim-Wicker (Federal Republic of Germany). Subsequently to the introduction according to the subsequent utilisation of dump locations, the author reports on the concept of the Rhine Main dump park, on the power generation in the Rhine-Main dump park, on the processing of wastes to fuels for the power production and on the dump as recycling park.

  2. Feasibility of In-Situ Aeration of Old Dumping Ground for Land Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Huan Tong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dumping grounds are characterized by the absence of engineering controls such as base liners and cover layer. Consequently, these dumping grounds present risks for surrounding resources such as soil, groundwater and air. The concern for groundwater contamination by leachate from tropical dumping grounds is heightened due to the greater amounts of rainfall and subsequent infiltration and percolation through the waste mass. The emergent demand for old dumping grounds reclamation drives the need to employ remediation technologies. Generally, in-situ aeration is a remediation method that promotes aerobic conditions in the later stage of dumping ground. It accelerates carbon transfer, reduces remaining organic load, and generally shortens the post closure period. However, high rainfall in tropical areas straitens this technique. For example, pollutants could be easily flushed out and more energy should be required to overcome hydrostatic pressure. Although heavy rainfall could supply sufficient water to the substrate and accelerate degradation of organic matter, it may inhibit aerobic activities due to limited air transfer. The waste characterization from Lorong Halus Dumping Ground (closed dumping ground in Singapore showed that the waste materials were stabilized after 22 years closure. According to the Waste Acceptance Criteria set by European Communities Council, the waste materials could be classified as inert wastes. One interesting finding was that leachate layer detected was about of 5 - 8 meter depth, which entirely soaked the waste materials. Hence, the reclamation design and operation should be carefully adjusted according to these characters. Lorong Halus Dumping Ground case study can provide a guideline for other tropical closed landfills or dumping grounds.

  3. Omega spectrometer ready for SPS beams

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Two different beams arrive into the Omega magnet: - a tagged photon beam for a charm search - experiment WA4 by the Bonn-CERN-Daresbury-Ecole Polytechnique-Glasgow-Lancaster-Manchester-Orsay-Sheffield Collaboration; - a separated hadron beam, at first for a beam-dump experiment - WA12 by the Birmingham-CERN-Ecole Polytechnique-MPI, Munich-Neuchâtel Collaboration. Beams of either negative or positive pions or kaons, protons or antiprotons, all at an energy around 40 GeV were made to impinge on a copper target where a shower of hadrons was produced and, on occasion, two muons which before detection passed through an iron absorber (not visible here). WA12 was completed in February 1977. At the centre, on top of the superconducting magnet, the hut containing the TV cameras, These observe the particle events occurring in the spark chambers in the magnet below.

  4. A comparison on Anti-dumping against China between Developed and Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜笑云

    2013-01-01

      In recent years,Chinese exportation suffers greatly from developed countries’and developing countries’anti-dumping against China. Facing to this sort of phenomenon, this article compares the dif erence in the anti-dumping against China from developing and developed countries in three aspects,analyzes the ef ect of anti-dumping from dif erent countries and gives suggestions from a macro view.The paper selects the statistics reported by WTO and National Bureau of Statistics of China,time span from 1995 to 2011.

  5. The specification of documentation for anti-dumping investigation in metallurgy using ABC costing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janovská

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized market economy, business companies are active both in domestic and in foreign markets, thus increasing the importance of observing the international rules providing guidelines for mutual trade among countries within the global trading system. Metallurgical materials and products are among the products in case of which anti-dumping duty is often imposed. As far as the decisions on possible dumping and its amount are concerned, the market with metallurgical products and the methodology used for calculating the dumping range have certain specific features, as stated in the article.

  6. Motivations of the Anti-dumping of the developed countries and the corresponding strategies to it

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王思涵

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, anti-dumping is frequently used by economic managers of al countries to suppress the products from other countries. With the continuous expanding of China’s export market, anti-dumping is more and more frequently to be used to suppres China’s export products, which is harmful. Therefore, the motivations of the developed countries which have conducted the anti-dumping wil be analyzed in this thesis and the general means wil be summarized, after which the ef ective solutions to these problems wil be concluded.

  7. The Impact of an Anti-dumping Measure : A Study on EU Imports of Chinese Footwear

    OpenAIRE

    Thuresson, Carin; Andersson, Karolina

    2008-01-01

    This essay analyse the anti-dumping policy of the European Union, with specific focus on the anti-dumping tariff imposed on imports of ertain footwear from the People’s Republic of China from 1997 to 2002. Even though free trade is expected from the members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) there are certain exceptions. One is when there is a suspicion that goods are being dumped in a foreign market, i.e. the exporter sells the product at a lower price in the foreign market than in its ho...

  8. Geochemical Characteristics and Significance of Tailing Dump from Polymetallic Pb - Zn Deposit Zletovo (Republic of Macedonia)

    OpenAIRE

    Spasovski, Orce; Spasovski, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper will show the results of the geochemical tests on composite samples and samples taken from boreholes made in the last few years. Old inactive waste dumps occupy an area of about 0,39 km2 and contain about 10 million tons of sterile mass, the mean depth of these dumps is 9,2 m. While in recent active dumps are deposited around 4 million tons sterile mass. The elements show different concentrations in grain - size different parts of the deposited material. Pb, Zn and Mn show max...

  9. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km2. Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg−1, 255 ± 5 Bq kg−1 and 18 ± 1 Bq kg−1 for 238U, 40K and 232Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect 40K and 232Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for 238U and 40K or 238U and 232Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m−2 s−1 for the mine dump. - Highlights: • Obtain radon flux from a large area

  10. Open dumping of municipal solid waste and its hazardous impacts on soil and vegetation diversity at waste dumping sites of Islamabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Maria Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating soil quality and decrease in vegetation abundance are grave consequences of open waste dumping which have resulted in growing public concern. The focus of this study is to assess the contribution of open waste dumping in soil contamination and its effect on plant diversity in one of the renowned green cities of Pakistan. Surface soil samples (n = 12 + 12 were collected from both the open waste dumping areas allocated by Capital Development Authority (CDA and sub- sectors of H-belt of Islamabad city (representative of control site. The diversity of vegetation was studied at both sampling sites. Significant modifications were observed in the soil properties of the dumping sites. Soils at the disposal sites showed high pH, TDS and EC regime in comparison to control sites. Various heavy metal concentrations i.e., Lead (Pb, Copper (Cu, Nickel (Ni, Chromium (Cr and Zinc (Zn were also found to be higher at the dumping sites except for Cadmium (Cd which had a higher value in control site. A similar trend was observed in plant diversity. Control sites showed diversified variety of plants i.e., 44 plant species while this number reduced to only 32 plant species at the disposal sites. This is attributed to changes in soil characteristics at disposal sites and in its vicinity areas.

  11. Energy dump of the ATLAS superconducting system simulations of electrical and thermal behaviour of magnet system at slow- and fast dump

    CERN Document Server

    van Beek, Martijn; Dudarev, A

    During the slow dump (discharge) of the Barrel Toroidal (superconducting) magnet of the ATLAS detector, the control system gave an alarm that the differences between the voltages over the conductors were too high. The alarm was not due to any danger, because of some sort of phenomenon observed in the first few seconds after start of the discharge. A possible explanation of the differences of the coil voltages is that the changing current through the conductors may cause induced currents in the coil casing around. The goal was to make a simulation of the electrical behaviour of the magnet system during a slow dump. In this way, an explanation can be found for the start phenomenon of the slow dump of the Barrel Toroid. Some extra analyses on the measurements were performed to describe the energy dissipation during a fast dump. This is done by calculating the resistance of the coils during the dump. With the maximum resistance, the maximum temperature can be estimated, which says something about the enthalpy of ...

  12. Modeling and simulation of LHC beam-based collimator setup

    CERN Document Server

    Valentino, G; Assmann, R W; Burkart, F; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Lari, L

    2012-01-01

    In the 2011 Large Hadron Collider run, collimators were aligned for proton and heavy ion beams using a semiautomatic setup algorithm. The algorithm provided a reduction in the beam time required for setup, an elimination of beam dumps during setup and better reproducibility with respect to manual alignment. A collimator setup simulator was developed based on a Gaussian model of the beam distribution as well as a parametric model of the beam losses. A time-varying beam loss signal can be simulated for a given collimator movement into the beam. The simulation results and comparison to measurement data obtained during collimator setups and dedicated fills for beam halo scraping are presented. The simulator will then be used to develop a fully automatic collimator alignment algorithm.

  13. Chemical composition of fragmental products fractions of rock dumps and tailing dump as basis for potential geoecological danger estimation in the areas of mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovina Ol’ga Konstantinovna

    Full Text Available Negative consequences of deposit development on the environment are well know. They manifest themselves most intensively in case of open-cut mining of ore minerals, which is related to the increase of rock dumps masses. The material of rock dumps and tailing dumps actively influence the state of the environment transforming the natural landscapes, first of all, as a reason of migration of waters changed as a result of their contact with mining waste. The authors give their estimation of the consequences of apatite-nephelinic ore crop in Khibini Ore District by the company “Apatit”, which includes the influence on the natural waters. The unique natural conditions of the area are the reason for high-level potential geoecological danger. The mobility of lots of toxic elements is raised because of ligand-ion OH in the waters of alkali rocks of Khibini soil.

  14. Identification and Investigation of Solid Waste Dump in Salem District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-12-01

    to facilitate implementation. The Note also includes a few case studies illustrating frameworks and implementation strategies adopted in other jurisdictions and sectors. Frameworks observed include legislation supporting municipalities to priorities regional initiatives to effectively use available resources as well as options for Creation of regional solid waste management authorities or entities empowered by law to undertake waste management activities over a region or state; Creation of solid waste management „regions‟; and Municipalities jointly constituting a company, or common authority, to implement a regional waste management project. The present work aims at identifying, locating and quantifying the industrial and domestic waste dump sites located in and around Salem urban and rural districts of Salem, Tamilnadu state, India. In our project we identify the suitable location and investigation for dumping yard which is not affecting the environment.

  15. Molecular Beam Dumps as Tracers of Hadronic Cosmic Ray Sources the Case of SNR IC443

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Y M; Combi, J A; Dame, T M; Romero, G E; Butt, Yousaf M.; Torres, Diego F.; Combi, Jorge A.; Dame, Thomas; Romero, Gustavo E.

    2002-01-01

    The gamma-ray & neutrino visibility of cosmic ray (CR) accelerators will be dramatically increased by the presence of molecular material abutting such sites due to the increased probability of pion production -- and, in the case of neutral pions, subsequent gamma-decay. This was recognized by Pinkau, Montmerle, and Black & Fazio, and others in the 1970's. In an effort to examine the long-standing -- but unproven -- conjecture that galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) are indeed the sites of nucleonic CR acceleration to 0) mm wavelength data from the compilation of Dame, Hartmann & Thaddeus (2001), at the best estimates of the various SNR distances. We outline the overall correlative study and examine the interesting case of SNR IC443, a likely accelerator of CR nuclei.

  16. High power beam dump project for the accelerator prototype LIPAc: Cooling design and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Parro Albéniz, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    En el campo de la fusión nuclear y desarrollándose en paralelo a ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), el proyecto IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) se enmarca dentro de las actividades complementarias encaminadas a solucionar las barreras tecnológicas que aún plantea la fusión. En concreto IFMIF es una instalación de irradiación cuya misión es caracterizar materiales resistentes a condiciones extremas como las esperadas en los futuros reactores de ...

  17. THE EFFECT OF BIOSOLIDS ON MEDICAGO SATIVA AND FESTUCA ARUNDINACEEA PLANTS PHYTOREMEDIATION PROCESS OF WASTE DUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The storage of waste dump gravely deteriorates the soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties, both in the storage area and the surrounding zones. In time, serious perturbations may occur in the biocenosis from the surrounding ecosystems, through the sweeping away of the inorganic matter or through precipitations. The main problem in this case is to find the most suitable phytoremediation method for these waste dumps, by sowing plant species (grasses, in order to stop the erosion generated by wind and rain. Establishing a herbaceous “carpet” , in time, is very difficult, because the waste dump contains no organic matter, has a weak water retaining capacity and has a high bareness index. The purpose of this study was the experimentation of a method of cultivating the waste dumps using alfalfa, fescue and biosolids as fertilizers.

  18. 77 FR 46788 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on Certain Automobiles From the United States AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  19. Estimation of spatial variability of lignite mine dumping ground soil properties using CPTu results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagińska, Irena; Kawa, Marek; Janecki, Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with application of CPTu test results for the probabilistic modeling of dumping grounds. The statistical measures use results from 42 CPT test points located in the lignite mine dumping ground from the region of Central Europe. Both the tip resistance qc as well as local friction fs are tested. Based on the mean values and standard deviations of measured quantities the specific zones in the dumping site profile are distinguished. For three main zones standard deviations of linearly de-trended functions, distributions of normalized de-trended values for qc and fs are examined. Also the vertical scales of fluctuation for both measured quantities are estimated. The obtained result shows that lignite mine dumping site can be successfully described with the Random Field Theory. Additional use of fs values introduces supplementary statistical information.

  20. EU to Continue 48.5% Anti-dumping Duties on Chinese Bicycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 10, European Commission informed the Business Office of the Mission of Ministry of Commerce in EU and disclosed the adjudication on the review of the EU imposing anti-dumping on Chinese bicycles.

  1. Tire Dumps, washoe county sheriff's office data, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tire Dumps dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as 'washoe county sheriff's office data'. Data by...

  2. Mine dumps, wheeze, asthma, and rhinoconjunctivitis among adolescents in South Africa: any association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the association between community proximity to mine dumps, and current wheeze, rhinoconjunctivitis, and asthma among adolescents. This study was conducted during May-November 2012 around five mine dumps in South Africa. Communities in close proximity to mine dumps had an increased likelihood of current wheeze OR 1.38 (95 % CI: 1.10-1.71), rhinoconjunctivitis OR 1.54 (95 % CI: 1.29-1.82), and a protective association with asthma OR 0.29 (95 % CI: 0.23-0.35). Factors associated with health outcomes included other indoor and outdoor pollution sources. Wheeze and rhinoconjunctivitis appear to be a public health problem in these communities. The findings of this study serve as a base for further detailed epidemiological studies for communities in close proximity to the mine dumps e.g. a planned birth cohort study.

  3. BIO-PEDO-GEOGRAPHYCAL REGARDS ON GARBAGE DUMPS FROM TOMEŞTI - IAŞI

    OpenAIRE

    C. Secu; M. Costica; Angela Lupascu; Naela Costica; I. Moglan

    2005-01-01

    The garbage dump from Tomeşti (Iaşi) represents a water and soil pollution source, as well as a peril for the population’s health. The study has pursued the analysis of some indicators of water quality (which have evidenced exceeds of the currently admitted values), the identification of the plant species from the garbage dump perimeter (table 1) and the presentation of the general geographical landscape.

  4. Geophysical exploration of historical mine dumps for the estimation of valuable residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tina; Knieß, Rudolf; Noell, Ursula; Hupfer, Sarah; Kuhn, Kerstin; Günther, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Within the project ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105) the economic potential of different abandoned dump sites for mine waste in the Harz Mountains was investigated. Two different mining dumps were geophysically and mineralogically analysed in order to characterize the mine dump structure and to estimate the volume of the potential recycling material. The geophysical methods comprised geoelectrics, radar, and spectral induced polarization (SIP). One about 100-year old mining dump containing residues from density separated Ag- and Sb-rich Pb (Zn)-gangue ores was investigated in detail. Like most small-scale mining waste disposal sites this investigated dump is very heterogeneously structured. Therefore, 27 geoelectrical profiles, more than 50 radar profiles, and several SIP profiles were measured and analysed. The results from the radar measurements, registered with the GSSI system and a shielded 200 MHz antenna, show the near surface boundary layer (down to 3-4 m beneath surface) of the waste residuals. These results can be used as pre-information for the inversion process of the geoelectrical data. The geoelectrical results reveal the mineral residues as layers with higher resistivities (> 300 Ohm*m) than the surrounding material. The SIP method found low phase signals (< 0.5°) for the residues. To estimate the volume of the potentially reusable material we analysed each geoelectrical profile and interpolated between the single profiles using the BERT algorithm. Taking into account the wooded areas of the mine dump and other parameters we get a first estimate for the volume of the residues but the economical viability and the environmental impact of the reworking of the dump still needs to be evaluated in detail. The results of the second mine dump, an abandoned Cu and Zn-rich slag heap, show that the slag residues are characterized by higher resistivities and higher phases. A localization of the slag residues which

  5. 77 FR 2119 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duty Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Anti-Dumping and Countervailing... Anti-dumping Agreement; Articles 10, 12.3, 12.4.1, 12.7, 12.8, 15.1, 15.2, 15.4, 15.5, 16.1, 19.4,...

  6. Why Has China Become a Target of Anti-dumping Activities?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月芬

    2007-01-01

    Although the benefits of China’s trade expansion have been distributed much more broadly than those of some early industrialized nations,China has become the primary target of anti-dumping activities.Being a new and relatively efficient new rival in the global market may be an important reason for this.On the other hand,China’s development stage and her trade structure also place her in a disadvantageous position when it comes to anti-dumping activities.

  7. Strategies for Covering Fly Ash Dumps with Plant Species Suitable for Phytostabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Pricop; Smaranda Masu; Benoni Lixandru; Florica Morariu; Neculai Dragomir; Isabelle Laffont-Schwob; Dumitru Popescu

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the revegetation of fly ash dumps, the strategy chosen is very important in order to obtain a vegetal layer that quickly and efficiently covers the fly ash dump, as well as, to allow the wildlife habitat development. The strategy must include: adequate treatments by incorporating fertilizer and amendments, as composts and modified indigenous volcanic tuff; selecting plant species and agricultural work in accordance with geographical and weather conditions. Our in situ experi...

  8. BIO-PEDO-GEOGRAPHYCAL REGARDS ON GARBAGE DUMPS FROM TOMEŞTI - IAŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Secu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The garbage dump from Tomeşti (Iaşi represents a water and soil pollution source, as well as a peril for the population’s health. The study has pursued the analysis of some indicators of water quality (which have evidenced exceeds of the currently admitted values, the identification of the plant species from the garbage dump perimeter (table 1 and the presentation of the general geographical landscape.

  9. Technical solution for drainage carpet for tailing dump Toranica - Kriva Palanka, Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinov, Ljubisa; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Fidancev, Boris; Ilievski, Darko

    2011-01-01

    Mine Toranica - Kriva Palanka for exploitation of lead and zinc, has taken certain activities to improve and qualify the tailing dump for further exploitation, as well as activities for environmental protection from the flotation tailing dump. The drainage carpet and the gabion wall with height of 5 m (previewed for constructing in next phase) will constitute a whole which will collect the filtrate and spring water from the sand dam through drainage carpet and through polypropy...

  10. Numerical calculations of pressure oscillations in a side-dump ramjet engine

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, V.; Culick, F. E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure oscillations in a side-dump ramjet engine have been studied, using a one-dimensional numerical analysis. The engine is treated in two parts; the inlet section, including a region of two-phase flow downstream of fuel injection, and a dump combustor. Each region is treated separately and matched with the other. Following calculation of the mean flow field, the oscillatory characteristics of the engine are determined by its reponse to a disturbance imposed on the...

  11. Hazards of past low-level radioactive waste ocean dumping have been overemphasized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1946 to 1970, the United States disposed of low-level radioactive waste by dumping it into the ocean. Today, more than a decade after all dumping stopped, concerns over the potential environmental and public health consequences of past ocean dumping persist. In an evaluation of the adequacy of federal efforts to deal with this issue, GAO found that: the Federal Government has no complete and accurate catalogue of information on how much, what kind, and where low-level nuclear waste was dumped because detailed records were not required; the overwhelming body of scientific research and opinion shows that concerns over the potential public health and environmental consequences posed by past ocean dumping activity are unwarranted and overemphasized; and although the Environmental Protection Agency has been slow in developing low-level radioactive waste ocean dumping regulations, its current approach is sound. Nonetheless, improvements are needed in developing specific dumpsite monitoring requirements. Accordingly, GAO makes specific recommendations to improve the effectiveness of federal efforts in the area

  12. Use of a garbage dump by some mammal species in the Majella massif (Abruzzo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Martina

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In several previous works the presence of urban solid wastes in the feeding habits of some animal species has been documented. This study was carried out to discover which species visit a rubbish dump located in an area of the Majella massif. Monthly nightime direct observations, from September 1990 to May 1992, revealed the presence of dogs Canis [lupus] familiaris, domestic cats Felis [silvestris] catus, wolves Canis lupus and red foxes Vulpes vulpes. The fox was the most frequently observed species. Fox visits to the dump were distributed more continuously during the entire period of the study then the other species. An "asymmetry analysis" was carried out to find out the animals' favourite time to use the dump. The analysis produced time lag values of 02:00 A.M. to 05:00 A.M. The wolf was observed the least. During the monthly observations a similar trend between the cat and wolf came to light. The two species also visited the dump at similar times (wolf: 07:00-11:00 P.M.; cat: 05:00-10:00 P.M.. Dog visits to the dump were less continuous in comparison with other species: no preferred time was revealed. Some environmental factors, related to the geographical area and management of the dump limited waste availability. This probably had an effect on the presence of the animals.

  13. Isotope studies to assess water development in mining dump sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the ending of the lignite exploitation open mining pits with dump sites of heterogeneous mixture of Tertiary and Quaternary sediments were flooded by groundwater and river water inflow forming partially acidic (pH about 2 to 3) mining lakes with high sulphate (>3000 mg/L) and iron content (>500 mg/L) (Friese et al., 1998). The renewing of the groundwater system in mining areas is a very complicated process. The knowledge of the whole as well as of parts of that process is important for the future water management and for land use. Acidification of surface and groundwater based on pyrite oxidation dominates water quality development of the groundwater and of the flooded pits. The different sulphur compounds and the distribution of sulphur sources (pyrite, sulphate, sulphide) can easily controlled by the sulphur and oxygen isotope analyses. Our studies are focused on an acidic mine lake ML 111 in the Lusatian Lignite District and on the Cospuden lignite mine south of Leipzig

  14. Experimental Program for the CLIC test facility 3 test beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Adli, E; Dobert, S; Olvegaard, M; Schulte, D; Syratchev, I; Lillestol, Reidar

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 Test Beam Line is the first prototype for the CLIC drive beam decelerator. Stable transport of the drive beam under deceleration is a mandatory component in the CLIC two-beam scheme. In the Test Beam Line more than 50% of the total energy will be extracted from a 150 MeV, 28 A electron drive beam, by the use of 16 power extraction and transfer structures. A number of experiments are foreseen to investigate the drive beam characteristics under deceleration in the Test Beam Line, including beam stability, beam blow up and the efficiency of the power extraction. General benchmarking of decelerator simulation and theory studies will also be performed. Specially designed instrumentation including precision BPMs, loss monitors and a time-resolved spectrometer dump will be used for the experiments. This paper describes the experimental program foreseen for the Test Beam Line, including the relevance of the results for the CLIC decelerator studies.

  15. Beam Commissioning Plan and Result of KOMAC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiho; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Hansung; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This work summarized the present status and near-future plan of the beam commissioning. The development and installation of the 100-MeV proton linac were finished. Beam commissioning is scheduled in May 2013. Hence we hope we can report the initial beam commissioning result in the spring meeting of Korea Nuclear Society. The beam commissioning of the KOMAC (Korea Multi-Purpose Accelerator Complex) 100-MeV proton linear accelerator is in progress. The linac includes a 50-keV ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole), a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The final goal of the beam commissioning is accelerating 100-MeV proton beams to the beam dump in the accelerator tunnel and into a target room.

  16. Fast Beam Current Change Monitor for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kral, Jan

    Stringent demands on the LHC safety and protection systems require improved methods of detecting fast beam losses. The Fast Beam Current Transformer (FBCT) is a measurement instrument, providing information about bunch-to-bunch intensity of the accelerated beam. This thesis describes the development of a new protection system based on the FBCT signal measurements. This system, the Fast Beam Current Change Monitor (FBCCM), measures the FBCT signal in a narrow frequency band and computes time derivation of the beam signal magnitude. This derivation is proportional to the beam losses. When the losses exceed a certain level, the FBCCM requests a beam dump in order to protect the LHC. The LHC protection will be ensured by four FBCCMs which will be installed into the LHC in July 2014. Six FBCCMs have been already constructed and their characteristics were measured with satisfactory results. The FBCCMs were tested by a laboratory simulation of the real LHC environment.

  17. The effect of rehabilitation on the rate of oxidation of pyrite in a mine waste rock dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, J R; Ritchie, A I

    1987-06-01

    Temperature profiles within a mine waste rock dump undergoing pyritic oxidation have been used to estimate the rate of oxidation and the sites where oxidation was occurring. The waste rock dump is located at the abandoned Rum Jungle mine site in Northern Australia and was a major source of pollution to the local river system. The dump was rehabilitated in 1983-84 by reshaping to reduce erosion and covering with clay and soil to reduce infiltration of water.Heat source distributions were derived from temperature profiles measured in the dump. The oxidation of pyritic material is the main cause of heat in the dump, hence the rate and location of oxidation can be obtained from the distribution of heat sources. A comparison of the heat source distributions before and after rehabilitation showed that rehabilitation greatly reduced or stopped the oxidation of pyrite in the dump.

  18. Actin Filament Cables in Drosophila Nurse Cells Are Composed of Modules That Slide Passively Past One Another during Dumping

    OpenAIRE

    Guild, Gregory M.; Connelly, Patricia S.; Shaw, Michael K.; Tilney, Lewis G.

    1997-01-01

    At a late stage in Drosophila oogenesis, nurse cells rapidly expel their cytoplasm into the oocyte via intracellular bridges by a process called nurse cell dumping. Before dumping, numerous cables composed of actin filaments appear in the cytoplasm and extend inward from the plasma membrane toward the nucleus. This actin cage prevents the nucleus, which becomes highly lobed, from physically blocking the intracellular bridges during dumping. Each cable is composed of a linear series of modules...

  19. The EU anti-dumping policy towards Russia and China: product quality and the choice of an analogue country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the theory of international trade in vertically differentiated products in order to assess whether the EU has calculated disproportionately high dumping margins in its anti-dumping policy towards the two non-market economies (NMEs) Russia and China since 1992. Specifically...... and China, the differences in product quality and in the levels of economic development between the dumpers and the analogue countries provide no systematic explanation of the size of dumping margins. Udgivelsesdato: JAN...

  20. Distribution, ecology and inhibition of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in relation to acid drainage from Witwatersrand gold mine dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in gold mine dumps and possible means for its inhibition were investigated. A literature survey of the micro-ecology of mine waste dumps in various parts of the world was undertaken. A linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), NANSA 80/S, and a cetyl pyridinium chloride, Ceepryn, were tested as possible inhibitors for mine dump application. The LAS was rejected because it is poorly soluble in water and required higher concentrations than SLS for the inhibition of T.ferrooxidans. Ceepryn was an efficient inhibitor, but its efficiency was dramatically impeded in the presence of mine dump sand making it unsuitable for application on dumps. The SLS and LAS were tested against a mixed population of T.ferrooxidans from gold mine dumps and these bacteria were shown to be marginally more resistant to the inhibitors than the pure T.ferrooxidans culture. Sampling from mine dumps on the Witwatersrand suggested that the major T.ferrooxidans populations occurred in the moist sand of the drainage areas at the base of dumps, with few viable iron-oxidising bacteria located on the surfaces or in the centre of dumps. Sites of low moisture in dumps contained few or no viable bacteria. In the laboratory the bacterial viability decreased rapidly with loss of moisture from the sand. Moisture was shown to be important to bacterial activity and should be considered with respect to acid drainage control. Experimental sand columns showed that iron was leached with water from mine dump sand in the absence and presence of bacteria. In this study substrates, moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide availability, ph, temperature, microorganisms and metal pollutants of uranium waste dumps are also covered

  1. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 7 October 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Wallace, J. W.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    A remote sensor experiment was conducted at a sewage sludge dump site off the Delaware/Maryland coast. Two aircraft serving as remote sensor platforms flew over the dump site during a sludge dump. One aircraft carried a multispectral scanner and the other aircraft carried a rapid scanning spectrometer. Data from sea-truth stations were collected concurrent with overpasses of the aircraft. All sensors were operational and produced good digital data.

  2. A contribution to open pit hard coal mine waste rock management : comparing sidehill fill with layered dumping

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Shakeel

    2013-01-01

    Coal mining is an important economic activity as it covers the energy demands, generates export revenues and creates employment opportunities. Mining can, however, impact the local environment. Different mining operations produce several types of waste materials and one of the major wastes produced by open-pit mines is waste rock, which is dumped at waste rock dumps. The waste rock dumps can impact the environment in several ways. For instance, in Vietnam open-pit mines have disturbed the bea...

  3. Early dumping syndrome is not a complication but a desirable feature of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenius, A; Engström, M

    2016-10-01

    Early dumping syndrome after gastric bypass surgery due to rapid delivery of hyperosmolar nutrients into the bowel causing intense symptoms is often described as a complication. Twelve patients, mean age 47 years, were interviewed approximately 9 years post-operation. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, followed by an inductive content analysis to reveal patients' experience of the dumping syndrome. The core category 'Dumping syndrome is a positive consequence of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and a tool to control food intake' was identified based on the following four sub-categories: (i) 'The multidimensional emergence and effects of dumping syndrome', (ii) 'Dumping syndrome as something positive although unpleasant', (iii) 'Developing coping mechanisms and ingenious strategies' and (iv) 'My own fault if I expose myself to dumping syndrome'. From the patients' perspective, dumping syndrome gives control over food intake; although the symptoms were unpleasant, patients considered dumping syndrome as a positive protection against over-consumption. Hence, healthcare professionals should not present dumping syndrome as a complication but rather as an aid to control eating behaviour and excessive food intake.

  4. Improved robustness of the LHC collimation system by operating with a jaw-beam angle

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Rossi, A; Cauchi, M; Faus-Golfe, A

    2012-01-01

    The robustness of the Phase I collimation system could be improved playing with the angular orientation of each single jaw. A preliminary study on the asymmetric misalignment of the collimator jaws, scanning through different jaw angles and varying beam sizes and energy, have been carried out, aiming at minimizing the energy deposited on metallic collimators, following an asynchronous dump.

  5. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  6. Studying bio-thermal effects at and around MSW dumps using Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-09-01

    Estimating negative impacts of MSW dumps on its surrounding environment is the key requirement for any remedial measures. This study has been undertaken to map bio-thermal effects of MSW dumping at and around dumping facilities (non-engineered) using satellite imagery for Faisalabad, Pakistan. Thirty images of Landsat 8 have been selected after validation for the accuracy of their observational details from April 2013 to October 2015. Land Surface Temperature (LST), NDVI, SAVI and MSAVI have been derived from these images through Digital Image Processing (DIP) and have been subjected to spatio-temporal analysis in GIS environment. MSW dump has been found with average temperature elevation of 4.3K and 2.78K from nearby agriculture land and urban settlement respectively. Vegetation health has been used as the bio-indicator of MSW effects and is implemented through NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI. Spatial analyses have been used to mark boundary of bio-thermally affected zone around dumped MSW and measure 700m. Seasonal fluctuations of elevated temperatures and boundary of the bio-thermally affected zones have also been discussed. Based on the direct relation found between vegetation vigor and the level of deterioration within the bio-thermally affected region, use of crops with heavy vigor is recommended to study MSW hazard influence using bio-indicators of vegetation health.

  7. Jesus in the Dumping Sites: Doing theology in the overlaps of human and material waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan de Beer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jesus’ option for the poor should be reclaimed in a clear theological and ecclesial option for the dumping sites of our cities and towns. That is the basic proposal of this article. Reflecting upon three different dumping sites – different in size, age and history – this article will explore the central thread of material and human waste, often dealt with almost as synonymous, concentrated and overlapping in these marginal spaces. It will additionally explore the theological and ecclesial challenges, but also possible opportunities, visions and gifts presented by them. The paradoxical (and sometimes toxic interconnectedness between waste management and sanitised cities will be considered, as well as its relation to mediating or denying human dignity. The stories of Smokey Mountain in Manila, the Zabbaleen community in Mokattam Village, Cairo, and the Hulene Dump in Maputo, will be presented as part of this reflection. They will be read as mirrors to the proliferation of similar dumping sites on the fringes of South African cities. An outline is offered for a theological-ecclesial praxis emerging from the dumping sites, as well as a retrieval of possible contributions from these sites to the broader urban public theological reflection.

  8. Studying bio-thermal effects at and around MSW dumps using Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-09-01

    Estimating negative impacts of MSW dumps on its surrounding environment is the key requirement for any remedial measures. This study has been undertaken to map bio-thermal effects of MSW dumping at and around dumping facilities (non-engineered) using satellite imagery for Faisalabad, Pakistan. Thirty images of Landsat 8 have been selected after validation for the accuracy of their observational details from April 2013 to October 2015. Land Surface Temperature (LST), NDVI, SAVI and MSAVI have been derived from these images through Digital Image Processing (DIP) and have been subjected to spatio-temporal analysis in GIS environment. MSW dump has been found with average temperature elevation of 4.3K and 2.78K from nearby agriculture land and urban settlement respectively. Vegetation health has been used as the bio-indicator of MSW effects and is implemented through NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI. Spatial analyses have been used to mark boundary of bio-thermally affected zone around dumped MSW and measure 700m. Seasonal fluctuations of elevated temperatures and boundary of the bio-thermally affected zones have also been discussed. Based on the direct relation found between vegetation vigor and the level of deterioration within the bio-thermally affected region, use of crops with heavy vigor is recommended to study MSW hazard influence using bio-indicators of vegetation health. PMID:27129945

  9. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  10. Secondary succession of nematodes in power plant ash dumps reclaimed by covering with turf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmowska, E.; Ilieva-Makulec, K. [Polish Academy of Science, Lomianki (Poland)

    2006-11-15

    An analysis of successive changes in nematode assemblages in reclaimed waste area offers information about the sensitivity of species or groups of nematodes to specific conditions and ability to colonise new habitats. The study was carried in ash dumps being a by-product of the combustion of hard coal and reclaimed by covering with mineral turf (light loam warp soil) or organic turf (alder peat). In the first 3 years of reclamation diversity of nematodes was low, especially in, the dump covered with mineral turf - Shannon diversity index below 3. Later on the value of Shannon index increased and did not differ from those recorded for meadows in Poland. In the ash dump, reclaimed for a longer time period (8-11 years), the contribution of K strategist species was higher than in the dumps reclaimed for a shorter time period (2-5 years). At the earlier stages of succession bacterivores Acrobeloides, and two fungivores Aphelenchoides and Aphelenchus, predominated. In the ash dump reclaimed longer the dominance of these three genera decreased and some plant feeders achieved high contribution ({gt} 30%). The composition of nematode communities depended. significantly on the period of reclamation, but did not depend either on the soil moisture and pH or on season.

  11. Preliminary thermo-mechanical analysis of angular beam impact on LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Dallocchio, A; Deboy, D; Mariani, N; Rossi, A; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2012-01-01

    The correct functioning of the LHC Collimation System is crucial to attain the desired LHC luminosity performance. However, the requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess their effect on the robustness of the collimators. One of the most probable accident scenarios identified is an asynchronous beam dump coupled with slight angular misalignment errors of the collimator installation at the beam-line. Previous work presented a preliminary thermal evaluation of the extent of beam-induced damage for such scenarios, where it was shown that in some cases, a tilt of the jaw could actually serve to mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. This paper will further analyze the response of tertiary collimators in presence of such angular jaw alignments. Such work will also help to start identifying optimal operational conditions.

  12. Soil liquefaction issues at mining dumps at the Lausitz; Bodenverfluessigungsprobleme bei Bergbaukippen in der Lausitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Weissbach, Joerg; Szczyrba, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    For more than 100 years in the Lausitz brown coal is dismantled in open-cast mining. During this time, land with an ara of several 100 km{sup 2} was left as a dump or open-cast mining lakes. These areas are redeveloped by the Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (Senftenberg, Federal Republic of Germany). The authors of the contribution under consideration report on soil liquefaction issues in mining dumps in the Lausitz. This contribution focuses on a renovation to prevent the sudden transitions from a solid to a liquefied state since 1990 as well as on soil liquefaction on interior dumps at Lausitz. Furthermore, the reasons of the increase in soil pore water pressure and the boundary conditions for liquefaction are described.

  13. Radioactivity of dumps in mining areas of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorda J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal mining is associated with large quantities of gangue. In the past, the majority of gangue was not utilized but was placed in the vicinity of the coalmines forming cone-shaped dumps. Some of them contained even millions of tons of rock. Nowadays, environmental precautions extort larger utilization of any kind of waste materials, for example in road construction, civil engineering or as stowing in underground abandoned workings. Examination of the composition of waste dumps, including radioactivity, is thus an important issue. The paper presents results of a radiological survey carried out in several dumps located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in the south of Poland. Measurements of samples were carried out with the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity concentration results for the uranium and thorium decay chains are discussed.

  14. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  15. NEUTRALIZING OF WASTE PESTICIDES FROM DUMPING GROUNDS BY MEANS OF EXPLOSIVE BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Biegańska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dumping areas of dangerous wastes are big threat for environment in particularly at the moment of release dangerous substances in draining form. Migration of those substances in soil causes pollution of water environment. The attention in article was turned on specific kind of wastes – pesticides, which are accumulated during many years in dumping grounds. The majority of those dumping grounds have been catalogued. The gigantic environmental threat is caused by lack of environmental monitoring of polluted areas. Many physical, chemical and biological methods for neutralizing such waste were invented and patented. The most efficient method of liquidate those waste appeared to be thermal degradation. This kind of method is also, presented in this paper, explosive burning of pesticides.

  16. Price Strategy in the EU: Suggestions to Chinese Exporters in the Light of Anti-Dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the EU anti-dumping policy towards Chinese companies. Based on this analysis, the paper presents practical advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. Firstly, the CELEX database may give some important information on how to formulate...... a price policy for exports to the EU in order to avoid anti-dumping measures. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important, if market economy status with its lower duties, is wanted. Wholly owned foreign companies or joint ventures with a majority of foreign capital seem to have the biggest...... probability of achieving market economy status. Generally, evidence of independence of the Chinese public authorities is important. Thirdly, owner structure also counts in relation to getting individual treatment; here especially freedom in exporting is decisive. Fourthly, if an anti-dumping investigation...

  17. Digitally compensated beam current transformer

    CERN Document Server

    Kesselman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being built by a collaboration of six laboratories. Beam current monitors (BCMs) will be used to record the current of H-minus and H-plus beams ranging from 15 mA (tune-up in the Front End and Linac) to over 60A fully accumulated in the Ring and dumped to the load as a single pulse in the Ring to Beam Target (RTBT). The time structure of these beams ranges from 645ns "mini" bunches at the 1.05 MHz ring revolution rate, to an overall 1 ms long macro-pulse. The requirements for the BCMs will depend upon their location within the system. The need to measure individual mini-pulses, examine the characteristics of the chopper edge, as well as the longer average current pulse of the macropulse, or long duration pulses during Linac tuning place wide requirements upon the response of current transformers. To obtain the desired accuracy and resolution, current transformers must have less than 1 ns rise time and droops of 0.1 %/ms. This places a significant design burden on the cur...

  18. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was drawn up at the Inter-Governmental Conference on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea, held in London from 30 October to 10 November 1972. The Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America are the Depository Governments for instruments of ratification of, and accession to, the Convention, pursuant to Articles XVII and XVIII respectively

  19. Environmental assessment of the material deposited on the former uranium mining disposal dump in Radoniow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radoniow is a small town in the district of Lubomierz near Jelenia Gora (south-western Poland). From the end of World War II up to the end of the 1960s, uranium mining activities were carried out near the town. The uranium deposits were almost entirely exploited, leaving traces of the mining activities in the form of waste disposal dumps on the east side of Mount Glebiec. The area of the terrain is 6.85 ha. The district authorities plan to use the material on the dumps (containing significant quantities of uranium) as a bedding for the construction of a road around the town (PHARE contract). The measurements performed by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLOR) and ordered by MOSTOSTAL-Warszawa (the developer of the road) were aimed at assessing the usability of the dumped material for road construction. The assessment programme consisted of environmental measurements at the disposal site, an assessment of the usability of the materials from the disposal site for the construction of the road, and an analysis of the risk to workers exposed to the material deposited on the dumps. The following tasks were performed: (a) measurement of the whole area using a mobile spectrometric laboratory (creating a radiological map of the area); (b) measurement of the beta activity and gamma dose rate at the surface of the material deposited on the dumps at 41 measurement locations using an RKP-1 radiometer; (c) measurement of the gamma dose rate at the 41 locations using an Exploranium GR-130; (d) measurement of the gamma dose rate at 5 locations using an ionization chamber; (e) measurement of the gamma spectra at 3 locations on the dumps and at 2 locations representative of local background; and (f) sampling for further analysis at CLOR by gamma spectrometry using natural radioactive contamination analyzers AZAR-90 and MAZAR-95. The following samples were taken: 41 samples of the surface material of the dump (10 cm depth); 10 samples from the deep layers of the

  20. Monitoring the rehabilitated waste rock dumps at the Rum Jungle mine site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid drainage and the release of heavy metals create a major environmental problem at many mine sites and the problem can continue long after mine operations cease. The long term control of these pollutants is essential for the acceptance of mining as a temporary land use. There is a need to compare the advantages, disadvantages and costs of various rehabilitation techniques. This paper describes measurements on two dumps of pyritic mine wastes from open cut mining before and after rehabilitation of the dumps. The effectiveness of the rehabilitation is discussed

  1. RF-driven Proton Source with a Back-streaming Electron Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Q.; Sy, A.; Kwan, J.W.

    2009-09-20

    This article describes an RF ion source with a back-streaming electron dump. A quartz tube, brazed to a metal plug at one end, is fused in the center of a flat quartz plate. RF power (at 13.6 MHz) is coupled to generate hydrogen plasma using a planar external antenna bonded to the window. Bonding the water-cooled rf antenna to the quartz window significantly lowers its temperature. The water-cooled metal plug serves as the backstreaming electron dump. At 1800W, the current density of extracted hydrogen ions reaches approximately 125 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  2. The recovery of gold and pyrite from a residue dump at Crown Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of ore-dressing methods to a residue dump at Crown Mines has been examined. The use of either single-stage or double-stage gravity concentration is advocated for the recovery of the gold. Flotation and wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS) are not recommended. The two-stage gravity process facilitates the recovery of most of the pyrite in the residue (over 70 per cent) at commercial grade (40 per cent sulphur), but sacrifices some of the gold obtainable by a single-stage operation. There is little prospect of the commercial recovery of uranium from the dump at Crown Mines

  3. The Puzzle of Simultaneous Anti-Dumping and Anti-Subsidy Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    ’ competition completely and because a parallel investigation may increase the probability of a successful outcome for the petitioners. In contrast, we find that the different assumptions about the effect of export subsidies and domestic production subsidies on the dumping margin in the EU dual anti...... be a surprise, as the same total level of protection may be obtained by using the anti-dumping procedure exclusively. When calculating the two duties in the EU the outcome depends on whether the subsidies are export subsidies or domestic subsidies and this may also cause surprise. This paper addresses...

  4. Land reclamation in the refuse dump of open coal mines and its following ecology principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Through the research on the model of the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines, it was concerned that ecology was the theoretical basic for the land reclamation of open coal mines. According to the principle of ecological substituting, the land reclamation can be divided into three stages: water and soil conservation,ecological performance and economic performance. Taking the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines as the practical example, explained the application of the ecological substituting principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines.

  5. Rock waste dumps on the Davydov Glacier (Akshyirak Range, Tien Shan)

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Since 1995, a barren rock has been formed at the Davydov Glacier, due to the works at the Kumtor Gold Mine. By the end of 2010, total amount of the rock, stockpiled on the glacier, apparently exceeded 200 million tons, the height of dumps of rock sometimes exceeded 50 meters. The most noticeable effects of this are provoking local surges of the Davydov Glacier and squeezing glacier ice out of the dumps of rock. For a detailed analysis of both processes, we also used the results of periodic ge...

  6. Event displays from Beam 2 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  7. Event displays from Beam 01 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    atlas collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded on, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detector

  8. Event displays from Beam Halo in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  9. Ocean Dumping, A National Policy. A Report to the President Prepared by the Council on Environmental Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This report was prepared for the President of the United States by the Council of Environmental Quality. Location, quantities, composition, trends, pollution, and international aspects of ocean dumping are discussed. Also included are alternatives to dumping and legislative control. Recommendations are made dealing with policies, regulations, and…

  10. Variations in lead (Pb) content in soils downslope and upslope of victoria falls municipal waste dump in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masocha, M.; Tevera, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines lead (Pb) content in soils downslope and upslope of the Victoria Falls town municipal waste dump. Fourteen soil samples were collected in October 2003 from 20*20m plots located along two linear transects (one downslope and the other upslope of the waste dump) and analysed for Pb

  11. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in c...

  12. Comparison Research on Anti-dumping Duty Rates between Administrative Review and Welfare Maximization under Dynamic Game of Perfect Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuan; ZHU Hai-yang; ZHONG Gen-yuan

    2006-01-01

    Using economics and game theory, two kinds of models have been proposed in this paper under the assumption that foreign and domestic firms behave under the condition of dynamic game of perfect information. One model is for calculating Anti-dumping rate which is obtained according to current regulations of Anti-dumping, but it is not optimal.The other is an optimal model of Anti-dumping which is obtained according to the maximum principle of domestic social welfare. Then, through the comparison of this two models in detail, several shortages have been revealed about Anti-dumping rate model based on current regulations of Anti-dumping. Finally, a suggestion is indicated that WTO and China should use the optimal model to calculate Antidumping rate.

  13. A Comparative Study ob the Legal Systems of Anti-Dumping Between China and Indonesia%中国与印度尼西亚反倾销法律制度比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭剑波

    2004-01-01

    The law system of anti - dumping is an important part of foreign trade law for a country. By probing into the law system of anti - dumping between China and Indonesia from all angles, such as legal origin of anti - dumping, investigating organization of anti - dumping, substantive law of anti - dumping, procedural law of anti - dumping. The author think that the system of Chinese anti - dumping is similar to that of Indonesia in a whole , but there are advantages and disadvantages in terms of legislative technology and judicial practice. Generally speaking, the system of anti - dumping in Indonesia is not so perfect as that in China.

  14. Hydroacoustic detection of dumped ammunition in the Ocean with multibeam snippet backscatter analyses. A case study from the 'Kolberger Heide' ammunition dump site (Baltic Sea, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunde, Tina; Schneider von Deimling, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Dumped ammunition in the sea is a matter of great concern in terms of safe navigation and environmental threads. Because corrosion of the dumped ammunition's hull is ongoing, future contamination of the ambient water by their toxic interior is likely to occur. The location of such dump sites is approximately known from historical research and ship log book analyses. Subsequent remote sensing of ammunition dumping sites (e.g. mines) on the seafloor is preferentially performed with hydro-acoustic methods such as high resolution towed side scan or by the sophisticated synthetic aperture sonar approach with autonomous underwater vehicles. However, these are time consuming and expensive procedures, while determining the precise position of individual mines remains a challenging task. To mitigate these shortcomings we suggest using ship-born high-frequency multibeam sonar in shallow water to address the task of mine detection and precise localization on the seabed. Multibeam sonar systems have improved their potential in regard to backscatter analyses significantly over the past years and nowadays present fast and accurate tools for shallow water surveying to (1) detect mines in multibeam snippet backscatter data (2) determine their precise location with high accuracy intertial navigation systems. A case study was performed at the prominent ammunition dumping site 'Kolberger Heide' (Baltic Sea, Germany) in the year 2014 using a modern hydro-acoustic multibeam echosounder system with 200-400 kHz (KONGSBERG EM2040c). With an average water depth of not even 20 m and the proximity to the shore line and dense waterways, this investigated area requires permanent navigational care. Previously, the study area was surveyed by the Navy with the very sophisticated HUGIN AUV equipped with a synthetic aperture sonar with best resolution by current technology. Following an evaluation of the collected data, various ammunition bodies on the sea floor could be clearly detected. Analyses

  15. Primary Beam Steering Due To Field Leakage From Superconducting SHMS Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Covrig, Silviu; Carlini, Roger; Waidyawansa, Buddhini; Benesch, Jay

    2014-03-01

    The Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) was designed for the 12 GeV/c physics program in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator (JLab). At JLab an electron beam impinges on a fixed target and scattered particles are analyzed with magnetic spectrometers. The SHMS angular acceptance is 5 .5° 51.8 m from the target. The effects of these magnetic fields on the primary beam line downstream of the target are studied using Opera 3-D and TOSCA. A solution is presented that uses passive elements to shape these fields and assure that the primary beam is steered onto the beam dump window.

  16. Bessel Beams

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Kirk T

    2000-01-01

    Scalar Bessel beams are derived both via the wave equation and via diffraction theory. While such beams have a group velocity that exceeds the speed of light, this is a manifestation of the "scissors paradox" of special relativty. The signal velocity of a modulated Bessel beam is less than the speed of light. Forms of Bessel beams that satisfy Maxwell's equations are also given.

  17. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Joan; Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel; Ramírez, Francisco; Bouten, Willem; Forero, Manuela G

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis). In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps. PMID:27448048

  18. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Navarro

    Full Text Available Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis. In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.

  19. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel; Ramírez, Francisco; Bouten, Willem; Forero, Manuela G.

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis). In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps. PMID:27448048

  20. 77 FR 8101 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted-Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... individual export prices'' (Statement of Administrative Action, p, 843, H. Doc. No. 103-316, vol. 1 (1994.... 843, H. Doc. No. 103-316, vol. 1 (1994) (``The Agreement reflects the express intent of the... Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Duty Proceedings, 75 FR 81533 (December 28,...

  1. Creating, Storing, and Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…

  2. Capturing Graphics from Other Sources: Dumping Them and Integrating Them into BASIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This paper discusses some of the ways one can study graphics on the Apple II microcomputer. Much attention is given to specialized use of software packages used in dumping graphics, and the saving or storing of binary files of graphic images. Knowledge of BASIC at more than a cursory level is required, but a step-by-step procedural outline is…

  3. Course Presentation of the Joint-Products Problem with Costs Associated with Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Melvin V.; Howsen, Roy M.

    2009-01-01

    The typical profit-maximization solution for the joint-production problem found in intermediate texts, managerial texts, and other texts concerned with optimal pricing is oversimplified and inconsistent with profit maximization, unless there is either no excess of any of the joint products or no costs associated with dumping. However, it is an…

  4. Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.; Ruckman, Frank, Jr.

    This paper discusses and outlines procedures for obtaining a hard copy of the graphic output of a microcomputer or "dumping a graphic" using the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Hardware configurations and instructions for high resolution and…

  5. 78 FR 60240 - Non-Application of Previously Withdrawn Regulatory Provisions Governing Targeted Dumping in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Targeted Dumping in Antidumping Duty Investigations, 73 FR 74930 (Dec. 10, 2008) (``Withdrawal Notice... Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value, 75 FR 59217 (Sept. 27, 2010), and Issues and Decision Memorandum... Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order, 75 FR 70203 (Nov. 17, 2010) (``Final Determination'')....

  6. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ...: Comments. The comment period for the proposed rule and draft EIS published May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29687), is... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation... designate the Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site pursuant to the draft EIS,...

  7. Molecular alignment effect on the photoassociation process via a pump-dump scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin-Bin; Han, Yong-Chang; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2015-09-01

    The photoassociation processes via the pump-dump scheme for the heternuclear (Na + H → NaH) and the homonuclear (Na + Na → Na2) molecular systems are studied, respectively, using the time-dependent quantum wavepacket method. For both systems, the initial atom pair in the continuum of the ground electronic state (X(1)Σ(+)) is associated into the molecule in the bound states of the excited state (A(1)Σ(+)) by the pump pulse. Then driven by a time-delayed dumping pulse, the prepared excited-state molecule can be transferred to the bound states of the ground electronic state. It is found that the pump process can induce a superposition of the rovibrational levels |v, j〉 on the excited state, which can lead to the field-free alignment of the excited-state molecule. The molecular alignment can affect the dumping process by varying the effective coupling intensity between the two electronic states or by varying the population transfer pathways. As a result, the final population transferred to the bound states of the ground electronic state varies periodically with the delay time of the dumping pulse. PMID:26342366

  8. Safety assessment of waste rock dump built on existing tailings ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全明; 袁会娜; 钟茂华

    2015-01-01

    The construction of waste rock dumps on existing tailing ponds has been put into practice in China to save precious land resources. This work focuses on the safety assessment of the Daheishan molybdenum mine waste rock dump under construction on two adjoining tailings ponds. The consolidation of the tailings foundation and the filling quality of the waste rock are investigated by the transient electromagnetic method through detecting water-rich areas and loose packing areas, from which, the depth of phreatic line is also estimated. With such information and the material parameters, the numerical method based on shear strength reduction is applied to analyzing the overall stability of the waste rock dump and the tailings ponds over a number of typical cross sections under both current and designed conditions, where the complex geological profiles exposed by site investigation are considered. Through numerical experiments, the influence of soft lenses in the tailings and possible loose packing areas in the waste rock is examined. Although large displacements may develop due to the soft tailings foundation, the results show that the waste rock dump satisfies the safety requirements under both present and designed conditions.

  9. 75 FR 19311 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... for formal designation through rulemaking published in the Federal Register (FR). Formal designation..., wetland creation, habitat restoration, landfill daily cover, and recycling into commercial products such... at the site--no dumping of toxic materials or industrial or municipal waste would be allowed....

  10. Intermedium dumping liquids (IDL) technique for very large telescope mirrors development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Victor P.

    1994-06-01

    A technically simple modification of centrifugal moulding method for the solidifying and liquid very large telescope mirrors is described. The principal idea of this technique is the use of rotating containers floating freely in the intermedium dumping liquids (IDL). The results of testing experiments are discussed. The new type of telescope mount which is based on the IDL technique is presented.

  11. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Joan; Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel; Ramírez, Francisco; Bouten, Willem; Forero, Manuela G

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis). In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.

  12. Molecular alignment effect on the photoassociation process via a pump-dump scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin-Bin; Han, Yong-Chang, E-mail: ychan@dlut.edu.cn; Cong, Shu-Lin [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-09-07

    The photoassociation processes via the pump-dump scheme for the heternuclear (Na + H → NaH) and the homonuclear (Na + Na → Na{sub 2}) molecular systems are studied, respectively, using the time-dependent quantum wavepacket method. For both systems, the initial atom pair in the continuum of the ground electronic state (X{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) is associated into the molecule in the bound states of the excited state (A{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) by the pump pulse. Then driven by a time-delayed dumping pulse, the prepared excited-state molecule can be transferred to the bound states of the ground electronic state. It is found that the pump process can induce a superposition of the rovibrational levels |v, j〉 on the excited state, which can lead to the field-free alignment of the excited-state molecule. The molecular alignment can affect the dumping process by varying the effective coupling intensity between the two electronic states or by varying the population transfer pathways. As a result, the final population transferred to the bound states of the ground electronic state varies periodically with the delay time of the dumping pulse.

  13. The environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Ariese, F.; Hattum, van B.; Postma, J.F.; Kluijver, de M.; Besten, den P.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R.; Murk, A.J.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, bioma

  14. Monitoring the radon flux from gold-mine dumps by gamma-ray mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsay, R; de Meijer, RJ; Maleka, PP; Newman, RT; Motlhabane, TGK; de Villiers, D

    2004-01-01

    The exhalation of radon from the large mine dumps at the gold mines in South Africa is a potential health hazard. Determination of radon fluxes from these dumpsites is problematic due to the scatter in the data in time and place and the cost involved in getting a representative sample. gamma-ray spe

  15. Arsenic mineralogy and mobility in the arsenic-rich historical mine waste dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Michal, E-mail: filippi@gli.cas.cz [Institute of Geology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i., Rozvojová 269, 165 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Drahota, Petr [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Machovič, Vladimír [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Böhmová, Vlasta [Institute of Geology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i., Rozvojová 269, 165 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Mihaljevič, Martin [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    A more than 250 year-old mine dump was studied to document the products of long-term arsenopyrite oxidation under natural conditions in a coarse-grained mine waste dump and to evaluate the environmental hazards associated with this material. Using complementary mineralogical and chemical approaches (SEM/EDS/WDS, XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, pore water analysis, chemical extraction techniques and thermodynamic PHREEQC-2 modeling), we documented the mineralogical/geochemical characteristics of the dumped arsenopyrite-rich material and environmental stability of the newly formed secondary minerals. A distinct mineralogical zonation was found (listed based on the distance from the decomposed arsenopyrite): scorodite (locally associated with native sulfur pseudomorphs) plus amorphous ferric arsenate (AFA/pitticite), kaňkite, As-bearing ferric (hydr)oxides and jarosite. Ferric arsenates and ferric (hydr)oxides were found to dissolve and again precipitate from downward migrating As-rich solutions cementing rock fragments. Acidic pore water (pH 3.8) has elevated concentrations of As with an average value of about 2.9 mg L{sup −1}. Aqueous As is highly correlated with pH (R{sup 2} = 0.97, p < 0.001) indicating that incongruent dissolution of ferric arsenates controls dissolved As well as the pH of the percolating waste solution. Arsenic released from the dissolution of ferric arsenates into the pore water is, however, trapped by latter and lower-down precipitating jarosite and especially ferric (hydr)oxides. The efficiency of As sequestration by ferric (hydr)oxides in the waste dump and underlying soil has been found to be very effective, suggesting limited environmental impact of the mine waste dump on the surrounding soil ecosystems. - Highlights: • More than 250 year-old arsenopyrite-rich mine waste dump was studied. • Mineral transformation and the environmental stability of different secondary arsenic mineral phases were assessed. • High efficiency of As

  16. Horizontal angular VOR, nystagmus dumping, and sensation duration in spacelab SLS-1 crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, C. M.; Balkwill, M. D.; Young, L. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In 1G, the apparent time constant (Td) of postrotatory SPV decay with the head tilted face down is 55% of that with head erect (Te). This phenomenon is called "nystagmus dumping" and has been attributed to G effects on VOR velocity storage. Similarly, postrotatory sensation duration with head tilted (Dd) is 32% of that when head erect (De). In parabolic flight, Te and De are 70% of 1-G values, but a pitch back dumping movement produces no further change. Te, Td, and Dd have not previously been measured in orbital flight. VOR and sensation duration was tested in 4 crewmembers in 4 preflight, 1 inflight (days 4 or 5) and 4 post flight sessions. Bitemporal EOG was recorded with eyes open in darkness. Instructions were to "gaze straight ahead," and indicate when "rotation sensation disappears or becomes ambiguous". Subjects were rotated CW and CCW head erect for 1 min at 120 degrees/s, stopped, and EOG was recorded for another 1 min. This procedure was then used to study dumping, except that immediately after chair stop, subjects pitched their head forward 90 degrees. SPV was calculated using order statistic filtering, and dropouts removed using an iterative model fitting method. Te and Td were determined by logarithmic linear regression of mean SPV for each subject. In orbit, 90 degrees pitch movement produced rapid subjective dumping, but not nystagmus dumping. Dd was noticeably shorter ("almost instantaneous") compared to preflight Dd. Te and Td in orbit were similar to preflight Te for 3/4 subjects (rather than to preflight Td as expected). No consistent VOR gain changes were seen in orbit. Although Te is known to decrease acutely in parabolic flight, a longer time constant was measured in 3/4 subjects after 4-5 days adaptation to weightlessness, suggesting a return of angular velocity storage.

  17. Reconstruction of the inner structure of small scale mining waste dumps by combining GPR and ERTdata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniess, Rudolf; Martin, Tina

    2015-04-01

    Two abandoned small waste dumps in the west of the Harz mountains (Germany) were analysed using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Aim of the project (ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105)) is the assessment of the recycling potential of the mining residues taking into account environmental risks of reworking the dump site. One task of the geophysical prospection is the investigation of the inner structure of the mining dump. This is important for the estimation of the approximate volume of potentially reusable mining deposits within the waste dump. The two investigated dump sites are different in age and therefore differ in their structure. The older residues (material differ from the bedrock resistivities at both sites. The GPR measurements show near surface layer boundaries down to 3 - 4 m. In consecutive campaigns 100 MHz and 200 MHz antennas were used. The GPR results (layer boundaries) were included into the ERT inversion algorithm to enable more precise and stable resistivity models. This needs some special preprocessing steps. The 3D-Position of every electrode from ERT measurement and the GPR antenna position on the surface require an accuracy of less than 1cm. At some points, the layer boundaries and radar wave velocities can be calibrated with borehole stratigraphic data from a mineralogical drilling campaign. This is important for a precise time-depth conversion of reflectors from GPR measurement. This reflectors were taken from radargram and have been adopted as resistivity boundary in the start model of the geoelectric inversion algorithm.

  18. Decision of the Council establishing a multilateral consultation and surveillance mechanism for sea dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Mechanism set up by the OECD Council on 22nd July, 1977 supplements the system established by the 1975 London Convention on prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and the IAEA provisional definition and recommendations. It lays down further compulsory rules on sea dumping of radioactive waste and provides for a prior notification and consultation procedure (choice of dumping site, containers, ships etc), international surveillance and an information system consisting of regular updating of standards guidelines and recommendations to be applied in the field. (NEA)

  19. Changes in some physical properties of soils in the chronosequence of self-overgrown dumps of the Sokolov quarry-dump complex, Czechia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuráž, V.; Frouz, J.; Kuráž, M.; Mako, A.; Shustr, V.; Cejpek, J.; Romanov, O. V.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2012-03-01

    The water-physical properties (bulk density, air conductivity, texture, water content, and temperature dynamics) were studied in a chronosequence of soils developing on self-overgrowing quarry-dump complexes in the area of Sokolov, Czechia. The area overgrown for 12 years was covered by a thin grass cover; osiers were observed after 20 years of overgrowth; a broadleaved forest was found on a plot after 45 years of overgrowth. The particle-size distribution in the soil was determined using peptization by pyrophosphate and the FAO method. When the soil was prepared by the FAO method, a predominance of physical clay (62-72%) in the dump material was revealed; at the use of pyrophosphate peptization, the content of this fraction was lower (18-19%). The observed differences can be due to the incomplete degradation of the microaggregates composed of clay particles during the peptization by pyrophosphate. A decrease in the field water content of the soils with the increasing time of the dump's overgrowth was observed. This could be attributed to the more significant evapotranspiration of the perennial woody vegetation compared to the herbaceous plants, which agreed with the data on the projective cover of plants and their root biomass. A decrease in the soil temperature in the root-inhabited layer (in the diurnal variation) with the age of succession was also observed. The analysis of the data on the field soil water content and their comparison with the results of the laboratory measuring of the wilting points indicated that the development of plants could be restricted by a water deficit at the 20- and 45-year-old stages of the succession.

  20. Progress on the realization of a new GEM based neutron diagnostic concept for high flux neutron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, G.; Rebai, M.; Cazzaniga, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Grosso, G.; Muraro, A.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Pasqualotto, R.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Tollin, M.; Cavenago, M.; Gorini, G.

    2014-08-01

    Fusion reactors will need high flux neutron detectors to diagnose the deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium. A candidate detection technique is the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). New GEM based detectors are being developed for application to a neutral deuterium beam test facility. The proposed detection system is called Close-contact Neutron Emission Surface Mapping (CNESM). The diagnostic aims at providing the map of the neutron emission due to interaction of the deuterium beam with the deuterons implanted in the beam dump surface. This is done by placing a detector in close contact, right behind the dump. CNESM uses nGEM detectors, i.e. GEM detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron-proton converter foil. After the realization and test of several small area prototypes, a full size prototype has been realized and tested with laboratory sources. Test on neutron beams are foreseen for the next months.

  1. Pxie low energy beam transport commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Prost, L; Andrews, R; Carneiro, J -P; Hanna, B; Scarpine, V; Shemyakin, A; D'Arcy, R; Wiesner, C

    2015-01-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting RF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator (a.k.a. PXIE) is under construction. It includes a 10 mA DC, 30 KeV H- ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to ~25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source and LEBT, which includes 3 solenoids, several clearing electrodes/collimators and a chopping system, have been built, installed, and commissioned to full specification parameters. This report presents the outcome of our commissioning activities, including phase-space measurements at the end of the beam line under various neutralization schemes obtained by changing the electro...

  2. Models for settlement prediction of structures in opencast dumps; Modelle zur Setzungsprognose von Bauwerken auf Tagebaukippen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birle, E.; Vogt, S. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum Geotechnik

    2016-05-01

    For construction projects at opencast dumps e.g. for planning of traffic routes or individual buildings a prognosis of dump subsicence after the establishment of the structures is required. It should be noted that on dump surfaces time-dependent subsidence are observed which can change by construction activities at the dump surface. As tools for describing the dump subsidence phenomenological models that have been developed based on the evaluation of dump characteristic subsidence and allow a one-dimensional analysis of creep deformation and visco-elastoplastic material models within the finite element method for analyzing complex geometric boundary conditions. [German] Fuer Baumassnahmen auf Tagebaukippen beispielsweise zur Planung von Verkehrswegen oder einzelnen Bauwerken ist eine Prognose der Kippensetzungen nach Errichtung der Bauwerke erforderlich. Dabei ist zu beachten, dass auf Kippenoberflaechen ausgepraegte zeitabhaengige Setzungen beobachtet werden, die sich durch Baumassnahmen an der Kippenoberflaeche aendern koennen. Als Werkzeuge zur Beschreibung der Kippensetzungen stehen prinzipiell phaenomenologische Modelle, die auf Basis der Auswertung von Kippeneigensetzungen entwickelt wurden und die eine ein-dimensionale Analyse der Kriechverformungen zulassen sowie visko-elastoplastische Stoffmodelle im Rahmen der FiniteElemente- Methode zur Analyse komplexer geometrischer Randbedingungen zur Verfuegung. In Abhaengigkeit vom Randwertproblem ist zu entscheiden, welches der Modelle zur Beschreibung der Kippensetzungen heranzuziehen ist. Mit phaenomenologischen Kriechmodellen und einer ein-dimensionalen Analyse der Verformungen koennen die sich nach Ende der Verkippung einstellenden Kippensetzungen in der Regel genuegend genau beschrieben werden, sofern an der Kippenoberflaeche keine signifikanten Spannungsaenderungen infolge von Baumassnahmen eingetragen werden. Kommt es dagegen zu Spannungsaenderungen, beispielsweise durch die Errichtung eines hohen

  3. Testing beam-induced quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchmann, B.; Baer, T.; Bednarek, M.; Bellodi, G.; Bracco, C.; Bruce, R.; Cerutti, F.; Chetvertkova, V.; Dehning, B.; Granieri, P. P.; Hofle, W.; Holzer, E. B.; Lechner, A.; Nebot Del Busto, E.; Priebe, A.; Redaelli, S.; Salvachua, B.; Sapinski, M.; Schmidt, R.; Shetty, N.; Skordis, E.; Solfaroli, M.; Steckert, J.; Valuch, D.; Verweij, A.; Wenninger, J.; Wollmann, D.; Zerlauth, M.

    2015-06-01

    In the years 2009-2013 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been operated with the top beam energies of 3.5 and 4 TeV per proton (from 2012) instead of the nominal 7 TeV. The currents in the superconducting magnets were reduced accordingly. To date only seventeen beam-induced quenches have occurred; eight of them during specially designed quench tests, the others during injection. There has not been a single beam-induced quench during normal collider operation with stored beam. The conditions, however, are expected to become much more challenging after the long LHC shutdown. The magnets will be operating at near nominal currents, and in the presence of high energy and high intensity beams with a stored energy of up to 362 MJ per beam. In this paper we summarize our efforts to understand the quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets. We describe beam-loss events and dedicated experiments with beam, as well as the simulation methods used to reproduce the observable signals. The simulated energy deposition in the coils is compared to the quench levels predicted by electrothermal models, thus allowing one to validate and improve the models which are used to set beam-dump thresholds on beam-loss monitors for run 2.

  4. Comparative morphometric analysis of Sorghum halepense plants growing on substrates of rock dump with addition of alternative fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriana M. Beshley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric parameters of Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. plants were identified and analyzed. The positive effect of alternative fertilizers on the plants growing on substrates of coal rock dump was established.

  5. Comparative morphometric analysis of Sorghum halepense plants growing on substrates of rock dump with addition of alternative fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Zoriana M. Beshley; Stephen V. Beshley; Baranov, Vladimir I.; Olga I. Terek

    2014-01-01

    Morphometric parameters of Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. plants were identified and analyzed. The positive effect of alternative fertilizers on the plants growing on substrates of coal rock dump was established.

  6. 76 FR 12400 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Duties on Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Countervailing and Anti-Dumping... World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement'') with the People's Republic of China (``China'') concerning... States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of the...

  7. A review of acid drainage from waste rock dumps and mine sites (Australian and Scandinavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the literature from Australia and Scandinavia on acid drainage from pyritic waste rock dumps with an emphasis on measurements and theory of processes that control the rage of oxidation and the release of pollutants. Conditions within waste rock dumps have been measured at several mine sites and a range of rehabilitation treatments have been tried to reduce the release of pollutants. A number of models have been proposed to calculate air flow, water transport and geochemistry. The data and experience at the mine sites are compared with predictions of the models. Details of Australian and Swedish mine sites where waste rock is a source of acid drainage are described in the Appendices. 92 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  8. Cavity-dumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, E.; Joo, T.

    2016-03-01

    A synchronously pumped cavity-dumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on a periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (PPSLT) crystal is reported. The OPO runs in positive group velocity dispersion (GVD) mode to deliver high pulse energy at high repetition rate. It delivers pulse energy over 130 nJ up to 500 kHz and 70 nJ at 1 MHz of repetition rate at 1100 nm. Pulse duration is as short as 42 fs, and the OPO is tunable in the near infrared region from 1050 to 1200 nm. Dispersion property of the OPO was also explored. The cavity-dumped output carries a positive GVD, which can be compensated easily by an external prism pair, and large negative third order dispersion (TOD), which results in a pedestal in the pulse shape. Approaches to obtain clean pulse shape by reducing the large TOD are proposed.

  9. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Kara and Barents Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario, which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater, is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansievert calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs is found to dominate the doses. 19 refs., 56 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Forskningscente Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Barents and Kara Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansieverts calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs is found to dominate the doses. (au) 8 tabs., 56 ills., 19 refs.

  11. Methane emissions from agriculture, waste waters and dumping sites in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methane emissions released from agriculture, waste water processing and dumping sites are reviewed in this report, which is one of the national reports estimating the emissions of greenhouse gases. The most up to date information of emission sources are used as the basis for estimation of emissions. The information used cowers mainly the years 1987 and 1988. The methane emissions from live stock production in Finland was about 165 000 t/a in 1989, those from agriculture about 15 000 t/a, and those from dumping sites about 30 000 t/a. The methane emissions from municipal and industrial waste water processing have been estimated to be 37 000 t/a

  12. The EU Anti-dumping Policy towards China: Challenges for Chinese and Foreign Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. First, the CELEX database may give some important information on how to formulate a price policy for exports to the EU so anti-dumping measures can be avoided. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important......, if market economy status with its lower duties, is wanted. Wholly owned foreign companies or joint ventures with a majority of foreign capital seem to have the biggest probability of getting market economy status. Or generally, evidence of independence of the Chinese public authorities is important. Thirdly......, owner structure counts also in relation to getting individual treatment; here especially freedom in exporting is decisive. Fourthly, if an anti-dumping investigation seems to be against the interests of the company, it should make an offer to the EU Commission to raise its export prices instead...

  13. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  14. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  15. Beam loss detection system in the arcs of the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauzo, A.; Bovet, C.

    2000-11-01

    Over the whole circumference of the LHC, Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) will be needed for a continuous surveillance of fast and slow beam losses. In this paper, the location of the BLMs set outside the magnet cryostats in the arcs is proposed. In order to know the number of protons lost on the beam screen, the sensitivity of each BLM has been computed using the program GEANT 3.21, which generates the shower inside the cryostat. The material and the magnetic fields have been described thoroughly in 3-D and the simulation results show the best locations for 6 BLMs needed around each quadrupole. The number of minimum ionizing particles received for each lost proton serves to define local thresholds to dump the beam when the losses are menacing to quench a magnet.

  16. Beam Loss Detection System in the Arcs of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arauzo-Garcia, A

    2000-01-01

    Over the whole circumference of the LHC, Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) will be needed for a continuous surveillance of fast and slow beam losses. In this paper, the location of the BLMs set outside the magnet cryostats in the arcs is proposed. In order to know the number of protons lost on the beam screen, the sensitivity of each BLM has been computed using the program GEANT 3.21, which generates the shower inside the cryostat. The material and the magnetic fields have been described thoroughly in 3-D and the simulation results show the best locations for 6 BLMs needed around each quadrupole. The number of minimum ionizing particles received for each lost proton serves to define local thresholds to dump the beam when the losses are menacing to quench a magnet

  17. Anti-dumping Investigation on the Three Chinese Products Including Motorcycle Rubber Inner Tubes by Thailand Started

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of this July, the Ministry of Commerce of Thailand has received three anti-dumping investigation applica- tions involved in Chinese export put forward by the relevant Thailand enterprises, respectively the anti-dumping investigation applications on the aluminum-zinc coated steel from Chinese mainland, Taiwan and Korea, the aluminum-zinc plated (coated) steel from Chinese mainland, Taiwan and Korea and motorcycle inner tubes from China,

  18. Modeling of experimental data on trace elements and organic compounds content in industrial waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Drobek, Leszek; Dombek, Václav; Bąk, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of the study presented was to investigate the differences between 20 mine waste dumps located in the Silesian Region of Poland and Czech Republic, in terms of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contents. The Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis were applied in exploration of the studied data. Since the data set was affected by outlying objects, the employment of a relevant analysis strategy was necessary. The final PCA model was constructed with the use of the Expectation-Maximization iterative approach preceded by a correct identification of outliers. The analysis of the experimental data indicated that three mine waste dumps located in Poland were characterized by the highest concentrations of dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and six objects located in Czech Republic and three objects in Poland were distinguished by high concentrations of chrysene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene. Three of studied mine waste dumps, one located in Czech Republic and two in Poland, were characterized by low concentrations of Cr, Ni, V, naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthen, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene in comparison with the remaining ones. The analysis contributes to the assessment and prognosis of ecological and health risks related to the emission of trace elements and organic compounds (PAHs) from the waste dumps examined. No previous research of similar scope and aims has been reported for the area concerned. PMID:27497349

  19. Evaluation of geochemical mobility of heavy metals in the dump mine rocks Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsechko N.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Typification of turn mine rocks of Western Donbas is conducted after a size acid-lye the index of water-soluble complex. It is set that exactly rocks with the low value of it an index characterized the most sizes of middle content of water-soluble forms of heavy metals. It is well-proven that exactly mine dumps are the generating source of contamination of objects of environment of this region by heavy metals. The significant impact on the environment inflicted not only directly in the process of coal mining, but for many years after its completion. The source of contamination of environmental objects are dumps that occupy large areas of fertile land. Every year in the dumps is stored about 40 million. m3 moldboard mine rock. Most of the waste coal industry have potential toxic and mutagenic properties as containing a significant amount of heavy metals, which are practically not biodegradable in the environment and is therefore especially dangerous for living organisms paramount importance score geochemical mobility of heavy metals, ie their property to move from solid to liquid phase, migrate to the natural landscape and absorbed by vegetation. This applies particularly to water-soluble forms of metals, as in warehousing surface mine dump piles of rocks, the priority factor that regulates the processes of migration of heavy metals are leaching precipitation of solid phase wastes. It is the existence and content of heavy metals in water-soluble complex characterized by their solubility and migration activity and can be used to assess the real extent of possible contamination of the hydrosphere.

  20. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Mukherjee; Khanindra Pathak

    2015-01-01

    The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty) is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dum...

  1. Investigation on the oxygen transport mechanisms in the Sarcheshmeh waste rock dumps

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Yousefi; Faramarz Doulati Ardejan; Arezoo Abedi; Mansour Ziaii; Esmat Esmaeil Zadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage (AMD) are the serious environmental problems associated with the mining activities in sulphide ores. The rate of pyrite oxidation is governed by the availability of oxygen (Borden, 2003). Therefore, the identifying oxygen supplying mechanism is one of the most important issues related to the environmental assessment of waste rock dumps (Cathles and Apps, 1975; Jaynes et al., 1984; Davis and Ritchie, 1986). Although comprehensive researc...

  2. A Modified C-Dump Converter for BLDC Machine Used in a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandaru Ramakrishna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified C-dump converter for brushless DC (BLDC machine used in the flywheel energy storage system. The converter can realize the energy bidirectional flowing and has the capability to recover the energy extracted from the turnoff phase of the BLDC machine. The principle of operation, modeling, and control strategy of the system has been investigated in the paper. Simulation and experimental results of the proposed system are also presented and discussed.

  3. Restoration of Ecosystems Destroyed by the Fly Ash Dump Using Different Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Florica Morariu; Smaranda Mâșu; Benoni Lixandru; Dumitru Popescu

    2013-01-01

    The leguminous plants was studied at experimental variants on fly ash dump: sown species of Onobrichys viciifolia and invasive colonies of Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), and yellow sweet (Melilotus officinalis). Six experimental variants were studied in three replicates each: untreated fly ash, fly ash amended with unmodified/modified volcanic rock and fly ash treated with unmodified/modified volcanic rock (indigenous volcanic tuff) mixed with organic fertilizer, anaerobically stab...

  4. Changes of the soil environment affected by fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jerzy; Gwizdz, Marta; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Debicka, Magdalena; Kocowicz, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    In this study the effect of fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant on the surrounding soil environment was investigated. The fly ash dumping site collect wastes form brown coal combustion of Belchatow electric power station, central Poland. The dumping site is surrounding by forest, where pine trees overgrow Podzols derived from loose quartz sands. The soil profiles under study were located at a distance of 50, 100, 400 and 500 m from the dumping site, while control profiles were located 8 km away from the landfill. In all horizons of soil profiles the mpain hysico-chemical and chemical properties were determined. The humic substances were extracted from ectohumus horizons by Shnitzer's method, purified using XAD resin and freeze-dried. The fulvic acids were passed through a cation exchange column and freeze-dried. Optical density, elemental composition and atomic ratios were determined in the humic and fulvic acids. Organic carbon by KMnO4 oxidation was also determined in the organic soil horizons. The fly ash from the landfill characterized by high salinity and strong alkaline reaction (pH=10), which contributed significantly to the changes of the pH values in soils horizons. The alkalization of soils adjacent to the landfill was found, which manifested in increasing of pH values in the upper soil horizons. The impact of the landfill was also noted in the changes of the soil morphology of Podzols analysed. As a result of the alkalization, Bhs horizons have been converted into a Bs horizons. Leaching of low molecular humus fraction - typical for podzolization - has been minimized as a result of pH changes caused by the impact of the landfill, and originally occurring humic substances in the Bhs horizon (present in the control profiles) have been probably transported out of the soil profile and then into the groundwater.

  5. Rock waste dumps on the Davydov Glacier (Akshyirak Range, Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, a barren rock has been formed at the Davydov Glacier, due to the works at the Kumtor Gold Mine. By the end of 2010, total amount of the rock, stockpiled on the glacier, apparently exceeded 200 million tons, the height of dumps of rock sometimes exceeded 50 meters. The most noticeable effects of this are provoking local surges of the Davydov Glacier and squeezing glacier ice out of the dumps of rock. For a detailed analysis of both processes, we also used the results of periodic geodetic measurements (over 8000 of monitoring rods (about 800 rods of the gold mining company. A number of local surges of the glacier has been found, the first of which began in March–April 2002. To analyze glacier squeezing out of the dumps of rock, mathematical modeling of that process has been done. It was established that in most cases, the glacier is almost completely squeezed out of for 1–2 years.

  6. Heavy Metal Contamination of Foods by Refuse Dump Sites in Awka, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. C. Nduka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heavy metals from refuse dumps on soil, food, and water qualities in Awka, Nigeria was studied. Soil samples (top and 1.35 m deep were collected from five refuse dumps digested with conc. HNO3 and HClO4. The heavy metals (lead, manganese, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and nickel in vegetables (spinach, fluted pumpkin, root crop (cocoyam, and surface and ground water were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Chemical properties of the soil and bacteria were determined. Heavy metals were found to be more concentrated at a depth of 1.35 m. Manganese was high in shallow wells and borehole water samples with the highest levels as 0.538 and 0.325 mg/l, respectively. Nickel levels in the borehole sample ranged from 0.001 to 0.227 mg/l, whereas the highest level of lead was 0.01 mg/l. The Obibia stream had the highest levels of manganese and lead. Linear regression analyses showed that the relationship between soil heavy metals and farm produce heavy metals was strong. Taken together, we may conclude that the consumption of leafy vegetables and crops produced on contaminated soils may pose a health risk to those that reside around the refuse dumps.

  7. Analysis of Maintenance Service Contracts for Dump Trucks Used in Mining Industry with Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymasius, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Iskandar, B. P.

    2016-02-01

    A mining company needs high availability of dump trucks used to haul mining materials. As a result, an effective maintenance action is required to keep the dump trucks in a good condition and hence reducing failure and downtime of the dump trucks. To carry out maintenance in-house requires a high intensive maintenance facility and high skilled maintenance specialists. Often, outsourcing maintenance is an economic option for the company. An external agent takes a proactive action with offering some maintenance contract options to the owner. The decision problem for the owner is to decide the best option and for the agent is to determine the optimal price for each option offered. A non-cooperative game-theory is used to formulate the decision problems for the owner and the agent. We consider that failure pattern of each truck follows a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) and a queueing theory with multiple servers is used to estimate the downtime. As it involves high complexity to model downtime using a queueing theory, then in this paper we use a simulation method. Furthermore, we conduct experiment to seek for the best number of maintenance facilities (servers) which minimises maintenance and penalty costs incurred to the agent.

  8. Uranium-radiu relation concerning there migration from ore and waste dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Georgescu, D.P.; Sporea, A.; Petrescu, S.; Popescu, C.; Georgescu, A. [Research and Design Inst. for Rare and Radioactive Metals, Bucharest (Romania)

    1998-12-31

    The study refers to uranium-radium migration from the dumps affected by alteration as well as recycling process due to the geochemical barriers in different dispersive media. The problem of correct understanding and interpretation of the contamination due to the mining activities (ore and waste dumps) is a difficult one. It has to be correlated with elements migration from the mineralization determining radioactive aureole in water, soil and vegetation (which are, in fact the means to locate some deposits). Migration and pollution phenomena in different dispersive media have been studied for uranium, radium and other accompanying elements from several deposits. Data obtained from the geochemical studies of the mineralization show a large variety of accompanying elements: Mo, Pb, Bi, Co, Cu, Ag, Tl, As and Li. In order to study the pollution processes, rock, soil, sediments, water and plants samples have been drown and analyzed for uranium, radium, and other twenty elements, determination using fluorimetry atomic absorption spectrometry and emission spectrography. Environmental pollution may be influenced by:mine waters draining in the hydrographic ne and hypergenetic levigation processes of uranium and radium from rocks and ores on the dumps and their transport into the rivers and sediments. (orig.)

  9. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. PMID:25733499

  10. Metal uptake by native plants and revegetation potential of mining sulfide-rich waste-dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Pamplona, Jorge; Braga, Maria Amália Sequeira; Pissarra, José; Gil, José António Grande; de la Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Waste dumps resulting from metal exploitation create serious environmental damage, providing soil and water degradation over long distances. Phytostabilization can be used to remediate these mining sites. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of selected plant species (Erica arborea, Ulex europaeus, Agrostis delicatula, and Cytisus multiflorus) that grow spontaneously in three sulfide-rich waste-dumps (Lapa Grande, Cerdeirinha, and Penedono, Portugal). These sites represent different geological, climatic and floristic settings. The results indicate distinctive levels and types of metal contamination: Penedono presents highest sulfate and metal contents, especially As, with low levels of Fe. In contrast, at Lapa Grande and Cerdeirinha Fe, Mn, and Zn are the dominant metals. In accordance, each waste dump develops a typical plant community, providing a specific vegetation inventory. At Penedono, Agrostis delicatula accumulates As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing higher bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Mn (32.1) and As (24.4). At Cerdeirinha, Ulex europaeus has the highest BF for Pb (984), while at Lapa Grande, Erica arborea presents high BF for Mn (9.8) and Pb (8.1). Regarding TF, low values were obtained for most of the metals, especially As (TF < 1). Therefore, the results obtained from representative plant species suggest appropriate behavior for phytostabilization measures. PMID:24933904

  11. Redox chemistry of sulphate and uranium in a phosphogypsum tailings dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanicolaou, Fanos; Antoniou, Stella [Chemistry Department, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Pashalidis, Ioannis, E-mail: pspasch@ucy.ac.c [Chemistry Department, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2010-08-15

    The present study aims to assess the effect of redox conditions existing within the tailings dump on the stability of phosphogypsum (e.g. sulphate reduction) and uranium(VI). Phosphogypsum sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out at a coastal tailings dump in Vasiliko Cyprus, pH, E{sub H} and solubility experiments were performed in simulated laboratory systems and thermodynamic calculations using MINTEQA2. Generally, in the open tailings dump oxidizing conditions predominate stabilizing sulphur and uranium in their hexavalent oxidation states. On the other hand, after the application of a soil/vegetative cover and in the presence of natural organic matter, anoxic conditions prevail (E{sub H} < -70 mV) resulting in S(VI) and U(VI) reduction to S(-II) and U(IV), respectively. Although, the sulphide anion can form very insoluble compounds with heavy metal ions (e.g. Cd(II), Pb(II) etc.) and U(IV) oxide has very low solubility, partial reduction of sulphate to sulphide within gypsum may affect the stability of phosphogypsum resulting in enhanced erosion of the material by rain- and seawater and washing out of contaminants in particulate/colloidal form.

  12. Requirements of the London Convention for dumping radioactive waste at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines the requirements of the London Convention for dumping radioactive waste at sea and considers their scientific basis more fully. It is intended primarily as an appraisal and aid to understanding of the two documents IAEA 210 and IAEA 211, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and relating to the oceanographic and radiobiological basis of their definitions of high level waste and recommendations relating to its dumping at sea, which were required for London Convention purposes. The adequacy and conservation in these recommendations are considered, and the report also compares the predictions of the model on which the recommendations are based with some limited but relevant observations on radiation doses resulting from natural causes (radium in the sea), and from fallout from nuclear bomb tests. It is concluded that if dumping is carried out within the limits and according to the recommendations required by the IAEA, then it is extremely unlikely that this could lead to significant human hazard, either now or in the future. Some of the reasons for this conclusion are summarised in the final chapter

  13. Development of a beam condition monitor for use in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider using synthetic diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Hernando, L; Ilgner, C; MacPherson, A; Oh, A; Pernegger, H; Pritchard, T; Stone, R; Worm, S

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will collide two counter rotating proton beams, each with a store energy about 350MJ; enough to melt 550kg of copper. If there is failure in an element of the accelerator, the resulting beam losses could cause damage not only to the machine but also to the experiments. A Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) is foreseen to monitor last increments of particle flux near the interaction point and if necessary, to generate an abort signal to the LHC accelerator control, to dump the beams. Due to its radiation hardness and minimal services requirements, synthetic CVD diamond is being considered as BCM sensor option. (12 refs).

  14. Beam - cavity interaction beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of a beam with a cavity and a generator in cyclic accelerators or storage rings is investigated. Application of Maxwell's equations together with the nonuniform boundary condition allows one to get an equivalent circuit for a beam-loaded cavity. The general equation for beam loading is obtained on the basis of the equivalent circuit, and the beam admittance is calculated. Formulas for power consumption by a beam-loaded cavity are derived, and the optimal tuning and coupling factor are analyzed. (author)

  15. LHC Beam Vacuum During 2011 Machine Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Lanza, G; Bregliozzi, G; Jimenez, J M

    2012-01-01

    During the year 2011 the LHC operated for 682 fills, meaning 247 days and 2 hours of stable beam in total. From 368 bunches per beam at 150 ns bunch spacing circulating in the ring in December 2010, the 2011 proton physic ended with 1380 bunches per beam circulating with 50 ns bunch spacing. The machine performances increased in parallel with the vacuum improvement thanks to a well performed scrubbing run in April 2011 and a continuous conditioning of the beam pipes while the machine was running. The 2011 LHC operation ended with one month of ions physic runs. During the machine operation various phenomena of beam - vacuum interaction were detected, analyzed and solved. This paper describes the pressure behaviour along the machine layout and mainly in specific components position like the TDI (Target Dump Injection) and the MKI injector kickers. The “pressure spike” phenomena near the experiment CMS and in some Dipole 1 (D1) regions are discussed. Finally, results obtained during the 25 ns machine develop...

  16. The LHC Fast Beam Current change Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Belohrad, D; Jensen, L; Krupa, M; Topaloudis, A

    2013-01-01

    The modularity of the Large Hadron Collider’s (LHC) machine protection system (MPS) allows for the integration of several beam diagnostic instruments. These instruments have not necessarily been designed to have protection functionality, but MPS can still use them to increase the redundancy and reliability of the machine. The LHC fast beam current change monitor (FBCCM) is an example. It is based on analogue signals from fast beam current transformers (FBCT) used nominally to measure the LHC bunch intensities. The FBCCM calculates the magnitude of the beam signal provided by the FBCT, looks for a change over specific time intervals, and triggers a beam dump interlock if losses exceed an energy-dependent threshold. The first prototype of the FBCCM was installed in the LHC during the 2012-2013 run. The aim of this article is to present the FBCCM system and the results obtained, analyse its current performance and provide an outlook for the final system which is expected to be operational after the long LHC sh...

  17. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  18. Design note of a 10,000A, 1,000Vdc solid state dump switch for the magnet test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the design of a 10,000A/1000Vdc dump switch for the superconducting magnet test program at Fermilab. The switch inserts a dump resistor in series with a charged superconducting magnet when a magnet quenches or other faults are detected. The dump resistor dissipates the majority of the magnetically stored energy after the dump switch has opened. The switch uses 6 parallel inverter type run SCR's which get commutated off via a dump SCR and stored energy in a dump capacitor. Switching time is less then 150 x 10-6 sec. All switch power components are water cooled and mounted in a 72 in. H x 36 in. W x 30 in. D steel enclosure. The controls have provisions for 8 dump command inputs, with a first fault latch. They also provide reference limit control resulting from SCR turn on failure or unacceptable dump resistor tap selection. Dump failure detection and 24 interlocks are provided. All controls are mounted in a relay rack. Quench detection is provided by the magnet test facility. Two 5000 A power supplies are operated in parallel to provide 10,000 Adc

  19. Beam Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2014-01-01

    When a beam propagates in an accelerator, it interacts with both the external fields and the self-generated electromagnetic fields. If the latter are strong enough, the interplay between them and a perturbation in the beam distribution function can lead to an enhancement of the initial perturbation, resulting in what we call a beam instability. This unstable motion can be controlled with a feedback system, if available, or it grows, causing beam degradation and loss. Beam instabilities in particle accelerators have been studied and analysed in detail since the late 1950s. The subject owes its relevance to the fact that the onset of instabilities usually determines the performance of an accelerator. Understanding and suppressing the underlying sources and mechanisms is therefore the key to overcoming intensity limitations, thereby pushing forward the performance reach of a machine.

  20. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mazza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed, most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence. Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5–43 pg/g of fat; (c potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators.

  1. Strategies for Covering Fly Ash Dumps with Plant Species Suitable for Phytostabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the revegetation of fly ash dumps, the strategy chosen is very important in order to obtain a vegetal layer that quickly and efficiently covers the fly ash dump, as well as, to allow the wildlife habitat development. The strategy must include: adequate treatments by incorporating fertilizer and amendments, as composts and modified indigenous volcanic tuff; selecting plant species and agricultural work in accordance with geographical and weather conditions. Our in situ experiment on a lignite fly ash dump was performed in the fall during the seeding period of Festuca arundinacea and Onobrychis viciifolia species to provide the water requirement of plants, and consequently a quick and efficient development of plants, enabling them to resist later in the hot and drought days of summer. Among the seeding species, Festuca arundinacea adjusted more easily in the experimental variants. In this case, the treatment with biosolids and modified indigenous volcanic tuff can reduce the metal bioaccumulation, especially Pb (with 84-94%, Fe (with 53-63% and Cu, Cr and Ni (between 12-53%. The other plant species did not tolerate the unfertilized fly ash. The fertilizer and modified indigenous volcanic tuff provided establishing conditions for the plant supplying the nutrients. Metal transfer to aerial tissues was reduced compared to control by 29.5-59.3% in the case of Cu, Cr, Ni and ranged 50-66% for Pb. Limiting the transfer of heavy metals in plant tissues is in accordance with a healthy habitat for the wildlife.

  2. BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND HEAVY METAL ABSORPTION BY FOUR PLANTS GROWN AT THE MORAVIA DUMP, MEDELLIN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Hernan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dumps are sites where the presence of high heavy metal (HM concentration is a common occurrence, creating the need for implementing restoration processes immediately after their closure. In the 7.6 ha and 45 m high Morro de Moravia dump, arose from the disposal of Medellín solid wastes from 1974 to 1984, previous studies have demonstrated high contents of contaminants, including HM, prompting the need to identify effective mechanisms to implement its restoration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptation, growth and phytoremediation capacity of Bidens pilosa, Lepidium virginicum, Brachiaria decumbens and Arachis pintoi. Content of HM (mg/kg in Moravia residue matrix went from 17 to 8193 for Pb, 44 to 564 for Cr, 0.2 to 339 for Cd and 77 to 1679 for Ni. Measurements of plant cover, plant height and dry matter production at all plant species studied suggested adequate growth and adaptation to the Moravia dump conditions. Plant absorption of HM showed the pattern Cr > Cd > Ni > Pb. Estimated bioconcentration factors were generally low, and maximum values were 0.36 in A. pintoi (Cr, 2.96 in B. pilosa (Cd and 0.26 in B. decumbens (Ni. However, our estimations of the phytoremediation potential of the assayed species, suggested they possess low remediation efficiency. Further investigation should be carried out in order to identify more efficient HM accumulators, and to test the use of technologies such as modification of pH, rhizoremediation or the use of genetically enhanced accumulators to increase HM availability to plants

  3. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Alfredo; Piscitelli, Prisco; Neglia, Cosimo; Della Rosa, Giulia; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2015-06-01

    The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed), most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence). Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal) waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a) high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat) in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b) remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs) assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5-43 pg/g of fat); (c) potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d) a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators. PMID:26086704

  4. Sustainable Approach of Reusing Open Dumping Area by Predicting Long-Term Settlement of Waste Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaimi Shariffuddin, Ahmad; Irfah Mohd Pauzi, Nur; Hao, Goh Yu

    2016-03-01

    Sustainable approach towards an open dumping area can be determined by predicting the long-term settlement of waste soil. To predict the settlement that happens in closed open dumping area in Bukit Palong, Lukut in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, the Power Creep Function is used. The waste soil were collected to determine their basic geotechnical properties by doing sieve analysis, Atterberg Limit, consolidation, compaction and direct shear. From the geotechnical properties of the waste soil, the Power Creep Function are be used to determine the long-term settlement of the reused dumping area. There are three case studies and one of the parameters is M’ or reference compressibility that have the value from 1.6 × 10-5 to 5.8 × 10-5 kPa. There is also N’ or rate of compression that have value from 0.50 to 0.67. In Case 1, M’ and N’ are constant which are 5.8 × 10-5 kPa and 0.67 respectively. Case 2 have the value of M’ increased from 1.6 × 10-5 to 5.8 × 10-5 kPa with respect to age while N’ constant at 0.5. Lastly the Case 3 shows the M’ is constant at 1.6 × 10-5 kPa while the N’ is increased ranged from 0.50 to 0.67 with respect to age. The area will reach a stable condition which means the settlement has stabilized after 50 years. From the three case studies, the analysis show that the settlement does not exceed the allowable settlement which is 0.05m every year.

  5. DTM-based Design of Mine Waste Dump%基于DTM的矿山排土场设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊; 刘景秀; 李慧

    2013-01-01

    针对矿山排土场(废石场)设计的方法和要求,探讨了将地理信息系统的数字地面模型(digital terrain model,DTM)技术运用于矿山排土场的选址设计方案的可行性.以矿区地形数字高程模型以及排土场设计要素为依据,模拟出设计面的数字高程模型,并且计算出了相应的排土场容量.采用该技术可提高矿山排土场设计的工作效率并具有较高的准确性和智能化水平.%Based on the methods and requirements for the design of mining waste dump, digital terrain model (DTM) technology in the geographic information system was applied for choosing sit of mining waste dump. Digital elevation model of design surface was simulated according to mining area terrain digital elevation model and design elements of waste dump. The capacity of the waste dump were stimulated and calculated. This technique can be used to improve the efficiency of designing the mining waste dump in high accuracy and level of intelligence.

  6. Inactive dumps in Santa Catarina's carboniferous area: analysis of risks to the public health and the environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Possamai, Fernando Pagani [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, UNESC, Criciuma (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    The existence of inactive dumps considerably increases the so-called 'environmental liability'; so much so that the final destination of urban solid residues takes a prominent place on the list of environmental issues of societies. In the state of Santa Catarina, it can be said that, currently, the real conditions of the 'final destination deposits', or simply the inactive dumps, is officially unknown. This is maybe most evident in the carboniferous area of the state that already suffers from the environmental impact of coal mining. This study attempts to make a survey of the inactive dumps in the carboniferous area of Santa Catarina, analysing the risks they represent to public health and to the environment. The results gathered show that, of the eleven municipal districts in the carboniferous area, nine have inactive dumps. In these nine districts, there are eleven inactive dumps that, according to the this evaluation, represent a large risk to public health and the environment when the parameters analysed are taken into account. 21 refs.

  7. Monitoring the radon flux from gold-mine dumps by γ-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exhalation of radon from the large mine dumps at the gold mines in South Africa is a potential health hazard. Determination of radon fluxes from these dumpsites is problematic due to the scatter in the data in time and place and the cost involved in getting a representative sample. γ-ray spectroscopic analysis of soil samples from a dumpsite indicates that as much as 30% of the formed radon may escape, resulting in a disturbance to the secular equilibrium of the 238U decay series. A method is proposed to quantitatively assess the radon flux from such dumpsites by using a mobile γ-ray detector system

  8. Features of soil microbial groups in the area Kilmezsky landfill dumping of toxic chemicals ( Kirov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezin Grigory Ivanovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the influence of pesticides a transformation of soil microbial complexes occurs. In the area of Kilmezsky dumping of toxic chemicals (Kirov Region the species composition of soil phototrophes and quantitative characteristics of soil algo-cyano-mycological complexes change as a result of chronic exposure to pesticides . The content of cyanobacteria in the structure of phototrophic systems and the degree of mikromycets populations melanization can be used as bioindicators of soil contamination complementing the set of indicators based on certified laboratory methods of biotesting.

  9. High power, high repetition rate, few picosecond Nd:LuVO₄ oscillator with cavity dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Guo, Jie; Li, Jinfeng; Lin, Hua; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liang, Xiaoyan

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the potential use of Nd:LuVO4 in high average power, high repetition rate ultrafast lasers. Maximum mode-locked average power of 28 W is obtained at the repetition rate of 58 MHz. The shortest pulse duration is achieved at 4 ps without dispersion compensation. With a cavity dumping technique, the pulse energy is scaling up to 40.7 μJ at 300 kHz and 14.3 μJ at 1.5 MHz. PMID:26831955

  10. Anti-Dumping Sunset Reviews: The Uneven Reach of WTO Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    CADOT, Olivier; De Melo, Jaime; Tumurchudur, Bolormaa

    2007-01-01

    The paper uses a new database on Anti-Dumping measures worldwide to assess whether the 1995 Uruguay Round Agreement on AD sunset reviews had any effect. Estimates from a count of revocations for a panel of AD-using countries over 1979-2005 show that a five-year cycle is more apparent after the WTO agreement than before, with the marginal propensity to revoke AD measures at five years jumping from 0-2% to 45%. A survival analysis of AD measures confirms that those covered by the agreement stic...

  11. The O.P.R.I valuation in the radioactive dumps affair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between january 2000 and june 2001, more than 70 radioactivity detections have been pointed out at the admission of reprocessing sites, radioactive wastes disposal and metal recovery sites. They are explained by the abnormal presence of radioactivity at the waste level. On the 15. june 2001, a refuse dump contamination is located on a Yvelines (subdivision administered by a prefect at the west of Paris) site. In the following days, the O.P.R.I. has realised a complete valuation: measurement of the radioactivity, follow-up of contaminated pieces dismantling, dosimetry monitoring for exposed personnel and search for the contamination origin. (N.C.)

  12. Price strategy in the EU: Suggestions to Chinese exporters in the light of anti-dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2002-01-01

    give some important information on how to formulate a price policy for exports to the EU in order to avoid anti-dumping measures. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important, if market economy status with its lower duties, is wanted. Wholly owned foreign companies or joint ventures...... with a majority of foreign capital seem to have the biggest probability of achieving market economy status. Generally, evidence of independence of the Chinese public authorities is important. Thirdly, owner structure also counts in relation to getting individual treatment; here especially freedom in exporting...

  13. Cavity dumping of neodymium-doped fibre lasers using acousto-optic modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhalim, I.; Pannell, C.N.; Jedrzejewski, K.P.; Taylor, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    We report high-repetition-rate pulses obtained by cavity dumping of a neodymium-doped phosphate glass fibre laser operating at 1053 nm using a specially constructed acoustooptic modulator. With 27 mW absorbed pump power at 812 nm we obtained stable trains of output pulses with repetition rate in the range 0.5 to 8MHz having corresponding pulse widths in the range 127 to 19 ns without significant sacrifice in the average output power of 8 mW.

  14. Investigation on the oxygen transport mechanisms in the Sarcheshmeh waste rock dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Yousefi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage (AMD are the serious environmental problems associated with the mining activities in sulphide ores. The rate of pyrite oxidation is governed by the availability of oxygen (Borden, 2003. Therefore, the identifying oxygen supplying mechanism is one of the most important issues related to the environmental assessment of waste rock dumps (Cathles and Apps, 1975; Jaynes et al., 1984; Davis and Ritchie, 1986. Although comprehensive researches were performed on the mathematical description of oxygen transport processes using the numerical modeling (Morin et al., 1988; Blowes et al., 1991; Wunderly et al., 1986; Elberling et al., 1994; Jannesar Malakooti et al., 2014, so far, the interactions between these processes and geochemical and mineralogical characteristics has not been studied especially in waste rock dumps. Therefore the main objective of this study is to identify the evidences for knowing the oxygen transport mechanisms in the waste dumps and also, its role in intensity of pyrite oxidation. It is expected that such these structural studies could be useful for better understanding of dominant processes in numerical modeling and also providing environmental management strategies in the study area and other sites by similar characteristics. Materials and Methods In this study, thirty solid samples were collected from six excavated trenches in the waste rock dumps No. 19 and 31 of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine. Collected samples were studied using several methods such as XRD, ASTM-D2492, paste pH and grain size distribution. The results obtained from these methods were used with the field observations in order to characterize some detail information about oxygen supplying mechanisms for oxidation reactions in the waste rock dumps. Result The main minerals found by the XRD analysis were quartz and muscovite which were present in all samples. Pyrite, orthose, albite, and chlorite were also

  15. High-efficiency cavity-dumped micro-chip Yb:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, M.; Maruko, A.; Inoue, M.; Takama, M.; Matsubara, S.; Okunishi, H.; Kato, K.; Kyomoto, K.; Yoshida, T.; Shimabayashi, K.; Morioka, M.; Inayoshi, S.; Yamagata, S.; Kawato, S.

    2014-09-01

    High-efficiency cavity-dumped ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) laser was developed. Although the high quantum efficiency of ytterbium-doped laser materials is appropriate for high-efficiency laser oscillation, the efficiency is decreased by their quasi-three/four laser natures. High gain operation by high intensity pumping is suitable for high efficiency oscillation on the quasi-three/four lasers without extremely low temperature cooling. In our group, highest efficiency oscillations for continuous wave, nanosecond to picosecond pulse lasers were achieved at room temperature by the high gain operation in which pump intensities were beyond 100 kW/cm2.

  16. [Distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon under different forest restoration modes on opencast coal mine dump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue-rong; Dang, Ting-hui; Tang, Jun; Li, Jun-chao

    2016-01-01

    The content and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) were compared in six wood restoration modes and adjacent abandoned land on opencast coal mine dump, and the mechanisms behind the differences and their influencing factors were analyzed. Results showed that the contents of SOC in six wood lands were significantly higher (23.8%-53.2%) than that of abandoned land (1.92 g · kg⁻¹) at 0-10 cm soil depth, the index were significantly higher (5.8%-70.4%) at 10-20 cm soil depth than the abandoned land (1.39 g · kg⁻¹), and then the difference of the contents of SOC in the deep soil (20-100 cm) were not significant. The contents of SOC decreased with increase of soil depth, but the decreasing magnitude of the topsoil (0-20 cm) was higher than that of the deep soil (20-100 cm). Compared with the deep soil, the topsoil significant higer storage of SOC in different woods, the SOC storage decreased with the soil depth. Along the 0-100 cm soil layer, the storage of SOC in six wood lands higher (18.1%-42.4%) than that of the abandoned land (17.52 t · hm⁻²). The SOC storage of Amorpha fruticosa land (24.95 t · hm⁻²) was obviously higher than that in the other wood lands. The SOC storage in the shrub lands was 12.4% higher than that of the arbor woods. There were significantly positive correlations among forest litter, fine root biomass, soil water content and SOC on the dump. Consequently, different plantation restorations significantly improved the SOC level on the dump in 0-100 cm soil, especially the topsoil. But there was still a big gap about SOC level between the wood restoration lands and the original landform. To improve the SOC on opencast coal mine dump, A. fruticosa could be selected as the main wood vegetation.

  17. Fibre Monitoring System for the Beam Permit Loops at the LHC and Future Evolution of the Beam Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    García-Argos, Carlos; Gabourin, Stéphane; Martin, Christophe; Puccio, Bruno; Siemko, Andrzej P

    2015-01-01

    The optical fibres that transmit the beam permit loop signals at the CERN accelerator complex are deployed along radiation areas. This may result in increased attenuation of the fibres, which reduces the power margin of the links. In addition, other events may cause the links to not function properly and result in false dumps, reducing the availability of the accelerator chain and affecting physics data taking. In order to evaluate the state of the fibres, an out-of-band fibre monitoring system is proposed, working in parallel to the actual beam permit loops. The future beam interlock system to be deployed during LHC long shutdown 2 will implement online, real-time monitoring of the fibres, a feature the current system lacks. Commercial off-the-shelf components to implement the optical transceivers are proposed whenever possible instead of ad-hoc designs.

  18. Assembly of neutral beam injector with SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) is capable of delivering a hydrogen beam of power 1.7 MW to the SST-1 tokomak for the purpose of heating its plasma. The Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is the core project aimed at producing high temperature plasma. The Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) is a system meant for heating the SST-1 plasma. NBI system is used for generating a beam of energetic hydrogen particles and then launches them into the SST-1. The NBI system is currently being operated for production of such a beam on a designated test stand in the NBI hall. As a next step, it is now required to transfer the entire NBI system from the test stand (in NBI hall) to the NBI-SST-1 area and then integrate with the SST-1 Tokamak. The NBI system comprises of a huge vacuum vessel with an ion source and gate valve mounted on it. The vacuum vessel contains the following major sub-systems such as neutralizer, electromagnet (magnet), magnet liner, calorimeter, Ion dump, Beam Transmission Duct, Shine-Through and cryo-condensation pumps (cryopumps). It also contains headers and distribution systems for liquid nitrogen, liquid helium and cooling water, external vacuum system, external cryogenic distribution, external cooling water distribution and snubber deck. NBI integration with SST-1 involves assembly sequence of activities, Heat Transfer Elements welding with neutraliser, ion dump, magnet liner and calorimeter, dis-mantling of existing cooling water lines, dis-assembly of snubber deck, shifting of Vacuum Vessel (VV), lifting of VV and placing VV on the Support Structure, and alignment of VV with SST-1 at pre-defined position. In this paper, we present the planning, sequence of assembly activities, VV lifting methodology. (author)

  19. Study on Environmental Impact of the Closure of the Titu-Dâmboviţa Solid Waste Dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DĂNUŢ TANISLAV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the sustainable development context, waste management is seen as a major problem, which cannot be solved only by using technical means; a fundamental change is necessary in the current production, consumption and waste elimination pattern. Our study refers to the environmental impact of the closure of the urban Titu- Dâmboviţa solid waste dump, and comprises: quality of the environmental factors, analysis of the size of the impact, evaluation of the potential impact on the environmental factors, evaluation of the global impact and post-closure monitoring of the waste dump. The results obtained concerning the value of the global pollution index and the bonitation grades for each environmental factor have led us to state that through the closure of this solid domestic waste dump, environment is affected within allowable limits, the impact is low and local, and the effects of this project on the environmental factors are positive.

  20. Beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.

  1. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Lu, W. X.; Yang, Q. C.; Yang, Z. P.

    2014-03-01

    Aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and predict the trend of soil heavy metal pollution around a~coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980) was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in an order of E(Cd) > E(Pb) > E(Cu) > E(Cr) > E(Zn) have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor led to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, and the fixed number of years exceeding standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metal, and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provide some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent and decrease heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump in Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  2. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy-metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Lu, W. X.; Zhao, H. Q.; Yang, Q. C.; Yang, Z. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and trend of soil heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980) was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy-metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in the order of ER(Cd) > ER(Pb) > ER(Cu) > ER(Cr) > ER(Zn) have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor leading to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, then the fixed number of years exceeding the standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metals and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provided some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent or decrease heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in the Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2002-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps (CWD), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [FFACO] (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 143: Area 25, Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 143 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09 CWD No.1, and 25-23-03 CWD No.2. The Area 25 CWDs are historic disposal units within the Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD), and Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) compounds located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The R-MAD and E-MAD facilities originally supported a portion of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Area 25 of the NTS. CWD No.1 CAS 25-23-09 received solid radioactive waste from the R-MAD Compound (East Trestle and West Trench Berms) and 25-23-03 CWD No.2 received solid radioactive waste from the E-MAD Compound (E-MAD Trench).

  4. Restoration of Ecosystems Destroyed by the Fly Ash Dump Using Different Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The leguminous plants was studied at experimental variants on fly ash dump: sown species of Onobrichys viciifolia and invasive colonies of Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, and yellow sweet (Melilotus officinalis. Six experimental variants were studied in three replicates each: untreated fly ash, fly ash amended with unmodified/modified volcanic rock and fly ash treated with unmodified/modified volcanic rock (indigenous volcanic tuff mixed with organic fertilizer, anaerobically stabilized municipal sludge type. The characteristics of topsoil was assessed in toxic metals Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni content and the characteristics of plants was assessed in terms: height, shoot and roots dry weight, root and shoot ratio, root length density, the aspect plant and competitive ability of this species to dominate in sown habitat. Invasive plants (Lotus corniculatus and Melilotus officinalis have colonized up to 38 - 43 % and max 5 % respectively, treated experimental variants fly ash with organic fertilizer mixed with unmodified/modified volcanic tuff. The proposed strategy with sown leguminous species led to improved conditions for installation of more and resistant invasive species. Furthermore ecological restoration is increasing with effective fly ash dump stabilization.

  5. Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment-An evaluation of the dumped munitions problem in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowski, Jacek; Klusek, Zygmunt; Szubska, Marta; Turja, Raisa; Bulczak, Anna I.; Rak, Daniel; Brenner, Matthias; Lang, Thomas; Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Jakacki, Jaromir; Fricke, Nicolai; Östin, Anders; Olsson, Ulf; Fabisiak, Jacek; Garnaga, Galina; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Majewski, Piotr; Broeg, Katja; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula; Popiel, Stanisław; Nawała, Jakub; Lehtonen, Kari; Berglind, Rune; Schmidt, Beata

    2016-06-01

    Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project has performed studies on chemical weapon (CW) detection, sediment pollution and spreading as well as biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea. Results suggest that munitions containing CWAs are more scattered on the seafloor than suspected, and previously undocumented dumpsite was discovered in Gdansk Deep. Pollution of sediments with CWA degradation products was local and close to the detected objects; however the pollution range was larger than predicted with theoretical models. Bottom currents observed in the dumpsites were strong enough for sediment re-suspension, and contributed to the transport of polluted sediments. Diversity and density of the faunal communities were poor at the dumping sites in comparison to the reference area, although the direct effects of CWA on benthos organisms were difficult to determine due to hypoxic or even anoxic conditions near the bottom. Equally, the low oxygen might have affected the biological effects assessed in cod and caged blue mussels. Nonetheless, both species showed significantly elevated molecular and cellular level responses at contaminated sites compared to reference sites.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps (CWD), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [FFACO] (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 143: Area 25, Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 143 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09 CWD No.1, and 25-23-03 CWD No.2. The Area 25 CWDs are historic disposal units within the Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD), and Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) compounds located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The R-MAD and E-MAD facilities originally supported a portion of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Area 25 of the NTS. CWD No.1 CAS 25-23-09 received solid radioactive waste from the R-MAD Compound (East Trestle and West Trench Berms) and 25-23-03 CWD No.2 received solid radioactive waste from the E-MAD Compound (E-MAD Trench)

  7. Human Health Implications of Waste Dump Cultivated Vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa, Salihu Danlami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is purposely to determine the level of heavy metals in vegetables cultivated on waste dumps and seek its implication on the health of its consumers. Many of these waste dump sites have been converted to agricultural sites particularly for the cultivation of vegetables, to achieve both dietary and economic advantages. Farmers are taking advantage of the positive crop yield effect of these dumpsites. However, there are fears about the possible hazards of the consumption of such crops because of the presence of heavy metals. Amaranthus caudatus vegetables grown on an abandoned dumpsite and an adjacent plot were sampled and subjected to laboratory analysis to determine the levels of heavy metals. The result indicated a slightly higher presence of heavy metals in the adjacent plot, 7.27, 6.53 and 0.72 ppm for Fe, Zn and Cu respectively compared to the abandoned dumpsite where 7.10, 5.37 and 0.58 ppm respectively were recorded for the same elements; the values of the heavy metals were found to be within acceptable limits for human consumption. Although, it has been revealed that consumption of the vegetable may be safe in the short run; constant check must be made on the quality of the crop to avert possible human health hazards as a result of possible build up of the heavy metals due to mineralization.

  8. Dump area restoration at Espírito Santo do Pinhal - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Araujo de Medeiros

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Espírito Santo do Pinhal, SP, generates about 50 tons of garbage per week, which used to be disposed of in a dump from 1960 up to 2000, when this practice was banned and a plan to recover the area was implemented. The purpose of this work is to assess the evolution of the recovery plan after four years of deactivation of the old dump. The methodology consisted of a photographic survey of the site and a comparison with earlier records, chemical soil and microbiological water analyses and evaluation of the vegetation. The seedlings planted showed vegetative development problems for lack of care; the microbiological analyses revealed water contamination by fecal coliforms (700 NMP 100 mL-1 and the chemical soil analyses indicated high contents of Copper (3.5 mg kg-1, Iron (28 mg kg-1, Manganese (6.2 mg kg-1, Zinc (9.4 mg kg-1 and organic matter (24 mg kg-1.

  9. Prediction of fuel consumption of mining dump trucks: A neural networks approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A neural network model of fuel consumption in mining haul trucks was constructed and tested. • Using the cyclic activities, the model was able to predict unseen (testing) data. • Trucks idle times were identified as the most important unnecessary energy consuming portion of the network. • Practical remedies, based on the nature of mining operations, were proposed to reduce the energy consumption. - Abstract: Fuel consumption of mining dump trucks accounts for about 30% of total energy use in surface mines. Moreover, a fleet of large dump trucks is the main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) generation. Modeling and prediction of fuel consumption per cycle is a valuable tool in assessing both energy costs and the resulting GHG generation. However, only a few studies have been published on fuel prediction in mining operations. In this paper, fuel consumption per cycle of operation was predicted using artificial neural networks (ANN) technique. Explanatory variables were: pay load, loading time, idled while loaded, loaded travel time, empty travel time, and idled while empty. The output variable was the amount of fuel consumed in one cycle. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 10% demonstrated applicability of ANN in prediction of the fuel consumption. The results demonstrated the considerable effect of mining trucks idle times in fuel consumption. A large portion of the unnecessary energy consumption and GHG generation, in this study, was solely due to avoidable idle times. This necessitates implementation of proper actions/remedies in form of both preventive and corrective actions

  10. Safety impact of piled municipal solid waste dumps in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The safety of water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir(TGR)is very important.Protections and remediation of environment safety are very crucial for guaranteeing TGR environmental quality.When piled municipal solid waste(MSW) dumps are submerged without treatment,pollutants in the MSW will leach into the water and threaten the water safety of the reservoir.Based on the surveys of the amount,distribution and characteristics of piled MSW in the TGR area,this study focusing on the MSW dumps at the water leve...

  11. Application of waste mushroom on land reclamation in the refuse dump of Haizhou Open-pit Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan

    2009-01-01

    In order to rapidly increase the degree of maturation of the soil in land reclama-tion of the refuse dump of the Haizhou open-pit mines,the application of waste mushroom in the process of soil improvement in the dump was studied.Through the research on plant growth,root development and microbial changes in soil and change of physical and chemical characteristics of the plot,the result shows that waste mushroom can increase the degree of maturation of the soil and improve soil fertility.

  12. The Influence of the Tailing Dump and Flotation Hydro - Tailing over the Environment in the Domestic Copper Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Lazarov, Aleksandar; Danevski, Tome

    2012-01-01

    The presentation of the influence that the tailing dump or waste as well as the flotation hydro-tailing dump over the environment around the region of copper mine Bucim, surrounding rivers, places, villages and mine lake. Generally speaking, the monitoring will be done for two periods. The first analysis relating to the period from the year 2005, and the second analysis relating to the period from the year 2010. The monitoring with samples of waters, soil, sediments and ambient air as well as...

  13. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D{sup {minus}} source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus.

  14. ESTB: A New Beam Test Facility at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivi, M.; Fieguth, T.; Hast, C.; Iverson, R.; Jaros, J.; Jobe, K.; Keller, L.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    End Station A Test Beam (ESTB) is a beam line at SLAC using a small fraction of the bunches of the 13.6 GeV electron beam from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), restoring test beam capabilities in the large End Station A (ESA) experimental hall. ESTB will provide one of a kind test beam essential for developing accelerator instrumentation and accelerator R&D, performing particle and particle astrophysics detector research, linear collider machine and detector interface (MDI) R&D studies, development of radiation-hard detectors, and material damage studies with several distinctive features. In the past, 18 institutions participated in the ESA program at SLAC. In stage I, 4 new kicker magnets will be added to divert 5 Hz of the LCLS beam to the A-line. A new beam dump will be installed and a new Personnel Protection System (PPS) is being built in ESA. In stage II, a secondary hadron target will be installed, able to produce pions up to about 12 GeV/c at 1 particle/pulse.

  15. Dumping of radioactive waste and investigation of contamination in the Kara Sea. Results from 3 years of investigations (1992-1994) in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Foeyn, L. [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Nikitin, A.I. [SPA ``Typhoon``, Roshydromet (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The report summarises the results obtained from the joint Russian-Norwegian investigation concerning the consequences of dumping of radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. Three expeditions were undertaken to the Kara Sea and the present dumping sites for radioactive waste. Samples of water, sediments and biota were collected and analysed. An impact and risk assessment was performed, based on the information provided through the joint cooperation. Enhanced levels and artificially produced radionuclides in the sediments collected in the very close vicinity of almost all localised dumped objects, demonstrate that leakage occur. No contribution from dumped radioactive waste was observed in the open Kara Sea. Due to the potential for leakage from the dumped waste in the future and the presence of other potential sources in the area, a regular monitoring programme is highly recommended. 65 refs., 42 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strašík, I.; Prokhorov, I.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., 238U92+ ) and partially stripped (e.g., 238U28+ ) ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil) and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers). Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions) was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad-x.

  17. Localization of the large-angle foil-scattering beam loss caused by the multiturn charge-exchange injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Kazami; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kinsho, Michikazu

    2013-07-01

    In the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, significant losses were observed at the branching of the H0 dump line and the beam position monitor that was inserted downstream of the H0 dump branch duct. These losses were caused by the large-angle scattering of the injection and circulating beams at the charge-exchange foil. To realize high-power operation, these losses must be mitigated. Therefore, a new collimation system was developed and installed in October 2011. To efficiently optimize this system, the behavior of particles scattered by the foil and produced by the absorber were simulated, and the optimal position and angle of the absorber were investigated. During this process, an angle regulation method for the absorber was devised. An outline of this system, the angle regulation method for the absorber, and the performance of this new collimation system are described.

  18. Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciesielczuk Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal-waste dumps superimposed on former rubbish dump frequently undergo selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed in the waste. The special conditions for plant growth generated as a result have been investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The plants observed most frequently where heating has occurred are Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisia vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Atriplex nitens and Solanum nigrum. Some new, rare species such as Portulaca oleracea, first noticed in 2011, may be added. Most of encroaching species are annual, alien archeophytes and neophytes. Native species are mainly perennials. The majority of these species show a tendency to form specimens of huge size (gigantism. The abundance of emitted CO2 and nitrogen compounds is the likely cause of this. Additionally, the plants growing there are not attacked by insects. The heating of the ground liquidates the natural seed bank. After cooling, these places are seeded by species providing seeds at that very moment (pioneer species. Heated places on the dumps allow plant growth even in the middle of winter. As the seasonal vegetation cycle is disturbed, plants may be found seeding, blooming and fruiting at the same time.

  19. Interdependence, Garbage Dumping, and Feral Dogs: Exploring Three Lifeworld Resources of Young Children in a Rural School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy Suzanne; Baker, Allison; Bruer, Laura

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate upon the lifeworld resources that comprise the funds of knowledge for children living in a rural community in the southeastern United States. Through interview conversations with a group of third grade children, we identified three lifeworld resources--interdependence, garbage dumping, and feral dogs--that rural…

  20. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, p<0.0001). Such clear differences suggest that nematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  1. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, pnematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  2. 40 CFR 256.27 - Recommendation for schedules leading to compliance with the prohibition of open dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommendation for schedules leading to compliance with the prohibition of open dumping. 256.27 Section 256.27 Protection of Environment... SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste Disposal Programs § 256.27 Recommendation for schedules...

  3. The oceanographic and radiological basis for the definition of high-level wastes unsuitable for dumping at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document has taken two of the models recommended in the Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) Report in 1983 and applied them to the purpose of setting dumping rate limits into an ocean basin. This guide details the assumptions underlying oceanographic model selection, analytic solutions to the models and the radiological basis used

  4. The new vertical neutron beam line at the CERN n-TOF facility design and outlook on the performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiß, C., E-mail: christina.weiss@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Chiaveri, E.; Girod, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Aberle, O. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Barros, S. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Bergström, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Berthoumieux, E. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA) Saclay – Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Calviani, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Guerrero, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Tsinganis, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) (Greece); Andrzejewski, J. [Uniwersytet Łódzki, Lodz (Poland); Audouin, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 – IPN, Orsay (France); Bacak, M. [Atominstitut, Technische Universität Wien (Austria); Balibrea-Correa, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Barbagallo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Bécares, V. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-11-01

    At the neutron time-of-flight facility n-TOF at CERN a new vertical beam line was constructed in 2014, in order to extend the experimental possibilities at this facility to an even wider range of challenging cross-section measurements of interest in astrophysics, nuclear technology and medical physics. The design of the beam line and the experimental hall was based on FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, aiming at maximizing the neutron flux, reducing the beam halo and minimizing the background from neutrons interacting with the collimator or back-scattered in the beam dump. The present paper gives an overview on the design of the beam line and the relevant elements and provides an outlook on the expected performance regarding the neutron beam intensity, shape and energy resolution, as well as the neutron and photon backgrounds.

  5. Impact of mine waste dumps on growth and biomass of economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of magnesite and bauxite waste dumps on growth and biochemical parameters of some edible and economically important plants such as Vigna radiata, V. mungo, V. unguiculata, Eleusine coracana, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolour, Sesamum indicum, Ricinus communis, Brassica juncea, Gossypium hirsutum and Jatropha curcas. The growth rate of all the crops was observed in the range of 75 to 100% in magnesite and 15 to 100% in bauxite mine soil. The moisture content of roots and shoots of all the crops were in the range of 24 to 77, 20 to 88% and 42 to 87, 59 to 88% respectively. The height of the crops was in the range of 2.6 to 48 cm in magnesite soil and 3 to 33 cm in bauxite soil. Thus the study shows that both mine soils reflects some physical and biomolecule impact on selected crops. PMID:23741803

  6. AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ABOUT MINING DUMP TRUCK AND THE IMPROVEMENT OF HEAD SHAPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The external flow field around a certain mining dump truck was simulated. The airflow structure and the aerodynamic drag were discussed, and the relationship between airflow characteristics and aerodynamic drag were obtained. In order to solve the problem of head shape of the truck, three scenarios including edge rounding, installing splitter planes and their combination were put forward to improve the head shape through numerical simulation and analysis. The model and method were selected to be three dimensional and time-independent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the finite volume method. The RNG k-ε model was chosen for the closure of the turbulent quantities. The results show that the third scenario is the best one, because of its aerodynamic characteristics being better than those of unimproved model.

  7. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-06-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex had long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent modified Redfield theory and non-Markovian quantum jump method to simulate EET dynamics. This scheme provides a practical approach of detecting the realistic EET pathway in BChl complexes with currently available experimental technology. And it may assist optimizing design of artificial light-harvesting devices.

  8. Ecological studies of cancer incidence in an area interested by dumping waste sites in Campania (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence was investigated in an area which has been affected by the illegal practices of dumping hazardous waste and setting fire to mismanaged waste. For the 35 municipalities of this area that are served by a Cancer Registry, municipal standardized incidence ratios (SIR and hierarchical Bayesian estimators (BIR were computed. Moreover, municipal spatial clustering and a Poisson regression by municipality index of waste-related exposure were performed for 10 cancer types. Increased municipality SIRs were found for some cancer types. The BIRs confirmed the increases for liver cancer in two municipalities. Statistically significant clusters were detected for liver, lung, leukaemia and soft tissue sarcomas. In the regression analysis, testis cancer showed significant trend with the index of waste-related exposure (RR = 1.18.

  9. Modeling of Motion of Particle Clouds Formed by Dumping Dredged Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Xinya(应新亚); Juichiro AKIYAMA; MAO Genhai(毛根海)

    2001-01-01

    The motion of particle clouds formed by dumping dredged material into quiescent waters is experimentally and numerically studied. In the numerical model, the particle phase is modeled by the dispersion model, and turbulence is calculated by the large eddy simulation. The governing equations, including the filtered Navier-Stokes equations and mass transport equation, are solved based on the operator-splitting algorithm and an implicit cubic spline interpolation scheme. The eddy viscosity is evaluated by the modified Smagorinsky model including the buoyancy term. Comparisons of main flow characteristics, including shape, size, average density excess, moving speed and the amount of particles deposited on the bed, between experimental and computational results show that the numerical model well predicts the motion of the cloud from the falling to spreading stage. The effects of silt-fence on the motion of the particle cloud are also investigated.

  10. The recultivation of the RBB-Bor Cerovo-Cementacija 1 open pit waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilić Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the human society is unbreakably bonded with the development of industrial production. This increases the amount of mineral resources exploitation, thus increasing the area of degraded soil. The consequences of these processes are many and are destructive for the environment, so if nothing was done, the justification of exploitation would be questioned. Looking into the seriousness of the problem, special care is taken to recultivate the degraded soil and rehabilitate its reproductive capabilities. The basic goal of this paper is the proposal of the solution for the establishing of the conditions for long-lasting, viable vegetation covers on the degraded areas of Cerovo-Cementacija 1 open pit waste dump.

  11. Operator health risk evaluation of off-highway dump truck under shovel loading condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申焱华; 许敏; 金纯; 高玉; 魏福林

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the operator health risk exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) while the electric-shovel loads the ore on the truck body, the semi-truck mathematical model and 3-D virtual prototype were built to simulate the high shockwave of truck cab under the shovel loading. Discrete element method was utilized to accurately estimate the impacting force on the truck body. Based on the ISO 2631-5 criteria, theSed is about 0.56 MPa in both models, which means that the dump operators have a high probability of adverse health effects over long-term exposure to these vibrations. The 4-DOF operator model was built to investigate the biodynamic response of seated-human body exposed to WBV in terms of the transmission of vibrations through the body. The results show that the response peak is in the frequency range of 4−6 Hz corresponding to the primary body resonant frequency.

  12. Energy transfer pathway probed by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex has long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent modified Redfield theory and non-Markovian quantum jump method to simulate EET dynamics. This scheme provides a practical approach of detecting the realistic EET pathway in BChl complexes with currently available experimental technology. And it may assist optimizing design of artificial light-harvesting devices.

  13. Whole-body vibration in underground load-haul-dump vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Village, J.; Morrison, J.B.; Leong, D.K.N. (Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada). School of Kinesiology)

    1989-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine whole-body vibration (WBV) measurements at the seat plan of load-haul-dump (LHD) vehicles of 3-5, 5-, 6- and 8-yard capacity, at two underground mines. The vibration levels of heavy equipment have been reported to coincide with the most sensitive frequencies of the body and can have detrimental effects on vision, equilibrium, and manual dexterity. They can also be related to muscular fatigue, back injuries, and digestive and circulatory disorders. Data collected was compared with ISO standards; and an evaluation of the findings was conducted with respect to LHD accident and injury data, and information available in the literature on WBV. 26 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Drift and dispersion studies of ocean-dumped waste using Landsat imagery and current drogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Philpot, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The drift and dispersion of industrial acid wastes dumped 64 km off the Delaware coast were investigated using 16 Landsat images. Waste plume drift velocities and spread rates were obtained, and principal component analysis was performed to discriminate the acid waste from other pollutants. Waste plumes averaged drifting rates from 0.59 km/hr to 3.39 km/hr into the southwest quadrant, and remained above the thermocline, which formed at depths ranging from 13 m to 24 m. Rapid waste movement toward shore occurred primarily during storms, although plumes were rapidly dispersed and diluted at spread rates in excess of 4 cm/sec. Landsat data analysis also indicates plume width increase of about 1.5 cm/sec during calm sea conditions, which is also in agreement with Falk's (1974) estimates of plume dilution.

  15. Collective doses to man from dumping of radioactive waste in the Arctic Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P.

    1997-01-01

    A box model for the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment covering the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean has been constructed. Collective doses from ingestion pathways have been calculated from unit releases of the radionuclides H-3, (CO)-C-60, Ni-63, Sr-90, I-129, (CS...... produce further away from the Arctic Ocean. Collective doses were calculated for two release scenarios, both of which are based on information of the dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas by the former Soviet Union and on preliminary information from the International Arctic Sea...... of the fuel ignoring the barriers that prevent direct contact between the fuel and the seawater. The second scenario selected assumed that releases of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel do not occur until after failure of the protective barriers. All other liquid and solid radioactive waste was assumed...

  16. Research on ground water pollution by leacheate of waste dump of open pit coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-bin; YAN Hong-kun; WANG Zhao-jun

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of investigation and research on the pollution source and pollution pathway of Yujiagou area, by the ground water quality analysis and the leaching and soaking experiments of the gangue, reliable data were obtained. The experiment results prove that these inorganic salt elements are easily dissolved by the water. The main pollu-tion factors in the ground water are consisted with the main pollution factor in the leading water of the gangue. By synthetically analyzing, a conclusion is shown that the salts in the leacheate of the waste dump of open pit coal mine are the primary pollution source for groundwater of Yujiagou area. An assessment is made about the degree of pollution of the ground water in the study area.

  17. Price Strategy in the EU: Suggestions to Chinese Exporters in the Light of Anti-Dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2005-01-01

    performance.  A foreign company investing in China should prefer a wholly owned company or should at least acquire majority ownership.     The Chinese membership of the WTO gives Chinese companies an opportunity to check the legality of the EU anti-dumping decisions by using the dispute settlement system...... in normal value calculations. Because of the ongoing reforms in China, which have led to an increasing number of Chinese companies operating on market economy principles, Chinese companies have, since 1 July 1998, been allowed to apply for individual market economy status and in such cases the normal value...... of a product is based on the home market price of the company. The criterion which the companies have to fulfil is that there must not be any significant external interference in their economic decision-making in relation to prices, costs, investments, etc.     Based on the practice of the EU anti...

  18. Reliable Acquisition of RAM Dumps from Intel-Based Apple Mac Computers over FireWire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Pavel; Almansoori, Afrah

    RAM content acquisition is an important step in live forensic analysis of computer systems. FireWire offers an attractive way to acquire RAM content of Apple Mac computers equipped with a FireWire connection. However, the existing techniques for doing so require substantial knowledge of the target computer configuration and cannot be used reliably on a previously unknown computer in a crime scene. This paper proposes a novel method for acquiring RAM content of Apple Mac computers over FireWire, which automatically discovers necessary information about the target computer and can be used in the crime scene setting. As an application of the developed method, the techniques for recovery of AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) conversation fragments from RAM dumps are also discussed in this paper.

  19. Evaluation of the contamination risk by 241AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  20. Endoluminal Revision (OverStitch (TM) , Apollo Endosurgery) of the Dilated Gastroenterostomy in Patients with Late Dumping Syndrome After Proximal Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Christine; Chiappetta, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Dumping syndrome is a long-term postoperative complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures. Morphologically, dumping syndrome usually correlates with a dilatation of the gastroenterostomy with accelerated pouch emptying. Conservative therapy includes diet changes, complementary pharmacotherapy and, if symptoms persist, surgical revision. Surgical options include endoscopic, endoluminal surgery to constrict the gastrojejunostomy using a novel endoscopic suturing device (OverStitch(TM), Apollo). In our study, we aimed to assess the viability, safety and efficacy of this procedure in patients with late dumping; 14 patients who had developed late dumping syndrome underwent surgery using an endoscopic suturing technique (OverStitch(TM), Apollo). Late dumping was confirmed by Sigstad score and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Prior to surgery, objective analysis of pouch emptying speed was assessed by gastric scintigraphy. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia. None of the 14 patients suffered intra- or postoperative complications. No postsurgical increase in inflammation parameters was observed. The postinterventional pain scale (visual analogue scale) showed a mean score of 0.5 (range 0-10). In 13 of the 14 patients, no dumping was observed 1-month postsurgery. The postoperative Sigstad score (3.07 ± 2.06; range 1-9) showed an impressive reduction compared with the preoperative score (12.71 ± 4.18; range 7-24) (p dumping syndrome involving minimal trauma and offering rapid reconvalescence. PMID:27318467

  1. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guimei [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2011-12-31

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q{sub ext} with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam

  2. Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  5. Separation of beam and electrons in the spallation neutron source H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) requires an ion source producing an H- beam with a peak current of 35 mA at a 6.2% duty factor. For the design of this ion source, extracted electrons must be transported and dumped without adversely affecting the H- beam optics. Two issues are considered: (1) electron containment transport and controlled removal; and (2) first-order H- beam steering. For electron containment, various magnetic, geometric and electrode biasing configurations are analyzed. A kinetic description for the negative ions and electrons is employed with self-consistent fields obtained from a steady-state solution to Poisson's equation. Guiding center electron trajectories are used when the gyroradius is sufficiently small. The magnetic fields used to control the transport of the electrons and the asymmetric sheath produced by the gyrating electrons steer the ion beam. Scenarios for correcting this steering by split acceleration and focusing electrodes will be considered in some detail

  6. Results of the characterisation of the water dumped into the river Turia by dumping control actions in the sewer network in Paterna (Valencia, Spain); Resultados en la caracterizacion de las aguas vertidas al rio Turia por actuaciones en el control de vertidos en la red de saneamiento municipal de Paterna (Valencia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteagudo Marin, V.

    2007-07-01

    In view of the seriousness of the problem of industrial waste dumped into the municipal sewer network in Paterna, the local council, in parallel to the construction of a waste water treatment plant in 2001, put in place a Dumping Control Plan run by Aigues de Paterna. The main aim of this plan is to monitor and control the dumping of waste water generated by industrial activities to make sure that the waste dumped in within the limits laid down by the Municipal Bye-Law on Waste Dumping. It also aims to detect possible focuses of contamination and eradicate them so as to eliminate the contaminating load in waste waters from industrial sources at origin, thereby contributing to the regeneration of the river and providing an appropriate affluent for the good functioning of the sewage works when it comes into service. (Author)

  7. The design, fabrication and operation of the mechanical systems for the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a National Test Facility used to develop long pulse Neutral Beam Sources. The Facility will test sources up to 120 keV, 50 A, with 30 s beam-on times with a 10% duty factor. For this application, an actively cooled beam dump is required and one has been constructed capable of dissipating a wide range of power density profiles. The flexibility of the design is achieved by utilizing a standard modular panel design which is incorporated into a moveable support structure comprised of eight separately controllable manipulator assemblies. The thermal hydraulic design of the panels permits the dissipation of 2 kW/cm2 anywhere on the panel surface. The cooling water requirements of the actively cooled dump system are provided by the closed loop Primary High Pressure Cooling Water System. To minimize the operating costs of continuously running this high power system, a variable speed hydraulic drive is used for the main pump. During beam pulses, the pump rotates at high speed, then cycles to low speed upon completion of the beam shot. A unique neutralizer design has been installed into the NBETF beamline. This is a gun-drilled moveable brazed assembly which provides continuous armoring of the beamline near the source. The unit penetrates the source mounting valve during operation and retracts to permit the valve to close as needed. The beamline also has an inertially cooled duct calorimeter assembly. This assembly is a moveable hinged matrix of copper plates that can be used as a beam stop up to pulse lengths of 50 ms. The beamline is also equipped with many beam scraper plates of differing detail design and dissipation capabilities

  8. LHC Report: 1,033 bunches per beam and counting

    CERN Multimedia

    Jorg Wenninger for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Following the second technical stop, the first beams were injected into the LHC in the early evening of Saturday, 5 September. About ten days later, the machine was operated with around 1,000 bunches per beam.    Evolution of the stored energy per LHC beam, over time.   The first step after a technical stop consists of running through a full LHC cycle, from injection to collisions and beam dump, with a low-intensity bunch (“probe”) to check all machine settings and equipment. This is followed by a series of collimation and absorber validation tests at different points in the LHC cycle. Low-intensity beams – typically the equivalent of three nominal bunches (3 x 1011 protons) – are expanded transversely or longitudinally, or de-bunched to verify that the collimators and absorbers are correctly intercepting lost particles. The techniques for those validations have been progressively improved, and t...

  9. MOFCOM Decided to Prolong the Period of Anti-Dumping Measures against Imports of Spandex Originated in Japan, Singapore, ROK, Taiwan Region and the U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Ministry of Commerce released, on October 12, Announcement No. 62 of 2012, deciding to prolong the period of anti-dumping measures against imports of spandex originated in Japan, Singapore, ROK, Taiwan region and the U.S.

  10. Investigation of the chemical composition of ash generated from Kosovo lignite and the possibility for biological land reclamation on ash dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urosevic, D.; Filipovic, R. [Mining Institute Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation of the chemical composition and other properties of ash generated in the coal combustion process in the coal-fired power plants Kosovo, in order to determine the possibilities for biological land reclamation on ash dumps and other degraded soil surfaces. It was established that a certain chemical composition of ash has a beneficial effect on biological land reclamation of ash dumps, thus protecting the environment (i.e. the area surrounding the ash dumps), against pollution. It was concluded that, because of the high percentage of calcium and other earth-alkaline and toxic elements, the ash should not be used as substitution for agricultural production. Ash dumps in Kosovo are not so susceptible to erosion since CaO{sub 3} acts as a binding component. 22 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. Hydrological remedial actions for polluted overburden dumps, spoils and landfills. Papers and posters; Wasserwirtschaftliche Sanierung von Bergbaukippen, Halden und Deponien. Vortraege und Posterbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, A. [ed.; Haefner, F.; Schmidt, J.; Merkel, B. [comps.

    2000-07-01

    This publication contains the papers and posters presented at the conference 'Hydrological remedial actions for polluted overburden dumps, spoils and landfills. 35 Papers have been recorded as separate citations in this database.

  12. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  13. Beam quality measure for vector beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; Sroor, Hend; McLaren, Melanie; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Vector beams have found a myriad of applications, from laser materials processing to microscopy, and are now easily produced in the laboratory. They are usually differentiated from scalar beams by qualitative measures, for example, visual inspection of beam profiles after a rotating polarizer. Here we introduce a quantitative beam quality measure for vector beams and demonstrate it on cylindrical vector vortex beams. We show how a single measure can be defined for the vector quality, from 0 (purely scalar) to 1 (purely vector). Our measure is derived from a quantum toolkit, which we show applies to classical vector beams. PMID:27472580

  14. Bioaccumulation and translocation of heavy metals by nine native plant species grown at a sewage sludge dump site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ebrahem M; Shaltout, Kamal H

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, nine native plant species were collected to determine their potential to clean up nine heavy metals from soil of a sewage sludge dump site. Almost all nine plant species grown at sewage sludge dump site showed multifold higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to plants grown at the reference site. All the investigated species were characterized by a bioaccumulation factor (BF) > 1.0 for some heavy metals. BF was generally higher for Cd, followed by Pb, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Fe. The translocation factor (TF) varied among plant species, and among heavy metals. For most studied heavy metals, TFs were Amaranthus viridis and Bassia indica are considered hyperaccumulators of Pb; and Portulaca oleracea is considered hyperaccumulator of Mn. PMID:27184987

  15. Metal extent in blood of livestock from Dandora dumping site, Kenya: Source identification of Pb exposure by stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishii, Chihiro; Yohannes, Yared B; Konnai, Satoru; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-10-01

    Nairobi city in Kenya produces 2000 tons/day of garbage, and most of it is dumped onto the Dandora dumping site, home to a quarter-million residents. This study was conducted (1) to assess the contamination levels of nine metals and a metalloid (arsenic) in the blood of pigs, goats, sheep and cattle from Dandora, and (2) to identify a possible source of lead (Pb) pollution. Cadmium (Cd, 0.17-4.35 μg/kg, dry-wt) and Pb (90-2710 μg/kg) levels in blood were generally high, suggesting human exposure to Cd through livestock consumption and Pb poisoning among pigs (2600 μg/kg) and cattle (354 μg/kg). Results of Pb isotope ratios indicated that the major exposure route might differ among species. Our results also suggested a possibility that the residents in Dandora have been exposed to the metals through livestock consumption. PMID:25997160

  16. Environmental genotoxicity assessment along the transport routes of chemical munitions leading to the dumping areas in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baršienė, Janina; Butrimavičienė, Laura; Grygiel, Włodzimierz; Stunžėnas, Virmantas; Valskienė, Roberta; Greiciūnaitė, Janina; Stankevičiūtė, Milda

    2016-02-15

    The frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB) and nuclear buds on filament (NBf) were examined in 660 specimens of herring (Clupea harengus) collected in 2009-2014 at 65 study stations located mainly along the chemical munition transport routes in the Baltic Sea. The frequency of nuclear abnormalities was strongly increased in herring caught at four stations located close to chemical munition dumping sites, or CWAs - substances (chemical warfare agents) in sediments. Significant increase of MN, NB and NBf was observed in fish caught November 2010-2013 compared to 2009. The most significantly increased genotoxicity responses were recorded in fish caught at stations along CW (chemical weapons) transport routes, close to the Bornholm CW dumping area, in zones with CWAs in sediments and with oil-gas platforms. PMID:26763319

  17. Femtosecond Pump-Push-Probe and Pump-Dump-Probe Spectroscopy of Conjugated Polymers: New Insight and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Tak W

    2014-09-18

    Conjugated polymers are an important class of soft materials that exhibit a wide range of applications. The excited states of conjugated polymers, often referred to as excitons, can either deactivate to yield the ground state or dissociate in the presence of an electron acceptor to form charge carriers. These interesting properties give rise to their luminescence and the photovoltaic effect. Femtosecond spectroscopy is a crucial tool for studying conjugated polymers. Recently, more elaborate experimental configurations utilizing three optical pulses, namely, pump-push-probe and pump-dump-probe, have been employed to investigate the properties of excitons and charge-transfer states of conjugated polymers. These studies have revealed new insight into femtosecond torsional relaxation and detrapping of bound charge pairs of conjugated polymers. This Perspective highlights (1) the recent achievements by several research groups in using pump-push-probe and pump-dump-probe spectroscopy to study conjugated polymers and (2) future opportunities and potential challenges of these techniques.

  18. Accidents at work and living conditions among solid waste segregators in the open dump of Distrito Federal

    OpenAIRE

    Maria da Graça Hoefel; Fernando Ferreira Carneiro; Leonor Maria Pacheco Santos; Muriel Bauerman Gubert; Elisa Maria Amate; Wallace dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    The work of recycling solid waste segregators allows a precarious livelihood, but triggers a disease process that exacerbates their health and well-being. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of occupational accidents at the open dump in the Federal District and its associated factors. Most segregators have had an accident at work (55.5%), perceived the danger of their working environment (95.0%) and claimed they did not receive personal protective equipment (51.7%). Among other findin...

  19. Land cover transformation in two post-mining landscapes subjected to different ages of reclamation since dumping of spoils

    OpenAIRE

    Antwi, Effah K; Boakye-Danquah, John; Asabere, Stephen B; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Wiegleb, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of natural land cover (LC) into modified LC has become inevitable due to growing human needs. Nevertheless, landscape transformational patterns during reclamation of mine damaged lands remain vague. Our hypothesis was that post-mining landscapes with different ages since dumping become more diverse in LC transformation over time. The aim was to study the impact of landscape reclamation on land cover changes (LCC) in two post-mining landscapes. Land cover maps of 1988, 1991, 199...

  20. Study on Environmental Impact of the Closure of the Titu-Dâmboviţa Solid Waste Dump

    OpenAIRE

    DĂNUŢ TANISLAV; MIHAELA SENCOVICI; RĂDIŢA ALEXE

    2009-01-01

    In the sustainable development context, waste management is seen as a major problem, which cannot be solved only by using technical means; a fundamental change is necessary in the current production, consumption and waste elimination pattern. Our study refers to the environmental impact of the closure of the urban Titu- Dâmboviţa solid waste dump, and comprises: quality of the environmental factors, analysis of the size of the impact, evaluation of the potential impact on the environmental fa...

  1. A meta-analysis of mortality data in Italian contaminated sites with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adverse effects of waste management represent a public health issue. Mortality meta-analysis in Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps is presented. Methods. 24 NPCSs include industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps. Class 1 (10 NPCSs with industrial waste landfills and Class 2 (14 NPCSs with illegal dumps were categorized. Random-effects model meta-analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios non-adjusted (SMRs and adjusted for Deprivation (DI-SMRs computed for each CS (1995-2002 were performed for overall 24 NPCSs and the two classes. The North-Southern gradient was considered. Results. 24 CSs pooled-SMRs are significantly increased in both genders for cancer of liver (men: SMR = 1.13; women: SMR = 1.18, bladder (men: SMR = 1.06; women: SMR = 1.11, and for cirrhosis (men: SMR = 1.09; women: SMR = 1.13. In Class 2 the increase is confirmed in both genders for liver and bladder cancers and for cirrhosis and in men only for lung cancer. Congenital anomalies and adverse perinatal conditions are not increased. Conclusion. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of adverse health effects of non-adequately managed hazardous waste. Causal interpretation is not allowed, but the meta-analytic approach provides more confidence in the findings.

  2. The influence of seismic hazard on the building of inner dump in the Belchatow lignite open cut mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wasowicz; S. Slusarczyk; Z. Kozlowski

    2003-07-01

    Vibration of surface caused by seismic quakes present a risk to large mining construction. This risk occurs in the Belchatow open cut mine where seismic quakes of various energy and range have occurred since the end of 1970s. The seismic risk influence on the mine structure with the special attention to the slopes of an internal dump has been presented. Hydrogeological and geotechnical conditions of the lignite mining and internal dumping of overburden and ash from Belchatow power plant have been considered. Seismic activity in Belchatow open cut from 1979 to 2001 was described and the connection between mine working and seismicity of this area was investigated. The energy and approximate location of the quakes and seismological parameters of the strongest ones observed from 1995 to 2001 were presented. The mechanism of the quake focuses was determined by means of the primary-arriving wave method. Stability of the slopes was evaluated by means of the Fellenius method. It has been found that seismic events occured in Belchatow region may cause only local eboulements whereas there are not any safety risks to the stability of slopes of the internal dump in Belchatow open cut. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Metal extent in blood of livestock from Dandora dumping site, Kenya: Source identification of Pb exposure by stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairobi city in Kenya produces 2000 tons/day of garbage, and most of it is dumped onto the Dandora dumping site, home to a quarter-million residents. This study was conducted (1) to assess the contamination levels of nine metals and a metalloid (arsenic) in the blood of pigs, goats, sheep and cattle from Dandora, and (2) to identify a possible source of lead (Pb) pollution. Cadmium (Cd, 0.17–4.35 μg/kg, dry-wt) and Pb (90–2710 μg/kg) levels in blood were generally high, suggesting human exposure to Cd through livestock consumption and Pb poisoning among pigs (2600 μg/kg) and cattle (354 μg/kg). Results of Pb isotope ratios indicated that the major exposure route might differ among species. Our results also suggested a possibility that the residents in Dandora have been exposed to the metals through livestock consumption. - Highlights: • Metals extent in blood of livestock were examined. • Dandora dumping site, Kenya is study site. • Concentrations of Cd and Pb were high in the blood of livestock. • Pb isotope ratios indicated that major exposure route might differ among species. - Metal extent and stable Pb isotope ratio in livestock from Dandora, Kenya were examined

  4. Design note of a 10,000 amp 2 MJoules dump resistor for the magnet test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the design notes of a 2 MJoules 10,000A, 1000V, dump resistor, with taps from 25 mOhms to 300 mOhms maximum. The resistor is forced air-cooled and can handle continuously one 2 MJ dump every 5 minutes at all taps. The resistor is made from 304 stainless steel bars and is mounted in a 90 in.H x 24 in.W x 20 in.D steel enclosure, with easy access to taps. The upper resistance sections are made lighter to save material cost and weight. The total weight of the resistance element is 427 lbs. The resistor is used to absorb the stored energy from cryogenic magnets during tests at the magnet test facility. Interlocks are provided for remote tap readout, dc over current and over temperature. A build-in current sensor and timing relay switch forced air-cooling on for 5 minutes, after a dump. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-02-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential.

  6. NGR, XRD and TEM/SAED investigations on waste dumps materials with a view to recover precious metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udubasa, S S; Udubasa, G [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, 1 N.Balcescu Blv., Bucharest (Romania); Constantinescu, S; Popescu-Pogrion, N; Feder, M, E-mail: udubasa@geo.edu.r [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2010-03-01

    Two types of ores were selected for the investigation of the fate of the ore minerals during relatively long time of residence in the waste dumps (active mining: 25 years ago in the Badeanca Valley and some 50 years ago in the Valea lui Stan area). The pentametallic ores (Co-Ni-Bi-Ag-U) in the Leaota Mts. contain a great number of primary minerals of Cu, As etc. Although the waste dumps materials have whitish-yellowish colors their NGR spectra show the presence of iron minerals very finely dispersed. In the gold ores of Valea lui Stan deposit numerous minerals were identified, such as arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, etc., as major gold bearing sulfides. The waste dumps materials naturally show different mineral constituents, with clay minerals as major phases. Detailed NGR investigations show however Moessbauer spectra pointing out the presence of finely dispersed iron or iron-bearing minerals. Under supergene conditions gold is commonly sequestrated by iron hydroxydes; further TEM/SAED and XRD investigations are contributing to localize the gold. In some samples Moessbauer spectra resembling those of greigite have been obtained. Greigite is also a principal concentrator of gold under supergene conditions.

  7. Experimental and numerical study of pollution process in an aquifer in relation to a garbage dump field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changli, Liu; Feng-E, Zhang; Yun, Zhang; Shuhong, Song; Sheng, Zhang; Hao, Ye; Hongbing, Hou; Lijuan, Yang; Ming, Zhang

    2005-10-01

    The water quality of shallow aquifers that have direct relationship to human heath and ecological safety has been seriously threatened by widespread dumping of industrial solid waste, urban and rural garbage. A garbage dump field with hydrogeological, environ-geological characteristics typical of the Beijing plain was selected for investigation. A hydrogeological model was constructed and the equations used to describe pollutant transport in one-dimensional (1D) steady, uniform groundwater flow to investigate the transport/diffusion processes. In addition to the coefficients for calculation, diffusion coefficient and other coefficients of the aquifer were obtained by conducting in situ diffusion experiments and sample tests. Velocity and scope of pollutant transport/diffusion process were calculated. Accordingly, the real pollution situation in the aquifer was evaluated through in situ drilling and sample testing. Transport/diffusion processes of pollutants within the aquifer abide by the solute equation applicable to 1D steady flow. The transport and diffusion dominate in the direction of groundwater flowing at a speed of about 120 m per year. Comparably, the lateral diffusive width is much smaller. Pollution degree decreases by the law of Y=1.08 exp(33.533/ X), where Y is the distance from the garbage dump field and X is the overall pollution index.

  8. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  9. Beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)

  10. Risk assessment of particle dispersion and trace element contamination from mine-waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Martín, José María; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora; Ortiz, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a model to delimit risk zones influenced by atmospheric particle dispersion from mine-waste dumps is developed to assess their influence on the soil and the population according to the concentration of trace elements in the waste. The model is applied to the Riotinto Mine (in SW Spain), which has a long history of mining and heavy land contamination. The waste materials are separated into three clusters according to the mapping, mineralogy, and geochemical classification using cluster analysis. Two of the clusters are composed of slag, fresh pyrite, and roasted pyrite ashes, which may contain high concentrations of trace elements (e.g., >1 % As or >4 % Pb). The average pollution load index (PLI) calculated for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Tl, and Zn versus the baseline of the regional soil is 19. The other cluster is primarily composed of sterile rocks and ochreous tailings, and the average PLI is 3. The combination of particle dispersion calculated by a Gaussian model, the PLI, the surface area of each waste and the wind direction is used to develop a risk-assessment model with Geographic Information System GIS software. The zone of high risk can affect the agricultural soil and the population in the study area, particularly if mining activity is restarted in the near future. This model can be applied to spatial planning and environmental protection if the information is complemented with atmospheric particulate matter studies. PMID:25190539

  11. Ultrastructure of immature stages of the black dump fly: Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Muscidae: Azeliinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinhas, Lucas Barbosa; Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Barbosa, Rodrigo Rocha; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Ophyra aenescens (black dump fly) originally belonged to the New World, however, now it is spread worldwide. This fly is a mechanical vector of some pathogenic microorganisms and eggs of the human botfly (Dermatobia hominis). The adults are associated with decaying matter and the immature stages colonize animal and human corpses. It is considered an important muscid species for forensic entomology. The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the eggs, the three larval instars and the puparia of O. aenescens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The spiracular opening of the first instar has an interruption in the middle of its length. Comparing to the other instar, the ventral tubercles are only developed in the first instar. The anterior spiracles have a variation in the numbers of spiracular ramification. The puparia morphology is similar to the third instar larvae, however the cephalic region is retracted and on the third thoracic segment, a respiratory structure is present. In conclusion, the SEM technique used and the results obtained are helpful to describe and differentiate the immature stages of O. aenescens and consequently support forensic and medical entomology. PMID:26943996

  12. Acute toxicity tests on raw leachate from a Malaysian dumping site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujá, Fatihah; Yusof, Arij; Osman, Md Anuar

    2010-01-01

    Leachate samples collected from the Ampar Tenang open dumping site at Dengkil, Malaysia, were analyzed for acute toxicity. Two in vivo toxicity tests, Acute Oral Toxicity (AOT) and Primary Skin Irritation (PSI), were performed using Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand Albino rabbits, respectively. The leachate samples were also analyzed chemically for nitrate and phosphate, ammonia-nitrogen, Kjeldahl-nitrogen and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Results from both the AOT and PSI tests showed that the leachate did not contribute to acute toxicity. The AOT test yielded a negative result: no effect was observed in at least half of the rat population. The PSI test on rabbits produced effects only at a leachate concentration of 100%. However, the skin irritation was minor, and the test returned a negative result. The four chemical tests showed high levels of nutrient pollution in the leachate. The nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 2.1 mg/L and 23.6 mg/L, respectively. Further, the ammonia-nitrogen concentration was 1,000 mg NH(3)-N/L the Kjeldahl-nitrogen level was 446 mg NH(3)-N/L, and the Chemical Oxygen Demand was 1,300 mg/L. The in vivo toxicity and chemical analyses showed that the leachate is polluted but not acutely toxic to organisms.

  13. Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacillus thuringinesis Strain From Dump Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt is a commonly used as a pesticide. B. thuringiensis is a naturally-occurring soil bacterium, also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well as on the dark surface of plants. The xylanase producing bacterial strains were isolated from dump soil. The strains were isolated on xylan agar media and screening was carried out by xylanolysis method. To test the sensitivity of the isolates, ten different antibiotics were used. The strains were tested for resistance to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin, vancomycin, amoxycillin and neomycin. The strains showed sensitive to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin and vancomycin and also showed resistance to amoxycillin and neomycin, when tested by disc diffusion method on nutrient agar plate confirmed by antibiotic spread plate method. The inhibitory effect of B. thuringiensis strains against the test bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutca, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonus aeruginosa examined. It was found that, B. thuringiensis S1, B. thuringiensis S2 and B. thuringiensis S3 strains showed an inhibitory effect on all of the test bacteria.

  14. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo and pollution load indices (PLI were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69, Pb (143.80, Cr (99.30, and Cd (7.54 in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  15. Risk assessment of particle dispersion and trace element contamination from mine-waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Martín, José María; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora; Ortiz, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a model to delimit risk zones influenced by atmospheric particle dispersion from mine-waste dumps is developed to assess their influence on the soil and the population according to the concentration of trace elements in the waste. The model is applied to the Riotinto Mine (in SW Spain), which has a long history of mining and heavy land contamination. The waste materials are separated into three clusters according to the mapping, mineralogy, and geochemical classification using cluster analysis. Two of the clusters are composed of slag, fresh pyrite, and roasted pyrite ashes, which may contain high concentrations of trace elements (e.g., >1 % As or >4 % Pb). The average pollution load index (PLI) calculated for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Tl, and Zn versus the baseline of the regional soil is 19. The other cluster is primarily composed of sterile rocks and ochreous tailings, and the average PLI is 3. The combination of particle dispersion calculated by a Gaussian model, the PLI, the surface area of each waste and the wind direction is used to develop a risk-assessment model with Geographic Information System GIS software. The zone of high risk can affect the agricultural soil and the population in the study area, particularly if mining activity is restarted in the near future. This model can be applied to spatial planning and environmental protection if the information is complemented with atmospheric particulate matter studies.

  16. Welfare and poverty in the Europe of the 1990s: social progress or social dumping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, P E

    1991-01-01

    Social policy in Europe is changing fundamentally from a system of public (government) support to a welfare pluralism, or a "welfare mix" supported by the private and public sectors and by voluntary agencies. The overall tendencies are privatization, decentralization, and debureaucratization. With the prospect of a single-market economy within the European Communities in 1993, the fight against poverty in member nations may lead to "social dumping." Two major problems are identified: the lack of guaranteed minimum income schemes in the so-called "Latin Rim" countries, and the effect on workers' and citizens' rights in an integrated Europe. The fight against poverty is--despite some efforts from the Commission of the European Communities--basically left to the individual member states. This portends a gloomy scenario for the poorer populations of Europe in the 1990s. The author examines welfare state types within clusters of countries: the modern (Scandinavia), the corporatist (Federal Republic of Germany), the residual (Britain), and the rudimentary (Latin Rim). The conclusion, unfortunately, is that future overall development of European welfare systems in the 1990s will probably be toward "Americanization," with a move away from the modern, or Scandinavian, model toward a corporatist model for welfare policy. PMID:2071305

  17. Microbial Ecology Assessment of Mixed Copper Oxide/Sulfide Dump Leach Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, D F; Thompson, D N; Noah, K S

    1999-06-01

    Microbial consortia composed of complex mixtures of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria are responsible for the dissolution of metals from sulfide minerals. Thus, an efficient copper bioleaching operation depends on the microbial ecology of the system. A microbial ecology study of a mixed oxide/sulfide copper leaching operation was conducted using an "overlay" plating technique to differentiate and identify various bacterial consortium members of the genera Thiobacillus, Leptospirillum, Ferromicrobium, and Acidiphilium. Two temperatures (30C and 45C) were used to select for mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria. Cell numbers varied from 0-106 cells/g dry ore, depending on the sample location and depth. After acid curing for oxide leaching, no viable bacteria were recovered, although inoculation of cells from raffinate re-established a microbial population after three months. Due to the low pH of the operation, very few non-iron-oxidizing acidophilic heterotrophs were recovered. Moderate thermophiles were isolated from the ore samples. Pregnant liquor solutions (PLS) and raffinate both contained a diversity of bacteria. In addition, an intermittently applied waste stream that contained high levels of arsenic and fluoride was tested for toxicity. Twenty vol% waste stream in PLS killed 100% of the cells in 48 hours, indicating substantial toxicity and/or growth inhibition. The data indicate that bacteria populations can recover after acid curing, and that application of the waste stream to the dump should be avoided. Monitoring the microbial ecology of the leaching operation provided significant information that improved copper recovery.

  18. Bioleaching model of a copper-sulfide ore bed in heap and dump configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. M.; Vargas, T.; Martinez, J.; Moreno, L.

    1998-08-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) model for a heap or dump bioleaching of a copper ore containing mainly chalcocite and pyrite has been developed. The rate of the mineral sulfide dissolution was related to the rate of oxidation by bacteria attached onto the ore surface. The latter was calculated using the model of Michaelis-Menten, where both temperature and dissolved oxygen in the leach solution were taken into account by the kinetic equation. Oxygen transport through the ore bed was associated with natural air convection originating from the decrease in gas density inside the ore bed, which was attributable not only to heating, but also to humidification and decrease in the oxygen concentration. The model was used to estimate air-velocity fields and profiles of temperature and oxygen concentrations as well as mineral conversions during the bioleaching operation for ore beds with different pyrite contents, bacterial populations, widths, heights, and permeabilities. The model provides a useful tool for the design, improvement, and optimization of industrial operating conditions.

  19. Stack and dump: Peak-power scaling by coherent pulse addition in passive cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-wakefield acceleration appears to be a promising approach to overcome the intrinsic limitations of classical particle colliders. In this article, a brief introduction to a concept for a compact laser system capable of simultaneously providing high peak and average powers all along with a high wall-plug efficiency will be given. The concept relies on the stacking of a pulse train emitted from a high-repetitive femtosecond laser system in a passive enhancement cavity, also referred to as temporal coherent combining. In this manner, the repetition rate is decreased in favor of a pulse energy enhancement by the same factor while the average power is almost preserved. The key challenge of this concept is a fast, purely reflective switching element that allows for the dumping of the enhanced pulse out of the cavity. Addressing this challenge could, for the first time, allow for the highly efficient extraction of joule-class pulses at megawatt average power levels and thus lead to a whole new area of applications for ultra-fast laser systems

  20. Radiological assessment for the dumping of radioactive wastes in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last three decades or so, a number of international meetings have been convened to treat the specific problem of radioactive waste disposal into the oceans. The first of these meetings was held in 1958 at the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. Immediately following, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in the Brynielsson Report, recommended measures for ensuring that disposal of radioactive waste into the sea would not result in unacceptable hazards to man (IAEA 1961). Since that time, major changes have occurred in the philosophy and recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection that are crucial to the assessments of impacts arising from this practice. Knowledge of oceanographic processes has improved markedly, providing better understanding of the physical transport process and of the pathways by which radionuclides are transported from marine dumping and disposal sites back to man. Finally, radioecology has developed to the stage where predictions of radionuclide cycling pathways and rates are possible. The IAEA report of 1961 was revised in 1983 (IAEA 1983). The IAEA has published many documents (Safety Series and Technical Documents) covering relevant areas such as oceanographic models, bioaccumulation factors, sediment distribution coefficients, and effects of ionizing radiation on organisms

  1. Radiological assessment for the dumping of radioactive wastes in the oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1993-06-01

    Over the last three decades or so, a number of international meetings have been convened to treat the specific problem of radioactive waste disposal into the oceans. The first of these meetings was held in 1958 at the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. Immediately following, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in the Brynielsson Report, recommended measures for ensuring that disposal of radioactive waste into the sea would not result in unacceptable hazards to man (IAEA 1961). Since that time, major changes have occurred in the philosophy and recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection that are crucial to the assessments of impacts arising from this practice. Knowledge of oceanographic processes has improved markedly, providing better understanding of the physical transport process and of the pathways by which radionuclides are transported from marine dumping and disposal sites back to man. Finally, radioecology has developed to the stage where predictions of radionuclide cycling pathways and rates are possible. The IAEA report of 1961 was revised in 1983 (IAEA 1983). The IAEA has published many documents (Safety Series and Technical Documents) covering relevant areas such as oceanographic models, bioaccumulation factors, sediment distribution coefficients, and effects of ionizing radiation on organisms.

  2. A model for the description of oxidation in sulfidic waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic mathematical equations which describe the processes of sulfide oxidation and gas and water transport in waste rock dumps are presented and discussed. The governing equations account for gas and water flow, vaporisation and condensation with latent heat effects, heat transport and mass balance. Gas, water and solid phases are assumed to be in local thermal equilibrium at all times. Air is approximated as an ideal three-component gas. Different semi-empirical relationships between physical values are used: Darcy's law for fluid flow, ideal gas law, the Van Genuchten formula for the relationship between degree of water saturation and pressure head, Mualem's formula for the relative hydraulic conductivity as a function of pressure head, etc. Some important global quantities, such as the fraction of sulfide sulfur oxidised and the global oxidation rate, are defined and considered as functions of time. The full set of equations is collected and presented in explicit form, convenient for further numerical modelling. The glossary of some technical terms and the table of definitions of the main parameters as well as their units and characteristic values are given

  3. State Estimation of the Electric Drive Articulated Dump Truck Based on UKF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Jin; Tong Liu; Yanhua Shen

    2015-01-01

    The requirements of vehicle dynamic stability control are higher than ever as the significant increase of electric drive articulated vehicle speed. According to the construction features of articulated dumping truck and nonlinear characteristics of moving vehicles, nonlinear observer of vehicle status is designed to strength robustness of dynamic control system in this paper. A 4⁃degree⁃of⁃freedom nonlinear dynamic model of articulated electric drive vehicle is built as reference model to estimate the state of the articulated vehicle. And by adopting Unscented Kalman Filter ( UKF ) algorithm, a series of state parameters such as longitudinal velocities of front and rear frames, yaw rate and side⁃slip angle are estimated. During the test of 60 t articulated electric drive vehicle, 2 inertial navigation modules are installed in the front frame and rear frame respectively and the speed of each electric drive wheel is obtained simultaneously. As the test results suggest, in various working conditions, the algorithm based on UKF is able to accurately estimate the state parameters of articulated vehicle with the estimated error less than 5%. The proposed method is justified to be the theoretical basis and application guidance for articulated vehicle stability control.

  4. Beam-beam effects in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Lebrun, P.; Moore, R.S.; Sen, T.; Tollestrup, A.; Valishev, A.; Zhang, X.L.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with 6 times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations. We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in operations, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades, and discuss ways to improve it.

  5. Green technologies in natural and synthetic surfaces use for dumps reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Fedotov, Viacheslav; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Last 50 years coal dumps reclamation in Ukraine was based on two- or three-layer models. These models use a fertile substratum underneath a black soil (chernozem) layer 0.5 m thick (Model 1) or 0.70-1 m thick (Model 2). Model 3 has 3 layers. The deepest layer is a substrate which is phytotoxic or unfavourable for crop growth (coal-bearing substrates with a high content of pyrite, saline substrates). The second layers acts as a protective shield and consist of loess (0.5 m). The third is the layer of fertile chernozem (0.3-0.8 m). However, due to the situation of a shortage of fertile soils, a lack of nutrient elements in the waste rock, and a moisture deficit with strong rock acidification, it is considered important to develop new non-traditional reclamation methods based on the geo-synthetic materials used in conjunction with sowing lawn grasses or grass seeds inside. The geogrids and biogeotextiles made from natural materials such as hemp, flax, jute, coconut and other plant biopolymer fibers are recommended for bioremediation. The biodegradable carcass of reclamation covering materials stabilises the slopes, effectively restraints the soil particles from leaching and blowing, and prevents wash-out of the plant seeds, as well as protecting them from being eaten by animals. The research object of the presented work was the coal dumps of sulfide rocks in Western Donbass (Ukraine). These rocks are characterized by low level of the maximum hygroscopic moisture (4.3%) and moisture content not available for plant growth (5-6%). Also the rock has an average level of salinity, mainly of the sulphate type. The main goal of the study was to justify the use of some non-traditional materials such as burlap (jute cloth), agricultural fibers (light non-woven material from polypropylene fiber of spun-bond type) and a padding of polyester in the capacity of a geosynthetic substrate as a basis for the mixed grass crop that enable a reduction in the bioremediation costs (in

  6. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitors System for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Guaglio, Gianluca; Santoni, C

    2004-01-01

    The employment of superconducting magnets, in the high energies colliders, opens challenging failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole system protection. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particles losses, while at medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data from the SPS, using temperature and radiation damage experimental data as well as using standar...

  7. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  8. Radioisotopic documentation of different solid food transit in gastrectomized patients with dumping syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy was performed on a group of patients following the administration of a solid radiolabelled meal. As a tracer, human albumin microspheres were used with 99mTc, mixed with fresh scrambled eggs, eaten as a sandwich in two slices of white bread. The analysis of transit and emptying-rate of the radiolabelled meal in the gastric or derivate loop areas was performed by means of a medium field (300 mm) gamma camera interfaced with a digital computer; the data were collected at 15'' frames for 90'-120'.Twenty-nine patients were examined who had undergone sub-total gastrectomy: 11 of them were ''dumpers'' and 18 ''non-dumpers''; moreover, 9 volounteers without any history of gastrointestinal diseases and 11 patients with different gastric disorders were checked. In the first group of gastrectomized patients the half-emptying time (T50) was significantly shorter than in the 11 people being checked (Md=27.5±10.8 versus 69.6±19 minutes); in ''non-dumpers'' T50 was even shorter (Md=24.2±13 minutes). There was no significant statistical difference between the two classes of gastroresected patients in both T50 and emptying-rate of the radioactive solid food, which excludes the accelerated transit as a factor in the functional post-prandial symptoms of the dumping syndrome. On the contrary, the dynamic selective analysis of the radiolabelled food transit through derivate afferent and efferent loops showed different patterns in the two groups of gastroresected patients: the prograssion of the propulsive wave was very irregular and constantly hyperperistaltic only in the dumpers

  9. Microbial Ecology Assessment of Mixed Copper Oxide/Sulfide Dump Leach Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, Debby Fox; Thompson, David Neal; Noah, Karl Scott

    1999-06-01

    Microbial consortia composed of complex mixtures of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria are responsible for the dissolution of metals from sulfide minerals. Thus, an efficient copper bioleaching operation depends on the microbial ecology of the system. A microbial ecology study of a mixed oxide/sulfide copper leaching operation was conducted using an "overlay" plating technique to differentiate and identify various bacterial consortium members of the genera Thiobacillus, “Leptospirillum”, “Ferromicrobium”, and Acidiphilium. Two temperatures (30°C and 45°C) were used to select for mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria. Cell numbers varied from 0-106 cells/g dry ore, depending on the sample location and depth. After acid curing for oxide leaching, no viable bacteria were recovered, although inoculation of cells from raffinate re-established a microbial population after three months. Due to low the pH of the operation, very few non-iron-oxidizing acidophilic heterotrophs were recovered. Moderate thermophiles were isolated from the ore samples. Pregnant liquor solutions (PLS) and raffinate both contained a diversity of bacteria. In addition, an intermittently applied waste stream that contained high levels of arsenic and fluoride was tested for toxicity. Twenty vol% waste stream in PLS killed 100% of the cells in 48 hours, indicating substantial toxicity and/or growth inhibition. The data indicate that bacteria populations can recover after acid curing, and that application of the waste stream to the dump should be avoided. Monitoring the microbial ecology of the leaching operation provided significant information that improved copper recovery.

  10. Improving the Fermilab Booster Notching Efficiency, Beam Losses and Radiation Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, I.L.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Mokhov, N.V.; Sidorov, V.I.; Tropin, I.S.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    A fast vertical 1.08-m long kicker (notcher) located in the Fermilab Booster Long-05 straight section is currently used to remove 3 out of 84 circulating bunches after injection to generate an abort gap. With the maximum magnetic field of 72.5 Gauss, it removes only 87% of the 3-bunch intensity at 400 MeV, with 75% loss on pole tips of the focusing Booster magnets, 11% on the Long-06 collimators, and 1% in the rest of the ring. We propose to improve the notching efficiency and reduce beam loss in the Booster by using three horizontal kickers in the Long-12 section. STRUCT calculations show that using horizontal notchers, one can remove up to 96% of the 3-bunch intensity at 400-700 MeV, directing 95% of it to a new beam dump at the Long-13 section. This fully decouples notching and collimation. The beam dump absorbs most of the impinging proton energy in its jaws. The latter are encapsulated into an appropriate radiation shielding that reduces impact on the machine components, personnel and environment to the tolerable levels. MARS simulations show that corresponding prompt and residual radiation levels can be reduced ten times compared to the current ones.

  11. Improving the Fermilab Booster Notching Efficiency, Beam Losses and Radiation Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Rakhno, I L; Mokhov, N V; Sidorov, V I; Tropin, I S

    2012-01-01

    Currently a fast vertical 1.08-m long kicker (notcher) located in the Fermilab Booster Long-5 straight section is used to remove 3 out of 84 circulating bunches after injection to generate an abort gap. With magnetic field of 72.5 Gauss it removes only 87% of the 3-bunch intensity at 400 MeV, with 75% loss on pole tips of the focusing Booster magnets, 11% on the Long-6 collimators, and 1% in the rest of the ring. We propose to improve the notching efficiency and reduce beam loss in the Booster by using two horizontal kickers in the Long-12 section. The STRUCT calculations show that using such horizontal notchers, one can remove up to 99% of the 3-bunch intensity at 400-700 MeV, directing 96% of it to a new beam dump at the Long-13 section. This fully decouples notching and collimation. The beam dump absorbs most of the impinging proton energy in its jaws. The latter are encapsulated into an appropriate radiation shielding that reduces impact on the machine components, personnel and environment to the tolerabl...

  12. Beam imaging sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAninch, Michael D.; Root, Jeffrey J.

    2016-07-05

    The present invention relates generally to the field of sensors for beam imaging and, in particular, to a new and useful beam imaging sensor for use in determining, for example, the power density distribution of a beam including, but not limited to, an electron beam or an ion beam. In one embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other items, a circumferential slit that is either circular, elliptical or polygonal in nature.

  13. Impact of the New CLIC Beam Parameters on the Design of the Post-Collision Line and its Exit Window

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, A

    2008-01-01

    Following the recent modification of the CLIC beam parameters, we present an updated design of the post-collision line. As a result of the increase of the beamstrahlung photon cone size, the separation of the outgoing beams by the vertical magnetic chicane is more difficult, but still possible. The main changes in the post-collision line design include the implementation of a common dump for the wrong-sign charged particles of the coherent pairs and for the low-energy tails of the disrupted beam, as well as a significant reduction of the overall lattice length (allowing removal of the large refocusing quadrupoles). The thermal and mechanical stresses in the new exit window, 150 m downstream of the interaction point, were computed. We conclude that, despite the recent changes of the CLIC beam parameters and the necessary modifications of the post-collision line and its exit window, their performance is not significantly affected.

  14. Results of the studies on energy deposition in IR6 superconducting magnets from continuous beam loss on the TCDQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Presland, A; Redaelli, S; Sarchiapone, L; Weiler, T

    2007-01-01

    A single sided mobile graphite diluter block TCDQ, in combination with a two-sided secondary collimator TCS and an iron shield TCDQM, will be installed in front of the superconducting quadrupole Q4 magnets in IR6, in order to protect it and other downstream LHC machine elements from destruction in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the abort gap. The TCDQ will be positioned close to the beam, and will intercept the particles from the secondary halo during low beam lifetime. Previous studies (1-4) have shown that the energy deposited in the Q4 magnet coils can be close to or above the quench limit. In this note the results of the latest FLUKA energy deposition simulations for Beam 2 are described, including an upgrade possibility for the TCDQ system with an additional shielding device. The results are discussed in the context of the expected performance levels for the different phases of LHC operation.

  15. Chapter 2. The history of uranium tailings formation in the North of Tajikistan, their current condition. 2.2. Current condition of tailings and dumps of the North of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current condition of tailings and dumps of the North of Tajikistan, including their physicomechanical properties, mineral composition, radionuclide content, chemical composition and radioactivity was described.

  16. 扩散型海洋倾倒区容量估算方法初探--以嵊泗上川山疏浚物海洋倾倒区为例%Primary estimationon the capacity of ocean dispersal dumping area---a case study on Sheng si Shang chuan shan dumping area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东海; 龙绍桥; 辛士河; 江志法; 沈继平; 郭清荣

    2016-01-01

    以嵊泗上川山疏浚物海洋倾倒区为例,探讨扩散型海洋倾倒区容量.通过生态敏感目标水质保护要求来确定倾倒活动最大倾倒强度;以最大倾倒强度及倾倒区本身和周边海域港航功能正常发挥为前提,确定水深可淤积厚度,以此为基础,分析系列倾倒量下的区域淤积影响程度,最终确定可接受情况下的倾倒量,从而估算倾倒容量.倾倒活动产生的悬浮物影响对生态敏感目标影响分析,倾倒活动瞬时最大可接受倾倒强度至少为36000 m3(基于实际工况);在7个月倾倒期内,设定1500×104、4000×104、6000×104 m3系列倾倒量,分析倾倒区本身及周边水深敏感目标的淤积程度,最终确定在1500×104 m3倾倒量下,淤积程度可接受,初步估算该倾倒区的容量为1500×104~2000×104 m3.%This study aims to offer ways that could be used to estimate the capacity of dumping area.The capacity will be concluded from the largest instantly dumping capacity and the largest acceptable deposition.The largest in-stantly dumped strength depends on whether the suspensions would have harmed the water quality protection in and around the dumping site.Similarly,the largest acceptable sedimentation lies on whether the sedimentation by dump-ing strength have hindered the navigation function on and around the dumping site for the acceptable settlement depth.In this case we discuss the acceptable dumping capacity to the ecological sensitive dumping area when ac-ceptable amount (36 000 m3 )of instantly maximum dumping taking the Sheng si Shang chuan shan marine dumping area as example.Moreover,we estimate that the capacity of this dumping area are approximately in range of 1 500 × 104 m3 to 2 000 ×104 m3 .We set the sedimentation influence on the depth by dumping under different dumping ca-ses at 1 500 ×106 ,4 000 ×104 m3 and 6 000 ×104 m3 in 7 months in order to know the levels of sedimentation at

  17. A symplectic coherent beam-beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a simple one-dimensional model to study the effects of the beam-beam force on the coherent dynamics of colliding beams. The key ingredient is a linearized beam-beam kick. We study only the quadrupole modes, with the dynamical variables being the 2nd-order moments of the canonical variables q, p. Our model is self-consistent in the sense that no higher order moments are generated by the linearized beam-beam kicks, and that the only source of violation of symplecticity is the radiation. We discuss the round beam case only, in which vertical and horizontal quantities are assumed to be equal (though they may be different in the two beams). Depending on the values of the tune and beam intensity, we observe steady states in which otherwise identical bunches have sizes that are equal, or unequal, or periodic, or behave chaotically from turn to turn. Possible implications of luminosity saturation with increasing beam intensity are discussed. Finally, we present some preliminary applications to an asymmetric collider. 8 refs., 8 figs

  18. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  19. Geochemical characterisation of pyrite oxidation and environmental problems related to release and transport of metals from a coal washing low-grade waste dump, Shahrood, northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Jodieri Shokri, Behshad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Shafaei, Seyed Ziadin; Kakaei, Reza

    2011-12-01

    Pyrite oxidation and release of the oxidation products from a low-grade coal waste dump to stream, groundwater and soil was investigated by geochemical and hydrogeochemical techniques at Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant, Shahrood, northeast Iran. Hydrogeochemical analysis of water samples indicates that the metal concentrations in the stream waters were low. Moreover, the pH of the water showed no considerable change. The analysis of the stream water samples shows that except the physical changes, pyrite oxidation process within the coal washing waste dump has not affected the quality of the stream water. Water type was determined to be calcium sulphate. The results of the analysis of groundwater samples indicate that the pH varies from 7.41 to 7.51. The concentrations of the toxic metals were low. The concentration of SO4 is slightly above than its standard concentration in potable water. It seems that the groundwater less affected by the coal washing operation in the study area. Geochemical analysis of the sediment samples shows that Fe concentration decreases gradually downstream the waste dump with pH rising. SO(4) decreases rapidly downstream direction. Copper, Zn and Co concentrations decrease with distance from the waste dump due to a dilution effect by the mixing of uncontaminated sediments. These elements, in particular, Zn are considerably elevated in sediment sample collected at the nearest distance to the waste dump. There is no doubt that such investigations can help to develop an appropriate water remediation plan.

  20. Profile of polychlorinated biphenyls in the brown alga Padina sanctae-crucis along the Orote dump coastline, Orote Peninsula, Western Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Brian Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the brown seaweed Padina sanctae-crucis might be used as a biomonitor organism to determine the location, distribution, and type of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) present along a contaminated tropical coastline. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in P. sanctae-crucis collected from near-shore waters along a 4-km stretch of coastline. The profile of PCB levels from samples obtained at 13 sites along the coastline demonstrated a positive concentration gradient as sample locations progressed toward the dump site. Sample locations nearest the dump site revealed PCB levels twofold higher than background levels for P. sanctae-crucis. Chromatograms of samples obtained nearest the dump site indicated a similarity to the Aroclor 1260 fingerprint. The P. sanctae-crucis frond trimmings used for laboratory analysis were approximately 3-5 wk old. This study was conducted 8 mo following the completion of the removal actions at the dump site. Data suggest a release of Aroclor 1260 into the marine environment approximately 7 mo following the completion of removal actions at the dump site.

  1. Investigation of a representative number of mine dumps in Baden-Wuerttemberg in relation to a possible release of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 130 mine dumps of abandoned and working mines in Baden-Wuerttemberg were recorded, radiometricly measured, evaluated and some of them sampled. The representative selection of the mining activities resulted in the fact, that most of the dumps belonged to old and smaller residues of the lead/zinc and iron ore mining. In addition all existing mine dumps from the uranium exploration in Baden-Wuerttemberg and Bavaria were investigated. The highest doses, up to 10 rem/a, were found on the piles of the uranium exploration. These actually supervised and licensed depositions are followed by the old uncontrolled mine dumps of the Wittichen mining area with doses up to 2 rem/a. The numerous porphyry and granite quarries show doses between 0,1 and 0,2 rem/a. The lowest doses were found on the dumps of the hydrothermal Pb/Zn and iron ore deposits, while the slag piles of the ooelitic iron ore processing showed high Thorium anomalies. The Ra-226 and Pb-210 analyses of the deposited materials confirmed the radiometric results. The analysis of seepage and gallery waters showed only a small number of values exceeding the derived drinking water concentrations. (orig.)

  2. Characterisation of sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps using electrical resistivity imaging: the case study of the Rio Marina mining district (Elba Island, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Mauro; Servida, Diego; Lupis, Domenico

    2013-07-01

    Sulphide-bearing mine dumps are potential sources of pollution when acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs. Because the generation of AMD depends on the volume and composition of waste materials, their characterisation is crucial for the evaluation of geochemical hazards and for the design of remediation strategies to minimise their environmental impact. In this paper, a cost-effective strategy for the characterisation of an inactive mine dump in the Rio Marina mining district (Elba Island, Italy) using earth resistivity imaging (ERI) is presented. As no information regarding the nature of waste rocks is found in reports for the mine, five ERI profiles were acquired at the top of the waste pile. The results show that waste rocks are heterogeneous with a maximum thickness of 30 m. Due to the large amounts of dispersed sulphide minerals, the waste rocks are characterised by an electrically conductive geophysical signature in comparison to the surrounding resistive metamorphic bedrock. A geostatistical approach was adopted to estimate the elevation of the edges of the mine dump, and the net volume of the waste rocks was computed through a raster analysis of the elevations of the upper and lower boundaries of the mine dump. High-conductivity anomalies were detected within the core of the mine dump. The integration of the hydrogeological, geochemical and geological framework of the Rio Marina mining district suggests that these anomalies could be a geophysical signature of subsurface regions where AMD is currently generated or stored, thus representing sources of environmental pollution. PMID:23179723

  3. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Energy Supply of Remote Dump Site in Jordan Badia by Photovoltaic Systems, Diesel Generators and Electrical Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Smairan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of energy sources in remote regions in Jordan at the brink of the 21st century, it is necessary to view the use of solar energy in all applications as one of the most promising new and renewable energy sources. As a contribution to the development program of remote areas in Jordan Badia, this paper presents three energy supply alternatives (photovoltaic system, diesel generator and electric grid for a dump site for providing the electrical loads to the dump site according to their energy requirements. The result of this study shows that remote dump site in Jordan Badia will require about 5.32 kWh/day or 1940 kWh/yr to meet their basic power requirements for such loads as lighting and electronic appliances-radios and fans. Four dynamic indicators were used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. It is found that providing electricity to a dump site in a remote zone using photovoltaic systems is very beneficial and competitive with the other types of conventional energy sources, especially considering the decreasing prices of these systems and their increasing efficiencies and reliability. They have also the advantage of maintaining a clean environment. It is recommended that solar photovoltaic-based dump site electrification application should be encouraged by the government, especially for those rural sites without access to a grid supply.

  4. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant (Atta colombica Refuse Dumps Vary in Taxonomic Composition and Degradation Ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina R Lewin

    Full Text Available Deconstruction of the cellulose in plant cell walls is critical for carbon flow through ecosystems and for the production of sustainable cellulosic biofuels. Our understanding of cellulose deconstruction is largely limited to the study of microbes in isolation, but in nature, this process is driven by microbes within complex communities. In Neotropical forests, microbes in leaf-cutter ant refuse dumps are important for carbon turnover. These dumps consist of decaying plant material and a diverse bacterial community, as shown here by electron microscopy. To study the portion of the community capable of cellulose degradation, we performed enrichments on cellulose using material from five Atta colombica refuse dumps. The ability of enriched communities to degrade cellulose varied significantly across refuse dumps. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of enriched samples identified that the community structure correlated with refuse dump and with degradation ability. Overall, samples were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Half of abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs across samples were classified within genera containing known cellulose degraders, including Acidovorax, the most abundant OTU detected across samples, which was positively correlated with cellulolytic ability. A representative Acidovorax strain was isolated, but did not grow on cellulose alone. Phenotypic and compositional analyses of enrichment cultures, such as those presented here, help link community composition with cellulolytic ability and provide insight into the complexity of community-based cellulose degradation.

  5. Linux Crash Dump的设计与实现%AN INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF Linux Crash Dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 沈亚谦; 潘金贵

    2002-01-01

    本文介绍了Linux Crash Dump的设计与实现方法.Linux Crash Dump提供了一种保存系统在发生Crash时内存映象的能力.通过对Dump结果的分析,可以有效地帮助诊断系统出错的原因.本文介绍了如何进行Crash Dump,以及Dump的数据的组织和保存方法等.

  6. Impact Of Selected Post-Mining And Metallurgical Dumps On Air Pollution On Sites In The Czech Republic And Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Dombek Václav; Gembalová Lucie; Tomšej Tomáš; Matýsek Dalibor; Drobek Leszek; Bzowski Zbygniew; Ženatý Lukáš; Seibert Radim

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the possible influence of selected post-mining and air pollution on metallurgicaldumps at czech republic and polish sites on air pollution load in the region. The content of PAHs and heavy metals were determined in dust samples taken from surface dumps SZOTKÓWKA I “of KWK” JAS-MOS and ČSM. The obtained data were used for modeling pollution load around hald using models SYMOS’97. On the basis of the models was assessed the effect of hunger on both air pollution situation arou...

  7. Dump stability and soil fertility of a coal mine spoil in Indian dry tropical environment: a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Singh, Raj Shekhar; Chaulya, Swadesh K

    2012-10-01

    Plant available nitrogen, belowground (root) biomass, soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and microbial biomass N (MBN) were studied for 12 years at the interval of 2 years (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 years) and mine dump stability at the intervals of 6 years (0, 6 and 12 years) after re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. Plant available nitrogen in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 4.51 to 6.59 μg g(-1), net N-mineralization from 1.87 to 13.85 μg g(-1) month(-1), MBN from 10 to 22.63 μg g(-1), and root biomass from 28 to 566 g(-2). Mining activity has caused a change in soil characteristics including plant available nutrients like nitrate-N, ammonium-N and phosphate-P by 70, 67, and 76 %, respectively, N-mineralization by 93 %, root biomass values by 97 % and MBN values by 91 % compared to forest ecosystems. Revegetation of mine spoil produced increase in root biomass values by 1.3, 7.6 and 17.2 times, mineral N values by 1.22, 1.43 and 1.79 times, N-mineralization values by 1.8, 5.2 and 12.6 times and MBN values by 1.6, 2.0, and 3.4 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. Below ground biomass was highly co-related with microbial biomass and plant available nutrients. N-mineralization, plant available nutrients and the clay content were positively correlated with age of revegetation (P modelling it was analyzed that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety of 1.7 and 2.1 after 6 and 12 years of plantation on dump slope, respectively, while it was 1.2 before revegetation. Thus, long term revegetation was found to have direct impact on dump stability and indirect impact on soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil. PMID:22842748

  8. High power 1 MeV neutral beam system and its application plan for the international tokamak experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemsworth, R.S. [ITER Joint Central Team, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the Neutral Beam Injection system which is presently being designed for the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, ITER, in Europe Japan and Russia, with co-ordination by the Joint Central Team of ITER at Naka, Japan. The proposed system consists of three negative ion based neutral injectors, delivering a total of 50 MW of 1 MeV D{sup 0} to the ITER plasma for a pulse length of >1000 s. Each injectors uses a single caesiated volume arc discharge negative ion source, and a multi-grid, multi-aperture accelerator, to produce about 40 A of 1 MeV D{sup -}. This will be neutralized by collisions with D{sub 2} in a sub-divided gas neutralizer, which has a conversion efficiency of about 60%. The charged fraction of the beam emerging from the neutralizer is dumped in an electrostatic residual ion dump. A water cooled calorimeter can be moved into the beam path to intercept the neutral beam, allowing commissioning of the injector independent of ITER. ITER is scheduled to produce its first plasma at the beginning of 2008, and the planning of the R and D, construction and installation foresees the neutral injection system being available from the start of ITER operations. (author)

  9. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design. Final vesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D{sup {minus}} source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus.

  10. Telecommunication using muon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  11. Density and potential measurements in an intense ion beam-generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral beams are created by intense large area ion beams which are neutralized in a gas cell. The interaction of the beam with the gas cell creates a plasma. Such a plasma is studied here. The basic plasma parameters, electron temperature, density, and plasma potential, are measured as a function of beam current and neutral gas pressure. These measurements are compared to a model based on the solution of Poisson's equation. Because of the cylindrical geometry the equation cannot be solved analytically. Details of the numerical method are presented. Three refinements to existing models have been added. (1) The beam creates ions by charge exchange as well as by ionization. (2) In the ionization process most of the ions are born at rest but some of the ions are born through a molecular dissociation process which provides them with substantial energy. (3) Electrons are trapped in the potential well of the system. Their distribution will be truncated by the well and the usual Boltzmann relation for the density variation with potential will be altered slightly. Analytical expressions for these effects are obtained and included in the computer generated solution. The model and data are in good agreement only when locally determined beam current profiles are used in the solution. These profiles are broader than those determined from beam dump calorimetry

  12. Mathematical model of the chemistry of the dump leaching of chalcopyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liddell, K.C.

    1980-03-01

    In a leach dump, chalcopyrite is dissolved by Fe/sup 3 +/ and by O/sub 2/ and H/sup +/. Neither reaction is at equilibrium under operational conditions. The solution contains Fe(III), Fe(II) and Cu(II) in an aqueous sulfate medium with a pH of about 2. The equilibrium concentrations of H/sup +/, OH/sup -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, HSO/sub 4//sup -/, Fe/sup 3 +/, FeOH/sup 2 +/, Fe(OH)/sub 2//sup +/, Fe/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2//sup 4 +/, FeSO/sub 4//sup +/, Fe(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2//sup -/, FeHSO/sub 4//sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 2 +/, FeSO/sub 4//sup 0/, FeHSO/sub 4//sup +/, Cu/sup 2 +/ and CuSO/sub 4//sup 0/ were calculated for different Fe/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, FeSO/sub 4/, CuSO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ analytical concentrations using both ideal solution and high ionic strength apparent equilibrium constants. Conditions under which Fe/sup 3 +/ precipitates have been investigated by including K/sub Sp/ values as constraints in the computer program. Jarosite, KFe/sub 3/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/(OH)/sub 6/, precipitates except when the K/sup +/ concentration is very small. Formation of goethite, ..cap alpha..-FeOOH, occurs through aging of amorphous Fe(OH)/sub 3/; ferric hydroxide precipitation is favored by high Fe/sup 3 +/ concentrations and high pH. With both dissolution reactions occurring, it was found that the H/sup +/ consumed was partially restored by dissociation of HSO/sub 4//sup -/, FEHSO/sub 4//sup 2 +/ and FeHSO/sub 4//sup +/. With no O/sub 2/ reacting, there were only slight changes in the H/sup +/ and HSO/sub 4//sup -/ concentrations and FeHSO/sub 4//sup +/ was a product. The maximum copper concentration was obtained with high starting Fe/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ concentrations and little or no O/sub 2/ consumption. Too large an amount of O/sub 2/ reacting led to pH increases that caused precipitation of Fe(OH)/sub 3/.

  13. Numerical study of beam propagation and plasma properties in the neutralizer and the E-RID of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-ohmic heating will be used in the experimental nuclear fusion reactor ITER to reach thermonuclear temperatures. Two heating mechanism will be implemented, i.e. microwaves resonant with ion and electron cyclotron frequencies and energetic neutral beam injection, which contributes also to the current drive. Each one of the two neutral beam injector planned for ITER will deliver 16 MW of 1 MeV D0 beam. In the injector, negative ions D− coming from a 40 A negative ion source are electrostatically accelerated to 1 MeV, and stripped of their extra electron by collision with a target gas in a structure known as the neutralizer. Residual charged particles are deflected after the neutralizer in an electrostatic ion dump (E-RID). The ionization of the deuterium buffer gas filling the neutralizer induced by the D− beam creates a rarefied plasma which is expected to efficiently screens the Coulomb repulsion of the beam. Moreover, this plasma can eventually escape from the neutralizer and move back in the accelerator, towards the accelerating grids and the negative ion source. The transport of the beam through the neutralizer and the RID and the related plasma properties were studied using a 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell code called OBI-3 (Orsay Beam Injector 3 dimensional). Particle–particle and particle–wall collisions are treated using the Monte Carlo collision approach. Simulations show that the secondary plasma effectively screens the beam space charge preventing beam transverse expansion. Plasma ions created in the neutralizer form an upstream current with a magnitude of ∼0.5% of the negative ion current. Gas breakdown leading to arc formation in the RID was not observed. Finally, results for the propagation of non-ideal beams coming from simulations of the extraction and consecutive acceleration taken from Revel et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 073027 are presented. (paper)

  14. Code intercomparison and benchmark for muon fluence and absorbed dose induced by an 18-GeV electron beam after massive iron shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Fasso, Alberto; Ferrari, Anna; Mokhov, Nikolai V; Mueller, Stefan E; Nelson, Walter Ralph; Roesler, Stefan; Sanami, Toshiya; Striganov, Sergei I; Versaci, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In 1974, Nelson, Kase, and Svenson published an experimental investigation on muon shielding using the SLAC high energy LINAC. They measured muon fluence and absorbed dose induced by a 18 GeV electron beam hitting a copper/water beam dump and attenuated in a thick steel shielding. In their paper, they compared the results with the theoretical mode ls available at the time. In order to compare their experimental results with present model calculations, we use the modern transport Monte Carlo codes MARS15, FLUKA2011 and GEANT4 to model the experimental setup and run simulations. The results will then be compared between the codes, and with the SLAC data.

  15. Parabolic scaling beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

    2014-06-15

    We generalize the concept of diffraction free beams to parabolic scaling beams (PSBs), whose normalized intensity scales parabolically during propagation. These beams are nondiffracting in the circular parabolic coordinate systems, and all the diffraction free beams of Durnin's type have counterparts as PSBs. Parabolic scaling Bessel beams with Gaussian apodization are investigated in detail, their nonparaxial extrapolations are derived, and experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions.

  16. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  17. Mid-infrared picosecond pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe experiments to resolve a ground-state intermediate in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; van Thor, Jasper J

    2009-12-24

    Multipulse picosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy has been used to study photochemical reactions of the cyanobacterial phytochrome photoreceptor Cph1. Different photophysical schemes have been discussed in the literature to describe the pathways after photoexcitation, particularly, to identify reaction phases that are linked to photoisomerisation and electronic decay in the 1566-1772 cm(-1) region that probes C=C and C=O stretching modes of the tetrapyrrole chromophore. Here, multipulse spectroscopy is employed, where, compared to conventional visible pump-mid-infrared probe spectroscopy, an additional visible pulse is incorporated that interacts with populations that are evolving on the excited- and ground-state potential energy surfaces. The time delays between the pump and the dump pulse are chosen such that the dump pulse interacts with different phases in the reaction process. The pump and dump pulses are at the same wavelength, 640 nm, and are resonant with the Pr ground state as well as with the excited state and intermediates. Because the dump pulse additionally pumps the remaining, partially recovered, and partially oriented ground-state population, theory is developed for estimating the fraction of excited-state molecules. The calculations take into account the model-dependent ground-state recovery fraction, the angular dependence of the population transfer resulting from the finite bleach that occurs with linearly polarized intense femtosecond optical excitation, and the partially oriented population for the dump field. Distinct differences between the results from the experiments that use a 1 or a 14 ps dump time favor a branching evolution from S1 to an excited state or reconfigured chromophore and to a newly identified ground-state intermediate (GSI). Optical dumping at 1 ps shows the instantaneous induced absorption of a delocalized C=C stretching mode at 1608 cm(-1), where the increased cross section is associated with the electronic ground

  18. Definition and recommendations for the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter, 1972. 1986 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the terms of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, the IAEA is the organization with the responsibility for defining high level radioactive wastes or other high level radioactive matter which is unsuitable for dumping at sea, and for making recommendations to Contracting Parties about the issue of permits for dumping radioactive waste or other radioactive matter. The IAEA established a provisional Definition and Recommendations in 1974 and a revised version in 1978. This Safety Series document contains the second revised Definition and Recommendations, which were established in 1985. The Annexes to the document contain a description of the calculations which form the basis of the quantitative Definition, a comparison between the new and the previous version and a list of all the meetings held during the process of establishing the new document

  19. An interdisciplinary physical-chemical approach for characterization of arsenic in a calciner residue dump in Cornwall (UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teun van Elteren, Johannes [National Institute of Chemistry (Kiribati), Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001, Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: elteren@ki.si; Slejkovec, Zdenka [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39 (IJS), SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Arcon, Iztok [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39 (IJS), SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nova Gorica Polytechnic (PNG), Vipavska 13, SI-5000 Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Glass, Hylke-Jan [University of Exeter in Cornwall (UEC), Tremough Campus, TR10 9EZ Penryn, Cornwall (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15

    During the later stages of hard-rock mining in Cornwall, UK, widespread processing and refining of arsenic in purpose-built calciners resulted in severe, localized contamination of soils with arsenic. Several physical-chemical techniques were applied to characterize arsenic in a calciner residue dump: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), sequential extraction combined with hyphenated speciation methods, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) methods such as XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure). Arsenic was predominantly present in pentavalent form, bound to amorphous or poorly-crystalline hydrous oxides of Fe (probably {alpha}-hematite). A small amount of a non-classified crystalline iron arsenate phase was found, viz. Fe{sub 2}(As(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3}). There was also evidence for the presence of some arsenate bound to quartz ({alpha}-SiO{sub 2}). The overall results make us believe that the normally assumed relative safety, from a mobility point of view, is questionable since only a small fraction of arsenic is found in a crystalline iron arsenate form. - Arsenic in calciner residue dumps is present as arsenate in crystalline (Fe{sub 2}(As(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3})) and amorphous or poorly-crystalline (bound to hematite and quartz) structures.

  20. The EU anti-dumping policy against non-market economies - The choice of an analogue country and the quality of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses the theory of international trade in vertically differentiated products in order to evaluate if the EU, since 1992, in its anti-dumping policy against the two non-market economies, Russia and China, has calculated higher dumping margins, when the level of economic development...... and the quality of the products of the chosen analogue country are higher. The conclusion is that even though the EU chooses analogue countries at a higher level of economic development than Russia and China, the differences in the quality of products and levels of economic development between the dumpers...