WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam dump entrance

  1. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  2. Dumping the decelerated beams of CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneret, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The spent drive beam must be cleanly extracted and bent away from the decelerator axis at the end of each CLIC decelerator in order to leave space for injecting a fresh beam train in the next sector. Then the spent beam must be safely absorbed. A compact extraction system made of a single dipole is proposed. The spent beam is driven to a water dump located at 20m downstream of the extraction point and transversely 6m away of the axis of the main linac. An adequate spread of the beam impact map on the dump offers small temperature excursions in both the dump and its entrance window, allowing for reliable operation and a long lifetime of the system.

  3. Premature beam dumps in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of all non-programmed beam dumps during the 2011 proton run is presented. The selection criteria of fills that got considered were that the beam intensity of each of the two beams exceeded at least 1e12 particles per beam in order to exclude all probe beam dumps and most of the MPS test dumps. A distribution of beam dump causes by system is shown, as well as the time it took to re-establish injection after a non-programmed dump for fills which made it into STABLE BEAMS. This was done in an attempt to evaluate the cost of those non-programmed dumps in terms of time.

  4. RIA Fragmentation Line Beam Dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, W

    2003-08-08

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator project involves generating heavy-element ion beams for use in a fragmentation target line to produce beams for physics research. The main beam, after passing through the fragmentation target, may be dumped into a beam dump located in the vacuum cavity of the first dipole magnet. For a dump beam power of 100 kW, cooling is required to avoid excessive high temperatures. The proposed dump design involves rotating cylinders to spread out the energy deposition and turbulent subcooled water flow through internal water cooling passages to obtain high, nonboiling, cooling rates.

  5. The International Linear Collider beam dumps

    OpenAIRE

    Appleby, R.; Keller, L; Markiewicz, T.; Seryi, A.; Sugahara, R.; Walz, D.

    2006-01-01

    The ILC beam dumps are a key part of the accelerator design. At Snowmass 2005, the current status of the beam dump designs were reviewed, and the options for the overall dump layout considered. This paper describes the available dump options for the baseline and the alternatives and considers issues for the dumps that require resolution.

  6. High energy laser beam dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, John

    2004-09-14

    The laser beam dump is positioned in a housing. An absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing. A heat sync means for extracting heat from the absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing and operatively connected to the absorbing glass plate means.

  7. Radiation-hard Beam Position Detector for Use in the Accelerator Dump Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Degtiarenko, Pavel; Popov, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Proper transport of the electron beam with over 0.5MW of power to the beam dump is a prerequisite for operations at Jefferson Lab. Operations has relied on imaging the beam on a beam viewer located at the entrance to the beam dump. The large beam size at the dump entrance, due to beam scattering in the experimental target, sometimes results in no observable image on the view-screen. Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD) material with its large thermal conductivity and high melting point is well suited for surviving the thermal effects of beam exposure with this power density. We are exploring the CVD properties and how it can be used as a robust beam position monitor. Results of some beam tests with 0.5MW beams will be presented.

  8. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaupa, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2016-11-01

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  9. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaupa, M., E-mail: matteo.zaupa@igi.cnr.it; Sartori, E. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Dalla Palma, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  10. Replacing the Beam Dump at the Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The PS Booster Dump, designed in the 1960’s to cope with beam energies in the order of 800 MeV, has been dismantled and replaced with a new one, capable of withstanding the 2 GeV beam provided by the upcoming LINAC4 at CERN. This video shows the installation of that new dump core inside a one-metre diameter cavity, surrounded by five shielding rings made of concrete and steel. It is the culmination of months of preparation, an interdisciplinary work involving several teams from the Engineering, Beams and Technology Departments, as well as the collaboration and supervision of radio-protection experts.

  11. Replacing the Beam Dump at the Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The PS Booster Dump, designed in the 1960’s to cope with beam energies in the order of 800 MeV, has been dismantled and replaced with a new one, capable of withstanding the 2 GeV beam provided by the upcoming LINAC4 at CERN. This video shows the installation of that new dump core inside a one-metre diameter cavity, surrounded by five shielding rings made of concrete and steel. It is the culmination of months of preparation, an interdisciplinary work involving several teams from the Engineering, Beams and Technology Departments, as well as the collaboration and supervision of radio-protection experts.

  12. Collective Deceleration: Toward a Compact Beam Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.-C.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt.; Tajima, T.; Habs, D.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt. /Munich U.; Chao, A.W.; /SLAC; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt.

    2011-11-28

    With the increasing development of laser accelerators, the electron energy is already beyond GeV and even higher in near future. Conventional beam dump based on ionization or radiation loss mechanism is cumbersome and costly, also has radiological hazards. We revisit the stopping power of high-energy charged particles in matter and discuss the associated problem of beam dump from the point of view of collective deceleration. The collective stopping length in an ionized gas can be several orders of magnitude shorter than the Bethe-Bloch and multiple electromagnetic cascades stopping length in solid. At the mean time, the tenuous density of the gas makes the radioactivation negligible. Such a compact and non-radioactivating beam dump works well for short and dense bunches, which is typically generated from laser wakefield accelerator.

  13. Collective deceleration: Toward a compact beam dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-C. Wu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing development of laser electron accelerators, electron energies beyond a GeV have been reached and higher values are expected in the near future. A conventional beam dump based on ionization or radiation loss mechanisms is cumbersome and costly, not to mention the radiological hazards. We revisit the stopping power theory of high-energy charged particles in matter and discuss the associated problem of beam dumping from the point of view of collective deceleration. The collective stopping length in an ionized gas can be several orders of magnitude shorter than that described by the Bethe-Bloch formulas and associated with multiple electromagnetic cascades in solids. At the same time, the tenuous density of the gas makes the radioactivation negligible. Such a compact beam dump without radioactivation works well for short and dense bunches, as they are typically generated from a laser wakefield accelerator. In addition, the nonuniform transverse wakefield can induce microbunching of the electron bunch by betatron oscillation. The microstructure could serve as a prebunched source for coherent radiation or feeding a free electron laser.

  14. Manufacturing prototypes for LIPAC beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, F., E-mail: fernando.arranz@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Brañas, B.; Iglesias, D. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Nomen, O. [IREC, Barcelona (Spain); Rapisarda, D.; Lapeña, J.; Muñoz, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Szcepaniak, B. [GALVANO-T, Windeck (Germany); Manini, J. [CARMAN, Madrid (Spain); Gómez, J. [TRINOS VACUUM, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Electroforming of copper and electronbeam welding techniques are compared. •Mechanical properties of Cu–stainless steel joint by electroforming are presented. •Achieved manufacturing tolerances are shown. •The difficulties and solutions for the complicated manufacturing are explained. -- Abstract: The purpose of the research is to define the most adequate manufacturing process for the dump of a linear deuteron accelerator. The deuteron beam can be pulsed as well as continuous with energies up to 9 MeV. The maximum beam power is 1.12 MW corresponding to a beam current of 125 mA. The requirements on the surface on which the deuterons will be stopped are quite demanding and the length and slenderness of the cone poses a considerable difficulty in the manufacturing process. The design of the beam dump is based on a copper cone 2500 mm long, 300 mm aperture and 5 to 6.5 mm thickness. Basically only two technologies were found feasible for the manufacturing of the cone: Electroforming and Electron Beam Welding (EBW). The article shows the main results found when manufacturing different prototypes.

  15. LHC beam dumping system Extraction channel layout and acceptance

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Uythoven, J; Veness, R; Weterings, W

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must safely abort the LHC beams under all conditions, including those resulting from abnormal behaviour of machine elements or subsystems of the beam dumping system itself. The extraction channels must provide sufficient aperture both for the circulating and extracted beams, over the whole energy range and under various beam parameters. These requirements impose tight constraints on the tolerances of various extraction channel components, and also on the allowed range of beam positions in the region of these components. Operation of the beam dumping system under various fault states has been considered, and the resulting apertures calculated. After describing briefly the beam dumping system and the extraction channel geometry, the various assumptions made in the analysis are presented, before deriving tolerance limits for the relevant equipment and beam parameters.

  16. Challenges and plans for injection and beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2015-01-01

    The injection and beam dumping systems of the LHC will need to be upgraded to comply with the requirements of operation with the HL-LHC beams. The elements of the injection system concerned are the fixed and movable absorbers which protect the LHC in case of an injection kicker error and the injection kickers themselves. The beam dumping system elements under study are the absorbers which protect the aperture in case of an asynchronous beam dump and the beam absorber block. The operational limits of these elements and the new developments in the context of the HL-LHC project are described.

  17. Beam dump experiment at future electron–positron colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Kanemura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new beam dump experiment at future colliders with electron (e− and positron (e+ beams, BDee, which will provide a new possibility to search for hidden particles, like hidden photon. If a particle detector is installed behind the beam dump, it can detect the signal of in-flight decay of the hidden particles produced by the scatterings of e± beams off materials for dumping. We show that, compared to past experiments, BDee (in particular BDee at e+e− linear collider significantly enlarges the parameter region where the signal of the hidden particle can be discovered.

  18. Neutral beam dump with cathodic arc titanium gettering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A; Krivenko, A S; Murakhtin, S V; Savkin, V Ya; Korepanov, S A; Putvinski, S

    2011-03-01

    An incomplete neutral beam capture can degrade the plasma performance in neutral beam driven plasma machines. The beam dumps mitigating the shine-through beam recycling must entrap and retain large particle loads while maintaining the beam-exposed surfaces clean of the residual impurities. The cathodic arc gettering, which provides high evaporation rate coupled with a fast time response, is a powerful and versatile technique for depositing clean getter films in vacuum. A compact neutral beam dump utilizing the titanium arc gettering was developed for a field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by 1 MW, 20-40 keV neutral hydrogen beams. The titanium evaporator features a new improved design. The beam dump is capable of handling large pulsed gas loads, has a high sorption capacity, and is robust and reliable. With the beam particle flux density of 5 × 10(17) H∕(cm(2) s) sustained for 3-10 ms, the beam recycling coefficient, defined as twice the ratio of the hydrogen molecular flux leaving the beam dump to the incident flux of high-energy neutral atoms, is ∼0.7. The use of the beam dump allows us to significantly reduce the recycling of the shine-through neutral beam as well as to improve the vacuum conditions in the machine.

  19. Uncoupled thermoelasticity solutions applied on beam dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzia, A.; Antonakakis, T.

    2016-06-01

    In particle accelerators the process of beam absorption is vital. At CERN particle beams are accelerated at energies of the order of TeV. In the event of a system failure or following collisions, the beam needs to be safely absorbed by dedicated protecting blocks. The thermal shock caused by the rapid energy deposition within the absorbing block causes thermal stresses that may rise above critical levels. The present paper provides a convenient expression of such stresses under hypotheses described hereafter. The temperature field caused by the beam energy deposition is assumed to be Gaussian. Such a field models a non-diffusive heat deposition. These effects are described as thermoelastic as long as the stresses remain below the proportional limit and can be analytically modeled by the coupled equations of thermoelasticity. The analytical solution to the uncoupled thermoelastic problem in an infinite domain is presented herein and matched with a finite unit radius sphere. The assumption of zero diffusion as well as the validity of the match with a finite geometry is quantified such that the obtained solutions can be rigorously applied to real problems. Furthermore, truncated series solutions, which are not novel, are used for comparison purposes. All quantities are nondimensional and the problem reduces to a dependence of five dimensionless parameters. The equations of elasticity are presented in the potential formulation where the shear potential is assumed to be nil due to the source being a gradient and the absence of boundaries. Nevertheless equivalent three-dimensional stresses are computed using the compressive potential and optimized using standard analytical optimization methods. An alternative algorithm for finding the critical points of the three-dimensional stress function is presented. Finally, a case study concerning the proton synchrotron booster dump is presented where the aforementioned analytical solutions are used and the preceding assumptions

  20. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E; Hatae, T; Vayakis, G; Bassan, M; Itami, K

    2013-10-01

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated.

  1. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Vayakis, G.; Bassan, M.; Itami, K.

    2013-10-01

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated.

  2. TCDQ-TCT retraction and losses during asynchronous beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Chiara; Quaranta, Elena; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the β* reach.

  3. Results from the LHC Beam Dump Reliability Run

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Carlier, E; Castronuovo, F; Ducimetière, L; Gallet, E; Goddard, B; Magnin, N; Verhagen, H

    2008-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System is one of the vital elements of the LHC Machine Protection System and has to operate reliably every time a beam dump request is made. Detailed dependability calculations have been made, resulting in expected rates for the different system failure modes. A 'reliability run' of the whole system, installed in its final configuration in the LHC, has been made to discover infant mortality problems and to compare the occurrence of the measured failure modes with their calculations.

  4. Notes on dumping gold beam in the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C.J.; Ahrens, L.; Thieberger, P.

    2010-08-01

    Localized losses of gold beam in the AGS during RHIC Run 8 produced vacuum leaks which required the replacement of several vacuum chambers. A review of what happened and why was given by Leif Ahrens at the Run 8 Retreat. The following notes trace the subsequent development of clean dumping of gold beam on the beam dump in the J10 straight. The novel idea of stripping Au77+ ions in order to put them directly into the upstream face of the dump was introduced by Leif Ahrens and developed by all three of us. George Mahler made the actual stripping device and Dave Gassner developed its control. Leif Ahrens successfully commissioned the device with gold beam during Run 10. The reader may find it helpful to first view the figures herein and then refer to the text for details.

  5. Calculation of New Beam Dump Shielding for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 100 MeV high intensity cyclotron, CYCIAE-100, places a demanding requirement on the collection device to accept the proton beam. According to the original design, the beam dump would be settled in the cyclotron vault. It uses pure aluminum as the target material,

  6. The LHC Beam Dumping System Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Voumard, N

    2005-01-01

    Two LHC beam dumping systems (LBDS) will fast-extract the counter-rotating beams safely from the LHC collider during setting-up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. They consist of 15 fast pulsed magnets per ring for beam extraction from the accelerator combined with 10 fast pulsed magnets for horizontal and vertical beam dilution. Dump requests will come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system for emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These spontaneously issued dump requests will be synchronised with the 3 µs beam abort gap within a fail-safe trigger synchronisation unit (TSU) based on a digital phase lock loop (DPLL) locked on the beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. Afterwards, the synchronised trigger pulse will be distributed to the fast pulsed magnet high voltage generators through a redundant fault tolerant trigger distribution system based on the...

  7. Neutronics Assessments for a RIA Fragmentation Line Beam Dump Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Boles, Jason; Reyes, Susana; Stein, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Heavy ion and radiation transport calculations are in progress for conceptual beam dump designs for the fragmentation line of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Using the computer code PHITS, a preliminary design of a motor-driven rotating wheel beam dump and adjacent downstream multipole has been modeled. Selected results of these calculations are given, including neutron and proton flux in the wheel, absorbed dose and displacements per atom in the hub materials, and heating from prompt radiation and from decay heat in the multipole.

  8. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Döbrich, Babette; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-01-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments su...

  9. ALPtraum. ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  10. Beam dumps design and local radiation protection at TERA synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, A; Campi, F; Agosteo, S

    2005-01-01

    The realisation of the National Center of Hadrontherapy was funded by the Italian Government in 2002. The Centre will be built in the area of Pavia (Italy). The synchrotron designed in the framework of this programme will accelerate protons and carbon ions up to 250 MeV and 400 MeV u(-1), respectively. Some of the main aspects which were taken into account in the design of the acceleration system are the patient's safety and the beam control. From this point of view an important role is played by the beam dumps in the synchrotron ring and upstream of the extraction system. In particular, an horizontal and a vertical beam dump will be installed in the synchrotron ring: the former will be used for lowering the beam intensity and the latter for beam abortion. The dump at the extraction will absorb the particles during the mounting and the falling ramps of the synchrotron magnetic cycle, thus extracting only the flat top of the ion spill. Beam dumps can produce intense fields of secondary radiation (neutrons, charged light-hadrons and photons) and high rates of induced activity, since they can absorb the beam completely. Usually they have to be shielded to protect the electronics during machine operation and to attenuate the radiation dose below the limits imposed by the law when the personnel access to the synchrotron hall. The part of the shielding design of the beam dumps concerning with the acceleration of protons was made using Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code. Both induced activity and secondary radiation were taken into account. The shields against secondary radiation produced by carbon ions were designed, referring only to secondary neutrons, taking double-differential distributions from the literature as sources for the FLUKA simulations. The induced activity from carbon ions interactions was estimated analytically, using the data generated by the EPAX 2 code. The dose-equivalent rates from the induced radionuclides were calculated at 1 m from the

  11. Enhancement of resistance against high energy laser pulse injection with chevron beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsuka, Eiichi; Hatae, Takaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Bassan, Michele; Vayakis, George; Walsh, Michael [ITER Organization, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex, Provence 13067 (France); Itami, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The laser irradiation tests onto flat-mirror-molybdenum sample were carried out. • The absorbed energy density is the correct figure of the laser-induced damage. • Experiments validated the design of a new beam dump called chevron beam dump. • The chevron beam dump would have much longer lifetime than conventional beam dumps. - Abstract: The laser beam dump of the Edge Thomson scattering (ETS) in ITER is being developed and a new type of beam dump called the chevron beam dump was proposed recently. The laser-induced damage on the surface is one of the most severe issues to be overcome. The key concept of the chevron beam dump is to reduce the laser energy absorption per unit area and to absorb the laser beam gradually. The laser irradiation tests onto flat-mirror-molybdenum sample were carried out. It was clarified that the absorbed (rather than incident) energy density of the laser pulses should be the correct figure of merit for the laser-induced damage. Therefore, the concept of the chevron beam dump design, that minimizes the absorbed laser energy density per unit area, was validated experimentally. The chevron beam dump enables us to extend its lifetime drastically relative to conventional beam dumps. Potential methods to improve the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) are also discussed in this paper.

  12. Irradiation Effects on RIA Fragmentation Cu Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes, Susana; Boles, Jason; Stein, Werner; Wirth, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of conceptual R&D activities in support of the Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility, high priority is given to the development of high-power fragmentation beam dumps. A pre-study was made of a static water-cooled Cu beam dump that can meet requirements for a 400 MeV/u uranium beam. The issue of beam sputtering was addressed and found to be not a significant issue. Preliminary radiation transport simulations show significant damage (dpa) in the vicinity of the Bragg peak of uranium ions. Experimental data show that defects in Cu following neutron or high-energy particle irradiation tend to saturate at doses between 1 and 5 dpa, and this saturation in defect density also results in saturation of mechanical property degradation. However, effects of swift heavy ion irradiation and the production of gaseous and solid transmutant elements still need to be addressed. Initial calculations indicate that He concentrations on the order of 100 appm are produced in the beam dump after several weeks...

  13. Search for Dark Matter with LHC proton Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM) comprising particles in the mass range of a few MeV to GeV is waiting to be explored, given the many theoretical models accommodating cosmological abundance. We hereby propose an experiment with the LHC proton beam of 7 TeV striking onto the beam dump target, emitting neutrinos and possibly, Dark Matter candidates. This experiment would also permit to observe signatures involving elastic and inelastic processes involving DM candidates, electrons and strongly interacting particles present in nuclei of the dump target. There will be residual neutrino background present in each of these signatures, hence the proposed experimental detector sub-systems would be such that they would involve as final states, elastically or inelasticity scattered, standard model particles. The bump or the excess in the tail of the kinematic distributions will eventually give us glimpse of presence of new particles which could possibly be Dark Matter candidates. Given the parameters of the LHC machine, the sensitivity...

  14. Apertures in the LHC Beam Dump System and Beam Losses During Beam Abort

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Gyr, M; Koschik, A; Uythoven, J; Weiler, T

    2008-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system (LBDS) is used to dispose accelerated protons and ions in a wide energy range from 450 GeV up to 7 TeV. An abort gap of $3 \\mu$s is foreseen to avoid sweeping particles through the LHC ring aperture. This paper gives a brief overview of the critical apertures in the extraction region and the two beam dump lines. MAD-X tracking studies have been made to investigate the impact of particles swept through the aperture due to extraction kicker failures or the presence of particles within the abort gap. The issue of failures during beam abort is a major concern for machine protection as well as a critical factor for safe operation of the experiments and their detectors.

  15. Beam dumps, stoppers and Faraday cups at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, D.R.; McFarlane, A.; Lewandowski, E.

    1989-04-01

    This presentation features most of the beam dumps and stoppers necessary to absorb and dissipate SLC e/sup +-/ beams with transverse sizes from several tens to a few hundred microns (..mu..m). Solutions are based on electromagnetic cascade shower calculations for N = 5 /times/ 10/sup 10/ e/bunch and momenta ranging from 1.2 GeV/c in the damping ring transport systems to 50 GeV/c in the arcs matching sections and the Final Focus region. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Calculation of the energy deposition in a water beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Schönbacher, Helmut

    1975-01-01

    The energy deposition per interacting proton in GeV/cm/sup 3/ and the star density in star/cm/sup 3/ have been calculated in a water cylinder with a Monte Carlo computer program. These calculations permit the estimation of the temperature rise, induced radioactivity, etc., in beam dumps of high energy accelerator and storage rings. The calculation assumed a cylinder of different diameters and lengths and an incident proton beam energy of 20, 200, 300 and 400 GeV. (5 refs).

  17. Performance Improvements of the SPS Internal Beam Dump for the HL-LHC Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chiggiato, P; Ferreira Somoza, J A; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Senaj, V; Uythoven, J

    2013-01-01

    The SPS internal beam dump has been designed for beam specifications well below the HL-LHC ones, and for modes of operation which may not be adequate for the HL-LHC era. The present system suffers from several limitations in the allowed intensity and energy range, and its vacuum performance affects nearby high-voltage kicker systems. In this report the limitations of the internal beam dump system are reviewed, and the possible improvements compared. Preliminary upgrade proposals are presented, taking into consideration the expected operational HL-LHC parameters.

  18. Beam Commissioning and Performance Characterisation of the LHC Beam Dump Kicker Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Ducimetière, L; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Magnin, N

    2010-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system was commissioned with beam in 2009. This paper describes the operational experience with the kicker systems and the tests and measurements to qualify them for operation. The kicker performance was characterized with beam by measurements of the deflection angles, using bunches extracted at different times along the kicker sweep. The kicker performance was also continuously monitored for each dump with measurement and analysis of all kick pulses, allowing diagnostic of errors and of long-term drifts. The results are described and compared to the expectations.

  19. Radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, S

    1997-01-01

    The OPAL microvertex silicon detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system is described. This system was designed and implemented in order to measure the radiation dose received at every beam crossing and to induce a fast beam dump if the radiation dose exceeds a given threshold.

  20. Performance Studies of the SPS Beam Dump System for HL-LHC Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, FM; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Cornelis, K; Ducimetiere, L; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Losito, R; Maglioni, C; Meddahi, M; Pasdeloup, F; Senaj, V; Steele, GE

    2014-01-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) beam dump system is a concern for the planned High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) operation. The system has initially been designed for very different beam parameters compared to those which will reign after the completion of the LHC injectors upgrade, when the SPS will have to operate with unprecedented beam brightness. This paper describes the relevant operational and failure modes of the dump system together with the expected beam loading levels. Tracking studies are presented, considering both normal operation and failure scenarios, with particular attention to the location and level of proton losses. First FLUKA investigations and thermo-mechanical analysis of the high-energy absorber block are described.

  1. The design of multi-megawatt actively cooled beam dumps for the Neutral-Beam Engineering Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, J. A.; Koehler, G.; Wells, R. P.

    1981-10-01

    To test neutral beam sources up to 170 keV, 65 Amps, with 30 second beam on times, actively cooled beam dumps for both the neutral and ionized particles are required. The dumps should be able to dissipate a wide range of power density profiles by utilizing a standard modular panel design which is incorporated into a moveable support structure. The thermal hydraulic design of the panels permit the dissipation of 2 kW/sq cm anywhere on the panel surface. The water requirements of the dumps are optimized by restricting the flow to panel sections where the heat flux falls short of the design value. The mechanical design of the beam-dump structures is described along with tests performed on two different panel designs. The dissipation capabilities of the panels were tested at the critical regions to verify their use in the beam dump assemblies.

  2. Heavy Flavour Cascade Production in a Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    SHiP will use a 400~GeV/c proton beam impinging on a several interaction length long Molybdenum target. Heavy flavour hadrons produced in the dump can decay semi-leptonically, which can produce both the Heavy Neutral Leptons as signal, but also potential background from muons and neutrinos. The absolute rate of heavy flavour production is taken from measurements. Pythia is used to predict the phase space distribution of the charm and beauty hadrons which are produced both in the primary interaction of the 400~GeV/c proton and in interactions of the secondaries produced in the cascade. The full cascade production of both HNL and background is compared to that reported in the SHiP Technical Proposal, where only the primary $pN$ interactions were taken into account.

  3. Design of Air-Cooled Beam Dump for Extraction Line of PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Perillo-Marcone, A; Venturi, V; Antonakakis, T; Vlachoudis, V; Nowak, E; Mason, G; Battistin, M; Czapski, M; Sgobba, S

    2013-01-01

    A new beam dump has been designed, which withstands the future proton beam extracted from the Proton Syncrotron Booster (PSB) at CERN, consisting of up to 1E14 protons per pulse at 2 GeV after its upgrade in 2018/2019. In order to be able to efficiently release the deposited heat, the new dump will be made out of a single cylindrical block of a copper alloy and cooled by forced ventilation. In order to determine the energy density distribution deposited by the beam in the dump, Monte Carlo simulations were performed using FLUKA, and thermomechanical analyses carried out by importing the energy density into Ansys. In addition, CFD simulations of the airflow were carried out in order to accurately estimate the heat transfer convection coefficient on the surface of the dump. This paper describes the design process and highlights the constraints of integrating a new dump for increased beam power into the existing facility.

  4. Entrance and Exit CSR Impedance for Non-Ultrarelativistic Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rui; Tsai, Cheng Ying [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    For a high-brightness electron beam being transported through beamlines involving bending systems, the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and longitudinal space charge (LSC) interaction could often cause microbunching instability. The semi-analytical Vlasov solver for microbunching gain* depends on the impedances for the relevant collective effects. The existing results for CSR impedances are usually obtained for the ultrarelativistic limit. To extend the microbunching analysis to cases of low energies, such as the case of an ERL merger, or to density modulations at extremely small wavelength, it is necessary to extend the impedance analysis to the non-ultrarelativistic regime. In this study, we present the impedance analysis for the transient CSR interaction in the non-ultrarelativistic regime, for transients including both entrance to and exit from a magnetic dipole. These impedance results will be compared to their ultra-relativistic counterparts**, and the corresponding wakefield obtained from the impedance for low-energy beams will be compared with the existing results of transient CSR wakefield for general beam energies***.

  5. Automatic Post-Operational Checks for the LHC Beam Dump System

    CERN Document Server

    Gallet, E; Baggiolini, V; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Lamont, M; Magnin, N; Verhagen, H; Uythoven, J

    2008-01-01

    In order to ensure the required level of reliability of the LHC beam dump system a series of post-operational checks must be performed after each dump action. This paper describes the various data handling and data analysis systems which are required internally and at different levels of the LHC control system, for postoperational checks, and the experience from the commissioning of the equipment where these systems were used to analyse the dump kicker performance.

  6. Status of the OPAL microvertex detector and new radiation monitoring and beam dump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Sijbrand de

    1998-11-01

    The status of the OPAL Phase III microvertex detector is discussed briefly. This is followed by a more detailed description of the OPAL microvertex detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system. This system measures AC currents induced by radiation on each passing of the beams in silicon diodes mounted close to the microvertex detector front-end electronics. Examples are shown for incidents leading to a beam dump trigger. The integrated radiation dose is also discussed.

  7. Thermal, mechanical and fluid flow aspects of the high power beam dump for FRIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilov, Mikhail; Aaron, Adam; Amroussia, Aida; Bergez, Wladimir; Boehlert, Carl; Burgess, Thomas; Carroll, Adam; Colin, Catherine; Durantel, Florent; Ferrante, Paride; Fourmeau, Tiffany; Graves, Van; Grygiel, Clara; Kramer, Jacob; Mittig, Wolfgang; Monnet, Isabelle; Patel, Harsh; Pellemoine, Frederique; Ronningen, Reginald; Schein, Mike

    2016-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at Michigan State University is based on a 400 kW heavy ion accelerator and uses in-flight production and separation to generate rare isotope beams. The first section of the fragment separator houses the rare isotope production target, and the primary beam dump to stop the unreacted primary beam. The experimental program will use 400 kW ion beams from 16O to 238U. After interaction with the production target, over 300 kW in remaining beam power must be absorbed by the beam dump. A rotating water-cooled thin-shell metal drum was chosen as the basic concept for the beam dump. Extensive thermal, mechanical and fluid flow analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of the high power density in the beam dump shell and in the water. Many properties were optimized simultaneously, such as shell temperature, mechanical strength, fatigue strength, and radiation resistance. Results of the analyses of the beam dump performance with different design options will be discussed. For example, it was found that a design modification to the initial water flow pattern resulted in a substantial increase in the wall heat transfer coefficient. A detailed evaluation of materials for the shell is in progress. The widely used titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V (wt%), is presently considered as the best candidate, and is the subject of specific tests, such as studies of performance under heavy ion irradiation.

  8. The design of the electron beam dump unit of Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cite, L. H.; Yilmaz, M.

    2016-03-01

    The required simulations of the electron beam interactions for the design of electron beam dump unit for an accelerator which will operate to get two Infra-Red Free Electron Lasers (IR-FEL) covering the range of 3-250 microns is presented in this work. Simulations have been carried out to understand the interactions of a bulk of specially shaped of four different and widely used materials for the dump materials for a 77 pC, 40 MeV, 13 MHz repetition rate e-beam. In the simulation studies dump materials are chosen to absorb the 99% of the beam energy and to restrict the radio-isotope production in the bulk of the dump. A Lead shielding also designed around the dump core to prevent the leakage out of the all the emitted secondary radiations, e.g., neutrons, photons. The necessary dump material requirements, for the overall design considerations and the possible radiation originated effects on the dump unit, are discussed and presented.

  9. Simulation of the Beam Dump for a High Intensity Electron Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Doebert, S; Lefevre, T; Pepitone, K

    2014-01-01

    The CLIC Drive Beam is a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. A test facility for the Drive Beam electron gun will soon be commissioned at CERN. In this contribution we outline the design of a beam dump / Faraday cup capable of resisting the beam’s thermal load. The test facility will operate initially up to 140 keV. At such low energies, the electrons are absorbed very close to the surface of the dump, leading to a large energy deposition density in this thin layer. In order not to damage the dump, the beam must be spread over a large surface. For this reason, a small-angled cone has been chosen. Simulations using Geant4 have been performed to estimate the distribution of energy deposition in the dump. The heat transport both within the electron pulse and between pulses has been modelled using finite element methods to check the resistance of the dump at high repetition rates. In addition, the possibility of using a moveable dump to measure the beam profile and emittance is discussed.

  10. The Beam Energy Tracking System of the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Carlier, E; Gräwer, G; Voumard, N; Gjelsvik, R

    2005-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System (LBDS) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, will be installed around the straight section 6. It comprises per ring 15 horizontally deflecting extraction kickers, followed by 1 quadrupole, 15 vertically deflecting steel septum magnets, 10 dilution kickers and, in a separate cavern several hundred meters away, an external absorber assembly. A beam dump request can occur at any moment during the operation of the collider, from injection at 450 GeV up to top energy at 7 TeV. The Beam Energy Tracking System (BETS) monitors the deflection strength of each active element of the LBDS with respect to the beam energy in order to guarantee the correct extraction trajectory over the complete operational range and under all operational conditions. Its main functions are the acquisition of the beam energy, the generation of the kick strength reference signals for the extraction and dilution kickers, the continuous checking that the kicker high voltage generat...

  11. The 40 kA dumping system for the ISR beams

    CERN Document Server

    Schnuriger, J C

    1975-01-01

    It has been necessary to build a fast and reliable system which can dump the beam whenever safety monitors indicate a hardware fault or a beam loss. The beam in each ISR is dumped by means of four fast pulsed magnets deflecting the particles vertically onto an absorber block situated in the same long straight section. The 0.75 Omega , 40 kA pulse generator now energizing the four fast pulsed magnets is described with special attention to the principles and technological solutions which were adopted in order to achieve the necessary reliability of the system for each type of operation, and particularly during long colliding beam experiments. (7 refs).

  12. Dependability analysis of a safety critical system the LHC beam dumping system at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the dependability study of the Beam Dumping System of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high energy particle accelerator to be commissioned at CERN in summer 2007. There are two identical, independent LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS), one per LHC beam, each consisting of a series of magnets that extract the particle beam from the LHC ring into the extraction line leading to the absorbing block. The consequences of a failure within the LBDS can be very severe. This risk is reduced by applying redundancy to the design of the most critical components and on-line surveillance that, in case of a detected failure, issues a safe operation abort, called false beam dump. The system has been studied applying Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and reliability prediction. The system failure processes have been represented with a state transition diagram, governed by a Markov regenerative stochastic process, and analysed for different operational scenarios for one year of operati...

  13. First Operational Experience with the LHC Beam Dump Trigger Synchronisation Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Magnin, N; Juteau, P; Voumard, N

    2011-01-01

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented f...

  14. Further Study of Prompt Neutrino Production in a Proton Beam Dump Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In previous beam dump experiments at CERN, the production of prompt @n^e and @n(@m) in proton-nucleus collisions has been established. A difference in the prompt @n^e and @n(@m) fluxes which would indicate new physics, cannot be ruled out on the basis of existing data.\\\\ \\\\ The main aim of this beam dump experiment is to check with much better accuracy the equality of the prompt @n^e and @n(@m) fluxes. The use of two copper dumps with average density 1 and 1/3 permits the separation of the prompt and conventional neutrino fluxes by extrapolation to infinite density. The dumps will be located at the downstream end of the decay tunnel of the SPS neutrino facility.

  15. LHC Beam Dump System: Analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. It is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missin...

  16. Radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebel, O.; Braibant, S.; de Jong, S. J.; Hammarström, R.; Hilgers, R.; Honma, A. K.; Jovanovic, P.; Lauber, J. A.; Neal, H. A.

    1998-02-01

    The radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector is described. This system was designed and implemented to measure the radiation dose over time scales varying from a millisecond to a year, and to induce a fast beam dump if the radiation exceeds a given threshold in dose and in dose rate within a very small time interval. The system uses reverse-biased silicon diodes as sensitive elements and good stability is achieved by AC coupling of the amplifiers to the sensors.

  17. Upgrades to the LHC Injection and Beam Dumping Systems for the HL-LHC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Hrivnak, Jan; Lechner, Anton; Maciariello, Fausto; Mereghetti, Alessio; Perillo Marcone, Antonio; Vittal Shetty, N; Shetty, Nikhil Vittal; Steele, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC project will push the performance of the LHC injection and beam dumping systems towards new limits. This paper describes the systems affected and presents the new beam parameters for these systems. It also describes the studies to be performed to determine which sub-components of these systems need to be upgraded to fulfil the new HL-LHC requirements. The results from the preliminary upgrade studies for the injection absorbers TDI are presented.

  18. Thermal analysis of injection beam dump of high-intensity rapid-cycling synchrotron in J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Saha, P. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.; Nihei, T.

    2017-10-01

    The beam dump at the beam injection area in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) accepts beams that pass through the charge exchange foil without ideal electron stripping during the multi-turn beam injection. The injection beam dump consists of the beam pipe, beam stopper, radiation shield, and cooling mechanism. The ideal beam power into the injection beam dump is 400 W in the case of design RCS extraction beam power of 1 MW with a healthy foil, which has 99.7 % charge stripping efficiency. On the other hand, as a radiation generator, the RCS is permitted to be operated with maximum average beam power of 4 kW into the injection beam dump based on the radiation shielding calculation, in consideration of lower charge stripping efficiency due to the foil deterioration. In this research, to evaluate the health of the RCS injection beam dump system from the perspective of the heat generation, a thermal analysis was performed based on the actual configuration with sufficiently large region, including the surrounding concrete and soil. The calculated temperature and heat flux density distribution showed the validity of the mesh spacing and model range. The calculation result showed that the dumped 4 kW beam causes the temperature to increase up to 330, 400, and 140 °C at the beam pipe, beam stopper, and radiation shield, respectively. Although these high temperatures induce stress in the constituent materials, the calculated stress values were lower than the ultimate tensile strength of each material. Transient temperature analysis of the beam stopper, which simulated the sudden break of the charge stripper foil, demonstrated that one bunched beam pulse with the maximum beam power does not lead to a serious rise in the temperature of the beam stopper. Furthermore, from the measured outgassing rate of stainless steel at high temperature, the rise in beam line pressure due to additive outgassing from the heated beam pipe was estimated to have a negligible

  19. Segmented Beam Dump for Time Resolved Spectrometry on a High Current Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Lefèvre, T; Bravin, E; Braun, H H

    2008-01-01

    In the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3), the strong coupling between the beam and the accelerating cavities induces transient effects such that the head of the pulse is accelerated twice as much as the rest of the pulse. Three spectrometer lines are installed along the linac with the aim of measuring energy spread versus time with a 20ns resolution. A major difficulty is due to the high power carried by the beam which imposes extreme constraints of thermal and radiation resistances on the detector. This paper presents the design and the performances of a simple and easy-to-maintain device, called ‘segmented dump'. In this device, the particles are stopped inside metallic plates and the deposited charge is measured in the same way as in Faraday cups. Simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo code ‘FLUKA' to evaluate the problems arising from the energy deposition and to find ways to prevent or reduce them. The detector resolution was optimized by an adequate choice of material and thickness of the...

  20. Dark Matter Search in a Proton Beam Dump with MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; et al.

    2017-02-08

    The MiniBooNE-DM collaboration searched for vector-boson mediated production of dark matter using the Fermilab 8 GeV Booster proton beam in a dedicated run with $1.86 \\times 10^{20}$ protons delivered to a steel beam dump. The MiniBooNE detector, 490~m downstream, is sensitive to dark matter via elastic scattering with nucleons in the detector mineral oil. Analysis methods developed for previous MiniBooNE scattering results were employed, and several constraining data sets were simultaneously analyzed to minimize systematic errors from neutrino flux and interaction rates. No excess of events over background was observed, leading to an 90\\% confidence limit on the dark-matter cross section parameter, $Y=\\epsilon^2\\alpha^\\prime(m_\\chi/m_v)^4 \\lesssim10^{-8}$, for $\\alpha^\\prime=0.5$ and for dark-matter masses of $0.01beam dump search in this mass and coupling range and extends below the mass range of direct dark matter searches. These results demonstrate a novel and powerful approach to dark matter searches with beam dump experiments.

  1. Entrance channel effect with stable and radioactive beams using dynamical cluster decay model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Raj, E-mail: rajkumarfzr@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei” and INFN, University of Padova, Padova-35131 (Italy); Jain, Deepika [School of Physics and Material Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India)

    2014-09-15

    The decay of hot and rotating {sup 172}Yb*, formed in two entrance channels {sup 124}Sn + {sup 48}Ca and {sup 132}Sn + {sup 40}Ca, is studied using the dynamical cluster-decay model. The effect of entrance channel, deformations (up to β{sub 2}), barrier modification and fusion enhancement are addressed. The decay pattern of compound system, formed in different channels at comparable energy around the barrier, shows change in magnitude with structure remains almost same. There is an increase in the fusion probability with decrease in barrier modification, which leads to fusion enhancement at low energies. The higher ℓ values are contributing for {sup 132}Sn + {sup 40}Ca channel at lower energies as compare to {sup 124}Sn + {sup 48}Ca. It is inferred that with the use of stable and radioactive beam, forming same compound nucleus, the entrance channel dependence changes with the excitation energy.

  2. Beam dumping ghost signals in electric sweep scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, M.P.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.; Leitner, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Keller, R.; /LBL, Berkeley; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

    2004-12-01

    Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

  3. The control system for the LEP beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, E. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Aimar, A. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Bretin, J.L. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Marchand, A. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Mertens, V. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Verhagen, H. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland))

    1994-12-15

    A beam abort system has been developed and installed in LEP to allow the controlled disposal of the stored beam energy. In view of the importance of the system for the protection of the experiments and the machine, and the technical problems in a pulsed high-power environment, special care has been taken to arrive at a clean functional separation between the different elements of the control electronics, using optical transmission of information. All interlocks have been implemented in hardware. The slow controls and the monitoring tasks have been realized in the framework of a modular software tool kit. ((orig.))

  4. Detailed mechanical design of the LIPAc beam dump radiological shielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nomen Escoda, Oriol; Mollá, Joaquin; Sanmartí, Manel; José I. Martínez; Arranz, Fernando; Iglesias, Daniel; Barrera, German; Brañas, Beatriz; Ogando, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The LIPAc is a 9 MeV, D+ linear prototype accelerator for the validation of the IFMIF accelerator design. The high intensity, 125 mA CW beam is stopped in a copper cone involving a high production of neutrons and gamma radiation and activation of its surface. The beam stopper is surrounded by a shielding to attenuate the resulting radiation so that dose rate values comply with the limits at the different zones of the installation. The shielding includes for that purpose polyethylene rings...

  5. Radiation Protection Study for the Shielding Design of the LINAC4 Beam Dump at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine an optimal shielding of the LINAC4 beam dump fulfilling the radiation protection requirements. Therefore a detailed Monte-Carlo calculation using FLUKA particle transport and interaction code has been performed and the relevant physics quantities, such as particle fluences, neutron energy spectra, residual and prompt dose rates, air and water activation have been evaluated for different LINAC4 operation phases.

  6. High and low energy gamma beam dump designs for the gamma beam delivery system at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Zafar; Matei, Catalin; Ur, Calin A.; Mitu, Iani-Octavian; Udup, Emil; Petcu, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is under construction in Magurele, Bucharest, Romania. The facility will use two 10 PW lasers and a high intensity, narrow bandwidth gamma beam for stand-alone and combined laser-gamma experiments. The accurate estimation of particle doses and their restriction within the limits for both personel and general public is very important in the design phase of any nuclear facility. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations are performed using FLUKA and MCNPX to design 19.4 and 4 MeV gamma beam dumps along with shielding of experimental areas. Dose rate contour plots from both FLUKA and MCNPX along with numerical values of doses in experimental area E8 of the facility are performed. The calculated doses are within the permissible limits. Furthermore, a reasonable agreement between both codes enhances our confidence in using one or both of them for future calculations in beam dump designs, radiation shielding, radioactive inventory, and other calculations releated to radiation protection. Residual dose rates and residual activity calculations are also performed for high-energy beam dump and their effect is negligible in comparison to contributions from prompt radiation.

  7. Strong constraints on sub-GeV dark sectors from SLAC beam dump E137.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batell, Brian; Essig, Rouven; Surujon, Ze'ev

    2014-10-24

    We present new constraints on sub-GeV dark matter and dark photons from the electron beam-dump experiment E137 conducted at SLAC in 1980-1982. Dark matter interacting with electrons (e.g., via a dark photon) could have been produced in the electron-target collisions and scattered off electrons in the E137 detector, producing the striking, zero-background signature of a high-energy electromagnetic shower that points back to the beam dump. E137 probes new and significant ranges of parameter space and constrains the well-motivated possibility that dark photons that decay to light dark-sector particles can explain the ∼3.6σ discrepancy between the measured and standard model value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. It also restricts the parameter space in which the relic density of dark matter in these models is obtained from thermal freeze-out. E137 also convincingly demonstrates that (cosmic) backgrounds can be controlled and thus serves as a powerful proof of principle for future beam-dump searches for sub-GeV dark-sector particles scattering off electrons in the detector.

  8. Dark Matter Search in a Beam-Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglieri, M. [Univ. of Genova (Italy). National Institute for Nuclear Physics. et al

    2016-07-05

    MeV-GeV dark matter (DM) is theoretically well motivated but remarkably unexplored. This proposal presents the MeV-GeV DM discovery potential for a $\\sim$1 m$^3$ segmented CsI(Tl) scintillator detector placed downstream of the Hall A beam-dump at Jefferson Lab, receiving up to 10$^{22}$ electrons-on-target (EOT) in 285 days. This experiment (Beam-Dump eXperiment or BDX) would be sensitive to elastic DM-electron and to inelastic DM scattering at the level of 10 counts per year, reaching the limit of the neutrino irreducible background. The distinct signature of a DM interaction will be an electromagnetic shower of few hundreds of MeV, together with a reduced activity in the surrounding active veto counters. A detailed description of the DM particle $\\chi$ production in the dump and subsequent interaction in the detector has been performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Different approaches have been used to evaluate the expected backgrounds: the cosmogenic background has been extrapolated from the results obtained with a prototype detector running at INFN-LNS (Italy), while the beam-related background has been evaluated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed experiment will be sensitive to large regions of DM parameter space, exceeding the discovery potential of existing and planned experiments in the MeV-GeV DM mass range by up to two orders of magnitude.

  9. Mechanical Design of a Heavy Ion Beam Dump for the RIA Fragmentation Line

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Werner; Conner, David L

    2005-01-01

    The RIA fragmentation line requires a beam stop for the primary beam downstream of the first dipole magnet. The beam may consist of U, Ca, Sn, Kr, or O ions. with a variety of power densities. The configuration with highest power density is for the U beam, with a spot size of 3 cm x 3 cm and a total power of up to 300 kW. The mechanical design of the dump that meets these criteria consists of a 50 cm diameter aluminum wheel with water coolant channels. A hollow drive shaft supplies the coolant water and connects the wheel to an electrical motor located in an air space in the floor above the dump. The beam strikes the wheel along the outer perimeter and passes through a thin window of aluminum where 10% of its power is absorbed and the remainder of the beam is absorbed in flowing water behind the window. Rotation of the wheel at 400 RPM results in maximum aluminum temperatures below 100 C and acceptably low thermal stresses of 5 ksi. Rotating the wheel also results in low radiation damage levels by spreading t...

  10. A concept of the photon collider beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Shekhtman, L I

    2014-01-01

    Photon beams at photon colliders are very narrow, powerful (10--15 MW) and cannot be spread by fast magnets (because photons are neutral). No material can withstand such energy density. For the ILC-based photon collider, we suggest using a 150 m long, pressurized (P ~ 4 atm) argon gas target in front of a water absorber which solves the overheating and mechanical stress problems. The neutron background at the interaction point is estimated and additionally suppressed using a 20 m long hydrogen gas target in front of the argon.

  11. Design aspects related to the reliability of the control architecture of the LHC beam dump kicker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E; Bobbio, P; Gräwer, G; Marchand, A; Uythoven, J; Verhagen, H

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dump extraction kicker system consists per ring of 15 magnets and their pulse generators. Their task is to extract the beams on request, over the whole operational beam energy range and synchronously with the beam abort gap. This operation must be fail-safe to avoid damage to accelerator equipment by undesired beam losses. The control system of the LHC beam dump kickers will be based on a modular architecture composed of different subsystems, each with a specific function like slow control, beam energy tracking, beam abort gap synchronisation, fast pulse signal monitoring and post-mortem data acquisition. Depending on the required functionality, the subsystems will be based either on passive fault-tolerant redundant hardware solutions or on active fail-safe hardware and software solutions. In addition, for the most critical subsystems like the beam energy tracking and the beam abort gap synchronisation, two redundant solutions based on different technologies will be implemented in order to preven...

  12. Dark matter search in a Beam-Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglieri, M; Caiffi, B; Celentano, A; De Vita, R; Fanchini, E; Marsicano, L; Musico, P; Osipenko, M; Panza, F; Ripani, M; Santopinto, E; Taiuti, M; Bellini, V; Bondí, M; De Napoli, M; Mammoliti, F; Leonora, E; Randazzo, N; Russo, G; Sperduto, M; Sutera, C; Tortorici, F; Baltzell, N; Dalton, M; Freyberger, A; Girod, F X; Kubarovsky, V; Pasyuk, E; Smith, E S; Stepanyan, S; Ungaro, M; Whitlatch, T; Izaguirre, E; Krnjaic, G; Snowden-Ifft, D; Loomba, D; Carpinelli, M; Sipala, V; Schuster, P; Toro, N; Essig, R; Wood, M H; Holtrop, M; Paremuzyan, R; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Di Bari, D; Lagamba, L; Nappi, E; Perrino, R; Balossino, I; Barion, L; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Lenisa, P; Movsisyan, A; Spizzo, F; Turisini, M; De Persio, F; Cisbani, E; Garibaldi, F; Meddi, F; Urciuoli, G M; Hasch, D; Lucherini, V; Mirazita, M; Pisano, S; Simi, G; D'Angelo, A; Lanza, L; Rizzo, A; Schaerf, C; Zonta, I; Filippi, A; Fegan, S; Kunkel, M; Bashkanov, M; Beltrame, P; Murphy, A; Smith, G; Watts, D; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Glazier, D; Ireland, D; McKinnon, B; Sokhan, D; Colaneri, L; Pereira, S Anefalos; Afanasev, A; Briscoe, B; Strakovsky, I; Kalantarians, N; Weinstein, L; Adhikari, K P; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; Ye, L; Hicks, K; Cole, P; Dobbs, S; Fanelli, C

    2016-01-01

    MeV-GeV dark matter (DM) is theoretically well motivated but remarkably unexplored. This proposal presents the MeV-GeV DM discovery potential for a $\\sim$1 m$^3$ segmented CsI(Tl) scintillator detector placed downstream of the Hall A beam-dump at Jefferson Lab, receiving up to 10$^{22}$ electrons-on-target (EOT) in 285 days. This experiment (Beam-Dump eXperiment or BDX) would be sensitive to elastic DM-electron and to inelastic DM scattering at the level of 10 counts per year, reaching the limit of the neutrino irreducible background. The distinct signature of a DM interaction will be an electromagnetic shower of few hundreds of MeV, together with a reduced activity in the surrounding active veto counters. A detailed description of the DM particle $\\chi$ production in the dump and subsequent interaction in the detector has been performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Different approaches have been used to evaluate the expected backgrounds: the cosmogenic background has been extrapolated from the result...

  13. The Performance of the New TCDQ System in the LHC Beam Dumping Region

    CERN Document Server

    Presland, Andrew; Weterings, Wim

    2005-01-01

    The superconducting quadrupole magnet Q4 and other downstream LHC machine elements risk destruction in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the abort gap. In order to protect these elements, a single sided mobile graphite diluter block TCDQ, in combination with a two-sided secondary collimator TCS and iron shield TCDQM, will be installed in front of Q4. This protection system should also intercept spurious particles in the beam abort gap to prevent quenches from occurring during regular beam aborts, and must also intercept the particles from the secondary halo during low beam lifetime without provoking quenches. The conceptual design of the TCDQ system is briefly presented, with the load conditions and performance criteria. The FLUKA simulations are described results discussed in the context of the expected performance levels for LHC operation.

  14. LHC Beam Dump Design Study - Part III : Off-normal operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Ross, M; Sala, P

    2000-01-01

    The LHC beam dump design study has been preliminarily substantiated by energy deposition simulations (Part I) and heat transfer analyses (Part II). The present report is devoted to the abnormal operating conditions induced by a malfunction of the beam diluters. A general approach to the analysis of off-normal operation is presented, which is derived from standard design norms adopted in the nuclear industry. Attention is focused mainly on the carbon core, which is longitudinally split into segments of different density in order to better distribute the deposited energy. The maximum energy density it absorbs decreases by at least 33%, compared to a uniform standard density carbon core. This structure may sustain any partial sweep failure without major damage, up to the ultimate beam intensity and energy. To minimise the risks inherent in a fully unswept beam, a sacrificial graphite mandrel will be placed on the core axis, surrounded by a thick high strength carbon-carbon composite tube. With this arrangement, ...

  15. FLUKA simulations and measurements for a dump for a 250 GeV/c hadron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Para, A; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, L

    2001-01-01

    FLUKA is a Monte Carlo code, transporting hadron and lepton cascades from several TeV down to a few keV (thermal energies for neutrons). The code is widely employed in various applications, such as particle detector design, shielding, radiation therapy, high energy physics experiments. The FLUKA results were compared with experimental data of dose equivalent and spectral fluence of neutrons produced by a 250 GeV/c proton/pion beam impinging on a beam dump installed in one of the secondary beam lines of the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The dump is a shielding structure made of iron/concrete, designed to absorb completely the high-energy beam. The actual geometry of the clump was modeled in the simulations and the scoring of neutron track length was performed at various locations around it. Importance sampling and Russian Roulette mere used as variance reduction techniques. The simulations results were compared with experimental measurements performed with a Bonner sphere system for neutron spectrometry...

  16. Design and simulations of the neutron dump for the back-streaming white neutron beam at CSNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. Y.; Jing, H. T.; Tang, J. Y.; Wang, X. Q.

    2016-10-01

    For nuclear data measurements with a white neutron source, to control the background at the detector is a key issue. The neutron dump which locates at the end of the white neutron beam line at CSNS has a very important impact to the neutron and gamma backgrounds in the endstation. A sophisticated neutron dump was designed to reduce the backgrounds to the level of about 10-8 relative to the neutron flux. In this paper, the method to suppress both neutron and gamma backgrounds near a white-spectrum neutron dump is introduced. The optimized geometry structure and materials of the dump are described, and the neutron and gamma space distributions have been calculated by using the FLUKA code for different operation settings which are defined by beam spots of Φ30 mm, Φ60 mm and 90 mm×90 mm, respectively.

  17. Neutron measurements around a beam dump bombarded by high energy protons and lead ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    2001-02-01

    Measurements of the spectral fluence and the ambient dose equivalent of secondary neutrons produced by 250 GeV/ c protons and 158 GeV/ c per nucleon lead ions were performed at CERN around a thick beam dump. The experimental results obtained with protons were compared with calculations performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. As the available Monte Carlo codes do not transport particles with mass larger than one atomic mass unit, it is shown that for high energy heavy ions, estimates can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number.

  18. SIMULATION OF NEUTRON BACKGROUNDS FROM THE ILC EXTRACTION LINE BEAM DUMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbha, S; Keller, L.; Maruyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    The operation of the International Linear Collider (ILC) as a precision measurement machine is dependent upon the quality of the charge-coupled device (CCD) silicon vertex detector. An integrated fl ux of 1010 neutrons/cm2 incident upon the vertex detector will degrade its performance by causing displacement damage in the silicon. One source of the neutron background arises from the dumping of the spent electron and positron beams into the extraction line beam dumps. The Monte Carlo program FLUKA was used to simulate the collision of the electron beam with the dump and to determine the resulting neutron fl ux at the interaction point (IP). A collimator and tunnel were added and their effect on the fl ux was analyzed. A neutron source was then generated and directed along the extraction line towards a model of the vertex detector to determine the neutron fl ux in its silicon layers. Models of the beampipe and BeamCal, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter in the very forward region of the detector, were placed in the extraction line and their effects on scattering were studied. The IP fl uence was determined to be 3.7x1010 +/- 2.3x1010 neutrons/cm2/year when the tunnel and collimator were in place, with no appreciable increase in statistics when the tunnel was removed. The BeamCal was discovered to act as a collimator by signifi cantly impeding the fl ow of neutrons towards the detector. The majority of damage done to the fi rst layer of the detector was found to come from neutrons with a direct line of sight from the fi rst extraction line quadrupole QDEX1, with only a small fraction scattering off of the beampipe and into the detector. The 1 MeV equivalent neutron fl uence was determined to be 9.3x108 neutrons/cm2/year from the electron beam alone. The two beams collectively contribute double to this fl uence, which is 19% of the threshold value in one year. Future work will improve the detector model and other sources of neutron backgrounds will be

  19. High power beam dump project for the accelerator prototype LIPAc: cooling design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parro Albeniz, M.

    2015-07-01

    In the nuclear fusion field running in parallel to ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) as one of the complementary activities headed towards solving the technological barriers, IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) project aims to provide an irradiation facility to qualify advanced materials resistant to extreme conditions like the ones expected in future fusion reactors like DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Plant). IFMIF consists of two constant wave deuteron accelerators delivering a 125 mA and 40 MeV beam each that will collide on a lithium target producing an intense neutron fluence (1017 neutrons/s) with a similar spectra to that of fusion neutrons [1], [2]. This neutron flux is employed to irradiate the different material candidates to be employed in the future fusion reactors, and the samples examined after irradiation at the so called post-irradiative facilities. As a first step in such an ambitious project, an engineering validation and engineering design activity phase called IFMIF-EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities) is presently going on. One of the activities consists on the construction and operation of an accelerator prototype named LIPAc (Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator). It is a high intensity deuteron accelerator identical to the low energy part of the IFMIF accelerators. The LIPAc components, which will be installed in Japan, are delivered by different european countries. The accelerator supplies a 9 MeV constant wave beam of deuterons with a power of 1.125 MW, which after being characterized by different instruments has to be stopped safely. For such task a beam dump to absorb the beam energy and take it to a heat sink is needed. Spain has the compromise of delivering such device and CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas) is responsible for such task. The central piece of the beam dump, where the ion beam is stopped, is a copper cone with

  20. Beam control for LINC-NIRVANA: from the binocular entrance pupil to the combined focal plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, T.; Trowitzsch, J.; Herbst, T. M.; Ragazzoni, R.

    2012-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the near-infrared interferometric imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope. Once operational, it will provide an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity and field of view. To meet the tight requirements that result from long exposure interferometric imaging over a large field of view, active control beyond fringe tracking and adaptive optics has to be in place in the telescope and in the instrument domain. The incoming beams of the binocular telescope have to be controlled along the entire optical path, from the entrance pupil to the combined focal plane. The beams have to coincide in the focal plane of the science detector, their pointing origins, offsets, orientations, plate scales, and distortions have to match each other and must not change during the observation. Non-common path effects between AO and science channel, flexure and thermal effects have to be compensated and offioading requests from the adaptive optics and fringe tracking systems have to be arbitrated without introducing unwanted optical path length differences or changes in the geometry of the binocular entrance pupil. Beam Control aspects include pointing, co-pointing and field derotation, active optics and collimation control. In this presentation, the constraints for coherent imaging over a 1.5 arcminute field of view are discussed together with a concept for a distributed control scheme.

  1. Prompt neutrino production in the 1982 beam dump experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bostock, Paul

    Principles of beam dump experiments are reviewed and the 1982 beam dump at CERN using the Big European Bubble Chamber is described in detail. Neutrino events have been detected using both the bubble chamber and its associated electronic detectors. Prompt event rates are established for Vμ , Ṽμ , Ve and Ṽe . The prompt rates are consistent with lepton universality. The charm production cross-section required to explain the prompt electron-(anti)neutrino signal is approximately 16-105/μb per nucleon, assuming linear dependence of this cross-section on nucleon number. This range of values reflects the fact that we have not been able to find a model which is consistent with all aspects of the data. The neutral to charged current ratio for electron-neutrinos is found to be 0.23 ±0.16. The expected number of tau-neutrino events is estimated and kinematic and visual searches for tau-neutrino interactions are described. One visually detected candidate is described in detail. No positive evidence for a tau-ne...

  2. Estimation of the neutron field around the HERA proton beam dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhring, H.-J.; Noack, K.; Zazula, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In this article we present estimates for the neutron fluences above 0.1 MeV to be expected around the proton beam dump of the HERA machine at DESY at 1000 GeV incident energy. The most important details of the absorber and tunnel layout are approximately modeled using the Cartesian and combinatorial geometry packages. In our method a volume neutron source for MORSE Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations has been determined from star densities obtained from the FLUKA Monte Carlo hadronic shower code, combined with estimates of low-energy neutron yields based on results of intranuclear cascade calculations and of the statistical model of evaporation. The calculated neutron fluences are in reasonable agreement with results obtained by the FLUNEV version of the FLUKA code, currently developed at DESY, as well as with estimates based on empirically determined conversion factors between star density and neutron fluence. Additionally, we present neutron spectra and the corresponding dose equivalents as well as the absorbed doses in beam dump materials obtained from the FLUNEV code.

  3. SHiP: a new multipurpose beam-dump experiment at the SPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkstra H.B.

    2016-01-01

    to be constructed beam-dump facility at the CERN SPS. The SHiP Technical Proposal has been submitted to the CERN SPS Committee in April 2015. The 400 GeV/c proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2 × 1020 proton on target in five years. A detector located downstream of the target, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below a few GeV/c2. The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals, i.e. search for Dark Photons, Light scalars and pseudo-scalars, and Heavy Neutral Leptons (HNL. The sensitivity to HNL will allow for the first time to probe, in the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, a coupling range for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Integrated in SHiP is an Emulsion Cloud Chamber, already used in the OPERA experiment, which will allow to study active neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. In particular SHiP can distinguish between vτ and v̄τ, and their deep inelastic scattering cross sections will be measured with statistics three orders of magnitude larger than currently available.

  4. Dark matter search in a Beam-Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglieri, M; De Vita, R; Izaguirre, E; Krnjaic, G; Smith, E; Stepanyan, S; Bersani, A; Fanchini, E; Fegan, S; Musico, P; Osipenko, M; Ripani, M; Santopinto, E; Taiuti, M; Schuster, P; Toro, N; Dalton, M; Freyberger, A; Girod, F -X; Kubarovsky, V; Ungaro, M; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Di Bari, D; Lagamba, L; Nappi, E; Perrino, R; Carpinelli, M; Sipala, V; Aiello, S; Bellini, V; De Napoli, M; Giusa, A; Mammoliti, F; Leonora, E; Noto, F; Randazzo, N; Russo, G; Sperduto, M; Sutera, C; Ventura, C; Barion, L; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Lenisa, P; Movsisyan, A; Spizzo, F; Turisini, M; De Persio, F; Cisbani, E; Fanelli, C; Garibaldi, F; Meddi, F; Urciuoli, G M; Pereira, S Anefalos; De Sanctis, E; Hasch, D; Lucherini, V; Mirazita, M; Montgomery, R; Pisano, S; Simi, G; D'Angelo, A; Lanza, L Colaneri L; Rizzo, A; Schaerf, C; Zonta, I; Calvo, D; Filippi, A; Holtrop, M; Peremuzyan, R; Glazier, D; Ireland, D; McKinnon, B; Afanasev, D Sokhan A; Briscoe, B; Kalantarians, N; Fassi, L El; Weinstein, L; Beltrame, P; Murphy, A; Watts, D; Zana, L; Hicks, K

    2014-01-01

    MeV-GeV dark matter (DM) is theoretically well motivated but remarkably unexplored. This Letter of Intent presents the MeV-GeV DM discovery potential for a 1 m$^3$ segmented plastic scintillator detector placed downstream of the beam-dump at one of the high intensity JLab experimental Halls, receiving up to 10$^{22}$ electrons-on-target (EOT) in a one-year period. This experiment (Beam-Dump eXperiment or BDX) is sensitive to DM-nucleon elastic scattering at the level of a thousand counts per year, with very low threshold recoil energies ($\\sim$1 MeV), and limited only by reducible cosmogenic backgrounds. Sensitivity to DM-electron elastic scattering and/or inelastic DM would be below 10 counts per year after requiring all electromagnetic showers in the detector to exceed a few-hundred MeV, which dramatically reduces or altogether eliminates all backgrounds. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations are in progress to finalize the detector design and experimental set up. An existing 0.036 m$^3$ prototype based on the s...

  5. New exclusion limits for dark gauge forces from proton Bremsstrahlung in beam-dump data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Brunner, Juergen [Aix-Marseille Univ. CNRS/IN2P3 (France). CPPM

    2013-11-15

    We re-analyze published proton beam dump data taken at the U70 accelerator at IHEP Serpukhov with the {nu}-calorimeter I experiment in 1989 to set mass-coupling limits for dark gauge forces. The corresponding data have been used for axion and light Higgs particle searches before. More recently, limits on dark gauge forces have been derived from this data set, considering a dark photon production from {pi}{sup 0}-decay. Here we determine extended mass and coupling exclusion bounds for dark gauge bosons ranging to masses m{sub {gamma}'} of 624 MeV at admixture parameters {epsilon}{approx_equal}10{sup -6} considering high-energy Bremsstrahlung of the U-boson of the initial proton beam and different detection mechanisms.

  6. A high current sinusoidal pulse generator for the diluter magnets of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Vossenberg, Eugène B; Ducimetière, L; Schröder, G H

    2000-01-01

    CERN is constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a superconducting accelerator that will collide protons at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. The two colliding beams will each store an energy of up to 540 MJ, which must be safely deposited within one beam revolution of 89 mu s on two external absorbers located about 700 m from the extraction points at the end of dedicated extraction tunnels. To avoid evaporation of the graphite absorber material by the very high energy density of the incident beams, the deposition area of the beams on the absorber front face will be increased. This is done by a pair of sinusoidally powered orthogonal magnet systems producing approximately an e-shape figure of about 35 mm diameter, with a minimum velocity of 10 mm/ mu s during the dumping process. The pulse generators of the horizontally and vertically deflecting diluter magnets are composed of capacitor banks, discharged by stacks of solid state closing switches. They are connected to the magnets by 28 m long low induct...

  7. The Validity of the Weizsacker-Williams Approximation and the Analysis of Beam Dump Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Miller, Gerald A

    2016-01-01

    Beam dump experiments have been aimed at searching for new particles or putting constraint limits on their existence by comparing null results with expectations based on the cross section calculated using the Weizsacker-Williams (WW) and other approximations to simplify the phase space integral and amplitude calculation. We examine the validity of the widely used WW approximation along with other popular assumptions. Using scalar boson production as an example, we perform the complete calculation to obtain the cross section and the resulting number of particles produced without such approximations, apply these results to exclusion plot and data fitting, and examine the error when using these commonly used approximations. We find that there could be more than 100\\% errors in cross sections and 20\\% errors in exclusion plot boundaries for certain parameters. In the event of a discovery, the mass and coupling of the new boson as determined by the approximate and exact calculations could differ at more than the $...

  8. SHiP: a new multipurpose beam-dump experiment at the SPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, H. B.

    2016-11-01

    SHiP is an experiment to look for very weakly interacting particles at a new to be constructed beam-dump facility at the CERN SPS. The SHiP Technical Proposal has been submitted to the CERN SPS Committee in April 2015. The 400 GeV/c proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2 × 1020 proton on target in five years. A detector located downstream of the target, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below a few GeV/c2. The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals, i.e. search for Dark Photons, Light scalars and pseudo-scalars, and Heavy Neutral Leptons (HNL). The sensitivity to HNL will allow for the first time to probe, in the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, a coupling range for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Integrated in SHiP is an Emulsion Cloud Chamber, already used in the OPERA experiment, which will allow to study active neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. In particular SHiP can distinguish between vτ and v¯τ, and their deep inelastic scattering cross sections will be measured with statistics three orders of magnitude larger than currently available.

  9. Dumping Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Digestive Diseases A-Z Dumping Syndrome What is dumping syndrome? Dumping syndrome occurs when food, especially sugar, ... the colon and rectum—and anus. What causes dumping syndrome? Dumping syndrome is caused by problems with ...

  10. SHiP: a new multipurpose beam-dump experiment at the SPS.

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Hans

    2016-01-01

    SHiP is an experiment to look for very weakly interacting particles at a new to be constructed beam-dum p facility at the CERN SPS. The SHiP Technical Proposal has been submitted to the CERN SPS Committee in April 2015. The 400 GeV/c proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integ rating $2\\times 10^{20}$ proton on target in five years. A detector located downstream of the target, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below a few GeV/c$^2$. The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals, i.e. search for Dark Photons, Light scalars and pseudo-scalars, and Heavy Neutral Leptons (HNL). The sensitivity to HNL will allow for the first time to probe, in the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, a coupling range for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained...

  11. Reliability Analysis of the Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System of the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2013-01-01

    The Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System (TSDS) is one of the core components of the LHC Beam Dumping System and an essential element to guarantee that operation with the beam is always safe. The most critical failure of the TSDS is the missed trigger and re-trigger of at least 2 MKD magnets. This report presents the modelling and analysis of the likelihood of the TSDS to develop such a failure scenario during operation. The analysis returns the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) for the TSDS, and the list of the most important contributors. Sensitivity analysis is performed with respect to the failure parameters and with respect to failure dependencies among components that are in the redundant sets. This includes a study of the common cause failures that are in the TSDS architecture. The results in terms of SIL for the TSDS will be compared to the SIL for the previous architecture which was operational until the Long Shutdown 1. Recommendations in order to obtain higher safety by design will also be gi...

  12. SEA participation in the design of local shielding the beam dump of IFMIF; Participacion de sea en el diseno del blindaje local del beam dumpo de IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, P.

    2012-07-01

    The beam dump is a very important source of radiation both during the operation and after the throttle stop, so it requires the availability of a local shielding to minimize dose in the neighboring rooms during operation as well as the dose to the teams maintenance during shutdown.

  13. Thermal analysis and neutron production characteristics of a low power copper beam dump-cum-target for LEHIPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Y. S.; Thomas, R. G.; Verma, V.; Agarwal, A.; Prasad, N. K.; Bhagwat, P. V.; Saxena, A.; Singh, P.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of heat deposition and neutron production have been carried out for the low power beam dump-cum-target for the 20 MeV Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) facility at BARC using GEANT4 and FLUKA. Thermal analysis and heat transfer calculations have also been carried out using the computational fluid dynamics code CFD ACE+. In this work we present the details of the analysis of the low power beam dump-cum-target designed for conditioning of the accelerator upto a maximum power of 600 kW with a duty cycle of 2% which corresponds to an average power of 12 kW in the first phase.

  14. Simulation and measurement of the radiation field of the 1.4-GeV electron beam dump of the FERMI free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Lars; Casarin, Katia; Vascotto, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    The authors examine the radiation field produced in the vicinity of the main beam dump of the FERMI free-electron laser under the impact of a 1.4-GeV electron beam. Electromagnetic and neutron dose rates are calculated with the Fluka Monte Carlo code and compared with ionisation chamber and superheated drop detector measurements in various positions around the dump. Experimental data and simulation results are in good agreement with a maximum deviation of 25 % in a single location.

  15. Adaptive Beam Smoothing with Plasma-Pinholes for Laser-Entrance-Hole Transmission Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissel, Matthias; Ruggles, Lawrence E.; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathn E.; Speas, C. Shane; Porter, John L.

    2014-10-01

    The concept of Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) requires the deposition of laser energy into a fuel-filled cylinder that is exposed to a magnetic field. To improve process, it is essential to optimize transmission through the foil covered laser entrance hole (LEH), which involves minimizing laser-plasma-instabilities (LPI). Laser beam smoothing is the most common approach to minimize LPI. It typically involves a Random-Phase-Plate (RPP) and smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). This approach can still cause LPI issues due to intensity ``hot-spots'' on a ps-time scale, and it inconveniently fixes the usable spot size. Changing laser spot sizes requires multiple dedicated RPPs. To study ideal spot sizes on a MagLIF LEH, the RPP/SSD approach gets cost prohibitive. As alternative, we use sacrificial thin foils (500 nm or less) at the laser focus, which instantly turn into a plasma-pinhole, acting as spatial filter. The smoothed laser spot size grows linearly with distance from best focus. We present experimental data for smoothing performance and resulting LEH transmission. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. DOE's Nat'l Nucl. Sec. Admin. under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Search for Light Dark Matter Produced in a Proton Beam Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Remington Tyler [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological observations indicate that our universe contains dark matter (DM), yet we have no measurements of its microscopic properties. Whereas the gravitational interaction of DM is well understood, its interaction with the Standard Model is not. Direct detection experiments, the current standard, search for a nuclear recoil interaction and have a low-mass sensitivity edge of order 1 GeV. A path to detect DM with mass below 1 GeV is the use of accelerators producing boosted low-mass DM. Using neutrino detectors to search for low-mass DM is logical due to the similarity of the DM and neutrino signatures in the detector. The MiniBooNE experiment, located at Fermilab on the Booster Neutrino Beamline, has produced the first proton beam-dump light DM search results. Using dark matter scattering from nucleons 90% confidence limits were set over a large parameter space and, to allow tests of other theories, a model independent DM rate was extracted.

  17. Accelerator physics studies on the effects from an asynchronous beam dump onto the LHC experimental region collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Bruce, R; Cerutti, F; Rossi, A; Vlachoudis, V; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2012-01-01

    Asynchronous beam aborts at the LHC are estimated to occur on average once per year. Accelerator physics studies of asynchronous dumps have been performed at different beam energies and beta-stars. The loss patterns are analyzed in order to identify the losses in particular on the Phase 1 Tertiary Collimators (TCT), since their tungsten-based active jaw insert has a lower damage threshold than the carbon-based other LHC collimators. Settings of the tilt angle of the TCTs are discussed with the aim of reducing the thermal loads on the TCT themselves.

  18. Light sgoldstino's interactions analysis and prospects for potential discovery in electron beam dump experiment at CERN SPS

    OpenAIRE

    Astapov, K. O.; Kirpichnikov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we have discussed light sgoldstino in context of MSSM model. We have analyzed couplings of scalar sgoldstino to SM particles, namely to photons, $Z^0$ bosons, leptons and quarks. We also took into account the impact on those interactions of the admixture of lightest MSSM Higgs scalar in the sgoldstino state. The signal rate of rare decays at CERN electron beam dump experiment NA64 for the scalar sgoldstino has been estimated. Expected signal rate allowed us to exclude som...

  19. THE MECHANICAL AND SHIELDING DESIGN OF A PORTABLE SPECTROMETER AND BEAM DUMP ASSEMBLY AT BNLS ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU,J.P.; CASEY,W.R.; HARDER,D.A.; PJEROV,S.; RAKOWSKY,G.; SKARITKA,J.R.

    2002-09-05

    A portable assembly containing a vertical-bend dipole magnet has been designed and installed immediately down-beam of the Compton electron-laser interaction chamber on beamline 1 of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The water-cooled magnet designed with field strength of up to 0.7 Tesla will be used as a spectrometer in the Thompson scattering and vacuum acceleration experiments, where field-dependent electron scattering, beam focusing and energy spread will be analyzed. This magnet will deflect the ATF's 60 MeV electron-beam 90{sup o} downward, as a vertical beam dump for the Compton scattering experiment. The dipole magnet assembly is portable, and can be relocated to other beamlines at the ATF or other accelerator facilities to be used as a spectrometer or a beam dump. The mechanical and shielding calculations are presented in this paper. The structural rigidity and stability of the assembly were studied. A square lead shield surrounding the assembly's Faraday Cup was designed to attenuate the radiation emerging from the 1 inch-copper beam stop. All photons produced were assumed to be sufficiently energetic to generate photoneutrons. A safety evaluation of groundwater tritium contamination due to the thermal neutron capturing by the deuterium in water was performed, using updated Monte Carlo neutron-photon coupled transport code (MCNP). High-energy neutron spallation, which is a potential source to directly generate radioactive tritium and sodium-22 in soil, was conservatively assessed in verifying personal and environmental safety.

  20. Radiation Simulations and Development of Concepts for High Power Beam Dumps, Catchers and Pre-separator Area Layouts for the Fragment Separators for RIA

    CERN Document Server

    Ronningen, Reginald; Beene, James R; Blideanu, Valetin; Boles, Jason; Bollen, Georg; Burgess, Thomas; Carter, Ken; Conner, David L; Gabriel, Tony A; Geissel, Hans; Gomes, Itacil C; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Iwase, Hiroshi; Lawton, Don; Levand, Anthony; Mansur, Louis; Momozaki, Yoichi; Morrissey, David; Nolen, Jerry; Reed, Claude; Remec, Igor; Rennich, Mark; Reyes, Susana; Sherrill, Bradley; Stein, Werner; Stoyer, Mark; Stracener, Dan; Wendel, Mark; Zeller, Al

    2005-01-01

    The development of high-power beam dumps and catchers, and pre-separator layouts for proposed fragment separators of the Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility are important in realizing how to handle the 400 kW in the primary beam. We will present examples of pre-conceptual designs of beam dumps, fragment catchers, and the pre-separator layout. We will also present examples of ongoing work on radiation simulations using the heavy-ion-transport code PHITS, characterizing the secondary radiation produced by the high-power ion beams interacting with these devices. Results on radiation heating of targets, magnet coils, associated hardware and shielding, component activation, and levels of radiation dose will be presented. These initial studies will yield insight into the impact of the high-power dissipation on fragment separator design, remote handling concepts, nuclear safety and potential facility hazard classification, shielding design, civil construction design, component design, and material choices. Furth...

  1. Measurements of Linac4 H(-) ion source beam with a magnetized Einzel lens electron dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midttun, Øystein; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Linac4 is a part of the upgrade of CERN's accelerator complex for increased luminosity in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A new system to extract the ion beam from the plasma generator has been designed and tested, in order to improve the reliability and beam optics of the pulsed H(-) ion source. This paper presents the successfully implemented extraction system and three different beam measurements. The simulations compare well to the measurements and show that the plasma density was too low for the extraction system design during the measurements.

  2. Measurements of Linac4 H$^{-}$ ion source beam with a magnetized Einzel lens electron dump

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    Linac4 is a part of the upgrade of CERN’s accelerator complex for increased luminosity in the LHC. A new system to extract the ion beam from the plasma generator has been designed and tested, in order to improve the reliability and beam optics of the pulsed H- ion source. This paper presents the successfully implemented extraction system and three different beam measurements. The simulations compare well to the measurements and show that the plasma density was too low for the extraction system design during the measurements.

  3. ION Production and RF Generation in the DARHT-II Beam Dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    kicker and quadrupole septum and then transported for several meters to a high Z material target for conversion to x-rays for radiography. The un...of the kicker . The bias dipole, collocated with the kicker , deflects the beam downward by about 1 to 1.5 o . The beam enters the horizontally...NM 87545, USA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S

  4. [Optimization of beam filtering, kv-ma regulation curve and image intensifier entrance exposure rate to reduce radiation exposure in angiographic fluoroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhausen, J; Schoenfelder, D; Nagel, H D; Stöblen, F; Müller, R D

    1999-11-01

    Evaluation of radiation exposure and image quality during fluoroscopy using a new vascular X-ray system. The measurements were made on an Integris V 3000 X-ray system with MRC tube and SpectraBeam technology (Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg). Entrance dose rates were measured with phantoms for the three fluoroscopy levels (1-3) which differed with regard to beam filtering and image intensiver entrance exposure rate. We evaluated 132 diagnostic and interventional angiographic studies. The angiographic investigators were asked to start with level 1 and to change to the next fluoroscopy level only in the case of insufficient image quality. Entrance dose rate is reduced by approx. 74% at fluoroscopy level 1 and by approx. 46% at level 2 relative to level 3 which is comparable to angiographic X-ray systems without MRC tube and SpectraBeam technology. Because level 1 ensured a sufficient image quality in 92% of the diagnostic and 60% of the interventional angiographic procedures a change to higher fluoroscopy levels was not necessary. Reduction of the intensifier exposure rate and the optimization of beam filtering enabled us to reduce the radiation exposure considerably. The procedure was well accepted by the angiographic investigators due to the diagnostically sufficient image quality of the fluoroscopy level 1.

  5. Social dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    bidrag til, at OK-2010 "landes" fredeligt, fordi aftalen giver fagforeningerne en væsentlig indrømmelse i indsatsen mod social dumping. Aftalen har rigtignok til formål at imødekomme et af fagbevægelsens centrale overenskomstkrav om nye redskaber i indsatsen mod "social dumping". Men hvad er det aftalen...

  6. High power semiconductor switches in the 12 kV, 50 kA pulse generator of the SPS beam dump kicker system

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Faure, P; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    2001-01-01

    Horizontal deflection of the beam in the dump kicker system of the CERN SPS accelerator is obtained with a series of fast pulsed magnets. The high current pulses of 50 kA per magnet are generated with capacitor discharge type generators which, combined with a resistive free-wheel diode circuit, deliver a critically damped half-sine current with a rise-time of 25 ms. Each generator consists of two 25 kA units, connected in parallel to a magnet via a low inductance transmission line.

  7. Numerical Analysis on the Large Span Beam in Subway Station Entrance%地铁出入口大跨度接口梁数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蓼

    2012-01-01

    By means of an FE space model, the internal force of large span beam at subway station entrance have been found and compared with the internal force of the traditional planar model, the result shows that the internal force of the space calculation model is closer to the real strained condition than to the traditional planar model. The torque moment of the large span beam at metro entrance is not the dominant element, while the bending moment is similar to the elastomeric supported beam.%建立空间计算模型对地铁出入口大跨度接口梁的内力等进行数值分析,提出接口梁空间计算模型及其内力计算结果,对比传统平面简化计算模型的内力结果,得知空间计算模型结果更接近接口梁的真实受力状态,接口梁的扭矩不是受力的控制性因素,而接口梁的弯矩接近弹性支座梁的弯矩.

  8. Dumping Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stomach move to your small intestine in an uncontrolled, abnormally fast manner. This is most often related to changes in your stomach associated with surgery. Dumping syndrome can occur after any stomach operation or removal of the esophagus (esophagectomy). Gastric bypass surgery for ...

  9. Diagnostics for High Power Targets and Dumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E

    2012-01-01

    High power targets are generally used for neutrino, antiproton, neutron and secondary beam production whereas dumps are needed in beam waste management. In order to guarantee an optimized and safe use of these targets and dumps, reliable instrumentation is needed; the diagnostics in high power beams around targets and dumps is reviewed. The suite of beam diagnostics devices used in such extreme environments is discussed, including their role in commissioning and operation. The handling and maintenance of the instrumentation components in high radiation areas is also addressed.

  10. Dump assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

  11. Neutron energy and time-of-flight spectra behind the lateral shield of a high energy electron accelerator beam dump 2, Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roesler, Stefan; Rokni, Sayed H; Taniguchi, Shingo

    2003-01-01

    Energy spectra of high-energy neutrons and neutron time-of-flight spectra were calculated for the setup of experiment T-454 performed with a NE213 liquid scintillator at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The neutrons were created by the interaction a 28.7 GeV electron beam in the aluminum beam dump of the FFTB which is housed inside a thick steel and concrete shielding. In order to determine the attenuation length of high-energy neutrons additional concrete shielding of various thicknesses was placed outside the existing shielding. The calculations were performed using the FLUKA interaction and transport code. The energy and time-of-flight spectra were recorded for the location of the detector allowing a detailed comparison with the experimental data. A generally good description of the data is achieved adding confidence to the use of FLUKA for the design of shielding for high-energy electron accelerators. (5 refs).

  12. Neutron energy and time-of-flight spectra behind the lateral shield of a high-energy electron accelerator beam dump. Part 2. Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roesler, S; Rokni, S H; Taniguchi, S

    2003-01-01

    Energy spectra of high-energy neutrons and neutron time-of-flight spectra were calculated for the setup of experiment T-454 performed with a NE213 liquid scintillator at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The neutrons were created by the interaction a 28.7 GeV electron beam in the aluminum beam dump of the FFTB which is housed inside a thick steel and concrete shielding. In order to determine the attenuation length of high-energy neutrons additional concrete shielding of various thicknesses was placed outside the existing shielding. The calculations were performed using the FLUKA interaction and transport code. The energy and time-of-flight spectra were recorded for the location of the detector allowing a detailed comparison with the experimental data. A generally good description of the data is achieved adding confidence to the use of FLUKA for the design of shielding for high-energy electron accelerators.

  13. LHC injection and dump protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Rossi, A; Wollmann, D

    2010-01-01

    The machine protection against fast failures including injection or dump kickers relies on fixed and movable devices. Results will be shown from the low-intensity beam commissioning of the moveable injection protection devices in the SPS to LHC transfer lines and downstream of the LHC injection kickers, and of the LHC dump protection elements in IR6. This paper is almost exclusively focussing on the issues arising during the 2009 commissioning. The implications of these results and a commissioning status report with the planning for 2010 will be addressed.

  14. Validity of the Weizsäcker-Williams approximation and the analysis of beam dump experiments: Production of a new scalar boson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; McKeen, David; Miller, Gerald A.

    2017-02-01

    Beam dump experiments have been used to search for new particles with null results interpreted in terms of limits on masses mϕ and coupling constants ɛ . However these limits have been obtained by using approximations [including the Weizsäcker-Williams (WW) approximation] or Monte-Carlo simulations. We display methods, using a new scalar boson as an example, to obtain the cross section and the resulting particle production numbers without using approximations or Monte-Carlo simulations. We show that the approximations cannot be used to obtain accurate values of cross sections. The corresponding exclusion plots differ by substantial amounts when seen on a linear scale. In the event of a discovery, we generate pseudodata (assuming given values of mϕ and ɛ ) in the currently allowed regions of parameter space. The use of approximations to analyze the pseudodata for the future experiments is shown to lead to considerable errors in determining the parameters. Furthermore, a new region of parameter space can be explored without using one of the common approximations, mϕ≫me. Our method can be used as a consistency check for Monte-Carlo simulations.

  15. Steel Tape-wound Cut Cores as Magnet Yokes for the Beam Dump Kickers of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, M; Jansson, U; Fox, D

    2004-01-01

    Fast pulsed magnets, also called kickers, are used in particle accelerators for beam injection, extraction and similar applications. To excite these magnets, typically current pulses with rise and fall times in the range of 100 ns to 10 µs, with pulse duration of up to 100 µs and amplitudes in the order of kilo Amperes, are used. The short rise time imposes low inductance circuits and high voltage operation. The yokes are usually made out of ferrite, with reaches field saturation at about 0.5 T.

  16. Dumping syndrome (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumping syndrome occurs when the contents of the stomach empty too quickly into the small intestine. The ... causing nausea, cramping, diarrhea, sweating, faintness, and palpitations. Dumping usually occurs after the consumption of too much ...

  17. Optimization of beam filtering, kV-mA regulation curve, and image intensifier entrance exposure rate to reduce radiation exposure in angiographic fluoroscopy; Optimierung von Zusatzfilterung, Durchleuchtungskennlinie und Bildverstaerker-Eingangsdosisleistung zur Reduktion der Strahlenexposition bei der Angiographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhausen, J.; Schoenfelder. D.; Stoeblen, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Zentralinstitut fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Nagel, H.D.; Mueller, R.D. [Philips Medizin Systeme, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Aim of study: Evaluation of radiation exposure and image quality during fluoroscopy using a new vascular X-ray system. Material and methods: The measurements were made on an Integris V 3000 X-ray system with MRC tube and SpectraBeam technology (Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg). Entrance dose rates were measured with phantoms for the three fluoroscopy levels (1-3) which differed with regard to beam filtering and image intensiver entrance exposure rate. We evaluated 132 diagnostic and interventional angiographic studies. The angiographic investigators were asked to start with level 1 and to change to the next fluoroscopy level only in the case of insufficient image quality. Results: Entrance dose rate is reduced by approx. 74% at fluoroscopy level 1 and by approx. 46% at level 2 relative to level 3 which is comparable to angiographic X-ray systems without MRC tube and SpectraBeam technology. Because level 1 ensured a sufficient image quality in 92% of the diagnostic and 60% of the interventional angiographic procedures a change to higher fluoroscopy levels was not necessary. Conclusion: Reduction of the intensifier exposure rate and the optimization of beam filtering enabled us to reduce the radiation exposure considerably. The procedure was well accepted by the angiographic investigators due to the diagnostically sufficient image quality of the fluoroscopy level 1. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Untersuchung der Strahlenexposition und der Abbildungsqualitaet bei der Durchleuchtung an einem Angiographiearbeitsplatz. Material und Methoden: Die Messungen wurden am Angiographiearbeitsplatz Integris V 3000 mit MRC-Roehre und SpectraBeam-Technologie (Philips Medizin Systeme, Hamburg) durchgefuehrt. An Phantomen wurde die Patienten-Eintrittsdosisleistung der drei zur Verfuegung stehenden Durchleuchtungsstufen (1-3) gemessen, die sich durch die Kennlinien, die Filterung und die Bildverstaerker-Eintrittsdosisleistung unterscheiden. Bei den bisher ausgewerteten 132

  18. Dump system concepts for the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, Wolfgang; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Burkart, Florian; Goddard, Brennan; Kramer, Thomas; Lechner, Anton; Sanz Ull, Alejandro; Schmidt, Rudiger; Stoel, Linda; Ostojic, Ranko; Rodziewicz, Janusz Pawel; van Trappen, Pieter; Barna, Dani

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) beam dump system must provide a safe and reliable extraction and dilution of the stored beam onto a dump absorber. Energy deposition studies show that damage limits of presently used absorber materials will already be reached for single bunches at 50 TeV. A fast field rise of the extraction kicker is required in order to sufficiently separate swept single bunches on the extraction protection absorbers in case of an asynchronous beam dump. In line with this demand is the proposal of a highly segmented extraction kicker system which allows for accepting a single kicker switch erratic and thus, significantly reduces the probability of an asynchronous beam dump. Superconducting septa are foreseen to limit the overall system length and power consumption. Two extraction system concepts are presented and evaluated regarding overall system length, energy deposition on absorbers, hardware requirements, radiation issues, and layout flexibility.

  19. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  20. A Large Scintillating Screen for the LHC Dump Line

    CERN Document Server

    Lefèvre, T; Bravin, E; Burger, S; Goddard, B; Hutchins, S; Renaglia, T

    2008-01-01

    The 7 TeV proton beam from the LHC ring is ejected through a long transfer line to beam dump blocks, approximately 100m downstream of the ejection septa, a series of dilution kicker magnets provide a sweeping deflection spreading the extracted beam over a 40 cm diameter area on the face of the beam dump cores. During normal operation, the quality of each dump event must be recorded and verified. The so-called â€ワPost-Mortem” dataset will include information from the beam dumping system (logic signals, kicker pulses…) as well as from the beam diagnostics along the extraction lines. For this purpose, profile monitors in front of the dump blocks must be permanently available during machine operation. With more than 1014 protons stored in LHC, the energy deposited in the screen becomes an issue and thermalresistant materials have to be considered. In this paper, the design of this quite unusual device is presented. The different technical options considered for the choice of the screen material are ...

  1. Dump valve assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A dump valve assembly comprising a body having a bore defined by a tapered wall and a truncated spherical valve member adapted to seat along a spherical surface portion thereof against said tapered wall. Means are provided for pivoting said valve member between a closed position engagable with said tapered wall and an open position disengaged therefrom.

  2. Getting Dumped On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chinese shoe manufacturers cry foul over anti-dumping duties imposed by the EU and set up an alliance to lobby for an overturn Hong Guangsheng, General Manager of Guangzhou Yunfang Shoes Co., is feeling the heat over his company's exports to Europe. According to a contract he signed with an Italian client in early April, the vol-

  3. Beam dump system design for 100 MeV high intensity proton cyclotron%100 MeV强流质子回旋加速器束流调试靶系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾先禄; 张天爵; 王峰; 吕银龙; 魏素敏; 毕远杰; 宋国芳; 解怀东

    2013-01-01

    中国原子能科学研究院正在建造一台100 MeV,200 μA的强流质子回旋加速器,需要使用束流调试靶来调试加速器,为此设计了一套束流功率为20 kW的质子束调试系统.对该系统的束流输运线、靶材料的选取、靶结构、水冷计算、屏蔽结构等作了介绍.给出了整条束流输运线的匹配计算结果;通过对质子打靶后的中子产额、角通量、靶的活化等方面的比较,最终选用铝作为靶材料;根据加速器引出束流能量和功率,设计了分层式靶结构,同时对靶进行了水冷计算;打靶产生的出射粒子平均能量较高,导致产生的辐射剂量很大,考虑到对环境与工作人员的影响及费用,需要对其进行局部屏蔽,给出了屏蔽计算结果及屏蔽结构的设计.%A 100 MeV proton cyclotron, referred to as CYCIAE-100, is designed to provide proton beams with energy up to 200 μA. When the cyclotron is under commissioning, a beam dump is required to measure the beam with a power of 20 kW. The paper introduces the beam line, target material selecting, target configuration, cooling calculation and the local shielding structure. The calculation result of the beam line matching is given. After comparing the neutron yield, flux angle and thermal activation of the targets of different materials by the proton targeting, the aluminum is selected as the target material. Based on the extraction beam energy and power of the cyclotron, a layered target configuration is designed, and the cooling calculation result is presented. The average energy of the emergent particle produced by the proton targeting is relatively high, so it will produce large radiation dose. Considering the harmful effect on the environment and personnel, the local shielding is selected for use. The calculation result and configuration of the local shielding are also presented in the paper.

  4. Media in the dump

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrys, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    'Media in the Dump' examines the phenomenon of electronic waste through five locations, from sites of manufacture (Silicon Valley) to disposal (China). This essay is original in its interdisciplinary approach to the topic of electronic waste. It synthesises fieldwork and scholarship from technology to design and cultural studies. The structure for this essay is original in its surveying of five 'waste ecologies' that traverse the globe.

  5. Validity of the Weizsäcker-Williams approximation and the analysis of beam dump experiments: Production of an axion, a dark photon, or a new axial-vector boson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Miller, Gerald A.

    2017-07-01

    Beam dump experiments have been used to search for new particles, ϕ , with null results interpreted in terms of limits on masses mϕ and coupling constants ɛ . However these limits have been obtained by using approximations [including the Weizsäcker-Williams (WW) approximation] or Monte Carlo simulations. We display methods to obtain the cross section and the resulting particle production rates without using approximations on the phase space integral or Monte Carlo simulations. In our previous work we examined the case of the new scalar boson production; in this paper we explore all possible new spin-0 and spin-1 particles. We show that the approximations cannot be used to obtain accurate values of cross sections. The corresponding exclusion plots differ by substantial amounts when seen on a linear scale. Furthermore, a new region (mϕ<2 me) of parameter space can be explored without using one of the common approximations, mϕ≫me. We derive new expressions for the three-photon decays of dark photon and four-photon decays of new axial-vector bosons. As a result, the production cross section and exclusion region of different low mass (mϕ<2 me) bosons are very different. Moreover, our method can be used as a consistency check for Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  7. Dumping in a Global World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAnti-dumping actions are now the trade policy of choice of developing and transition economies. To understand why these economies have increasingly applied anti-dumping laws, we build a simple theoretical model of vertical intra-industry trade and investigate the strategic incentives of

  8. 30 CFR 77.1608 - Dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities. 77.1608 Section 77.1608... Haulage § 77.1608 Dumping facilities. (a) Dumping locations and haulage roads shall be kept reasonably free of water, debris, and spillage. (b) Where the ground at a dumping place may fail to support...

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  10. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Fred Brent; Belma Demirel; Ming He; Troy Raybold; Manuel E. Quintana; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2003-06-09

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  11. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; Jimmy O. Ong; Sarah J. Patel; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2000-10-26

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to implement the RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  12. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Anderson; Charles Schrader

    2004-01-26

    In 1999, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Cooperative Agreement to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. to provide a preliminary engineering design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award, continuous and diligent work has been undertaken to achieve the design of an economical facility that makes strides toward attaining the goal of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to power while coproducing transportation fuels, chemicals, and useful utilities such as steam. This objective is being pursued in a three-phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems, LLC. (TES), the successor to Texaco Energy Systems, Inc. The key subcontractors to TES include General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root. ChevronTexaco provided gasification technology and Rentech Inc.'s Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology that has been developed for non-natural gas sources. GE provided gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair provided air separation technology and KBR provided engineering to integrate the facility. A conceptual design was completed in Phase I and the report was accepted by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of technical success of the EECP. The objective of Phase II was to mitigate the risks by executing research, development, and testing. Results from the Phase II work are the subject of this report. As the work of Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Preliminary Engineering Design. Work in Phase II requires additional technical development work to correctly apply technology at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Storm; Govanon Nongbri; Steve Decanio; Ming He; Lalit Shah; Charles Schrader; Earl Berry; Peter Ricci; Belma Demirel; Charles Benham; Mark Bohn

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc., GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I, a design basis for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis section was developed based on limited experience with the specified feed gas and operating conditions. The objective of this Task in Phase II RD&T work was to confirm the performance of the F-T reactor at the set design conditions. Although much of the research, development, and testing work were done by TES outside of this project, several

  14. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...... position of countries in the special case of EU anti-dumping policy....

  15. The potential for dose dumping in normal tissues with IMRT for pelvic and H&N cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Nandanuri M S; Mazur, Andrzej K; Sampath, Seshadri; Osian, Adrian; Sood, Brij M; Ravi, Akkamma; Nori, Dattatreyudu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the potential for dose dumping in normal tissues (>85% of prescription dose) and to analyze effectiveness of techniques used in reducing dose dumping during IMRT. Two hundred sixty-five intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for 55 patients with prostate, head-and-neck (H&N), and cervix cancers with 6-MV photon beams and >5 fields were reviewed to analyze why dose dumping occurred, and the techniques used to reduce dose dumping. Various factors including gantry angles, depth of beams (100-SSD), duration of optimization, severity of dose-volume constraints (DVC) on normal structures, and spatial location of planning treatment volumes (PTV) were reviewed in relation to dose dumping. In addition, the effect of partial contouring of rectum in beam's path on dose dumping in rectum was studied. Dose dumping occurred at d(max) in 17 pelvic cases (85% to 129%). This was related to (1) depth of beams (100 SSD [source-to-skin distance]), (2) PTV located between normal structures with DVC, and (3) relative lack of rectum and bladder in beam's path. Dose dumping could be reduced to 85% by changing beam angles and/or DVC for normal structures in 5 cases and by creating "phantom structures" in 12 cases. Decreasing the iterations (duration of optimization) also reduced dose dumping and monitor units (MUs). Part of uncontoured rectum, if present in the field, received a higher dose than the contoured rectum with DVC, indicating that complete delineation of normal structures and DVC is necessary to prevent dose dumping. In H&N, when PTV extends inadvertently into air beyond the body even by a few millimeters, dose dumping occurred in beam's path (220% for 5-field and 170%, 7-field plans). Keeping PTV margins within body contour reduced this type of dose dumping. Beamlet optimization, duration of optimization, spatial location of PTV, and DVC on PTV and normal structures has the potential to cause dose dumping. However, these

  16. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Benham; Mark Bohn; John Anderson; Earl Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Randy Roberts; Lalit Shah; Marjan Roos

    2003-09-15

    The 1999 U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) award to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. (presently Texaco Energy Systems LLC, a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco) was made to provide a Preliminary Engineering Design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award presentation, work has been undertaken to achieve an economical concept design that makes strides toward the DOE Vision 21 goal. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to electric power plus transportation fuels, chemicals and useful utilities such as steam. The use of petroleum coke was added as a fuel to reduce the cost of feedstock and also to increase the probability of commercial implementation of the EECP concept. This objective has been pursued in a three phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems LLC and subcontractors General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR). ChevronTexaco is providing gasification technology and Rentech's Fischer-Tropsch technology that has been developed for non-natural gas feed sources. GE is providing gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering to integrate the facility. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was completed in 2000. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was prepared based on making

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Roko Bujas; Ming He; Ken Kwik; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Dennis Slater; Donald Todd; Don Wall

    2003-08-21

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES), a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco, General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc. GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP, Phase II RD&T included tests of an alternative (to Rentech's Dynamic Settler) primary catalyst

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  20. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  1. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  2. A magnetized Einzel lens electron dump for the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, O; Kronberger, M; Lettry, J; Pereira, H; Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator which will inject negative hydrogen ions (H−) into CERN’s Proton Synchrotron Booster, a required upgrade to improve the beam brightness in the LHC injector chain. A volume production RF ion source, based on the design of the DESY RF source was implemented, but showed considerable electron dump ablation during operation at 45 keV beam energy. To reduce the electron beam power density in the dump, a magnetized Einzel lens is designed that reduces the beam energy to 10 keV before permanentmagnets dump the electrons on a tungsten surface. Presented in this paper are simulations of the design using IBSimu, the tunable range of parameters depending on the extracted H− and electron current, as well as details of the implementation, the choice of pulsed power converters and the electrode alignment system. In addition, simulations of proton extraction from this source will be shown.

  3. A magnetized Einzel lens electron dump for the Linac4 H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midttun, Ø.; Kalvas, T.; Kronberger, M.; Lettry, J.; Pereira, H.; Scrivens, R.

    2013-02-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator which will inject negative hydrogen ions (H-) into CERN's Proton Synchrotron Booster, a required upgrade to improve the beam brightness in the LHC injector chain. A volume production RF ion source, based on the design of the DESY RF source was implemented, but showed considerable electron dump ablation during operation at 45 keV beam energy. To reduce the electron beam power density in the dump, a magnetized Einzel lens is designed that reduces the beam energy to 10 keV before permanentmagnets dump the electrons on a tungsten surface. Presented in this paper are simulations of the design using IBSimu, the tunable range of parameters depending on the extracted H- and electron current, as well as details of the implementation, the choice of pulsed power converters and the electrode alignment system. In addition, simulations of proton extraction from this source will be shown.

  4. Science for common entrance physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, WR

    2015-01-01

    Cover everything required for the 13+ Common Entrance Physics exam with clearly presented content, lively illustrations and challenging end-of-chapter questions. This challenging and stimulating Science course has been reviewed by the ISEB subject editor and covers the content of both Levels 1 and 2 of the 13+ Physics exam. Designed for pupils in Years 7 and 8, it is an indispensable resource that lays the foundations for Common Entrance success. - Explores every Level 1 and 2 topic with clear explanations and examples - Includes topic-based exercises and extension questions - Builds on p

  5. Dumping in Developing and Transition Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe build a simple theoretical model to understand why developing and transition economies have increasingly applied anti-dumping laws. To that end, we investigate the strategic incentives of oligopolistic exporting firms to undertake dumping in these economies. We show that dumping may b

  6. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  7. Influences on the occurrence of dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S P; Ralphs, D N; Hobsley, M

    1983-03-01

    A dumping provocation test using 50% of glucose solution labeled with Indium 115 m, was performed on 146 occasions pre- and postoperatively in 85 patients. Dumping elicited by the test was defined by the symptoms produced by the test and various objective measures of dumping. The influence of various factors other than the type of operation on the occurrence of dumping has been studied in detail. The incidence of dumping symptoms induced by the test has shown no significant correlation with age, sex, weight, height, smoking habits, race, dose of hypertonic glucose, and the time elapsed since surgery. However, a significant relationship has been observed between the duration of ulcer symptoms before operation and the occurrence of dumping symptoms induced by the test. The test not only reproduced the symptoms patients had reported after eating ordinary foods, it also helped in eliminating patients with borderline symptoms as our objective measures collectively differentiated three patients from those with the dumping syndrome.

  8. 47 CFR 69.110 - Entrance facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entrance facilities. 69.110 Section 69.110... Computation of Charges § 69.110 Entrance facilities. (a) A flat-rated entrance facilities charge expressed in... that use telephone company facilities between the interexchange carrier or other person's point of...

  9. Search for entrance channel effects in compound nuclear formation

    CERN Document Server

    Maj, A; Herskind, B; Bracco, A; Camera, F; Hagemann, G; Varmette, P

    1999-01-01

    The entrance channel effect was studied for the decay of sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 W formed in fusion reactions with different beam-target combinations. The average number of emitted neutrons suggest a lower effective excitation energy in the (alpha,xn) decay channel when more mass-symmetric reaction is used, especially at the highest angular momenta. The results are in qualitative agreement with predictions of the dissipative fusion model.

  10. Infrared imaging diagnostics for INTF ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, D.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Pandey, R.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Bhuyan, M.; Bansal, G.; Soni, J.; Tyagi, H.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.

    2015-04-01

    In India, testing facility named INTF [1] (Indian test facility) is being built in Institute for Plasma Research to characterize ITER-Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB). INTF is expected to deliver 60A negative hydrogen ion beam current of energy 100keV. The beam will be operated with 5Hz modulation having 3s ON/20s OFF duty cycle. To characterize the beam parameters several diagnostics are at different stages of design and development. One of them will be a beam dump, made of carbon fiber composite (CFC) plates placed perpendicular to the beam direction at a distance lm approximately. The beam dump needs to handle ˜ 6MW of beam power with peak power density ˜ 38.5MW/m2. The diagnostic is based on thermal (infra-red - IR) imaging of the footprint of the 1280 beamlets falling on the beam dump using four IR cameras from the rear side of the dump. The beam dump will be able to measure beam uniformity, beamlet divergence. It may give information on relative variation of negative ion stripping losses for different beam pulses. The design of this CFC based beam dump needs to address several physics and engineering issues, including some specific inputs from manufacturers. The manuscript will describe an overview of the diagnostic system and its design methodology highlighting those issues and the present status of its development.

  11. Fluka and thermo-mechanical studies for the CLIC main dump

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, Alessio; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    In order to best cope with the challenge of absorbing the multi-MW beam, a water beam dump at the end of the CLIC post-collision line has been proposed. The design of the dump for the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) was checked against with a set of FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, for the estimation of the peak and total power absorbed by the water and the vessel. Fluence spectra of escaping particles and activation rates of radio-nuclides were computed as well. Finally, the thermal transient behavior of the water bath and a thermo-mechanical analysis of the preliminary design of the window were done.

  12. Science for common entrance physics : answers

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, W R

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Science for Common Entrance: Physics , which covers every Level 1 and 2 topic in the ISEB 13+ Physics Common Entrance exam syllabus. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. - Suitable for ISEB 13+ Mathematics Common Entrance exams taken from Autumn 2017 onwards. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Science for Common Entrance: Physics. - Science for Common Entrance: Biology. - Science for Common En

  13. 7 CFR 48.7 - Evidence to justify dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence to justify dumping. 48.7 Section 48.7... Dumping § 48.7 Evidence to justify dumping. Any person, receiving produce in interstate commerce or in the..., prior to such destroying, abandoning, discarding or dumping, obtain a dumping certificate or...

  14. 49 CFR 176.97 - Prohibition of dump scows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition of dump scows. 176.97 Section 176.97... Requirements for Barges § 176.97 Prohibition of dump scows. Dump scows are barges having cargo carrying compartments of the hopper type and fitted with a bottom dump or a side dump. This type of barge is...

  15. 40 CFR 227.14 - Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. 227.14 Section 227.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.14 Criteria for evaluating the need for...

  16. Muon Beam at the Fermilab Test Beam Area

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, Dmitri; Lukić, Strahinja; Ujić, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    The intensities and profiles of the muon beam behind the beam dump of the Fermilab test beam area when the facility is running in the "pion" beam mode are measured and summarized in this note. This muon beam with momenta in the range 10 - 50 GeV/c provides an opportunity to perform various measurements in parallel with other users of the test beam area.

  17. Design of a Compact Dump Resistor System for LCD Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2010-01-01

    In this technical note we suggest a possible solution for the choice of the detector magnet dump resistor. The push-pull scenario for Linear Collider Detectors imposes new solutions for magnet powering and protection lines, else than what developed for LHC detectors. The magnet dump resistor is the protecting equipment that has the function of extracting a significant amount of magnetic stored energy, from the coil winding to a dump. The LCD magnet has to move with the experiment from the garage to the beam position, so it has to be compact and reliable at the same time. We make here a proposal for a passive water-cooled dumper, we calculate the minimum amount of water required, the resistor hot-spot temperature, the overall mechanical design. The electrical part is not covered by this note, as it can be assumed that the solutions adopted by LHC detector magnets, in terms of quench instrumentation, energy extraction and maximum voltage, are not significantly affected by the push-pull scenario.

  18. Orbiter Water Dump Nozzles Redesign Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Hank

    2017-01-01

    Hank Rotter, NASA Technical Fellow for Environmental Control and Life Support System, will provide the causes and lessons learned for the two Space Shuttle Orbiter water dump icicles that formed on the side of the Orbiter. He will present the root causes and the criticality of these icicles, along with the redesign of the water dump nozzles and lessons learned during the redesign phase.

  19. Anti-Dumping on and from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick H. Zhao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The past years saw an increased cases of anti-dumping on China mostly from the developed countries, some from developing countries. But Pakistan, a friendly neighbor to China, recently adds up to that list of ranks for an anti-dumping investigation on China.

  20. DUMPING SYNDROME IN A YOUNG-CHILD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, TW; DODDEMA, JW; HEIJMANS, HSA

    1995-01-01

    We describe a 17-month-old child with dumping syndrome after plication of the right diaphragm. He presented with periods of abdominal distension and pallor, recurrent convulsions, glucosuria and refusal of Feeding. After changing the diet the symptoms disappeared. Conclusion Although dumping syndrom

  1. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  2. University Entrance Examinations: The Controversy Intensifies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Peter

    1978-01-01

    This review ponders the lack of Canadian university entrance examinations. As there are no province-wide standards it is difficult to give fair and equitable treatment for college admission. Some such method of entrance examination may be soon introduced in Ontario. (MFD)

  3. Energy saving in tunnel entrance lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A. & Swart, L.

    1993-01-01

    Tunnel entrances may present themselves during the day as a "black hole" in which no details can be perceived. In order to ensure safe and comfortable driving at high speeds, the entrance zone must be lit to a high luminance level. Modern tunnel lighting technology is focused on two aspects: (1

  4. Heat transfer law in leaching dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ai-xiang; WANG Hong-jiang; XI Yong; YANG Bao-hua; LI Jian-feng; YIN Sheng-hua; ZHA Ke-bing

    2005-01-01

    Based on the law of temperature changes in the leaching dump and the forming process of heat flux, the basic balance equation of heat flow in dump was established, the dissipated heat flow from dump to the atmosphere was analyzed to estimate the surface temperature of the ore particle in dump and discover the law of forced heat convection of heat flow transfer in dump. And the lixiviate flow formula taking a certain heat flow out of dump was deduced by using the inversion method. Through theoretic analysis, combining Dexing copper mine heap leaching production practice, the results show that the heat flow of chalcopyrite leaching emitted is not so great, but the heat flow of pyrite leaching and sulphur oxidation produced take up a higher proportion of total heat flow; the dissipated heat flow takes up a lower proportion, and most of heat flow is absorbed by itself, thus the inside temperature rises gradually; and the saturation flow form for leaching is adopted, which makes the lixiviate seepage in the transitional flow or even in the turbulent flow, so as to accelerate the heat flow diffusing and keep the leaching dump temperature suitable for bacteria living.

  5. Anti-Dumping on and from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick; H.Zhao

    2007-01-01

    The past years saw an increased cases of anti-dumping on China mostly from the developed countries,some from developing countries.But Pakistan,a friendly neighbor to China,recently adds up to that list of ranks for an anti-dumping investigation on China.It is the national interests that count most,after all. It gives out a signal that anti-dumping would be a frequent tool to defend or to attack. Evidences show China is a target for this trade remedy,but is also targeting others.

  6. 27 CFR 19.748 - Dump/batch records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.748... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Account § 19.748 Dump/batch records. (a) Format of dump/batch records. Proprietor's dump/batch records shall contain,...

  7. Design and R and D for manufacturing the MITICA Neutraliser and Electron Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Palma, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.dallapalma@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); Sartori, Emanuele; Gonzalez, Winder [Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova (Italy); Tiso, Andrea; Trevisan, Lauro; Zaccaria, Pierluigi [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Analyses and verifications supporting the design of the MITICA Neutraliser and Electron Dump. ► Instrumentation and control systems have been analysed for protection, calorimetry, interlock. ► Assembly procedure, acceptance tests, and RH compatibility have been verified. ► R and D activities for design validation are ongoing to demonstrate the technical feasibility. -- Abstract: One MeV negative particle beam accelerated in the beam source of the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) will be neutralised in the Neutraliser gas cell. Four narrow beam channels are foreseen in the Neutraliser where the neutralisation process will occur with controlled gas pressure being the four channels delimited by five copper wall panels. Stray particles will be dumped on the copper Electron Dump and CuCrZr leading edges to be installed at the Neutraliser frontal section: the Electron Dump will intercept stray electrons in order to reduce the cryo pump thermal load; enhanced heat transfer in subcooled boiling conditions will occur in the panel leading edges with twisted tapes as turbulence promoters. The copper panels will be thermally controlled by means of embedded cooling circuits; thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analyses and verifications have been carried out considering several load combinations and satisfying the design rules as for ITER structural design criteria for in vessel components. Gas flow analyses have been carried out with molecular flow in the in-vessel vacuum environment to evaluate the gas pressure profile along the beam line also considering the presence of the Electron Dump. Furthermore, transient analyses of the gas flow inside channels have been performed to simulate the effect of last valve closure; analysis results demonstrate that gas flow variations can be detected by thermal measurements. The Neutraliser assembly, installation, and positioning inside the vacuum vessel have been verified considering alignment requirements and

  8. KTeV beam systems design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocean, V.; Childress, S.; Coleman, R. [and others

    1997-09-01

    The primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E799-II and E832 are discussed. The specifications are presented and justified. The technical details of the implementation of the primary beam transport and stability are detailed. The target, beam dump, and radiation safety issues are discussed. The details of the collimation system for the pair of secondary beams are presented.

  9. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  10. Monitoring the extracted proton beam at the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Fluorescent screens in front of the target positions allow a precise adjustement in front of them. A similar photo was recorded at the beam dump at the beam injection into the SPS, see Weekly Bulletin of April 1976.

  11. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases.

  12. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases.

  13. [The effect of somatostatin in dumping syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulassay, Z; Tulassay, T; Szathmári, M; Gohér, A; Tamás, G

    1990-11-04

    The effect of cyclic somatostatin on early and late dumping syndrome was studied in 12 patients with gastric resection. Each patient underwent two glucose challenges with 75 grams of glucose administered orally. In the control study isotonic sodium chloride was given, while in the other study cyclic somatostatin in a dose of 250 micrograms bolus injection followed by infusion of 80 ng/kg/min for a period of 270 minutes. In the control study all patients showed subjective symptoms of the early dumping syndrome with significant increases in pulse rate, hematocrit, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Ten patients showed asymptomatic hypoglycemia, as a sign of the late dumping syndrome associated with a significant increases of insulin, gastric inhibitory peptide and glucagon levels. During the administration of somatostatin these changes failed to develop. These results indicate that somatostatin alleviates the symptoms of early and late postprandial dumping syndrome.

  14. The CERN Beam Interlock System: Principle and Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Puccio, B; Kwiatkowski, M; Romera Ramirez, I; Todd, B

    2010-01-01

    A complex Machine Protection System has been designed to protect the LHC machine from an accidental release of the beam energy, with about 20 subsystems providing status information to the Beam Interlock System that is the backbone of machine protection. Only if the subsystems are in the correct state for beam operation, the Beam Interlock System receives a status flag and beam can be injected into LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The Beam Interlock System also relays commands from the connected subsystems in case of failure for triggering the LHC Beam Dumping System. To maintain the required level of safety of the Beam Interlock System, the performance of the key components is verified before every fill of the machine and validated after every emergency beam dump before beam operation is allowed to continue. This includes all critical paths, starting from the inputs from connected systems triggering a beam dump request, followed by the correct interruption and propagation sequence of the two redundant beam permi...

  15. European Anti-dumping Law and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Eeckhout

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines recent developments in the European Union's anti-dumping policy, as it is applied towards China. It concentrates on recent court cases involving dumping from China and on the basic non-market economy issue. The author essentially argues that the European Union's policy does not take account sufficiently of China's development towards a market economy, and that there are various legal flaws in the way the policy is applied.

  16. [Postgastrectomy dumping treated with octreotide (Sandostatin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, T D; Carlsen, C U

    1993-06-07

    Somatostatin and the long acting somatostatin analogue Sandostatin have been shown to be effective in the management of dumping syndrome. We describe a patient with early dumping in whom this management provided total symptomatic relief. The doses was reduced from 50 micrograms to 12.5 micrograms s.c., t.i.d. At this dose clinical and biochemical parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, packed cell volume, hematocrit, and blood glucose) were found to be within normal levels.

  17. Do university entrance exams predict academic achievement?

    OpenAIRE

    Häkkinen, Iida

    2004-01-01

    The study examines which factors predict academic performance at university and compares the predictive values of subject-related entrance exams and indicators of past school performance. The results show that in the fields of engineering and social sciences entrance exams predict both graduation and the number of study credits better than past performance. In education past school performance is a better predictor of graduation. Changing the admission rule to school grades would affect the a...

  18. Establishment of ocean dumping area capacity assessment model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhizu; ZUO Juncheng; XU Ren; JIN Zuowen; CHEN Meixiang

    2016-01-01

    Dumping area capacity is mainly affected by the hydrodynamic process (tidal sediment, storm surge and wave, etc.) as well as the size and depth of dumping area. Based on three-dimensional ocean circulation model known as FVCOM (Finite Volume Coast and Ocean Model) and the stochastic dynamic statistical analysis model, taking advantage of dumping ground topography evolution and dumping quantity, the author aims to discuss the influence of hydrodynamic processes and dumping activity so as to built a new model of ocean dumping area capacity. With the data of depth and dumped amount in the dumping area, the changes of bottom topographic which caused by tidal current under the natural condition based on the FVCOM hydrodynamic and sediment module, the author strive to analyze the statistical relation of the changes for dumping amount, tidal current and bottom topographic. Through real data to fit revision coefficient values, which will be regarded as topographic changes reference value affected by wave and storm surges. Thus taking this evaluation as the long-term changes in the dumping capacity. In the premise of setting up the threshold of bottom topographic changes, the dumping area capacity is calculated. Take Yangtze Estuary No. 1 dumping area as an example, As the water depth reduces by 0.5 m annually, the dumping area capacity is about 6.7 million m3/a, the model results are in reasonable agreement with the actual amount. Then the model is validated in Luoyuan Bay dumping area, Shengsishangchuan Mountain dumping area, Dongding dumping area, Dongshan dumping area, and Wenzhou Port dumping area, it is turns out the results are similar to that of the actual observations.

  19. Building and shaping overburden dumps in layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichler, E.

    1988-08-01

    Discusses problem of stabilizing overburden dumps soon to be built to heights of 120-220 m at mines in the Krusna Hora brown coalfield. Describes mathematics involved in calculating critical height and stability of dumps with a constant slope angle and in determining critical height of layers with 32-38 degree slope angles. Shows in tabular form the relationship between degree of stability, critical height and type of material. Describes methods of constructing dumps in layers, which has become more viable with increasing development of belt conveyor technology. Methods described require use of ZP 2500 and ZP 6600 spreaders, but in future it is expected that ZP 10000 and ZP 13000 spreaders,which have longer reach, will be used to better effect. Concludes by giving examples of planned layer heights for the Merkur, Ceskoslovenska Armada and Jan Sverma mines, based on calculation of intergranular angle of internal friction. 5 refs.

  20. Geotechnical aspects for the optimization of dump design at Chinh Bac Mine waste dump in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsschwanz, M.; Ziegler, M. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Ahmad, S.; Fernandez, J.B.P.; Martens, P.N. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering; Deissmann, G. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Vietnam's Quang Ninh province is one of the country's most important coal producing regions. Several open pit mines are being operated in the area by Nui Beo Coal Company (NBCC). The construction of large waste dumps for overburden removed by blasting have led to environmental problems at the mining sites, including dust emissions from mining and dumping operations; ground and surface water contamination by acid mine drainage; and slope stability problems caused by heavy rainfall and dump movements. This paper discussed investigations regarding the influence of the dump layout on slope stability and erosion. The paper described the project site and ongoing activities for the development of optimized stabilization and rehabilitation concepts with a particular focus on geotechnical aspects. The site was described in terms of coal and waste rock production; Chinh Bac waste rock dump; crack mapping; material properties of dumped material; density; and settlements. Ongoing activities focus on the effect of benches on slope stability; influence of benches on erosion; and layered dumping. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden Ralph [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Yuan, Zongwei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  2. Entrance C - Meyrin site: new access conditions

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C on the Meyrin site, which drivers of motorised vehicles can use Mondays to Fridays from 7 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m., has been altered to include a turnstile to allow cyclists and pedestrians to use their access card to get in and out of the site from 6 a.m. until 10 p.m.   The following video illustrates how to use the new turnstile: A new type of entrance gate fitted with a number plate reader similar to that installed at the entrance to the Prévessin site should, once fully tested, allow drivers of motorised vehicles to access the site. For the time being, the conditions of use of Entrance C remain unchanged. Further information on the entry into force of new arrangements will be issued in due course. For further information about CERN entrances: CERN opening hours CERN control access GS Department

  3. LAW PROTECTION FOR DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES DUE TO DUMPING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kamilah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available International trade is business transactions conducted across borders, which has the goal accumulated maximum profit (profit optimal. In this implementation, corporations often do business by unfair competition, such as dumping, which could damage the order of the importing country trading system. The problem is what factors are causing a corporation carrying out the practice of dumping, and also; and How is legal protection against a country as a result of dumping practices. Factors that cause dumping, to profit by setting lower prices in the import market and the monopoly in the market of the importing country. A form of protection for countries that suffered losses as a result of dumping practices which could impose "anti-dumping duty", as a punishment for the exporting country. Due to losses caused by dumping, the government should make a law that specifically regulates the protection of domestic industry due to the practice of dumping.

  4. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  5. Social dumping - supranational regulering og dens implikationer

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Mia Pough; Christensen, Nadja Zea Lintrup; Gregersen, Mille Natalie

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at explaining why the institutional integration in the EU creates social dumping in Denmark. The study is based on a case study, which examines the posting of workers directive (96/71/EC). In explaining how the directive leads to social dumping, we use outcome-explanatory process-tracing. This is to examine how the causal mechanisms X, leads to an outcome Y. Concepts from Historical Institutionalism such as spill-over and Rational Choice Institutionalisms principal-agent theor...

  6. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  7. Landfills - OPEN_DUMPS_IDEM_IN: Open Dump Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — OPEN_DUMPS_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains open dump site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of Environmental Management,...

  8. 7 CFR 46.22 - Accounting for dumped produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for dumped produce. 46.22 Section 46.22... Market Receivers § 46.22 Accounting for dumped produce. A clear and complete record shall be maintained... justifying dumping shall be forwarded to the consignor or joint account partner with the accounting and...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19103 - Dumping facilities and loading pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities and loading pockets. 56.19103 Section 56.19103 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19103 Dumping facilities and loading pockets. Dumping facilities and...

  10. 45 CFR 152.28 - Preventing insurer dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preventing insurer dumping. 152.28 Section 152.28...-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Oversight § 152.28 Preventing insurer dumping. (a) General rule... for a determination of dumping. A PCIP shall establish procedures to identify and report to...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19103 - Dumping facilities and loading pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities and loading pockets. 57.19103 Section 57.19103 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19103 Dumping facilities and loading pockets. Dumping...

  12. Unique railcar dump cuts port costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.

    1986-07-01

    A key element in a Suneel Alaska Corp. coal transfer facility is a railcar dumping system, a pit and conveyor arrangement that transfers coal from railcars to temporary stockpiles. The same principles used in the design should have applications at other bulk unloading facilities. The $1.5 million system is compact, minimizes groundwater problems, and allows fast unloading from the railcar.

  13. Weighted Integrate-And-Dump Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Ramin

    1989-01-01

    Digital weighted integrate-and-dump filter (WIDF) proposed for detection of weak rectangular-pulse signals corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. Received signal first low-pass prefiltered, and samples taken at multiple of symbol frequency. Improved performance means lower sampling and processing rates used for given symbol rate, reducing cost of system.

  14. 30 CFR 18.37 - Lead entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... against loosening. (d) Compressed packing material shall be in contact with the cable jacket for a length... cable jacket and the nominal inside diameter of the packing material shall not exceed 1/32-inch, based... § 18.37 Lead entrances. (a) Insulated cable(s), which must extend through an outside wall of...

  15. Supercalculators and University Entrance Calculus Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye Yoon; Thomas, Mike; Kiernan, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of computer algebra systems could provide a significant advantage to students taking standard university entrance calculus examinations. Indicates that supercalculators would probably provide a significant advantage, particularly for lower-achieving students. Demonstrates that it is possible to write questions in which…

  16. An Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment designed to reveal the consequences of the development of a concentration boundary layer. The rate of a mass transfer limited electrochemical reaction is measured and used to obtain the dependence of average Sherwood number on Reynolds number and entrance length. (Author/BB)

  17. An Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment designed to reveal the consequences of the development of a concentration boundary layer. The rate of a mass transfer limited electrochemical reaction is measured and used to obtain the dependence of average Sherwood number on Reynolds number and entrance length. (Author/BB)

  18. Mathematics for common entrance one answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams

  19. Mathematics for common entrance two answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams.

  20. PRACTICAL DETERMINATION OF TUNNEL ENTRANCE LIGHTING NEEDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHREUDER, DA

    1991-01-01

    The determination of the field factor that relates the visibility conditions in the laboratory to the visibility conditions for a car driver approaching the entrance of a long tunnel is discussed. Experimental results are given from research in the netherlands. Suggestions are given for incorporatio

  1. Experimental investigation of reactive turbulent recirculating jet mixing in a dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. D.; Giel, T. V.; Catalano, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    A ducted, subsonic, hydrogen air turbulent jet mixing flowfield was investigated, both with and without combustion. The geometric configuration was representative of a sudden expansion or dump combustor, with a central air jet surrounded by a low velocity hydrogen stream at an overall equivalence ratio of 0.12. The ratio of the duct to inner nozzle diameter was 2.5. Radial distributions of mean axial and radial velocity, axial and radial turbulent intensity, velocity cross correlation, gas composition, static temperature and total pressure, as well as axial distributions of wall static pressure, were obtained for axial stations from zero to six duct diameters from the combustor entrance. The data indicate that mixing is slower in the chemically reactive flow field than in the nonreactive flow field, and that the presence of combustion has a significant effect on the size and location of the recirculation zone within the mixing duct.

  2. Low energy and high energy dumps for ELI-NP accelerator facility: rational and Monte-Carlo calculations results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Frasciello, O.; Pelliccioni, M.

    2017-09-01

    ELI-NP will be a new international research infrastructure facility for laser-based Nuclear Physics to be built in Magurele, south west of Bucharest, Romania. For the machine to operate as an intense γ rays' source based on Compton back-scattering, electron beams are employed, undergoing a two stage acceleration to 320 MeV and 740 MeV (and, with an eventual energy upgrade, also to 840 MeV) beam energies. In order to assess the radiation safety issues, concerning the effectiveness of the dumps in absorbing the primary electron beams, the generated prompt radiation field and the residual dose rates coming from the activation of constituent materials, as well as the shielding of the adjacent environments against both prompt and residual radiation fields, an extensive design study by means of Monte Carlo simulations with FLUKA code was performed, for both low energy 320 MeV and high energy 720 MeV (840 MeV) beam dumps. For the low energy dump we discuss also the rational of the choice to place it in the building basement, instead of installing it in one of the shielding wall at the machine level, as it was originally conceived. Ambient dose equivalent rate constraints, according to the Rumenian law in force in radiation protection matter were 0.1 /iSv/h everywhere outside the shielding walls and 1.4 μiSv/h outside the high energy dump area. The dumps' placements and layouts are shown to be fully compliant with the dose constraints and environmental impact.

  3. Feasibility of Harvesting Radon from FRIB Beam Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scielzo, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) in an atom would signal a long-soughtafter presence of time-reversal violation and would have far reaching consequences for both particle physics and cosmology. Currently, the most stringent limitation on time-reversal violating effects in the nucleus comes from studies of stable 199Hg. However, for certain nuclei which have an octupole deformed shape, such as 223Rn, the time-reversal violating interactions are expected to be 100-1000 times greater than in 199Hg (Auerbach et al. 1996). As a result, there is great interest in searching for EDMs in octupole deformed nuclei and some of the initial studies of these nuclei have been featured on the cover of the journal Nature (Gaffney et al. 2013). All the octupole deformed nuclei of interest are radioactive and therefore available only in limited quantities. The primary challenge for an EDM experiment using radon is to collect large enough samples to perform sensitive searches.

  4. Neutrino oscillation studies with laser-driven beam dump facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S V; Migliozzi, P; Pegoraro, F; Tajima, T; Terranova, F

    2004-01-01

    A new mechanism is suggested for efficient proton acceleration in the GeV energy range; applications to non-conventional high intensity proton drivers and, hence, to low-energy (10-200 MeV) neutrino sources are discussed. In particular we investigate possible uses to explore subdominant $\\bar{\

  5. Rule of oxygen transmission in dump leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the chemical equations, the flux and concentration of oxygen required during bacterial leaching sulfuric mineral were investigated; the rule of air bubble transmitted in granular was researched in the Dump Leaching Plant of Dexing Copper Mine. The results show that lack of oxygen in dump leaching is the critical factor of restricting leaching reaction. Pyrite is the primary oxygen-consuming mineral in bioleaching. When its content is too high, it needs a great deal of oxygen for reaction and competes for the finite oxygen with objective minerals, and thus the leaching velocity decreases greatly. The average size of ore particles and diameter of bubbles are the key parameters affecting the mass transfer coefficient. Reverse analysis was adopted, and it shows that 44.8 m3 air per unit ore can meet the requirement of production if the molar ratio of pyrite to chalcopyrite is 10.

  6. 49 CFR 236.534 - Entrance to equipped territory; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entrance to equipped territory; requirements. 236... Entrance to equipped territory; requirements. Where trains are not required to stop at the entrance to equipped territory, except when leaving yards and stations and speed until entering equipped territory...

  7. At dumpe på FARMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Bjørn Friis

    Uddrag fra forord: "At dumpe på FARMA peger på flere centrale styrker i farmaceutuddannelsen. For det første at de studerende reelt er interesserede i farmaceutfaget når de optages på studiet, og de oplever velvilje fra underviserne. For det andet at studenterkulturen på studiet er stærk, således...

  8. Between social dumping and social protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Jul; Sandberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    In a world increasingly challenged by neoliberal restructurings of labour markets within the global economy, labour organisation is continuously challenged. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among Polish construction workers in Denmark, both at their place of work and in their homes in De...... flexibility and availability, and that the composition of the migrant family significantly impacts how migratory practices are made feasible and desirable. Keywords: East-West migrants, labour mobility, social dumping, migrant families, ethnographic fieldwork...

  9. Does Anti-dumping Enforcement Generate Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, Sagnik; Bhattacharyya, Surajit; Narayanan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed that countries across the world are guided by the rules and regulations of multilateral trading institutions (for example, World Trade organization [WTO], International Monetary Fund [IMF]) in order to promote free and fair trade through gradual reduction in trade barriers. The World economy has noticed significant reduction in tariffs, yet we find a rise in non-tariff barriers (NTBs). However, we still find dumping and few other trade strategies of the exp...

  10. Entrance Effects in Microchannel Gas Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Lewandowski; S. Jebauer; J. Czerwinska; P. Doerffer

    2009-01-01

    Motivation of this work has its origin in the boundary layer control for aeronautics and turbomachinery. For that purpose boundary layer can be modified by perforated plates with holes of specific sizes. The questions which rise in such configuration are related to the existence of optimal size of the holes and the influence of microscale phenomena on the global flow patterns. This paper concentrates on the issue of the entrance effects on the micro-channel flow. It is shown that mass flow rate is only insignificantly influenced by slip effects. Global parameters such as pressure difference and geometrical shape in more pronounced way alter flow behavior. In this paper we concentrate on the numerical investigation of the microchannel flow for Kn < 0.01 and Re < 500. The channel length is finite. Hence, entrance and outlet effects on microchannel flow can be studied.

  11. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.16 Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping. (a) A need for...

  12. 40 CFR 228.15 - Dumping sites designated on a final basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping sites designated on a final... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.15 Dumping sites designated on a final basis. (a)(1) The sites identified in this section are approved for dumping the...

  13. Performance of the KTeV high-energy neutral kaon beam at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocean, V.

    1998-06-01

    The performance of the primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E832 and E799-II is reviewed. The beam was commissioned in the summer of 1996 and initially operated for approximately one year. The report includes results on the primary beam, target station including primary beam dump and muon sweeping system, neutral beam collimation system, and alignment.

  14. Dumping syndrome after esophageal atresia repair without antireflux surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Laurent; Sfeir, Rony; Couttenier, Frédéric; Turck, Dominique; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2010-04-01

    In childhood, the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux is the main cause of dumping syndrome. We report the cases of 2 children with esophageal atresia who presented with dumping syndrome without any precipitating known factors, such as gastroesophageal reflux surgery or associated microgastria. Our data suggest (1) that dumping syndrome can occur after primary anastomosis of esophageal atresia without antireflux surgery and (2) that dumping syndrome should be considered in every child treated surgically for esophageal atresia presenting with digestive symptoms, malaise, failure to thrive, or refusal to eat.

  15. The Defects of WTO Anti-Dumping Rules and Related Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Wenhong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since Canada made the first anti-dumping code in 1904, United States, Australia and France made their domestic anti-dumping codes successively.In 1947,the contracting parties made anti-dumping rules part of GATT (Article VI).

  16. 78 FR 60240 - Non-Application of Previously Withdrawn Regulatory Provisions Governing Targeted Dumping in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulatory Provisions Governing Targeted Dumping in Antidumping Duty Investigations AGENCY: Import... implemented, the previously withdrawn regulatory provisions governing targeted dumping in antidumping duty... concerning the calculation of the weighted-average dumping margin and assessment rate in certain...

  17. Vibrational Analysis of a Shipboard Free Electron Laser Beam Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    42 4. Beam Path “ Racetrack ” ....................................................................44 a. Wave...43 Figure 33. Shock Excitation Beam Dump Z Direction Displacement ..............................44 Figure 34. Top View of Beam Path “ Racetrack ...magnets to merge into the “ racetrack ” prior to entering the LINAC: The motion of the injector assembly and magnets relative to the merge point of the

  18. Entrance Length and Turbulence Transition in Microflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereley, Steve; Lee, Sangyoup; Gui, Lichuan

    2002-11-01

    Since microfabrication techniques are typically planar processes, microchannel flows typically have significant predevelopment due to the upstream reservoir having the same height as the microchannel. The main concerns of the current study are categorized into finding the effects of typical microchannel geometry on the velocity entrance length in the laminar flow regime and providing the turbulence transitional Reynolds number range using the details of the velocity profile rather than global measurements of pressure drop. A rectangular micro-channel of aspect ratio 2.65 and the hydraulic diameter 380 um was used in this study. Micro particle image velocimetry measurement was performed to measure the velocity profiles. The entrance length is found to be reduced by about 45number occurs between 2100 and 2900-comparable to macroscale observations. Finally a new technique is proposed to measure the turbulence intensity of a flow directly from the PIV correlation function peak width. This new technique provides results comparable to traditional means of calculating turbulence intensity but is particularly useful in measuring microflows where the seeding density can be very low.

  19. Upgrade of the TCDQ: A dumping protection system for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Antonakakis, T

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the LHC, an asynchronous beam dump could be destructive. In order to ensure the safety of the machine and its surroundings a model of the TCDQ dump has been designed. The length of the TCDQ dump is increased by 50% and its material distribution along its length is changed from graphite to a carbon composite that clearly withstands higher stresses then its counterpart. There are two different density composites used along the dump‘s length in a similar distribution than that of the TCDS, varying from high density to low then back to high. The power deposition within the duration of a pulse is given by FLUKA simulations and is used to predict temperature and stress distributions in space and time. The results are compared with previous studies in which graphite material was used. The difference in the thermal expansion coefficient of the two materials explains the reduced stresses in the newer design. Due to the high cost of carbon composites an alternative solution is thought without jeopar...

  20. 7 CFR 48.4 - Destroying or dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destroying or dumping. 48.4 Section 48.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... dumping. Any person receiving produce in interstate commerce or in the District of Columbia for or...

  1. 7 CFR 46.23 - Evidence of dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of dumping. 46.23 Section 46.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Receivers § 46.23 Evidence of dumping. Reasonable cause for destroying any produce exists when the...

  2. Experimental study on explosive mechanism of spontaneous combustion gangue dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Rong-kun; YU Ming-gao; LU Lai-xiang

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reason for the frequency explosion of spontaneous combustion coal gangue dump and get to know their explosion mechanism, established the experiment platform about spontaneous combustion coal gangue dump interoperable water. The gangue dump was heated using the external heat source, and rainy weather through water mist was simulated. Simulated experiment about explosion of spontaneous combustion coal gangue dump was carried out on the different conditions of the rainfall or not. The unusual gases produced in the course of gangue combustion and the changes in temperature were observed, and their impacts on the explosion of gangue dump were analyzed. The experimental results show that overall warming phenomenon of the gangue dump after watering occurred, the amount of H2 iS three times than that before watering,and the amount of CO is far greater than that on the conditions of no-watering, at the same time combining with local observation and tests. It is found that the content of the oxygen reduce with the temperature increasing; however, gangue dump internal hydrogen content increase unusually on the rainfall conditions at 90 ℃, but the local measuring points reach the explosion limit. The existence of the CO and H2 iS the main reason for inducing the explosion of spontaneous combustion coal gangue dump.

  3. 7 CFR 58.212 - Hopper or dump room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hopper or dump room. 58.212 Section 58.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....212 Hopper or dump room. A separate room shall be provided for the transfer of bulk dry dairy...

  4. 30 CFR 56.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 56.9301 Section 56.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices...

  5. Argentina Imp Anti-dumping Duties on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 22, Argentina made the final anti-dumping adjudication once tires from China; on July 6, the Argentina authorities released the No. 221 resolution in 2011 issued by the Ministry of Industry: Impose 23% anti-dumping duties off estate car tires, 10% on the tires of machinery or vehicles used for agriculture and forestation,

  6. Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.097mgkg(-1). In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8mgkg(-1) with a median of 1.63mgkg(-1), which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n=31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r=0.695; n=31; p<0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r=0.496; n=27; p=0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Finally, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

  7. Fast Dump of the ATLAS Toroids

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; Volpini, Giovanni; Dudarev, Alexey; Kate, Herman Ten

    2010-01-01

    The toroidal magnet system of the ATLAS Detector at CERN consists of a Barrel Toroid (BT) and two End Cap Toroids (ECT-A and ECT-C). Each toroid is built up from eight racetrack coils wound with an aluminum stabilized NbTi conductor and indirectly cooled by forced flow liquid helium. The three toroids operate in series at 20.5 kA with a total stored energy of 1.5 GJ. In order to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the quench protection system, series of fast dump tests have been performed first of the single toroids and finally of the entire toroidal magnet system. In this paper a model to simulate the fast dump of the ATLAS toroids in single mode operation and in full system configuration is presented. The model is validated through comparison with measured data extracted from the ramp-and-quench runs. The calculated energy dissipation in the various coils is in very good agreement (within 1-2\\%) with the enthalpy changes estimated from the temperature measurements of the different parts of the cold ...

  8. Studies for the H0/H− dump for Linac4: energy deposition, induced radioactivity and BLM signal

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, R; Silari, M; Chamizo, R

    2010-01-01

    This note presents an estimate of the energy deposition and activation for the H0/H− dump for Linac4, the new CERN 160 MeV injector linac. Residual dose rates at different cooling times were calculated as well. The aim of the first part of this study was to compare the behavior of three different materials (graphite, boron nitride and aluminum nitride), in order to identify the most suitable for the dump. For the second part, a dedicated study has been done in order to test whether it could be feasible to insert Beam Loss Monitors to check the status of the beam, All calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo particle transport code FLUKA.

  9. Biofertilizers for the revegetation of coal overburden dumps top materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikhil, K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Environmental Management Group

    2001-07-01

    Adding and improving nutrient status of overburden dump top material through biofertilizer for supporting vegetation and for sustainable spoil development, a pot experiment was conducted. In this, two bio-fertilizers namely bactin and phosphin in three doses were applied on overburden dump top material kept in pots growing two grass species. The growths were compared with control on dump and soil both. Results shows that overburden dump amended with bio-fertilizer at lowest dose have significant increase in growth over the control of dump material and soil in vetiver grass but failed to shows the same result in lemon grass. This may be due to different growth behaviour of the grasses. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. The effect of somatostatin in dumping syndrome after gastric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulassay, Z; Tulassay, T; Gupta, R; Tamás, G

    1993-01-01

    The effect of somatostatin on early and late dumping syndrome was studied in 12 patients with gastric resection. Each patient underwent two glucose challenges with 75 gram of glucose administered orally. In the control study isotonic sodium chloride was given, while in the other study cyclic somatostatin in a dose of 80 ng/kg/min was given for a period of 270 minutes. In the control study all patients showed subjective symptoms of the early dumping syndrome with significant (p dumping syndrome associated with a significant (p dumping syndrome partly by inhibiting the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, gastric inhibitory peptide and insulin release, which are increased in dumping syndrome and may, therefore, be implicated as to have an etiological role.

  11. RF-driven ion source with a back-streaming electron dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Joe; Ji, Qing

    2014-05-20

    A novel ion source is described having an improved lifetime. The ion source, in one embodiment, is a proton source, including an external RF antenna mounted to an RF window. To prevent backstreaming electrons formed in the beam column from striking the RF window, a back streaming electron dump is provided, which in one embodiment is formed of a cylindrical tube, open at one end to the ion source chamber and capped at its other end by a metal plug. The plug, maintained at the same electrical potential as the source, captures these backstreaming electrons, and thus prevents localized heating of the window, which due to said heating, might otherwise cause window damage.

  12. Estimation of suspended sediment flux from acoustic Doppler current profiling along the Jinhae Bay entrance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yaping; CHU Yong Shik; LEE Hee Jun; HAN Choong Keun; OH Byung Chul

    2005-01-01

    A Nortek acoustic Doppler current profiler (NDP) was installed on a moving vessel to survey the entrance to the Jinhae Bay on August 22~23, 2001. The current velocity and acoustic backscattering signal were collected along two cross-sections; water samples were also collected during the measurement. The acoustic signals were normalized to compensate for the loss incurred by acoustic beam spreading in the seawater. The in situ calibration shows that a significant relationship is present between suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and normalized acoustic signals. Two acoustic parameters have been determined to construct an acoustic-concentration model.Using this derived model, the SSC patterns along the surveyed cross-sections were obtained by the conversion of acoustic data. Using the current velocity and SSC data, the flux of suspended sediment was estimated. It indicates that the sediment transport into the bay through the entrance has an order of magnitude of 100 t per tidal cycle.

  13. Physics and engineering design of the accelerator and electron dump for SPIDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pilan, N.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Veltri, P.; Zaccaria, P.

    2011-06-01

    The ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility (PRIMA) is planned to be built at Consorzio RFX (Padova, Italy). PRIMA includes two experimental devices: a full size ion source with low voltage extraction called SPIDER and a full size neutral beam injector at full beam power called MITICA. SPIDER is the first experimental device to be built and operated, aiming at testing the extraction of a negative ion beam (made of H- and in a later stage D- ions) from an ITER size ion source. The main requirements of this experiment are a H-/D- extracted current density larger than 355/285 A m-2, an energy of 100 keV and a pulse duration of up to 3600 s. Several analytical and numerical codes have been used for the design optimization process, some of which are commercial codes, while some others were developed ad hoc. The codes are used to simulate the electrical fields (SLACCAD, BYPO, OPERA), the magnetic fields (OPERA, ANSYS, COMSOL, PERMAG), the beam aiming (OPERA, IRES), the pressure inside the accelerator (CONDUCT, STRIP), the stripping reactions and transmitted/dumped power (EAMCC), the operating temperature, stress and deformations (ALIGN, ANSYS) and the heat loads on the electron dump (ED) (EDAC, BACKSCAT). An integrated approach, taking into consideration at the same time physics and engineering aspects, has been adopted all along the design process. Particular care has been taken in investigating the many interactions between physics and engineering aspects of the experiment. According to the 'robust design' philosophy, a comprehensive set of sensitivity analyses was performed, in order to investigate the influence of the design choices on the most relevant operating parameters. The design of the SPIDER accelerator, here described, has been developed in order to satisfy with reasonable margin all the requirements given by ITER, from the physics and engineering points of view. In particular, a new approach to the compensation of unwanted beam deflections inside the accelerator

  14. Zimbabwean mine dumps and their impacts on river water quality a reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, Maideyi; Love, David; Mapani, Benjamin

    Zimbabwe has a substantial number of mines and 67 minerals have been mined in the country since 1900 but at present only 30 different minerals are being mined. Exploitation of a variety of ores, in rocks of diverse composition, provides the potential for a range of pollution problems. The severity and extent of contamination differs with the type of minerals mined. This paper presents part of the results of a broad study, carried out across Zimbabwe, which assessed the potential of different mine tailings dumps to cause environmental problems. The dumps considered in the study were divided into six dump types, namely: gold-mine dumps, base-metal mine dumps (dumps associated with the mining of nickel, zinc, copper and lead), minor-metals mine dumps (dumps associated with mining of antimony, arsenic, and selenium), platinum-group metal mine dumps, chromite and asbestos mine dumps, and sulphur (pyrite) mine dumps. The elemental chemistry of the dumps and physical characteristics (pH, total dissolved solids) of the dumps, tailings’ leachates, and stream waters around the dumps were used to assess the potential of the dumps to pollute water bodies. Samples were collected in both the dry and wet seasons. The dispersion and pollution patterns were derived from Eh-pH conditions around the dumps after considering the mobility of the elements present in these dumps under different Eh-pH conditions. In this paper potential to pollute is considered as the likelihood of the elements to disperse under the prevailing conditions at the dump. The concentrations of elements, type of elements and the potential dispersion and pollution patterns from each dump were used to characterise potential risk of water pollution associated with the different dump types. The results showed a slight increase in concentrations of most elements studied in downstream waters compared to upstream waters. The dump conditions varied from acidic to alkaline, and so the elements studied have different

  15. LITERACY SENSES: WRITING IN VESTIBULAR (ENTRANCE EXAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wilson da Costa Coelho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to pose a reflection on explicit or underlying literacy practices in a literacy event such as the Brazilian university entrance exams (vestibular using, as an object of study, the essays written during that event. We aim to understand the educated writing culture, or Brazilian literacy, in its very extreme, that is, the end of High School, based on Bakhtin’s theory of enunciation. Despite pedagogical measures focused on elaborate (argumentative writing in view of college assessment exams and ENEM (National High School Exam, we know how unsatisfactory its results still are, in terms of the school literacy practices, which still remains to be sufficiently reflected on. It is also worth highlighting that we understand writing (school writing more as a set of social practices than as a set of skills alone.

  16. Novel spherical hohlraum with cylindrical laser entrance holes and shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Ke [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, Wudi [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Our recent works [K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 052704 (2014)] have shown that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are superior to the cylindrical hohlraums in both higher symmetry during the capsule implosion and lower backscatter without supplementary technology. However, both the coupling efficiency from the drive laser energy to the capsule and the capsule symmetry decrease remarkably when larger laser entrance holes (LEHs) are used. In addition, the laser beams injected at angles > 45° transport close to the hohlraum wall, thus the wall blowoff causes the LEH to close faster and results in strong laser plasma interactions inside the spherical hohlraums. In this letter, we propose a novel octahedral hohlraum with LEH shields and cylindrical LEHs to alleviate these problems. From our theoretical study, with the LEH shields, the laser coupling efficiency is significantly increased and the capsule symmetry is remarkably improved in the spherical hohlraums. The cylindrical LEHs take advantage of the cylindrical hohlraum near the LEH and mitigate the influence of the blowoff on laser transport inside a spherical hohlraum. The cylindrical LEHs can also be applied to the rugby and elliptical hohlraums.

  17. Dumping syndrome following gastric bypass: validation of the dumping symptom rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenius, Anna; Olbers, Torsten; Näslund, Ingmar; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-06-01

    There is a lack of prevalent data for dumping syndrome (DS) and methods discriminating between different symptoms of the DS. A self-assessment questionnaire, the Dumping Symptom Rating Scale (DSRS), was developed. The aim was to measure the severity and frequency of nine dumping symptoms and to evaluate the construct validity of the DSRS. Pre- and 1 and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, 47 adults and 82 adolescents completed the DSRS. Cognitive interview was performed. Reliability and construct validity were tested. Effect sizes (ES) of changes were calculated. Patients found the questionnaire relevant. A high proportion of the respondents reported no symptoms affecting them negatively at all (floor effects). However, 12 % stated, quite severe, severe, or very severe problems regarding fatigue after meal and half of them were so tired that they needed to lie down. Nearly 7 % reported quite severe, severe, or very severe problems dominated by nausea and 6 % dominated by fainting esteem. The internal consistency reliability was adequate for both severity (0.81-0.86) and frequency (0.76-0.84) scales. ES were small, since some subjects experienced symptoms already preoperatively. Although most patients reported no or mild dumping symptoms 1 and 2 years after gastric bypass surgery, around 12 % had persistent symptoms, in particular, postprandial fatigue, and needed to lie down. Another 7 % had problems with nausea and 6 % had problems with fainting esteem. The DSRS is a reliable screening tool to identify these patients.

  18. Was Mono Lake a 14C dump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    This is a scientific story without an explanation, called a “mystery” and an “enigma” in articles by the people who discovered it. Confounded by evidence they cannot explain by natural processes, these scientists implicate human beings.One month ago in Eos, (June 7, 1988, p. 633), Wallace Broecker and Scott Stine reported abnormally high levels of radiogenic 14C in California's Mono Lake, now a National Historic Site. The only logical explanation, they proposed, is that someone secretly dumped a total of about 20 curies of 14C into the lake in two doses, sometime between 1952 and 1958 and again between 1966 and 1977. Broecker and Stine, geologists at Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., called on readers for information on the source of the 14C.

  19. Capturing blocked-entrance binaural signals from open-entrance recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2008-01-01

    interfering the individual's hearing and doing. In this work we propose a strategy for the recording of binaural audio with minimal hearing interference, and for transforming these recordings to blocked-entrance versions that are more suitable for analysis and reproduction of binaural audio in a more general...... context. To this purpose, equalization filters are derived from the ratio between blocked and open ear canal transfer functions. Different transfer-function measuring techniques and inverse filtering methods are evaluated....

  20. Persuasive ways to change entrance use of buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Johannes; de Boer, Johannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Teeuw, Wouter B.

    2014-01-01

    People tend to use the same door every time they enter and exit a building. When certain entrances are widely preferred over others, congestion can occur. This paper describes two interventions to persuade visitors to use another entrance. The first intervention used sensory deprivation (darkness),

  1. Persuasive Ways to Change Entrance Use of Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Johannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Teeuw, Wouter B.

    2014-01-01

    People tend to use the same door every time they enter and exit a building. When certain entrances are widely preferred over others, congestion can occur. This paper describes two interventions to persuade visitors to use another entrance. The first intervention used sensory deprivation (darkness),

  2. Elasticity of substitution and anti-dumping decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a monopolistic competition model with market segmentation and international price discrimination, this paper analyzes whether there is an inverse relation between the elasticity of substitution and final ad valorem anti-dumping duties across products. We test this for 19 countries...... using data on anti-dumping from the Global Antidumping Database and US data at the 6-digit HS product level for the elasticity of substitution from Broda and Weinstein (Q J Econ 121(2):541–585, 2006). The results in our empirical investigation support a negative relation between the elasticity...... of substitution and the final ad valorem anti-dumping duties....

  3. Technical and Biological Reclamation of the Topolnica Tailing Dump

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Spasovski, Orce

    2009-01-01

    Flotation waste is disposed of into a canyon type of dump. Discharge has been done in layers for more than twenty-five years that has led to the present state of the tailing dump. Flotation of copper ore is one of the production process in the Buchim Copper Mine which seriously disturbs the surrounding land. The drastic disturbance has severely changed the chemical and physical properties of the dump which entails the need for reclamation of the newly created surrounding. Technical and biolog...

  4. [Prevalence of early and late dumping after gastric bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héraïef, R; Giusti, V

    2014-03-26

    Gastric bypass surgery is an effective treatment of obesity, bringing a significant weight loss and a major improvement of carbohydrate profile. However, in some patients, a deregulation in carbohydrate metabolism between insulin secretion and sensitivity is observed, whereupon early and late dumping happen. Their prevalence isn't well studied, although it seems that 10 to 20% of patients are affected. We've studied a cohort of 70 patients who undergone gastric bypass surgery at the CHUV. 18 (25.7%) patients have a positive anamnesis for early dumping and 10 (14.3%) for late dumping, being it superior as what is described in the literature.

  5. Ants' learning of nest entrance characteristics (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, M C

    2014-02-01

    Young workers, experimentally removed from their nest and set in front of it, are not very good at finding the nest entrance and entering the nest. I examined how young ants learn their nest entrance characteristics, dealing only with the entrance sensu stricto, not with its vicinity. I observed that young ants have the innate behavior of trying to exit and re-enter their nest. I found that they are imprinted with the nest entrance odor while they are still living inside their nest and that they learn the visual aspect of their nest entrances, thanks to operant conditioning, when they exit their nest and succeed in re-entering in the course of their first short trips outside.

  6. 30 CFR 56.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of ramps and dumping facilities... Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 56.9303 Construction of ramps and dumping facilities. Ramps and...

  7. Database Dump - fRNAdb | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us fRNAdb Database Dump Data detail Data name Database Dump DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00452-002 De...scription of data contents Dump data from database in the original site: - fRNAdb.pdf: description of database... schema - fRNAdb_schema.sql: database schema - fRNAdb_table.7z: dump data (original) - fRNAdbtsv.zip: dump... data (tab separeted text) Data file File name: Database_Dump File URL: ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/frnadb/LATEST/Database_Dump File size: 673 MB Simple search URL - Data acquisition

  8. Influence of thermoluminescent dosimeters energy dependence on the measurement of entrance skin dose in radiographic procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Galindo, Renata Sales; Hazin, Clovis Abrahao, E-mail: mercial@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN/NE-CNEN/PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Maia, Ana Figueiredo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nascimento, Natalia Cassia do Espirito Santo; Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: this study was aimed at evaluating the influence of the energy dependence of thermoluminescent materials on the determination of entrance skin dose in patients submitted to conventional radiographic studies (general radiology, mammography and dental radiology). Materials and methods: three different thermoluminescent materials were utilized: LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and CaSO{sub 4}:Dy. These materials were exposed to standardized sources of X and gamma radiation and clinical X-ray beams. Results: calibration and energy dependence curves were obtained. All the materials showed a linear response as a function of the air kerma. As far as energy dependence is concerned, the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy and LiF:Mg,Ti samples showed the greatest variation on thermoluminescent responses as a function of the effective radiation beam. Conclusion: the tested materials showed an appropriate performance for detecting X radiation on standard and clinical X-ray beams. Although CaSO{sub 4}:Dy and LiF:Mg,Ti samples present a significant energy dependence in the considered energy range, these materials can be utilized for measuring entrance skin doses, provided appropriate correction factors are applied (author)

  9. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  10. Continuous Wheel Momentum Dumping Using Magnetic Torquers and Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa-Suk; Choi, Wan-Sik; Eun, Jong-Won

    1996-12-01

    Two momentum management schemes using magnetic torquers and thrusters are sug-gested. The stability of the momentum dumping logic is proved at a general attitude equilibrium. Both momentum dumping control laws are implemented with Pulse-Width- Pulse-Frequency Modulated on-off control, and shown working equally well with the original continuous and variable strength control law. Thrusters are assummed to be asymmetrically configured as a contingency case. Each thruster is fired following separated control laws rather than paired thrusting. Null torque thrusting control is added on the thrust control calculated from the momentum control law for the gener-ation of positive thrusting force. Both magnetic and thrusting control laws guarantee the momentum dumping, however, the wheel inner loop control is needed for the "wheel speed" dumping, The control laws are simulated on the KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite (KOMPSAT) model.

  11. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... system (GIS) and remote sensing for Bahir Dar Town, North Western Ethiopia. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not ...

  12. Dumping syndrome, a cause of acquired glycogenic hepatopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Jeffrey M; Zador, Ivan; Fish, Daryl L

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy, having undergone fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease and fed by gastrostomy, presented with recurrent emesis, syncope with hypoglycemia, and persistently elevated serum liver transaminase levels. Liver biopsy revealed hepatocellular glycogenosis by light and electron microscopy. Further evaluation showed no evidence of diabetes mellitus, glycogen storage disease, or corticosteroid use. Since the hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic state of dumping syndrome would provide a mechanism for hepatocellular glycogenosis, the biopsy findings prompted consideration of dumping syndrome. Metabolic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of dumping syndrome, and appropriate dietary management led to sustained resolution of symptomatology and hypertransaminasemia. Dumping syndrome is proposed to be a cause of hepatocellular glycogenosis, the latter representing a form of acquired glycogenic hepatopathy.

  13. Numerical analysis of rainfall effects in external overburden dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhakanta Koner⇑; Debashish Chakravarty

    2016-01-01

    The effect of slope angle for external overburden dump in response to average and heavy rainfall has been analyzed using a two dimensional finite difference method of transient water flow through unsaturated–saturated soil. The external dump stability is evaluated for five geomaterial types on the basis of globally accepted safety factor analysis technique, based on shear strength reduction approach using finite differ-ence method. The results obtained from the finite difference method of analysis indicate that the external dump with more than 30? slope angle is greatly influenced by the rainfall under the studied conditions for geomaterial 3, 4 and 5, whereas dumps with geomaterial 1 and 2 remain safe. The analysis shows that major slope failure is out of preview for the studied rainfall conditions.

  14. The evidence of toxic wastes dumping in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfe, Gabriella; Di Stefano, Carla

    2016-09-01

    The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) were subjected to extensive illegal dumping operations of toxic and radioactive wastes since the 1980s. The highly toxic wastes (HTW) dumping operations that have taken place both along the coast and the hinterland, have extremely adverse effects on health, livelihoods and the future prospect of sustainable development of the local population. The toxic wastes dumping in Campania is real and it has compromised (irreversibly) the human health, natural environment, food security and the long-term development prospects of the affected population. To reverse this tragic trend, it is necessery the identification, isolation and reclamation of the polluted sites and full assessment of the nature and the scale of the polluting chemicals and other hazardous wastes. The purpose of this review is to contribute significantly to the available evidence of the long-running toxic waste dumping in Campania and its negative impact on the health of population.

  15. MACROMYCETES OF DUMPING SITES AS BIOINDICATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC EDAPHOTOP STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovych V.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the development of the macromycetes on anthropogenic edaphotop of dumping sites in western wooden-steppes of Ukraine. We considered principal ecological factors, namely acidity, temperature, and connectivity of edaphotop; humidity, temperature, and air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, equivalent dose of ionizing radiation in the surface ground of macromycetes habitats. The species diversity of macromycetes in dumping sites of western wooden-steppes of Ukraine was considerably low (Simpson index: 0,91; Shannon index: -1,9. Species evenness was calculated by indices of Simpson and Shannon was rather low: 0,43 and -2,71 correspondingly; this indicated limited development of fungi. The main factors were violation of natural environment of macromycetes biotopes and anthropogenic pressure on their development as a result of aerobic and anaerobic processes that occur within the dumping sites. We founded that macromycetes could be bioindicators of the anthropogenic edaphotop of the dumping sites.

  16. Pricing aspect of valuable metals from tailing dumps

    OpenAIRE

    Bugarin, Mile; Slavković, Gordana; Marinković, Vladan

    2011-01-01

    The last decade is characterized with the trend of higher prices of ferrous and precious metals on the world markets. Copper, gold and silver have been produced for centuries in the Bor mining complex. Flotation tailing dumps were created by copper mining and processing with tested contents of valuable metals. Tailing dumps with significant content of metals can be exploitated and useful raw materials can be evaluated. This paper discusses the pricing aspect of these raw materials or price mo...

  17. MACROMYCETES OF DUMPING SITES AS BIOINDICATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC EDAPHOTOP STATUS

    OpenAIRE

    Popovych V.V.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the development of the macromycetes on anthropogenic edaphotop of dumping sites in western wooden-steppes of Ukraine. We considered principal ecological factors, namely acidity, temperature, and connectivity of edaphotop; humidity, temperature, and air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, equivalent dose of ionizing radiation in the surface ground of macromycetes habitats. The species diversity of macromycetes in dumping sites of western wooden-steppes of Ukraine was conside...

  18. Beam Interlocks for LHC and SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Dinius, A; Gimeno-Vicente, J; Nouchi, P; Puccio, B; Schmidt, R; Wenninger, J

    2003-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN (LHC) will operate at 7 TeV/c with a luminosity of 10 cms. This requires two beams with about 3^10 protons/beam, corresponding to a stored energy of about 350 MJ, sufficient to heat and melt 500 kg of copper. Protection of equipment from damage in case of uncontrolled beam losses is challenging. Injection of the beam from the SPS to the LHC could already damage equipment and is only permitted when all LHC systems are correctly prepared. In case of an uncontrolled loss of the circulating LHC beams, it is required to extract the beams into a specially designed target as soon as possible. Beam loss monitors and equipment for hardware surveillance are distributed around the 26 km long accelerator. In case of failures or beam losses, the beam interlock system is informed and sends a dump request to the beam dumping system. The beam interlock system also inhibits injection when the LHC is not ready for beam. In this paper the requirements for the beam interlock system are discussed...

  19. LHC Report: Beam on

    CERN Multimedia

    Rossano Giachino for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The powering tests described in the last edition of the Bulletin were successfully finished at the end of the first week of March opening the way for 4 TeV operations this year. The beam was back in the machine on Wednesday 14 March. The first collisions at 4 TeV are scheduled for the first week of April.   The first beam of 2012 is dumped after making a few rounds in the LHC. The magnet powering tests were followed by the machine checkout phase. Here the operations team in collaboration with the equipment groups performs a sequence of tests to ensure the readiness of the LHC for beam. The tests include driving all the LHC systems – beam dump, injection, collimation, RF, power converters, magnet circuits, vacuum, interlocks, controls, timing and synchronization – through the operational cycle. The “checkout phase” is really a massive de-bugging exercise, which is performed with the objective of ensuring the proper functioning of the whole machine and t...

  20. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of postoperative dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jan; Arts, Joris; Caenepeel, Philip; De Wulf, Dominiek; Bisschops, Raf

    2009-10-01

    Dumping syndrome is a frequent complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery. Rapid gastric emptying, with the delivery to the small intestine of a significant proportion of solid food as large particles that are difficult to digest, is a key event in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. This occurrence causes a shift of fluid from the intravascular component to the intestinal lumen, which results in cardiovascular symptoms, release of several gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones and late postprandial hypoglycemia. Early dumping symptoms comprise both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Late dumping symptoms are the result of reactive hypoglycemia. Besides the assessment of clinical alertness and endoscopic or radiological imaging, a modified oral glucose tolerance test might help to establish a diagnosis. The first step in treating dumping syndrome is the introduction of dietary measures. Acarbose can be added to these measures for patients with hypoglycemia, whereas several studies advocate guar gum or pectin to slow gastric emptying. Somatostatin analogs are the most effective medical therapy for dumping syndrome, and a slow-release preparation is the treatment of choice. In patients with treatment-refractory dumping syndrome, surgical reintervention or continuous enteral feeding can be considered, but the outcomes of such approaches are variable.

  1. Doublet vs. FODO structure: beam dynamics and layout

    CERN Document Server

    Eshraqi, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    A FoDo (singlet) structure is designed for the CERN Superconducting Proton LINAC. This architecture is compared to the baseline (doublet) architecture of SPL on the basis of its beam dynamics performance and the required investment. The sensitivity of both layouts to quadrupole gradient errors and misalignment is checked and a correction scheme for beam steering is proposed. Finally a single quad beam dilution scheme is studied and designed for the pilot beam dump.

  2. Coal recovery from a coal waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanski Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities and efficiency of coal recovery from the waste material located at the Central Coal Waste Dump in Poland were presented in this paper. The waste material includes significant amount of fly ash. Research conducted into determination of energetic properties of such wastes showed that the average ash content was 75.75% and the average gross calorific value was 7.81 MJ/kg. Coal was gravitationally separated from the waste material in a pulsatory jig and in a spiral washer including size fractions: 30-5 and 8-0 mm (this was crushed to a size <3.2 mm, respectively. The application of the pulsatory jig (pulse classifier allowed to obtain a high-quality energetic concentrate with the ash content lower than 12% and the gross calorific value higher than 26 MJ/kg (with average yield 7.8%. The spiral separator gave much worse results. The average gross calorific value for the concentrate was 11.6 MJ/kg, with the high ash content 56.5% and yield approximately 26%.

  3. Historical bathymetric changes near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.L.; Sherwood, C.R. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Large changes in the distribution of sediment near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington, have occurred since the long rock jetties were built to confine flow. Spits to the north and south of the entrance have grown, the entrance channel has deepened, and the outer bar has eroded and moved offshore. The shorelines of North Beach and South Beach have experienced significant amounts of both erosion and accretion since the jetties were constructed around the turn of the century. Recently, the erosion rate at South Beach has increased and, because Half Moon Bay is growing at the expense of the shoreward side of Point Chehalis, the vegetated portion of the spit is now less than 350 ft wide at the narrowest section. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory evaluate long-term trends in erosion near the entrance to Grays Harbor.

  4. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Entrance Fee Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Emergency Wetlands Resources Act of 1986 authorizes the Fish and Wildlife Service to collect entrance fees within selected units of the National Wildlife Refuge...

  5. Modelling reactive transport in a phosphogypsum dump, Venezia, Italia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcara, Massimo; Borgia, Andrea; Cattaneo, Laura; Bartolo, Sergio; Clemente, Gianni; Glauco Amoroso, Carlo; Lo Re, Fabio; Tozzato, Elena

    2013-04-01

    We develop a reactive-transport porous media flow model for a phosphogypsum dump located on the intertidal deposits of the Venetian Lagoon: 1. we construct a complex conceptual and geologic model from field data using the GMS™ graphical user interface; 2. the geological model is mapped onto a rectangular MODFLOW grid; 3. using the TMT2 FORTRAN90 code we translate this grid into the MESH, INCON and GENER input files for the TOUGH2 series of codes; 4. we run TOUGH-REACT to model flow and reactive transport in the dump and the sediments below it. The model includes 3 different dump materials (phosphogypsum, bituminous and hazardous wastes) with the pores saturated by specific fluids. The sediments below the dump are formed by an intertidal sequence of calcareous sands and silts, in addition to clays and organic deposits, all of which are initially saturated with lagoon salty waters. The recharge rain-water dilutes the dump fluids. In turn, the percolates from the dump react with the underlying sediments and the sea water that saturates them. Simulation results have been compared with chemical sampled analyses. In fact, in spite of the simplicity of our model we are able to show how the pH becomes neutral at a short distance below the dump, a fact observed during aquifer monitoring. The spatial and temporal evolution of dissolution and precipitation reactions occur in our model much alike reality. Mobility of some elements, such as divalent iron, are reduced by specific and concurrent conditions of pH from near-neutrality to moderately high values and positive redox potential; opposite conditions favour mobility of potentially toxic metals such as Cr, As Cd and Pb. Vertical movement are predominant. Trend should be therefore heavily influenced by pH and Eh values. If conditions are favourable to mobility, concentration of these substances in the bottom strata could be high. However, simulation suggest that the sediments tend to reduce the transport potential of

  6. Neutron dose calculation at the maze entrance of medical linear accelerator rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, R C; Facure, A; Silva, A X

    2007-01-01

    Currently, teletherapy machines of cobalt and caesium are being replaced by linear accelerators. The maximum photon energy in these machines can vary from 4 to 25 MeV, and one of the great advantages of these equipments is that they do not have a radioactive source incorporated. High-energy (E > 10 MV) medical linear accelerators offer several physical advantages over lower energy ones: the skin dose is lower, the beam is more penetrating, and the scattered dose to tissues outside the target volume is smaller. Nevertheless, the contamination of undesirable neutrons in the therapeutic beam, generated by the high-energy photons, has become an additional problem as long as patient protection and occupational doses are concerned. The treatment room walls are shielded to attenuate the primary and secondary X-ray fluence, and this shielding is generally adequate to attenuate the neutrons. However, these neutrons are scattered through the treatment room maze and may result in a radiological problem at the door entrance, a high occupancy area in a radiotherapy facility. In this article, we used MCNP Monte Carlo simulation to calculate neutron doses in the maze of radiotherapy rooms and we suggest an alternative method to the Kersey semi-empirical model of neutron dose calculation at the entrance of mazes. It was found that this new method fits better measured values found in literature, as well as our Monte Carlo simulated ones.

  7. Development of a system for monitoring the shape, position, and intensity of the extracted relativistic ion beam at the Nuclotron-M accelerator complex at JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, S. E.; Vishnevskiy, A. V.; Kadykov, M. G.; Makankin, A. M.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.; Shurygin, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    Test samples of detectors and electronics for them constructed for the purpose of monitoring the "intense" relativistic ion beams extracted from the accelerator of the Nuclotron-M accelerator complex in real time are described. The system was tested in a series of acceleration runs with deuteron beams with an intensity of up to 1010 1/s and beams of carbon nuclei. The system allows one to perform multiple measurements of the two-dimensional distribution of the beam intensity in the plane perpendicular to it and the beam position in this plane during the beam dump and measure the two-dimensional distribution of the target irradiation dose after each beam dump.

  8. Natural vegetation recovery on waste dump in opencast coalmine area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jian-long; LU Zhao-hua

    2005-01-01

    The changes of vegetation compositions, plant species diversity, species important value and succession of plant community were studied on waste dumps in Haizhou opencast coalmine which is located in the west of Liaoning Province, China (41°41(-42°56( N, 121°1(-122°56(E). Four kinds of terraces with different ages (5, 10, 20 and 40 years) were selected for investigation of plants. Total of 63 species of natural colonized plants were recorded on the waste dump and they belong to 23 families. The main families were Compositae (15 species), Fabaceae (11 species) and Leguminosae (8 species), which accounted for 54.0% of total species and play an important role in natural vegetation recovery in waste dump area. The dominant species on 5-, 10-, 20-, 40-year-old terraces were Tribulus terrestris + Echinochloa hispidula + Salsola collina, Echinochloa hispidula + Artemisia sieversiana + Artemisia scoparia, Echinochloa hispidula + Clinelymus dahuricus + Artemisia scoparia + Artemisia sieversiana + Melilotus officinalis, Clinelymus dahuricus+Phragmites communis + Echinochloa hispidula+ Setaria viridis, respectively. According to the important value of species calculated. It is determined that Tribulus terrestris can act as pioneer species on waste dump and Clinelymus dahuricus, Phragmites communis and Echinochloah hispidula are important dominant species in vegetation restoration in Haizhou opencast coalmine. The study results can provide scientific basis for selecting and disposing appropriately plant species and rehabilitating vegetation on waste dumps of coalmine.

  9. A Clamped Be Window for the Dump of the HiRadMat Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Delonca, M; Grenier, D; Maglioni, C; Sarrio Martinez, A

    2012-01-01

    At CERN, the High Radiation to Materials facility (HiRadMat) is designed to test accelerator components under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams and will start operation in 2012. In this frame an LHC TED-type dump was installed at the end of the line, working in nitrogen over-pressure, and a 254μm-thick beryllium window was placed as barrier between the inside of the dump and the external atmosphere. Because of the special loading conditions, a clamped window design was especially developed, optimized and implemented, the more standard welded window not being suitable for such loads. Considering then the clamping force and the applied differential pressures, the stresses on the window components were carefully evaluated thanks to empirical as well as numerical models, to guarantee the structural integrity of the beryllium foil. This paper reports on choices and optimizations that led to the final design, presenting also comparative results from different solutions and the detailed results for the adop...

  10. A Clamped Be Window for the Dump of the HiRadMat Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Delonca, M; Grenier, D; Maglioni, C; Sarrio Martinez, A

    2012-01-01

    At CERN, the High Radiation to Materials facility (HiRadMat) is designed to test accelerator components under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams and will start operation in 2012. In this frame an LHC TED-type dump was installed at the end of the line, working in nitrogen overpressure, and a 254μm-thick beryllium window was placed as barrier between the inside of the dump and the external atmosphere. Because of the special loading conditions, a clamped window design was especially developed, optimized and implemented, the more standard welded window not being suitable for such loads. Considering then the clamping force and the applied differential pressures, the stresses on the window components were carefully evaluated thanks to empirical as well as numerical models, to guarantee the structural integrity of the beryllium foil. This paper reports on choices and optimizations that led to the final design, presenting also comparative results from different solutions and the detailed results for the adopt...

  11. CZCS view of an oceanic acid waste dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Jane A.

    1988-01-01

    Plumes from the acid waste dump in the New York Bight were visible in all nine cloud-free Coastal Zone Color Scanner images from April and May 1981. The CZCS subsurface radiance channels displayed consistent spectral characteristics, which consisted of a strong increase in the 550 nm channel and a moderate increase in the 520 nm channel relative to the surrounding coastal waters. The 443 nm channel showed no change or a slight decrease in radiance within the plumes. These anomalous radiances preclude the calculation of pigment in the dump plumes using existing algorithms. However, the high radiances of the 550 nm channel can be used to examine the flow patterns of surface water in the vicinity of the dump.

  12. Københavns Kommunes indsats mod social dumping - målopfyldelsesevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Jørgensen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet......Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet...

  13. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-09

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  14. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GOLD-ORE DUMP REPROCESSING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Samsonov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An economic projection is presented in the paper on the heap leaching technology for extracting a residual gold from the gold-ore dumps accumulated at the exploited or closed gold mines. A brief analysis is performed on the legal status of use this source of raw materials, availability and efficiency of the heap leaching method are reviewed, and the potential users of this method are assessed. An investment plan is created for involving anthropogenic dumps of gold-raw materials at one of the ore deposits in Siberia (heap complex of the North-Western flank of the Sovetskoye minefield, Krasnoyarsk region, North-Yenisey area.

  15. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  16. Environmental application of aerial reconnaissance to search for open dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Thomas J.; Randolph, J. C.; Echelberger, Wayne F.

    1983-11-01

    Three approaches to using aerial photography are evaluated for searching for open dumps in the state of Indiana. Photography with hand-held cameras from a small airplane proved more effective and flexible than either photo-interpretation of existing air photos or subcontracting to a federal agency for new aerial photography. The rationale for our choice of aerial reconnaissance, other uses of low-level aerial surveillance, the utility of small-format camera aerial photography for environmental analysis, and methods used for locating open dumps are discussed.

  17. Optimal shape of entrances for a frictionless nanochannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Christophe; Joly, Laurent; Detcheverry, François

    2016-09-01

    The nearly frictionless flow of water in narrow carbon nanotubes is a genuine nanofluidic phenomenon with many prospects of applications in membrane technology. When inner dissipation is vanishing, the limiting factor to high flux lies in the viscous dissipation occurring at the tube mouth. As shown by Gravelle et al. [Gravelle, Joly, Detcheverry, Ybert, Cottin-Bizonne, and Bocquet, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 16367 (2013), 10.1073/pnas.1306447110], these so-called end effects can be reduced by adding a conical entrance. In this work, we take a step further and search for the optimal entrance shape. We use finite element calculations to compute the hydrodynamic resistance of a frictionless tube with superellipse-shaped entrances and propose an approximate analytical model. If perfect slip applies on its wall, an optimal entrance which is only 10 tube radii in length is sufficient to reduce end effects by an order of magnitude, a performance almost three times better than the optimal cone. In the case of partial slip, the resistance decreases with the entrance length before reaching a plateau at an optimal length controlled by liquid-solid slip. Our results are discussed in connection with biological and artificial systems.

  18. Predicting Siltation in Entrance Channel Based on Wind Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The siltation induced by wind waves in an entrance channel is one of the prime factors influencing the operation efficiency of a port. It is necessary to predict the siltation accurately for dredging and ship operation passing through the entrance of the port. However, it is difficult to apply the traditional method to predicting entrance siltation because of its complex computational procedure and lacking the data of ocean dynamic elements in the specified sea area. From the view of energy conservation, a direct relationship between wind conditions and sediment deposition can be founded. On the basis of the above methodology, an empirical formula expressed by wind conditions for forecasting the siltation in the entrance channel is set up. The wind conditions are easily obtained from the local meteorological stations or weather maps, so the formula established in this paper is more convenient and practical than the traditional method. A case study is provided, in which the emopirical formula is calibrated and verified utilizing the measured wind and siltation conditions in the entrance channel of the port. Comparisons between computed values and measured data show satisfactory agreement.

  19. Investigation of the acid mine drainage potential of the Kopanang rock dump, Vaal Reefs / Charl Labuschagne

    OpenAIRE

    Labuschagne, Charl

    2008-01-01

    The Kopanang rock dump is one of several rock dumps in the Vaal Reefs gold mining area that may have an impact on the surface and groundwater quality. Few Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) studies exist on rock dumps in the South African gold industry due to the overwhelming acid generation from slime dams. Due to the existence of sulfide minerals in the Kopanang rock dump, there is a possibility that acid generation can occur, depending on the mineralogical composition of the ...

  20. Compact disposal of high-energy electron beams using passive or laser-driven plasma decelerating stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto, A.; Schroeder, C. B.; Vay, J. -L.; Geddes, C. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey and, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2014-07-13

    A plasma decelerating stage is investigated as a compact alternative for the disposal of high-energy beams (beam dumps). This could benefit the design of laser-driven plasma accelerator (LPA) applications that require transportability and or high-repetition-rate operation regimes. Passive and laser-driven (active) plasma-based beam dumps are studied analytically and with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in a 1D geometry. Analytical estimates for the beam energy loss are compared to and extended by the PIC simulations, showing that with the proposed schemes a beam can be efficiently decelerated in a centimeter-scale distance.

  1. Dumping syndrome after esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery : pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, A. P.; Emous, M.; Laville, Maurice; Tack, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dumping syndrome, a common complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery, includes early and late dumping symptoms. Early dumping occurs within 1 h after eating, when rapid emptying of food into the small intestine triggers rapid fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen and rele

  2. 78 FR 36560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). This request for... concerning the following information collection: Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy...

  3. 77 FR 61819 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Countervailing and Anti-Dumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ...-Dumping Measures on Certain Products From China AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative...-99''), and the countervailing and anti-dumping duty determinations and actions by the Department of....'' China also challenges the concurrent application of anti-dumping and countervailing duties under...

  4. 75 FR 16493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This request for comment is being made... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB Number: 1651-0086....

  5. 78 FR 55280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (ADPs). This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected...

  6. 75 FR 81533 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Duty Proceedings AGENCY: Import... comments regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment...-specific export prices and average normal values and does not offset any dumping that is found with...

  7. 78 FR 38672 - Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site... Entities B. Background C. Disposal Volume Limit D. Site Management and Monitoring Plan E. Ocean Dumping.... Ocean Dumping Site Designation Criteria In proposing to designate these Sites, the EPA assessed...

  8. 76 FR 5518 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Duty Proceedings AGENCY: Import... regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment rate in... regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment rate...

  9. 75 FR 33708 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... typographical error in the Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal... amended by revising paragraphs (n)(3) and (n)(4) to read as follows: Sec. 228.15 Dumping sites...

  10. 75 FR 36106 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This is a proposed.... Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA)....

  11. 77 FR 73732 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States ; Countervailing and Anti-Dumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Regarding United States ; Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Products From China AGENCY... countervailing and anti-dumping duty determinations and actions by the Department of Commerce, the U.S... application of anti-dumping and countervailing duties under the nonmarket economy methodology with respect...

  12. 76 FR 52045 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Diamond...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures... (``WTO Agreement'') concerning anti-dumping measures regarding diamond sawblades and parts thereof from... request dated February 28, 2001 regarding anti-dumping measures on certain frozen warmwater shrimp...

  13. Dumping syndrome after esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery : pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, A P; Emous, M; Laville, M; Tack, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dumping syndrome, a common complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery, includes early and late dumping symptoms. Early dumping occurs within 1 h after eating, when rapid emptying of food into the small intestine triggers rapid fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen and rele

  14. 77 FR 19745 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States; Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States; Anti- Dumping Measures... order would be likely to lead to the continuation or recurrence of dumping, Certain Frozen Warmwater... methodology for determining margins of dumping in administrative reviews; (8) the practice of...

  15. 7 CFR 58.228 - Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. 58.228... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.228 Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. The product contact surfaces of dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors which are used in the process of transferring...

  16. 40 CFR 256.64 - Requirements for public participation in the open dump inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the open dump inventory. 256.64 Section 256.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MANAGEMENT PLANS Public Participation § 256.64 Requirements for public participation in the open dump... classification of a facility as an open dump to the Federal Government. The State shall accomplish this...

  17. 75 FR 67968 - Arkwright Dump Site, Spartanburg, Spartanburg County, SC; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...] Arkwright Dump Site, Spartanburg, Spartanburg County, SC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental... Dump Site located in Spartanburg, Spartanburg County, South Carolina for publication. DATES: The Agency..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0892 or Site name Arkwright Dump Site by one of the...

  18. Spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes in superfluid helium nano-droplets

    CERN Document Server

    K"upper, J; K\\"upper, Jochen; Merritt, Jeremy M.

    2006-01-01

    The spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes embedded in superfluid helium nano-droplets is reviewed. The collection of dopants inside individual droplets in the beam represents a micro-canonical ensemble, and as such each droplet may be considered an isolated cryo-reactor. The unique properties of the droplets, namely their low temperature (0.4 K) and fast cooling rates ($\\sim10^{16}$ K s$^{-1}$) provides novel opportunities for the formation and high-resolution studies of molecular complexes containing one or more free radicals. The production methods of radicals are discussed in light of their applicability for embedding the radicals in helium droplets. The spectroscopic studies performed to date on molecular radicals and on entrance / exit-channel complexes of radicals with stable molecules are detailed. The observed complexes provide new information on the potential energy surfaces of several fundamental chemical reactions and on the intermolecular interactions pres...

  19. Traffic disruption at Entrance B -TRAM- related work

    CERN Multimedia

    Infrastructure and General Services Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to work being carried out for the TRAM we inform you that vehicles coming from Geneva will be prohibited from turning left into Entrance B. This restriction will be in place for approx. 10 weeks*) starting from Monday 30 August 2010. You are highly recommended to enter CERN through Entrance A during this period even though a diversion will be put in place to allow access to CERN from Entrance B (as shown in the attached sketch). In addition, approx. 20 car parking spaces will be temporarily unavailable at the western end of the flags car park. We thank you in advance for your kind understanding. ______________ *) The exact end date of the work will be communicated in due course. GS-SEM Group

  20. Full simulation of the beam-related backgrounds at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, Anne [DESY (Germany); KIT (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The ILC has been proposed as the next machine at the energy frontier and a Technical Design Report was presented in 2012. As part of the site-specific studies to prepare the hosting of the ILC in Japan, the final focus region of the ILC had to be adapted. In this contribution, updated results for the beam-related background as well as new results for the backgrounds originating from the beam dump are presented. The beam-related backgrounds are simulated using GuineaPig and are then propagated through the full simulation of the SiD detector. The impact of various modifications in the final-focus region on the detector occupancies are then evaluated. For the neutron background from the beam dump, the FLUKA simulation suite is used, which is well established for dosimetry and shielding studies. With this program, the effect of the neutrons from the ILC beam dumps on the ILC detectors are studied.

  1. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Document Server

    GS-IS

    2013-01-01

      A second entrance for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc will be opened and the existing entrance on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: - for the period 2 April to 31 October 2013, - from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday). IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  2. Pioneer vegetation on ash dumps in Oswiecim (southern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarczuk, T.; Kuczynski, B.

    1972-01-01

    The authors found fifty-three plant species growing on the ash dumps in Oswiecim, while in 1963 twenty-two species only were encountered there. Most of the self-sown plants belong to calciphilous, ruderal and xerophilous species. The pH of the ashes amounts to 9.5. Some of them, e.g. Matricaria chamomilla are index plants for acid habitats; others were hitherto encountered in wet habitats, e.g. Rumex obtusifolias, Myricaria germanica, Epilobium roseum, and others. Their occurrence on ash dumps is possible thanks to the considerable amount of precipitation (465 mm) during the vegetative period. The mosses are the pioneers of these dumps, e.g. Funaria hygromertrica and Bryum argenteum, which usually appear on the site of fire. The authors are of the opinion that a better knowledge of the plants appearing spontaneously on dumps and waste heaps may provide many useful conclusions which will help to obtain positive results at the recultivation of spoil heaps and industrial wastes. 9 references, 3 tables.

  3. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...

  4. 29 BABY DUMPING AND EVOLVING BABY FACTORIES IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few scholarly works existing on this social problem center on poverty .... their parents. Similarly, Sazali .... Table 5: Number of cases related to baby dumping in Malaysia ..... children from imminent risk of harm, as the nation's present commitment of resources, laws, and .... Stigma: Notes on Management of Spoiled Identity.

  5. Bilge dump detection from SAR imagery using local binary patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, LW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 2015: Remote Sensing: Understanding the Earth for a Safer World, Milan, Italy, 26-31 July 2015 Bilge dump detection from SAR imagery using local binary patterns yz L.W. Mdakane,yz W. Kleynhans,yz C.P. Schwegmann yDepartment of Electrical...

  6. Results of evaluation of tailing dumps dust intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masloboev V. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of most acceptable and well-known methods of dust intensity evaluation has been defined and tested (dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme based on the analysis of exiting approaches (deserts, tailing dumps, etc.. The description of the chosen methods has been given. The determination of dynamic velocity u* and velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface u10 which are necessary to evaluate the dust intensity has been demonstrated. The method is based on two-dimensional numerical model of atmosphere aerodynamics in the area of "tailing dumps of ANOF-2 ‒ the town of Apatity". The study provides calculations of horizontal velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface at the wind speed varying from 5 to 23 m/sec. The work also suggests the results of graphical data processing related to tailing grain size distribution from the surface of the firmly established surface of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2. Comparative analysis has been given and the peculiarities of interval (based on grains sizes dust intensity of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2 have been shown using the dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme within the wind speed range. The received values of dust intensity at the lower range limit are close to the "maximum specific dust off" value which is used by project specialists for documentation development

  7. insect vectors of pathogens in selected undisposed refuse dumps in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2012-06-23

    Jun 23, 2012 ... insects and their role in disease transmission are highlighted. Proper disposal of ... Keywords: Insects, refuse dumps, diseases, Kaduna, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ..... further noted that at present, only individual solutions are used at the household .... to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon. PubMed. gov ( ...

  8. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... pressure level modelling indicates that the waste rock dump has a potential to ... Problems related to noise include stress related illnesses, high blood pressure, speech ... modelling consist of physical parameters that are ... The monitoring activity was ... efficiency of 40% (assumed) will reduce the noise.

  9. Assessing pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changli; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Feng'e.; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Miying; Ye, Hao; Hou, Hongbing; Dong, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Jiang, Jianmei; Pei, Lixin

    2007-04-01

    Research is few in the literature regarding the investigation and assessment of pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dumps. Based upon previous work in seven waste dumping sites (nonsanitary landfills) in Beijing, Shanghai and Shijiazhuang, this study expounds the investigation and assessment method and report major pollutants. Using relative background values, this study assesses soil pollution degree in the seven dumping sites. Preliminary conclusions are: (1) pollution degrees are moderate or heavy; (2) pollution distance by domestic waste that is dumped on a plane ground is 85 m; (3) the horizontal transport distance of pollutants might be up to 120 m if waste leachates are directly connected with water in saturated soils; (4) vertical transport depth is about 3 m in unsaturated silty clayey soils. Furthermore, using relative background values and hygiene standards of food and vegetable this study assesses the pollutions of different parts of reed, sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon. It is found: (1) in comparison with the relative background values in a large distance to the waste dumping sites, domestic wastes have polluted the roots and stems of reed and sorghum, whereas fine coal ash has polluted the leaves, rattans and fruits of watermelon and sweet-melon; (2) domestic wastes and fine coal ash have heavily polluted the edible parts of sorghum, water melon and sweet-melon. As, Hg, Pb and F have far exceeded standard values, e.g., Hg has exceeded the standard value by up to 650 1,700 times and Cd by 120 275 times, and the comprehensive pollution index is up to 192.9 369.7; (3) the polluted sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon are inedible.

  10. Research of waste dump water mutagenicity of bacterial detection system SOS chromotest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtková, H; Janáková, I

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with a possible use of the bacterial detection system of SOS chromotest to test mutagenicity of waste dump water checking the mutagenicity degree on real samples from Praksice waste dump, which is a controlled waste dump with mixed industrial, municipal and inert wastes. The waste dump surface water samples were taken from a no-name influent stream springing below the waste dump body between 2005 and 2009. After metabolic activation by microsomal fraction in vitro, medium to high mutagenicity was registered in all the samples. The SOS chromotest is assessed as an effective and economically acceptable method to check and determine the mutagenicity degree of contaminated water.

  11. Design of an internal waste dump within the boundaries of the open pit

    OpenAIRE

    Panov, Zoran; Minov, Kirco; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Stojanov, Slobodan; Doneva, Blagica

    2011-01-01

    With the deepening of the open pit, the transport distances for the sterile mass and the ore increased. This paper deals with the formation of an internal waste dump within the boundaries of the open pit. The development of such waste dump should be in function of the space for disposing the waste according to existing situation on the field and the space for dumping. The internal waste dump will be used for permanent dumping and waste storage. Modern methods will be used to asses...

  12. China’s Entrance to the WTO and Financial Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Soon Park

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The openness and liberalization of China’s financial market is expected to accelerate with her entrance to the WTO. China plans to carry out liberalization measures, including the expansion of the Renminbi business scope. Openness and liberalization will expedite the integration of internal and external sectors, thereby making the domestic financial market more vulnerable to environmental changes. Consequently, China should establish a strong financial system to efficiently cope with the contagion effects of an external financial crisis. However, China’s financial system is still very weak, mainly due to the enormous bad loans to SOEs (state-owned enterprises. Accordingly, the Chinese government should carry out financial reform measures such as strengthening the financial supervision system, dealing with bad bank loans and restructuring the financial institutions. On the whole, China’s entrance to the WTO is expected to have a positive influence on her financial sector by accelerating such reform policies as financial reform and SOE reform. Entrance to the WTO will make society recognize the necessity of reform and openness. The Chinese government can decide to push some difficult reform policies which would not have been considered without WTO entrance.

  13. Getting Interpersonal on a University Entrance Exam Impromptu Writing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myskow, Gordon; Gordon, Kana

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the types of audience engagement strategies used by a Japanese secondary school student in an after school course preparing for a high-stakes impromptu academic writing task on a university entrance exam. The study uses appraisal theory--the branch of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) concerned with the patterning of…

  14. A GIS-based zoning of illegal dumping potential for efficient surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Tomohiro; Kawahata, Takatsune; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Takagishi, Susumu; Morita, Akihiro; Akishima, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    To assist in the efficient surveillance against illegal dumping, this study examined and evaluated two methods to illustrate the illegal dumping potential of sites using GIS (Geographic Information System) data. One approach focused on the occurrence of illegal dumping sites; the other on the size of the illegal dumping. Both approaches to zoning were implemented for the Kanto region of Japan, utilizing seven or eight major geographical attributes most closely related to illegal dumping. The zoning results revealed the areas requiring patrols against illegal dumping. Evaluation of the zoning results using the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve showed the number of illegal dumping sites detectable under certain surveillance conditions and that the size-based zoning was superior, but this superiority was insignificant for revealing sites with higher potential for large illegal dumping, for which it would be sufficient to use the occurrence-based zoning. The evaluation also showed the contribution of each geographical attribute. Finally, application of the ROC curve to the surveillance planning process was examined, which enables the total social cost of pollution by illegal dumping, rehabilitation of dumping sites, and illegal dumping surveillance to be minimized.

  15. The SPL-based Neutrino Super Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Baussan, E; Bobeth, C; Bouquerel, E; Caretta, O; Cupial, P; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Dracos, M; Fitton, M; Gaudiot, G; Kozien, M; Lacny, L; Lepers, B; Longhin, A; Loveridge, P; Osswald, F; Poussot, P; Rooney, M; Skoczen, B; Szybinski, B; Ustrzycka, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Wilcox, D; Wroblewski, A; Wurtz, J; Zeter, V; Zito, M

    2012-01-01

    The EUROnu Super Beam work package has studied a neutrino beam based on SPL at CERN and aimed at MEMPHYS, a large water Cherenkov detector, proposed for the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (Fr\\'ejus tunnel, France), with a baseline of 130 km. The aim of this proposed experiment is to study the CP violation in the neutrino sector. In the study reported here, we have developed the conceptual design of the neutrino beam, especially the target and the magnetic focusing device. Indeed, this beam present several unprecedented challenges, like the high primary proton beam power (4 MW), the high repetition rate (50 Hz) and the low energy of the protons (4.5 GeV). The design is completed by a study of all the main component of the system, starting from the transport system to guide the beam to the target up to the beam dump.

  16. Images of the laser entrance hole from the static x-ray imager at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M B; Jones, O S; Meezan, N B; Milovich, J L; Town, R P; Alvarez, S S; Beeler, R G; Bradley, D K; Celeste, J R; Dixit, S N; Edwards, M J; Haugh, M J; Kalantar, D H; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Michel, P; Moody, J D; Oberhelman, S K; Piston, K W; Pivovaroff, M J; Suter, L J; Teruya, A T; Thomas, C A; Vernon, S P; Warrick, A L; Widmann, K; Wood, R D; Young, B K

    2010-10-01

    The static x-ray imager at the National Ignition Facility is a pinhole camera using a CCD detector to obtain images of Hohlraum wall x-ray drive illumination patterns seen through the laser entrance hole (LEH). Carefully chosen filters, combined with the CCD response, allow recording images in the x-ray range of 3-5 keV with 60 μm spatial resolution. The routines used to obtain the apparent size of the backlit LEH and the location and intensity of beam spots are discussed and compared to predictions. A new soft x-ray channel centered at 870 eV (near the x-ray peak of a 300 eV temperature ignition Hohlraum) is discussed.

  17. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  18. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In this report, I summarize my work of detailed study and optimization of the muon beam configuration of H4 beam line in SPS North Area. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, I studied the properties and behavior of the muon beam in combination with the field of the large, spectrometer “ GOLIATH” magnet at -1.5, -1.0, 0, 1.0 and 1.5 Tesla, which is shown to affect the central x position of the muon beam that is delivered to the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). I also studied the muon beam for different configurations of the two XTDV beam dumps upstream of GIF++ in the H4 beam line. I will also discuss my role in mapping the magnetic field of the GOLIATH magnet in the H4 beam line.

  19. Development of laser beam injection system for the Edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Suitoh, S.; Ohara, M.; Hagita, K.; Inoue, K.; Bassan, M.; Walsh, M.; Itami, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and development of the laser injection system for the ITER Edge Thomson Scattering system (ETS). The ITER ETS achieves a temporal resolution of 100 Hz by firing two 50 Hz laser beams alternatively. The use of dual lasers enables us to perform the Thomson scattering measurements at a temporal resolution of 50 Hz in case that one of the laser systems stops functioning. A new type of beam combiner was developed to obtain a single beam that is collinear and fixed linearly polarized from two laser beams using a motor-driven rotating half-wave plate. The rotating half-wave plate method does not induce misalignment even if the rotating mechanism malfunctions. The combined beam is relayed from the diagnostic hall to the plasma using mirror optics and is absorbed at the beam dump integrated on the inner blanket. The beam alignment system was designed to direct the laser beam onto the center of the beam dump head. The beam position at the beam dump is monitored by four alignment laser beams which propagate parallel to the diagnostic Nd:YAG laser beam and imaging systems installed outside the diagnostic port.

  20. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al

    2012-07-01

    The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.

  1. Beam Loss Control for the Unstripped Ions from the PS2 Charge Exchange Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Benedikt, M; Goddard, B; Kramer, T; Papaphilippou, Y; Vincke, Hel

    2010-01-01

    Control of beam losses is an important aspect of the H-injection system for the PS2, a proposed replacement of the CPS in the CERN injector complex. H- ions may pass the foil unstripped or be partially stripped to excited H0 states which may be stripped in the subsequent strong-field chicane magnet. Depending on the choice of the magnetic field, atoms in the ground and first excited states can be extracted and dumped. The conceptual design of the waste beam handling is presented, including local collimation and the dump line, both of which must take into account the divergence of the beam from stripping in fringe fields. Beam load estimates and activation related requirements of the local collimators and dump are briefly discussed.

  2. Beam dynamics at the main LEBT of RAON accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Hyunchang

    2015-01-01

    The high-intensity rare-isotope accelerator (RAON) of the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Daejeon, Korea, has been designed to accelerate multiple-charge-state beams. The ion beams, which are generated by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECR-IS), will be transported through the main Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) system to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). While passing the beams through LEBT, we should keep the transverse beam size and longitudinal emittance small. Furthermore, the matching of required twiss parameter at the RFQ entrance will be performed by using electro-static quadrupoles at the main LEBT matching section which is from the multi-harmonic buncher (MHB) to the entrance of RFQ. We will briefly review the new aspects of main LEBT lattice and the beam matching at the main LEBT matching section will be presented. In addition, the effects of various errors on the beam orbit and the correction of distorted orbit will be discussed.

  3. Formative mechanism of preferential solution flow during dump leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ai-xiang; YIN Sheng-hua; LIU Jin-zhi; YANG Bao-hua

    2006-01-01

    Preferential flow is a rapid movement of solution through pores caused by coarse ores. Macropore is the main factor for the preferential flow. Macropore can be defined from three aspects. Segregation of the ores during dumping was studied according to particle kinematics. Small ores become smaller under the effect of acid and weathering. Clay in the rainwater from the hillside precipitates in the dump. Segregation and fine ores are the main causes in macropore. The permeability in coarse ores is better than that in fine ores. The mechanism in the preferential flows was studied combining the fast conducting effect of the macropore. Experimental result shows that, at certain application rate, fine ore area is saturated while large volume of solution flows laterally to the coarse ore area and leaks out quickly through the macropores. Thus the mechanism of preferential solution flows is further illustrated.

  4. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, W. L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific bases, developed internationally over the last 20 years, to control and restrict to acceptable levels the resultant radiation doses that potentially could occur from the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the deep oceans were presented. It is concluded that present evaluations of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the oceans, coastal and deep ocean, indicate that these are being conducted within the ICRP recommended dose limits. However, there are presently no international institutions or mechanisms to deal with the long-term radiation exposure at low-levels to large numbers of people on a regional basis if not a global level. Recommendations were made to deal with these aspects through the established mechanisms of NEA/OECD and the London Dumping Convention, in cooperation with ICRP, UNSCEAR and the IAEA.

  5. Reclamation of coalmine overburden dump through environmental friendly method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfal Arshi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine spoils (-the previous overburden of coal seams, inevitable by-product in the mining process which are usually unfavorable for plant growth have different properties according to dumping years. The reclamation of overburden dumps (OBDs through plantation by using efficient microbes with suitable bio-inoculants is an environmental friendly microbial technique for significant improvement in fertility status and biological activities of the OBD soil. A systematic greenhouse pot experiment program followed by field trial was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and NFB on the performance of plant growth which have resulted in the development of environmental friendly bio-inoculant package for soil reclamation of abandoned mine land by revegetation.

  6. Augmenting the Stability of OB Dump by Using Fly Ash: A Geo Technical Approach to Sustainably Manage OB Dump at Jharia Coal Field, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Gupta*

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is mainly focused over the possible utilization of fly ash along with OB dump to enhance the stability of OB dump and thus provide a sustainable approach for better waste management of both these materials simultaneously. Instability of coal mine overburden (OB dumps is an important problem in most of the coal mines like Jharia coalfields in India. This is mainly occurring due to sliding nature of the rock material, lack of vegetation etc. Numbers of Environmental and health issues are associated with these unstable OB dumps. As it may easily flow with running water can contaminate the nearby water resource as well as carbonaceous content of the dump causes air pollution due to simultaneous combustion. On the other hand management of coal ash that is produced from thermal plants is also an important task. Dumping of fly ash in open may cause number of environmental problems. Various geotechnical and physical parameters such as particle size analysis, specific gravity, density, and friction angle/cohesion test have been performed to check the stability of OB dump and to analyze impacts of fly ash utilization to stabilize the OB dump.

  7. NCTO Endorses Mexican Anti-dumping Case With China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The president of the National Council of Textile Organizations (NCTO) has written a letter to the Mexican Economic Secretary Hugo Diaz strongly endorsing his country's decision to seek a World Trade Organization (WTO) anti-dumping investigation of denim imports from China according to James A. Morrissey, a Washington Correspondent on June 8th. NCTO President Cass Johnson said the action is an important step toward preventing damage to both Mexican and U.S. denim manufacturers.

  8. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  9. FATIGUE WELDING JOINT RESISTANCE OF MINING DUMP TRUCK BEARING CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rakitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a possibility to apply European norms on designing of welded constructions for frames of heavy-load mining dump trucks. Comparison of results concerning tests of welding joint specimen made of local steel with recommended standards of fatigue curves is executed in the paper. The paper reveals that while forecasting resource of automotive constructions with the accepted practical accuracy it is possible to use generalized fatigue resistance characteristics of standard welding joints. 

  10. Assessment of the mercury emissions from burning mining waste dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Białecka

    2016-04-01

    occur and to which the environment and local inhabitants can be exposed, it is important to define the size of the emission of mercury compounds from these objects. Despite the potential threats so far no measurements of mercury concentration which would a llow quantifying this phenomenon have been done. The analyses presented in this article fill this gap. Additionally, initial calculation of annual mercury emissions from burning coal mining waste dumps in Poland is presented.

  11. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  12. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  13. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  14. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-07-01

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), @ 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  15. Radiation damage and waste management options for the sombrero final focus system and neutron dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Meier, W.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reyes, S. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Dept. Ingenieria Energetica, Bilbao (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the SOMBRERO inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design did not completely address the issues associated with the final focus system. While past work calculated neutron fluences for a grazing incidence metal mirror (GIMM) and a final focus mirror, scattering off of the final optical component was not included, and thus, fluences in the final focus mirror were significantly underestimated. In addition, past work did not consider neutron-induced gamma-rays. Finally, power plant lifetime waste volumes may have been underestimated as neutron activation of the neutron dumps and building structure were not addressed. In the present work, a modified version of the SOMBRERO target building is presented where a significantly larger open solid-angle fraction (5%) is used to enhance beam smoothing of a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). The GIMMs are replaced with transmissive fused silica wedges and have been included in three-dimensional neutron and photon transport calculations. This work shows that a power plant with a large open solid-angle fraction, needed for beam smoothing with a DPSSL, is acceptable from tritium breeding, and neutron activation points-of-view. (authors)

  16. LHC Report: Towards stable beams and collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, the LHC re-commissioning with beam has continued at a brisk pace. The first collisions of 2011 were produced on 2 March, with stable beams and collisions for physics planned for the coming days. Low intensity beams with just a few bunches of particles were used to test the energy ramp to 3.5 TeV and the squeeze. The results were successful and, as a by-product, the first collisions of 2011 were recorded 2 March. One of the main activities carried out by the operation teams has been the careful set-up of the collimation system, and the injection and beam dump protection devices. The collimation system provides essential beam cleaning, preventing stray particles from impacting other elements of the machine, particularly the superconducting magnets. In addition to the collimation system, also the injection and beam dump protection devices perform a vital machine protection role, as they detect any beam that might be mis-directed during rare, but not totally unavoidable, hardware hiccups...

  17. Loads on Entrance Platforms for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the performed large scale tests in GWK, Hannover for studying wave run-up generated forces on wind turbine entrance platforms. The run-up height and velocity was measured by use of high speed video recordings supplemented by some wave gauges mounted....... The purpose of all the tests was to study scale effects related to the above items by comparison with small scale tests and also to present new guidelines for design....

  18. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ≈ 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry.

  19. The creation of economic policy after the entrance to EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodzinská Vladimíra

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slovac republic, analogous to other countries which came in the Europe Union this year, is standing before solving the problem of real integration to the economic and monetary system.Submitted article shows, that preliminary transformation process of national economy, specially the privatization process of national property was remarked by influencies, which has led to the creation of social excessively high losts and very negative affected also for the creation and realization the economis policy of the state.In this signification remarked also bargaining position of Slovac republic in so called before entrance negotiations with the representants from Europe union as well the character of risks related to urgency subserve the main liability in conection with the entrance to the EU, i.e. the convergency criterias specified by maastrichts agreement.In this continuity becomes the cardinal problem of the economic policy of the state alternative modeling of exercitation its fiscal and monetary tools, which permits of such time and general harmonising of real and nominal processes convergency, which will have tenable social character.Videlicet, the entrance fixation of the Slovac republic to the ERM2 for the year 2006 and to the eurozone for the year 2008, or 2009 involves to assert the tools of economic policy as, that the economic increase couched in expected long tenable development of GDP, balance of payments, inflation and unemployment was social effective.In this signification are intraducing some risks and factors, which can work against these development.

  20. Preliminary design of electrostatic sensors for MITICA beam line components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnolo, S., E-mail: spagnolo@igi.cnr.it; Spolaore, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Megavolt ITER Injector and Concept Advancement, the full-scale prototype of ITER neutral beam injector, is under construction in Italy. The device will generate deuterium negative ions, then accelerated and neutralized. The emerging beam, after removal of residual ions, will be dumped onto a calorimeter. The presence of plasma and its parameters will be monitored in the components of the beam-line, by means of specific electrostatic probes. Double probes, with the possibility to be configured as Langmuir probes and provide local ion density and electron temperature measurements, will be employed in the neutralizer and in the residual ion dump. Biased electrodes collecting secondary emission electrons will be installed in the calorimeter with the aim to provide a horizontal profile of the beam.

  1. Reclamation of the illegal dump for sustainable development the environment in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal dumping is dumping of any waste such as oil, furniture, appliances, trash, litter or landscaping cuttings, upon any land of state, city, village or private ownership without consent of the owner. Illegal dumping has a great negative and fatal impact on our environment and all living organisms both fauna and flora. It also exposes people to various risks of chemicals (fluids or dust and is a big threat to all under-ground and surface water resources. Illegal dumps also attract all kinds of bugs such as rodents and insects. For example, illegal dumps with waste tires provide a practically perfect place for mosquitoes to breed. Mosquitoes can multiply 100 times faster than normal in the warm, stagnant water in waste tires. Exemplary for the illegal dump in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’ the main purpose of this article is to offer a possible option for the remediation of contaminated area.

  2. Charging for the waste dumping of open-pit metal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbing Hou; Zhaoxiang Zhang; Haifeng Duan; Liming Xue

    2006-01-01

    Based on the externality theory and the environmental value theory, the hypothesis of charging for waste dumping of open-pit metal mines was put forth. The charging methods were designed according to the characteristics of waste dumping of openpit metal mines, including charging based on the dumping amount of the total waste, multi-charging factors, exceeding standard punishment charging, and so on. The main charging parameter is based on the dumping area rather than the total amount of waste dumping.The charging model of waste dumping of open-pit mines was formulated, and the charging rate was divided into two parts, i.e., the standard charging rate and the differential charging rate. The standard charging rate was derived using the equilibrium dynamic model,whereas the differential one was obtained by establishing the fuzzy synthesized evaluation model.

  3. Soils on overburden dumps in the forest-steppe and mountain taiga zones of the Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, P. S.; Tsibart, A. S.; Zavadskaya, M. P.; Sharapova, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    The properties of the soils forming on coal dumps significantly depend on the properties of the parent rocks and the technology of creating the dumps. In the forest-steppe and mountain taiga zones of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin, argillites, siltstones, and sandstones are the overburden and enclosing rocks. They are responsible for the alkaline reaction and the same microelement composition in almost all the soils studied. The nonselective formation of the dumps and the predominance of the coarse fraction in the rocks composing the dumps is a cause of the wide distribution of petrozems and humus petrozems on their surface. The presence of a great amount of coal particles in the substrates and the incorrect planning of the dumps may be the reasons for their self-ignition, which can change the composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soils of the dumps.

  4. Assessment of relationship between fungal aerosol within a municipal dump and epiphytic mycoflora of crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropek, Dariusz Roman; Fraczek, Krzysztof; Kozdrój, Jacek; Chmiel, Maria

    2013-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess whether fungal aerosol of a municipal dump may impact on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of epiphytic mycoflora of crop plants cultivated in vicinity of the dump. Sampling sites were located at every side of the dump. Plant samples were collected from field bean, spring wheat and potato. The highest concentration of fungal aerosol was found at the field located south of the dump within the zone of 250 m next to its borders. For this zone, the most numerous and diverse mycoflora was ascertained, and the plants cultivated were the most damaged. The results suggest that the municipal dump was not the source of phytopathogenic fungi; however, different emissions of contaminants from the dump might cause a decline in the intrinsic plant resistance against the pathogens.

  5. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  6. Substation interference on gas entrance of industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Paulo Edmundo; Giacommelo, Claudinei [PAIOL Engenharia, Paulinia, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Industrial plants often have medium or high voltage electrical power entrance and also gas feeders. Often the main substation is located near the gas entrance, in the utilities area. When the occurrence of a phase to ground short-circuit in the substation, the pipeline and gas entrance that serves the plant may be exposed to high voltage soil potential, of the order of a few kilovolts, due to resistive coupling with the substation ground mesh. The consequences of this situation are reflected in various risks, with emphasis on: damage to the protective coating of the duct, due to the increased soil potential, in excess of its dielectric supportability (typically on the order of 5 kV); spread of potentially hazardous to duct exposed parts (valves, measuring place etc.); and damage to cathodic protection system components, as rectifier and insulating joins at gas entrance. This paper presents the investigations conducted in a factory that has a 69 kV main substation very close to the gas entrance, the order of a few meters away. The substation phase to ground short-circuit current is 7 kA, what causes a 9 kV soil potential near the gas pipe. It is presented the methodology for modeling the various elements involved in this process, the results of simulations made, arrangements been taken to reduce soil potential next to the duct to levels below 5 kV, and the measures for people and insulating joins protection. It is important to note that such problems usually will be solved with measures involving the entire grounding system of the industrial complex and also close to the duct (outside the industrial plant). The gas distribution companies should require from customers where this situation occurs, to ensure safety for people who have access to elements of its network, and for the integrity of their own ducts and cathodic protection components. The computer simulations developed for this work were made with the software Auto Grid, developed by the Canadian company Safe

  7. The ILC Beam Delivery System - Conceptual Design and RD Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2005-05-27

    The Beam Delivery System of the ILC has many stringent and sometimes conflicting requirements. To produce luminosity, the beams must be focused to nanometer size. To provide acceptable detector backgrounds, particles far from the beam core must be collimated. Unique beam diagnostics and instrumentation are required to monitor parameters of the colliding beams such as the energy spectrum and polarization. The detector and beamline components must be protected against errant beams. After collision, the beams must also be transported to the beam dumps safely and with acceptable losses. An international team is actively working on the design of the ILC Beam Delivery System in close collaboration. Details of the design, recent progress and remaining challenges will be summarized in this paper.

  8. LHC Report: The beam is back at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes Alemany

    2015-01-01

    A series of sector beam tests paved the way for the start-up of the LHC in 2008 and 2009. These tests and the follow-up of the issues that arose were part of the process that led to a smooth start-up with beam.   Given this experience, sector tests were scheduled to take place several weeks before the 2015 start-up. On the weekend of 6-9 March, beam from the SPS was injected into both LHC injection regions, followed by a first pass through the downstream LHC sectors. For the clockwise LHC beam (called “beam 1”) this meant passing through ALICE and into Sector 2-3, while the anticlockwise beam (called “beam 2”) was threaded through LHCb and all the way from Point 8 to Point 6, where it was extracted by the beam dump kickers onto the beam dump block. The dry runs in the previous weeks were mainly targeted at preparation for the sector tests. The systems tested included: injection, timing, synchronisation and beam instrumentation. The beam interlock ...

  9. Analysis of kicker noise induced beam emittance growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Blacker, I.M.; Brennan, M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Huang, H.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Marr, G.; Mernick, K.; Mi, J.; Minty, M.; Naylor, C.; Roser, T.; Shrey, T.; van Kuik, B.; Zelenski, A.

    2012-05-20

    Over the last few years, physicists have occasionally observed the presence of noise acting on the RHIC beams leading to emittance growth at high beam energies. While the noise was sporadic in the past, it became persistent during the Run-11 setup period. An investigation diagnosed the source as originating from the RHIC dump kicker system. Once identified the issue was quickly resolved. We report in this paper the investigation result, circuit analysis, measured and simulated waveforms, solutions, and future plans.

  10. Game Analysis of Implementing Price Undertaking Agreements in Anti-dumping Disputes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Jun-fang; CANG Ping; ZHONG Gen-yuan

    2008-01-01

    The Price Undertaking Agreement is one of the strategies a company accused of dumping often adopts in dealing with anti-dumping disputes. Using static game analysis, this paper compares the impact that anti-dumping duties and price undertaking agreements may have on an importing country's social welfare and an accused company's market performance. We conclude that, compared with anti-dumping duties, price undertakings improve the importing country's social welfare and reduce the accused company's market share in the import country. We also note that, in addition to the financial benefit, price undertakings can prevent escalation of trade disputes in international trade negotiations.

  11. Preliminary studies on trace element contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, T.; Kunito, T.; Nakashima, E.; Minh, T. B.; Tanabe, S.; Subramanian, A.; Viet, P. H.

    2003-05-01

    The disposal of wastes in dumping sites has increasingly caused concem about adverse health effects on the populations living nearby. However, no investigation has been conducted yet on contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in Asian developing countries. In this study, concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb and Pb) were detennined in scalp hair from the population living nearby and in soil from dumping sites and control sites of India and Vietnam. Soil samples in dumping site in India showed significantly higher concentrations of some trace elements than soils in control site, whereas this trend was not notable in Vietnam. This is probably due to the fact that the wastes were covered with the soil in the dumping site of Vietnam. Cadmium concentrations in some hair samples of people living near dumping site in India and Vietnam exceeded the level associated with learning disorder in children. Levels of most of the trace elements in hair were significantly higher in dumping site than those in control site in India and Vietnam, suggesting direct or indirect exposure to those elements from dumping wastes. To our knowledge, this is the first study of trace element contamination in dumping sites in India and Vietnam.

  12. Dumping and injury margins in markets with horizontal as well as vertical product differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the GATT/WTO rules for anti-dumping measures in a duopoly model with both horizontal and vertical product differentiation. The GATT/WTO rules allow for anti-dumping measures if domestic producers, exposed to price discrimination, also demonstrate injury where price...... countries in ability to implement anti-dumping measures predominantly favors the developed countries which are specialized in producing high-quality products. The paper suggests an overall critical look at the lenient rules for implementing anti-dumping measures-especially the rules for injury determination...

  13. [Anastomotic false-diverticulum causing an atypical dumping syndrome. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarelli, P; Esperti, L; Fratto, A; Cerroni, M; Marianeschi, P; Cristofani, R

    2003-02-01

    Aim of the study is to evaluate the causes of dumping syndromes following partial gastrectomies, and to report an unusual feature of dumping. A case of early dumping due to diverticular-like dilation of gastro-jejunal anastomosis is described with preoperative imaging and intraoperative picture. The surgical correction led to complete clinical remission; the common causes and physiopathological bases of dumping are reviewed and the role of en-Y gastro-jejunal reconstruction is underlined in order to reduce the risk of developing the syndrome.

  14. Polish legal regulations considering recovery of secondary materials from coal mining dumping grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawor Łukasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented temporary situation of coal mining dumping grounds in Poland – their inventarization, localization and environmental impacts. The coal mining dumping grounds in Poland are situated in three coal basins: Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Lower Silesian Coal Basin and Lublin Coal Basin. In all mentioned areas occur ca. 270 coal mining waste dumps, covering surface of over 4400 ha. The main environmental impacts connected with dumping grounds are fire hazards, water pollution and a danger of slope sliding. The question of recovery of coal from disposed wastes with regard to legal regulations is discussed. There are presented technical methods of coal recovery considering environmental protection issues. There is a necessity and technical possibility of recovery of coal from the coal-mining waste dumps. The coal recovery reduces hazards of self-ignition and fires of the dump. It is also economically justified. The analysis of required regulations in legal system in Poland for safe exploitation of secondary materials from coal mining dumps is done. Socio-economic aspects of recovery of coal are discussed. The valid legal regulations in Poland regulate the issues connected with coal mining dumping grounds in a very general way. It is necessary to prepare supplements to the legal provisions or new regulations concerning post-mining dumping grounds.

  15. Application of diamond based beam loss monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Maria [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Baer, Tobias [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Castro Carballo, Elena Maria [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Lohmann, Wolfgang [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Schmidt, Ruediger [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    The LHC has an operational stored energy of 130MJ per beam. Only a small percentage of beam losses in the LHC equipment can damage material or lead to magnet quenches. Therefore, it is important to monitor different types of beam losses, e.g. scattering on residual gas particles, UFOs, collisions and injection losses. A detailed understanding of beam loss mechanisms is necessary to reduce them and ensure save operation. Two different beam loss monitors are installed in the LHC tunnel: ionization chambers and diamond sensors. Ionization chambers trigger a beam dump if beam losses exceed a certain threshold. They have a time resolution of 40um (half LHC turn) which is not sufficient to resolve bunch-by-bunch beam losses. Diamond sensors have a nanosecond time resolution and can therefore detect bunch-by-bunch beam losses. This time resolution allows an analysis of various types of beam losses and an understanding of the mechanisms. For the first time beam loss intensities were measured bunch-by-bunch caused by different origins of losses. Beam loss measurements using diamond sensors will be presented. The results are compared to simulations and good qualitative agreement was found. The potential of diamond sensors for LHC and experiment applications are discussed.

  16. EnTranCe to the second life of gas : EnTranCe as source of innovation and human resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aué, Jan-jaap; Gemert, Wim van; Martinus, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The living lab EnTranCe provides a platform for open innovations. Stakeholders from large industry, SME’s, government and the research community team up to work on the future of the European energy system, with gas in a pivotal role. An important element of the innovation strength of EnTranCe is tha

  17. Groundwater Quality Deterioration due to Municipal Solid Waste Dumping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswari, Kaliyaperumal; Karunakaran, Krishnasamy

    2011-07-01

    Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in both urban and rural India. The demand for water has increased over the years and this has led to water scarcity. The scarcity situation, especially in urban areas, is aggravated by the problem of water pollution or contamination by solid waste dumping. In many urban centers in India, the quality of groundwater is getting severely affected because of the widespread pollution, due to the discharge of untreated waste water in water bodies and leachate from the unscientific disposal of solid wastes. It is necessary to realize the importance of groundwater and preserve its quality through careful monitoring and remediation. This study focuses on the magnitude of groundwater pollution due to improper solid waste dumping practices prevailing in the southern part of the Chennai Metropolitan Area. The Perungudi dumpsite, a solid waste dumping site in the periphery of Chennai city, India, has been chosen for this study. The chemical characteristic of solid waste and leachate has been studied, and the groundwater samples from various locations around the dumpsite were collected and analyzed. Samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, BOD, and COD. Heavy metals such as lead, iron, and zinc have been analyzed. The study reveals that most of the groundwater samples do not conform to drinking water quality standards. The study also indicates that groundwater remediation techniques and proper groundwater quality monitoring on a regular basis are of utmost importance in the study area. A few in-situ groundwater remediation technologies have been suggested to improve the present water quality.

  18. Thermomechanical assessment of the effects of a jaw-beam angle during beam impact on Large Hadron Collider collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Marija; Assmann, R. W.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Lari, L.; Rossi, A.; Mollicone, P.; Sammut, N.

    2015-02-01

    The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely and successfully operate high-energy particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, the requirements to handle high-intensity beams can be demanding, and accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess if the collimator design is robust against possible error scenarios. One of the catastrophic, though not very probable, accident scenarios identified within the LHC is an asynchronous beam dump. In this case, one (or more) of the 15 precharged kicker circuits fires out of time with the abort gap, spraying beam pulses onto LHC machine elements before the machine protection system can fire the remaining kicker circuits and bring the beam to the dump. If a proton bunch directly hits a collimator during such an event, severe beam-induced damage such as magnet quenches and other equipment damage might result, with consequent downtime for the machine. This study investigates a number of newly defined jaw error cases, which include angular misalignment errors of the collimator jaw. A numerical finite element method approach is presented in order to precisely evaluate the thermomechanical response of tertiary collimators to beam impact. We identify the most critical and interesting cases, and show that a tilt of the jaw can actually mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. Relevant collimator damage limits are taken into account, with the aim to identify optimal operational conditions for the LHC.

  19. Numerical Simulations of Static Tested Ramjet Dump Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Afroz; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2016-06-01

    The flow field of a Liquid Fuel Ram Jet engine side dump combustor with kerosene fuel is numerically simulated using commercial CFD code CFX-11. Reynolds Averaged 3-D Navier-Stokes equations are solved alongwith SST turbulence model. Single step infinitely fast reaction is assumed for kerosene combustion. The combustion efficiency is evaluated in terms of the unburnt kerosene vapour leaving the combustor. The comparison of measured pressures with computed values show that the computation underpredicts (~5 %) pressures for non reacting cases but overpredicts (9-7 %) for reacting cases.

  20. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    ongoing research collaboration between Hydrema Produktion A/S, Aalborg University and the University of Agder on comfort improvement. The main goal of the research project is to improve ride comfort of articulated construction machinery by use of multibody simulation models. In this paper the application...... that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...

  1. The early postprandial dumping syndrome: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, E R; Bushkin, F L

    1976-01-01

    The early postprandial dumping syndrome can be prevented or minimized by the appropriate selection of the operative procedure to fit the patient and the peptic ulcer problem he presents, and by proper attention to diet in the early postoperative period. When it does occur, the syndrome usually responds favorably to dietary management and tends to spontaneously regress in severity with time. For these reasons further surgery is seldom required for the early postprandial dumping syndrome. In the patient who fails to improve with diet therapy and time and has disabling symptoms often accompanied by progressive malnutrition, revisional surgery should be undertaken. It is the objective of the surgeon to alter the reconstruction in such a way that emptying from the stomach or gastric remnant is delayed. Therefore, the upper small intestine dose not receive a large, rapidly introduced hyperosmolar bolus to initiate the release of humoral substances causing the syndrome. All revisions utilized are potentially ulcerogenic and if vagotomy has not been a part of the original procedure, it should routinely be performed at the time of revision. Patients who have primarily has a Billroth II gastrectomy will frequently improve markedly with simple conversion to a Billroth I reconstruction. This is particularly true when the residual stomach is moderately large (i.e., after antrectomy) and when the gastrojejunal stoma is larger in diameter than the normal jejunum. Under such circumstances approximately 80 per cent of patients will improve sufficiently so that a more complex procedure need not be utilized at once. Under all other conditions we prefer a 10 cm. segment of reversed jejunum anastomosed proximally to the gastric stump and distally to a 40 cm. isoperistaltic Roux-en-Y jejunal limb. This procedure is so successful that one can justify its use as first recourse even in the anatomically favorable Billroth II patient. It should be pointed out emphatically that an

  2. Human neutrophils dump Candida glabrata after intracellular killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Dietrich, Stefanie; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    Interaction between fungal pathogens and human phagocytes can lead to remarkably variable outcomes, ranging from intracellular killing to prolonged survival and replication of the pathogen in the host cell. Using live cell imaging we observed primary human neutrophils that release phagocytosed Candida glabrata yeast cells after intracellular killing. This process, for which we propose the name "dumping", adds a new outcome to phagocyte-fungus interaction which may be of potential immunological importance as it allows professional antigen presenting cells to take up and process neutrophil-inactivated pathogens that in their viable state are able to evade intracellular degradation in these cells.

  3. Dumped Munitions in the Baltic Sea - Evaluation of the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldowski, J.; Jakacki, J.; Vanninen, P.; Lang, T.

    2016-12-01

    Dumped Chemical Weapons pose an actual environmental and security hazard in the Baltic Sea Region. Their actual position is unknown, and pollution originating from corroded munitions is only roughly estimated. Several research projects were devoted to evaluate the magnitude of the problem. During three international projects, roughly 2000 km2 were surveyed, and more than 200 ROV missions were performed to investigate found objects. . Results suggest that munitions containing CWAs are more scattered on the seafloor than suspected, and previously undocumented dumpsite was discovered in Gdansk Deep. Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) degradation products were found in the sediments in immediate vicinity of the objects, and sediment pollution was observed even at 40m distance. Analysis of CWA degradation products in the sediments showed widespread contamination in Bornholm Deep area, and more variable pattern of local hotspots in the Gotland and Gdansk Deeps. The latter seem to contain several contaminated areas, which identifies it rather as an unofficial dumping ground than only containing munitions originating from en-route dumping. Bottom currents observed in the dumpsites were strong enough for sediment re-suspension, and contributed to the transport of polluted sediments. Spreading of CWA was modelled using POP3 hydrodynamic model augmented with sediment erosion and benthic boundary layer modules. It follows from the models, that depending on wind conditions, resuspended contaminated sediemnts may remain in the water column for several days up to few weeks, and be transported over the distances up to 15 km. Biomarkers of environmental stress were measured in fish from the dumpsites and caged mussels, and indicated environmental stress in organisms from dumpsites as compared to control. Toxicity of found CWA degradation products was examined in laboratory studies. . Nonetheless, both species showed significantly elevated molecular and cellular level responses at

  4. Omega spectrometer ready for SPS beams

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Two different beams arrive into the Omega magnet: - a tagged photon beam for a charm search - experiment WA4 by the Bonn-CERN-Daresbury-Ecole Polytechnique-Glasgow-Lancaster-Manchester-Orsay-Sheffield Collaboration; - a separated hadron beam, at first for a beam-dump experiment - WA12 by the Birmingham-CERN-Ecole Polytechnique-MPI, Munich-Neuchâtel Collaboration. Beams of either negative or positive pions or kaons, protons or antiprotons, all at an energy around 40 GeV were made to impinge on a copper target where a shower of hadrons was produced and, on occasion, two muons which before detection passed through an iron absorber (not visible here). WA12 was completed in February 1977. At the centre, on top of the superconducting magnet, the hut containing the TV cameras, These observe the particle events occurring in the spark chambers in the magnet below.

  5. Prévessin site – Pedestrian and cycle entrances

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-DI

    2014-01-01

    Entrances for pedestrians and cyclists on Route du Maroc and on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts, in Prévessin, will be re-opened:   from 7 April to 31 October 2014, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  6. Prévessin site: Pedestrian and cycle entrance

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The entrance to the Prévessin site for pedestrians and cyclists on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: from 7 April to 30 October 2015, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  7. Prévessin site: Pedestrian and cycle entrance

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The entrance to the Prévessin site for pedestrians and cyclists on Chemin du Moulin des Ponts will be re-opened: from 7 April to 30 October 2015, from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. on working days (Monday to Friday).   IMPORTANT: all users must show their access cards to the security guard as a matter of course when passing through the gates, both on entering and leaving the site.

  8. Modeling and simulation of LHC beam-based collimator setup

    CERN Document Server

    Valentino, G; Assmann, R W; Burkart, F; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Lari, L

    2012-01-01

    In the 2011 Large Hadron Collider run, collimators were aligned for proton and heavy ion beams using a semiautomatic setup algorithm. The algorithm provided a reduction in the beam time required for setup, an elimination of beam dumps during setup and better reproducibility with respect to manual alignment. A collimator setup simulator was developed based on a Gaussian model of the beam distribution as well as a parametric model of the beam losses. A time-varying beam loss signal can be simulated for a given collimator movement into the beam. The simulation results and comparison to measurement data obtained during collimator setups and dedicated fills for beam halo scraping are presented. The simulator will then be used to develop a fully automatic collimator alignment algorithm.

  9. BEAM DIAGNOSTICS USING BPM SIGNALS FROM INJECTED AND STORED BEAMS IN A STORAGE RING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.M.; Shaftan; T.; Cheng; W.X.; Fliller; R.; Heese; R.; Singh; O.; Willeke; F.

    2011-03-28

    Many modern light sources are operating in top-off injection mode or are being upgraded to top-off injection mode. The storage ring always has the stored beam and injected beam for top-off injection mode. So the BPM data is the mixture of both beam positions and the injected beam position cannot be measured directly. We propose to use dedicated wide band BPM electronics in the NSLS II storage ring to retrieve the injected beam trajectory with the singular value decomposition (SVD) method. The beam position monitor (BPM) has the capability to measure bunch-by-bunch beam position. Similar electronics can be used to measure the bunch-by-bunch beam current which is necessary to get the injection beam position. The measurement precision of current needs to be evaluated since button BPM sum signal has position dependence. The injected beam trajectory can be measured and monitored all the time without dumping the stored beam. We can adjust and optimize the injected beam trajectory to maximize the injection efficiency. We can also measure the storage ring acceptance by mapping the injected beam trajectory.

  10. Beam chopper For the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) in the APS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y.; Wang, J.; Milton, S.; Teng, L. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) is being built and will be tested with a short beam pulse from an rf gun in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory. In the LEUTL a beam chopper is used after the rf gun to deflect the unwanted beam to a beam dump. The beam chopper consists of a permanent magnet and an electric deflector that can compensate for the magnetic deflection. A 30-kV pulsed power supply is used for the electric deflector. The chopper subsystem was assembled and tested for beamline installation. The electrical and beam properties of the chopper assembly are presented.

  11. 19 CFR 159.58 - Dumping and countervailing duties; action by port director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dumping and countervailing duties; action by port director. 159.58 Section 159.58 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Dumping and countervailing duties; action by port director. (a) Antidumping matters. Upon receipt...

  12. Environmental impact of differently remediated hard coal overburden and tailings dumps a few decades after remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willscher, S. [Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment; Hertwig, T. [BEAK Consultants GmbH, Freiburg (Germany); Felix, M.; Sohr, A. [Saxonian State Dept. of Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Coal mining in the Saxony region of Germany has caused heavy metal and arsenic pollution in adjacent groundwater and surface waters. Coal waste dumping sites are leaching heavy metals and metalloids in the form of fine precipitates into local rivers. This paper studied the different remediation strategies used at 3 different dump sites in the area. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental impact of the dumps and evaluate the long-term effects of remediation measures. The dumps consisted of coarse to fine-grained materials from former processing activities, and contained pyrite in varying concentrations. Samples from different depth as well as groundwater samples were taken from the sites and investigated for their mechanical, geological, geochemical, biogeochemical, and physico-chemical characteristics. Seepage formation rates and contaminant loads at the dump sites were compared. The study showed that the revegetation of dump surfaces can help to prevent against erosion, but cannot prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) generation. The additional seals and covers placed at 2 of the dumps resulted in a high reduction of seepage waters, and almost no acidification of dump materials. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Regularities of restoration of plant cover on the dumps of the Kuznetsk Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kupriyanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of the restoration vegetation on the dumps of the coal enterprises of the Kuznetsk Basin. Studies have shown that the dumps have a wide range of environmental conditions and are potentially suitable for establishment of plants. To negative environmental factors at the mine dumps include the lack of productive moisture, failed penetration, contrasting temperature regime on the different elements of the relief, and low potential fertility of the embryonic soils. Positive – high humidity in the depressions, the high content of fine-grained deposits in the lower part of the elephant dumps, excessive accumulation of snow in the winter on separate dumping sites. On disturbed lands identified eight technogenic ecotopes, characterized by various microrelief, moisture level, amount of fine fractions of technogenic eluvium determining favorable, moderately favorable and unfavorable conditions for vegetation of disturbed land. Selected three stages of syngenesis: pioneer stage, simple plant communities and complex plant communities. The stage of zonal phytocenosis on the dumps was not detected. The basis of diagnostic signs consists of the projective cover, the nature of the host plants, the number of species part of the zonal species. The selected criteria are universal and can be applicable to most dumps. Speed of syngenetic succession does not depend on calendar age of the dumps, and environmental conditions, which are formed on separate sites.

  14. Københavns Kommunes indsats mod social dumping - målopfyldelsesevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin

    2017-01-01

    Evaluering af indsatsen i Københavns Kommune for at imødegå social dumping ved hjælp af målopfyldelses-model......Evaluering af indsatsen i Københavns Kommune for at imødegå social dumping ved hjælp af målopfyldelses-model...

  15. Anti-Dumping with Heterogeneous Firms: New Protectionism for the New-New Trade Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    This paper analyzes anti­-dumping (AD) policies in a two-country model with heterogeneous firms in monopolistic competition. Effective AD legislation in one country imposes a no-dumping condition on firms exporting from the other country, altering their pricing both domestically and abroad. Some...

  16. 77 FR 61818 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping and...-dumping and countervailing duties on certain automobiles from the United States. That request may be...

  17. 75 FR 33747 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and...

  18. Octreotide improves early dumping syndrome potentially through incretins: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Morino, Katsutaro; Ohashi, Natsuko; Ueda, Emi; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideka; Ugi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Araki, Shinichi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Dumping syndrome, or rapid gastric emptying, is a frequent complication after gastric surgery. In this case, the patient was a 47-year-old woman who 10 years previously had undergone distal gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction for early-stage gastric cancer. She presented with symptoms of weakness, headache, palpitation, sweating, dizziness and significant fatigue between one and two hours after a meal. Because a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (75 g-OGTT) induced both acute postprandial tachycardia (within 1 hour) and postprandial hypoglycemia, we diagnosed this patient with early and late dumping syndrome. Dietary measures and acarbose improved symptoms of late dumping syndrome but did not prevent the symptoms of early dumping syndrome such as postprandial tachycardia, weakness, headache, palpitation, and dizziness. We therefore used the somatostatin analogue octreotide, which has been reported as an effective therapy for early dumping syndrome. Octreotide prevented the symptoms of early dumping syndrome, especially postprandial tachycardia, but caused postprandial hyperglycemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were completely suppressed during the 75 g-OGTT following subcutaneous injection of octreotide. No change was observed in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), which is the gastrointestinal peptide hormone generally responsible for early dumping syndrome, suggesting possible contribution of incretins in early dumping syndrome of this patient.

  19. Stability analysis and treatment of No.2 dump of Nanfen iron mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan XU; Lei NIE; Huangping DING; Yin WANG; Jian LIU; Wei LU; Zhenying ZHANG; Xue GONG; Shiwei SHEN

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the study on the engineering geological characteristics of No.2 dump of Nanfen iron mine and the analysis of the failure mode of dump landslide, the stability of the present dump, the stability of the dump 20 years later and the stability of double-bench dump are analyzed. Then, the debris flow risk is evaluated by fuzzy mathematics method. Finally, the comprehensive treatment for the dump is suggested. It is concluded that ① In rainy and snowmelt period, the stability would be decreasing sharply when ground water is not drained out in time; ② Double-bench dumping mode will improve stability of the dump little; ③ Debris flow risk is middle danger. The interim debris flow with medium scale may occur. ④ Monitoring, draining and baffling work ought to be well done. ⑤ In order to prevent the damage of landslide and debris flow, three measures are adopted, including setting rockfall net, setting the debris flow barrier and removing the residents.

  20. Solution of the capacity increase of the waste dump at the Merkur surface mine in Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, P.

    1987-06-01

    The methods used in the past for backfilling the large dump at the Merkur surface mine have, due to an ignorance of the factors influencing dump stability, resulted in significant capacity reductions of the dump. This ignorance was the result of insufficient knowledge, research, and poor practice at the operation. Recent re-evaluation of the actual stability conditions has led to a solution which permits an increase in the dump capacity, such that it is compatible with future mining plans. By considering the structure of the soils being used as backfill, specific technological processes are being defined which enable the preservation of the highest possible shear strength of the clayey soils, and thereby maximize the utilization of the internal capacity with at least short term stability. Questions regarding the behaviour and properties of the loose clayey material are also being answered, and new methods of stability calculation for the high dump are being developed. The key to these solutions has been the knowledge gained regarding the shear strength of the loose clayey material under various effective stress conditions, while realizing that three different zones can exist simultaneously within the body of the dump: the slope areas (having the greatest failure-inducing stress), the temporary areas (having a somewhat lower applied stress), and the dump core (where the tendency to fail is nearly zero). Through a sound application of this knowledge, the capacity of the waste dump at the large Merkur surface mine has been adequately expanded for the future.

  1. Joint Norwegian-Russian mission to investigate dumped atomic waste in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    In autumn 2012, a joint Norwegian-Russian mission will visit areas in the Kara Sea where spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste have been dumped. The purpose of the mission is to obtain new, up-to-date information about radioactive pollution in these areas and about the condition of the dumped items (Author)

  2. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China.

  3. Experimental Study of Preferential Solute Transportation During Dump Leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Sheng-hua; WU Ai-xiang

    2006-01-01

    The production of dump leaching of the Dexing Copper Mine was affected by a preferential solution flow. Formative mechanism of the preferential solution flow was investigated by analyzing the relationship between both dump permeability and surface tension and ore diameter. The preferential solution flow occurred in the fine ore area when the application rate was low. The preferential solution flow entered into the coarse ore area because the negative pore water pressure disappeared with an increase of the application rate. The preferential solute transportation experiment was conducted by selecting NaCl as mineral. Results of the experiment showed that the concentration of the outflow solution reduced over time. The concentration of the coarse ore area outflow solution was greater than that of the fine ore area. The process of NaCl leaching can be divided into two stages. NaCl was carried out directly by diffusion-convection during the first stage, so the leaching rate increased sharply. But in the second stage, only a small amount of NaCl dissolved in the immobile water. The leaching rate increased slowly because NaCl, dissolved in the immobile water, can only be leached by diffusion.

  4. Sequential extraction of inorganic mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Andrée, Corlin-Anna; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-10-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is an industrial waste with elevated mercury (Hg) contents due to the enrichment during the production process of pig iron. To investigate the potential pollution status of dumped BFS, 14 samples with total Hg contents ranging from 3.91 to 20.8 mg kg(-1) from five different locations in Europe were sequentially extracted. Extracts used included demineralized water (fraction 1, F1), 0.1 mol L(-1) CH3COOH + 0.01 mol L(-1) HCl (F2), 1 mol L(-1) KOH (F3), 7.9 mol L(-1) HNO3 (F4), and aqua regia (F5). The total recovery ranged from 72.3 to 114 %, indicating that the procedure was reliable when adapted to this industrial waste. Mercury mainly resided in the fraction of "elemental" Hg (48.5-98.8 %) rather being present as slightly soluble Hg species associated with sludge particles. Minor amounts were found as mercuric sulfide (F5; 0.725-37.3 %) and Hg in crystalline metal ores and silicates (F6; 2.21-15.1 %). The ecotoxically relevant fractions (F1 and F2) were not of significance (F1, dumped for many years has a rather low environmental risk potential regarding Hg.

  5. Municipal solid waste open dumping, implication for land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, M.; Monavari, M.; Omrani, G. A.; Shariat, M.; Hosseini, M.

    2015-03-01

    Open dumping is the common procedure for final disposal of MSW in Iran. Several environmental pollutions and land degradation have caused because of poor planning, insufficient financial resources, improper organizational chart for MSW management system, and the lack of rules, guidelines and regulations. In Iran standards and regulations of environmental issues are not perfectly attended, evaluation an open dumping can show existing restrictions and troubles in these areas. So recognition of the municipal solid waste landfill state is required to prevent the increase of environmental problems and decrease the negative environmental impacts. The suitability of Tonekabon existing municipal landfill site in the west area of Mazandaran province, located in north of Iran, and the south coast of the Caspian Sea is the significance of the present study as a case study of land degradation. In order to carry out this evaluation, two guidelines are used. After reviewing all the considered criteria in each of the guidelines, the authenticity of the deposit site of the study area and also the entire city was examined; and eventually the appropriate areas were identified. The conclusion of the results indicated the incoherence in appropriateness of the existing landfill site, with two mentioned methods and field work.

  6. ASPECTS OF REHABILITATION OF WASTE DUMPS USING HERBACEOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many arguments that underlie research on rehabilitation of large areas of land that were set aside from the agricultural circuit and became heaps of storage for inert waste materials like bottom and boiler slag and fly ash. On the other hand result of biological materials with potential for land recycling i.e. sewage sludge. On the dumps of boiler slag composed of particles of 2-3 mm was gradually installed a layer of grass with the help of sewage sludge as a fertilizing agent and microbial activity stimulating agent, based on an extract of brown seaweed EKO GEA Slovenia. In the second year the amount of biomass harvested was 2 to 2.9 times higher than in the first year of cultivation. Moreover plants not harvested in the second year of culture bore fruit. Also, the root network strongly stabilized the slag and boiler ash particles against land spreading. Rapid and effective rehabilitation of the landscape destroyed was achieved with the use of herbaceous crops of the species Lolium perenne. Monitoring bioaccumulation of heavy metals i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ni, Zn, etc. in aerial plant tissue was needed to decide the sector where the biomass harvested from inert waste dump covered with vegetation.

  7. Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; /SLAC; Roesler, S.; /CERN; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

  8. Entrance C - New Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C (Satigny) is now equipped with a latest-generation Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system and a fast-action road gate.   During the month of August, Entrance C will be continuously open from 7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. (working days only). The security guards will open the gate as usual from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. For the rest of the working day (9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.) the gate will operate automatically. Please observe the following points:       Stop at the STOP sign on the ground     Position yourself next to the card reader for optimal recognition     Motorcyclists must use their CERN card     Cyclists may not activate the gate and should use the bicycle turnstile     Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of you   If access is denied, please check that your vehicle regist...

  9. Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) entrance aperture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimets, P.; Park, S.; Bergner, H.; Chou, C.; Gates, R.; Honsa, M.; Podgorski, W.; Yanari, C.

    2014-07-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is a complementary follow-on to Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO-AIA) and funded as a member of the NASA SMEX program. This paper presents the thermal design of the IRIS telescope front end, with a focus on the IRIS door and entrance aperture assembly. The challenge of the IRIS entrance aperture, including the door design, was to manage the solar flux, both before and after the door was opened. This is especially a problem with instruments that are permanently pointed directly at the sun. Though there is an array of effective flux-rejecting coatings, they are expensive, hard to apply, harder to measure, delicate, prone to unpredictable performance decay with exposure, and very often a source of contamination. This paper presents a thermal control and protection method based on robust, inexpensive coatings and materials, combined to produce high thermal and structural isolation. The end result is a first line of thermal protection whose performance is easy to predict and well isolated from the instrument it is protecting.

  10. Evaluation of entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, L.; Lunelli, N.; Paschuk, S.; Oliveira, A.; Ferreira, J. L.; Schelin, H.; Miguel, C.; Denyak, V.; Kmiecik, C.; Tilly, J.; Khoury, H.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography. An evaluation of 301 radiographical examinations in anterior-posterior (AP) and posterior-anterior (PA) (166 examinations) and lateral (LAT) (135 examinations) projections was performed. The analyses were performed on patients grouped by age; the groups included ages 0-1 y, 1-5 y, 5-10 y, and 10-15 y. The entrance surface air kerma was determined with DoseCal software (Radiological Protection Center of Saint George's Hospital, London) and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Two different exposure techniques were compared. The doses received by patients who had undergone LAT examinations were 40% higher, on average, those in AP/PA examinations because of the difference in tube voltage. A large high-dose “tail” was observed for children up to 5 y old. An increase in tube potential and corresponding decrease in current lead to a significant dose reduction. The difference between the average dose values for different age ranges was not practically observed, implying that the exposure techniques are still not optimal. Exposure doses received using the higher tube voltage and lower current-time product correspond to the international diagnostic reference levels.

  11. Entrance C - New Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C (Satigny) is now equipped with a latest-generation Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system and a fast-action road gate.   During the month of August, Entrance C will be continuously open from 7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. (working days only). The security guards will open the gate as usual from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. For the rest of the working day (9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.) the gate will operate automatically. Please observe the following points:       Stop at the STOP sign on the ground     Position yourself next to the card reader for optimal recognition     Motorcyclists must use their CERN card     Cyclists may not activate the gate and should use the bicycle turnstile     Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of you   If access is denied, please check that your vehicle regist...

  12. Laminar flow in the entrance region of elliptical ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M. S.

    1983-06-01

    A closed-form analytical solution is developed to hitherto unsolved problem of steady laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in the entrance region of elliptical ducts. The analysis is based on the Karman-Pohlhausen integral method and entails solution of the integrated forms of the mass and the momentum balance equations. According to this analysis, the hydrodynamic entrance length based on 99 percent approach to the fully developed flow is equal to 0.5132 lambda/(l + lambda-squared) where lambda is the aspect ratio. Also, the fully developed incremental pressure defect is found to be 7/6 which is independent of the aspect ratio. In the limit when the flow becomes fully developed, the solution converges to the known exact asymptotic solution. Available, wide-ranging velocity measurements for a circular tube agree with the analytical predictions within 7 percent. Also, available pressure drop measurements near the inlet of a circular tube agree with the analytical predictions within 2 percent.

  13. Cryptic female choice via sperm dumping favours male copulatory courtship in a spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, A V; Eberhard, W G

    2010-02-01

    Males of many animals perform 'copulatory courtship' during copulation, but the possible reproductive significance of this behaviour has seldom been investigated. In some animals, including the spider Physocyclus globosus (Pholcidae), the female discards sperm during or immediately following some copulations. In this study, we determined which of several variables associated with copulation correlated with paternity success in P. globosus when two males mate with a single female. Then, by determining which of these variables also correlated with sperm dumping, we inferred which variables may affect paternity via the mechanism of sperm dumping. Male abdomen vibration (a copulatory courtship behaviour) and male genitalic squeezing both correlated with both paternity and sperm dumping; so, these traits may be favoured by biased sperm dumping. Biased sperm dumping may also be the mechanism by which possible cryptic female choice favours another male trait that was the subject of a previous study, responsiveness to female stridulation.

  14. Assessment of impact on health of children working in the garbage dumping site in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiry, Gargy; Rahman, Tania; Hasan, A K M Mahbub; Dutta, Alak K; Arif, Md; Howlader, Zakir H

    2011-12-01

    Waste dumping is one of the major causes of environment pollution in Bangladesh. This study was designed to assess the impact on health of children working in one of the garbage dumping sites in Dhaka. Blood samples were collected from exposed (n = 20, aged: 8-15 years, exposed to dumped garbage from 6 months to 6 years) and control subjects (n = 15, age matched and never worked in the garbage dumping site). Oxidative stress markers like lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl content were measured. Alkaline comet assay was performed to assess the possible damage in DNA. To check the consequences of possible toxic exposure, we performed liver function tests of the study subjects. Oxidative stress-mediated damage of macromolecules was found to be significantly increased in the exposed children. Liver function tests were found normal. Thus, the children working in garbage dumping site are in severe health risk.

  15. Treatment with acarbose in severe hypoglycaemia due to late dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congcong; Pang, Shuguang; Jiang, Qiang; Duan, Guanglan; Sun, Yongmei; Li, Mei

    2013-12-01

    Dumping syndrome is a serious complication that may occur after gastric surgery in approximately 10% of patients in the 1990s. With the increasing number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery, the incidence of dumping syndrome is likely to increase in recent years. It is necessary for clinicians to recognize the syndrome and master its management. We present a case of recurrent loss of consciousness, which was finally accurately diagnosed as late dumping syndrome twelve years after subtotal gastrectomy and successfully treated with acarbose. A 66-year old lean male was found unconscious repeatedly within one year, oral glucose tolerance tests performed before and after acarbose treatment verified the diagnosis of late dumping syndrome. Hypoglycaemia can damage the body in acute and chronic form. Acarbose can be used as a successful treatment modality for reactive hypoglycaemia due to late dumping syndrome by influencing the release of hormone.

  16. Patient dumping, outlier payments, and optimal healthcare payment policy under asymmetric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Tsuyoshi

    2016-12-01

    We analyze a rationale for official authorization of patient dumping in the prospective payment policy framework. We show that when the insurer designs the healthcare payment policy to let hospitals dump high-cost patients, there is a trade-off between the disutility of dumped patients (changes in hospitals' rent extraction due to low-severity patients) and the shift in the level of cost reduction efforts for high-severity patients. We also clarify the welfare-improving conditions by allowing hospitals to dump high-severity patients. Finally, we show that if the efficiency of the cost reduction efforts varies extensively and the healthcare payment cost is substantial, or if there are many private hospitals, the patient dumping policy can improve social welfare in a wider environment.

  17. Analysis of underground and surface waters of the dump of the solid communal waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almášová Kristína

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the contamination of underground and surface waters in the surroundings of the dump of the solid communal waste at the locality Cemjata in the East Slovakia,as well as with the development of the contamination in the surrounding of the dump depending on the time on the basis of the analysisof samples withdrawn from the net of drillholes in the observed area. In the area investigated there is described geological, geomorphological, climatic and hydrogeological situation, as well as the dump itself. The results acquired show that the contamination of the area brought about by medium size industrial and agricultural activity in the vicinity of the dump of the solid communal waste and inside the area investigated is comparable with the dangerous effects of the dump of the solid communal waste.

  18. The logarithmic beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedko, Evgeny A.; Smith, Stephen R.

    2000-11-01

    Modern logarithmic amplifiers offer wide dynamic range, high bandwidth, good logarithmic conformance, and low cost making them attractive for beam position measurements. A log-ratio beam position monitor has been designed and built at SLAC for use at the PEP-II B-Factory. An integrated circuit logarithmic amplifier from Analog Devices, the AD8307, recovers the envelope of the 476 MHz harmonic of the beam signal. A log BPM board with two logarithmic and one differential amplifier performs the basic function of forming an output voltage proportional to the difference of the logarithms of the signal amplitudes on opposite electrodes. This voltage is approximately linear with beam position. For this application, we have limited the video bandwidth of the log amps to 50 kHz in order to remove fill pattern dependence. The log BPM board has an interface for testing and simulating beam offsets. The log BPMs were developed for a PEP-II ring protection chassis. Here the log BPMs function to identify dangerous orbit excursions. These excursions are signaled to a system, which can dump the beam. Two such chassis serve to protect the PEP-II rings.

  19. Cluster beam investigation with MCPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Esperanza; Bonaventura, Daniel; Grieser, Silke; Hergemoeller, Ann-Katrin; Taeschner, Alexander; Khoukaz, Alfons [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    High intensity cluster-jet beams produced in Laval nozzles represent a very attractive and extremely interesting tool for studies at storage ring experiments, such as PANDA, or for laser-induced particle acceleration. Since the cluster properties vary with increasing number of constituents, it is essential to perform systematic measurements on the target thickness and especially on the cluster masses. For this purpose a monitoring system based on Micro Channel Plates (MCPs) combined with a phosphor screen has been developed and installed at the beam dump of the PANDA prototype cluster-jet target in Muenster. It could be shown that this MCP system allows for a direct observation of an ionised cluster beam. In addition, with this setup the possibility to visualise the vertex zone at the ANKE cluster-jet target at COSY was succesfully demonstrated, where a proton beam with a momentum of 2.09 GeV/c interacted with a hydrogen cluster-jet beam. Furthermore, cluster mass investigations can be performed in conjunction with a retardation field. In this presentation an overview of the MCP detection system, images of the cluster-jet beam and the vertex zone as well as the results of the current cluster mass measurements are presented and discussed.

  20. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. 351.106 Section 351.106 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE... minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. (a) Introduction... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were...

  1. 75 FR 20670 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Use of Zeroing in Anti-Dumping Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...-Dumping Measures Involving Products From Korea AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative.... Department of Commerce (``Commerce'') of what Korea describes as ``the practice of `zeroing' negative dumping margins in calculating overall weighted average margins of dumping'' in the final and amended...

  2. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of... according to the ocean dumping regulations at 40 CFR 227.13 and guidance developed by EPA and the Corps. In... acceptable for ocean dumping without further testing. Dredged material which does not meet the criteria of...

  3. 76 FR 12400 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Duties on Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Countervailing and Anti-Dumping... countervailing and anti-dumping duties on Grain Oriented Flat-rolled Electrical Steel (``GOES'') from the United... measures imposing countervailing duties and anti-dumping duties on GOES from the United States...

  4. 75 FR 5708 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of... any person, EPA and the Corps must evaluate the project according to the ocean dumping regulatory criteria (40 CFR part 227) and authorize disposal. EPA independently evaluates proposed dumping and has...

  5. 40 CFR 256.26 - Requirement for schedules leading to compliance with the prohibition of open dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the prohibition of open dumping. 256.26 Section 256.26 Protection of Environment... compliance with the prohibition of open dumping. In implementing the section 4005(c) prohibition on open dumping, the State plan shall provide that any entity which demonstrates that it has considered...

  6. Beam optical design of in-flight fragment separator for high-power heavy ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, C.C.; Kim, Mi-Jung; Kim, D.G.; Song, J.S.; Kim, Myeong-Jin [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.W., E-mail: jwkim@ibs.re.kr [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.R. [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Wan, W. [Accelerator Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An in-flight fragment separator is designed in beam optics using GICOSY, COSY Infinity, LISE++ and MOCADI. • High power primary beam is removed in the pre-separator employing four dipole magnets. • Different charge states of the primary and unwanted isotope beams help in reducing peak power density at the beam dump. -- Abstract: An in-flight fragment separator has been designed for the rare isotope science project (RISP) in Korea. A beam used for the design is {sup 238}U in the energy of 200 MeV/u with the maximum beam power of 400 kW. The use of high-power beam requires careful removal of the primary beam by pre-separator, for which its configuration was revised to employ four dipole magnets instead of two. Different configurations of the separator have been tested in search of optimal design in non-linear optics, which was complicated by the space needed for the target, beam dump and radiation shielding. Non-linear optical calculations have been carried out using GICOSY and COSY Infinity including the fringe fields of large-aperture quadrupole magnets. Correction of non-linear terms is made with multipole coils located inside the superconducting quadrupole magnets and by external multipole magnets. Beam simulations using LISE++ and MOCADI have been performed to consider the effects of multiple charge states of the primary and isotope beams produced at the target. Layout of the separator is being finalized, and detailed optics simulation will continue to refine its design.

  7. Cumulative Interarrival Time Distributions of Freeway Entrance Ramp Traffic for Traffic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç Öner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative interarrival time (IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized freeway entrance ramps were developed to be used in digital computer traffic simulation models. The data from four different non-signalized entrance ramps (three ramps with a single lane, one ramp with two lanes and two different signalized entrance ramps (both with a single lane were used for developing the cumulative IAT distributions. The cumulative IAT distributions for the signalized and non-signalized entrance ramps were compared with each other and with the cumulative IAT distributions of the lanes for freeways. The comparative results showed that the cumulative IAT distributions for non-signalized entrance ramps are very close to the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway where the maximum absolute difference between the cumulative IAT distribution of the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway and the entrance ramps cumulative IAT distribution was 3%. The cumulative IAT distribution for the signalized entrance ramps was found to be different from the non-signalized entrance ramp cumulative IAT distribution. The approximated cumulative IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized entrance ramp traffic for any hourly traffic volume from a few vehicles/hour up to 2,500 vehicles/hour can be obtained at http://www.ohio.edu/orite/research/uitds.cfm.

  8. Physical Composition, Nutrients and Contaminants of Typical Waste Dumping Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meuser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The composition of wastes is quite variable depending upon the generating source and mode of collection. Most of the material from the domestic activities will be organic in nature and contains essential plant nutrients, whereas the dumping material of commercial and industrial wastes usually contains appreciable amounts of heavy and potentially toxic metals and organic pollutants. Approach: Objective of the present study was to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the waste material and the distribution and extent of toxic pollutants in three selected typical dumping sites in the state of Haryana, India. Results: 62-65% of the waste fine material consisted of mineral particles and biodegradable organic waste, 20-25% consisted of construction and demolition waste and the remaining 10-15% were other materials such as study, plastic, metals, glass and timber, with an amount of polyethene of 3.4-5.7%. The ratio of the plant available concentrations of P, K and S and their total amounts were 3-7% for P and 1-4% for S, whereas the macronutrient potassium reached values of 29-39%. Metals As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were present in all samples (total concentration in aqua regia extract. As, Ba, Ni and Pb did not show clear differences between the three investigates sites. Cd, Cr and Zn concentrations were high but different at the different sites (Cu maximum: 1,964 mg kg−1, Zn maximum: 2,200 mg kg−1. The mobility of the metals was calculated as the ratio of DTPA/aqua regia extraction. Cd showed the highest ratio (18-22%, while the other calculated metals showed much lower ratios (Cu 6.7, Pb 7.9 Ni 2.1, Zn 3.6 and Cr 0.5%. In general, PAH and benzo(apyrene concentrations fell below the detection limit. Also the phenol index did not exceed the detection limit of 1.2 mg kg−1 (with two exceptions. In 14 out of 36 samples a GC-MS screening was conducted in order to get an overview of the organic

  9. Experimental Program for the CLIC test facility 3 test beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Adli, E; Dobert, S; Olvegaard, M; Schulte, D; Syratchev, I; Lillestol, Reidar

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 Test Beam Line is the first prototype for the CLIC drive beam decelerator. Stable transport of the drive beam under deceleration is a mandatory component in the CLIC two-beam scheme. In the Test Beam Line more than 50% of the total energy will be extracted from a 150 MeV, 28 A electron drive beam, by the use of 16 power extraction and transfer structures. A number of experiments are foreseen to investigate the drive beam characteristics under deceleration in the Test Beam Line, including beam stability, beam blow up and the efficiency of the power extraction. General benchmarking of decelerator simulation and theory studies will also be performed. Specially designed instrumentation including precision BPMs, loss monitors and a time-resolved spectrometer dump will be used for the experiments. This paper describes the experimental program foreseen for the Test Beam Line, including the relevance of the results for the CLIC decelerator studies.

  10. Subacute neuropathological effects of microplanar beams of x-rays from a synchrotron wiggler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatkin, D N; Spanne, P; Dilmanian, F A; Gebbers, J O; Laissue, J A

    1995-09-12

    Microplanar beam radiation therapy has been proposed to treat brain tumors by using a series of rapid exposures to an array of parallel x-ray beams, each beam having uniform microscopic thickness and macroscopic breadth (i.e., microplanar). Thirty-six rats were exposed head-on either to an upright 4-mm-high, 20- or 37-microns-wide beam or to a horizontal 7-mm-wide, 42-microns-high beam of mostly 32- to 126-keV, minimally divergent x-rays from the X17 wiggler at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Parallel slices of the head, separated at either 75 or 200 microns on center, were exposed sequentially at 310-650 grays (Gy) per second until each skin-entrance absorbed dose reached 312, 625, 1250, 2500, 5000, or 10,000 Gy. The rats were euthanized 2 weeks or 1 month later. Two rats with 10,000-Gy-entrance slices developed brain tissue necrosis. All the other 10,000- and 5000-Gy-entrance slices and some of the 2500- and 1250-Gy-entrance slices showed loss of neuronal and astrocytic nuclei and their perikarya. No other kind of brain damage was evident histologically in any rat with entrance absorbed doses beam radiation therapy for brain tumors.

  11. Evaluation of an optical beam-position-monitor system with closed-loop steering capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissen, Mark; Rogers, Greg; Wood, William; Eisert, Dave; Kleman, K. J.; Winter, William; Höchst, Hartmut

    1994-08-01

    Imaging the synchrotron source profile onto the entrance slit of a monochromator provides a stable and reproducible energy calibration which is independent of the absolute position and drift of the electron beam. Potential electron-beam motions occurring during a fill result in a loss of flux through the beamline. We have implemented two independent beam position monitors which can be used as sensors to steer the vertical entrance mirror in order to maintain a maximum flux through a spherical grating varied line-spacing monochromator beamline. The system consists of a slotted plate photodiode which intercepts 2 mrad of synchrotron radiation next to the entrance mirror and a detector utilizing the photocurrents generated at the jaws of the entrance-slit assembly. Both monitors have a wide linear response range with a vertical position resolution of beam position monitors allows an easy check on the mechanical and thermal stability of the entrance optical system as well as on the reproducibility and long-term fluctuations of the electron-beam source during user shifts. We will discuss the performance of the optical beam-position-monitor system and its implementation as a sensor in a closed-loop feedback system to maintain maximum flux through the beamline.

  12. Fast Beam Current Change Monitor for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kral, Jan

    Stringent demands on the LHC safety and protection systems require improved methods of detecting fast beam losses. The Fast Beam Current Transformer (FBCT) is a measurement instrument, providing information about bunch-to-bunch intensity of the accelerated beam. This thesis describes the development of a new protection system based on the FBCT signal measurements. This system, the Fast Beam Current Change Monitor (FBCCM), measures the FBCT signal in a narrow frequency band and computes time derivation of the beam signal magnitude. This derivation is proportional to the beam losses. When the losses exceed a certain level, the FBCCM requests a beam dump in order to protect the LHC. The LHC protection will be ensured by four FBCCMs which will be installed into the LHC in July 2014. Six FBCCMs have been already constructed and their characteristics were measured with satisfactory results. The FBCCMs were tested by a laboratory simulation of the real LHC environment.

  13. Beam Commissioning Plan and Result of KOMAC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiho; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Hansung; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This work summarized the present status and near-future plan of the beam commissioning. The development and installation of the 100-MeV proton linac were finished. Beam commissioning is scheduled in May 2013. Hence we hope we can report the initial beam commissioning result in the spring meeting of Korea Nuclear Society. The beam commissioning of the KOMAC (Korea Multi-Purpose Accelerator Complex) 100-MeV proton linear accelerator is in progress. The linac includes a 50-keV ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole), a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The final goal of the beam commissioning is accelerating 100-MeV proton beams to the beam dump in the accelerator tunnel and into a target room.

  14. Entrance, exit, and reentrance of one shot with a shotgun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmann, C; Hougen, H P

    1999-01-01

    The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region, and ther......The case being reported is one of a homicidal shotgun fatality with an unusual wound pattern. A 34-year-old man was shot at close range with a 12-gauge shotgun armed with No. 5 birdshot ammunition. The shot entered the left axillary region, exited through the left infraclavicular region......, and thereafter penetrated the left side of the neck, causing tearing of the left common carotid artery and the right internal carotid artery. The entrance wound in the axilla was larger than the other wounds, and before autopsy it was believed that the shotgun had been fired twice, causing one wound in the neck...

  15. X-ray tube output based calculation of patient entrance surface dose: validation of the method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju, O.; Toivonen, M.; Tapiovaara, M.; Parviainen, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    X-ray departments need methods to monitor the doses delivered to the patients in order to be able to compare their dose level to established reference levels. For this purpose, patient dose per radiograph is described in terms of the entrance surface dose (ESD) or dose-area product (DAP). The actual measurement is often made by using a DAP-meter or thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The third possibility, the calculation of ESD from the examination technique factors, is likely to be a common method for x-ray departments that do not have the other methods at their disposal or for examinations where the dose may be too low to be measured by the other means (e.g. chest radiography). We have developed a program for the determination of ESD by the calculation method and analysed the accuracy that can be achieved by this indirect method. The program calculates the ESD from the current time product, x-ray tube voltage, beam filtration and focus- to-skin distance (FSD). Additionally, for calibrating the dose calculation method and thereby improving the accuracy of the calculation, the x-ray tube output should be measured for at least one x-ray tube voltage value in each x-ray unit. The aim of the present work is to point out the restrictions of the method and details of its practical application. The first experiences from the use of the method will be summarised. (orig.)

  16. THE ZOO-ECONOMIC CHALLENGES OF FISCAL DUMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA LUMINIŢA SÂRBOVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In United Europe, the economic policy proves common goals of prosperity and development, still each country is administrating its own policy mix in order to reshape the fiscal pressure and to safeguard the economic body of the society. The fiscal dumping is a feature of the market competition concerning the non-cooperating actions taken among the economic agents targeted to increase the fiscal appealing of their (home-land territory by instrument of apparently favoring fiscal policies. In Romania this disguised tool of the policy promotion is mixed with an explicit expectation of rural and agriculture subvention, abundant in SMEs and rural fields, in line with the local needs of increasing the foreign investments and consolidating growth.

  17. Wheel slip dump valve for railway braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, LiHao; Li, QingXuan; Shi, YanTao

    2017-09-01

    As we all know, pneumatic braking system plays an important role in the safety of the whole vehicle. In the anti slip braking system, the pressure of braking cylinder can be adjusted by the quick power response of wheel slip dump valve, so that the lock situation won’t occur during vehicle service. During the braking of railway vehicles, the braking force provided by braking disc reduces vehicle’s speed. But the locking slip will happen due to the oversize of braking force or the reduction of sticking coefficient between wheel and rail. It will cause not only the decline of braking performance but also the increase of braking distance. In the meanwhile, it will scratch the wheel and influence the stable running of vehicles. Now, the speed of passenger vehicle has been increased. In order to shorten the braking distance as far as possible, sticking stickiness must be fully applied. So the occurrence probability of wheel slip is increased.

  18. From a dump to a energy park and recycling park. The Rhine-Main dump park in Floersheim-Wicker; Von der Muellkippe zum Energie- und Recyclingpark. Der Rhein-Main-Deponiepark in Floersheim-Wicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehler, Gerd [Rhein-Main Deponie GmbH, Floersheim am Main (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    If dumps are shut down, aftercare measures are necessary for a time period of several decades. The question arises whether the infrastructure, operating equipment and operating personnel of dumps can be used in the aftercare phase for subsequent utilisations. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the Rhine-Main dump park in Floersheim-Wicker (Federal Republic of Germany). Subsequently to the introduction according to the subsequent utilisation of dump locations, the author reports on the concept of the Rhine Main dump park, on the power generation in the Rhine-Main dump park, on the processing of wastes to fuels for the power production and on the dump as recycling park.

  19. Flora and vegetation on dumps of uranium mining in the southern part of the former GDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Sänger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1946 to 1990 an intensive uranium mining had been carried out with underground mining and also with opencast mining by the Wismut enterprise in the southern part of the former GDR. The mining activity lead also in the surroundings of Ronneburg to a permanent growth of devastated areas, among others in the form of dumps and tailings. These areas form by reason of mining-specific contaminations, extrem biotops which demand high claims on the pioneer organisms during the phase of natural first settlement. From 1990 to 1992 vegetation mappings were carried out on 15 dumps of the Thuringia mining area according to Braun-Blanquet (1964. The utilization of the computer programm Flora _D (Frank and Klotz 1990 enabled the ecological characterisation of the dumps. On the 15 investigated dumps found were 498 higher plants, belonging to 65 families. One hundred species are species with a high dominance. The number of species per dump fluctuates between 1 I and 282. Pioneer plants occur on the berms mostly in the second year after stoppage of the dumping, on the slopes after five to ten years. After nearly ten years the first step of settlement seems to be finished. Among the mechanisms of spreading dominate wind- and burdock spread. According to the form of life forms the dump species are predominantly hemicryptophytes, further therophytes, geophytes and phanerophytes.

  20. Aspects Regarding the Installation of Some Invasive Weeds Species on Old Fly Ash Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most Romanian power plants were built in a period when environmental impact of their operation was undervalued, and constraints related to environmental protection were relatively few. Location of power plants and fly ash dumps was chosen most often by arbitrary criteria, and never after the impact that it may have on the environment. Building fly ash dumps have an effect of destruction of soils not only on the surface equivalent to those of dumps but also of the contiguous lands. Old fly ash dumps are a major risk because of the dispersion of pollutants in water and soil by percolation and soil leaching, and because of the unwanted invasion of weeds that are adaptable to arid conditions of the dumps and then invade surrounding areas jeopardizing the surrounding crops. In attempting to install vegetation an old fly ash dumps, the area were invaded by two species of weeds that quickly overgrown the experimental parcel and the surroundings. The present study followed the invasion degree of fly ash dumps with weeds and aspects regarding their development and breeding in the new formed ecosystem.

  1. Northwest Russia and the Dumping of Radioactive Waste: The London Convention Implemented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-12-31

    The `Polar Oceans and the Law of the Sea Project`, POLOS, is a three-year international research project in international law and international relations. This report is one of the publications under POLOS. The subject is the Soviet dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas. The most intensely radioactive waste is a number of submarine reactors still containing high-level spent fuel. Some of this dumping violated Soviet commitments to the 1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, and this is the starting point of the report. The discussion focuses on how international regimes may affect the domestic implementation in member states, that is, how international agreements can be converted into behavioural adaptation on the part of target groups. Soviet and later Russian management of nuclear waste in the north has been significantly influenced by regulations and programmes generated under international dumping instruments. These international programmes have been supported by the active participation of the Navy itself in the belief that they would lead to transfer of technology and financial resources to Russia from the West. Inspection of military nuclear waste management is largely left to the Northern Fleet. As for monitoring, measurements were for a long time not taken near the dumping sites. As for regulations, the Northern Fleet continued dumping long into the 1990s without permission. Regarding compliance stimulation, foreign support has helped the Northern Fleet avoid dumping. 113 refs.

  2. Mapping Of Construction Waste Illegal Dumping Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainun, Noor Yasmin; Rahman, Ismail Abdul; Azwana Rothman, Rosfazreen

    2016-11-01

    Illegal dumping of solid waste not only affecting the environment but also social life of communities, hence authorities should have an effective system to cater this problem. Malaysia is experiencing extensive physical developments and this has led to an increase of construction waste illegal dumping. However, due to the lack of proper data collection, the actual figure for construction waste illegal dumping in Malaysia are not available. This paper presents a mapping of construction waste illegal dumping in Kluang district, Johor using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Information of the dumped waste such as coordinate, photos, types of material and quantity of waste were gathered manually through site observation for three months period. For quantifying the dumped waste, two methods were used which are the first method is based on shape of the waste (pyramids or squares) while the second method is based weighing approach. All information regarding the waste was assigned to the GIS for the mapping process. Results indicated a total of 12 types of construction waste which are concrete, tiles, wood, gypsum board, mixed construction waste, brick and concrete, bricks, sand, iron, glass, pavement and tiles, and concrete at 64 points locations of illegal dumping on construction waste in Kluang. These wastes were accounted to an estimated volume of 427.2636 m3. Hopefully, this established map will assist Kluang authority to improve their solid waste management system in Kluang.

  3. A Spring without Water: The Conundrum of Anti-Dumping Duties in South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Vinti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Agreement on the Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1994 (Anti-Dumping Agreement permits the imposition of anti-dumping duties for as long and to the extent necessary to counteract dumping which is causing injury, subject to the proviso that they must be terminated after five years unless a sunset review has been initiated. A sunset review has the purpose of either permitting or terminating the continuation of an anti-dumping duty. This is significant because if the sunset review is not initiated prior to the expiry of the five-year period, the anti-dumping duties will be terminated. Therefore, this places an emphasis on the determination of the precise date of commencement of the anti-dumping duties. This is because an incorrect determination of the date of the imposition of the anti-dumping duty has obvious financial implications for the interested parties. The Supreme Court of Appeal in South Africa has delivered two salient judgments in this regard: firstly, in Progress Office Machines CC v SARS 2008 2 SA 13 (SCA (POM, and then more recently, in Association of Meat Importers v ITAC 2013 4 All SA 253 (SCA (AMIE. This paper contends that these two judgments are in conflict and are riddled with inconsistencies. Secondly, the paper contends that the SCA has in the recent AMIE case virtually rewritten its earlier judgment of Progress Office Machines. Lastly, the paper shows that the approach of South African courts to whether the Anti-Dumping Agreement is binding on South African law is fraught with uncertainty and ambivalence. The case analysis also reflects on the impact of the newly minted but yet to be implemented Customs Duty Act with a view to assessing the impact of the new legislation on the issues currently plaguing the anti-dumping regime of South Africa.

  4. Feasibility of In-Situ Aeration of Old Dumping Ground for Land Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Huan Tong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dumping grounds are characterized by the absence of engineering controls such as base liners and cover layer. Consequently, these dumping grounds present risks for surrounding resources such as soil, groundwater and air. The concern for groundwater contamination by leachate from tropical dumping grounds is heightened due to the greater amounts of rainfall and subsequent infiltration and percolation through the waste mass. The emergent demand for old dumping grounds reclamation drives the need to employ remediation technologies. Generally, in-situ aeration is a remediation method that promotes aerobic conditions in the later stage of dumping ground. It accelerates carbon transfer, reduces remaining organic load, and generally shortens the post closure period. However, high rainfall in tropical areas straitens this technique. For example, pollutants could be easily flushed out and more energy should be required to overcome hydrostatic pressure. Although heavy rainfall could supply sufficient water to the substrate and accelerate degradation of organic matter, it may inhibit aerobic activities due to limited air transfer. The waste characterization from Lorong Halus Dumping Ground (closed dumping ground in Singapore showed that the waste materials were stabilized after 22 years closure. According to the Waste Acceptance Criteria set by European Communities Council, the waste materials could be classified as inert wastes. One interesting finding was that leachate layer detected was about of 5 - 8 meter depth, which entirely soaked the waste materials. Hence, the reclamation design and operation should be carefully adjusted according to these characters. Lorong Halus Dumping Ground case study can provide a guideline for other tropical closed landfills or dumping grounds.

  5. Single-Plane Magnetically Focused Elongated Small Field Proton Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Grant A; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    We previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of magnetically focused proton beams shaped by a single quadrapole magnet and thereby created narrow elongated beams with superior dose delivery characteristics (compared to collimated beams) suitable for targets of similar geometry. The present study seeks to experimentally validate these simulations using a focusing magnet consisting of 24 segments of samarium cobalt permanent magnetic material adhered into a hollow cylinder. Proton beams with properties relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications were delivered through the magnet to a water tank containing a diode detector or radiochromic film. Dose profiles were analyzed and compared with analogous Monte Carlo simulations. The focused beams produced elongated beam spots with high elliptical symmetry, indicative of magnet quality. Experimental data showed good agreement with simulations, affirming the utility of Monte Carlo simulations as a tool to model the inherent complexity of a magnetic focusing system. Compared to target-matched unfocused simulations, focused beams showed larger peak to entrance ratios (26% to 38%) and focused simulations showed a two-fold increase in beam delivery efficiency. These advantages can be attributed to the magnetic acceleration of protons in the transverse plane that tends to counteract the particle outscatter that leads to degradation of peak to entrance performance in small field proton beams. Our results have important clinical implications and suggest rare earth focusing magnet assemblies are feasible and could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering enhanced dose to narrow elongated targets (eg, in and around the spinal cord) in less time compared to collimated beams.

  6. A comparison on Anti-dumping against China between Developed and Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜笑云

    2013-01-01

      In recent years,Chinese exportation suffers greatly from developed countries’and developing countries’anti-dumping against China. Facing to this sort of phenomenon, this article compares the dif erence in the anti-dumping against China from developing and developed countries in three aspects,analyzes the ef ect of anti-dumping from dif erent countries and gives suggestions from a macro view.The paper selects the statistics reported by WTO and National Bureau of Statistics of China,time span from 1995 to 2011.

  7. Motivations of the Anti-dumping of the developed countries and the corresponding strategies to it

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王思涵

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, anti-dumping is frequently used by economic managers of al countries to suppress the products from other countries. With the continuous expanding of China’s export market, anti-dumping is more and more frequently to be used to suppres China’s export products, which is harmful. Therefore, the motivations of the developed countries which have conducted the anti-dumping wil be analyzed in this thesis and the general means wil be summarized, after which the ef ective solutions to these problems wil be concluded.

  8. The Impact of an Anti-dumping Measure : A Study on EU Imports of Chinese Footwear

    OpenAIRE

    Thuresson, Carin; Andersson, Karolina

    2008-01-01

    This essay analyse the anti-dumping policy of the European Union, with specific focus on the anti-dumping tariff imposed on imports of ertain footwear from the People’s Republic of China from 1997 to 2002. Even though free trade is expected from the members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) there are certain exceptions. One is when there is a suspicion that goods are being dumped in a foreign market, i.e. the exporter sells the product at a lower price in the foreign market than in its ho...

  9. High heat flux engineering for the upgraded neutral beam injection systems of MAST-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhalla, F., E-mail: Fahim.dhalla@ccfe.ac.uk; Mistry, S.; Turner, I.; Barrett, T.R.; Day, I.; McAdams, R.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new Residual Ion Dump (RID) and bend magnet system for the upgraded NBI systems have been designed for the 5 s MAST-U pulse requirements. • Design scoping was performed using numerical ion-tracing analysis software (MAGNET and OPERA codes). • A more powerful bending magnet will separate the residual ions into full, half and third energy components. • Three separate CuCrZr dumps spread the power loading resulting in acceptable power footprints. • FE thermo-mechanical analyses using ANSYS to validate the designs against the ITER SDC-IC code. • New bend magnet coils, yoke and CuCrZr water-cooled plates are in the procurement phase. - Abstract: For the initial phase of MAST-U operation the two existing neutral beam injection systems will be used, but must be substantially upgraded to fulfil expected operational requirements. The major elements are the design, manufacture and installation of a bespoke bending magnet and Residual Ion Dump (RID) system. The MAST-design full energy dump is being replaced with new actively-cooled full, half and third energy dumps, designed to receive 2.4 MW of ion power deflected by an iron-cored electromagnet. The main design challenge is limited space available in the vacuum vessel, requiring ion-deflection calculations to ensure acceptable heat flux distribution on the dump panels. This paper presents engineering and physics analysis of the upgraded MAST beamlines and reports the current status of manufacture.

  10. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The box must provide protection to the shore connection when the connection is in use....

  11. University and the Entrance Examinations in a Greek Provincial Town: A Bottom-Up Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Luciana

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the cultural meaning of university education and of participation in the extremely competitive entrance examinations to university, as viewed from a Greek provincial town. Notes that despite high graduate unemployment, university education and sitting for entrance examinations have important social status implications. (DSK)

  12. Energy dump of the ATLAS superconducting system simulations of electrical and thermal behaviour of magnet system at slow- and fast dump

    CERN Document Server

    van Beek, Martijn; Dudarev, A

    During the slow dump (discharge) of the Barrel Toroidal (superconducting) magnet of the ATLAS detector, the control system gave an alarm that the differences between the voltages over the conductors were too high. The alarm was not due to any danger, because of some sort of phenomenon observed in the first few seconds after start of the discharge. A possible explanation of the differences of the coil voltages is that the changing current through the conductors may cause induced currents in the coil casing around. The goal was to make a simulation of the electrical behaviour of the magnet system during a slow dump. In this way, an explanation can be found for the start phenomenon of the slow dump of the Barrel Toroid. Some extra analyses on the measurements were performed to describe the energy dissipation during a fast dump. This is done by calculating the resistance of the coils during the dump. With the maximum resistance, the maximum temperature can be estimated, which says something about the enthalpy of ...

  13. Molecular Beam Dumps as Tracers of Hadronic Cosmic Ray Sources the Case of SNR IC443

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Y M; Combi, J A; Dame, T M; Romero, G E; Butt, Yousaf M.; Torres, Diego F.; Combi, Jorge A.; Dame, Thomas; Romero, Gustavo E.

    2002-01-01

    The gamma-ray & neutrino visibility of cosmic ray (CR) accelerators will be dramatically increased by the presence of molecular material abutting such sites due to the increased probability of pion production -- and, in the case of neutral pions, subsequent gamma-decay. This was recognized by Pinkau, Montmerle, and Black & Fazio, and others in the 1970's. In an effort to examine the long-standing -- but unproven -- conjecture that galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) are indeed the sites of nucleonic CR acceleration to 0) mm wavelength data from the compilation of Dame, Hartmann & Thaddeus (2001), at the best estimates of the various SNR distances. We outline the overall correlative study and examine the interesting case of SNR IC443, a likely accelerator of CR nuclei.

  14. Reliability study of the Controls Interlocks Beam Dumping System CIBDS V5

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenschein, Miriam Ruth

    2017-01-01

    The CIBDS V5 reliability study includes a failure mode and effect analysis, a failure rate prediction and a fault tree analysis. The different steps of these analyses, the assumptions as well as the results are summarised in this note.

  15. Recent improvements of the JET lithium beam diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, M.; Morgan, P.; Stamp, M.; Zastrow, K.-D. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Dodt, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Dunai, D.; Meszaros, B.; Petravich, G.; Refy, D. I.; Szabolics, T.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP, Association EURATOM, Pf. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lupelli, I. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA - University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Roma (Italy); Marsen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Ass., D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Melson, T. F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Silva, C. [EURATOM/IST, Inst. de Plasma e Fusao Nuclear, Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    A 60 kV neutral lithium diagnostic beam probes the edge plasma of JET for the measurement of electron density profiles. This paper describes recent enhancements of the diagnostic setup, new procedures for calibration and protection measures for the lithium ion gun during massive gas puffs for disruption mitigation. New light splitting optics allow in parallel beam emission measurements with a new double entrance slit CCD spectrometer (spectrally resolved) and a new interference filter avalanche photodiode camera (fast density and fluctuation studies).

  16. Chemical composition of fragmental products fractions of rock dumps and tailing dump as basis for potential geoecological danger estimation in the areas of mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovina Ol’ga Konstantinovna

    Full Text Available Negative consequences of deposit development on the environment are well know. They manifest themselves most intensively in case of open-cut mining of ore minerals, which is related to the increase of rock dumps masses. The material of rock dumps and tailing dumps actively influence the state of the environment transforming the natural landscapes, first of all, as a reason of migration of waters changed as a result of their contact with mining waste. The authors give their estimation of the consequences of apatite-nephelinic ore crop in Khibini Ore District by the company “Apatit”, which includes the influence on the natural waters. The unique natural conditions of the area are the reason for high-level potential geoecological danger. The mobility of lots of toxic elements is raised because of ligand-ion OH in the waters of alkali rocks of Khibini soil.

  17. THE EFFECT OF BIOSOLIDS ON MEDICAGO SATIVA AND FESTUCA ARUNDINACEEA PLANTS PHYTOREMEDIATION PROCESS OF WASTE DUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The storage of waste dump gravely deteriorates the soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties, both in the storage area and the surrounding zones. In time, serious perturbations may occur in the biocenosis from the surrounding ecosystems, through the sweeping away of the inorganic matter or through precipitations. The main problem in this case is to find the most suitable phytoremediation method for these waste dumps, by sowing plant species (grasses, in order to stop the erosion generated by wind and rain. Establishing a herbaceous “carpet” , in time, is very difficult, because the waste dump contains no organic matter, has a weak water retaining capacity and has a high bareness index. The purpose of this study was the experimentation of a method of cultivating the waste dumps using alfalfa, fescue and biosolids as fertilizers.

  18. Oceanographic studies off Beypore Port, west coast of India to locate a dredge dumping site

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Srinivas, K.; Thottam, T.J.

    at the 15 m water depth contour with coordinates: Latitude 11 degrees 07.00 minutes; Longitude 75 degrees 45.60 minutes, where the environmental impacts on the ecosystem due to dumping operations is considered to be minimum...

  19. The EU Anti-dumping Policy towards China: Challenges for Chinese and Foreign Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the EU anti-dumping policy towards Chinese companies. It is based on the EU anti-dumping cases since 1990 and especially since July 1998. (Since then Chinese firms have been able to apply for market economy status). Based on this analysis, the paper presents some practical...... advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. First, the CELEX database may give some important information on how to formulate a price policy for exports to the EU so anti-dumping measures can be avoided. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important......, owner structure counts also in relation to getting individual treatment; here especially freedom in exporting is decisive. Fourthly, if an anti-dumping investigation seems to be against the interests of the company, it should make an offer to the EU Commission to raise its export prices instead...

  20. The Puzzle of Simultaneous Anti-Dumping and Anti-Subsidy Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    Quite frequently an anti-subsidy investigation in the EU is paired with an anti-dumping investigation against the same non-EU producers. The final outcome may be a two-component duty where one duty addresses the ‘unfairness’ of the subsidy and the other the dumping behavior. The procedure may...... be a surprise, as the same total level of protection may be obtained by using the anti-dumping procedure exclusively. When calculating the two duties in the EU the outcome depends on whether the subsidies are export subsidies or domestic subsidies and this may also cause surprise. This paper addresses......’ competition completely and because a parallel investigation may increase the probability of a successful outcome for the petitioners. In contrast, we find that the different assumptions about the effect of export subsidies and domestic production subsidies on the dumping margin in the EU dual anti...

  1. EU to Continue 48.5% Anti-dumping Duties on Chinese Bicycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 10, European Commission informed the Business Office of the Mission of Ministry of Commerce in EU and disclosed the adjudication on the review of the EU imposing anti-dumping on Chinese bicycles.

  2. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule and draft Environmental...

  3. Estimation of spatial variability of lignite mine dumping ground soil properties using CPTu results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagińska Irena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with application of CPTu test results for the probabilistic modeling of dumping grounds. The statistical measures use results from 42 CPT test points located in the lignite mine dumping ground from the region of Central Europe. Both the tip resistance qc as well as local friction fs are tested. Based on the mean values and standard deviations of measured quantities the specific zones in the dumping site profile are distinguished. For three main zones standard deviations of linearly de-trended functions, distributions of normalized de-trended values for qc and fs are examined. Also the vertical scales of fluctuation for both measured quantities are estimated. The obtained result shows that lignite mine dumping site can be successfully described with the Random Field Theory. Additional use of fs values introduces supplementary statistical information.

  4. Quantitative mapping by remote sensing of an ocean acid-waste dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    Results from quantitative analysis show that airplane remotely sensed spectral data can be used to quantify and map an acid-waste dump in terms of its particulate iron concentration. These same data, however, could not be used to map the dump in terms of total suspended solids, organic suspended solids, or inorganic suspended solids concentrations. A single-variable equation using the ratio of band 2 (440 to 490 nm) radiance to band 4 (540 to 580 nm) radiance was used to quantify the iron concentration in the acid-waste dump. The acid waste that was mapped varied in age from freshly dumped to 31/2 hr. Particulate iron concentrations in the acid waste were estimated to range up to 1.1 mg/l at a depth of 0.46 m. A classification technique was developed to identify pixels in the data set affected by sun glitter.

  5. Forecast salt regime unwatered mine reclaimed dump in unstable conditions in Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhrashkina H.P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available On the based theory of physical-chemical hydrodynamic of porous media was executed prognosis salt rate no suppying with water mine dumps of minimum sense transhiration in conditions no established rate.

  6. Tire Dumps, washoe county sheriff's office data, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tire Dumps dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as 'washoe county sheriff's office data'. Data by...

  7. Mine dumps, wheeze, asthma, and rhinoconjunctivitis among adolescents in South Africa: any association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the association between community proximity to mine dumps, and current wheeze, rhinoconjunctivitis, and asthma among adolescents. This study was conducted during May-November 2012 around five mine dumps in South Africa. Communities in close proximity to mine dumps had an increased likelihood of current wheeze OR 1.38 (95 % CI: 1.10-1.71), rhinoconjunctivitis OR 1.54 (95 % CI: 1.29-1.82), and a protective association with asthma OR 0.29 (95 % CI: 0.23-0.35). Factors associated with health outcomes included other indoor and outdoor pollution sources. Wheeze and rhinoconjunctivitis appear to be a public health problem in these communities. The findings of this study serve as a base for further detailed epidemiological studies for communities in close proximity to the mine dumps e.g. a planned birth cohort study.

  8. CFD simulation of thermodynamic and temperature effects on spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles and dumps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available momentum transfer equation: Energy conservation equation for the solid phase was modeled by the following heat transfer equation: The porosity of the coal dump was calculated from Yuan and Smith, (2009): The Arrhenius rate of oxidation...

  9. 30 CFR 57.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads...

  10. 10 kHz ps 1342 nm laser generation by an electro-optically cavity-dumped mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Ke; He, Li-jiao; Yang, Jing; Zong, Nan; Yang, Feng; Gao, Hong-wei; Liu, Zhao; Yuan, Lei; Lan, Ying-jie; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qin-jun; Cui, Da-fu; Xu, Zu-yan

    2017-01-01

    We have demonstrated an electro-optically cavity-dumped mode-locked (CDML) picosecond Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm with 880 nm diode-laser direct pumping. At a repetition rate of 10 kHz, an average output power of 0.119 W was achieved, corresponding to a pulse energy of 11.9 μJ. Compared with the continuous wave mode-locking pulse energy of 17.5 nJ, the CDML pulse energy was 680 times higher. The pulse width was measured to be 33.4 ps, resulting in the peak power of 356 kW. Meanwhile, the beam quality was nearly diffraction limited with an average beam quality factor M2 of 1.29.

  11. Improved robustness of the LHC collimation system by operating with a jaw-beam angle

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Rossi, A; Cauchi, M; Faus-Golfe, A

    2012-01-01

    The robustness of the Phase I collimation system could be improved playing with the angular orientation of each single jaw. A preliminary study on the asymmetric misalignment of the collimator jaws, scanning through different jaw angles and varying beam sizes and energy, have been carried out, aiming at minimizing the energy deposited on metallic collimators, following an asynchronous dump.

  12. 77 FR 2119 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duty Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Anti-Dumping and Countervailing... Anti-dumping Agreement; Articles 10, 12.3, 12.4.1, 12.7, 12.8, 15.1, 15.2, 15.4, 15.5, 16.1, 19.4,...

  13. Why Has China Become a Target of Anti-dumping Activities?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月芬

    2007-01-01

    Although the benefits of China’s trade expansion have been distributed much more broadly than those of some early industrialized nations,China has become the primary target of anti-dumping activities.Being a new and relatively efficient new rival in the global market may be an important reason for this.On the other hand,China’s development stage and her trade structure also place her in a disadvantageous position when it comes to anti-dumping activities.

  14. Tracking of the nuclear wavepacket motion in cyanine photoisomerization by ultrafast pump-dump-probe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhengrong; Nakamura, Takumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei

    2011-06-01

    Understanding ultrafast reactions, which proceed on a time scale of nuclear motions, requires a quantitative characterization of the structural dynamics. To track such structural changes with time, we studied a nuclear wavepacket motion in photoisomerization of a prototype cyanine dye, 1,1'-diethyl-4,4'-cyanine, by ultrafast pump-dump-probe measurements in solution. The temporal evolution of wavepacket motion was examined by monitoring the efficiency of stimulated emission dumping, which was obtained from the recovery of a ground-state bleaching signal. The dump efficiency versus pump-dump delay exhibited a finite rise time, and it became longer (97 fs → 330 fs → 390 fs) as the dump pulse was tuned to longer wavelengths (690 nm → 950 nm → 1200 nm). This result demonstrates a continuous migration of the leading edge of the wavepacket on the excited-state potential from the Franck-Condon region toward the potential minimum. A slowly decaying feature of the dump efficiency indicated a considerable broadening of the wavepacket over a wide range of the potential, which results in the spread of a population distribution on the flat S(1) potential energy surface. The rapid migration as well as broadening of the wavepacket manifests a continuous nature of the structural dynamics and provides an intuitive visualization of this ultrafast reaction. We also discussed experimental strategies to evaluate reliable dump efficiencies separately from other ultrafast processes and showed a high capability and possibility of the pump-dump-probe method for spectroscopic investigation of unexplored potential regions such as conical intersections.

  15. Development and Optimization of a Novel Prolonged Release Formulation to Resist Alcohol-Induced Dose Dumping

    OpenAIRE

    Gujjar, Chaitanya Yogananda; Rallabandi, Balaramesha Chary; Gannu, Ramesh; Deulkar, Vallabh Subashrao

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-induced dose dumping is a serious concern for the orally administered prolonged release dosage forms. The study was designed to optimize the independent variables, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), Eudragit RS PO (ERS) and coating in mucoadhesive quetiapine prolonged release tablets 200 mg required for preventing the alcohol-induced dose dumping. Optimal design based on response surface methodology was employed for the optimization of the composition. The formulations are evaluated for...

  16. Potentials and problems of the utilization of waste dumps and pit-ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gefferth, K.

    1986-01-01

    The surface damages caused by mining as well as the landscaping duties of the mining enterprises connected with the surface restoration are discussed. The damaging effects of waste dumps on the soil, groundwater and vegetation are enumerated. The possibilities of how to recultivate the waste dumps as well as of how to utilize the flue ash and slacks from thermal power plants are briefly summarized. The required uniform recultivation manner to be applied is emphasized.

  17. BIO-PEDO-GEOGRAPHYCAL REGARDS ON GARBAGE DUMPS FROM TOMEŞTI - IAŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Secu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The garbage dump from Tomeşti (Iaşi represents a water and soil pollution source, as well as a peril for the population’s health. The study has pursued the analysis of some indicators of water quality (which have evidenced exceeds of the currently admitted values, the identification of the plant species from the garbage dump perimeter (table 1 and the presentation of the general geographical landscape.

  18. Impact of Mining Dump on the Accumulation and Mobility of Metals in the Bytomka River Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabłońska-Czapla Magdalena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to determine the long-term impact of the mine waste stored at the coal waste dump Hałda Ruda on the content of heavy metals in the bottom sediments of the Bytomka River. It is a watercourse flowing along this coal waste dump and has been under its influence for over fifty years. The research also attempted to determine the seasonality of changes (2 years and mobility of selected elements.

  19. Identification and Investigation of Solid Waste Dump in Salem District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-12-01

    to facilitate implementation. The Note also includes a few case studies illustrating frameworks and implementation strategies adopted in other jurisdictions and sectors. Frameworks observed include legislation supporting municipalities to priorities regional initiatives to effectively use available resources as well as options for Creation of regional solid waste management authorities or entities empowered by law to undertake waste management activities over a region or state; Creation of solid waste management „regions‟; and Municipalities jointly constituting a company, or common authority, to implement a regional waste management project. The present work aims at identifying, locating and quantifying the industrial and domestic waste dump sites located in and around Salem urban and rural districts of Salem, Tamilnadu state, India. In our project we identify the suitable location and investigation for dumping yard which is not affecting the environment.

  20. Entrance surface dose in cerebral interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Rico, M.; Lopez-Rendon, X.; Rivera-Ordonez, C. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, 14269 DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    At the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures of interventional radiology are carried out. Since the procedures can last from some minutes to several hours, the absorbed dose for the patient could increase dangerously. An investigation had begun in order to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) using 25 thermoluminiscent dosimeters TLD-100 and 8 strips of 15 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2} of Gafchromic XR-QA2 film bound in a holder of 15 Multiplication-Sign 15 cm{sup 2} in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) positions during all the procedure. The results show that maximum ESD could be from 0.9 to 2.9 Gy for the PA position and between 1.6 and 2.5 Gy for the lateral position. The average ESD was between 0.7 and 1.3 Gy for the PA position, and from 0.44 to 1.1 Gy for the lateral position in a therapeutic procedure.

  1. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates at hospital entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidotas, Marina; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Gysi, Deisy Morselli; Leal, Flavio; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Edmond, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in the health care setting, there are no studies evaluating hand hygiene compliance at hospital entrances. The study was prospectively performed over a 33-week period from March 30, 2014-November 15, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 hospital reception areas. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (GOJO SMARTLINK) (electronic observer) that counts each activation of alcohol gel dispensers to direct observation (human observer) via remote review of video surveillance. We found low hand hygiene compliance rates of 2.2% (99/4,412) and 1.7% (140/8,277), respectively, at reception areas A and D, detected by direct observation. Using the electronic observer, we measured rates of 17% (15,624/91,724) and 7.1% (51,605/730,357) at reception areas A and D, respectively. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, the human observer captured 1% of the hand hygiene episodes detected by the electronic observer. Our study showed very low hand hygiene compliance in hospital reception areas, and we found an electronic hand hygiene system to be a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Medical school entrance and career plans of Malaysian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, S M

    1996-11-01

    This study investigates the reasons for entry to medicine and the career perspectives of phase III medical students of the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The majority of the students were Malays from low socio-economic backgrounds who entered medical school after completing a 2-year matriculation course. An interest in medicine and helping people were the two main stated reasons for entry to medical school. A group of students wishing to work in private practice was identified. In comparison to the rest of the study body, students in the group were: not well prepared to enter medical school; dissatisfied with the course; and subject to family influences. A desire for monetary gain motivated their choice of medicine as a career. Overall, 13% of the students wished to change career because they were dissatisfied with their experience of medicine as undergraduates. The study did not find a significant difference in career intentions between female and male medical students. However, women were less likely to seek entrance into private practice or pursue formal postgraduate education. The choice of surgery as a career was confined to men. About 90% of the students had already decided on their future specialty. Four well-established specialties were their most popular choices. The gender of the students had no significant influences of the decision to continue into postgraduate education. The proportion of female students who wished to marry doctors was significantly higher than for male students.

  3. Entrance surface dose measurements in mammography using thermoluminescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, T. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada Unidad Legaria del IPM Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-lztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, P.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico Toluca, 52045 Salazar Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: Of the various techniques that can be used for personnel dosimetry, thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) has emerged as a superior technique due to its manifold advantages over other methods of dose estimation. Various phosphors have been therefore investigated regarding their suitability for dosimetry. In this paper, a dosimetry system based on thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) from zirconium oxide phosphors embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (ZrO{sub 2}+PTFE) was developed for entrance surface doses (ES) measurements in mammography. Small ZrO{sub 2} pellets of 5 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in thickness were used. The reproducibility of measurements and linearity of ZrO{sub 2} were also studied. The results were compared with those obtained from LiF:Mg,Cu,P usually used for the determination of absorbed dose in mammography. Measurements both per unit air kerma and In vivo were performed using a mammography unit model DMR (General Electric). The results showed that ZrO{sub 2} TLDs can be used for the same X-ray dosimetry applications as LiF:Mg,Cu,P, with each type having the disadvantage of a response dependent on energy, particularly at low energies. These results indicate a considerable potential for use in routine control and In vivo ES measurements in mammography. (Author)

  4. Use of a garbage dump by some mammal species in the Majella massif (Abruzzo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Martina

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In several previous works the presence of urban solid wastes in the feeding habits of some animal species has been documented. This study was carried out to discover which species visit a rubbish dump located in an area of the Majella massif. Monthly nightime direct observations, from September 1990 to May 1992, revealed the presence of dogs Canis [lupus] familiaris, domestic cats Felis [silvestris] catus, wolves Canis lupus and red foxes Vulpes vulpes. The fox was the most frequently observed species. Fox visits to the dump were distributed more continuously during the entire period of the study then the other species. An "asymmetry analysis" was carried out to find out the animals' favourite time to use the dump. The analysis produced time lag values of 02:00 A.M. to 05:00 A.M. The wolf was observed the least. During the monthly observations a similar trend between the cat and wolf came to light. The two species also visited the dump at similar times (wolf: 07:00-11:00 P.M.; cat: 05:00-10:00 P.M.. Dog visits to the dump were less continuous in comparison with other species: no preferred time was revealed. Some environmental factors, related to the geographical area and management of the dump limited waste availability. This probably had an effect on the presence of the animals.

  5. Preliminary thermo-mechanical analysis of angular beam impact on LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Dallocchio, A; Deboy, D; Mariani, N; Rossi, A; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2012-01-01

    The correct functioning of the LHC Collimation System is crucial to attain the desired LHC luminosity performance. However, the requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess their effect on the robustness of the collimators. One of the most probable accident scenarios identified is an asynchronous beam dump coupled with slight angular misalignment errors of the collimator installation at the beam-line. Previous work presented a preliminary thermal evaluation of the extent of beam-induced damage for such scenarios, where it was shown that in some cases, a tilt of the jaw could actually serve to mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. This paper will further analyze the response of tertiary collimators in presence of such angular jaw alignments. Such work will also help to start identifying optimal operational conditions.

  6. Beam Collimation and Machine-Detector Interface at the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, Nikolai V; Kostin, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, spray from the dumps and extraction lines, beam-gas and beam halo interactions with collimators and other components in the ILC beam delivery system create fluxes of muons and other secondaries which can exceed the tolerable levels at a detector by a few orders of magnitude. It is shown that with a multi-stage collimation system, magnetized iron spoilers which fill the tunnel and a set of masks in the detector, one can hopefully meet the design goals. Results of modeling with the STRUCT and MARS15 codes of beam loss and energy deposition effects are presented in this paper. We concentrate on collimation system and mask design and optimization, short- and long-term survivability of the critical components (spoilers, absorbers, magnets, separators, dumps), dynamic heat loads and radiation levels in magnets and other components, machine-related backgrounds and damage in collider detectors, and environmental aspects (prompt dose, ground-water and air activation).

  7. Complications of bariatric surgery: dumping syndrome, reflux and vitamin deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jan; Deloose, Eveline

    2014-08-01

    Bariatric surgical procedure are increasingly and successfully applied in the treatment of morbid obesity. Nevertheless, these procedures are not devoid of potential long-term complications. Dumping syndrome may occur after procedures involving at least partial gastric resection or bypass, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy. Diagnosis is based on clinical alertness and glucose tolerance testing. Treatment may involve dietary measures, acarbose and somatostatin analogues, or surgical reintervention for refractory cases. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be aggravated by vertical banded gastroplasty and sleeve gastrectomy procedures, but pre-existing GERD may improve after RYGB and with adjustable gastric banding. Nutrient deficiencies constitute the most important long-term complications of bariatric interventions, as they may lead to haematological, metabolic and especially neurological disorders which are not always reversible. Malabsorptive procedures, poor postoperative nutrient intake, recurrent vomiting and poor compliance with vitamin supplement intake and regular follow-up are important risk factors. Preoperative nutritional assessment and rigourous postoperative follow-up plan with administration of multi-vitamin supplements and assessment of serum levels is recommended in all patients.

  8. Digitally compensated beam current transformer

    CERN Document Server

    Kesselman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being built by a collaboration of six laboratories. Beam current monitors (BCMs) will be used to record the current of H-minus and H-plus beams ranging from 15 mA (tune-up in the Front End and Linac) to over 60A fully accumulated in the Ring and dumped to the load as a single pulse in the Ring to Beam Target (RTBT). The time structure of these beams ranges from 645ns "mini" bunches at the 1.05 MHz ring revolution rate, to an overall 1 ms long macro-pulse. The requirements for the BCMs will depend upon their location within the system. The need to measure individual mini-pulses, examine the characteristics of the chopper edge, as well as the longer average current pulse of the macropulse, or long duration pulses during Linac tuning place wide requirements upon the response of current transformers. To obtain the desired accuracy and resolution, current transformers must have less than 1 ns rise time and droops of 0.1 %/ms. This places a significant design burden on the cur...

  9. Laboratory observations of velocity and density fields in the entrance of a harbor on a stratified tidal river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendoen, E.J.; Karelse, M.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed measurements are presented of velocity and density fields in the entrance of a model harbor on a stratified tidal river. Three geometries of the harbor entrance were examined, (1) a harbor with its length axis perpendicular to the river and an entrance width of 1 m, (2) as (1) but with an

  10. An effect of entrance length on development of velocity profile in channel of millimeter dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasikova, D.; Kotek, M.; Kopecky, V.

    2016-06-01

    Here we used modified PIV technique completed with long distance microscope probe for experimental investigation of the flow velocity profile in a rectangular duct. We came from the analytical and numerical prediction of the entrance length for fully developed velocity profile. The results of measurement completed knowledge about the flow stability and velocity profile shape in the channel of 0.00375 hydraulic diameters. There was marked a range of entrance length constant for the transient flow area. The presents of the fluctuating velocities in the transition flow is explained with POD snapshot and modes projection. The minimal entrance length for the laminar, transition, and turbulent flow is set.

  11. Similarity of Heat Transfer on Heat Source Elements in the Entrance Region in Electronic Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane Z. Jiang; Sui Lin

    2001-01-01

    A similarity equation for heat transfer on heat source elements situated in the entrance region in electronic equipment is developed based on the experimental data obtained by Sparrow et al.[4]. The characteristic of the similarity equation is that the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient at the entrance region to that at the fully developed region is independent of the Reynolds number. It depends only on the row number of the elements situated in the entrance region. An example of the usefulness of the similarity equation is presented that determines the heat transfer on heat source elements in a power unit that contains only a small number of the heat source elements.

  12. Event displays from Beam 2 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  13. Event displays from Beam 01 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    atlas collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded on, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detector

  14. Event displays from Beam Halo in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  15. The effect of rehabilitation on the rate of oxidation of pyrite in a mine waste rock dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, J R; Ritchie, A I

    1987-06-01

    Temperature profiles within a mine waste rock dump undergoing pyritic oxidation have been used to estimate the rate of oxidation and the sites where oxidation was occurring. The waste rock dump is located at the abandoned Rum Jungle mine site in Northern Australia and was a major source of pollution to the local river system. The dump was rehabilitated in 1983-84 by reshaping to reduce erosion and covering with clay and soil to reduce infiltration of water.Heat source distributions were derived from temperature profiles measured in the dump. The oxidation of pyritic material is the main cause of heat in the dump, hence the rate and location of oxidation can be obtained from the distribution of heat sources. A comparison of the heat source distributions before and after rehabilitation showed that rehabilitation greatly reduced or stopped the oxidation of pyrite in the dump.

  16. Current variability at the Pacific entrance of the Indonesian Throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashino, Yuji; Watanabe, Hidetoshi; Herunadi, Bambang; Aoyama, Michio; Hartoyo, Djoko

    1999-05-01

    Current variability at the Pacific entrance of the Indonesian Throughflow is investigated using direct current and hydrographic measurements. Two moorings with three current meters (depths of 350, 550, and 1050 m) and one conductivity-temperature-depth profiler (260 m) were deployed at 4°1'N, 127°31'E and 3°11'N, 128°27'E between Talaud Islands and Morotai Island (Indonesia) from February 1994 to June 1995. Data from four hydrographic surveys conducted mainly between Mindanao and New Guinea from 1994 to 1996 are also used. The onset of a strong northwestward flow was observed at the southern mooring during boreal winter. In contrast, a southwestward flow containing salty South Pacific water was observed there during boreal summer. This current pattern change matched monsoon change around the mooring sites, suggesting that this variability is a seasonal signal in this region. This current change may occur because of the meridional shift of the Halmahera Eddy associated with an enlargement/diminishment of the Mindanao Dome. Our observation result during summer (the southwestward flow with the South Pacific water at the southern mooring) suggests that the Maluku Sea is one of the eastern routes of the Indonesian Throughflow. The current data also revealed that intraseasonal variability occurs in 50-day oscillations. Because the coherence between wind variability in the tropics with a period of 40-50 days (Madden-Julian Oscillation) and current variability with this period are >0.4, it is possible that the 50-day oscillation in the ocean current is induced by wind variability associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The ocean eddy activity with an intrinsic period in this region may also be related to this 50-day oscillation.

  17. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 7 October 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Wallace, J. W.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    A remote sensor experiment was conducted at a sewage sludge dump site off the Delaware/Maryland coast. Two aircraft serving as remote sensor platforms flew over the dump site during a sludge dump. One aircraft carried a multispectral scanner and the other aircraft carried a rapid scanning spectrometer. Data from sea-truth stations were collected concurrent with overpasses of the aircraft. All sensors were operational and produced good digital data.

  18. Prebunched-beam free electron maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, M.; Ben-Chaim, D.; Cohen, M.; Draznin, M.; Eichenbaum, A.; Gover, Abraham; Kleinman, H.; Kugel, A.; Pinhasi, Yosef; Witman, S.; Yakover, Y. M.

    1994-05-01

    The development status of a prebunched FEM is described. We are developing a 70 KeV FEM to allow high gain wideband operation and to enable variation of the degree of prebunching. We intend to investigate its operation as an amplifier and as an oscillator. Effects of prebunching, frequency variation, linear and nonlinear effects, will be investigated. The prebuncher consists of a Pierce e-gun followed by a beam modulating section. The prebunched beam is accelerated to 70 KeV and injected into a planar wiggler containing a waveguide. The results obtained to date will be presented. These include: characterization of the e-gun, e-beam transport to and through the wiggler, use of field modifying permanent magnets near the entrance and along the wiggler to obtain good e-beam transport through the wiggler, waveguide selection and characterization.

  19. A Review On Dump Slope Stabilization By Revegetation With Reference To Indigenous Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhash Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The waste sub-grade ROM and Fines dumps are characterized by high rock fragment contents low moisture retention capacity higher bulk density low nutrients lower pH and elevated metal concentrations. Use of suitable revegetation programme that require the selection of right type of plants to be used vis--vis the site condition and characteristics can enhance the long term stability both mechanical and ecological of dumps waste sub-grade ROM and fines through providing vegetative cover to control soil erosion amp gully formation consolidation of dump top amp side surfaces binding the loose particles through intricate roof system etc. This paper overviews the roles of Revegetation programme that can be used where vegetation is considered to be the long term answer to slope protection and erosion control. Various revegetation processes like Coir matting Lemmon Grass Vetiver Grass and Indigenous plant etc. may find a wide range of usage in Iron ore mines for dump stabilization.Miyawaki method of plantation is more effective than the conventional method of plantation. This will lead to co-existence of plants and as a matter of fact each plant draws from the other vital nutrients and they grow to become strong and healthy. The Miyawaki Plantation technique aim at Survival at fittest the area undergone such plantation have an ecology of their own. The Indigenous Plant has good binding capacity and helps to control soil erosion as well as improve the dump stability. Indigenous plant species like as Shorea robusta Sal CROTON ROXBURGHII Dal-bergia Sisoo SHISHAM KARANJ Azadirachta NEEM etc. The growth of indigenous plants is depending upon the soil quality as well as the organic matter of the dump material. The leaf debris plays important role for improving the organic matter of dump material for successfully implementation of revegetation programme.

  20. Should College Entrance Exam Results Be Made Public,or Kept Private?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The college entrance examination, usually called gaokao in China, is considered the most important test for middle school graduates. It’s the test that makes or breaks the futures of students as the outcome determines who

  1. Safety Evaluation of Highway Tunnel-Entrance Illuminance Transition Based on Eye-Pupil Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Du

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing the EMR-8B eye-tracker system, the pupil changes of eight drivers were monitored when they drove through 26 typical highway tunnels. Based on the test results, the driver’s pupil areas and pupil illuminance were found to be in a power function relationship at tunnel entrances. Furthermore, a quantitative relationship between the pupil area and its critical velocity was established, and the ratio of pupil area’s velocity in relation to its critical velocity was used to evaluate the lighting transitions and to establish the ideal curve of pupil illuminance at tunnel entrances. The results demonstrated that the relationship between the pupil illuminance of the tunnel entrance and the driver’s pupil areas conforms to the Stevens law found in experimental psychology; severe pupil illuminance transition within the range of 10 metres of the existing highway tunnel entrances, which results in great visual load, is in urgent need of improvement.

  2. A numerical solution for the entrance region of non-newtonian flow in annuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia M.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuity and momentum equations applied to the entrance region of an axial, incompressible, isothermal, laminar and steady flow of a power-law fluid in a concentric annulus, were solved by a finite difference implicit method. The Newtonian case was solved used for validation of the method and then compared to reported results. For the non-Newtonian case a pseudoplastic power-law model was assumed and the equations were transformed to obtain a pseudo-Newtonian system which enabled its solution using the same technique as that used for the Newtonian case. Comparison of the results for entrance length and pressure drop with those available in the literature showed a qualitative similarity, but significant quantitative differences. This can be attributed to the differences in entrance geometries and the definition of asymptotic entrance length.

  3. Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Klemke, Roland; Westera, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Klemke, R., & Westera, W. (2011, 20-21 October). Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools. Presentation at 5th European Conference on Games Based Learning, Athens, Greece.

  4. Early dumping syndrome is not a complication but a desirable feature of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenius, A; Engström, M

    2016-10-01

    Early dumping syndrome after gastric bypass surgery due to rapid delivery of hyperosmolar nutrients into the bowel causing intense symptoms is often described as a complication. Twelve patients, mean age 47 years, were interviewed approximately 9 years post-operation. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, followed by an inductive content analysis to reveal patients' experience of the dumping syndrome. The core category 'Dumping syndrome is a positive consequence of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and a tool to control food intake' was identified based on the following four sub-categories: (i) 'The multidimensional emergence and effects of dumping syndrome', (ii) 'Dumping syndrome as something positive although unpleasant', (iii) 'Developing coping mechanisms and ingenious strategies' and (iv) 'My own fault if I expose myself to dumping syndrome'. From the patients' perspective, dumping syndrome gives control over food intake; although the symptoms were unpleasant, patients considered dumping syndrome as a positive protection against over-consumption. Hence, healthcare professionals should not present dumping syndrome as a complication but rather as an aid to control eating behaviour and excessive food intake.

  5. Design of the plasma chamber and beam extraction system for SC ECRIS of RAON accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Choi, S.; Hong, I. S.

    2014-02-01

    The RAON accelerator is the heavy ion accelerator being built in Korea. It contains a 3rd generation SC ECRIS which uses 28 GHz/18 GHz microwave power to extract 12 puA uranium ion beams. A plasma chamber for that ECRIS is made of aluminum machined from bulk Al. That chamber contains cooling channels to remove dumped power and another access port for microwave introduction and plasma diagnostics. Beam extraction electrodes were designed considering the engineering issues and preliminary beam extraction analysis was done. That plasma chamber will be assembled with a cryostat, and beam extraction experiment will be done.

  6. EXPERIENCE WITH THE LOW ENERGY DEMONSTRATION ACCELERATOR (LEDA) HALO EXPERIMENT BEAM INSTRUMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, J. D. (John Douglas); Barr, D. S. (Dean S.); Colestock, P. L. (Patrick L.),; Day, L. A. (Lisa A.); Sellyey, W. C. (William C.); Shurter, R. B. (Robert B.); Stettler, M. W. (Matthew W.); Valdiviez, R. (Robert); Gruchalla, M. (Michael); O' Hara, J. F. (James F.); Schulze, M. E. (Martin E.); Barr, D. S. (Dean S.)

    2001-01-01

    A 52 quadrupole-magnet FODO lattice has been assembled and operated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of this lattice is to provide a platform to measure the resulting beam halo as the first few magnets of the lattice produce various mismatch conditions. These data are then compared with particle simulation so that halo formation mechanisms may be better understood. The lattice is appended to the LEDA 6.7-MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and is followed by a short high-energy beam transport (HEBT) that safely dumps the beam into a 670-kW beam stop.

  7. Ranking criteria for assessment of municipal solid waste dumping sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khalid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Priority wise channelization of resources is the key to successful environmental management, especially when funds are limited. The study in hand has successfully developed an algorithmic criterion to compare hazardous effects of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW dumping sites quantitatively. It is a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA that has made use of the scaling function to normalize the data values, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP for assigning weights to input parameters showing their relevant importance, and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC for aggregating the normalized scores. Input parameters have been divided into three classes namely Resident’s Concerns, Groundwater Vulnerability and Surface Facilities. Remote Sensing data and GIS analysis were used to prepare most of the input data. To elaborate the idea, four dumpsites have been chosen as case study, namely Old-FSD, New-FSD, Saggian and Mahmood Booti. The comparison has been made first at class levels and then class scores have been aggregated into environmental normalized index for environmental impact ranking. The hierarchy of goodness found for the selected sites is New-FSD > Old-FSD > Mahmood Booti > Saggian with comparative scores of goodness to environment as 36.67, 28.43, 21.26 and 13.63 respectively. Flexibility of proposed model to adjust any number of classes and parameters in one class will be very helpful for developing world where availability of data is the biggest hurdle in research based environmental sustainability planning. The model can be run even without purchasing satellite data and GIS software, with little inaccuracy, using imagery and measurement tools provided by Google Earth.

  8. Acinetobacter indicus sp. nov., isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane dump site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Jaya; Anand, Shailly; Jindal, Swati; Rajagopal, Raman; Lal, Rup

    2012-12-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-negative, non-motile, oxidase negative and catalase positive strain, A648(T), isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) dump site located in Lucknow, India, was ascertained by using a polyphasic approach. A comparative analysis of a partial sequence of the rpoB gene and the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain A648(T) belonged to the genus Acinetobacter. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain A648(T) and other closely related members (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity greater than 97%), namely Acinetobacter radioresistens DSM 6976(T), A. venetianus ATCC 31012(T), A. baumannii LMG 1041(T), A. parvus LMG 21765(T) A. junii LMG 998(T) and A. soli JCM 15062(T), were found to be less than 8%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain A648(T) were 18:1ω9c (19.6%), summed feature 3 (15.9%), 16:0 (10.6%) and 12:0 (6.4%). The DNA G+C content was 40.4 mol%. The polar lipid profile of strain A648(T) indicated the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, followed by phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The predominant polyamine of strain A648(T) was 1,3-diaminopropane and moderate amounts of putrescine, spermidine and spermine were also detected. The respiratory quinone consisted of ubiquinone with nine isoprene units (Q-9). On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other members of the genus Acinetobacter, strain A648(T) is found to be a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter indicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A648(T) ( = DSM 25388(T) = CCM 7832(T)).

  9. Restoration of fly ash dump through biological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-04-01

    Field experiment on 10 ha area of fly ash dump was conducted to restore and revegetate it using biological interventions, which involves use of organic amendment, selection of suitable plant species along with specialized nitrogen fixing strains of biofertilizer. The results of the study indicated that amendment with farm yard manure at 50 t/ha improved the physical properties of fly ash such as maximum water holding capacity from 40.0 to 62.42% while porosity improved from 56.78 to 58.45%. The nitrogen content was increased by 4.5 times due to addition of nitrogen fixing strains of Bradyrhizobium and Azotobacter species, while phosphate content was increased by 10.0 times due to addition of VAM, which helps in phosphate immobilization. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in fly ash improved to 7.1 x 10(7), 9.2 x 10(7) CFU/g and 35 VAM spores/10 g of fly ash, respectively. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of FYM helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel and lead which were reduced by 25, 46, 48 and 47%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the fly ash which complexes the heavy metals thereby decreasing the toxicity of metals. Amendment of fly ash with FYM and biofertilizer helped in profuse root development showing 15 times higher growth in Dendrocalamus strictus plant as compared to the control. Thus amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant.

  10. On the border. Value and function of museum’s entrance hall and its symbolic meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tarantino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to analyze the museum entrance halls, mainly from the point of view of the growing phenomenon of mass tourism. The entrance space is examined not only for its functional characters but also for its symbolic power in structuring or changing the historical and cultural identity of the entire museum’s building. Both in new projects and in restoration of ancient museum buildings, in fact, contemporary architects seems to be increasingly attracted by this design aspect.

  11. Effect of entrance-channel asymmetry on the isospin dependence of nucleon emission in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zuo, Wei; Chen, Ji-Yan; Zhou, Zhen-Xiao

    2008-07-01

    Using the isospin- and momentum-dependent hadronic transport model IBUU04, we have investigated the influence of the entrance-channel isospin asymmetry on the sensitivity of the pre-equilibrium neutron/proton ratio to symmetry energy in central heavy-ion collisions induced by high-energy radioactive beams. Our analysis and discussion are based on the dynamical simulations of the three isotopic reaction systems 132Sn+124Sn, 124Sn+112Sn and 112Sn+112Sn which are of the same total proton number but different isospin asymmetry. We find that the kinetic-energy distributions of the pre-equilibrium neutron/proton ratio are quite sensitive to the density-dependence of symmetry energy at incident beam energy E/A = 400 MeV, and the sensitivity increases as the isospin asymmetry of the reaction system increases. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10575119, 10775061), Knowledge Innovation Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX3-SYW-N2), Major State Basic Research Developing Program of China (2007CB815004), CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams (CXTD-J2005-1), and the Asia-Link Project of the European Commission (CN/ASIA-LINK/008(94791))

  12. Coal Mining and Post-Metallurgic Dumping Grounds and Their Connections with Exploitation of Raw Materials in the Region of Ruda Śląska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczy, Iwona; Gawor, Łukasz

    2017-06-01

    Characteristics of mining and metallurgical waste dumps in Ruda Śląska was presented in this article. Special attention was paid to the relationship of waste material accumulated on the dumps with resources exploited on studied area. The possibilities of dumps management were also traced and two directions were indicated. The first one is associated with forming a biological covering on the dumps and the second one - with the dumps liquidation and with recovery areas now occupied by the dumps and thus with the secondary use of material collected on them.

  13. High endemism at cave entrances: a case study of spiders of the genus Uthina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Dong, Tingting; Zheng, Guo; Fu, Jinzhong; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Endemism, which is typically high on islands and in caves, has rarely been studied in the cave entrance ecotone. We investigated the endemism of the spider genus Uthina at cave entrances. Totally 212 spiders were sampled from 46 localities, from Seychelles across Southeast Asia to Fiji. They mostly occur at cave entrances but occasionally appear at various epigean environments. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from COI and 28S genes suggested that Uthina was grouped into 13 well-supported clades. We used three methods, the Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) model, the Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP) method, and the general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) model, to investigate species boundaries. Both bPTP and BPP identified the 13 clades as 13 separate species, while GMYC identified 19 species. Furthermore, our results revealed high endemism at cave entrances. Of the 13 provisional species, twelve (one known and eleven new) are endemic to one or a cluster of caves, and all of them occurred only at cave entrances except for one population of one species. The only widely distributed species, U. luzonica, mostly occurred in epigean environments while three populations were found at cave entrances. Additionally, eleven new species of the genus are described. PMID:27775081

  14. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

    2015-02-01

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump.

  15. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Ariese, F.; Hattum, B. van; Postma, J.F.; Kluijver, M. de; Besten, P.J. den; Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R.; Murk, A.J.; Vethaak, A.D

    2003-07-01

    Marine benthic resources near dumping sites are adversely affected by physical disturbances, but a causal link to contaminant damage could not be found. - The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, biomarker responses and benthic community changes shortly after dumping at the 'North' site had ceased and at the start of disposal at the new dumping site 'Northwest'. During the period of dumping, very few benthic invertebrates were found at the North site. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in the fine sediment fraction (<63 {mu}m) from this site were 2-3 times higher than at the reference site. In four different bioassays with marine invertebrates the sediments showed no acute toxic effects. In tissue (pyloric caeca) of resident starfish Asterias rubens, residual levels of mercury, zinc, PCBs and dioxin-like activity were never more than twice those at the reference site. Four different biomarkers (DNA integrity, cytochrome P450 content, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition) were used on the starfish tissues, but no significant differences were found between North and the reference site. Minor pathological effects were observed in resident dab Limanda limanda. One year after dumping had ceased at the North site, a significant increase in the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates and a concomitant decrease in the fine sediment fraction of the seabed were observed. After 8.2 million m{sup 3} of moderately contaminated dredged material had been dumped at the new dumping site Northwest, the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates declined over an

  16. The Entrance of Pyroclastic Flows into the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundt, A.

    2001-12-01

    Explosive volcanoes, especially in subduction-zone and ocean-island settings, can generate pyroclastic flows that enter the sea. Geologic constraints on the interaction mechanisms and hazards are poor since resulting deposits hardly survive coastal erosion. The entrance of hot pyroclastic flows into water has been observed experimentally by letting shooting granular flows of ignimbrite ash heated to up to 420oC run down a chute into a water-filled tank. Flows of relatively cool ash, less than 150oC, impulsively displace some near-shore water generating a tsunami wave and then separate into a fine-ash over-water surge formed near shore and the main, coarser and denser material penetrating the water surface to form a turbulent mixing zone which advances downstream as long as the granular flow is maintained. Pumice floats to the surface, lithics and coarse ash fall out onto the floor, but ash remaining in suspension forms a turbidity current flowing down the tank. At temperatures above 250oC, almost all ash is initially transported along the water surface, rather than immediately penetrating it. Transport over water is facilitated by steam explosions derived from mixing of some of the ash with water across the surface. Ash fountains throw dry ash forward before it contacts the water, triggering the next steam explosion farther away from shore where fountains collapse onto the water surface. Each time ash and heat are consumed by mixing; the distance to where explosions extend thus depends on initial mass flux and temperature. Most fine ash forms an ash-cloud surge travelling over water, loosing sediment plumes that unite on the tank floor to form a turbidity current. Tsunami waves generated by coastal impact appear to be additionally driven by surface-water displacement by massive ash-input from ash fountains. Grain size distribution is also critical in determining interaction processes. Moderately well sorted medium ash generates strong steam explosions and becomes

  17. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  18. Complex female genitalia indicate sperm dumping in armored goblin spiders (Arachnida, Araneae, Oonopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In promiscuous females, sperm ejection from the sperm storage site can be a strong mechanism to influence sperm priority patterns. Sperm dumping is reported from different animals including birds, insects, and humans. In spiders, it has been documented for four species including the oonopid Silhouettella loricatula. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising many species with peculiar female genitalia. Especially in species where studies of mating behavior are difficult, morphological investigations of the genitalia help to understand their function and evolution. In the present study, the genitalia of the oonopids Myrmopopaea sp., Grymeus sp., and Lionneta sp. are investigated by means of histological serial sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results are compared with previous findings on S. loricatula. In Myrmopopaea sp. and Grymeus sp., the same morphological components are present that are involved in sperm dumping in S. loricatula. Inside the receptaculum, sperm are enclosed in a secretory sac which can be moved to the genital opening and dumped during copulation by muscle contractions. The female genitalia of Lionneta sp. are asymmetric. They show the same characteristics as S. loricatula but all the investigated females were unmated. The results strongly suggest that sperm dumping occurs in Myrmopopaea sp., Grymeus sp., and Lionneta sp. and happens by the same mechanism as in S. loricatula. Sperm dumping might even be common within a clade of oonopids. As in S. loricatula, the sperm transfer forms in the investigated species consist of several spermatozoa. Papillae with unknown function occur on the receptacula of all females.

  19. Development and Optimization of a Novel Prolonged Release Formulation to Resist Alcohol-Induced Dose Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Chaitanya Yogananda; Rallabandi, Balaramesha Chary; Gannu, Ramesh; Deulkar, Vallabh Subashrao

    2016-04-01

    Alcohol-induced dose dumping is a serious concern for the orally administered prolonged release dosage forms. The study was designed to optimize the independent variables, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), Eudragit RS PO (ERS) and coating in mucoadhesive quetiapine prolonged release tablets 200 mg required for preventing the alcohol-induced dose dumping. Optimal design based on response surface methodology was employed for the optimization of the composition. The formulations are evaluated for in vitro drug release in hydrochloric acid alone and with 40% v/v ethanol. The responses, dissolution at 120 min without alcohol (R1) and dissolution at 120 min with alcohol (R2), were statistically evaluated and regression equations are generated. PGA as a hydrophilic polymeric matrix was dumping the dose when dissolutions are carried in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid containing 40% v/v ethanol. ERS addition was giving structural support to the swelling and gelling property of PGA, and thus, was reducing the PGA erosion in dissolution media containing ethanol. Among the formulations, four formulations with diverse composition were meeting the target dissolution (30-40%) in both the conditions. The statistical validity of the mathematical equations was established, and the optimum concentration of the factors was established. Validation of the study with six confirmatory runs indicated high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. Further coating with ReadiLycoat was providing an additional resistance to the alcohol-induced dose dumping. Optimized compositions showed resistance to dose dumping in the presence of alcohol.

  20. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.