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Sample records for beam dry scrubbing

  1. eRHIC Beam Scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-22

    We propose using beam scrubbing to mitigate the electron cloud e ect in the eRHIC. The bunch number is adjusted below the heat load limit, then it increases with the reduced secondary electron yield resulted from the beam scrubbing, up to the design bunch number. Since the electron density threshold of beam instability is lower at the injection, a preliminary injection scrubbing should go rst, where large chromaticity can be used to keep the beam in the ring for scrubbing. After that, the beam can be ramped to full energy, allowing physics scrubbing. Simulations demonstrated that with beam scrubbing in a reasonable period of time, the eRHIC baseline design is feasible.

  2. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  3. Final report to US Department of Energy: Cyclotron autoresonance accelerator for electron beam dry scrubbing of flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, J.L.

    2001-05-25

    Several designs have been built and operated of microwave cyclotron autoresonance accelerators (CARA's) with electron beam parameters suitable for remediation of pollutants in flue gas emissions from coal-burning power plants. CARA designs have also been developed with a TW-level 10.6 micron laser driver for electron acceleration from 50 to 100 MeV, and with UHF drivers for proton acceleration to over 500 MeV. Dose requirements for reducing SO2, NOx, and particulates in flue gas emissions to acceptable levels have been surveyed, and used to optimize the design of an electron beam source to deliver this dose.

  4. Beam scrubbing of beam pipes during the first commissioning of SuperKEKB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Shibata, K.; Ishibashi, T.; Kanazawa, K.; Shirai, M.; Terui, S.; Hisamatsu, H.

    2018-02-01

    The first (Phase-1) commissioning of SuperKEKB-an electron-positron collider with asymmetric energies located at KEK, in Tsukuba, Japan-started in February 2016, after more than five years of upgrading work on KEKB, and successfully ended in June of the same year. This paper describes one major task of Phase-1 commissioning: beam scrubbing the surface of the beam pipes, to prepare them for a sufficiently long beam lifetime and low background noise in the next commissioning, when a new particle detector will be installed. The pressure rises per unit beam current (dP/dI [Pa A-1]) were continuously monitored, and the coefficient of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD), η [molecules photon-1], was evaluated in the arc sections. The value of η decreased steadily with the beam dose, as expected. For arc sections in the positron ring, where most of the beam pipes were newly fabricated, the decrease in η against the photon dose (D) was similar to that previously reported; that is: η ∝ D-0.5 ∼ 0.8. At high storage beam currents, the evolution of η was affected by gas desorption resulting from the multipacting of electrons-that is, the electron cloud effect (ECE), which is a phenomenon particular to high-intensity positron rings. For the arc sections in the electron ring, η also decreased smoothly with the photon dose D, approximately as ∝ D-0.8. Given that most of these beam pipes were reused from KEKB, the value of η was much lower than that of the positron ring, and also lower than that of the electron ring of KEKB from the early stages of D. This implies that the surface of the reused beam pipes remembered the conditions in the KEKB, which is a known memory effect. The results obtained for η are compared with those obtained in various other accelerators.

  5. Combined heat recovery and dry scrubbing for MWCs to meet the new EPA guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnis, P.J. [Procedair Industries Corp., Louisville, KY (United States); Heap, B.M. [Procedair Limited, Wombourne (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-01

    Both the UK and US Municipal Waste Combuster (MWC) markets have undergone upgraded regulatory control. In the UK, the government`s Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) regime, enforced by the 1990 Environmental Protection Act (EPA) Standard IPR5/3 moved control of emissions of MWCs from local councils to the government Environmental Authority (EA). Existing MWCs had until December 1, 1996 to complete environmental upgrades. Simultaneously, the European Community (EC) was finalizing more stringent legislation to take place in the year 2001. In the US, the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue emission guidelines for new and existing facilities. Existing facilities are likely to have only until the end of 1999 to complete upgrades. In North America, Procedair Industries Corp had received contracts from Kvaerner EnviroPower AB, for APC systems of four new Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) fluid bed boilers that incorporated low outlet temperature economizers as part of the original boiler equipment. The Fayetteville, North Carolina facility was designed for 200,000 tpy. What all these facilities have in common is low economizer outlet temperatures of 285{degrees}F coupled with a Total Dry Scrubbing System. MWC or RDF facilities using conventional spray dryer/fabric filter combinations have to have economizer gas outlet temperatures about 430{degrees}F to allow for evaporation of the lime slurry in the spray dryer without the likelihood of wall build up or moisture carry over. Since the Totally Dry Scrubbing System can operate with economizer gas outlet temperatures about 285{degrees}F, the added energy available for sale from adding low outlet temperature economizer heat recovery can be considerable. This paper focuses on Procedair`s new plant and retrofit experience using `Dry Venturi Reactor/Fabric Filter` combinations with the lower inlet temperature operating conditions.

  6. Long-term effects of scrub clearance and litter removal on the re-establishment of dry alvar grassland species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Jan P.; Rosen, Eje; Ozinga, Wim A.; Bretfeld, Mario; Feldt, Tobias; Stahl, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Many characteristic dry alvar grassland species disappear after cessation of livestock grazing as a result of encroachment by Juniperus communis. We studied the re-establishment of these species after scrub clearance with and without the removal of the layer of litter and mosses in long-term (14

  7. Scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G Rapsang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by orientia tsutsugamushi, transmitted to humans by the bite of the larva of trombiculid mites. It causes a disseminated vasculitic and perivascular inflammatory lesions resulting in significant vascular leakage and end-organ injury. It affects people of all ages and even though scrub typhus in pregnancy is uncommon, it is associated with increased foetal loss, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age infants. After an incubation period of 6-21 days, onset is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, cough, and gastrointestinal symptoms. A primary papular lesion which later crusts to form a flat black eschar, may be present. If untreated, serious complications may occur involving various organs. Laboratory studies usually reveal leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, deranged hepatic and renal function, proteinuria and reticulonodular infiltrate. Owing to the potential for severe complications, diagnosis, and decision to initiate treatment should be based on clinical suspicion and confirmed by serologic tests. A therapeutic trial of tetracycline or chloramphenicol is indicated in patients in whom the diagnosis of scrub typhus is suspected. The recommended treatment regimen for scrub typhus is doxycycline. Alternative regimens include tetracycline, chloramphenicol, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and roxithromycin. Treatment of pregnant women with azithromycin was successfully done without relapse and with favorable pregnancy outcomes. Hence, early diagnosis and treatment are essential in order to reduce the mortality and the complications associated with the disease. We searched the English-language literature for reports of scrub typhus in children, pregnant women, and non-pregnant patients with scrub typhus, using the MEDLINE/PubMed database, which includes citations from 1945 to the present time. We used the search terms ′scrub typhus′, ′scrub typhus′ and ′pregnancy′, ′scrub

  8. SPS: scrubbing or coating?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: suppression of the electron cloud build-up using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing mitigation. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed. (author)

  9. Pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Jimenez, J.; Herranz, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Espigares, M.M.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Kortz, Ch.; Koch, M.K.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H.; Dutton, L.M.C.; Smedley, Ch.; Trow, W.; Jones, A.V.; Bonanni, E.; Calvo, M.; Alonso, A.

    1996-12-01

    The Source Term Project in the Third Frame Work Programme of the European Union Was conducted under and important joined effort on pool scrubbing research. CIEMAT was the Task Manager of the project and several other organizations participated in it: JRC-Ispra, NNC Limited, RUB-NES and UPM. The project was divided into several tasks. A peer review of the models in the pool scrubbing codes SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 was made, considering the different aspects in the hydrodynamic phenomenology, particle retention and fission product vapor abortions. Several dominant risk accident sequences were analyzed with MAAP, SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and the predictions were compared. A churn-turbulent model was developed for the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pool. Finally, an experimental programme in the PECA facility of CIEMAT was conducted in order to study the decontamination factor under jet injection regime, and the experimental observations were compared with the SPARC and BUSCA codes. (Author)

  10. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  11. Electron-beam degradation of wood: 1. Dry distillation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludenko, A.V.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Chulkov, V.N.

    2009-01-01

    Dry distillation of wood was initiated by radiation heating of accelerated electron beams to ≥270 Deg C. Birch, aspen, alder, spruce and pine were decomposed by the formation of liquid organic products (55-61 wt.%), gas (13-18 wt. %) and charcoal. Carbonyls constitute basic part of the liquid. Fraction of furan derivatives constitutes one fifth of the liquid. The liquid obtained from conifers is heavier and richer by phenols. Products of dry distillation under irradiation of wood in flows of propane and butanes are enriched with liquid alkanes, alcohols and esters. The possibility of transformation of condensed products in stable liquid fuel is considered

  12. Severe dry-eye syndrome following external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, J.T.; Bova, F.J.; Million, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    There are limited data in the literature on the probability of dry-eye complications according to radiotherapy dose. This study investigates the risk of radiation-induced severe dry-eye syndrome in patients in whom an entire orbit was exposed to fractionated external beam irradiation. Between October 1964 and May 1989, 33 patients with extracranial head and neck tumors received irradiation of an entire orbit. Most patients were treated with 60 Co. The dose to the lacrimal apparatus was calculated at a depth of 1 cm from the anterior skin surface, the approximate depth of the major lacrimal gland. The end point of the study was severe dry-eye syndrome sufficient to produce visual loss secondary to corneal opacification, ulceration, or vascularization. Twenty patients developed severe dry-eye syndrome. All 17 patients who received dose ≥57Gy developed severe dry-eye syndrome. Three (19%) of 16 patients who received doses ≥45 Gy developed severe dry-eye syndrome; injuries in the latter group were much more slower to develop (4 to 11 years) than in the higher dose group, in whom corneal vascularization and opacification were usually pronounced within 9-10 months. There were no data for the range of doses between 45.01 and 56.99 Gy. The data did not suggest an increased risk of severe dry-eye syndrome with increasing age. Data from the current series and the literature are combined to construct a sigmoid dose response curve. The incidence of injury increases from 0% reported after doses ≥30 Gy to 100% after doses ≥57 Gy. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Pancreatitis in scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection prevalent in most parts of India. Acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation is a rare complication of this condition. This paper reports acute renal failure, pancreatitis and pseudocyst formation in a 48-year-old female with scrub typhus. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed a bulky pancreas with fluid seen along the body of the pancreas in the lesser sac. The infection was successfully treated with doxycycline and supportive treatment. Pancreatitis was managed conservatively. This case report highlights the importance of identifying and managing uncommon complications of a common tropical disease for optimum outcome.

  14. Scrub skills audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttell, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge and understanding of the evidence which encompasses extended roles and advanced practice for theatre scrub practitioners. The intention was also to develop a local policy and training strategy for advanced roles, benchmarked against professional standards (PCC 2007) and clinical practice audit.

  15. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  16. Magmatic gas scrubbing: Implications for volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, R.B.; Gerlach, T.M.; Reed, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the abundance of SO2(g) in magmatic gases, precursory increases in magmatic SO2(g) are not always observed prior to volcanic eruption, probably because many terrestrial volcanoes contain abundant groundwater or surface water that scrubs magmatic gases until a dry pathway to the atmosphere is established. To better understand scrubbing and its implications for volcano monitoring, we model thermochemically the reaction of magmatic gases with water. First, we inject a 915??C magmatic gas from Merapi volcano into 25??C air-saturated water (ASW) over a wide range of gas/water mass ratios from 0.0002 to 100 and at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Then we model closed-system cooling of the magmatic gas, magmatic gas-ASW mixing at 5.0 MPa, runs with varied temperature and composition of the ASW, a case with a wide range of magmatic-gas compositions, and a reaction of a magmatic gas-ASW mixture with rock. The modeling predicts gas and water compositions, and, in one case, alteration assemblages for a wide range of scrubbing conditions; these results can be compared directly with samples from degassing volcanoes. The modeling suggests that CO2(g) is the main species to monitor when scrubbing exists; another candidate is H2S(g), but it can be affected by reactions with aqueous ferrous iron. In contrast, scrubbing by water will prevent significant SO2(g) and most HCl(g) emissions until dry pathways are established, except for moderate HCl(g) degassing from pH 100 t/d (tons per day) of SO2(g) in addition to CO2(g) and H2S(g) should be taken as a criterion of magma intrusion. Finally, the modeling suggests that the interpretation of gas-ratio data requires a case-by-case evaluation since ratio changes can often be produced by several mechanisms; nevertheless, several gas ratios may provide useful indices for monitoring the drying out of gas pathways. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Dynawave froth scrubbing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The DynaWave family of scrubbers was developed and patented by DuPont in the 1970's and is used extensively within the company. Because the technology was treated as confidential, information about the scrubbers was not published outside of DuPont. In 1986 Monsanto Enviro-Chem was asked to install a Reverse Jet scrubber at DuPont's Burnside spent acid recovery pant to replace an aging spray humidifying tower. Enviro-Chem was impressed with the technology and entered into a licensing agreement with DuPont in late 1987. This paper addresses the application of DynaWave froth scrubbing technology to metallurgical plant process and effluent gas streams. Froth scrubber design principles an sampling results from pilot plant trails on fluid bed roaster off-gas are presented

  18. Scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Min; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Yun, Na-Ra; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jun-Young; Han, Mi Ah; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2013-12-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi induces vasculitis leading to symptoms of systemic organ invasion including meningitis and meningoencephalitis. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of scrub typhus patients to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and the therapeutic outcomes, and to determine the predictor factors. Cases were 22 patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and controls were 303 patients without meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of pneumonitis was associated with the occurrence of scrub typhus meningitis and meningoencephalitis (odds ratio [OR] 8.9; P meningitis or meningoencephalitis still occurred in some cases. Physicians should be aware that meningitis or meningoencephalitis may develop during appropriate drug therapy such as doxycycline. Close observation and great care are essential for patients with risk factors, particularly pneumonitis.

  19. Acute Cholecystitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Chung, Kyung Min; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a rare complication of scrub typhus. Although a few such cases have been reported in patients with scrub typhus, the clinical course is not well described. Of 12 patients, acute cholecystitis developed in 66.7% (8/12) of patients older than 60 yr. The scrub typhus group with acute cholecystitis had marginal significant longer hospital stay and higher cost than the group without cholecystitis according to propensity score matching. Scrub typhus should be kept in mind as ...

  20. Improved Purex solvent scrubbing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of hydrazine and hydroxylamine salts as solvent scrubbing agents that can be decomposed into gases are summarized. Results from testing of countercurrent scrubbers and solid sorber columns that produce lesser amounts of permanent salts are reported. The status of studies of the acid-degradation of paraffin diluent and the options for removal of long-chain organic acids is given

  1. Cytogenetic effects of electron-beam radiation on dry seed storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baojiang, G.; Qishen, P.; Kohlman, A.

    1989-01-01

    Dry seeds of Viciafaba were exposed to 5 MeV electron beam (10–30 Krad) and stored afterwards during 20,40 and 60 days- Induction of chromosomal aberrations in root-tip cells of irradiated seeds has been found dose-dependent. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (particularly, the bridges and the rings) and the frequency of micronucleated cells is proportional to the length of storage time, but is not significantly influenced by low temperatures (0–6°C) during storage. (author)

  2. Mutagenic effects of carbon ion beam irradiations on dry Lotus japonicus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shanwei [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Libin, E-mail: libinzhou@impcas.ac.cn [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Wenjian; Du, Yan [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, Lixia; Feng, Hui; Mu, Jinhu [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Yuze [College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, No. 1 Yingmen Village, Anning District, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730070 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Carbon ion beam irradiation is a powerful method for creating mutants and has been used in crop breeding more and more. To investigate the effects of carbon ion beams on Lotus japonicus, dry seeds were irradiated by 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam at dosages of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The germination rate, survival rate and root length of M{sub 1} populations were explored and the dose of 400 Gy was selected as the median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) for a large-scale mutant screening. Among 2472 M{sub 2} plants, 127 morphological mutants including leaf, stem, flower and fruit phenotypic variation were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.14%. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) assays were utilized to investigate the DNA polymorphism between seven mutants and eight plants without phenotypic variation from M{sub 2} populations. No remarkable differences were detected between these two groups, and the total polymorphic rate was 0.567%.

  3. Electron-beam and combined e-b and microwave processing of dried food ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Minea, R.; Martin, D.; Tirlea, A.; Badea, M.; Oproiu, C.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. There are summarized and presented the results on the irradiated dried food ingredients, as starches, flour, spices, enzymes, pigments. It has investigated the electron-beam and microwave processing to achieve the hygienic and microbiological quality requirements for these materials. There are presented the results regarding the e-b and microwave effects on the main specific parameters (nutritional; microbiological; physical and chemical) for each item. Irradiation has carried out to different electron accelerators, mainly to ALIN-7 linac (W e ∼6 MeV) and using a special designed microwave equipment (2.45 GHz magnetron of 850 W maximum output power). The samples have been irradiated up to 25 kGy (dose rate ∼ 2.0 kGy/min) and there were treated by microwaves (250 W-550 W) for different exposure time. There have analyzed and presented the influence of these two physical fields on some common physical, biochemical and microbiological properties (mainly the total germ count, CFU/g) of these food materials. The main technological and physical characteristics of the materials are preserved, under irradiation up to 10 kGy and microwave treatment in the case of satisfying the national requirements for food and food grade additives microbiological load. The combined treatment seems to be present a synergistic effect arising on non-thermal basis. From these results it could be pointed out that electron-beam and microwave treatment is feasible and represents an alternative to other hygienization techniques for the dried food ingredients. It should be considered that combined treatments lead to reducing irradiation dose without losing the microbicidal effects

  4. Povidone-iodine spray technique versus traditional scrub-paint technique for preoperative abdominal wall preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Michael D; Noone, Michael B; Kirson, Inbar

    2002-12-01

    The study was conducted to compare povidone-iodine spray and traditional scrub-paint techniques in reducing abdominal wall bacteria during preoperative preparation. Sixty patients scheduled to undergo vaginal surgery were recruited for study. Cultures of the abdominal skin were performed before and after preparation with two techniques: A traditional 5-minute iodophor soap scrub-paint on one half and povidone-iodine aqueous spray on the other. Multiple pairwise comparisons were performed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. A P value of.05 was considered statistically significant in all analyses. The mean number of colonies for spray after 1 minute was 1.83 +/- 3.16, for spray after 3 minutes was 0.40 +/- 1.15, and after 5-minute scrub was 0.87 +/- 2.97. Both techniques, the spray after 3 minutes and the 5-minute scrub, were statistically more effective at reducing bacterial counts than the spray after 1 minute. There was no statistically significant difference between the spray after 3 minutes and the scrub techniques. Povidone-iodine applied as a spray and left to dry for 3 minutes appears as effective as the traditional scrub-paint technique in reducing abdominal wall bacteria before abdominal surgery.

  5. Tsutsugamushi Disease (Scrub Typhus) Meningoencephalitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the present time. The magnitude of this problem continues to be underestimated in many endemic areas, especially in India where scrub typhus is fast becoming an important cause of acute meningitis.[2] The disease is transmitted to humans by the bite of the larvae Leptotrombidium mite (chigger).[3] The disease often.

  6. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  7. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  8. Macrofungi in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Greeshma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study on macrofungi in scrub jungles (with and without fire-impact in lateritic region of southwestern coast of India was carried out.  Out of 11 species in 10 genera recovered, six and five species were confined to scrub jungle and fire-impacted scrub jungle, respectively.  An ectomycorrhizal Amanita sp. was the most frequent in scrub jungle associated with exotic (Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium and plantation (Anacardium occidentale trees.  Based on traditional knowledge, it is a highly edible and nutritional delicacy in the coastal regions.  Astraeus odoratus was another common ectomycorrhizal fungus in native trees Hopea ponga, which was recovered from the fire-impacted scrub jungle and is possibly edible.  Edible termite mound mushroom Termitomyces striatus was also common in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  Chlorophyllum molybdites was the most frequent mushroom in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  

  9. Non-technical skills for scrub practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Guy

    2012-12-01

    The non-technical skills of situational awareness and the formation of effective interpersonal relationships are essential to enhance surgical outcomes. However, most scrub practitioners demonstrate only tacit awareness of these skills and develop such qualities on an informal basis. Application of non-technical skills may be assessed formally, using a structured framework, to transform normative behaviour and to strengthen barriers against the latent threats that may result from fallible humans working in inadequate organisational systems.

  10. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO 2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO 2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO 2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  11. Chest radiographic manifestations of scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KPP Abhilash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20–72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed. Results: The study cohort contained 398 patients. Common presenting complaints included fever (100%, generalized myalgia (83%, headache (65%, dyspnea (54%, cough (24.3%, and altered sensorium (14%. Almost half of the patients (49.4% had normal chest radiographs. Common radiological pulmonary abnormalities included pleural effusion (14.6%, acute respiratory distress syndrome (14%, airspace opacity (10.5%, reticulonodular opacities (10.3%, peribronchial thickening (5.8%, and pulmonary edema (2%. Cardiomegaly was noted in 3.5% of patients. Breathlessness, presence of an eschar, platelet counts of 2 mg/dL had the highest odds of having an abnormal chest radiograph. Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray had a higher requirement of noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 13.98; 95% confidence interval CI: 5.89–33.16, invasive ventilation (OR: 18.07; 95% CI: 6.42–50.88, inotropes (OR: 8.76; 95% CI: 4.35–17.62, higher involvement of other organ systems, longer duration of hospital stay (3.18 ± 3 vs. 7.27 ± 5.58 days; P< 0.001, and higher mortality (OR: 4.63; 95% CI: 1.54–13.85. Conclusion: Almost half of the patients with scrub typhus have abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiography should be included as part of basic evaluation at presentation in patients with scrub typhus, especially in those with breathlessness, eschar, jaundice, and severe thrombocytopenia.

  12. SO2 REMOVAL WITH COAL SCRUBBING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eung Ha Cho; Hari Prashanth Sundaram; Aubrey L. Miller

    2001-07-01

    This project is based on an effective removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas with coal as the scrubbing medium instead of lime, which is used in the conventional FGD processes. A laboratory study proves that coal scrubbing is an innovative technology that can be implemented into a commercial process in place of the conventional lime scrubbing flue gas desulfurization process. SO{sub 2} was removed from a gas stream using an apparatus, which consisted of a 1-liter stirred reactor immersed in a thermostated oil bath. The reactor contained 60 g of 35-65 mesh coal in 600 ml of water. The apparatus also had 2 bubblers connected to the outlet of the reactor, each containing 1500 ml of 1 molar NaOH solution. The flow rate of the gas was 30 ml/sec, temperature was varied from 21 C to 73 C. Oxygen concentration ranged from 3 to 20% while SO{sub 2} concentration, from 500 to 2000 ppm. SO{sub 2} recovery was determined by analyzing SO{sub 2} concentration in the liquid samples taken from the bubblers. The samples taken from the reactor were analyzed for iron concentrations, which were then used to calculate fractions of coal pyrite leached. It was found that SO{sub 2} removal was highly temperature sensitive, giving 13.1% recovery at 21 C and 99.2% recovery at 73 C after 4 hours. The removal of SO{sub 2} was accomplished by the catalysis of iron that was produced by leaching of coal pyrite with combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. This leaching reaction was found to be controlled by chemical reaction with apparent activation energy of 11.6 kcal/mole. SO{sub 2} removal increased with increasing O{sub 2} concentration up to 10% and leveled off upon further increase. The effect of SO{sub 2} concentration on its removal was minimal.

  13. A case of scrub typhus requiring maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Yeon Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure caused by scrub typhus is known to be reversible. In most cases, renal function is almost fully restored after appropriate antibiotic treatment. A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with scrub typhus complicated by renal failure. A renal biopsy revealed histopathologic findings consistent with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Renal function did not improve 18 months after discharge and the patient required continuous hemodialysis. Although severe renal failure requiring dialysis is a rare complication of scrub typhus, we describe a case of scrub typhus requiring maintenance hemodialysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report.

  14. Accuracy and reliability of linear cephalometric measurements from cone-beam computed tomography scans of a dry human skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berco, Mauricio; Rigali, Paul H; Miner, R Matthew; DeLuca, Stephelynn; Anderson, Nina K; Will, Leslie A

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of 3-dimensional craniofacial measurements obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of a dry human skull. Seventeen landmarks were identified on the skull. CBCT scans were then obtained, with 2 skull orientations during scanning. Twenty-nine interlandmark linear measurements were made directly on the skull and compared with the same measurements made on the CBCT scans. All measurements were made by 2 operators on 4 separate occasions. The method errors were 0.19, 0.21, and 0.19 mm in the x-, y- and z-axes, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no significant intraoperator or interoperator differences. The mean measurement error was -0.01 mm (SD, 0.129 mm). Five measurement errors were found to be statistically significantly different; however, all measurement errors were below the known voxel size and clinically insignificant. No differences were found in the measurements from the 2 CBCT scan orientations of the skull. CBCT allows for clinically accurate and reliable 3-dimensional linear measurements of the craniofacial complex. Moreover, skull orientation during CBCT scanning does not affect the accuracy or the reliability of these measurements.

  15. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-07-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs.

  16. Scrubbing masks magmatic degassing during repose at Cascade-Range and Aleutian-Arc volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Robert B.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, William C.; Ritchie, B.E.; Counce, Dale; Poreda, R.J.; Iven, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Between 1992 and 1998, we sampled gas discharges from ≤173°C fumaroles and springs at 12 quiescent but potentially restless volcanoes in the Cascade Range and Aleutian Arc (CRAA) including Mount Shasta, Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Augustine Volcano, Mount Griggs, Trident, Mount Mageik, Aniakchak Crater, Akutan, and Makushin. For each site, we collected and analyzed samples to characterize the chemical (H2O, CO2, H2S, N2, CH4, H2, HCl, HF, NH3, Ar, O2, He) and isotopic (δ13C of CO2, 3He/4He, 40Ar/36Ar, δ34S, δ13C of CH4, δ15N, and δD and δ18O of water) compositions of the gas discharges, and to create baseline data for comparison during future unrest. The chemical and isotopic data show that these gases contain a magmatic component that is heavily modified from scrubbing by deep hydrothermal (150° - 350°C) water (primary scrubbing) and shallow meteoric water (secondary scrubbing). The impact of scrubbing is most pronounced in gas discharges from bubbling springs; gases from boiling-point fumaroles and superheated vents show progressively less impact from scrubbing. The most effective strategies for detecting gas precursors to future CRAA eruptions are to measure periodically the emission rates of CO2 and SO2, which have low and high respective solubilities in water, and to monitor continuously CO2 concentrations in soils around volcanic vents. Timely resampling of fumaroles can augment the geochemical surveillance program by watching for chemical changes associated with drying of fumarolic pathways (all CRAA sites), increases in gas geothermometry temperatures (Mount Mageik, Trident, Mount Baker, Mount Shasta), changes in δ13C of CO2 affiliated with magma movement (all CRAA site), and increases in 3He/4He coupled with intrusion of new magma (Mount Rainier, Augustine Volcano, Makushin, Mount Shasta). Repose magmatic degassing may discharge substantial amounts of S and Cl into the edifices of Mount Baker and several other CRAA

  17. The detection of simulated periapical lesions in human dry mandibles with cone-beam computed tomography: a dose reduction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, N; Patel, S; Foschi, F; Mannocci, F

    2016-11-01

    To assess in an ex vivo model the accuracy of detection of simulated periapical lesions using two cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) dose modes and periapical radiography. Small and large artificial periapical lesions were created with burs at the base of the socket of eleven mandibular molars, in seven human dry mandibles. Digital periapical radiographs, 360° and 180° rotations CBCT scans with standard dose and dose reduction (DR) modes were obtained before and after periapical lesions were prepared. Six blinded examiners scored the presence/absence of lesions. Inter- and intra-examiner reliability were determined. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (overall accuracy) were determined for each modality. The mean sensitivity and specificity of both CBCT rotations with dose reduction mode were higher compared to that of standard dose CBCT scans. The ROC Az mean values for periapical radiographs, 360° scan with standard dose and dose reduction and 180° scans with standard dose and dose reduction were 0.62, 0.94, 0.95, 0.95 and 0.97, respectively. No significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy of CBCT scans taken with standard and dose reduction modes, whilst their accuracy was significantly higher than periapical radiographs. Using dose reduction with 360° and 180° CBCT scans demonstrated good diagnostic accuracy in the detection of simulated periapical lesions whilst reducing the radiation dose by 54% and 51%, respectively, compared to conventional settings. Clinical evaluation is now needed to determine whether this is applicable to patients. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Estimated effects of interfacial vaporization on fission product scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.; Nagy, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    When bubbles containing non-condensible gas rise through a water pool, interfacial evaporation causes a flow of vapor into the bubbles. The inflow reduces the outward particle motion toward the bubble wall, diminishing the effectiveness of fission product particle removal. This analysis provides an estimate of evaporation on pool scrubbing effectiveness. It is shown that hot gas, which boils water at the bubble wall, reduces the effective scrubbing height by less than five centimeters. Although the evaporative humidification in a rising bubble containing non-condensible gas has a diminishing effect on scrubbing mechanisms, substantial decontamination is still expected even for the limiting case of a saturated pool

  19. Bulldozer better than poisons for preparing scrub oak planting sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. E. McQuilkin

    1951-01-01

    Before scrub oak lands can be reforested, some cheap and effective way of preparing planting sites must be found. Chemical weed killers have been tried, but they proved to be impractical for general use (see Northeastern Research Note 6).

  20. Separation of iodine from mercury containing scrubbing solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive iodines can be recovered from a nitric acid scrub solution containing mercuric nitrate by passing a current through the scrub solution to react the iodine with the mercuric nitrate to form mercuric iodate which precipitates out. The mercuric iodate can then be reacted to recover the radioiodine for further processing into a form suitable for long-term storage and to recover the mercury for recycling.

  1. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Degradability Coefficients and Ruminalpostruminal Digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein of some Plant Protein Sources

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    gasem tahan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of electron beam irradiation on degradability coefficients and ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of soybean meal, canola meal and Lathyrus sativus seed, irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150 kGy was investigated. Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ method using two cannulated Holstein heifers. Ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ (nylon bag-in vitro (daisy digestor techniques. Data analyzed using SAS software as randomized completely design and the treatment means were compared using Tukey test. The results indicated that irradiation had no effect on dry matter, ether extract and ash content of feeds. In soybean meal, washout fraction and potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was higher and lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than other treatments, respectively, and degradation rate constant and ruminal effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein was lower at all doses of irradiation than untreated soybean meal. In canola meal, irradiation at doses of 50 and 100 kGy decreased washout fraction and increased potentially degradable fraction of crude protein compared with untreated canola meal. In Lathyrus sativus seed, only potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than untreated Lathyrus sativus seed. Ruminal digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. Total tract digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at dose of 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. In Lathyrus sativus seed, ruminal-postruminal digestibility and total tract digestibility of dry matter increased at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation than untreated

  2. Parameterization of albedo, thermal inertia, and surface roughness of desert scrub/sandy soil surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, J.; Mccumber, M.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral albedo, A sub n, for the direct solar beam is defined as A sub n (r sub i,s, theta sub 0) = r sub i exp(-s tan theta sub 0)1-I(s) where I(s) is the integral over all reflection angles describing the interception by the absorbing plants of the flux reflected from the soil, r sub i soil reflectance, assumed Lambertian, S the projection on a vertical plane of plants per unit surface area, and theta sub 0 is the solar zenith angle. Hemispheric reflectance for the direct solar beam equals 1-I(s) times the reflectance to the zenith. The values of s of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 respectively quantify sparse, moderately dense, and very dense desert scrub. Thin plants are assumed to be of negligible thermal inertia, and thus directly yield the absorbed insolation to the atmosphere. Surface thermal inertia is therefore effectively reduced. The ratio of surface roughness height to plant height is parameterized for sparse, moderately dense, and very dense desert-scrub as a function of s based on data expressing the dependence of this ratio on plant silhouette.

  3. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus Infection in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakharia, Aniruddha; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Biswas, Dipankar; Yadav, Kaushal; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a major reason for febrile illness, caused by a bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, a rickettsial pathogen. Few outbreaks of scrub typhus have been reported from Arunachal Pradesh in recent past. However, there is lack of seroprevalence data from the region. In this regard, this study was undertaken using archival serum sample available from seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh. This serological study was conducted in Regional Medical Research Center for NE Region, Dibrugarh. Reactivity to IgG class of antibodies against scrub typhus was done using Scrub typhus detect IgG ELISA kit as per manufacturer's protocol. Seroprevalence of scrub typhus in seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh was found to be 40% (120/300). The age-specific scrub typhus seroprevalence rose steadily from 5.6% in children <10 years of age to 61.8% in persons aged ≥40 years (p = 0.0001). Prevalence is lowest in Papumpare (25.9%) and highest in East Siang (72.5%) (p = 0.0001). The seroprevalence in males and females was very similar, however, the female prevalence increases from age group ≥30 years (p = 0.053). Moreover, among the farmers, the seroprevalence is higher (58.3%) (p = 0.0001). As clinical symptoms overlap with other viral/bacterial infections, scrub typhus infection should be considered in differential diagnosis of any acute febrile illness in this part of the country. In view of the high prevalence, empirical therapy of doxycycline/azithromycin may be done in cases of undiagnosed fever. Active surveillance has to be done to understand exact magnitude, epidemiological aspects, and distribution of vector and disease of this reemerging neglected tropical disease.

  4. Effects of Data Scrubbing on Reliability in Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Junkil; Park, Chanik

    Silent data corruptions, which are induced by latent sector errors, phantom writes, DMA parity errors and so on, can be detected by explicitly issuing a read command to a disk controller and comparing the corresponding data with their checksums. Because some of the data stored in a storage system may not be accessed for a long time, there is a high chance of silent data corruption occurring undetected, resulting in data loss. Therefore, periodic checking of the entire data in a storage system, known as data scrubbing, is essential to detect such silent data corruptions in time. The errors detected by data scrubbing will be recovered by the replica or the redundant information maintained to protect against permanent data loss. The longer the period between data scrubbings, the higher the probability of a permanent data loss. This paper proposes a Markov failure and repair model to conservatively analyze the effect of data scrubbing on the reliability of a storage system. We show the relationship between the period of a data scrubbing operation and the number of data replicas to manage the reliability of a storage system by using the proposed model.

  5. Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of Scrubbing Nozzle Used for CFVS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Doo Yong; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Jong Chan; Kim, Gyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    A Containment Filtered Venting System (CFVS) is the most interested device to mitigate a threat against containment integrity under the severe accident of nuclear power plant by venting with the filtration of the fission products. FNC technology and partners have been developed the self-priming scrubbing nozzle used for the CFVS which is based on the venturi effect. The thermal-hydraulic performances such as passive scrubbing water suction as well as pressure drop across the nozzle have been tested under various thermal-hydraulic conditions. The two types of test section have been built for testing the thermal-hydraulic performance of the self-priming scrubbing nozzle. Through the visualization loop, the liquid suction performance through the slit, pressure drop across the nozzle are measured. The passive water suction flow through the suction slit at the throat is important parameter to define the scrubbing performance of the self-priming scrubbing nozzle. The water suction flow is increased with the increase of the overhead water level at the same inlet gas flow. It is not so much changed with the change of inlet gas flow at the overhead water level.

  6. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; Williams, B. Ken

    2011-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act due to loss and degradation of scrub habitat. This study concerned the development of an optimal strategy for the restoration and management of scrub habitat at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which contains one of the few remaining large populations of scrub-jays in Florida. There are documented differences in the reproductive and survival rates of scrubjays among discrete classes of scrub height (Markov models to estimate annual transition probabilities among the four scrub-height classes under three possible management actions: scrub restoration (mechanical cutting followed by burning), a prescribed burn, or no intervention. A strategy prescribing the optimal management action for management units exhibiting different proportions of scrub-height classes was derived using dynamic programming. Scrub restoration was the optimal management action only in units dominated by mixed and tall scrub, and burning tended to be the optimal action for intermediate levels of short scrub. The optimal action was to do nothing when the amount of short scrub was greater than 30%, because short scrub mostly transitions to optimal height scrub (i.e., that state with the highest demographic success of scrub-jays) in the absence of intervention. Monte Carlo simulation of the optimal policy suggested that some form of management would be required every year. We note, however, that estimates of scrub-height transition probabilities were subject to several sources of uncertainty, and so we explored the management implications of alternative sets of transition probabilities. Generally, our analysis demonstrated the difficulty of managing for a species that requires midsuccessional habitat, and suggests that innovative management tools may be needed to help ensure the persistence of scrub-jays at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The development of a tailored monitoring

  7. Seasonality of the activity pattern of Callithrix penicillata (Primates, Callitrichidae in the cerrado (scrub savanna vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Vilela

    Full Text Available Two wild groups of Callithrix penicillata, the Black Pincelled Marmoset, were observed from January to September 1998, in two areas, one an area of dense scrub savanna vegetation (cerrado and the other, a semidecidual woodland (cerradão, both within the boundaries of the Ecological Reserve of IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, in an environmentally protected area, the APA (Portuguese abbreviation for "environmental protected area" Gama/Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, DF. The behavioral data collected during the rainy (January 15 to April 15 and dry season (June 1 to September 15 were compared. Because of the proximity to the Reserve facilities, the group from the dense scrub savanna vegetation (CD was submitted to antropic impacts different from the group in the semidecidual woodland (CE, which was using as territory an area that had been suffering from man-made fires every two years as part of a long-term experimental project on fire impacts. The behavioral data was quantified by instantaneous cross-section ("scan sampling" every ten minutes with records of locomotion, rest, foraging for insects, use of exudate, and feeding. During the whole year, the greatest percentage of time spent by CE and CD was in foraging for insects, with 44% and 39%, respectively. It was evident when comparing the data for the two seasons that, for both groups, foraging for insects was more intense during the dry season, possibly to complement the shortage of food, and locomotion increased during the rainy season. The greater the availability and distribution of fruit in the areas, the greater the locomotion of the groups to obtain these resources. None of the other behavioral patterns, including the use of exudates, presented significant differences between the two seasons. Both groups foraged more frequently during the dry season and locomoted more during the rainy one.

  8. Seasonality of the activity pattern of Callithrix penicillata (Primates, Callitrichidae) in the cerrado (scrub savanna vegetation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, S L; de Faria, D S

    2004-05-01

    Two wild groups of Callithrix penicillata, the Black Pincelled Marmoset, were observed from January to September 1998, in two areas, one an area of dense scrub savanna vegetation (cerrado) and the other, a semidecidual woodland (cerradão), both within the boundaries of the Ecological Reserve of IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), in an environmentally protected area, the APA (Portuguese abbreviation for "environmental protected area") Gama/Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, DF. The behavioral data collected during the rainy (January 15 to April 15) and dry season (June 1 to September 15) were compared. Because of the proximity to the Reserve facilities, the group from the dense scrub savanna vegetation (CD) was submitted to antropic impacts different from the group in the semidecidual woodland (CE), which was using as territory an area that had been suffering from man-made fires every two years as part of a long-term experimental project on fire impacts. The behavioral data was quantified by instantaneous cross-section ("scan sampling") every ten minutes with records of locomotion, rest, foraging for insects, use of exudate, and feeding. During the whole year, the greatest percentage of time spent by CE and CD was in foraging for insects, with 44% and 39%, respectively. It was evident when comparing the data for the two seasons that, for both groups, foraging for insects was more intense during the dry season, possibly to complement the shortage of food, and locomotion increased during the rainy season. The greater the availability and distribution of fruit in the areas, the greater the locomotion of the groups to obtain these resources. None of the other behavioral patterns, including the use of exudates, presented significant differences between the two seasons. Both groups foraged more frequently during the dry season and locomoted more during the rainy one.

  9. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  10. Weed killers of limited use in reforesting scrub oak barrens

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. E. McQuilkin

    1951-01-01

    Chemical weed killers have been under test for 3 years as a possible means of preparing planting sites in the scrub oak barrens of Pennsylvania. Here the problem is to kill or set back the competing brush so planted trees can get started without costly release cuttings.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for scrub typhus in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Paul; P, Divya; Premkumar, Prasanna S; Varghese, George M

    2017-05-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of scrub typhus in Tamil Nadu, South India. We performed a clustered seroprevalence study of the areas around Vellore. All participants completed a risk factor survey, with seropositive and seronegative participants acting as cases and controls, respectively, in a risk factor analysis. After univariate analysis, variables found to be significant underwent multivariate analysis. Of 721 people participating in this study, 31.8% tested seropositive. By univariate analysis, after accounting for clustering, having a house that was clustered with other houses, having a fewer rooms in a house, having fewer people living in a household, defecating outside, female sex, age >60 years, shorter height, lower weight, smaller body mass index and smaller mid-upper arm circumference were found to be significantly associated with seropositivity. After multivariate regression modelling, living in a house clustered with other houses, female sex and age >60 years were significantly associated with scrub typhus exposure. Overall, scrub typhus is much more common than previously thought. Previously described individual environmental and habitual risk factors seem to have less importance in South India, perhaps because of the overall scrub typhus-conducive nature of the environment in this region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A new focus of scrub typhus in tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, B; O'Connor, L; Dwyer, B

    1993-10-01

    A new focus of scrub typhus (Rickettsia tsutsugamushi) is described in a remote rain forest region of the Northern Territory of Australia. Five serologically confirmed cases, two near fatal with multisystem involvement, have occurred since the area became accessible to tourists. As tourism increases, other remote foci of vectors and organisms may also be recognized in tropical Australia.

  13. Quality of surgical scrub in a heart hospital: Do not take it for granted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Leila; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Jodati, Ahmadreza; Safaie, Naser; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Daemi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The role of scrub in the prevention of post-surgery infections is well-known. This study aimed to investigate the inputs and process of surgical scrub in operating rooms of the largest heart hospital of northwest Iran. Methods: This study took place with a before-after design as a clinical audit in 2014. A check list developed based on national and international standards of surgical hand scrub was used as the study instrument. Checklists were completed by observation of surgical team scrubbing in real situation. Descriptive statistics and graphs were used to describe the results. Results: A compliance degree with the standards for prerequisites, equipment, general items, process and time of scrub was observed as 58%, 55%, 33%, 68% and 22%, respectively. The compliance degree after the intervention was 72%, 66%, 66%, 85% and 61%, respectively. Improvement was observed in all studied aspects of scrub. The total score of compliance with the standards changed from 47% to 70%. The main issues were incorrect order of scrubbing the areas of the hands, incorrect way of scrubbing the arms, insufficient scrubbing the arms (not above elbow), and lack of awareness about hospital's policy on scrub time. Conclusion: The results showed defects in the surgical scrub of the studied hospital and that the compliance with the standards can be improved by simple interventions. Periodical audit and observation of the scrub and then feedback is recommended.

  14. Quality of surgical scrub in a heart hospital: Do not take it for granted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abdollahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of scrub in the prevention of post-surgery infections is well-known. This study aimed to investigate the inputs and process of surgical scrub in operating rooms of the largest heart hospital of northwest Iran. Methods: This study took place with a before-after design as a clinical audit in 2014. A check list developed based on national and international standards of surgical hand scrub was used as the study instrument. Checklists were completed by observation of surgical team scrubbing in real situation. Descriptive statistics and graphs were used to describe the results. Results: A compliance degree with the standards for prerequisites, equipment, general items, process and time of scrub was observed as 58%, 55%, 33%, 68% and 22%, respectively. The compliance degree after the intervention was 72%, 66%, 66%, 85% and 61%, respectively. Improvement was observed in all studied aspects of scrub. The total score of compliance with the standards changed from 47% to 70%. The main issues were incorrect order of scrubbing the areas of the hands, incorrect way of scrubbing the arms, insufficient scrubbing the arms (not above elbow, and lack of awareness about hospital’s policy on scrub time. Conclusion: The results showed defects in the surgical scrub of the studied hospital and that the compliance with the standards can be improved by simple interventions. Periodical audit and observation of the scrub and then feedback is recommended.

  15. Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seethalakshmi Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. Aims: This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus. After transportation to the laboratory, the serum was separated from the blood and subjected to rapid card test. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were subjected to DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR. Results: 24/68 (35.29% cases showed the presence of antibody against scrub typhus by serology. 6/68 (8.8% patients showed the presence of outer membrane protein antigen gene 56 kDa by nPCR. 5/24 serology positive cases showed the presence of 56 kDa outer membrane protein antigen gene by nPCR. A large number of cases positive by serology were negative by PCR which may indicate a low sensitivity of this test either due to low copy numbers or due to excess host DNA. Conclusion: Delay in treatment may increase disease severity and leads to higher mortality. Thus, molecular methods of diagnosis may aid in the early diagnosis of infection and enable prompt treatment. This is the first report on the diagnosis of scrub typhus in the suburbs of Chennai using molecular methods and reemphasizes the need for increased awareness of rickettsial infections in rural areas.

  16. Relationship between plant growth and cytological effect in root apical meristem after exposure of wheat dry seeds to carbon ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingfang [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zhuanzi; Zhou, Libin; Qu, Ying; Lu, Dong [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); Yu, Lixia; Du, Yan [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jin, Wenjie [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); Li, Wenjian, E-mail: wjli@impcas.ac.cn [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China)

    2013-06-15

    In order to analyze the relationship between plant growth and cytological effects, wheat dry seeds were exposed to various doses of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} beams and the biological endpoints reflecting plant growth and root apical meristem (RAM) activities were investigated. The results showed that most of the seeds were able to germinate normally within all dose range, while the plant survival rate descended at higher doses. The seedling growth including root length and seedling height also decreased significantly at higher doses. Mitotic index (MI) in RAM had no changes at 10 and 20 Gy and decreased obviously at higher doses and the proportion of prophase cells had the same trend with MI. These data suggested that RAM cells experienced cell cycle arrest, which should be responsible for the inhibition of root growth after exposure to higher doses irradiation. Moreover, various types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) were observed in the mitotic cells. The frequencies of mitotic cells with lagging chromosomes and these with anaphase bridges peaked around 60 Gy, while the frequencies of these with fragments increased as the irradiation doses increased up to 200 Gy. The total frequencies of mitotic cells with CAs induced by irradiation increased significantly with the increasing doses. The serious damage of mitotic chromosomes maybe caused cell cycle arrest or cell death. These findings suggested that the influences of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} beams irradiation on plant growth were related to the alternation of mitotic activities and the chromosomal damages in RAM.

  17. Relationship between plant growth and cytological effect in root apical meristem after exposure of wheat dry seeds to carbon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Zhuanzi; Zhou, Libin; Qu, Ying; Lu, Dong; Yu, Lixia; Du, Yan; Jin, Wenjie; Li, Wenjian

    2013-06-01

    In order to analyze the relationship between plant growth and cytological effects, wheat dry seeds were exposed to various doses of 12C6+ beams and the biological endpoints reflecting plant growth and root apical meristem (RAM) activities were investigated. The results showed that most of the seeds were able to germinate normally within all dose range, while the plant survival rate descended at higher doses. The seedling growth including root length and seedling height also decreased significantly at higher doses. Mitotic index (MI) in RAM had no changes at 10 and 20 Gy and decreased obviously at higher doses and the proportion of prophase cells had the same trend with MI. These data suggested that RAM cells experienced cell cycle arrest, which should be responsible for the inhibition of root growth after exposure to higher doses irradiation. Moreover, various types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) were observed in the mitotic cells. The frequencies of mitotic cells with lagging chromosomes and these with anaphase bridges peaked around 60 Gy, while the frequencies of these with fragments increased as the irradiation doses increased up to 200 Gy. The total frequencies of mitotic cells with CAs induced by irradiation increased significantly with the increasing doses. The serious damage of mitotic chromosomes maybe caused cell cycle arrest or cell death. These findings suggested that the influences of 12C6+ beams irradiation on plant growth were related to the alternation of mitotic activities and the chromosomal damages in RAM.

  18. Dry fabrication of microdevices by the combination of focused ion beam and cryogenic deep reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekurov, N; Tittonen, I; Grigoras, K; Sainiemi, L; Franssila, S; Peltonen, A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate silicon microdevice fabrication by a combination of focused ion beam (FIB) and cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Applying FIB treatment only to a thin surface layer enables very high writing speed compared with FIB milling. The use of DRIE then defines the micro- and nanodevices utilizing the FIB-modified silicon as a mask. We demonstrate the ability to create patterns on highly 3D structures, which is extremely challenging by other nanofabrication methods. The alignment of optically made and FIB-defined patterns is also demonstrated. We also show that complete microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can be fabricated by this method by presenting a double-ended tuning fork resonator as an example. Extremely short process time is achieved as the full fabrication cycle from mask design to electrical measurements can be completed during one working day.

  19. Kennedy Space Center Florida Scrub-Jay Compensation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcock, Taylor Morgan (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    Many organizations have interest in using NASA property on KSC. The purpose of this document is to consolidate the goals of ecosystem management associated with Florida Scrub-Jays and compliance with the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in order to streamline and reduce the costs of facility planning, impact assessment, and impact minimization. This will simplify the process and reduce regulatory uncertainty.However, the resulting process must be consistent with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). In addition, this document considers anticipated construction impacts on KSC during the next 10 years and summarizes priorities in a spatially explicit manner. The document describes anticipated compensation requirements to facilitate restoration of degraded habitat in areas most important to the KSC Scrub-Jay population through resources provided to MINWR. The plan assumes that all construction on KSC is compensated on KSC.

  20. Immunohistochemical Study of Scrub Typhus: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Yuan Tseng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, which is transmitted by chiggers. The target cells of this rickettsia are poorly defined in humans. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections of patients with scrub typhus is helpful in investigating the target cells of this rickettsia in different organs. We studied two autopsy specimens by immunohistochemical staining using a specific antibody against O. tsutsugamushi. Rickettsiae were located in endothelial cells in all of the organs evaluated, namely heart, lung, brain, kidney, appendix and skin, within cardiac muscle cells and renal tubular epithelial cells, and in macrophages located in the lymph node, liver and spleen. In conclusion, O. tsutsugamushi may disseminate into multiple organs through endothelial cells and macrophages, resulting in the development of fatal complications.

  1. Volatile compounds and odor traits of dry-cured ham (Prosciutto crudo) irradiated by electron beam and gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiulian; Yan, Weiqiang; Yue, Ling; Chen, Zhijun; Wang, Haihong; Qi, Wenyuan; He, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Prosciutto crudo samples were irradiated at 0, 3 and 6 kGy by gamma rays (GR) and electron beam (EB), respectively. The odor scores and volatile compounds were examined after 7 days storage at 4 °C. Volatile compounds from samples without and with irradiation at 6 kGy were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-nine compounds were identified, including terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, alkanes, esters, aromatic hydrocarbons and acids. Both GR and EB irradiation resulted in formation of (Z)-7-Hexadecenal, cis-9-hexadecenal, tetradecane, E-9-tetradecen-1-ol formate, and losing of hexadecamethyl-heptasiloxane and decanoic acid-ethyl ester in hams. However, GR irradiation caused additional changes, such as formation of undecane and phthalic acid-2-cyclohexylethyl butyl ester, significantly higher level of 1-pentadecene, and losing of (E, E)-2,4-decadienal and octadecane. EB was shown to be better in maintaining ham's original odor than GR. Our results suggest that EB irradiation is a promising method for treatment of ready to eat hams as it exerts much less negative effect on the flavor of hams compared to GR irradiation.

  2. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  3. Epidemiology & risk factors of scrub typhus in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Scrub typhus is a major public health threat in South and Southeastern Asian countries including India. Understanding local patterns of disease and factors that place individuals at risk is pivotal to future preventive measures against scrub typhus. The primary aim of this study was to identify specific epidemiological and geographical factors associated with an increased risk of developing scrub typhus in this region. Methods: We mapped 709 patients from Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana who were admitted to the Christian Medical College (CMC Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, for the period 2006-2011, assessed seasonality using monthly counts of scrub typhus cases, and conducted a case-control study among a subset of patients residing in Vellore. Results: The geographic distribution of cases at CMC Hospital clusters around the Tamil Nadu-Andhra Pradesh border. However, distinct hotspots clearly exist distal to this area, near Madurai and the coast in Tamil Nadu, and in the Northeast of Andhra Pradesh. Seasonally, the highest numbers of cases were observed in the cooler months of the year, i.e. September to January. In the case-control analysis, cases were more likely to be agricultural laborers (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01 - 3.15, not wear a shirt at home (OR 4.23, 95% CI 1.12 - 16.3, live in houses adjacent to bushes or shrubs (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.08 - 3.53, and live in a single room home (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.02 - 3.01. On binary logistic regression, the first three of these variables were statistically significant. Interpretation & conclusions: With the growing number of cases detected in India, scrub typhus is fast emerging as a public health threat and further research to protect the population from this deadly infection is essential. Health education campaigns focusing on the agricultural workers of Southern India, especially during the cooler months of the year, can serve as an important public health measure to

  4. Habitat model for the Florida Scrub Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The Florida Scrub Jay is endemic to Florida. The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides habitat for one of the three largest populations of the Florida Scrub Jay. This threatened bird occupies scrub, slash pine flatwoods, disturbed scrub, and coastal strand on KSC. Densities of Florida Scrub Jays were shown to vary with habitat characteristics but not necessarily with vegetation type. Relationships between Florida Scrub Jay densities and habitat characteristics were used to develop a habitat model to provide a tool to compare alternative sites for new facilities and to quantify environmental impacts. This model is being tested using long term demographic studies of colorbanded Florida Scrub Jays. Optimal habitat predicted by the model has greater than or equal to 50 percent of the shrub canopy comprised of scrub oaks, 20-50 percent open space or scrub oak vegetation within 100 m of a ruderal edge, less than or equal to 15 percent pine canopy cover, a shrub height of 120-170 cm, and is greater than or equal to 100 m from a forest. This document reviews life history, social behavior, food, foraging habitat, cover requirements, characteristics of habitat on KSC, and habitat preferences of the Florida Scrub Jay. Construction of the model and its limitations are discussed.

  5. Classification of the lingual foramina and their bony canals in the median region of the mandible. Cone beam computed tomography observations of dry Japanese mandibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Taisuke; Asaumi, Rieko; Sato, Iwao; Yoshida, Shunji; Yosue, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the lingual foramina and their bony canals in the median region of the mandible using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Sixty-eight dry Japanese mandibles were studied. The mandibles were set parallel to the inferior mandibular plane, and CBCT images of the medial region were obtained. The lingual foramina in the medial region (MLFs) were classified as being on the midline superior to the mental spine (s-MLF), on the midline inferior to the mental spine (i-MLF), or beside the midline (a-MLF). The frequency, location, and angulation of each foramen and its canal were measured from the CBCT images. The s-MLF, i-MLF, and a-MLF occurred with frequencies of 86.8%, 83.8%, and 42.6%, respectively. The respective distances from the inferior mandibular plane were 11.4, 4.4, and 5.7 mm, while the vertical angulation of the canals was 77.5 deg, 114 deg, and 114 deg. A significant relationship was observed between the foramen height and canal angulation. On dissecting six cadaver mandibles, the sublingual artery was identified in s-MLFs and i-MLFs, while anastomosis of the sublingual and submental arteries was found in the a-MLFs. MLFs were observed frequently, and we confirmed that arteries passed though their canals. Since s-MLFs were the most frequent, contained the artery, and were located superior to the other MLFs, clinicians should identify such foramina from preoperative images. (author)

  6. Scrub typhus, a disease with increasing threat in Guangdong, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu De

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid increase in the number of scrub typhus cases in Guangdong Province, China. For this reason, an epidemiologic study was conducted to understand the characteristics of scrub typhus epidemics in Guangdong. From 2006 to 2013, the incidence of human cases increased from 0.4321 to 3.5917 per 100,000 with a bimodal peak in human cases typically occurring between May and November. To detect the prevalence of Orientia tsutsugamushi among suspected human cases and rodents, we performed ELISA tests of IgM/IgG and nested PCR tests on 59 whole blood samples from the suspected cases and 112 spleen samples from the rodents. Suspected cases tested positive for anti-O. tsutsugamushi IgM and IgG 66.1% (39/59 and 50.8% (30/59 of the time, respectively. Additionally, 20.3% (12/59 of blood samples and 13.4% (15/112 of spleen samples were positive for PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there were four definable clusters among the 27 nucleotide sequences of the 56-kDa antigen genes: 44.4% Karp (12/27, 25.9% Kato (7/27, 22.2% Gilliam (6/27 and 7.4% TA763 (2/27. We concluded many suspected cases may result in diagnostic errors; therefore, it is necessary to perform laboratory tests on suspected cases in hospitals. The high infection rate of O. tsutsugamushi among the limited rodents tested suggested that further rodent sampling throughout the province is necessary to further define high-risk areas. Furthermore, the multiple co-circulating genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi play a key role in the pervasiveness of scrub typhus in the Guangdong area.

  7. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiments on jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez-Jimenez, J.

    1995-01-01

    Plant analyses have shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination ofboundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanisms acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence, a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei the pool were measured and fitted to a long normal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inletgas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major highlights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  8. Operational beams for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Papaphilippou, Y.; Rumolo, G.; Manglunki, D.

    2014-01-01

    The variety of beams, needed to set-up in the injectors as requested in the LHC, are reviewed, in terms of priority but also performance expectations and reach during 2015. This includes the single bunch beams for machine commissioning and measurements (probe, Indiv) but also the standard physics beams with 50 ns and 25 ns bunch spacing and their high brightness variants using the Bunch Compression Merging and Splitting (BCMS) scheme. The required parameters and target performance of special beams like the doublet for electron cloud enhancement and the more exotic 8b$\\oplus$4e beam, compatible with some post-scrubbing scenarios are also described. The progress and plans for the LHC ion production beams during 2014-2015 are detailed. Highlights on the current progress of the setting up of the various beams are finally presented with special emphasis on potential performance issues across the proton and ion injector chain.

  9. Adaptation of a tool to assess non-technical skills of scrub practitioners in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Anna Sofie; Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle Teglgaard; Østergaard, Doris

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Scottish tool, Scrub Practitioners List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, to Danish organisation and culture. With an explorative and qualitative approach, four group interviews with scrub practitioners, surgeons and anaesthesia staff were conducted. The main differences found were related to communication and teamwork regarding scrub practitioners focus on the team and speaking up. Differences in the non-technical skills described in the behavioural markers are perhaps explained by cultural differences between Scotland and Denmark. A new tool for scrub practitioners in Denmark was adapted. Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.

  10. Acute sensorineural hearing loss and severe otalgia due to scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong-Min

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Case presentations We encountered a patient with sensorineural hearing loss complicating scrub typhus, and three patients with scrub typhus who complained of otalgia, which was sudden onset, severe, paroxysmal, intermittent yet persistent pain lasting for several seconds, appeared within 1 week after the onset of fever and rash. The acute sensorineural hearing loss and otalgia were resolved after antibiotic administration. Conclusion When patients in endemic areas present with fever and rash and have sensorineural hearing loss or otalgia without otoscopic abnormalities, clinicians should suspect scrub typhus and consider empirical antibiotic therapy.

  11. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Scrub-Shrub and Wetlands, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_scrub-shrub_wetland_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) scrub-shrub and wetlands data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system,...

  12. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; Williams, B. Ken

    2011-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act due to loss and degradation of scrub habitat. This study concerned the development of an optimal strategy for the restoration and management of scrub habitat at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which contains one of the few remaining large populations of scrub-jays in Florida. There are documented differences in the reproductive and survival rates of scrubjays among discrete classes of scrub height (note, however, that estimates of scrub-height transition probabilities were subject to several sources of uncertainty, and so we explored the management implications of alternative sets of transition probabilities. Generally, our analysis demonstrated the difficulty of managing for a species that requires midsuccessional habitat, and suggests that innovative management tools may be needed to help ensure the persistence of scrub-jays at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The development of a tailored monitoring program as a component of adaptive management could help reduce uncertainty about controlled and uncontrolled variation in transition probabilities of scrub-height and thus lead to improved decision making.

  13. Factors that influence the non-technical skills performance of scrub nurses: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Evelyn; Massey, Debbie; Gillespie, Brigid M

    2015-12-01

    To identify and describe the factors that impact on the performance of scrub nurses' non-technical skills performance during the intra-operative phase of surgery. Non-technical skills have been identified as important precursors to errors in the operating room. However, few studies have investigated factors influencing non-technical skills of scrub nurses. Prospective observational study. Structured observations were performed on a sample of 182 surgical procedures across eight specialities by two trained observers from August 2012-April 2013 at two hospital sites. Participants were purposively selected scrub nurses. Bivariate correlations and a multiple linear regression model were used to identify associations among length of surgery, patients' acuity using the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification system, team familiarity, number of occasions scout nurses leave the operating room, change of scout nurse and the outcome, the non-technical skills performance of scrub nurses. Patient acuity and team familiarity were the strongest predictors of scrub nurses' non-technical skills performance at hospital site A. There were no correlations between the predictors and the performance of scrub nurses at hospital site B. A dedicated surgical team and patient acuity potentially influence the performance of scrub nurses' non-technical skills. Familiarity with team members foster advanced planning, thus minimizing distractions and interruptions that impact on scrub nurses' performance. Development of interventions aimed at improving non-technical skills has the potential to make a substantial difference and enhance patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Spatiotemporal Database to Track Human Scrub Typhus Using the VectorMap Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J Kelly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a potentially fatal mite-borne febrile illness, primarily of the Asia-Pacific Rim. With an endemic area greater than 13 million km2 and millions of people at risk, scrub typhus remains an underreported, often misdiagnosed febrile illness. A comprehensive, updatable map of the true distribution of cases has been lacking, and therefore the true risk of disease within the very large endemic area remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a database and map to track human scrub typhus. An online search using PubMed and the United States Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System was performed to identify articles describing human scrub typhus cases both within and outside the traditionally accepted endemic regions. Using World Health Organization guidelines, stringent criteria were used to establish diagnoses for inclusion in the database. The preliminary screening of 181 scrub typhus publications yielded 145 publications that met the case criterion, 267 case records, and 13 serosurvey records that could be georeferenced, describing 13,739 probable or confirmed human cases in 28 countries. A map service has been established within VectorMap (www.vectormap.org to explore the role that relative location of vectors, hosts, and the pathogen play in the transmission of mite-borne scrub typhus. The online display of scrub typhus cases in VectorMap illustrates their presence and provides an up-to-date geographic distribution of proven scrub typhus cases.

  15. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary.

  16. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.

    1995-07-01

    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  17. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.

    1995-01-01

    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  18. Local climatic conditions constrain soil yeast diversity patterns in Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkov, Andrey M; Röhl, Oliver; Pontes, Ana; Carvalho, Cláudia; Maldonado, Cristina; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Soil yeasts represent a poorly known fraction of the soil microbiome due to limited ecological surveys. Here, we provide the first comprehensive inventory of cultivable soil yeasts in a Mediterranean ecosystem, which is the leading biodiversity hotspot for vascular plants and vertebrates in Europe. We isolated and identified soil yeasts from forested sites of Serra da Arrábida Natural Park (Portugal), representing the Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome. Both cultivation experiments and the subsequent species richness estimations suggest the highest species richness values reported to date, resulting in a total of 57 and 80 yeast taxa, respectively. These values far exceed those reported for other forest soils in Europe. Furthermore, we assessed the response of yeast diversity to microclimatic environmental factors in biotopes composed of the same plant species but showing a gradual change from humid broadleaf forests to dry maquis. We observed that forest properties constrained by precipitation level had strong impact on yeast diversity and on community structure and lower precipitation resulted in an increased number of rare species and decreased evenness values. In conclusion, the structure of soil yeast communities mirrors the environmental factors that affect aboveground phytocenoses, aboveground biomass and plant projective cover. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Electron beam curing paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tsutomu

    1991-04-01

    Electron beam curing (EBC) type paint is paint that is specially prepared so that it can be cured and dried by electron beam irradiation. Electron beam irradiation achieves hardly any curing and drying of ordinary normal-temperature drying type paint or heat-drying type paint. The main type of paint in which an electron beam produces a curing reaction is one in which a radical polymerization reaction takes place under irradiation. The use of this EBC painting - drying system has been considered for a variety of fields since it has a number of special features such as the fact that the paint dries instantaneously, no heat is applied and no solvent is used. (Author)

  20. Thinking ahead of the surgeon. An interview study to identify scrub nurses' non-technical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George

    2011-07-01

    Efforts to reduce adverse event rates in healthcare have revealed the importance of identifying the essential non-technical (cognitive and social) skills for safe and effective performance. Previous research on non-technical skills for operating theatre staff has concentrated on doctors rather than nursing professionals. The aim of the study was to identify the critical non-technical skills that are essential for safe and effective performance as an operating theatre scrub nurse. Experienced scrub nurses (n = 25) and consultant surgeons (n = 9) from four Scottish hospitals were interviewed using a semi-structured format. The protocols were designed to identify the main social and cognitive skills required by scrub nurses. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and independently coded to extract behaviours in order to produce a list of the main non-technical skills for safe and effective scrub nurse performance. The non-technical skills of situation awareness, communication, teamwork, task management and coping with stress were identified as key to successful scrub nurse task performance. Component sets of behaviours for each of these categories were also noted. The interviews with subject matter experts from scrub nursing and surgery produced preliminary evidence that situation awareness, communication, teamwork and coping with stress are the principal non-technical skills required for effective performance as a scrub nurse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pui-Jen; Yeh, Hsi-Chyi

    2013-04-29

    The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. We applied Pearson's product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively with scrub typhus incidence in

  2. Antiseptic Effect of Conventional Povidone-Iodine Scrub, Chlorhexidine Scrub, and Waterless Hand Rub in a Surgical Room: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jui-Chen; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Huang, Yen-Jung; Loh, El-Wui; Wen, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Yin-Tai; Hsieh, Wen-Shyang; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Effective perioperative hand antisepsis is crucial for the safety of patients and medical staff in surgical rooms. The antimicrobial effectiveness of different antiseptic methods, including conventional hand scrubs and waterless hand rubs, has not been well evaluated. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the 3 antiseptic methods among surgical staff of Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital. For each method used, a group of 80 participants was enrolled. INTERVENTION Surgical hand cleansing with conventional 10% povidone-iodine scrub, conventional 4% chlorhexidine scrub, or waterless hand rub (1% chlorhexidine gluconate and 61% ethyl alcohol). RESULTS Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were collected using the hand imprinting method before and after disinfection and after surgery. After surgical hand disinfection, the mean CFU counts of the conventional chlorhexidine (0.5±0.2, Pantiseptic method (P=.0036), but not other variables, predicted the mean CFU count. CONCLUSIONS Conventional chlorhexidine scrub and waterless hand rub were superior to a conventional povidone-iodine product in bacterial inhibition. We recommend using conventional chlorhexidine scrub as a standard method for perioperative hand antisepsis. Waterless hand rub may be used if the higher cost is affordable. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:417-422.

  3. Estimated effects of interfacial vaporization on fission product scrubbing: Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.; Nagy, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    When bubbles containing non-condensible gas rise through a water pool, interfacial evaporation causes a flow of vapor into the bubbles. The inflow reduces the outward particle motion toward the bubble wall, diminishing the effectiveness of fission product particle removal. This analysis provides an estimate of evaporation on pool scrubbing effectiveness. It is shown that hot gas, which boils water at the bubble wall, reduces the effective scrubbing height by less than five centimeters. Although the evaporative humidification in a rising bubble containing non-condensible gas has a diminishing effect on scrubbing mechanisms, substantial decontamination is still expected even for the limiting case of a saturated pool

  4. Adaptation of a tool to assess non-technical skills of scrub practitioners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundt, Anna Sofie; Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle Teglgaard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Scottish tool, Scrub Practitioners List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, to Danish organisation and culture. With an explorative and qualitative approach, four group interviews with scrub practitioners, surgeons and anaesthesia staff were conducted....... The main differences found were related to communication and teamwork regarding scrub practitioners focus on the team and speaking up. Differences in the non-technical skills described in the behavioural markers are perhaps explained by cultural differences between Scotland and Denmark. A new tool...

  5. A Comparative Study of Hepatitis Caused by Scrub Typhus and Viral Hepatitis A in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-01-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A. PMID:22049041

  6. Comparison of Scrub Typhus Meningitis with Acute Bacterial Meningitis and Tuberculous Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarlapudi, Svas Raju; Chacko, Anila; Samuel, Prasanna; Verghese, Valsan Philip; Rose, Winsley

    2018-01-15

    To compare scrub typhus meningitis with bacterial and tuberculous meningitis. Children aged <15 years admitted with meningitis were screened and those who fit criteria for diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis (n=48), bacterial meningitis (n=44) and tuberculous meningitis (n=31) were included for analysis. Clinical features, investigations and outcomes were compared between the three types of meningitis. Mean age, duration of fever at presentation, presence of headache and, altered sensorium and presence of hepatomegaly/splenomegaly were statistically significantly different between the groups. Scrub typhus had statistically significant thrombocytopenia, shorter hospital stay and a better neurological and mortality outcome. Sub-acute presentation of meningitis in older age group children, and good outcome is associated with scrub typhus when compared to bacterial and tuberculous meningitis.

  7. Factors that affect scrub practitioner non-technical skills: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Guy

    2018-04-01

    Non-technical skills are the cognitive and interpersonal behaviours that compliment clinical competence in surgery. Effective use of non-technical skills is essential for scrub practice, because they facilitate anticipation of the surgeon's requirements and promote appropriate communication behaviours. This literature review analyses the factors that may influence a scrub practitioner's use of non-technical skills during surgery. Recommendations are made that are intended to improve their use by reducing behavioural variations during surgery.

  8. Scrub-shrub bird habitat associations at multiple spatial scales in beaver meadows in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, R.B.; King, D.I.; DeStefano, S.

    2009-01-01

    Most scrub-shrub bird species are declining in the northeastern United States, and these declines are largely attributed to regional declines in habitat availability. American Beaver (Castor canadensis; hereafter “beaver”) populations have been increasing in the Northeast in recent decades, and beavers create scrub-shrub habitat through their dam-building and foraging activities. Few systematic studies have been conducted on the value of beaver-modified habitats for scrub-shrub birds, and these data are important for understanding habitat selection of scrub-shrub birds as well as for assessing regional habitat availability for these species. We conducted surveys in 37 beaver meadows in a 2,800-km2 study area in western Massachusetts during 2005 and 2006 to determine the extent to which these beaver-modified habitats are used by scrub-shrub birds, as well as the characteristics of beaver meadows most closely related to bird use. We modeled bird abundance in relation to microhabitat-, patch-, and landscape-context variables while adjusting for survey-specific covariates affecting detectability using N-mixture models. We found that scrub-shrub birds of regional conservation concern occupied these sites and that birds responded differently to microhabitat, patch, and landscape characteristics of beaver meadows. Generally, scrub-shrub birds increased in abundance along a gradient of increasing vegetation complexity, and three species were positively related to patch size. We conclude that these habitats can potentially play an important role in regional conservation of scrub-shrub birds and recommend that conservation priority be given to larger beaver meadows with diverse vegetation structure and composition.

  9. Hematogenously disseminated Orientia tsutsugamushi-infected murine model of scrub typhus [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Shelite

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, is a mite-borne rickettsia transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites. Approximately one-third of the world's population is at risk of infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi, emphasizing its importance in global health. In order to study scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp strain has been used extensively in mouse studies with various inoculation strategies and little success in inducing disease progression similar to that of human scrub typhus. The objective of this project was to develop a disease model with pathology and target cells similar to those of severe human scrub typhus. This study reports an intravenous infection model of scrub typhus in C57BL/6 mice. This mouse strain was susceptible to intravenous challenge, and lethal infection occurred after intravenous inoculation of 1.25 × 10(6 focus (FFU forming units. Signs of illness in lethally infected mice appeared on day 6 with death occurring ∼ 6 days later. Immunohistochemical staining for Orientia antigens demonstrated extensive endothelial infection, most notably in the lungs and brain. Histopathological analysis revealed cerebral perivascular, lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, focal hemorrhages, meningoencephalitis, and interstitial pneumonia. Disseminated infection of endothelial cells with Orientia in C57BL/6 mice resulted in pathology resembling that of human scrub typhus. The use of this model will allow detailed characterization of the mechanisms of immunity to and pathogenesis of O. tsutsugamushi infection.

  10. Uncommon manifestations of scrub typhus encephalitis in two cases: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin; Jeong, Hae Woong [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Scrub typhus is a well-known acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. This disease has multiorgan involvement, which includes the lungs, heart, liver, spleen, and the central or peripheral nervous system. Scrub typhus involving the central nervous system (CNS) is not rare. However, meningitis and meningoencephalitis can cause changes in mentation and death and are therefore associated with a poor prognosis. We report two consecutive cases of scrub typhus with CNS involvement. One patient presented with extensive white matter involvement, similar to that observed in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas the other patient presented with subependymal enhancement along the lateral ventricles. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus encephalitis, with extensive white matter involvement and subependymal enhancement, are very rarely described findings in the previous literature. Our patients did not show complete recovery, but the symptoms resolved with treatment. Recognizing these uncommon radiologic findings of scrub typhus may be helpful in the early diagnosis of scrub typhus with CNS involvement, which may alter the prognoses of patients.

  11. The Historical Case for and the Future Study of Antibiotic-Resistant Scrub Typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute, and sometimes fatal, human febrile illness, typically successfully treated using chloramphenicol or one of the tetracyclines. Over the past several years, descriptions of strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi with reduced susceptibility to antibiotics have appeared. Because case-fatality ratios approached 50% during the pre-antibiotic era, antibiotic-resistant scrub typhus is concerning. Herein, we review the data on resistant scrub typhus, describe how the theoretical existence of such resistance is affected by interpretation of treatment outcomes, and propose a plan to further identify whether true drug resistance is present and how to deal with drug resistance if it has evolved. Limited resistance is not unambiguous, if present, and antibiotic resistance in scrub typhus is not a dichotomous trait. Rather, evidence of resistance shows a continuous gradation of increasing resistance. The availability of genomes from isolates of O. tsutsugamushi allows the search for loci that might contribute to antibiotic resistance. At least eighteen such loci occur in all genomes of O. tsutsugamushi examined. One gene (gyrA occurs as a quinolone-resistant form in the genome of all isolates of O. tsutsugamushi. At least 13 other genes that are present in some members of the genus Rickettsia do not occur within O. tsutsugamushi. Even though reports of scrub typhus not responding appropriately to chloramphenicol or a tetracycline treatment have been in the literature for approximately 23 years, the existence and importance of antibiotic-resistant scrub typhus remains uncertain.

  12. Summary of INCO corrosion tests in power plant flue gas scrubbing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoxie, E.C.; Tuffnell, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Corrosion tests in a number of flue-gas desulfurization units have shown that carbon steel, low alloy steels, and Type 304L stainless steel are inadequate in the wet portions of the scrubbers. Type 316L stainless steel is sometimes subject to localized corrosive attack in scrubber environments with certain combinations of pH and chloride content. A corollary is that corrosion of Type 316L stainless steel might be controlled by control of scrubbing media pH and chloride content. Although an attempt was made to correlate the pitting and crevice corrosion obtained on the Type 316 stainless steel test samples with chloride and pH measurements, relatively wide scatter in the data indicated only a modest correlation. This is attributed to variations in local conditions, especially beneath deposits, that differ from the liquor samples obtained for analysis, to processing upsets, to temperature differences, and to some extent to inaccuracies in measurement of pH and chloride levels. The data do show, however, that molybdenum as an alloying element in stainless steels and high nickel alloys was very beneficial in conferring resistance to localized attack in scrubber environments. High nickel alloys containing appreciable amounts of molybdenum such as Hastelloy alloy C-276 and Inconel alloy 625 can be used for critical components. Chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steels has generally not been a problem in FGD scrubbers, apparently because operating temperatures are comparatively low. An exception is reheater tubing where some failures have occurred because of elevated temperatures in conjunction with condensate that forms during shut-down periods or carryover of chloride laden mist from the scrubber. This problem can be overcome by proper alloy selection or maintaining dry conditions

  13. Technologies and policies for "hard to scrub" emissions sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    The science of climate change yields harsh math regarding atmospheric accumulations of GHGs. The world is far from target trajectories for 2C or 1.5C, and the global carbon budget is severe. To achieve those targets requires two things. First, we must field technologies that reduce emissions from the "hard to scrub" parts of the US and global economies, such as heavy industry (cement and steel), aviation, ocean shipping, and household cooking and heating. Second, we will likely need negative emissions pathways for those sources that prove extremely difficult to remove or reduce - the climate equivalent of adding revenue to one's budget. Such pathways may well need to convert GHG emissions (especially CO2 and methane) into useful products with minimal infrastructure builds. Dramatic advances in advanced manufacturing, 3D printing, simulation, modeling, and data analytics have made possible solutions which were previously unthinkable or impossible. This include "bespoke reactors", which can simultaneously perform separations and conversions; low-cost modular chemical systems of any scale; biologically inspired or biologically mediated energy services; direct air carbon-capture systems; and electrochemical pathways for emissions reduction and conversion. However, these approaches are unlikely to be fielded without policy actions or reforms that support such systems in competitive global energy markets. Such policy measures do NOT require a carbon price. Rather, they could include individual or combined measures such as emission or performance standards, financial incentives (like tax credits or low-cost access to capital), border adjustable tariffs, creation of CO2 utilities, ands public good surcharges. Innovation in both technical and policy arenas are needed to achieve the goals of the Paris agreement signatories, and these innovations can be simultaneously configured to deliver substantive greenhouse gas mitigation.

  14. Recovery and storage method for radioactive iodine by vacuum freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Ouchi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Toru.

    1990-01-01

    After scrubbing off-gas formed in a re-processing process for spent nuclear fuels, scrubbing liquids after use are subjected, as they are or with addition of additives, to a precipitating treatment. Then, liquid wastes containing radioactive iodine was subjected to freeze-drying treatment by freeze-drying under vacuum to recover radioactive iodine as iodine compounds. Off-gas scrubbing is conducted by using a sodium hydroxide solution and copper or silver ions may be added as additives in the precipitating treatment. Recovered iodine compounds containing radioactive iodine are solidified, either directly or after formulating into a composition of naturally existing iodine-containing ores by means of high pressure pressing into ores. This can prevent radioactive iodine 1 29I of long half-decay time from diffusing into the circumference and store the radioactive iodine stably for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  15. The analysis of technical and economical aspects of electron beam flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko

    2008-01-01

    Environmental problems caused by the increased world energy demands have become a serious problem in many countries. The emission of SO 2 and NO x from fossil fuel burning for electricity generation and industrial plants is one of the major sources of environmental pollution. These pollutants are named as acid gases causing acid rain and also indirect greenhouse gases contributing greenhouse effect. These toxic components sometimes travel more than thousand kilometers and make a trouble in other places, in some cases, even in other countries. Therefore, the problem of the air pollution became world-wide problem. Today many countries are introducing more strict emission control regulations to solve environmental problem. Electron beam flue gas treatment technology is one of the most advanced technologies among new generation processes for air pollution control. This electron beam process is dry scrubbing process and simultaneously removes SO 2 and NO x and useful by-product for agriculture fertilizer. In this study, the technical and economical aspects of electron beam flue gas treatment process are discussed. Economically, the technology is competitive with the conventional ones. (author)

  16. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Taylor

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease's non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes.A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max of 0-70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9-19.Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This information would facilitate reliable quantification of

  17. Capsule report: Adipic acid-enhanced lime/limestone test results at the EPA alkali scrubbing test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.; Wang, S.C.

    1982-04-01

    The fifth in a series of reports describing the results of the Shawnee Lime and Limestone Wet Scrubbing Test Program, the report describes the results of adipic acid-enhanced limestone wet scrubbing systems. A primary objective of the program was to enhance sulfur oxide removal and improve the reliability and economics of lime and limestone wet scrubbing systems by use of adipic acid as a chemical additive.

  18. Electro-scrubbing volatile organic carbons in the air stream with a gas diffusion electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ji, E-mail: yangji@ecust.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Kaichen; Jia Jinping; Cao Limei [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-04-15

    It is demonstrated that exposing the VOC air streams to the electro-scrubbing reactor with a gas diffusion electrode leads to an efficient removal of organics. The importance order of the influence factors on the electro-scrubbing reactor performance is: conductivity, voltage and air stream flow-rate. The effective conductivity and high voltages generally are beneficial to the removal process and the air flow-rate is not a significant factor compared with the other two, indicating that the reactor might have a consistently satisfying performance within a wide range of gas volumetric load. The mass transfer of both organics and oxygen in the reactor is estimated by mathematical model, and the calculation determines the concentration boundary conditions for the 2-ethoxyethyl acetate removal: if the 2-ethoxyethyl acetate concentration in the inflow air stream holds C{sub G,i} {<=} 0.7198 % , the removal in the electro-scrubbing reactor is electrochemical reaction controlled; if C{sub G,i} > 0.7198 % , the controlling step will be the oxygen mass transfer from the air to the liquid in the electro-scrubbing reactor. The Apparent Current Efficiency of the electro-scrubbing reactor was also determined using COD data, which is significantly higher than some commercial metal oxide electrodes, showing that the reactor is energy efficient and has the promise for the future scale-up.

  19. A New Xeromorphic Species of Clusia (Clusiaceae) from Dry Valleys of Northern Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Clusia magnoliiflora M. H. G. Gust. is described as new for the Clusiaceae. It grows in dry scrub in the river valleys of the Marañón and its tributaries in northern Peru, a kind of habitat that harbors very few Clusia species. The species is distinct on account of its extremely thick, obovate...

  20. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the solvent transfer to salt waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared approximately 240 gallons of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for use at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of the prepared solvent using a salt solution prepared by Parsons to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams. This data will be used by Parsons to help qualify the solvent for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 15.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  1. Experimental study on aerosol removal efficiency for pool scrubbing under high temperature steam atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakii, J.; Kaneko, I.; Fukasawa, M.; Yamashita, M.; Matsumoto, M.

    1991-01-01

    Removal efficiencies of particulate materials in water pools were studied. The experiments were carried out for many different parameters such as geometric, thermal hydraulic and aerosol properties. The experiments were performed with the scrubbing pool which is a cylindrical pressure vessel of 1 meter in diameter and 5 meters high. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that the efficiency strongly depended on scrubbing depth, particle diameter and steam fraction of carrier gas. the efficiency increased significantly when the steam fraction exceeded 50 vol.%. Moreover, the authors confirmed the efficiency reduction phenomenon at boiling pools, which had been theoretically predicted. As the results, the efficiency for the boiling pool decreased to half of that for a subcooled pool in the case of 2.7 meters scrubbing depth

  2. STATUS OF SCRUB TYPHUS RESEARCH IN INDONESIA (Based on published reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus merupakan penyakit yang endemis di Indonesia. Akan tetapi laporan mengenai hal tersebut sangat sedikit. Penelusuran hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebelum tahun 1945 pernah dilaporkan hasil isolasi Rickettsia tsutsugamushi dari penderita demam di beberapa tempat di Indonesia. Setelah tahun 1970 beberapa penelitian seroepidemiologi dilakukan di beberapa daerah di Indonesia terutama daerah transmigrasi dengan hasil prevalensi antibodi terhadap scrub typhus tertinggi di daerah Biak dan Owi, Irian Jaya dan yang terendah di Flores dan Jakarta. Selain itu dilakukan pula penelitian mengenai vektor scrub typhus dan hospesnya dengan hasil di­temukannya 7 species tungau Leptotrombidium termasuk 2 jenis yang merupakan vektor. Saran untuk penelitian di masa yang akan datang diberikan dalam laporan ini.

  3. Use of Multiplex Real-Time PCR To Diagnose Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantibhedhyangkul, Wiwit; Wongsawat, Ekkarat; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk; Waywa, Duangdao; Saenyasiri, Nuttawut; Suesuay, Jintapa; Thipmontree, Wilawan; Suputtamongkol, Yupin

    2017-05-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi , is a common cause of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in the Asia-Pacific region. However, its nonspecific clinical manifestation often prevents early diagnosis. We propose the use of PCR and serologic tests as diagnostic tools. Here, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay using hydrolysis (TaqMan) probes targeting O. tsutsugamushi 47-kDa, groEL , and human interferon beta (IFN-β gene) genes to improve early diagnosis of scrub typhus. The amplification efficiency was higher than 94%, and the lower detection limit was 10 copies per reaction. We used a human gene as an internal DNA quality and quantity control. To determine the sensitivity of this PCR assay, we selected patients with confirmed scrub typhus who exhibited a clear 4-fold increase in the level of IgG and/or IgM. The PCR assay result was positive in 45 of 52 patients, indicating a sensitivity of 86.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.2 to 94.4). The PCR assessment was negative for all 136 non-scrub typhus patients, indicating a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 97.3 to 100). In addition, this test helped diagnose patients with inconclusive immunofluorescence assay (IFA) results and using single blood samples. In conclusion, the real-time PCR assay proposed here is sensitive and specific in diagnosing scrub typhus. Combining PCR and serologic tests will improve the diagnosis of scrub typhus among patients presenting with acute febrile illness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Scrub typhus in Uttarakhand & adjoining Uttar Pradesh: Seasonality, clinical presentations & predictors of mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Scrub typhus is a re-emerging mite-borne rickettsiosis, which continues to be underdiagnosed, with lethal consequences. The present study was conducted to determine the seasonality, clinical presentation and predictors of mortality in patients with scrub typhus at a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India. Methods: Scrub typhus was suspected in patients attending the hospital as per the standard case definition and serological evidence was obtained by performing an IgM ELISA. Results: A total of 284 patients with scrub typhus from urban and rural areas were seen, predominantly from July to November. The most common clinical presentation was a bilateral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, which resembled pneumonia due to atypical pathogens and often progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. An acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI or a febrile illness associated with altered sensorium, aseptic meningitis, shock, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding or jaundice was also seen. Eschars were seen in 17 per cent of patients, and thrombocytopenia, transaminitis and azotaemia were frequent. There were 24 deaths (8.5% caused predominantly by ARDS and multi-organ dysfunction. The mortality in patients with ARDS was high (37%. ARDS [odds ratio (OR=38.29, 95% confidence interval (CI: 9.93, 147.71] and acute kidney injury (OR=8.30, 95% CI: 2.21, 31.21 were the major predictors of death. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings indicate that scrub typhus may be considered a cause of CAP, ARDS, AUFI or a febrile illness with multisystem involvement, in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, especially from July to November. Empiric therapy of CAP may include doxycycline or azithromycin to ensure coverage of underlying unsuspected scrub typhus.

  5. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., without a permit, take scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) and Steller's jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) when... transported or sold or offered for sale except that, such transportation within the area, as may be necessary... the State agricultural department, college, or other public institution may requisition such scrub...

  6. Effects of Width, Edge and Habitat on the Abundance and Nesting Success of Scrub-shrub Birds in Powerline Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Richard B. Chandler; Jeffrey M. Collins; Wayne R. Petersen; Thomas E. Lautzenheiser

    2009-01-01

    Concern about declines in scrub–shrub bird populations has resulted in efforts to create and maintain habitat for these species. Vegetation within powerline corridors is managed to prevent contact of vegetation with transmission lines, and comprises approximately 2% of all of habitat for scrub–shrub birds in southern New England. Although previous studies have...

  7. A multiscale landscape approach to predicting bird and moth rarity hotspots in a threatened pitch pine-scrub oak community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Grand; John Buonaccorsi; Samuel A. Cushman; Curtice R. Griffin; Maile C. Neel

    2004-01-01

    In the northeastern United States, pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.)-scrub oak (Quercus ilicifolia Wang.) communities are increasingly threatened by development and fire suppression, and prioritization of these habitats for conservation is of critical importance. As a basis for local conservation planning in a pitch pine-scrub oak community in southeastern Massachusetts...

  8. The abundance of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in the root zone of plant species in invaded coastal sage scrub habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina C Irvine

    Full Text Available Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs are associated with the roots, leaves and seeds of most terrestrial plants and utilize volatile C(1 compounds such as methanol generated by growing plants during cell division. PPFMs have been well studied in agricultural systems due to their importance in crop seed germination, yield, pathogen resistance and drought stress tolerance. In contrast, little is known about the PPFM abundance and diversity in natural ecosystems, let alone their interactions with non-crop species. Here we surveyed PPFM abundance in the root zone soil of 5 native and 5 invasive plant species along ten invasion gradients in Southern California coastal sage scrub habitat. PPFMs were present in every soil sample and ranged in abundance from 10(2 to 10(5 CFU/g dry soil. This abundance varied significantly among plant species. PPFM abundance was 50% higher in the root zones of annual or biennial species (many invasives than perennial species (all natives. Further, PPFM abundance appears to be influenced by the plant community beyond the root zone; pure stands of either native or invasive species had 50% more PPFMs than mixed species stands. In sum, PPFM abundance in the root zone of coastal sage scrub plants is influenced by both the immediate and surrounding plant communities. The results also suggest that PPFMs are a good target for future work on plant-microorganism feedbacks in natural ecosystems.

  9. Influence of solvent radiolysis on extraction, scrubbing and stripping of uranium and some fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlowska, W.; Nowak, M.

    1978-01-01

    Radiolytically degraded TBP-n-paraffins solvent was used in the laboratory flow-sheet to study the influence of radiation exposure on decontamination of uranium. The influence of accumulated doses on extraction, scrubbing and stripping of uranium and some fission products has been discussed. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George

    2012-02-01

    The Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills (SPLINTS) system is a new tool for training and assessing scrub practitioner (nurse, technician) behaviours during surgical operations. The aim of the study was to test the psychometric properties including inter-rater reliability of the prototype SPLINTS behavioural rating system. Experienced scrub practitioners (n=34) attended a one-day session where they received background training in human factors and non-technical skills and were also trained to use the SPLINTS system. They then used SPLINTS to rate the scrub practitioners' non-technical skill performance in seven standardized simulated, surgical scenarios. Reliability, measured by within-group agreement (r(wg)) for the three skill categories and six out of nine elements, was acceptable (r(wg)>0.7). Participants were within one scale point of expert ratings in >90% of skill categories and elements, and could use SPLINTS to score performance with a reasonable level of accuracy. There was good internal consistency of the system: absolute mean difference was Mtechnical skills in simulated, standardized, video scenarios. On the basis of these results, the system can now move on to usability testing in the real operating theatre. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coagulation and inflammation in scrub typhus and murine typhusu-a prospective comparative study from Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paris, D. H.; Chansamouth, V.; Nawtaisong, P.; Löwenberg, E. C.; Phetsouvanh, R.; Blacksell, S. D.; Lee, S. J.; Dondorp, A. M.; van der Poll, T.; Newton, P. N.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Day, N. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus (caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi) and murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi) cause up to 28% of febrile episodes in Thailand and Laos. The current understanding of coagulation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of these clinically very similar vasculotropic diseases is limited.

  12. Re-caching by Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica cannot be attributed to stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Thom

    Full Text Available Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica live double lives, storing food for the future while raiding the stores of other birds. One tactic scrub-jays employ to protect stores is "re-caching"-relocating caches out of sight of would-be thieves. Recent computational modelling work suggests that re-caching might be mediated not by complex cognition, but by a combination of memory failure and stress. The "Stress Model" asserts that re-caching is a manifestation of a general drive to cache, rather than a desire to protect existing stores. Here, we present evidence strongly contradicting the central assumption of these models: that stress drives caching, irrespective of social context. In Experiment (i, we replicate the finding that scrub-jays preferentially relocate food they were watched hiding. In Experiment (ii we find no evidence that stress increases caching. In light of our results, we argue that the Stress Model cannot account for scrub-jay re-caching.

  13. Coincidence between geographical distribution of Leptotrombidium scutellare and scrub typhus incidence in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yul Roh

    Full Text Available To clarify the geographical distribution of scrub typhus vectors in Korea, a survey of larval trombiculid mites was conducted from 2005 to 2007 by collecting wild small mammals twice a year (spring and autumn at 24 sites nationwide. A total of 67,325 mites representing 4 genera and 14 species were collected from 783 trapped rodents, corresponding to a chigger index (number of chigger mites per rodent of 86.0. The predominant mite species were Leptotrombidium pallidum (52.6%, Leptotrombiduim scutellare (27.1%, Leptotrombidium palpale (8.2%, Leptotrombidium orientale (5.6%, and Neotrombicula tamiyai (1.7%. However, the proportions of L. scutellare in southern areas, including endemic provinces such as Jeollabuk-Do (34.3%, Jeollanam-Do (49.0%, and Gyeongsangnam-Do (88%, were relatively higher than in central Korean regions where L. pallidum was predominant. In autumn, the ratio of L. scutellare increased to 42% while the ratio of L. pallidum decreased. The geographical distribution map of the L. scutellare chigger index was identical to the incidence pattern of scrub typhus, whereas those of overall mites and L. pallidum showed no relationship with case incidence patterns. Distribution mapping analysis shows an identical geographical distribution of L. scutellare and epidemic incidence of scrub typhus in South Korea. L. pallidum could be another vector at all other parts of the Korean peninsula, including the eastern and northern regions that have a low level of scrub typhus incidence.

  14. Chip and scrub seal field test results for Hwy 17 and Hwy 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-09

    This report contains field test results from two pavements located in Mississippi containing chip seals and scrub seals. Limestone aggregate from the same source was used with PASS-CR emulsion. The pavements were tested at three intervals. One or bot...

  15. Comparison of minocycline and azithromycin for the treatment of mild scrub typhus in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minxing; Wang, Ting; Yuan, Xiaoyu; Du, Weiming; Lin, Miaoxin; Shen, Yanbo

    2016-09-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has recently emerged in northern China where the disease had not been known to exist. Although doxycycline and azithromycin are the recommended agents for the treatment of scrub typhus, clinical responses depend both on the susceptibilities of various O. tsutsugamushi strains and the severity of the disease. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients diagnosed with mild scrub typhus from August 2013 to January 2016 in the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, northern China. A total of 40 patients who received minocycline treatment and 34 patients who received azithromycin treatment were included in the analysis. All patients except one defervesced within 120 h after initiating antimicrobial therapy. Kaplan-Meier curves in association with log-rank test showed that the median time to defervescence was significantly shorter for the minocycline-treated group than the azithromycin-treated group (P = 0.003). There were no serious adverse events during treatment. No relapse occurred in either group during the 1-month follow-up period. In conclusion, both minocycline and azithromycin are effective and safe for the treatment of mild scrub typhus, but minocycline is more active than azithromycin against O. tsutsugamushi infection acquired in northern China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Scrub typhus masquerading as HELLP syndrome and puerperal sepsis in an asymptomatic malaria patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations.

  17. Buffered flue gas scrubbing system using adipic acid by-product stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, J.H. Jr.; Danly, D.E.

    1983-12-27

    A by-product stream from the production of adipic acid from cyclohexane, containing glutaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid, is employed as a buffer in lime or limestone flue gas scrubbing for the removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion gases.

  18. Frequent contamination of nursing scrubs is associated with specific care activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Kerri A; Escobar, Daniel; Boutin, Mallory A; Zhan, Min; Harris, Anthony D; Johnson, J Kristie

    2018-01-11

    The objective of this article is to assess health care worker (HCW) and patient care factors associated with bacterial contamination of scrubs. We performed a cohort study of critical care HCWs. Participants were given 4 sets of new scrubs; each set was sampled 8 times during the 8-month study period on random days in the last 4 hours of the shift. Total colony counts and presence of prespecified pathogenic bacteria were assessed. Generalized estimating equation was used to identify factors associated with contamination. There were 720 samples obtained from 90 HCWs; 30% of samples were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Multivariate analysis showed that providing care for patients with wounds (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.62; P contamination. A second model showed the average log colony count of bacterial contamination of scrubs was higher when a bath was given (log colony count difference, 0.21; P = .05) but lower among HCWs assigned to care for at least 1 patient on contact precautions (log colony count difference, 0.28; P contaminated with bacteria. Providing care for patients with wounds or giving a bath were associated with scrub contamination by pathogenic bacteria. However, the amount of contamination was lower among HCWs who were assigned to care for patients on contact precautions. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid increase of scrub typhus incidence in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Sun (Ye); Wei, Y.-H. (Yue-Hong); Yang, Y. (Yang); Ma, Y. (Yu); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); H.-W. Yao (Hong-Wu); Huang, Y. (Yong); Ma, M.-J. (Mai-Juan); K. Liu (Kun); Li, X.-N. (Xiao-Ning); X. Li (Xinlou); Zhang, W.-H. (Wen-Hui); Fang, L.-Q. (Li-Qun); Yang, Z.-C. (Zhi-Cong); Cao, W.-C. (Wu-Chun)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In the last decade, scrub typhus (ST) has been emerging or re-emerging in some areas of Asia, including Guangzhou, one of the most affected endemic areas of ST in China. Methods: Based on the data on all cases reported in Guangzhou from 2006 to 2014, we characterized the

  20. The Formulations of Scrub Cream from Non Fermentation Cocoa Powder and The Effects on Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medan Yumas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of non fermented cocoa powder is phenolic compounds of polyphenols group which protecting skin from ultra violet radiation (UVB. This research aims to determine the concentration of non fermented cocoa powder that capable to protect the skin from UVB. This study used a complete randomized design with a treatment on the concentration of non fermented cocoa powder as the active ingredient of scrub cream. Scrub cream was made from non fermented cocoa powder in a variable concentration 2.5; 3.5; 4.5; 5.5% (w/w with three replicates. The results showed that the viscosity were 36, 42, 49 and 70 dps, respectively. The four scrub cream have pH value above 5 which fulfilled the standard of SNI 01-3524-1994 and uncontained of Pb and Hg. The most panelists was preferred scrub cream with the concentration of non-fermented cocoa powder 3.5%, it gave moisture and smooth effect also lasted minimum for 180 minutes.

  1. Cleaning By Blasting With Pellets Of Dry Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fody, Jody

    1993-01-01

    Dry process strips protective surface coats from parts to be cleaned, without manual scrubbing. Does not involve use of flammable or toxic solvents. Used to remove coats from variety of materials, including plastics, ceramics, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and composites. Adds no chemical-pollution problem to problem of disposal of residue of coating material. Process consists of blasting solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) pellets at surface to be cleaned. Pellets sublime on impact and pass into atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas. Size, harness, velocity, and quantity of pellets adjusted to suit coating material and substrate.

  2. Development of a behavioural marker system for scrub practitioners' non-technical skills (SPLINTS system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George

    2013-04-01

    Adverse events still occur despite ongoing efforts to reduce harm to patients. Contributory factors to adverse events are often due to limitations in clinicians' non-technical skills (e.g. communication, situation awareness), rather than deficiencies in technical competence. We developed a behavioural rating system to provide a structured means for teaching and assessing scrub practitioners' (i.e. nurse, technician, operating department practitioner) non-technical skills. Psychologists facilitated focus groups (n = 4) with experienced scrub practitioners (n = 16; 4 in each group) to develop a preliminary taxonomy. Focus groups reviewed lists of non-technical-skill-related behaviours that were extracted from an interview study. The focus groups labelled skill categories and elements and also provided examples of good and poor behaviours for those skills. An expert panel (n = 2 psychologists; n = 1 expert nurse) then used an iterative process to individually and collaboratively review and refine those data to produce a prototype skills taxonomy. A preliminary taxonomy containing eight non-technical skill categories with 28 underlying elements was produced. The expert panel reduced this to three categories (situation awareness, communication and teamwork, task management), each with three underlying elements. The system was called the Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills system. A scoring system and a user handbook were also developed. A prototype behavioural rating system for scrub practitioners' non-technical skills was developed, to aid in teaching and providing formative assessment. This important aspect of performance is not currently explicitly addressed in any educational route to qualify as a scrub practitioner. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Bacterial Agents Andantibiogram of Most Common Isolated Organisms from Hands of Surgical Team Members after Scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS Mohseni- Meybodi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many post-surgical wound infections in hospitals cause morbidity and morality of patients and these are usually transmitted via hands of surgical personnel. The aim of the present study was to detect and antibiogram the bacterial agents following scrubbing of hands of surgical personnel before operation. Methods: Hands of 134 personnels of operation room were swabbed following scrubbing with antiseptic Betadine solution. Swab samples were inoculated on selective and differential media such as blood ager, McConky and manitol salt agar(MSA. Following incubation of media at 37c° for 24hr, bacterial species were identified using differential related tests. The isolated species were than antibiogramed and the results together with other data was analysed by SPSS software program. Results: Of the total of 134 cases, 81(60.4% were male and 53(39.6% female. The mean scrub time for each person was (206.1+/-103.2 seconds; 6 to 60 seconds base change. Increasing time of scrub was significantly correlated with decreasing rate of bacteria (P=0.003, (R=-0.254. Contamination was present in 129(96.3% cases following scrubbing. Maximum contamination was observed in nails (92.5%. Average number of bacteria for each individual was between 0 and 159. 62.6% of isolated bacteria were non- staphylococci and 7.7% were S. aureus. Vancomycin and ceftizoxim were the most sensitive, while penicillin was the least sensitive antibiotic. Conclusion: Results revealed that hand contamination was more than the expected standard level. Therefore, regarding the critical task of surgical personnel, training of all operation room staff is highly recommended to minimize the rate of contamination.

  4. Non-technical skills of the operating theatre scrub nurse: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a report of a review to identify the non-technical (cognitive and social) skills used by scrub nurses. Recognition that failures in non-technical skills contributed to accidents in high-risk industries led to the development of research programmes to study the role of cognition and social interactions in operational safety. Recently, psychological research in operating theatres has revealed the importance of non-technical skills in safe and efficient performance. Most of the studies to date have focused on anaesthetists and surgeons. On-line sources and university library catalogues, publications of the Association for Perioperative Practice, National Association of Theatre Nurses and Association of Peri-Operative Registered Nurses were searched in 2007. Studies were included in the review if they presented data from scrub nurses on one or more of their non-technical skills. These findings were examined in relation to an existing medical non-technical skills framework with categories of communication, teamwork, leadership, situation awareness and decision-making. Of 424 publications retrieved, 13 were reviewed in detail. Ten concerned communication and eight of those also had data on teamwork. In 11 papers teamwork was examined, and one focused on nurses' situation awareness, teamwork and communication. None of the papers we reviewed examined leadership or decision-making by scrub nurses. Further work is needed to identify formally the non-technical skills which are important to the role of scrub nurse and then to design training in the identified non-technical skills during the education and development of scrub nurses.

  5. Wedding rings are not a significant source of bacterial contamination following surgical scrubbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Allak, A; Sarasin, S; Key, S; Morris-Stiff, G

    2008-03-01

    Despite some evidence that the wearing of rings may increase the microbial load, there is currently nothing to suggest that viable bacteria remain following a standard surgical scrub. The aim of the study was to examine the distribution and type of microbial flora seen on the hands of doctors following a standard surgical scrub. Ten surgeons and 10 anaesthetists, all of whom wore wedding rings on the fourth finger of their left hand, participated in the study. Each individual was asked to 'scrub-up' as for their normal first scrub of the day. Following completion of washing, the wedding ring was removed, its internal circumference swabbed and the swab placed in a culture medium. Volunteers placed each hand palm-down on separate agar plates. The plates were incubated and the number of colonies counted and classified. The culture plates of one of the anaesthetists were damaged in transit leaving a total of 19 subjects for analysis. In all the palm imprint plates, coagulase-negative staphylococci were grown. One surgeon grew coagulase-negative staphylococci from the ring swab. A Candida spp. from the right hand of one surgeon was grown. There was no statistically significant difference between the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) cultured from the right and left (ring-wearing) hands of the surgeons (P = 0.260) and anaesthetists ( P = 0.345). There was no statistical difference in CFUs when surgeons were compared with anaesthetists (P = 0.383 for right hand and P = 0.234 for left). This preliminary study would suggest that a traditional band wedding ring is not a source of a bacterial load following a standard surgical scrub procedure and, as such, there is no requirement for their removal pre-operatively.

  6. Beam Induced Pressure Rise at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S Y; Bai, Mei; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Cameron, Peter; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Gullotta, Justin; He, Ping; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Iriso, Ubaldo; Lee, Roger C; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Peggs, Steve; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smart, Loralie; Snydstrup, Louis; Thieberger, Peter; Trbojevic, Dejan; Wang, Lanfa; Wei, Jie; Zeno, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Beam induced pressure rise in RHIC warm sections is currently one of the machine intensity and luminosity limits. This pressure rise is mainly due to electron cloud effects. The RHIC warm section electron cloud is associated with longer bunch spacings compared with other machines, and is distributed non-uniformly around the ring. In addition to the countermeasures for normal electron cloud, such as the NEG coated pipe, solenoids, beam scrubbing, bunch gaps, and larger bunch spacing, other studies and beam tests toward the understanding and counteracting RHIC warm electron cloud are of interest. These include the ion desorption studies and the test of anti-grazing ridges. For high bunch intensities and the shortest bunch spacings, pressure rises at certain locations in the cryogenic region have been observed during the past two runs. Beam studies are planned for the current 2005 run and the results will be reported.

  7. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    for the higher processing rates in FPDs, high-density plasma processing tools that can handle larger-area substrate uniformly are more intensively studied especially for the dry etching of polysilicon thin films. In the case of FPD processing, the current substrate size ranges from 730 × 920 mm (fourth...... etching requirements, and advantages of dry etching over wet processing. Current status and future trends are also presented....

  8. Integrating Science & Management: Florida Scrub-Jay Conservation along the Central Florida's Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David R.

    2018-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays are a species listed under the Endangered Species Act. The NASA Ecology program has been a partner for conservation, recovery, and translocation across the species range. The objectives of this talk are to update members of the Archie Carr Working Group recovery, conservation, and translocation activities and describe how the Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge and nearby conservation lands relate to species recovery actions.

  9. Nuclear ventilation installations. Method of control of the scrubbing coefficient of iodine trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The present standard aims at defining a method to control the scrubbing coefficient of radioactive iodine trapping systems, used in nuclear ventilation installations. It applies to the installations where the trapping, efficiency of radioactive iodine has to be known, tested and compared to a reference value generally included in the safety reports. It applies to the installations where the absolute pressure of the air in the ventilation systems is above 1,4. 10 5 Pa (1,4 Bar) [fr

  10. [Analysis of epidemic features of scrub typhus between year 2006 and 2010 in Shandong province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Li, Zhong; Wang, Xian-jun; Ding, Shu-jun; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Zhong-tang

    2012-04-01

    To explore the epidemic features of scrub typhus between year 2006 and 2010 in Shandong Province. Based on the data collected through Diseases Reporting Information System between year 2006 and 2010 in Shandong province, 1291 cases of scrub typhus were selected. The study described the population distribution features of the scrub typhus patients, and explored the temporal and spatial distribution features of the disease by applying the methods of spatial thematic mapping, inverse distance weighted, spatial autocorrelation analysis, spatial clustering analysis, temporal clustering analysis and spatial variation analysis in temporal trends based on Geographic Information software (ArcGIS 9.3) and Spatial Clustering Software (SatScan 7.0). The onset age of the 1291 patients ranged between 1 and 92 years old.639 out of 1291 patients were over 55 years old, accounting for 49.5%.640 patients were male and the other 651 patients were female, occupying 49.6% and 50.4% respectively. The gender ratio was 1:1.02. Patients were found in farmers, workers, students and preschool children. However, most of the cases were farmers, up to 84.8% (1095/1291). Global Moran's I index was 0.324 (P features of the two clustering areas were inland low hills area and coastal hills area. The highest annual growth rate of the disease was 45.04%, found in the area centered Linyi and Mengyin counties, with the radiation radius at 45.82 km. The RR value was 3.68 (P < 0.01). The majority of the scrub typhus patients were middle-aged and elderly farmers. The epidemic peak was between the last 10 days of September and the first 10 days of November. A positive spatial correlation of the disease was found; and most cases clustered in inland low hills area and costal hills area; especially the area around Linyi and Mengyin, with the highest annual growth rates of the disease.

  11. Determination of cutoff of ELISA and immunofluorescence assay for scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015 were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA for immunoglobulin M (IgM (Fuller Labs, USA with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA. Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  12. Scrubbing theory of a volatile fission product vapor-containing gas jet in a water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    1990-01-01

    When a mixture of fission product vapor and inert gas enters a scrubbing pool of liquid (water) that is at a temperature well below the dew point of the vapor component, a large fraction of the vapor mass condenses just outside the injector exit in the gas as aerosol (or fog) rather than on the water surfaces presented to the incoming gas stream. The fog particles formed by this vapor phase nucleation event are typically very small, of the order of 0.1- to 1.0μm diam, and are not easily removed from the gas bubbles that form above the injector and rise through the water pool. These gas bubbles, however, usually obscure the presence of a gas jet at the injector. Wassel et al. studied aerosol scrubbing in the gas injection zone of a scrubbing pool. These analyses, however, ignored liquid entrainment into the gaseous stream. In so doing, they have neglected the enormous interfacial area available for particle impaction, shown here to be crucial for high-velocity gas jets. The present investigation considers the potential of such a submerged gas jet as an atomizing condensate aerosol scrubber

  13. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil

  14. Temperature impact on SO2 removal efficiency by ammonia gas scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Boshu; Zheng Xianyu; Wen Yan; Tong Huiling; Chen Meiqian; Chen Changhe

    2003-01-01

    Emissions reduction in industrial processes, i.e. clean production, is an essential requirement for sustainable development. Fossil fuel combustion is the main emission source for gas pollutants, such as NO X , SO 2 and CO 2 , and coal is now a primary energy source used worldwide with coal combustion being the greatest atmospheric pollution source in China. This paper analyzes flue gas cleaning by ammonia scrubbing (FGCAS) for power plants to remove gaseous pollutants, such as NO X , SO 2 and CO 2 , and presents the conceptual zero emission design for power plants. The byproducts from the FGCAS process can be used in agriculture or for gas recovery. Experimental results presented for SO 2 removal from the simulated flue gas in a continuous flow experiment, which was similar to an actual flue gas system, showed that the effectiveness of the ammonia injection or scrubbing depends on the temperature. The FGCAS process can effectively remove SO 2 , but the process temperature should be below 60 deg. C or above 80 deg. C for SO 2 reduction by NH 3 scrubbing

  15. Clinical significance of hypoalbuminemia in outcome of patients with scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Keun-Sang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to investigate the clinical significance of hypoalbuminemia as a marker of severity and mortality in patients with Scrub typhus. Methods The patients with scrub typhus were divided into two groups based on the serum albumin levels; Group I (serum albumin Results Of the total 246 patients who underwent the study, 84 patients (34.1% were categorized as Group I and 162 patients were (65.9% as Group II. Group I showed significantly higher incidence of confusion (24.6% vs. 5.3%, p p = 0.002, pleural effusion (22.8% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.03, arrhythmia (12.3% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.008 and non-oliguric acute renal failure (40.4% vs. 11.1%, p p p = 0.012, and higher hospital cost compared to Group II. Conclusions This study showed hypoalbuminemia in scrub typhus was closely related to the frequency of various complication, longer hospital stay, consequently the higher medical cost, necessitating more efficient management of patients, including medical resources.

  16. Physico-Chemical Properties of Personal Care Products Containing Guava Scrub Granules as Exfoliating Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahariah Ismail; Mohd Fadlly Jumadi; Nurdiyana Mohamed Johari

    2015-01-01

    Treated guava scrub granules (GSG) as an exfoliating agent were obtained from the decanter waste at Sime Darby Food and Beverages, Sungai Wangi, Perak (SDFB). The treated GSG and tocotrienol were the main active ingredients incorporated in a basic formulation containing 87 % palm-based derivatives. Guava body scrub (GBS) and guava facial scrub (GFS) lotions were developed at skin pH 5.5 and pH 5.6 respectively. Both products were found to be stable for three years due to the liquid crystalline structure in the emulsion system , having small particle size (490 nm and 880 nm) and high zeta potential values (-54 mv and -39 mv). The rheological properties showed that the GBS lotion had a viscosity at 900 Pas and a yield value at 98 Pa, whereas the GFS lotion 60 Pas and 6 Pa viscosity and yield values respectively. The formulations were designed to be soft and flowable, with the firmness force indicated at 111 g and 66 g for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. Efficacy testing on 20 healthy subjects showed a significant decrease of 21 % and 22 % in skin sebum removal for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. (author)

  17. Etiologies of acute undifferentiated fever and clinical prediction of scrub typhus in a non-tropical endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Chul; Chon, Sung-Bin; Oh, Won Sup; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Jin

    2015-02-01

    Scrub typhus usually presents as acute undifferentiated fever. This cross-sectional study included adult patients presenting with acute undifferentiated fever defined as any febrile illness for ≤ 14 days without evidence of localized infection. Scrub typhus cases were defined by an antibody titer of a ≥ fourfold increase in paired sera, a ≥ 1:160 in a single serum using indirect immunofluorescence assay, or a positive result of the immunochromatographic test. Multiple regression analysis identified predictors associated with scrub typhus to develop a prediction rule. Of 250 cases with known etiology of acute undifferentiated fever, influenza (28.0%), hepatitis A (25.2%), and scrub typhus (16.4%) were major causes. A prediction rule for identifying suspected cases of scrub typhus consisted of age ≥ 65 years (two points), recent fieldwork/outdoor activities (one point), onset of illness during an outbreak period (two points), myalgia (one point), and eschar (two points). The c statistic was 0.977 (95% confidence interval = 0.960-0.994). At a cutoff value ≥ 4, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.7% (79.0-98.1%) and 90.9% (86.0-94.3%), respectively. Scrub typhus, the third leading cause of acute undifferentiated fever in our region, can be identified early using the prediction rule. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  19. Dry Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  20. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  1. Heterogeneous reactions and aerosol formation in flue gas cleaning by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.; Jordan, S.; Leichsenring, C.H.; Maetzing, H.; Paur, H.R.; Schikarski, W.

    1990-08-01

    The electron beam dry scrubbing process is a simultaneous method for the removal of SO 2 and NO x from flue gas. By electron irradiation radicals (OH, O 2 H, O) are formed from the main flue gas components which oxidize NO x and SO 2 into the acids HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 . These are then neutralized by the injection of NH 3 . A submicron aerosol consisting of ammonium salts is formed which is filtered from the offgas. The main pathways of the gas phase chemistry and product formation have been elucidated by experimental and theoretical studies. Back reactions which occur in the gas and the particle phase limit the energy efficiency of the process. By recirculation of irradiated gas into the reaction vessel (multiple irradiation) a significant improvement of removal yields was obtained. This enhancement of the energy efficiency requires the removal of products between the irradiation steps. Studies show that the material balance is complete. Deficits in the N and S balance of the process are due to the additional formation of molecular nitrogen and the deposition of ammonium sulfate in the ducts. Aerosol formation participates only with 30% in the material balance. The remaining 70% of the product are formed by surface reactions in the filter cake (40%) and in the ducts (30%). (orig.) With 38 figs., 29 tabs [de

  2. Dry Mouth or Xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects > Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Request Permissions Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 05/ ... with a dry mouth. Signs and symptoms of dry mouth The signs and symptoms of dry mouth include ...

  3. Dissemination of Orientia tsutsugamushi and inflammatory responses in a murine model of scrub typhus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Keller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central aspects in the pathogenesis of scrub typhus, an infection caused by Orientia (O. tsutsugamushi, have remained obscure. Its organ and cellular tropism are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetics of bacterial dissemination and associated inflammatory responses in infected tissues in an experimental scrub typhus mouse model, following infection with the human pathogenic strain Karp. We provide a thorough analysis of O. tsutsugamushi infection in inbred Balb/c mice using footpad inoculation, which is close to the natural way of infection. By a novel, highly sensitive qPCR targeting the multi copy traD genes, we quantitatively monitored the spread of O. tsutsugamushi Karp from the skin inoculation site via the regional lymph node to the internal target organs. The highest bacterial loads were measured in the lung. Using confocal imaging, we also detected O. tsutsugamushi at the single cell level in the lung and found a predominant macrophage rather than endothelial localization. Immunohistochemical analysis of infiltrates in lung and brain revealed differently composed lesions with specific localizations: iNOS-expressing macrophages were frequent in infiltrative parenchymal noduli, but uncommon in perivascular lesions within these organs. Quantitative analysis of the macrophage response by immunohistochemistry in liver, heart, lung and brain demonstrated an early onset of macrophage activation in the liver. Serum levels of interferon (IFN-γ were increased during the acute infection, and we showed that IFN-γ contributed to iNOS-dependent bacterial growth control. Our data show that upon inoculation to the skin, O. tsutsugamushi spreads systemically to a large number of organs and gives rise to organ-specific inflammation patterns. The findings suggest an essential role for the lung in the pathogenesis of scrub typhus. The model will allow detailed studies on host-pathogen interaction and provide further

  4. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  5. Water conservation in surgery: a comparison of two surgical scrub techniques demonstrating the amount of water saved using a 'taps on/taps off' technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterwood, Joshua; Shridhar, Vivek

    2009-08-01

    Australia finds itself in the grip of its worst drought on record. The surgical profession has a responsibility to conserve water where possible. We tried to show how much water we saved through the simple measure of turning taps off while not in use during the surgical scrub. We conducted a prospective analysis of two different scrub techniques at the Gold Coast Hospital in Queensland, Australia. Ten participants completed two 5-min scrubs using standard 'elbow on' taps. In the first, they left the taps running throughout the scrub; in the second, they turned the taps on and off so that water ran only when rinsing the hands. Water was collected and the amount of time the hands spent under running water was recorded. Amount of water used during the surgical scrub. A mean of 15.5 L was used during the 'taps on' scrub, with participants spending a mean of 47 s rinsing the hands. During the 'taps on/off' scrub, participants used a mean of 4.5 L, spending 40 s rinsing the hands. This represents a water saving of 11 L or 71% for each scrub (P technique is a simple and effective way of conserving large amounts of water during the surgical scrub. The technique should be adopted as standard practice.

  6. Synthesis of Scrub-Oak Ecosystem Responses to Elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungate, Bruce

    2014-11-07

    This report summarizes a synthesis project of a long-term global change experiment conducted at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, investigating how increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influences the functioning of a fire-dominated scrub-oak ecosystem. The experiment began in 1996 and ended in 2007. Results presented here summarize the effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth, soil processes, carbon and nutrient cycling, and other responses. Products include archived data from the experiment, as well as six publications in the peer-reviewed literature.

  7. Validation of a clinical risk-scoring algorithm for severe scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwongpan P

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pamornsri Sriwongpan,1,2 Jayanton Patumanond,3 Pornsuda Krittigamas,4 Hutsaya Tantipong,5 Chamaiporn Tawichasri,6 Sirianong Namwongprom1,7 1Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Department of Social Medicine, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, 3Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Bangkok, 4Department of General Pediatrics, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, 5Department of Medicine, Chonburi Hospital, Chonburi, 6Clinical Epidemiology Society at Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, 7Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Objective: The aim of the study reported here was to validate the risk-scoring algorithm for prognostication of scrub typhus severity. Methods: The risk-scoring algorithm for prognostication of scrub typhus severity developed earlier from two general hospitals in Thailand was validated using an independent dataset of scrub typhus patients in one of the hospitals from a few years later. The predictive performances of the two datasets were compared by analysis of the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AuROC. Classification of patients into non-severe, severe, and fatal cases was also compared. Results: The proportions of non-severe, severe, and fatal patients by operational definition were similar between the development and validation datasets. Patient, clinical, and laboratory profiles were also similar. Scores were similar in both datasets, both in terms of discriminating non-severe from severe and fatal patients (AuROC =88.74% versus 91.48%, P=0.324, and in discriminating fatal from severe and non-severe patients (AuROC =88.66% versus 91.22%, P=0.407. Over- and under-estimations were similar and were clinically acceptable. Conclusion: The previously developed risk-scoring algorithm for prognostication of scrub typhus severity performed similarly with the validation data and

  8. dry sausage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-08-17

    Aug 17, 2006 ... fermentation, desired pH of fermentation (4.9 - 5.0) was achieved after 24 h fermentation, at temperature 30 and. 35°C, which is the desired mesophilic condition for lactic bacterial growth. With the progress of drying, the decrease in pH due to formation of lactic acid was directly proportional to the increase ...

  9. Human factors related to time-dependent infection control measures: "Scrub the hub" for venous catheters and feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, Lindsay; Epstein, Elizabeth; Blackman, Amy; Jin, Li; Kaufman, David A

    2017-06-01

    The use of catheter hub decontamination protocols is a common practice to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections. However, few data exist on the most effective disinfection procedure prior to hub access accounting for human factors and time-dependent practices in real time in the clinical setting. An observational design with a multimodal intervention was used in this study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Direct observations on nurse compliance of scrub times with decontamination when accessing of venous catheter and feeding tube hubs were conducted during 3 phases: (1) baseline period prior to any interventions; (2) during an educational intervention phase; and (3) during a timer intervention period when using a timing device, either an actual timer or music button. Overall, both education and the timing device interventions increased the mean scrub time ± SD of venous catheter hubs. Mean baseline scrub times of 10 ± 5 seconds were lower compared with 23 ± 12 seconds after educational intervention (P music button use (P observed with scrub times of feeding tubes. Time-based infection control measures, such as scrubbing the hub, must be implemented with aids that qualify specific times to account for human factors, to ensure adherence to time-dependent measures aimed at decreasing nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Assessment of Fission Product Scrubbing in Sodium Pools Following a Core Damage Event in a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, M.; Farmer, M.; Grabaskas, D.

    2017-06-26

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated that mechanistic source term (MST) calculations are expected to be required as part of the advanced reactor licensing process. A recent study by Argonne National Laboratory has concluded that fission product scrubbing in sodium pools is an important aspect of an MST calculation for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). To model the phenomena associated with sodium pool scrubbing, a computational tool, developed as part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program, was utilized in an MST trial calculation. This tool was developed by applying classical theories of aerosol scrubbing to the decontamination of gases produced as a result of postulated fuel pin failures during an SFR accident scenario. The model currently considers aerosol capture by Brownian diffusion, inertial deposition, and gravitational sedimentation. The effects of sodium vapour condensation on aerosol scrubbing are also treated. This paper provides details of the individual scrubbing mechanisms utilized in the IFR code as well as results from a trial mechanistic source term assessment led by Argonne National Laboratory in 2016.

  11. Effects of fire on composition, biomass, and nutrients in oak scrub vegetation on John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Four stands of oak scrub two, four, eight, and 25 years since fire were sampled with permanent 15 m line transects. Percent cover by species was determined. Plant samples were analyzed for a variety of substances. Transects were resurveyed in 1985 for vegetation parameters. Nutrient pools in biomass were calculated from biomass data and tissue nutrient concentrations. Soil nutrient pools were calculated from nutrient concentrations and bulk density. Species distribution and soil chemical properties were found to be closely related to water table depth. The following fire-related conclusions are reached: (1) major structural changes occur in scrub after fire in that shrub height is reduced and requires four to six years to exceed 1 m; (2) reduction in shrub height affects the suitability of scrub for the Florida scrub jay (3) live biomass increases with time since fire; (4) nutrient concentrations in live biomass do not change with time since fire; (5) species composition and richness are little changed after fire; and (6) imposition of a continued regime of burning on a three-year cycle may have adverse impacts not indicated by the recovery of scrub from a single fire.

  12. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the salt waste processing facility caustic side solvent extraction solvent example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.9, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  13. Extraction, Scrub, and Strip Test Results for the Salt Waste Processing Facility Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges. This revision was created to correct an error. The previous revision used an incorrect set of temperature correction coefficients which resulted in slight deviations from the correct D(Cs) results.

  14. Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant community recovery in California coastal sage scrub lands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Sarah A; Endress, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California coastal sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant community recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant community recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower (P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed (P mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to coastal sage scrub recovery on the study area.

  15. POSSIBILITY OF BENEFICIATION OF SILICA SAND FROM THE CROATIAN DEPOSITS USING ATTRITION SCRUBBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sobota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To meet high quality requirements defined for specific industrial applications, the raw sand often has to be subjected to extensive physical and chemical processing. The possibility of achieving silica sand concentrate of required quality depends mostly on raw sand properties, primarily mineral impurity types and contents, and features of applied beneficiation methods. When the impurities occur in the form of oxide coatings on the surfaces of the single sand grains, attriton scrubbing is applied. By reducing the proportion of oxide coatings on the grains, the quality of sand can be improved. With the aim to determine the possibilities of the beneficiation of silica sand from significant Croatian deposits (“Vrtlinska”, “Štefanac” and “Španovica” and achieve concentrate grade complying with the requirements of domestic industry, laboratory tests were conducted on three raw sand samples with different SiO2 and impurity contents. Grain size distribution, chemical and mineral composition of raw sand samples, and the possibility of their quality improvement by applying the washing, classification and attrition scrubbing were defined by analysis of test results (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Hepatitis E Virus Induced Acute Liver Failure with Scrub Typhus Coinfection in a Pregnant Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nipun; Sharma, Megha; Biswal, Manisha; Taneja, Sunil; Batra, Nitya; Kumar, Abhay; Dhiman, Radha K

    2017-06-01

    Coinfections contribute significantly to diagnostic challenges of acute febrile illnesses, especially in endemic areas. The confusion caused by overlapping clinical features impedes timely management. Herein, we report an unusual, previously unreported case of a pregnant woman suffering from a coinfection of scrub typhus and hepatitis E virus. A 25-year-old, 31-week pregnant woman presented with jaundice for 5 days and altered sensorium for 2 days. She had features of both viral acute liver failure (ALF) and tropical infections mimicking ALF, including hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, anemia, thrombocytopenia, intravascular hemolysis, and hepatosplenomegaly. Etiological workup revealed rare coinfection of hepatitis E and scrub typhus. Despite all supportive measures, the patient succumbed to her illness (i.e., absent brainstem reflexes and intracranial bleed secondary to coagulopathy) and had poor fetal outcome, which resulted in stillbirth. ALF in a pregnant woman is a medical and obstetric emergency. It can result from varied etiologies that though differ in their incidence, mode of occurrence, and pregnancy outcome, can clinically masquerade as each other, causing diagnostic dilemma. This unusual case report highlights the significance of keeping all such possibilities in mind while managing a pregnant woman with ALF, especially in a country like India where maternal and perinatal mortality rates, the core indicators of national health, are still among the highest in the world.

  17. Hint-seeking behaviour of western scrub-jays in a metacognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive processes during memory retrieval can be tested by examining whether or not animals can assess their knowledge state when they are faced with a memory test. In a typical foraging task, food is hidden in one of the multiple tubes and the subjects are given an opportunity to check the contents of the tubes before choosing the one that they thought contained food. Following the findings from our previous study that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) can make prospective metacognition judgements, this study tested the scrub-jays' concurrent metacognition judgements. In a series of experiments, uncertainty about the food location was induced in three ways: by making the baiting process visibly unavailable, by inserting a delay between the baiting and food retrieval, and by moving the location of the bait. The jays looked into the tubes more often during the conditions that were consistent with high uncertainty. In addition, their looking behaviour was associated not with the sight of food but with information about the location of the food. These findings suggest that the jays can differentiate the states of knowing and not knowing about certain information and take appropriate action to complement their missing knowledge.

  18. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  19. Canine epidermal lipid sampling by skin scrub revealed variations between different body sites and normal and atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelbeck-Schulze, Mandy; Mischke, Reinhard; Rohn, Karl; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Naim, Hassan Y; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2014-07-10

    Previously, we evaluated a minimally invasive epidermal lipid sampling method called skin scrub, which achieved reproducible and comparable results to skin scraping. The present study aimed at investigating regional variations in canine epidermal lipid composition using the skin scrub technique and its suitability for collecting skin lipids in dogs suffering from certain skin diseases. Eight different body sites (5 highly and 3 lowly predisposed for atopic lesions) were sampled by skin scrub in 8 control dogs with normal skin. Additionally, lesional and non-lesional skin was sampled from 12 atopic dogs and 4 dogs with other skin diseases by skin scrub. Lipid fractions were separated by high performance thin layer chromatography and analysed densitometrically. No significant differences in total lipid content were found among the body sites tested in the control dogs. However, the pinna, lip and caudal back contained significantly lower concentrations of ceramides, whereas the palmar metacarpus and the axillary region contained significantly higher amounts of ceramides and cholesterol than most other body sites. The amount of total lipids and ceramides including all ceramide classes were significantly lower in both lesional and non-lesional skin of atopic dogs compared to normal skin, with the reduction being more pronounced in lesional skin. The sampling by skin scrub was relatively painless and caused only slight erythema at the sampled areas but no oedema. Histological examinations of skin biopsies at 2 skin scrubbed areas revealed a potential lipid extraction from the transition zone between stratum corneum and granulosum. The present study revealed regional variations in the epidermal lipid and ceramide composition in dogs without skin abnormalities but no connection between lipid composition and predilection sites for canine atopic dermatitis lesions. The skin scrub technique proved to be a practicable sampling method for canine epidermal lipids, revealed

  20. Coherent beam-beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    There are two physical pictures that describe the beam-beam interaction in a storage ring collider: The weak-strong and the strong-strong pictures. Both pictures play a role in determining the beam-beam behavior. This review addresses only the strong-strong picture. The corresponding beam dynamical effects are referred to as the coherent beam-beam effects. Some basic knowledge of the weak-strong picture is assumed. To be specific, two beams of opposite charges are considered. (orig.)

  1. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahn, J; Menon, C

    2013-01-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm 2 . (paper)

  2. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  3. Impact of elevated CO2 on a Florida Scrub-oak Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Bert G

    2013-01-01

    Since May of 1996, we have conducted an experiment in Florida Scrub Oak to determine the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and climate change on carbon, water, and nutrient cycling in this important terrestrial ecosystem. Florida scrub oak is the name for a collective of species occupying much of the Florida peninsula. The dominant tree species are oaks and the dwarf structure of this community makes it an excellent system in which to test hypotheses regarding the potential capacity of woody ecosystems to assimilate and sequester anthropogenic carbon. Scrub oak is fire dependent with a return cycle of 10-15 years, a time which would permit an experiment to follow the entire cycle. Our site is located on Cape Canaveral at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. After burning in 1995, we built 16 open top chambers, half of which have been fumigated with pure CO2 sufficient to raise the concentration around the plants to 350 ppm above ambient. In the intervening 10 years we have non destructively measured biomass of shoots and roots, ecosystem gas exchange using chambers and eddy flux, leaf photosynthesis and respiration, soil respiration, and relevant environmental factors such as soil water availability, temperature, light, etc. The overwhelming result from analysis of our extensive data base is that elevated CO2 has had a profound impact on this ecosystem that, overall, has resulted in increased carbon accumulation in plant shoots, roots and litter. Our measurements of net ecosystem gas exchange also indicate that the ecosystem has accumulated carbon much in excess of the increased biomass or soil carbon suggesting a substantial export of carbon through the porous, sandy soil into the water table several meters below the surface. A major discovery is the powerful interaction between the stimulation of growth, photosynthesis, and respiration by elevated CO2 and other environmental factors particularly precipitation and nitrogen. Our measurements focused attention on

  4. Recycling Possibility of the Salty Food Waste by Pyrolysis and Water Scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Eun Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Salty food waste is difficult to manage with previous methods such as composting, anaerobic digestion, and incineration, due to the hindrance of salt and the additional burden to handle high concentrations of organic wastewater produced when raw materials are cleaned. This study presents a possibility of recycling food waste as fuel without the burden of treatment washing with water by pyrolyzing and scrubbing. For this purpose, salty food waste with 3% NaCl was made using 10 materials and pyrolysis was conducted at temperature range between 200–400 °C. The result was drawn from elementary analysis (EA, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS analysis, water quality analysis and calorific value analysis of char, washed char, and washing water. The result of the EA showed that NaCl in food waste could be volatilized at a low pyrolysis temperature of 200–300 °C and it could be concentrated and fixed in char at a high pyrolysis temperature of 300–400 °C. The XPS analysis result showed that NaCl existed in form of chloride. Through the Na content result of the AAS analysis, NaCl remaining in char after water scrubbing was determined to be less than 2%. As the pyrolysis temperature increased, the chemical oxygen demand (COD value of scrubbing water decreased rapidly, but the total phosphorus and nitrogen contents decreased gradually. The cleaned pyrolysis char showed an increase of higher heating value (HHV approximately 3667–9920 J/g due to the removal of salt from the char and, especially at 300–400 °C, showed a similar HHV with normal fossil fuels. In conclusion, salty food waste, which is pyrolyzed at a temperature of 300–400 °C and cleaned by water, can be utilized as high-energy refuse derived fuel (RDF, without adverse effects, due to the volatilization of Cl and an additional process of contaminated water.

  5. Effects of Anthropogenic Emissions on the Nitrogen Cycle in the Desert Creosote Scrub Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, J.; Simunek, J.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfires are an ongoing threat to many ecosystems in Southern California. In some ecosystems, evidence suggests that high anthropogenic nitrogen deposition can increase susceptibility to fire by increasing the fuel loads and altering the plant species composition. Desert creosote scrub ecosystems are dominant throughout many low-elevation areas in the Mohave Desert and are among the ecosystems subjected to added deposition of nitrate and ammonium due to emissions from nearby agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. An understanding of how nitrogen flows through the desert creosote scrub ecosystem and of how the additional deposition affects this cycle is critical to determining how these ecosystems will change over time and assessing how the spread of fires can be mitigated. One high deposition and one low deposition desert creosote scrub site in Joshua Tree National Park have been studied for the past year in order to observe the flow of nitrogen through the soil and assess its connection to shifts in the vegetation. Extractable nitrate, extractable ammonium, and total nitrogen and carbon have been measured throughout 100cm soil profiles at each site in order to determine the fate and transport of the deposited nitrogen. Because the flow of water through the soil following the infrequent precipitation events is essential to the flow of nitrogen, dielectric water potential sensors have been installed throughout the top 70cm of soil in order to obtain hourly measurements of water potential. These measurements have been used in conjunction with weather and deposition data to model the flow of water and nitrogen through the soil using the hydrological model HYDRUS-1D. A geochemical model representing basic nitrogen reactions occurring in the soil has been started using PHREEQC coupled with HYDRUS-1D, but further modeling is necessary in order to accurately represent the complexity of the nitrogen cycle. After completion of an additional year of measurements and

  6. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available zones capable of introducing a phase shift of zero or p on the alternately out of phase rings of the TEMp0 beams into a unified phase and then focusing the rectified beam to generate a high resolution beam which has a Gaussian beam intensity distribution...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  8. Recovery of perchloroethylene scrubbing medium generated in the refabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, M.S.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.

    1976-11-01

    During the refabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel, perchloroethylene (C 2 Cl 4 ) is used as the nonmoderating scrubbing medium to remove condensable hydrocarbons, carbon soot, and uranium-bearing particulates from the off-gas streams. The process by which the contaminated perchloroethylene is recycled is discussed

  9. Noncondensable hydrogen sulfide incineration with brine scrubbing air emissions control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, W.B.; Goddard, C.B.; McClain, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the technical and institutional feasibility of incinerating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contained in geothermal noncondensable gases, and the use of geothermal brine for sulfur dioxide scrubbing and absorption as an Air Emissions Control System (AECS), for geothermal power plant, that have been documented through engineering analysis in the Phase I grant study funded through the California Department of Health Services (DOHS), Hazardous Materials Reduction Grant Program and hosted by California Energy Company (CECI). Grant funding for Phase II now has been approved to proceed with the project through the pilot plant design phase. This innovative AECS does not necessitate the use of hazardous materials or produce hazardous wastes. Cost savings were documented compared to injection pump operation or conventional AECS without the use of hazardous materials. The phase II project is to design, improve, research and develop a source reduction demonstration pilot plant geothermal noncondensable H2S incineration AECS

  10. Genetic Variation in Past and Current Landscapes: Conservation Implications Based on Six Endemic Florida Scrub Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, E.S.; Pickert, R.; Dolan, R.W.; Yahr, R.; Gordon, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    If genetic variation is often positively correlated with population sizes and the presence of nearby populations and suitable habitats, landscape proxies could inform conservation decisions without genetic analyses. For six Florida scrub endemic plants (Dicerandra frutescens, Eryngium cuneifolium, Hypericum cumulicola, Liatris ohlingerae, Nolina brittoniana, and Warea carteri), we relate two measures of genetic variation, expected heterozygosity and alleles per polymorphic locus (APL), to population size and landscape variables. Presettlement areas were estimated based on soil preferences and GIS soils maps. Four species showed no genetic patterns related to population or landscape factors. The other two species showed significant but inconsistent patterns. For Liatris ohlingerae, APL was negatively related to population density and weakly, positively related to remaining presettlement habitat within 32 km. For Nolina brittoniana, APL increased with population size. The rather weak effects of population area/size and both past and current landscape structures suggest that genetic variation needs to be directly measured and not inferred for conservation planning.

  11. Numerical Model of SO2 Scrubbing with Seawater Applied to Marine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamas M. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a CFD model to study sulphur dioxide (SO2 absorption in seawater. The focus is on the treatment of marine diesel engine exhaust gas. Both seawater and distilled water were compared to analyze the effect of seawater alkalinity. The results indicate that seawater is more appropriate than distilled water due to its alkalinity, obtaining almost 100% cleaning efficiency for the conditions analyzed. This SO2 reduction meets the limits of SOx emission control areas (SECA when operating on heavy fuel oil. These numerical simulations were satisfactory validated with experimental tests. Such data are essential in designing seawater scrubbers and judging the operating cost of seawater scrubbing compared to alternative fuels.

  12. Beam-beam and impedance

    CERN Document Server

    White, S.

    2014-07-17

    As two counter-rotating beams interact they can give rise to coherent dipole modes. Under the influence of impedance these coherent beam-beam modes can couple to higher order head-tail modes and lead to strong instabilities. A fully self-consistent approach including beam-beam and impedance was used to characterize this new coupled mode instability and study possible cures such as a transverse damper and high chromaticity.

  13. Beam cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Danared, H

    2006-01-01

    Beam cooling is the technique of reducing the momentum spread and increasing the phase-space density of stored particle beams. This paper gives an introduction to beam cooling and Liouville’s theorem, and then it describes the three methods of active beam cooling that have been proven to work so far, namely electron cooling, stochastic cooling, and laser cooling. Ionization cooling is also mentioned briefly.

  14. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelbury, J.M.; Smith, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies with directed collision-free beams of particles continue to play an important role in the development of modern physics and chemistry. The deflections suffered by such beams as they pass through electric and magnetic fields or laser radiation provide some of the most direct information about the individual constituents of the beam; the scattering observed when two beams intersect yields important data about the intermolecular forces responsible for the scattering. (author)

  15. High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ijlee2003@medimail.co.kr; Im, Hyoung June [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could

  16. High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop; Im, Hyoung June

    2012-01-01

    Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could

  17. Power requirements of biogas upgrading by water scrubbing and biomethane compression: Comparative analysis of various plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzianowski, Wojciech M.; Wylock, Christophe E.; Marciniak, Przemysław A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Insights into power requirements of biomethane production from biogas are provided. • Process model is constructed, validated and simulated. • High-pressure and low-pressure plant operation in different configurations is compared. - Abstract: Biogas upgrading by water scrubbing followed by biomethane compression is an environmentally benign process. It may be achieved using various plant configurations characterised by various power requirements with associated effects on biomethane sustainability. Therefore, the current study has been undertaken to systematically investigate the power requirements of a range of water scrubbing options. Two groups of water scrubbing are analysed: (1) high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) and (2) near-atmospheric pressure water scrubbing (NAPWS). A water scrubbing plant model is constructed, experimentally validated and simulated for seven upgrading plant configurations. Simulation results show that the power requirement of biogas upgrading in HPWS plants is mainly associated with biogas compression. In contrast, in NAPWS plants the main power is required for water pumping. In both plants the compression of the biomethane from atmosphereic pressure to 20 MPa also contributes remarkably. It is observed that the lowest specific power requirement can be obtained for a NAPWS plant without water regeneration (0.24 kW h/Nm 3 raw biogas) but this plant requires cheap water supply, e.g. outlet water from a sewage treatment plant or river. The second is HPWS without flash (0.29 kW h/Nm 3 raw biogas). All other HPWS with flash and NAPWS with water regeneration plants have specific power requirements between 0.30 and 0.33 kW h/Nm 3 raw biogas. Biogas compression without upgrading requires about 0.29 kW h/Nm 3 raw biogas. The thermodynamic efficiency of biogas upgrading is between 2.2% and 9.8% depending on the plant configuration while biomethane compression efficiency is higher, about 55%. This result implies that the

  18. Impact of Aliquat R336 Addition on Organic lodide Retention in Containment Venting Scrubbing Solutions for Mitigation of Severe Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeh, P.; Satahl, A.; Funke, F.; Buhlmann, S.

    2011-01-01

    To mitigate severe accident situations Filtered Containment Venting Systems have been designed, internationally qualified and implemented in modern NPP's in order to minimize radionuclide release to environment in case of containment pressure reduction via venting. Main focus was given to the reliable and efficient aerosol retention. In addition also efficient iodine retention was requested, as this element has significant activity content in nuclear fuel in combination with high volatility and radiotoxicity. Therefore, effort is made to reduce the iodine activity in containment and venting gases. State-of-the-art containment venting scrubbing solutions use a solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate in order to wash out volatile iodine species. With such a solution high retention efficiencies for elemental iodine and hydrogen iodide are achieved. Nevertheless, the retention of organic iodide species in this solution is not satisfying and the search for improvements is ongoing. A possible additive presented in literature is Aliquat 336 promising improved retention of volatile organic iodide species in scrubbing solutions. The effectiveness of such an additive was tested at elevated temperatures and pressures simulating containment venting conditions. The retention of organic iodide was tested in a scrubber test facility with and without addition of Aliquat 336 using an alkaline scrubbing solution containing thiosulfate. Tests were performed at a temperature range between 80 degree centigrade and 130 degree centigrade using steam air carrier gas containing radioactive 131I labeled methyl iodide. In accordance to literature the tests showed that Aliquat 336 addition can enhance the retention of methyl iodide in scrubbing solution at temperatures below 110 degree centigrade. Enhanced retentions of up to a factor of 3 were observed. Comparable improvements in methyl iodide retention were also achieved using packing material in the scrubber keeping the

  19. Development of neutral beam source using electron beam excited plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yasuhiro; Hamagaki, Manabu; Mise, Takaya; Hara, Tamio

    2011-01-01

    A low-energy neutral beam (NB) source, which consists of an electron-beam-excited plasma (EBEP) source and two carbon electrodes, has been developed for damageless etching of ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) devices. It has been confirmed that the Ar ion beam energy was controlled by the acceleration voltage and the beam profile had good uniformity over the diameter of 80 mm. Dry etching of a Si wafer at the floating potential has been carried out by Ar NB. Si sputtering yield by an Ar NB clearly depends on the acceleration voltage. This result shows that the NB has been generated through the charge exchange reaction from the ion beam in the process chamber. (author)

  20. Impurity of Sulfur Layers and Magmatic Gas Scrubbing: Implications for Gas Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, T.

    2017-12-01

    The evidence of bodies of elemental sulfur (Se) beneath acid crater lakes at the summit of composite active volcanoes has been recognized several decades ago (Oppenheimer and Stevenson, 1989; Christenson and Woods, 1993). But Se accumulation was already hypothesized a century ago at Kusatzu Shirane (Japan) based on the observation of sulfur spherules floating on its crater-lake (Ohashi, 1919). Since these pioneering works, other studies have focused on understanding key aspects of molten sulfur bodies, considered a feature unique of volcanic lakes. Instead, it is reasonable to assume that Se bodies occur in several volcanic settings because a) several reactions may lead to Se deposition from S-bearing gases, and b) crater-lakes, surface expressions of hydrothermal systems, are transient features. The scrubbing of several magmatic gases, some of which critical for volcano monitoring, has been attributed to ground/surface waters (Symonds et al. 2001). Nevertheless, gas scrubbing could reflect viscosity variations of impure Se within hydrothermal systems. Industrial experiments indicated that impurities (organics, H2S, ammonia, HCl, HF, HBr, HI) hinder Se polymerization at T ≥ 160ºC, allowing viscosity to remain low for long time depending on the maximum T achieved and heating rates (Bacon and Fanelli, 1943). However, a prolonged heating destroys the viscosity-modifying substances (e.g. H2Sx formed by reactions with organics, H2S, or ammonia) and dramatic Se viscosity increases occur after a certain number of heating and cooling cycles. A prolonged boiling of Se with organics was observed to release H2S, following H2Sx disruption. Some gases (e.g. SO2) do not affect Se viscosity. In volcanic environments gases such as SO2, CO2 could escape under Selow viscosity regimes. Also, halogens absence in gas emissions could be caused by their participation in reactions within S-layers causing its viscosity to remain low. More data are needed to validate the hypothesis

  1. Beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the open-quotes Boosterclose quotes and open-quotes ATLASclose quotes linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates

  2. Scrub typhus meningoencephalitis, a diagnostic challenge for clinicians: A hospital based study from North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS involvement is a known complication of scrub typhus which range from mild meningitis to frank meninigoencephalitis.Aims and objectives: To study the clinical feature, laboratory parameters and response to treatment of scrub typhus meningitis/meningoencephalitis.Methods and Materials: This is a hospital based prospective observational study from North Eastern India. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and positive serological test (Weil's Felix test and IgM antibody card test.Results: 13 patients of scrub typhus with features of meningitis/meningoencephalitis were included. The mean duration of fever before presentation was 5.61±3.08 days and 4 (30.76 % patients had eschar. Altered sensorium, headache, seizure and meningeal sign were present in 13 (100%, 13 (100%, 6 (46.15% and 10 (76.92% patients respectively. Mean CSF protein, glucose and Adenosine deaminase was 152.16±16.88mg/dl, 55.23±21.7mg/dl, and 16.98±7.37U/L respectively. Mean total count of CSF leukocyte and lymphocyte percentage was 46.07±131 cell/cumm and 98.66±3.09% respectively. Tablet doxycycline with or without injection azithromycin was used and that shows good response 15.38% of patients died and all of them had multi organ dysfunction. Conclusion: Meningoencephalitis is a common manifestation of scrub typhus and diagnosis requires high degree of clinical suspicion which if diagnosed early and specific treatment started, patients usually recover completely with few complications.

  3. A simplified model of aerosol scrubbing by a water pool overlying core debris interacting with concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.; Sprung, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    A classic model of aerosol scrubbing from bubbles rising through water is applied to the decontamination of gases produced during core debris interactions with concrete. The model, originally developed by Fuchs, describes aerosol capture by diffusion, sedimentation, and inertial impaction. This original model for spherical bubbles is modified to account for ellipsoidal distortion of the bubbles. Eighteen uncertain variables are identified in the application of the model to the decontamination of aerosols produced during core debris interactions with concrete by a water pool of specified depth and subcooling. These uncertain variables include properties of the aerosols, the bubbles, the water and the ambient pressure. Results are analyzed using a nonparametric, order statistical analysis that allows quantitative differentiation of stochastic and phenomenological uncertainty. The sampled values of the decontamination factors are used to construct estimated probability density functions for the decontamination factor at confidence levels of 50%, 90% and 95%. The decontamination factors for pools 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 cm deep and subcooling levels of 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 70 degrees C are correlated by simple polynomial regression. These polynomial equations can be used to estimate decontamination factors at prescribed confidence levels

  4. Genetic Variation in Past and Current Landscapes: Conservation Implications Based on Six Endemic Florida Scrub Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Menges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available If genetic variation is often positively correlated with population sizes and the presence of nearby populations and suitable habitats, landscape proxies could inform conservation decisions without genetic analyses. For six Florida scrub endemic plants (Dicerandra frutescens, Eryngium cuneifolium, Hypericum cumulicola, Liatris ohlingerae, Nolina brittoniana, and Warea carteri, we relate two measures of genetic variation, expected heterozygosity and alleles per polymorphic locus (APL, to population size and landscape variables. Presettlement areas were estimated based on soil preferences and GIS soils maps. Four species showed no genetic patterns related to population or landscape factors. The other two species showed significant but inconsistent patterns. For Liatris ohlingerae, APL was negatively related to population density and weakly, positively related to remaining presettlement habitat within 32 km. For Nolina brittoniana, APL increased with population size. The rather weak effects of population area/size and both past and current landscape structures suggest that genetic variation needs to be directly measured and not inferred for conservation planning.

  5. The Diversity and Geographical Structure of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains from Scrub Typhus Patients in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Sonthayanon, Piengchan; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N; Feil, Edward J; Day, Nicholas P J

    2015-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a disease transmitted by Leptotrombidium mites which is responsible for a severe and under-reported public health burden throughout Southeast Asia. Here we use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to characterize 74 clinical isolates from three geographic locations in the Lao PDR (Laos), and compare them with isolates described from Udon Thani, northeast Thailand. The data confirm high levels of diversity and recombination within the natural O. tsutsugamushi population, and a rate of mixed infection of ~8%. We compared the relationships and geographical structuring of the strains and populations using allele based approaches (eBURST), phylogenetic approaches, and by calculating F-statistics (FST). These analyses all point towards low levels of population differentiation between isolates from Vientiane and Udon Thani, cities which straddle the Mekong River which defines the Lao/Thai border, but with a very distinct population in Salavan, southern Laos. These data highlight how land use, as well as the movement of hosts and vectors, may impact on the epidemiology of zoonotic infections.

  6. Age, sex and social influences on adult survival in the cooperatively breeding Karoo Scrub-robin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Penn; Martin, Thomas E.; Taylor, Andrew; Braae, Anne; Altwegg, Res

    2016-01-01

    Among cooperatively breeding species, helpers are hypothesised to increase the survival of breeders by reducing breeder workload in offspring care and increased group vigilance against predators. Furthermore, parental nepotism or other benefits of group living may provide a survival benefit to young that delay dispersal to help. We tested these hypotheses in the Karoo Scrub-robin (Cercotrichas coryphaeus), a long-lived, and facultative cooperatively breeding species in which male helpers make substantial contributions to the care of young. We found that annual breeder survival in the presence of helpers did not differ detectably from breeders without helpers or breeders that lost helpers. Furthermore, helpers did not gain a survival benefit from deferred breeding; apparent survival did not differ detectably between male helpers and male breeders followed from one year old. These results are consistent with other studies suggesting a lack of adult survival benefits among species where breeders do not substantially reduce workloads when helpers are present. They are also consistent with the hypothesis that males that delay dispersal make the ‘best of a bad job’ by helping on their natal territory to gain indirect fitness benefits when they are unable to obtain a territory vacancy nearby.

  7. Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) Densities in Coastal Scrub and Slash Pine Flatwoods in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1994-01-01

    Densities of gopher tortoises were compared with habitat characteristics in scrub and in flatwood habitats on the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Tortoises were distributed widely among habitat types and did not have higher densities in well-drained (oak-palmetto) than in poorly-drained (saw palmetto) habitats. Fall densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.7 individuals/ha in disturbed habitat to 0.0 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat. Spring densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.5 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat to 0.7 individuals/ha in oak-palmetto habitat. Densities of tortoises were correlated positively with the percent herbaceous cover, an indicator of food resources. Plots were divided into three burn classes; these were areas burned within three years, burned four to seven years, and unburned for more than seven years prior to the study. Relationships between densities of tortoises and time-since-fire classes were inconsistent.

  8. Impact of fire on the macrofungal diversity in scrub jungles of south-west India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammatanda A. Greeshma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortnightly survey in control and fire-impacted regions of scrub jungle of south-west coast of India during south-west monsoon (50 m2 quadrats up to 10 weeks yielded 34 and 25 species of macrofungi, respectively. The species as well as sporocarp richness were the highest during the fourth week, while the diversity attained the highest during the second week in control region. In fire-impacted region, the species and sporocarp richness and diversity peaked at sixth week. Seven species common to both regions were Chlorophyllum molybdites, Lepiota sp., Leucocoprinus birnbaumii, Marasmius sp. 3, Polyporus sp., Schizophyllum commune and Tetrapyrgos nigripes. The overall sporocarp richness was higher in fire-impacted than in control region. The Jaccard’s similarity between regions was 13.5%, while fortnights of regions ranged from 0% (10th week to 11.7% (eighth week. Control region showed single-species dominance by Xylaria hypoxylon, while multispecies dominance by Cyathus striatus and Lentinus squarrosulus in fire-impacted region. Except for air temperature, nine abiotic factors significantly differed between control and fire-impacted regions. The Pearson correlation was positive between species richness and phosphorus content in fire-impacted region (r = 0.696, while sporocarp richness was negatively correlated with pH in control region (r = −0.640. Economically viable species were 12 and 10 without overlap in control and fire-impacted regions, respectively.

  9. Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozainee, M.; Salleh, M.; Mutahharah, M.M.; Anwar Johari

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO 3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm 3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm 3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO 3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO 3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

  10. Development of a rapid response plan for intraoperative emergencies: the Circulate, Scrub, and Technical Assistance Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, David; Betti, Diane; Scala, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Unplanned intraoperative events are inevitable and cause stress and inefficiency among staff. We believe that developing a technical rapid response team with explicitly defined, narrow roles would reduce the amount of chaos during such emergencies. This article provides a detailed description of the development and implementation of such a program. In-situ simulation of an intraoperative emergency was used for a formal assessment of the current practice. Debriefing sessions identified areas of improvement and solicited solutions. A multidisciplinary working group then developed and implemented the technical rapid response team based on the needs assessment. The program was designed to create a Circulating, Scrubbing, and Technical Assistance Team that helps with equipment, supplies, anesthesia, and communication. We anticipate the program will foster a culture of safety, and promote positive relationships and attitudes of the entire multidisciplinary team. In the future, research regarding patient outcomes and staff satisfaction and safety attitudes may help provide objective evidence of the benefits of the program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Artificial nest predation in hedgerows and scrub forest in a human-dominated landscape of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuria, Iriana; Gates, J. Edward; Castellanos, Ignacio

    2007-03-01

    Hedgerows as well as other narrow corridors could be valuable habitats for birds in regions of intensive agriculture, however, it is still not clear how successful breeding birds are in different types of hedgerows as compared to birds nesting in their natural habitats. We used artificial nests to examine whether hedgerows were sinks (ecological traps) for birds by comparing rates of predation in two types of hedgerows with different vegetation structure (simple and complex), and in a tract of scrub forest in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico. We determined also the types of predators responsible for egg predation. Ground and elevated nests were baited with one Japanese quail Coturnix japonica egg and one plasticine egg and placed alternately along transects. Significantly, greater predation rates were found in scrub forest and complex hedgerows than in simple hedgerows. Higher predation rates in complex habitats seemed to reflect the higher number of predator types found there. The most important predator types were carnivores followed by rodents, birds, and humans. Carnivores and rodents mainly predated ground nests, whereas birds and humans predated elevated nests. Simple hedgerows in this landscape appeared to offer relatively safe nest sites in terms of predation pressure when compared to more complex habitats (complex hedgerows and scrub forest).

  12. A 6-month comparison of toothbrushing efficacy between the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass methods in visually impaired students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutkeeree, Apiwan; Rojlakkanawong, Norawan; Yimcharoen, Veeritta

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass methods of toothbrushing in visually impaired students for 6 months. Sixty visually impaired students, aged 10-12 years, were recruited to a randomized controlled clinical trial. At baseline, plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were assessed, and then subjects were randomly divided into the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass groups. Subjects received verbal and tactile toothbrushing instruction and used their assigned methods twice daily. They were recalled at 1 and 6 months for clinical measurement and reinforce of instruction. Significance of PI and GI over time was compared using the paired t-test and between brushing group at each time point using the t-test. Over the 6-month period, there were significant reduction from baseline for the mean PI and GI in both groups (P 0.05), however. Both the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass methods can be effectively reduced plaque index and gingival index in visually impaired students. The efficacy of both methods was not different, however. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Rodents Captured following a Scrub Typhus Outbreak at a Military Training Base, Bothong District, Chonburi Province, Central Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rodkvamtook, Wuttikon; Ruang-areerate, Toon; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Richards, Allen L.; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Dharadhida; Sangjun, Noppadon; Prasartvit, Anchana; Jatisatienr, Araya; Jatisatienr, Chaiwat

    2011-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a vector-borne disease transmitted by infected chiggers (trombiculid mite larvae). In 2002, an outbreak of scrub typhus occurred among Royal Thai Army troops during the annual field training at a military base in Bothong district, Chonburi province, central Thailand. This report describes the outbreak investigation including its transmission cycle. Results showed that 33.9% of 17...

  14. A Conservation Strategy for the Florida Scrub-Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: An Initial Scientific Basis for Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, D. R.; Larson, V. L.; Schaub, R.; Duncan, B. W.; Schmalzer, P. A.; Oddy, D. M.; Smith, R. B.; Adrian, F.; Hill, H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) is an indicator of ecosystem integrity of Florida scrub, an endangered ecosystem that requires frequent fire. One of the largest populations of this federally threatened species occurs on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Population trends were predicted using population modeling and field data on reproduction and survival of Florida Scrub-Jays collected from 1988 - 1995. Analyses of historical photography indicated that habitat suitability has been declining for 30 years. Field data and computer simulations suggested that the population declined by at least 40% and will decline by another 40% in 1 0 years, if habitat management is not greatly intensified. Data and computer simulations suggest that habitat suitability cannot deviate greatly from optimal for the jay population to persist. Landscape trajectories of vegetation structure, responsible for declining habitat suitability, are associated with the disruption of natural fire regimes. Prescribed fire alone can not reverse the trajectories. A recovery strategy was developed, based on studies of Florida Scrub-Jays and scrub vegetation. A reserve design was formulated based on conservation science principles for scrub ecosystems. The strategy emphasizes frequent fire to restore habitat, but includes mechanical tree cutting for severely degraded areas. Pine thinning across large areas can produce rapid increases in habitat quality. Site-specific strategies will need to be developed, monitored, and modified to achieve conditions suitable for population persistence.

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  16. Elliptical beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandres, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2008-12-08

    A very general beam solution of the paraxial wave equation in elliptic cylindrical coordinates is presented. We call such a field an elliptic beam (EB). The complex amplitude of the EB is described by either the generalized Ince functions or the Whittaker-Hill functions and is characterized by four parameters that are complex in the most general situation. The propagation through complex ABCD optical systems and the conditions for square integrability are studied in detail. Special cases of the EB are the standard, elegant, and generalized Ince-Gauss beams, Mathieu-Gauss beams, among others.

  17. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available positions of p zeros of intensity distributions on the Gaussian beam, resulting to a generation of TEMp0 beams where there are minimum losses. The LGBs are well-known family of exact orthogonal solutions of free-space paraxial wave equation in cylindrical...

  18. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2008-01-01

    Most beam measurements are based on the electro-magnetic interaction of fields induced by the beam with their environment. Beam current transformers as well as beam position monitors are based on this principle. The signals induced in the sensors must be amplified and shaped before they are converted into numerical values. These values are further treated numerically in order to extract meaningful machine parameter measurements. The lecture introduces the architecture of an instrument and shows where in the treatment chain digital signal analysis can be introduced. Then the use of digital signal processing is presented using tune measurements, orbit and trajectory measurements as well as beam loss detection and longitudinal phase space tomography as examples. The hardware as well as the treatment algorithms and their implementation on Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) or in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are presented.

  19. Drying textile yarns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullough, H.C.

    1987-05-20

    The material drying apparatus described comprises a moisture withdrawal or drying section, wherein a tray carrying textile yarn bobbins is removably installed, a heat input section and recirculating ducting for recirculating a flow of drying gas between the heat input and withdrawal sections such that moisture taken from the material in the moisture withdrawal section is removed from the drying gas in the heat input section. A receptable means is provided for the collection of condensate. Preferably the heat input section includes a heat pump: thus the drying gas passing from the drying section laden with moisture can be directed through a condensing section of the heat pump for dehumidification.

  20. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  1. Comparative effectiveness of azithromycin for treating scrub typhus: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Szu-Chia; Cheng, Yu-Jyun; Lin, Chao-Hsu; Lei, Wei-Te; Chang, Hung-Yang; Lee, Ming-Dar; Liu, Jui-Ming; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chi, Hsin; Peng, Chun-Chih; Tsai, Te-Lung; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease that remains an important health threat in endemic areas. Appropriate anti-rickettsial treatment ensures a successful recovery. Doxycycline is a recommended drug, but it is contraindicated in pregnant women and young children. Azithromycin is a safer alternative drug, but its effectiveness remains largely unclear. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of azithromycin. Studies that investigated azithromycin in treating scrub typhus were systematically identified from electronic databases up to December 2016. Information regarding study population, disease severity, treatment protocols, and responses was extracted and analyzed. In this review, 5 studies were included, which comprised a total of 427 patients. When comparing the treatment failure rate, we observed a favorable outcome in patients treated with azithromycin (risk ratio [RR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-2.98). However, patients in the azithromycin group had longer time to defervescence (mean difference 4.38 hours, 95% CI -2.51 to 11.27) and higher rate of fever for more than 48 hours (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.81-2.12). Moreover, patients treated with azithromycin had less adverse effects (RR 0.8, 95% CI 0.42-1.52). Azithromycin is as effective as other anti-rickettsial drugs with higher treatment success rates, lower frequency of adverse effects, and longer time to defervescence (GRADE 2B). Therefore, it is reasonable to use azithromycin as the first-line treatment against scrub typhus. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the effectiveness of azithromycin in specific patient groups, at high dose and influence of drug resistance.

  2. Dynamics of vegetation and soils of oak/saw palmetto scrub after fire: Observations from permanent transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, G. Ross

    1991-01-01

    Ten permanent 15 m transects previously established in two oak/saw palmetto scrub stands burned in December 1986, while two transects remained unburned. Vegetation in the greater than 0.5 m and the less than 0.5 m layers on these transects was sampled at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months postburn and determined structural features of the vegetation (height, percent bare ground, total cover). The vegetation data were analyzed from each sampling by height layer using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Vegetation data for the greater than 0.5 m layer for the entire time sequence were combined and analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Soils were sampled at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postburn and analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na), NO3-N, NH4-N, Al, available metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn), and PO4-P. Shrub species recovered at different rates postfire with saw palmetto reestablishing cover greater than 0.5 m within one year, but the scrub oaks had not returned to preburn cover greater than 0.5 m in 3 years after the fire. These differences in growth rates resulted in dominance shifts after the fire with saw palmetto increasing relative to the scrub oaks. Overall changes in species richness were minor, although changes occurred in species richness by height layers due to different growth rates. Soils of well drained and poorly drained sites differed markedly. Soil responses to the fire appeared minor. Soil pH increased at 6 and 12 months postfire; calcium increased at 6 months postburn. Nitrate-nitrogen increased at 12 months postburn. Low values of conductivity, PO4-P, Mg, K, Na, and Fe at 12 months postburn may be related to heavy rainfall the preceding month. Seasonal variability in some soil parameters appeared to occur.

  3. Evaluation of novel scrubbing agents for the absorption of solvents; Verfahrenstechnische Bewertung neuartiger Waschfluessigkeiten zur Absorption von Loesungsmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaber, K. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Kaeltetechnik; Philippe, J.L. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Kaeltetechnik; Weisweiler, W. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technik; Pinter, A. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technik

    1996-10-01

    Investigations on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the absorption of volatile compounds in high boiling scrubbing agents have been carried out in a previous PEF-project. Within this project it was shown that besides glycol ethers other compounds may be used as scrubbing agents. These novel agents could open new fields of application for absorption/desorption processes in waste gas purification. Based on this work, the new scrubbing liquids are evaluated in the present study by means of simulation programs for absorption/desorption processes which enable the selection of suitable scrubbing liquids for economic operation. The following high boiling liquids have been studied: Tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEG), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (P250) and 500 (P500), polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether (PDBE), adipic acid bis-2-ethylhexylester (ASE), phtalic acid bis-2-ethylhexylester (PSE), maleic acid dibutylester (MDB), phtalic acid dibutylester (PDB), dimethylpolysiloxane (DMPS), 2-ethyl hexanoic acid (EHS), propylene carbonate (PC) and N-methylpyrrolidon (NMP). The simulation results for the absorption of dichloromethane show that the process works with the best profitability with ASE, PC and all the glycol ethers except P500. For all other compounds, the operating costs for steam and cooling water are much higher. If the washing agent is hygroscopic, water (air humidity) can be absorbed too. Therefore, the influence of water on the absorption capacity of the washing agent has been investigated. The activity coefficients of several organic compounds in TEG in the presence of water have been measured and the results show that the influence of water can be neglected. (orig.) [Deutsch] In einem vom PEF gefoerderten Vorhaben wurden Untersuchungen zur Thermodynamik und Kinetik der Absorption umweltrelevanter fluechtiger organischer Verbindungen in schwersiedenden Waschfluessigkeiten durchgefuehrt. Dabei zeigte sich, dass neben den heute fast

  4. Faunal responses to fire in chaparral and sage scrub in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Elizabeth; Keeley, Jon E.; Witter, Marti

    2015-01-01

    Impact of fire on California shrublands has been well studied but nearly all of this work has focused on plant communities. Impact on and recovery of the chaparral fauna has received only scattered attention; this paper synthesizes what is known in this regard for the diversity of animal taxa associated with California shrublands and outlines the primary differences between plant and animal responses to fire. We evaluated the primary faunal modes of resisting fire effects in three categories: 1) endogenous survival in a diapause or diapause-like stage, 2) sheltering in place within unburned refugia, or 3) fleeing and recolonizing. Utilizing these patterns in chaparral and sagescrub, as well as some studies on animals in other mediterranean-climate ecosystems, we derived generalizations about how plants and animals differ in their responses to fire impacts and their post fire recovery. One consequence of these differences is that variation in fire behavior has a much greater potential to affect animals than plants. For example, plants recover from fire endogenously from soil-stored seeds and resprouts, so fire size plays a limited role in determining recovery patterns. However, animals that depend on recolonization of burned sites from metapopulations may be greatly affected by fire size. Animal recolonization may also be greatly affected by regional land use patterns that affect colonization corridors, whereas such regional factors play a minimal role in plant community recovery. Fire characteristics such as rate of spread and fire intensity do not appear to play an important role in determining patterns of chaparral and sage scrub plant recovery after fire. However, these fire behavior characteristics may have a profound role in determining survivorship of some animal populations as slow-moving, smoldering combustion may limit survivorship of animals in burrows, whereas fast-moving, high intensity fires may affect survivorship of animals in above ground refugia or

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es ... the tear film. It makes up most of what we see as tears. This layer cleans the ...

  6. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a timeless and rather complete theoretical and experimental treatment of electric and magnetic resonance molecular-beam experiments for studying the radio frequency spectra of atoms and molecules. The theory of interactions of the nucleus with atomic and molecular fields is extensively presented. Measurements of atomic and nuclear magnetic moments, electric multipole moments, and atomic fine and hyperfine structure are detailed. Useful but somewhat outdated chapters on gas kinetics, molecular beam design, and experimental techniques are also included

  7. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  8. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  9. Electron Cloud Observations during LHC Operation with 25 ns Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kevin; Iadarola, Giovanni; Mether, Lotta; Romano, Annalisa; Rumolo, Giovanni; Schenk, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While during the Run 1 (2010-2012) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) most of the integrated luminosity was produced with 50 ns bunch spacing, for the Run 2 start-up (2015) it was decided to move to the nominal bunch spacing of 25 ns. As expected, with this beam configuration strong electron cloud effects were observed in the machine, which had to be mitigated with dedicated 'scrubbing' periods at injection energy. This enabled to start the operation with 25 ns beams at 6.5 TeV, but e-cloud effects continued to pose challenges while gradually increasing the number of circulating bunch trains. This contribution will review the encountered limitations and the mitigation measures that where put in place and will discuss possible strategies for further performance gain.

  10. Bats ecology in the Dry Tropical Forest of Nariño (Colombia and some commentaries about their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Cabrera-Ojeda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests are considered as threatened ecosystems in Colombia, because they are located in areas with intensive human activities. However, the effects of habitat loss on the distribution and abundance of bats in this region are little known. The purpose of this study was to analyze species richness, composition and relative abundance of bats in three vegetation types with different degrees of intervention in the Tropical Dry Forest of Nariño (Mesi: Intervened dry thorn scrub, Mesc: Preserve dry thorn scrub, Bsi: Intervened semideciduous tropical forest, Colombia. We captured bats using 10 mist nets over 24 nights (eight nights in each vegetation type. Nine species were recorded from the capture of 60 specimens. The Mesc had the higher richness (6 species, while the Mesi had the lower richness (4 species. This is probably related with the high degree of human disturbance in the area. Sorensen index (0.33-0.38 indicated that the three populations represent the same community. A. lituratus (Dtsi, A. planirostris (Tsfi and C. perspicillata (Dtsp showed the lower abundance, this condition has been associated with forest in process of regeneration or forest with human intervention. Although the best preserved area is the Mesc, criteria as the low species richness, dominance of the three bat species and the presence of Desmodus rotundus suggest that the degree of human intervention is similar in the three types of vegetation. Therefore it is necessary to establish bat conservation programs and restoration projects in the area.

  11. A comparative evaluation of the Scrub and Bass Methods of toothbrushing with flossing as an adjunct (in fifth and sixth graders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E

    1976-01-01

    The Scrub and Bass Methods of toothbrushing with flossing as an adjunct were evaluated to determine which is most effective in eliminating or reducing plaque and gingivitis in 5th and 6th grade school children. Three hundred and eleven children were randomly selected and placed in five groups (Scrub, Scrub-Floss, Bass, Bass-Floss, Comparison). Four Method groups went through four weeks of daily supervised toothbrushing with four dental hygienists, while the Comparison group received no supervised instructions. There was a marked effect on oral hygiene and gingival conditions at the end of the experimental period in all four groups with no one method superior to another. Peer group intercommunication probably accounts for the improvement in the comparison group. PMID:984277

  12. Recovery of actinides from TBP-Na2Co3 scrub-waste solutions: the ARALEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Mason, G.W.; Leonard, R.A.; Ziegler, A.A.

    1979-08-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na 2 CO 3 scrub-waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory-scale countercurrent extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, uses 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H 2 MBP) from acidified Na 2 CO 3 scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds, which also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H 2 MBP to complex actinides. Thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds (e.g., detergents) that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. 20 figures, 6 tables

  13. Extraction of DBP and MBP from actinides: application to the recovery of actinides from TBP-sodium carbonate scrub solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Mason, G.W.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Leonard, R.A.; Bernstein, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na 2 CO 3 scrub waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory scale counter-current extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, utilizes 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H 2 MBP) from acidified Na 2 CO 3 scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H 2 MBP to complex actinides and thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process is relatively simple and involves inexpensive and readily available chamicals. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. One such application is the removal of detergents from laundry or clean-up solutions contaminated with actinides

  14. Quantum beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    Present state and future prospect are described on quantum beams for medical use. Efforts for compactness of linac for advanced cancer therapy have brought about the production of machines like Accuray's CyberKnife and TOMOTHERAPY (Tomo Therapy Inc.) where the acceleration frequency of X-band (9-11 GHz) is used. For cervical vein angiography by the X-band linac, a compact hard X-ray source is developed which is based on the (reverse) Compton scattering through laser-electron collision. More intense beam and laser are necessary at present. A compact machine generating the particle beam of 10 MeV-1 GeV (laser-plasma accelerator) for cancer therapy is also developed using the recent compression technique (chirped-pulse amplification) to generate laser of >10 TW. Tokyo University is studying for the electron beam with energy of GeV order, for the laser-based synchrotron X-ray, and for imaging by the short pulse ion beam. Development of advanced compact accelerators is globally attempted. In Japan, a virtual laboratory by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a working group of universities and research facilities through the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in 2001 for practical manufacturing of the above-mentioned machines for cancer therapy and for angiography. Virtual Factory (Inc.), a business venture, is to be stood in future. (N.I.)

  15. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  16. Ash Deposition Mechanisms and Plume Scrubbing in the 2008 Okmok Eruption, Umnak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unema, J. A.; Ort, M. H.; Larsen, J. F.; Neal, C. A.; Schaefer, J. R.; Webley, P.

    2010-12-01

    laminae interpreted as ‘mud rain’ deposits, very fine ‘ash mist’ deposits, and fine-medium ash laminae interpreted as wind-reworked. These fine-grained units compose the majority of deposit thicknesses in the caldera and on the upper flanks (0-7 km from vents) but thin more rapidly than basal coarse units and disappear altogether at 15 km from vents. We interpret that excess water in the plume scrubbed the fine-medium ash and emplaced ash pellets and ‘mud rain’ in proximal and medial sites, leaving little fine and medium ash to deposit in distal sites. Dramatic local variations in thicknesses of fine deposits were produced by localized storms of ash pellets and mud rain deposited by columns reaching 2-12 km above sea level. Correlating the distribution of upper deposits with infrared satellite images of plumes throughout the eruption will better control timing and height of columns depositing ash pellets and mud rain. Grain size, shape, and componentry analysis of deposits, including ash pellets and mud rain, will also reveal differences between these deposition mechanisms.

  17. BEAM-BEAM SIMULATIONS FOR DOUBLE-GAUSSIAN BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MONTAG, C.; MALITSKY, N.; BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-05-16

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular gaussian beams and identical tune shift parameters.

  18. BEAM-BEAM SIMULATIONS FOR DOUBLE-GAUSSIAN BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MONTAG, C.; MALITSKY, N.; BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of loW--frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular gaussian beams and identical tune shift parameters

  19. Beam-Beam Simulations for Double-Gaussian Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Montag, Christoph; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Malitsky, Nikolay

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two Gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-Gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-Gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular Gaussian beams and identical tuneshift parameters.

  20. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  1. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  2. through Slicing, DryIng and Packagi.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lene b~gs than in perforated polyethylene bags. lished but in-pack condensation due to high moisture content of ihe 'dry' michembe could be held accountable. This would in tum lead to more activities of-food-bor'ne microorganisms than in the other, types of packaging materials,. Moisture losses in th~ l~,st month could not ...

  3. Basalt FRP Spike Repairing of Wood Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Righetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes aspects within an experimental program aimed at improving the structural performance of cracked solid fir-wood beams repaired with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP spikes. Fir wood is characterized by its low density, low compression strength, and high level of defects, and it is likely to distort when dried and tends to fail under tension due to the presence of cracks, knots, or grain deviation. The proposed repair technique consists of the insertion of BFRP spikes into timber beams to restore the continuity of cracked sections. The experimental efforts deal with the evaluation of the bending strength and deformation properties of 24 timber beams. An artificially simulated cracking was produced by cutting the wood beams in half or notching. The obtained results for the repaired beams were compared with those of solid undamaged and damaged beams, and increases of beam capacity, bending strength and of modulus of elasticity, and analysis of failure modes was discussed. For notched beams, the application of the BFRP spikes was able to restore the original bending capacity of undamaged beams, while only a small part of the original capacity was recovered for beams that were cut in half.

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pagan-Duran MD Sep. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay healthy and comfortable. If your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears ...

  7. Otalgia and eschar in the external auditory canal in scrub typhus complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sung-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrub typhus, a mite-transmitted zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an endemic disease in Taiwan and may be potentially fatal if diagnosis is delayed. Case presentations We encountered a 23-year-old previously healthy Taiwanese male soldier presenting with the right ear pain after training in the jungle and an eleven-day history of intermittent high fever up to 39°C. Amoxicillin/clavulanate was prescribed for otitis media at a local clinic. Skin rash over whole body and abdominal cramping pain with watery diarrhea appeared on the sixth day of fever. He was referred due to progressive dyspnea and cough for 4 days prior to admission in our institution. On physical examination, there were cardiopulmonary distress, icteric sclera, an eschar in the right external auditory canal and bilateral basal rales. Laboratory evaluation revealed thrombocytopenia, elevation of liver function and acute renal failure. Chest x-ray revealed bilateral diffuse infiltration. Doxycycline was prescribed for scrub typhus with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Fever subsided dramatically the next day and he was discharged on day 7 with oral tetracycline for 7 days. Conclusion Scrub typhus should be considered in acutely febrile patients with multiple organ involvement, particularly if there is an eschar or a history of environmental exposure in endemic areas. Rapid and accurate diagnosis, timely administration of antibiotics and intensive supportive care are necessary to decrease mortality of serious complications of scrub typhus.

  8. Development of life stages of Leptotrombidium imphalum and Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis (Acari: Trombiculidae) uninfected and infected with the scrub typhus rickettsia, Orientia tsustugamushi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis Tanskul and Linthicum and Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean are important vectors of scrub typhus in ricefield habitats in northern Thailand. The developmental biology of all stages of the life cycle of two generations of mites infected with Orientia tsutsug...

  9. Translational research into intertemporal choice: the Western scrub-jay as an animal model for future-thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, James M; Clayton, Nicola S

    2015-03-01

    Decisions often involve outcomes that will not materialise until later, and choices between immediate gratification and future consequences are thought to be important for human health and welfare. Combined human and animal research has identified impulsive intertemporal choice as an important factor in drug-taking and pathological gambling. In this paper, we give an overview of recent research into intertemporal choice in non-human animals, and argue that this work could offer insight into human behaviour through the development of animal models. As an example, we discuss the role of future-thinking in intertemporal choice, and review the case for the Western scrub-jay (Aphelocoma californica) as an animal model of such prospective cognition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The direct and indirect effects of fire on the assembly of insect herbivore communities: examples from the Florida scrub habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tania N; Holt, Robert D

    2012-04-01

    Disturbance is a major source of spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In fire-maintained systems, disturbance by fire is often used as a management tool to increase biological diversity, restore degraded habitats, and reduce pest outbreaks. Much attention has been given to how plant communities recover from fire, but relatively few studies have examined post-fire responses of higher order species, such as insect herbivores. Because dynamic feedbacks occur between plants and their consumers, which can in turn influence the response of the entire ecosystem, incorporating higher trophic level responses into our understanding of the effects of fire is essential. In this study, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to tease apart the direct and indirect effects of fire on insect herbivore assemblages found on three common oak species in the Florida scrub (Quercus inopina, Q. chapmanii, and Q. geminata). We investigated how fire affected herbivore abundance, richness, and community composition both directly and indirectly through environmental heterogeneity at different spatial scales (e.g., leaf quality, plant architecture, and habitat structure). We also investigated how seasonality and landscape heterogeneity influenced post-fire responses of insect herbivores and whether fire effects on herbivore assemblages varied among different host plants. Our general findings were that fire effects were (1) largely indirect, mediated through habitat structure (although direct fire effects were observed on Q. inopina herbivores), (2) non-linear through time due to self-thinning processes occurring in the scrub habitat, and (3) varied according to herbivore assemblage as a result of differences in the composition of species in each herbivore community. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to examine how fire influences the assembly of insect herbivore communities through both direct and indirect pathways and at multiple spatial scales.

  11. Orientia tsutsugamushi in human scrub typhus eschars shows tropism for dendritic cells and monocytes rather than endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Daniel H; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jones, Margaret; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Ferguson, David P J; Blacksell, Stuart D; Newton, Paul N; Day, Nicholas P J; Turner, Gareth D H

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a common and underdiagnosed cause of febrile illness in Southeast Asia, caused by infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi. Inoculation of the organism at a cutaneous mite bite site commonly results in formation of a localized pathological skin reaction termed an eschar. The site of development of the obligate intracellular bacteria within the eschar and the mechanisms of dissemination to cause systemic infection are unclear. Previous postmortem and in vitro reports demonstrated infection of endothelial cells, but recent pathophysiological investigations of typhus patients using surrogate markers of endothelial cell and leucocyte activation indicated a more prevalent host leucocyte than endothelial cell response in vivo. We therefore examined eschar skin biopsies from patients with scrub typhus to determine and characterize the phenotypes of host cells in vivo with intracellular infection by O. tsutsugamushi, using histology, immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy. Immunophenotyping of host leucocytes infected with O. tsutsugamushi showed a tropism for host monocytes and dendritic cells, which were spatially related to different histological zones of the eschar. Infected leucocyte subsets were characterized by expression of HLADR+, with an "inflammatory" monocyte phenotype of CD14/LSP-1/CD68 positive or dendritic cell phenotype of CD1a/DCSIGN/S100/FXIIIa and CD163 positive staining, or occasional CD3 positive T-cells. Endothelial cell infection was rare, and histology did not indicate a widespread inflammatory vasculitis as the cause of the eschar. Infection of dendritic cells and activated inflammatory monocytes offers a potential route for dissemination of O. tsutsugamushi from the initial eschar site. This newly described cellular tropism for O. tsutsugamushi may influence its interaction with local host immune responses.

  12. A Comparative Study of the Drying Rate Constant, Drying Efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adoption of the drying techniques would ensure steady availability of these vegetables all the year round as well as reduce carbon emissions from the conventional drying methods and hence mitigate global warming. KEYWORDS: Solar drying, open- air sun drying, drying rate constant, falling rate, climate change, food ...

  13. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The beam diagnostic components for both the transfer and the high-energy beamlines perform well except for some of the scanners whose noise pick-up has become a problem, especially at low beam intensities. This noise pick-up is primarily due to deterioration of the bearings in the scanner. At some locations in the high-energy beamlines, scanners were replaced by harps as the scanners proved to be practically useless for the low-intensity beams required in the experimental areas. The slits in the low-energy beamline, which are not water-cooled, have to be repaired at regular intervals because of vacuum leaks. Overheating causes the ceramic feedthroughs to deteriorate resulting in the vacuum leaks. Water-cooled slits have been ordered to replace the existing slits which will later be used in the beamlines associated with the second injector cyclotron SPC2. The current-measurement system will be slightly modified and should then be much more reliable. 3 figs

  14. A comparative hospital-based observational study of mono- and co-infections of malaria, dengue virus and scrub typhus causing acute undifferentiated fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S; Dhar, M; Mittal, G; Bhat, N K; Shirazi, N; Kalra, V; Sati, H C; Gupta, V

    2016-04-01

    Positive serology for dengue and/or scrub typhus infection with/without positive malarial smear (designated as mixed or co-infection) is being increasingly observed during epidemics of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs). We planned to study the clinical and biochemical spectrum of co-infections with Plasmodium sp., dengue virus and scrub typhus and compare these with mono-infection by the same organisms. During the period from December 2012 to December 2013, all cases presenting with AUFIs to a single medical unit of a referral centre in Garhwal region of the north Indian state of Uttarakhand were retrospectively selected and categorised aetiologically as co-infections, malaria, dengue or scrub typhus. The groups thus created were compared in terms of demographic, clinical, biochemical and outcome parameters. The co-infection group (n = 49) was associated with milder clinical manifestations, fewer, milder and non-progressive organ dysfunction, and lesser need for intensive care, mechanical ventilation and dialysis as compared to mono-infections. When co-infections were sub-grouped and compared with the relevant mono-infections, there were differences in certain haematological and biochemical parameters; however, this difference did not translate into differential outcomes. Scrub typhus mono-infection was associated with severe disease in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Malaria, dengue and scrub typhus should be routinely tested in all patients with AUFIs. Co-infections, whether true or due to serological cross-reactivity, appear to be a separate entity so far as presentation and morbidity is concerned. Further insight is needed into the mechanism and identification of the protective infection.

  15. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, C.; Beale, M.I.J.; Deshmukh, V.G.I.

    1986-04-01

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  16. Beam divergence scaling in neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main considerations in the design of neutral beam injectors is to monimize the divergence of the primary ion beam and hence maximize the beam transport and minimize the input of thermal gas. Experimental measurements of the divergence of a cylindrical ion beam are presented and these measurements are used to analyze the major components of ion beam divergence, namely: space charge expansion, gas-ion scattering, emittance and optical aberrations. The implication of these divergence components in the design of a neutral beam injector system is discussed and a method of maximizing the beam current is described for a given area of source plasma

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul ... Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2018 ...

  18. Freeze drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  20. Beam screens for the LHC beam pipes

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    1997-01-01

    Cross-section of LHC prototype beam pipes showing the beam screens. Slits in the screens allow residual gas molecules to be pumped out and become frozen to the walls of the ultra-cold beam pipe. Beam screens like these have been designed to line the beam pipes, absorbing radiation before it can hit the magnets and warm them up, an effect that would greatly reduce the magnetic field and cause serious damage.

  1. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Richard A; Brezovich, Ivan A; Fiveash, John B

    2014-05-01

    The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify arrangements equivalent to equiangular

  2. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popple, Richard A., E-mail: rpopple@uabmc.edu; Brezovich, Ivan A.; Fiveash, John B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. Results: In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. Conclusions: For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify

  3. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  4. Cascading effect of economic globalization on human risks of scrub typhus and tick-borne rickettsial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Huang, Jing-Lun; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lee, Pei-Lung; Kelt, Douglas A; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2012-09-01

    The increase in global travel and trade has facilitated the dissemination of disease vectors. Globalization can also indirectly affect vector-borne diseases through the liberalization of cross-border trade, which has far-reaching, worldwide effects on agricultural practices and may in turn influence vectors through the modification of the ecological landscape. While the cascading effect of economic globalization on vector-borne diseases, sometimes acting synergistically with regional agricultural policy, could be substantial and have significant economic, agricultural, and public health implications, research into this remains very limited. We evaluated how abandonment of rice paddies in Taiwan after joining the World Trade Organization, along with periodic plowing, an agricultural policy to reduce farm pests in abandoned fields can unexpectedly influence risks to diseases transmitted by ticks and chiggers (larval trombiculid mites), which we collected from their small-mammal hosts. Sampling was limited to abandoned (fallow) and plowed fields due to the challenge of trapping small mammals in flooded rice paddies. Striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) are the main hosts for both vectors. They harbored six times more ticks and three times more chiggers in fallow than in plowed plots. The proportion of ticks infected with Rickettsia spp. (etiologic agent of spotted fever) was three times higher in fallow plots, while that of Orientia tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus) in chiggers was similar in both treatments. Fallow plots had more ground cover and higher vegetation than plowed ones. Moreover, ticks and chiggers in both field types were dominated by species known to infest humans. Because ticks and chiggers should exhibit very low survival in flooded rice paddies, we propose that farm abandonment in Taiwan, driven by globalization, may have inadvertently led to increased risks of spotted fever and scrub typhus. However, periodic plowing can unintentionally mitigate vector

  5. Diagnostic of dry rot in living trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaetzler, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The γ-desorption method has been used in the early diagnosis of dry rot in trees. The attenuation of a 60 keV γ-beam ( 241 Am) has been measured on eleven healthy spruce disks. It is seen that early diagnostic of rotten trees is limited by natural density variation of the wood itself, but for a 95% confidence level that the wood is diseased, a tree must have an average of less than 0.59 g./cm 3 . (Auth/C.F.)

  6. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depth and recommended for sun drying of cassava. However; there is need to investigate on whether there is significant quality difference between cassava sun dried at different bed depths investigated in this study. Key words: drying characteristics, weight loss, ambient air temperature, perforated surface, cassava drying ...

  7. Beam-beam effects in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Lebrun, P.; Moore, R.S.; Sen, T.; Tollestrup, A.; Valishev, A.; Zhang, X.L.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with 6 times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations. We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in operations, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades, and discuss ways to improve it.

  8. Crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Ions in a storage ring are confined to a mean orbit by focusing elements. To a first approximation these may be described by a constant harmonic restoring force: F = -Kr. If the particles in the frame moving along with the beam have small random thermal energies, then they will occupy a cylindrical volume around the mean orbit and the focusing force will be balanced by that from the mutual repulsion of the particles. Inside the cylinder only residual two-particle interactions will play a significant role and some form of ordering might be expected to take place. The results of some of the first MD calculations showed a surprising result: not only were the particles arranged in the form of a tube, but they formed well-defined layers: concentric shells, with the particles in each shell arranged in a hexagonal lattice that is characteristic of two-dimensional Coulomb systems. This paper discusses the condense layer structure

  9. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  10. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  11. Photosynthetic 14C fixation in leaves and isolated chloroplasts of some scrub species under the influence of paraquat and 2,4,5-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusudana Rao, I.; Swamy, P.M.; Rama Das, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    The diurnal course of carbon dioxide uptake in the leaves of six nonsucculent semiarid scrub species was investigated. Five nonsucculent scrub species, Carissa spinarum, Maba buxifolia, Flacourtia sepiaria, Gymnosporia emerginata and Dodonaea viscosa exhibited nocturnal carbon assimilation while day time CO 2 uptake was predominant in Chomelia asiatica. Foliar application of paraquat (100 mg 1sup(-1)) or 2,4,5-T (2000 mg 1sup(-1)) caused a marked inhibition in the dark uptake of CO 2 . On the other hand, carbon uptake during day was slightly reduced. Studies on the carbon assimilation of isolated chloroplasts under the influence of paraquat or 2,4,5-T revealed that paraquat is more effective than 2,4,5-T in the suppression of carbon assimilation of in vivo and in vitro chloroplasts. The data suggested that the process of nocturnal carbon assimilation is far more sensitive to paraquat than the light dependent carbon fixation during day. (author)

  12. Order of 6 Jan 1988 on the treatment by ionizing radiation of dried fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Order specifies the conditions required for authorizing possession with a view to sale or putting on sale dried vegetables and dried fruit which have been irradiated for purposes of insect control through exposure to cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation or to electron beams with an energy below or equal to 10 million electron-volts [fr

  13. Experience in waste drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, R.E.; Temus, C.J.; Hillstrom, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Ion exchange resins, filter media and sludges are currently either dewatered or solidified for stabilization, prior to disposal at a low level waste facility. Nuclear Packaging developed the Resin Drying System and placed it into commercial service to provide a system which meets the regulatory requirements for free standing water with a relatively short process duration, requiring no chemical or material addition and utilizing more volume efficient containers than were previously available. The Resin Drying System has proven to be a very cost effective, efficient and secure means of processing low level radioactive waste for many utilities in the United States

  14. Evaluation of integration of flue gas scrubbing configurations with MEA for CO{sub 2} separation in a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Heischkamp; Ozgur Korkmaz; Gerd Oeljeklaus; Klaus Goerner [University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    An analysis of the integration of an advanced coal-fired power plant with a CO{sub 2} capture unit including the compression of the captured CO{sub 2} was conducted. The simulation was undertaken with the software programmes Aspen Plus and EBSILON{reg_sign}Professional. The scrubbing plant used a 30 % Monoethanolamine (MEA) solution as a solvent and the capture rate was set to 90 %. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Looking the other way Are Western scrub-Jays sensitive to the direction of attention of a conspecific simulated by video playback?

    OpenAIRE

    Brecht, Katharina; Legg, Edward; Ostojic, Ljerka; Clayton, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    When observed by a conspecific, food-caching Western scrub-jays employ a number of different strategies to protect their caches from theft, for example by caching in visually inaccessible locations or re-caching more of those items that the observer could see being cached (Dally, Emery, & Clayton, 2004, 2005; Emery & Clayton, 2001). These findings suggest higher social cognitive abilities in these animals (Clayton, Dally, & Emery, 2007; Clayton, 2014). The present study aimed to determine whe...

  16. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  17. California scrub-jays reduce visual cues available to potential pilferers by matching food colour to caching substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Laura A; Clayton, Nicola S

    2017-07-01

    Some animals hide food to consume later; however, these caches are susceptible to theft by conspecifics and heterospecifics. Caching animals can use protective strategies to minimize sensory cues available to potential pilferers, such as caching in shaded areas and in quiet substrate. Background matching (where object patterning matches the visual background) is commonly seen in prey animals to reduce conspicuousness, and caching animals may also use this tactic to hide caches, for example, by hiding coloured food in a similar coloured substrate. We tested whether California scrub-jays ( Aphelocoma californica ) camouflage their food in this way by offering them caching substrates that either matched or did not match the colour of food available for caching. We also determined whether this caching behaviour was sensitive to social context by allowing the birds to cache when a conspecific potential pilferer could be both heard and seen (acoustic and visual cues present), or unseen (acoustic cues only). When caching events could be both heard and seen by a potential pilferer, birds cached randomly in matching and non-matching substrates. However, they preferentially hid food in the substrate that matched the food colour when only acoustic cues were present. This is a novel cache protection strategy that also appears to be sensitive to social context. We conclude that studies of cache protection strategies should consider the perceptual capabilities of the cacher and potential pilferers. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Circulating carotenoid concentrations are positively correlated with later clutch initiation in Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Rebecca S; Cohen, Alan A; Bowman, Reed; Boughton, Raoul K; Bridge, Eli; McGraw, Kevin J; Schoech, Stephan J

    2011-02-01

    Antioxidants play key roles in preventing free radical damage to various molecules, cells, and tissues, but it is not well understood how variation in antioxidant levels may relate to the reproductive success or health of wild animals. We explored the relationship between circulating antioxidant concentrations and both body condition and timing of reproduction in male and female Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a cooperatively breeding passerine bird. We examined whether levels of uric acid, vitamin E, and carotenoids (all potentially important antioxidants) were linked to body condition and timing of reproduction, two measures that are directly related to reproductive success. Antioxidant concentrations were not correlated with body condition, but they were related to timing of first clutch initiation, though not always in the predicted direction. Elevated circulating levels of carotenoids were associated with delayed clutch initiation in female breeders. Relatively higher vitamin E levels in control birds were associated with earlier clutch initiation, whereas male breeders that received long-term food supplementation had elevated levels of vitamin E and delayed reproduction. Several potential explanations for the link between elevated levels of antioxidants and delayed clutch initiation are discussed. Separate explanations for each sex include, but are not limited to, oxidative stress as a result of territory defense efforts in males, different dietary regimes due to supplementation, and mobilized plasma antioxidants in females that were coping with a stressor. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  20. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  1. Corncob-fueled drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, R.V.; Thimsen, D.P.; Lang, J.P.; Hansen, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A system to collect, transport, process, dry and burn corncobs to dry shelled corn was evaluated. A mixture of shelled corn and cobs was harvested and transported to the drying facility where a continuous, automated system separated, dried and conveyed cobs to the combustor, a two-stage downdraft device with a 400 to 800 kW heat output. Exhaust products were put directly into the drying air without adversely affecting the corn's appearance or odor. 6 references.

  2. FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Soham Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s be treated? Jan 28, ... of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  4. Dry Cleaning, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Albert J.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    This course description was developed by educators for use at the Work Opportunity Center which was established to teach high school dropouts and/or hard-core unemployed youth. The ultimate objectives of this course are to prepare students for employment in dry cleaning occupations and to assist them in completing their high school graduation…

  5. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  6. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  7. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  8. Electron beam control for barely separated beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.

    2017-04-18

    A method for achieving independent control of multiple beams in close proximity to one another, such as in a multi-pass accelerator where coaxial beams are at different energies, but moving on a common axis, and need to be split into spatially separated beams for efficient recirculation transport. The method for independent control includes placing a magnet arrangement in the path of the barely separated beams with the magnet arrangement including at least two multipole magnets spaced closely together and having a multipole distribution including at least one odd multipole and one even multipole. The magnetic fields are then tuned to cancel out for a first of the barely separated beams to allow independent control of the second beam with common magnets. The magnetic fields may be tuned to cancel out either the dipole component or tuned to cancel out the quadrupole component in order to independently control the separate beams.

  9. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  10. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  11. a comparative study of the drying rate constant, drying efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vernonia amagdalina) and black pepper (Piper guinenses) using solar dryer and open- air sun drying methods. Two hundred grams (200g) of each sample were dried under the two different conditions. Their respective weight losses were used to ...

  12. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  13. ISR beam scrapers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Beam scrapers seen in the direction of the beam. The two horizontal scraper foils are near the centre of the beam pipe andthe two scrapers for protection of the vacuum chamber are further outside. In the lower part of the beam pipe is the vertical halo scraping blade.

  14. Telecommunication using muon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location

  15. Analysis of orthotropic beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu; S. Cheng

    1979-01-01

    A plane-stress analysis of orthotropic or isotropic beams is presented. The loading conditions considered are: (1) a concentrated normal load arbitrarily located on the beam, and (2) a distributed normal load covering an arbitrary length of the beam. exhibit close agreement with existing experimental data from Sitka spruce beams. Other loading conditions can similarly...

  16. Telecommunication using muon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  17. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  18. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  19. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strehl, P.

    1994-04-01

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  20. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  1. Dry Cleaning Sector (NAICS 8123)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dry cleaning sector includes establishments engaged in providing laundry services and industrial launderers. Find environmental regulatory information for perchloroethylene (PERC) cleaners as well as hazardous waste regulations for dry cleaners.

  2. Drying hardwoods with impinging jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard N. Rosen

    1980-01-01

    Silver maple, yellow poplar, and black walnut lumber was dried in a prototype jet dryer over a range of temperatures from 120 degrees to 400 degrees Fahrenheit and air velocities from 1,000 to 9,000 fpm. Different drying schedules were developed for each type of wood. The quality of the jet-dried lumber was good and compared favorably with kiln-dried lumber.

  3. Low-Flow-Rate Dry-Powder Feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Keith E.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus feeds small, precise flow of dry powder through laser beam of optical analyzer, measuring patterns of light created by forward scattering (Fraunhofer diffraction) of laser beam from powder particles. From measurement, statistical distribution of sizes of powder particles computed. Developed for analyzing particle-size distributions of solid-propellant powders. Also adapted to use in pharmaceutical industry, in manufacture of metal powder, and in other applications in which particle-size distributions of materials used to control rates of chemical reactions and/or physical characteristics of processes.

  4. LHC Report: The beam is back at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Reyes Alemany

    2015-01-01

    A series of sector beam tests paved the way for the start-up of the LHC in 2008 and 2009. These tests and the follow-up of the issues that arose were part of the process that led to a smooth start-up with beam.   Given this experience, sector tests were scheduled to take place several weeks before the 2015 start-up. On the weekend of 6-9 March, beam from the SPS was injected into both LHC injection regions, followed by a first pass through the downstream LHC sectors. For the clockwise LHC beam (called “beam 1”) this meant passing through ALICE and into Sector 2-3, while the anticlockwise beam (called “beam 2”) was threaded through LHCb and all the way from Point 8 to Point 6, where it was extracted by the beam dump kickers onto the beam dump block. The dry runs in the previous weeks were mainly targeted at preparation for the sector tests. The systems tested included: injection, timing, synchronisation and beam instrumentation. The beam interlock ...

  5. Fluid flow in drying drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2013-01-01

    When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also

  6. Beam diagnostics for low energy beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harasimowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-energetic ion and antimatter beams are very attractive for a number of fundamental studies. The diagnostics of such beams, however, is a challenge due to low currents down to only a few thousands of particles per second and significant fraction of energy loss in matter at keV beam energies. A modular set of particle detectors has been developed to suit the particular beam diagnostic needs of the ultralow-energy storage ring (USR at the future facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research, accommodating very low beam intensities at energies down to 20 keV. The detectors include beam-profile monitors based on scintillating screens and secondary electron emission, sensitive Faraday cups for absolute intensity measurements, and capacitive pickups for beam position monitoring. In this paper, the design of all detectors is presented in detail and results from beam measurements are shown. The resolution limits of all detectors are described and options for further improvement summarized. Whilst initially developed for the USR, the instrumentation described in this paper is also well suited for use in other low-intensity, low-energy accelerators, storage rings, and beam lines.

  7. Revisit of combined parallel-beam/cone-beam or fan-beam/cone-beam imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gengsheng L

    2013-10-01

    This aim of this paper is to revisit the parallel-beam/cone-beam or fan-beam/cone-beam imaging configuration, and to investigate whether this configuration has any advantages. Twenty years ago, it was suggested to simultaneously use a parallel-beam (or a fan-beam) collimator and a cone-beam collimator to acquire single photon emission computed tomography data. The motivation was that the parallel-beam (or the fan-beam) collimator can provide sufficient sampling, while the cone-beam collimator is able to provide higher photon counts. Even with higher total counts, this hybrid system does not give significant improvement (if any) in terms of image noise and artifacts reduction. If a conventional iterative maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization algorithm is used to reconstruct the image, the resultant reconstruction may be worse than the parallel-beam-only (or fan-beam-only) system. This paper uses the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis to explain this phenomenon. The SVD results indicate that the parallel-beam-only and the fan-beam-only system outperform the combined systems. The optimal imaging system does not necessary to be the one that generates the projections with highest signal-to-noise ratio and best resolution.

  8. Biofuels Drying Process Efficiency Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldas Šlepikas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with biofuel drying process efficiency opportunities.Research was carried out with a special stand and performingexperiments. Experimental rig consists of an ultrasonic generator,ultrasonic transducer, a drying chamber and the humidity,temperature gauge. Tests were used for wood pellets. During theexperiment, they were irrigated with water, dried with hot air andadditionally exposed to different frequency ultrasonic vibrations.The tests results have showed that the convective drying processis combined with the ultrasonic vibrations, the drying time isreduced, which means a positive impact on the ultrasonic process.Studies have confirmed that the effectiveness of convectivedrying method combined with operating ultrasonic vibrationsincreases.

  9. Use of eschar swabbing for the molecular diagnosis and genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi causing scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhiem Le Viet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsiosis which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and occurs throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Molecular diagnosis of rickettsioses using eschar swabs has recently emerged, and may be very useful for the diagnosis of these diseases in tropical settings.Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to detect O. tsutsugamushi DNA in whole blood and eschar swab specimens of 67 patients who were clinically suspected of scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam. Among the 20 patients for whom both eschar and whole blood were obtained, 17 (85% of the eschar specimens and 5 (25% of the whole blood specimens tested positive for O. tsutsugamushi. Genetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene sequences demonstrated that the 14 sequences obtained in this study, including 12 eschar swabs and 2 whole blood specimens, were related to 4 groups: Karp, Kawasaki, Gilliam (JG-v and TG-v and TA716. The majority (9/14; 64.4% of contemporary O. tsutsugamushi genotypes in Quang Nam province were related to the Karp group.These results suggest that polyclonal antigen pools used for serological testing in the future should contain at least Karp, Kawasaki, Gilliam and TA716 antigens for Vietnamese patients, as well as patients who have traveled to Vietnam. qPCR after eschar swabbing should be considered for molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus in endemic patients as well as in travelers, since it is easy to perform and appears very useful for the rapid detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in the early phase of infection.

  10. Identification of factors for physicians to facilitate early differential diagnosis of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever from dengue fever in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Dengue fever, rickettsial diseases, and Q fever are acute febrile illnesses with similar manifestations in tropical areas. Early differential diagnosis of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever from dengue fever may be made by understanding the distinguishing clinical characteristics and the significance of demographic and weather factors. We conducted a retrospective study to identify clinical, demographic, and meteorological characteristics of 454 dengue fever, 178 scrub typhus, 143 Q fever, and 81 murine typhus cases in three Taiwan hospitals. Case numbers of murine typhus and Q fever correlated significantly with temperature and rainfall; the scrub typhus case number was only significantly related with temperature. Neither temperature nor rainfall correlated with the case number of dengue fever. The rarity of dengue fever cases from January to June in Taiwan may be a helpful clue for diagnosis in the area. A male predominance was observed, as the male-to-female rate was 2.1 for murine typhus and 7.4 for Q fever. Multivariate analysis revealed the following six important factors for differentiating the rickettsial diseases and Q fever group from the dengue fever group: fever ≥8 days, alanine aminotransferase > aspartate aminotransferase, platelets >63,000/mL, C-reactive protein >31.9 mg/L, absence of bone pain, and absence of a bleeding syndrome. Understanding the rarity of dengue in the first half of a year in Taiwan and the six differentiating factors may help facilitate the early differential diagnosis of rickettsial diseases and Q fever from dengue fever, permitting early antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  12. Effect of paddy drying depth using open-sun drying on drying time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smallholder rice farmers in the Uganda dry their paddy using open-sun drying method. In most cases the paddy is badly dried and has very high fissure levels. Such paddy on milling contributes to low levels of mill recovery and whole grain in the milled rice. This study was therefore done to find a recommendable ...

  13. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lopez-Gordo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications.

  15. Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lack

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping.

    Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85–100% load; absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions.

    Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25–100% depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC.

    Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers.

    Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on a the impact of fuel quality

  16. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  17. T10 Beam Studies & Beam Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Michael Georges; Van Dijk, Maarten; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In order to test detector components before their installation in actual experiments, one uses test beams in which one can control particle typ, momentum and size to high degree. For this project the focus of a secondary beam at T10 in the East Area at CERN was analysed using an AZALEA telescope from DESY.

  18. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  19. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  20. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  1. Beam scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system for deflecting a beam of particles having different momenta, preferably through a 90 0 angle, so as to cause the beam to impinge upon a moving target and to scan across the target is described. The system includes a means responsive to a beam from a suitable source for causing the beam to periodically scan in a scanning plane and further means for deflecting the periodically scanned beam through the desired angle in a deflection plane so that the deflected beam impinges on the target. Means are included in the system for reducing the momentum dispersion at the target in both the deflection and the scanning planes and for spatially focussing the beam so as to produce a desired beam diameter at the target

  2. Dry aging of beef; Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashmaa Dashdorj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow, eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness, microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %, trims loss (3 to 24 %, risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as “dry-aged beef”. But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  3. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  4. Crossed beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolder, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    Many natural phenomena can only be properly understood if one has a detailed knowledge of interactions involving atoms, molecules, ions, electrons or photons. In the laboratory these processes are often studied by preparing beams of two types of particle and observing the reactions which occur when the beams intersect. Some of the more interesting of these crossed beam experiments and their results are discussed. Proposals to extend colliding beam techniques to high energy particle physics are also outlined. (author)

  5. Dry Ice Etches Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Every year seasonal carbon dioxide ice, known to us as 'dry ice,' covers the poles of Mars. In the south polar region this ice is translucent, allowing sunlight to pass through and warm the surface below. The ice then sublimes (evaporates) from the bottom of the ice layer, and carves channels in the surface. The channels take on many forms. In the subimage shown here (figure 1) the gas from the dry ice has etched wide shallow channels. This region is relatively flat, which may be the reason these channels have a different morphology than the 'spiders' seen in more hummocky terrain. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003364_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 251.5 km (157.2 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25.2 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:57 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 75 degrees, thus the sun was about 15 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 219.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  6. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  7. Beams 92: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.; Cooperstein, G.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Ion beam papers; electron beam, bremsstrahlung, and diagnostics papers; radiating Z- pinch papers; microwave papers; electron laser papers; advanced accelerator papers; beam and pulsed power applications papers; pulsed power papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  8. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  9. Seasonal and environmental determinants of leptospirosis and scrub typhus in small mammals captured at a U.S. military training site (Dagmar North), Republic of Korea, 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Kevin S; Klein, Terry A; Otto, Jean L; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Ha, Si Jung; Gu, Se Hun; Jeong, Ji Hae; Baek, Luck Ju; Song, Jin-Won

    2009-10-01

    This study sought to identify seasonal and environmental determinants of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals trapped at Dagmar North training area, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Small mammals received titer assays to the aforementioned diseases. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether associations existed between risk of small-mammal infection and independent variables such as season of capture, habitat, small-mammal species, and sex. Murine typhus was not detected among the animals assayed. Risk of scrub typhus infection was associated with season, habitat, and small-mammal species. Risk of leptospirosis infection was associated with season and habitat. These findings indicate determinants of infection exist for scrub typhus and leptospirosis at this training site. This information can be used for developing appropriate preventive medicine plans and coordinating troop activity during periods of reduced exposure decreasing the likelihood of disease transmission to humans.

  10. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand sanitation product with a traditional chlorhexidine hand scrub technique for hand hygiene preparation in an equine hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R A; Riley, C B; Howe, L; Burrows, E A; Riley, K T; Frellstedt, L

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of an alcohol gel-based hand antisepsis protocol compared with a traditional chlorhexidine-based protocol under conditions of routine clinical contamination, and following heavy faecal contamination. Twelve adult participants were recruited and on four separate days completed a hand sanitation protocol using a chlorhexidine scrub or an alcohol-based gel, with hands that were grossly clean but contaminated or with faecal contamination. Bacterial samples were obtained from participants' hands before sanitation, immediately after and then 2 hours later. All samples were cultured on blood and MacConkey agar and bacterial colonies counted after 48 hours. for clean contaminated hands, the percentage reduction in bacterial colonies on blood agar immediately after hand sanitation was similar for both protocols (p=0.3), but was greater for the alcohol gel than chlorhexidine after 2 hours (p=0.005). For hands with faecal contamination, the percentage reduction in bacterial colonies on blood agar was similar for both protocols immediately and 2 hours after sanitation (p>0.2), but positive cultures were obtained on blood agar from samples collected after both protocols, for almost all participants. The results indicate equivalent efficacy of the alcohol-based gel and the pre-surgical chlorhexidine protocol. The alcohol-based gel protocol is an effective hand asepsis technique for grossly clean contaminated hands and those following faecal contamination, with comparable efficacy to chlorhexidine based scrub.

  11. Extraction of DBP and MBP from actinides: application to the recovery of actinides from TBP--Na2CO3 scrub solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Mason, G.W.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Leonard, R.A.; Bernstein, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP--Na 2 CO 3 scrub waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory scale counter-current extraction techniques. The process utilizes 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H 2 MBP) from acidified Na 2 CO 3 scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H 2 MBP to complex actinides and thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The alcohol extraction (ARALEX) process is relatively simple and involves inexpensive and readily available chemicals. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid--liquid extraction procedures

  12. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  13. The antisickling effects of dried fish (tilapia) And dried prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antisickling effect of dried fish (Tilapia) and dried prawn (Astacus red) were investigated to ascertain the ability of the extracts of these samples to inhibit polymerisation of sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS), improve the Fe 2+/Fe 3+ ratio and lower the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood plasma. The samples ...

  14. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiments were done using kiroba cassava variety obtained from the University farm, which was peeled and sliced into thin chips (2-3 mm) then sun dried on wire mesh, black polythene, white polythene and woven mat for three days. The material was dried for 8 hours daily after which it was kept indoors overnight.

  15. Dehydration process of fish analyzed by neutron beam imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanoi, K.; Hamada, Y.; Seyama, S.; Saito, T.; Iikura, H.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Since regulation of water content of the dried fish is an important factor for the quality of the fish, water-losing process during drying (squid and Japanese horse mackerel) was analyzed through neutron beam imaging. The neutron image showed that around the shoulder of mackerel, there was a part where water content was liable to maintain high during drying. To analyze water-losing process more in detail, spatial image was produced. From the images, it was clearly indicated that the decrease of water content was regulated around the shoulder part. It was suggested that to prevent deterioration around the shoulder part of the dried fish is an important factor to keep quality of the dried fish in the storage.

  16. Market opportunities for solar drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskens, R.G.J.H.; Out, P.G.; Schulte, B.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most promising applications for solar heating is the drying of agricultural products. The drying of agricultural products requires large quantities of low temperature air, in many cases, on a year-round basis. Low cost air-based collectors can provide heated air at solar collection efficiencies of 30 to 70%. In 1998/1999 a study was commissioned to better understand the technical and economic potential for solar drying of agricultural products in the world. The practical potential for solar drying was then determined for 59 crops and 22 regions. The world market for solar drying can be divided into three market segments: 1) mechanical drying T 50 deg. C; 3) sun drying. The most promising market for solar drying is generally market segment 1. For this segment the potential amount of energy displaced by solar is in between 216 770 PJ (World-wide). For Western Europe this potential is estimated between 23 88 PJ and for Eastern Europe between 7 and 13 PJ. A different market introduction strategy is required for each market segment. A total of 13 combinations of crops and regions are selected that appear to have the highest practical potential for solar drying. In the Netherlands a programme of activities was carried out by Ecofys and other organisations, to identify and develop the market potential for solar (assisted) drying of agricultural products. A promotional campaign for the use of renewable energy in the (promising) flower bulb sector is planned on a short-term basis to speed up market developments. It can be concluded that there is a large market for solar drying in the World as well as in Europe. (au)

  17. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  18. Global, Diffuse Sky And Direct Beam Radiation Data For Kumasi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... level of diffuse sky irradiation in Kumasi has been attributed to the influence of atmospheric effects including the presence of rain cloud cover during the wet season and the presence of the Harmattan dust aerosol during the dry season. Keywords: Global irradiance, diffuse sky irradiance, direct beam irradiance, weather

  19. Programming balanced optical beam splitters in white paint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, S.R.; Huisman, T.J.; Huisman, T.J.; Goorden, S.A.; Mosk, Allard; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry

    2014-01-01

    Wavefront shaping allows for ultimate control of light propagation in multiple-scattering media by adaptive manipulation of incident waves. We shine two separate wavefront-shaped beams on a layer of dry white paint to create two enhanced output spots of equal intensity. We experimentally confirm by

  20. Drying a liquid paint layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, H.; van de Fliert, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Subject of this study is the free boundary problem of a liquid layer that is dried by evaporation. Using a Stefan type problem, we model the diffusion driven drying of a layer of liquid paint consisting of resin and solvent. The effect of a small perturbation of the flat boundary is considered. We

  1. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.

    2004-01-01

    A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer of photo...

  2. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  3. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  4. Pregnancy outcome in relation to treatment of murine typhus and scrub typhus infection: a fever cohort and a case series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose McGready

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of published reports on pregnancy outcome following scrub and murine typhus despite these infections being leading causes of undifferentiated fever in Asia. This study aimed to relate pregnancy outcome with treatment of typhus.Data were analyzed from: i pregnant women with a diagnosis of scrub and/or murine typhus from a fever cohort studies; ii case series of published studies in PubMed using the search terms "scrub typhus" (ST, "murine typhus" (MT, "Orientia tsutsugamushi", "Rickettsia tsutsugamushi", "Rickettsia typhi", "rickettsiae", "typhus", or "rickettsiosis"; and "pregnancy", until February 2014 and iii an unpublished case series. Fever clearance time (FCT and pregnancy outcome (miscarriage and delivery were compared to treatment. Poor neonatal outcome was a composite measure for pregnancies sustained to 28 weeks or more of gestation ending in stillbirth, preterm birth, or delivery of a growth restricted or low birth weight newborn.There were 26 women in the fever cohort. MT and ST were clinically indistinguishable apart from two ST patients with eschars. FCTs (median [range] hours were 25 [16-42] for azithromycin (n=5, 34 [20-53] for antimalarials (n=5 and 92 [6-260] for other antibiotics/supportive therapy (n=16. There were 36.4% (8/22 with a poor neonatal outcome. In 18 years, 97 pregnancies were collated, 82 with known outcomes, including two maternal deaths. Proportions of miscarriage 17.3% (14/81 and poor neonatal outcomes 41.8% (28/67 were high, increasing with longer FCTs (p=0.050, linear trend. Use of azithromycin was not significantly associated with improved neonatal outcomes (p=0.610.The published ST and MT world literature amounts to less than 100 pregnancies due to under recognition and under diagnosis. Evidence supporting the most commonly used treatment, azithromycin, is weak. Collaborative, prospective clinical trials in pregnant women are urgently required to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and

  5. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  6. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

    2000-03-16

    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  7. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  8. Craft Stick Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, Alan K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this exercise is to provide a phenomenological 'hands-on' experience that shows how geometry can affect the load carrying capacity of a material used in construction, how different materials have different failure characteristics, and how construction affects the performance of a composite material. This will be accomplished by building beams of a single material and composite beams of a mixture of materials (popsicle sticks, fiberboard sheets, and tongue depressors); testing these layered beams to determine how and where they fail; and based on the failure analysis, designing a layered beam that will fail in a predicted manner. The students will learn the effects of lamination, adhesion, and geometry in layered beam construction on beam strength and failure location.

  9. Improvement in greenhouse solar drying using inclined north wall reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India); Arora, Sadhna [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab (India)

    2009-09-15

    A conventional greenhouse solar dryer of 6 m{sup 2} x 4 m{sup 2} floor area (east-west orientation) was improved for faster drying using inclined north wall reflection (INWR) under natural as well as forced convection mode. To increase the solar radiation availability onto the product (to be dried) during extreme summer months, a temporary inclined wall covered with aluminized reflector sheet (of 50 {mu}m thickness and reflectance 0.93) was raised inside the greenhouse just in front of the vertical transparent north wall. By doing so, product fully received the reflected beam radiation (which otherwise leaves through the north wall) in addition to the direct total solar radiation available on the horizontal surface during different hours of drying. The increment in total solar radiation input enhanced the drying rate of the product by increasing the inside air and crop temperature of the dryer. Inclination angle of the reflective north wall with vertical ({beta}) was optimized for various selective widths of the tray W (1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 m) and for different realistic heights of existing vertical north wall (h) at 25 N, 30 N and 35 N latitudes (hot climatic zones). Experimental performance of the improved dryer was tested during the month of May 2008 at Ludhiana (30.56 N) climatic conditions, India by drying bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn) slices. Results showed that by using INWR under natural convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-6.7 C and 1-4 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 13.13% of the total drying time. By using INWR under forced convection mode of drying, greenhouse air and crop temperature increased by 1-4.5 C and 1-3 C, respectively, during different drying hours as compared to, when INWR was not used and saved 16.67% of the total drying time. (author)

  10. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  11. Beam Extraction and Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kalvas, T.

    2013-12-16

    This chapter gives an introduction to low-energy beam transport systems, and discusses the typically used magnetostatic elements (solenoid, dipoles and quadrupoles) and electrostatic elements (einzel lens, dipoles and quadrupoles). The ion beam emittance, beam space-charge effects and the physics of ion source extraction are introduced. Typical computer codes for analysing and designing ion optical systems are mentioned, and the trajectory tracking method most often used for extraction simulations is described in more detail.

  12. Mechanical beam isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam

  13. Cyclotron radiation beam control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominke, P.

    1983-01-01

    This patent application describes an apparatus for attenuating a beam of particulate radiation comprising a series of modules, each module being constituted by a sphere having a passage, a cupola covering said sphere and a base supporting said sphere, and means for causing movement of the spheres for aligning said passages with an axis of a beam line and arranging said passages out of alignment so as to attenuate the beam. (author)

  14. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  15. Who needs hyperon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Hyperon beams can provide new interesting information about hadron structure and their strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. The dependence of hadron interactions on strangeness and baryon number is not understood, and data from hyperon beams can provide new clues to paradoxes which arise in the interpretation of data from conventional beams. Examples of interesting data are total and differential cross sections, magnetic moments and values of Gsub(A)/Gsub(V) for weak semileptonic decays. (author)

  16. Instability of compensated beam-beam collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Autin, B.; Chen, Pisin.

    1989-01-01

    The beam-beam disruption phenomena in linear colliders are increasingly seen as a source of serious problems for these machines. A plasma compensation scheme, in which the motion of the plasma electrons in the presence of the colliding beams provides neutralizing charge and current densities, has been proposed and studied. But natural alternative to this scheme is to consider the overlapping of nearly identical high energy e + and e/sup /minus// bunches, and the collision of two such pairs - in other words, collision of two opposing relativistic positronium plasmas. It should be noticed that while the luminosity for all collisions is increased by a factor of four in this scheme, the event rate for e + e/sup /minus// collisions is only increased by a factor of two. The other factor of two corresponds to the addition of e + e + and e/sup /minus//e/sup /minus// collisions to the interaction point. This beam compensation scheme, which has been examined through computer simulation by Balakin and Solyak in the Soviet Union, promises full neutralization of beam charges and currents. These numerical investigations have shown that plasma instabilities exist in this nominally neutral system. Although the implementation of this idea seems technically daunting, the potential benefits (beamstrahlung and disruption suppression, relaxation of final focus system constraints) are such that we should consider the physics of these collisions further. In the remainder of this paper, we theoretically analyze the issues of stability and bunch parameter tolerances in this scheme. 11 refs

  17. Dual-beam CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A dual-beam cathode-ray tube having a pair of electron guns and associated deflection means disposed side-by-side on each side of a central axis is described. The electron guns are parallel and the deflection means includes beam centering plates and angled horizontal deflection plates to direct the electron beams toward the central axis, precluding the need for a large-diameter tube neck in which the entire gun structures are angled. Bowing control plates are disposed adjacent to the beam centering plates to minimize trace bowing, and an intergun shield is disposed between the horizontal deflection plates to control and correct display pattern geometry distortion

  18. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  19. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  20. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  1. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GuineaPig and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam background hitting the vertex detector.

  2. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  3. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

  4. Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dry Mouth Mouthwash, which also offer protection against tooth decay. Avoid using over-the-counter antihistamines and decongestants ... and drinks because they increase your risk of tooth decay. Brush with a fluoride toothpaste — ask your dentist ...

  5. Strong interferon-gamma mediated cellular immunity to scrub typhus demonstrated using a novel whole cell antigen ELISpot assay in rhesus macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manutsanun Sumonwiriya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a febrile infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which causes significant morbidity and mortality across the Asia-Pacific region. The control of this vector-borne disease is challenging due to humans being dead-end hosts, vertical maintenance of the pathogen in the vector itself, and a potentially large rodent reservoir of unclear significance, coupled with a lack of accurate diagnostic tests. Development of an effective vaccine is highly desirable. This however requires better characterization of the natural immune response of this neglected but important disease. Here we implement a novel IFN-γ ELISpot assay as a tool for studying O. tsutsugamushi induced cellular immune responses in an experimental scrub typhus rhesus macaque model and human populations. Whole cell antigen for O. tsutsugamushi (OT-WCA was prepared by heat inactivation of Karp-strain bacteria. Rhesus macaques were infected intradermally with O. tsutsugamushi. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from infected (n = 10 and uninfected animals (n = 5 were stimulated with OT-WCA, and IFN-γ secreting cells quantitated by ELISpot assay at five time points over 28 days. PBMC were then assayed from people in a scrub typhus-endemic region of Thailand (n = 105 and responses compared to those from a partially exposed population in a non-endemic region (n = 14, and to a naïve population in UK (n = 12. Mean results at Day 0 prior to O. tsutsugamushi infection were 12 (95% CI 0-25 and 15 (2-27 spot-forming cells (SFC/106 PBMC for infected and control macaques respectively. Strong O. tsutsugamushi-specific IFN-γ responses were seen post infection, with ELISpot responses 20-fold higher than baseline at Day 7 (mean 235, 95% CI 200-270 SFC/106 PBMC, 105-fold higher at Day 14 (mean 1261, 95% CI 1,097-1,425 SFC/106 PBMC, 125-fold higher at Day 21 (mean 1,498, 95% CI 1,496-1,500 SFC/106 PBMC and 118-fold higher at

  6. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0

  7. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Soil Trace Gas (CH4, N2O and NO) Fluxes in a Scrub Oak Ecosystem at Kennedy Space Center, FL, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, A. E.; Bracho, R. G.; Stover, D.

    2008-05-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase the plant demand for soil nutrients, which in turn can impose a nitrogen limitation on unmanaged ecosystems. The microbial responses to CO2 enrichment are complex and difficult to predict. Some studies suggest that CO2 enrichment increases microbial mineralization of nitrogen, making nitrogen more available through a carbon priming effect. Alternatively, microbes may contribute to nitrogen limitation through accelerated soil nitrogen losses. In this study, we examined the effects of CO2 enrichment on trace gases that are released or taken up during soil microbial reactions: nitrification, denitrification and methane consumption. Ambient and approximately twice-ambient CO2 treatments were applied to a coastal scrub oak community at Kennedy Space Center, FL, via open-top chambers since May 1996. The CO2 treatments ended in July 2007 before an aboveground harvest took place inside the chambers. Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured in the field from 2006-2008. Soil N2O losses from the study site were low (treatment effect. Soil NO losses were similarly low (post-harvest in ambient CO2. Methane consumption was lower in elevated vs. ambient CO2 in 2006, although this trend was not significant. Over a decade of CO2 enrichment has reduced soil nitrogen availability, which could explain the low overall rates of nitrogen trace gas emission. Reduced soil carbon stores in elevated CO2 measured at this site could also explain the lower nitrification rates, measured as NO efflux. Trace gas emissions in this sandy, nutrient-poor scrub oak forest are comparable to published rates in desert ecosystems.

  8. Deep magmatic degassing versus scrubbing: Elevated CO2 emissions and C/S in the lead-up to the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Cynthia A.; Evans, William C.; Kelly, Peter; McGimsey, Robert G.; Pfeffer, Melissa; Doukas, Michael P.; Neal, Christina

    2012-01-01

    We report CO2, SO2, and H2S emission rates and C/S ratios during the five months leading up to the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. CO2emission rates up to 9018 t/d and C/S ratios ≥30 measured in the months prior to the eruption were critical for fully informed forecasting efforts. Observations of ice-melt rates, meltwater discharge, and water chemistry suggest that surface waters represented drainage from surficial, perched reservoirs of condensed magmatic steam and glacial meltwater. These fluids scrubbed only a few hundred tonnes/day of SO2, not the >2100 t/d SO2expected from degassing of magma in the mid- to upper crust (3–6.5 km), where petrologic analysis shows the final magmatic equilibration occurred. All data are consistent with upflow of a CO2-rich magmatic gas for at least 5 months prior to eruption, and minimal scrubbing of SO2by near-surface groundwater. The high C/S ratios observed could reflect bulk degassing of mid-crustal magma followed by nearly complete loss of SO2in a deep magmatic-hydrothermal system. Alternatively, high C/S ratios could be attributed to decompressional degassing of low silica andesitic magma that intruded into the mid-crust in the 5 months prior to eruption, thereby mobilizing the pre-existing high silica andesite magma or mush in this region. The latter scenario is supported by several lines of evidence, including deep long-period earthquakes (−28 to −32 km) prior to and during the eruption, and far-field deformation following the onset of eruptive activity.

  9. Aqueous Biphasic Systems for the Synthesis of Formates by Catalytic CO2 Hydrogenation: Integrated Reaction and Catalyst Separation for CO2‐Scrubbing Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Martin; Blas Molinos, Beatriz; Westhues, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aqueous biphasic systems were investigated for the production of formate–amine adducts by metal‐catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation, including typical scrubbing solutions as feedstocks. Different hydrophobic organic solvents and ionic liquids could be employed as the stationary phase for cis‐[Ru(dppm)2Cl2] (dppm=bis‐diphenylphosphinomethane) as prototypical catalyst without any modification or tagging of the complex. The amines were found to partition between the two phases depending on their structure, whereas the formate–amine adducts were nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous phase, providing a favorable phase behavior for the envisaged integrated reaction/separation sequence. The solvent pair of methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) and water led to the most practical and productive system and repeated use of the catalyst phase was demonstrated. The highest single batch activity with a TOFav of approximately 35 000 h−1 and an initial TOF of approximately 180 000 h−1 was achieved in the presence of NEt3. Owing to higher stability, the highest productivities were obtained with methyl diethanolamine (Aminosol CST 115) and monoethanolamine (MEA), which are used in commercial scale CO2‐scrubbing processes. Saturated aqueous solutions (CO2 overpressure 5–10 bar) of MEA could be converted into the corresponding formate adducts with average turnover frequencies up to 14×103 h−1 with an overall yield of 70 % based on the amine, corresponding to a total turnover number of 150 000 over eleven recycling experiments. This opens the possibility for integrated approaches to carbon capture and utilization. PMID:28103428

  10. Aqueous Biphasic Systems for the Synthesis of Formates by Catalytic CO2Hydrogenation: Integrated Reaction and Catalyst Separation for CO2-Scrubbing Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Martin; Blas Molinos, Beatriz; Westhues, Christian; Franciò, Giancarlo; Leitner, Walter

    2017-03-22

    Aqueous biphasic systems were investigated for the production of formate-amine adducts by metal-catalyzed CO 2 hydrogenation, including typical scrubbing solutions as feedstocks. Different hydrophobic organic solvents and ionic liquids could be employed as the stationary phase for cis-[Ru(dppm) 2 Cl 2 ] (dppm=bis-diphenylphosphinomethane) as prototypical catalyst without any modification or tagging of the complex. The amines were found to partition between the two phases depending on their structure, whereas the formate-amine adducts were nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous phase, providing a favorable phase behavior for the envisaged integrated reaction/separation sequence. The solvent pair of methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) and water led to the most practical and productive system and repeated use of the catalyst phase was demonstrated. The highest single batch activity with a TOF av of approximately 35 000 h -1 and an initial TOF of approximately 180 000 h -1 was achieved in the presence of NEt 3 . Owing to higher stability, the highest productivities were obtained with methyl diethanolamine (Aminosol CST 115) and monoethanolamine (MEA), which are used in commercial scale CO 2 -scrubbing processes. Saturated aqueous solutions (CO 2 overpressure 5-10 bar) of MEA could be converted into the corresponding formate adducts with average turnover frequencies up to 14×10 3  h -1 with an overall yield of 70 % based on the amine, corresponding to a total turnover number of 150 000 over eleven recycling experiments. This opens the possibility for integrated approaches to carbon capture and utilization. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. Take short, warm baths or showers. Limit your ... gentle skin cleansers or soap with added moisturizers. Only use ...

  12. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2015-01-01

    not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water.In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical......Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional...... mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have...

  13. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ali, M.I.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs -1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm -2 . daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 o C. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm -2 , the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 o C has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm -2 and 745 Wm -2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 o C and 48 o C respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  15. Dry and coating of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  16. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relat...

  17. Electron beam diagnostics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garganne, P.

    1989-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study on beam diagnostics, using carbon wire scanners and optical transition radiation (DTR) monitors. The main consideration consists in the material selection, taking their thermal properties and their effect on the beam into account [fr

  18. Atomic Ferris wheel beams

    OpenAIRE

    Lembessis, Vasileios E.

    2017-01-01

    We study the generation of atom vortex beams in the case where an atomic wave-packet, moving in free space, is diffracted from a properly tailored light mask with a spiral transverse profile. We show how such a diffraction scheme could lead to the production of an atomic Ferris wheel beam.

  19. Atomic Ferris wheel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembessis, Vasileios E.

    2017-07-01

    We study the generation of atom vortex beams in the case where a Bose-Einstein condensate, released from a trap and moving in free space, is diffracted from a properly tailored light mask with a spiral transverse profile. We show how such a diffraction scheme could lead to the production of an atomic Ferris wheel beam.

  20. Ionization beam scanner

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Inner structure of an ionization beam scanner, a rather intricate piece of apparatus which permits one to measure the density distribution of the proton beam passing through it. On the outside of the tank wall there is the coil for the longitudinal magnetic field, on the inside, one can see the arrangement of electrodes creating a highly homogeneous transverse electric field.

  1. Experimental study of the molecular beam destruction by beam-beam and beam-background scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossel, U.; Dettleff, G.

    1974-01-01

    The extraction of flow properties related to the molecular motion normal to stream lines of an expanding gas jet from observed intensity profiles of supersonic beams is critically assessed. The perturbation of the profile curves by various effects is studied for a helium beam. Exponential laws appear to describe scattering effects to a satisfactory degree

  2. Electron beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudjak, Yu.V.; Vladyko, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    The electron beam transport in ion channel has been investigated. The influence of the external longitudinal magnetic field and self beam magnetic field on the charge neutralization process was defined. Beam head erosion under channel is curved or the availability of transverse external magnetic field was numerically simulated. The numerical investigation of the ion-hose instability was performed. The conditions, when as a result of ion-hose instability development may be coming out of the channel by beam tail, were founded. It was shown, that supplementary creation of plasma by electron beam and ions did not lead to the reduction of ion-hose instability. Sufficient slowing down of ion-hose instability development could be achieved if betatron length increased to impulse tail. In the case of a weak initial nonsymmetrical perturbation, sausage instability was investigated. Numerical simulation showed that this instability could lead to beam radius increasing in order. The electron beam guiding by low conductive plasma channel was considered. The attractive force of beam to this channel under nonsymmetrical injection was defined analytically

  3. Durnin-Whitney beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Omar; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Julián-Macías, Israel; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Rickenstorff-Parrao, Carolina; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to define a Durnin-Whitney beam as a nondiffracting beam such that its associated caustic locally only has singularities of the fold and cusp types. Since the caustic is structurally stable then the intensity pattern of this beam is also stable and this property is what makes its definition and its theoretical and experimental study worthwhile. These properties are important in applications such as uniform optical drilling in waveguides and communications through weak turbulent atmosphere. We find that in accordance with Whitney's theorem on the stability of maps from a two-dimensional manifold to a two-dimensional manifold the phase g({{Φ }}), of the complex function A({{Φ }}) characterizing the beam, locally is given by g({{Φ }})=a{{Φ }} for a fold and g({{Φ }})=b{{{Φ }}}2 for a cusp. This result implies that the Bessel beam of order zero is not stable and that any other Bessel beam is stable because locally it has a caustic of fold type. Finally, we present an example of a Durnin-Whitney beam given by g({{Φ }})=m{{Φ }}+b{{{Φ }}}2, which is a natural generalization of the Bessel beam of order m with a singularity of cusp ridge type.

  4. Dosimetry of pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Negative pion beams are probably the most esoteric and most complicated type of radiation which has been suggested for use in clinical radiotherapy. Because of the limited availability of pion beams in the past, even to nuclear physicists, there exist relatively fewer basic data for this modality. Pion dosimetry is discussed

  5. Beaming teaching application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophon...

  6. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  7. Beam director design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30 0 beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project

  8. Vortices in Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , t0)} = P(du, dv) {FR{g(u, v, t0)}} Replacement: u→ du = t− t0 i2 ∂ ∂u′ v → dv = t− t0 i2 ∂ ∂v′ CSIR National Laser Centre – p.13/30 Differentiation i.s.o integration Evaluate the integral over the Gaussian beam (once and for all). Then, instead... . Gaussian beams with vortex dipoles CSIR National Laser Centre – p.2/30 Gaussian beam notation Gaussian beam in normalised coordinates: g(u, v, t) = exp ( −u 2 + v2 1− it ) u = xω0 v = yω0 t = zρ ρ = piω20 λ ω0 — 1/e2 beam waist radius; ρ— Rayleigh range ω ω...

  9. Bunched beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    There is a remarkable diversity in the field of accelerator physics. Look at the proceedings of any conference. Papers range from Hamiltonian dynamics to the latest improvements of performance in accelerator X to the engineering of specialized equipment. Beam diagnostics is somewhere in the middle of this. Diagnostic instruments make the connection between theories and observations, and the capabilities of these instruments influence strongly our ability to improve performance. The gave a series of lectures in 1987 on the general topic of Principles of Beam Observation. The emphasis was on frequency domain analysis of beam generated signals in storage rings, and that is the subject of this paper. The goal is to connect spectrum analyzer observations to what the beam is doing. In addition, understanding beam spectra is essential for understanding coherent effects and instabilities in storage rings, and this is discussed extensively. 23 figures, 4 tables

  10. Atom beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, J.

    1984-01-01

    Ion beam V etching may give rise to undesirable effects such as uneven erosion and ion migration in dielectrics, even when the surface is neutralized by electron flooding. The effects appear due to a remaining charge imbalance on a microscopic scale, which is absent when bombarding with an uncharged beam. Saddle field sources provide a convenient means of producing energetic neutral beams of inert and reactive gases (which may be dissociated into radicals). The construction and characteristics of the sources are described and a mechanism of internal neutralization proposed. Evidence is given that uncharged beams introduce less damage than equivalent ion beams. Disruptive effects may be initiated by charge accumulation or possibly by neutralization processes which occur when ions closely approach the target surface. (author)

  11. Ion beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    An ion beam analyzer is specified, having an ion source for generating ions of a sample to be analyzed, means for extracting the sample ions, means for focusing the sample ions into a beam, separation means positioned along the ion beam for selectively deflecting species of ions, and means for detecting the selected species of ions. According to the specification, the analyzer further comprises (a) means for disabling at least a portion of the separation means, such that the ion beam from the source remains undeflected; (b) means located along the path of the undeflected ion beam for sensing the sample ions; and (c) enabling means responsive to the sensing means for automatically re-enabling the separation means when the sample ions reach a predetermined intensity level. (author)

  12. Beam director design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  13. Pressurized rf cavities in ionizing beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Freemire

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A muon collider or Higgs factory requires significant reduction of the six dimensional emittance of the beam prior to acceleration. One method to accomplish this involves building a cooling channel using high pressure gas filled radio frequency cavities. The performance of such a cavity when subjected to an intense particle beam must be investigated before this technology can be validated. To this end, a high pressure gas filled radio frequency (rf test cell was built and placed in a 400 MeV beam line from the Fermilab linac to study the plasma evolution and its effect on the cavity. Hydrogen, deuterium, helium and nitrogen gases were studied. Additionally, sulfur hexafluoride and dry air were used as dopants to aid in the removal of plasma electrons. Measurements were made using a variety of beam intensities, gas pressures, dopant concentrations, and cavity rf electric fields, both with and without a 3 T external solenoidal magnetic field. Energy dissipation per electron-ion pair, electron-ion recombination rates, ion-ion recombination rates, and electron attachment times to SF_{6} and O_{2} were measured.

  14. Survey of beam-beam limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Cornacchia, M.; Donald, M.M.R.; Evans, L.R.; Tazzari, S.; Wilson, E.J.N.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of beam-beam interaction is known to limit the luminosity of electron-positron storage rings and will, no doubt, limit the proton-antiproton collision scheme for the SPS. While theorists are struggling to explain this phenomenon it is more instructive to list their failures than their rather limited successes, in the hope that experiments may emerge which will direct their endeavors. The search for a description of a nonlinear system as it approaches the limit in which ordered motion breaks down, is the nub of the problem. It has engaged many fine mathematical intellects for decades and will no doubt continue to do so long after ISABELLE, the p antip and LEP are past achievements. Empirical scaling laws are emerging which relate electron machines to each other but their extrapolation to proton machines remain a very speculative exercise. Experimental data on proton limits is confined to one machine, the ISR, which does not normally suffer the beam-beam effect and where it must be artificially induced or simulated. This machine is also very different in important ways from the p antip collider. The gloomy picture which has emerged recently is that the fixed limits which were conventionally assumed for proton and electron machines can only be said to be valid for the machines which engendered them - the best guess that could be made at the time. They are very difficult to extrapolate to other sets of parameters

  15. Beam-width spreading of vortex beams in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Li, Jinhong; Duan, Meiling

    2018-01-01

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the definition of second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function, the analytical expression for the beam-width spreading of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beams in free space are derived, and used to study the influence of beam parameters on the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams. With the increment of the propagation distance, the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams will increase; the bigger the topological charge, spatial correlation length, wavelength and waist width are, the smaller the beam-width spreading is.

  16. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  17. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying. Yearly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  18. Effect of heat source on the growth of dendritic drying patterns

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Shining a tightly-focussed but low-powered laser beam on an absorber dispersed in a biological fluid gives rise to spectacular growth of dendritic patterns. These result from localized drying of the fluid because of efficient absorption and conduction of optical energy by the absorber. We have carried out ...

  19. Electron Beam Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, Lloyd R.

    1997-04-01

    Electron beams have played a significant role in semiconductor technology for more than twenty years. Early electron beam machines used a raster scanned beam spot to write patterns in electron-sensitive polymer resist materials. The main application of electron beam lithography has been in mask making. Despite the inherently high spatial resolution and wide process margins of electron beam lithography, the writing rate for semiconductor wafers has been too slow to be economically viable on a large scale. In the late 1970's, variable shape electron beam writing was developed, projecting a rectangular beam whose size can be varied for each "shot" exposure of a particular pattern, allowing some integrated circuits to be made economically where a variety of "customized" patterns are desired. In the cell or block projection electron beam exposure technique, a unit cell of a repetitive pattern is projected repeatedly to increase the level of parallelism. This can work well for highly repetitive patterns such as memory chips but is not well suited to complex varying patterns such as microprocessors. The rapid progress in the performance of integrated circuits has been largely driven by progress in optical lithography, through improvements in lens design and fabrication as well as the use of shorter wavelengths for the exposure radiation. Due to limitations from the opacity of lens and mask materials, it is unlikely that conventional optical printing methods can be used at wavelengths below 193 nm or feature sizes much below 180 nm. One candidate technology for a post-optical era is the Scattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron-beam Lithography (SCALPEL) approach, which combines the high resolution and wide process latitude inherent in electron beam lithography with the throughput of a parallel projection system. A mask consisting of a low atomic number membrane and a high atomic number pattern layer is uniformly illuminated with high energy (100 ke

  20. Flue gas cleaning by electron beam technology in 21st

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guang; Luo Jingyu; Zhang Ming

    2005-01-01

    China is paying great attention to the pollution caused by flue gases including sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, fine particles, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the environmental protection and sustainable development of China economy for 21st century. Among several promising processes, applicable to industrial scale, the electron beam (EB) scrubbing process can simultaneously remove SO 2 , NOx, PM-10 (particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter), VOC and CO 2 from the flue gas is a new high technology combined with radiation chemistry and electron accelerator technique. The EB flue gas purification process consists of the producing ionization in the EB irradiated gases followed by the formation of free radicals and active species which ultimately forming foggy sulfur acid and nitrate acid. These acids react further with added ammonia to form ammonium sulfate and nitrates as by-products, which can be fertilizer usable in agriculture. The next stage for this technology is its optimization for the reduction of electricity energy consumption and an effective collection of by-products. Lastly the investment cost for EB method is shown to be the most economic compared with other competing methods. (S. Ohno)

  1. High bandwidth beam current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltrusaitis, R.M.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Peterson, E.; Warn, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    A stripline directional coupler beam current monitor capable of measuring the time structure of a 30-ps electron beam bunch has been developed. The time response performance of the monitor compares very well with Cherenkov light produced in quartz by the electron beam. The four-pickup monitor is now used on a routine basis for measuring the beam duration, tuning for optimized beam bunching, and centering the bunch in the beam pipe

  2. Beam-beam limit in e+e- circular colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, K.; Tawada, M.; Kamada, S.; Oide, K.; Cai, Y.; Qiang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Beam-beam effects limit the luminosity of circular colliders. Once the bunch population exceeds a threshold, the luminosity increases at a slower rate. This phenomenon is called the beam-beam limit. Onset of the beam-beam limit has been analyzed with various simulation methods based on the weak-strong and strong-strong models. We have observed that an incoherent phenomenon is mainly concerned in the beam-beam limit. The simulation have shown that equilibrium distributions of the two colliding beams are distorted from Gaussians when the luminosity is limited. The beam-beam limit is estimated to be ξ∼0.1 for a B factory with damping time of several thousand turns

  3. 3D Terahertz Beam Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...... profiles. For the two-color air-plasma, we measure a conical beam profile that is focused to a bell-shape at the beam waist, whereas we observe a Gaussian beam profile for the THz beam generated from the LiNbO3 crystal....

  4. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.

    2017-10-25

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  5. WORKSHOP: Crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Following pioneer work by specialists at the Soviet Novosibirsk Laboratory some ten years ago, interest developed in the possibility of 'freezing' ion beams in storage rings by pushing cooling (to smooth out beam behaviour) to its limits, the final goal being to lock the ions into a neat crystal pattern. After advances by groups working on laser cooled ions in traps, and with several cooling rings now in operation, a workshop on crystalline ion beams was organized recently by the GSI (Darmstadt) Laboratory and held at Wertheim in Germany

  6. Mass spectrometer beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Improved apparatus and system were developed for determining the field desorption characteristics of a sample prior to field desorption mass spectrometry. A portion of the ion beam from the ion source is disabled so that it is undeflected in the beam analyzer. When sample ions are detected by a sensor in this portion of the beam it is then allowed to be deflected and the mass analysis occurs. Thus the source position, temperature and electric field strength can be varied until ions are produced from the sample and the field desorption characteristics can be determined. The source characteristics can be varied either automatically or manually. (DN)

  7. Is every quasar beamed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Peter D.

    1989-01-01

    A companion paper (Barthel et al.) reports the discovery of superluminal motion in the core of 4C 34.47, the largest known quasi-stellar radio source. Superluminal motion, the apparent continuity of small- and large-scale one-sided radio jets, and the recently established depolarization asymmetry in luminous quasars find a natural explanation in the effects of relativistic beaming. In the frameworkof of this relativistic beaming model, the available data imply that all radio-loud quasars are beamed toward the earth. Powerful radio galaxies may well form the unbeamed parent population. Radio-quiet QSOs and powerful infrared galaxies can be unified using similar orientation effects.

  8. Secondary beams at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubre, H.

    1992-01-01

    GANIL, a user's facility since 1983, can deliver a broad spectrum of heavy-ion beams, from He to U, to well-equipped experimental areas. Their very large intensities are to be exploited to produce secondary beams, either using the fragmentation method (beams at energy per nucleon larger than 30 MeV/u), or the ISOL method. With the latter one, these ions have to be re-accelerated. The project of a cyclotron as a post-accelerator is described. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-11-21

    Electron beam ion sources technology made significant progress since 1968 when this method of producing highly charged ions in a potential trap within electron beam was proposed by E. Donets. Better understanding of physical processes in EBIS, technological advances and better simulation tools determined significant progress in key EBIS parameters: electron beam current and current density, ion trap capacity, attainable charge states. Greatly increased the scope of EBIS and EBIT applications. An attempt is made to compile some of EBIS engineering problems and solutions and to demonstrate a present stage of understanding the processes and approaches to build a better EBIS.

  10. Potential evapotranspiration and continental drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Dunne, Krista A.

    2016-01-01

    By various measures (drought area and intensity, climatic aridity index, and climatic water deficits), some observational analyses have suggested that much of the Earth’s land has been drying during recent decades, but such drying seems inconsistent with observations of dryland greening and decreasing pan evaporation. ‘Offline’ analyses of climate-model outputs from anthropogenic climate change (ACC) experiments portend continuation of putative drying through the twenty-first century, despite an expected increase in global land precipitation. A ubiquitous increase in estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET), driven by atmospheric warming, underlies the drying trends, but may be a methodological artefact. Here we show that the PET estimator commonly used (the Penman–Monteith PET for either an open-water surface or a reference crop) severely overpredicts the changes in non-water-stressed evapotranspiration computed in the climate models themselves in ACC experiments. This overprediction is partially due to neglect of stomatal conductance reductions commonly induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in climate models. Our findings imply that historical and future tendencies towards continental drying, as characterized by offline-computed runoff, as well as other PET-dependent metrics, may be considerably weaker and less extensive than previously thought.

  11. Application of Dynamic Speckle Techniques in Monitoring Biofilms Drying Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, Adilson M.; Júnior, Roberto A. Braga; Dal Fabbro, Inácio M.; da Silva, Washington A.; Pereira, Joelma

    2008-04-01

    Horticultural crops exhibit losses far greater than grains in Brazil which are associated to inappropriate maturation, mechanical bruising, infestation by microorganisms, wilting, etc. Appropriate packing prevents excessive mass loss associated to transpiration as well as to respiration, by controlling gas exchanging with outside environment. Common packing materials are identified as plastic films, waxes and biofilms. Although research developed with edible films and biopolymers has increased during last years to attend the food industry demands, avoiding environmental problems, little efforts have been reported on biofilm physical properties investigations. These properties, as drying time and biofilm interactions with environment are considered of basic importance. This research work aimed to contribute to development of a methodology to evaluate yucca (Maniot vulgaris) based biofilms drying time supported by a biospeckle technique. Biospeckle is a phenomenon generated by a laser beam scattered on a dynamic active surface, producing a time varying pattern which is proportional to the surface activity level. By capturing and processing the biospeckle image it is possible to attribute a numerical quantity to the surface bioactivity. Materials exhibiting high moisture content will also show high activity, which will support the drying time determination. Tests were set by placing biofilm samples on polyetilen plates and further submitted to laser exposition at four hours interval to capture the pattern images, generating the Intensities Dispersion Modulus. Results indicates that proposed methodology is applicable in determining biofilm drying time as well as vapor losses to environment.

  12. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  13. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  14. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  15. HIRENASD Beam FEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This contains attempts to create BEAM FEM model. I have started a Blog to discuss this... please put your comments there and I will attempt to keep everything...

  16. Single Beam Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan; Ruterbusch, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how holography can be used as part of undergraduate physics laboratories. The authors propose a single beam technique of holography, which will reduce the recording scheme as well as relax the isolation requirements. (HM)

  17. Beam-beam diagnostics from closed-orbit distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kozanecki, W. [DAPNIA/SPP, CEN Saclay Gif-sur-Yvette, (FR)]|[Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for asymmetric B factories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the interaction point (IP), provide distinct signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.

  18. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaupa, M., E-mail: matteo.zaupa@igi.cnr.it; Sartori, E. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Dalla Palma, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  19. Beam-beam simulation of Möbius-modified CESR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, R.; Malitsky, N.; Koyama, T.

    1997-05-01

    Colliding beam experiments at CESR with beams made round by running on the coupling resonance have been performed,(E. Young et al.), abstract, this conference and runs are planned with the beams made round by Möbius modification.(R. Talman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 1590, (1995) Performance in these configurations has been simulated using TEAPOT++ tracking, map generation, stochastic, and beam-beam modules within the Unified Accelerator Libraries(N. Malitsky et al.), abstract, this conference The true CESR lattice including sextupoles and element apertures is used. Outputs from the calculation include beam profile modification, tune optimization, maximum luminosity, and (with extrapolation) beam lifetimes.

  20. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  1. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction

  2. Beam-beam simulations: dynamical effects and beam-beam limit for LEP3

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmi, K

    2012-01-01

    Beam-beam simulations are reported for LEP3 and TLEP-H, including a rough tune scan. The results suggest that to achieve the design luminosity in LEP3, 10% higher bunch population may be necessary, while TLEP-H can achieve the design performance without any changes. The simulations indicate that the large synchrotron tune, in conjunction with a large hourglass effect, degrades the luminosity performance. This talk was given at CERN on 4 December 2012.

  3. Betatrons with kiloampere beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Although the magnetic-induction method of acceleration used in the betatron is inherently capable of accelerating intense particle beams to high energy, many beam-instability questions arise when beams in the kilo-ampere range are considered. The intense electromagnetic fields produced by the beam, and by the image currents and charges induced in the surrounding walls, can produce very disruptive effects. Several unstable modes of collective oscillation are possible; the suppression of any one of them usually involves energy spread for Landau damping and careful design of the electrical character of the vacuum chamber. The various design criteria are often mutually incompatible. Space-charge detuning can be severe unless large beam apertures and high-energy injection are used. In order to have an acceptably low degree of space-charge detuning in the acceleration of a 10-kilo-ampere electron beam, for example, an injection energy on the order of 50 MeV seems necessary, in which case the forces due to nearby wall images can have a larger effect than the internal forces of the beam. A method of image compensation was invented for reducing the net image forces; it serves also to decrease the longitudinal beam impedance and thus helps alleviate the longitudinal instability as well. In order to avoid the ion-electron collective instability a vacuum in the range of 10 - 8 torr is required for an acceleration time of 1 millisecond. A multi-ring betatron system using the 50-MeV Advanced Test Accelerator at LLNL as an injector was conceptually designed

  4. LHCb: Beam Pipe portrait

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector: it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  5. LHCb: Beam Pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector:it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  6. PARTICLE BEAMS: Frontier course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Driven by the quest for higher energies and optimal physics conditions, the behaviour of particle beams in accelerators and storage rings is the subject of increasing attention. Thus the second course organized jointly by the US and CERN Accelerator Schools looked towards the frontiers of particle beam knowledge. The programme held at South Padre Island, Texas, from 23-29 October attracted 125 participants including some 35 from Europe

  7. LHC First Beam 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Tuura, L

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Centre played a major part in the LHC First Beam Event on September 10th 2008: it was a central point for CMS, hosting journalists from all over the world and providing live link-ups to collaborating institutes as well as, of course, monitoring events as they happened at Point 5. It was also a venue for celebration as the beam completed circuits of the LHC in both directions, passing successfully through the detector (Courtesy of Lassi Tuura)

  8. Terascale Beam-Beam Simulations for Tevatron, RHIC and LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, J.

    2005-05-16

    In this paper, we report on recent advances in terascale simulations of the beam-beam interaction in Tevatron, RHIC and LHC.Computational methods for self consistent calculation of beam-beam forces are reviewed. New method for solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation with open boundary conditions is proposed and tested. This new spectral-finite difference method is a factor of four faster than the widely used FFT based Green function method for beam-beam interaction on axis. We also present applications to the study of antiproton losses during the injection stage at Tevatron, to the study of multiple bunch coherent beam-beam modes at RHIC, and to the study of beam-beam driven emittance growth at LHC.

  9. Terascale Beam-Beam Simulations for Tevatron, RHIC and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report on recent advances in terascale simulations of the beam-beam interaction in Tevatron, RHIC and LHC.Computational methods for self consistent calculation of beam-beam forces are reviewed. New method for solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation with open boundary conditions is proposed and tested. This new spectral-finite difference method is a factor of four faster than the widely used FFT based Green function method for beam-beam interaction on axis. We also present applications to the study of antiproton losses during the injection stage at Tevatron, to the study of multiple bunch coherent beam-beam modes at RHIC, and to the study of beam-beam driven emittance growth at LHC

  10. Transverse equilibria in linear collider beam-beam collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Chen, Pisin

    1991-01-01

    It has been observed in simulations of the beam-beam interaction in linear colliders that a near equilibrium pinched state of the colliding beams develops when the disruption parameter is large (D much-gt 1). In this state the beam transverse density distributions are peaked at center, with long tails. The authors present here an analytical model of the equilibrium approached by the beams, that of a generalized Bennett pinch which develops through collisionless damping due to the strong nonlinearity of the beam-beam interaction. In order to calculate the equilibrium pinched beam size, an estimation of the rms emittance growth is made which takes into account the partial adiabaticity of the collision. This pinched beam size is used to derive the luminosity enhancement factors whose scaling is in agreement with the simulation results for both D and thermal factor A = σ z /β * large, and explains the previously noted cubic relationship between round and flat beam enhancement factors

  11. Beam structure studies of low-energy ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, K.; Schneider, J. D.; Geisik, C.; Stevens, R. R.

    1991-05-01

    The ion beam structure at various axial positions along the beam-transport line has been monitored and studied utilizing a fluor screen and a video camera. The fluor material is aluminum oxide that is plasma-jet sprayed onto the surface of an aluminum or a water-cooled copper substrate. The visual representation of the beam structure is digitized and enhanced through use of false-color coding and displayed on a TV monitor for the on-line viewing by the experimentalist. Digitized video signals are stored for further off-line processing and extracting more information about the beam, such as beam profiles. This inexpensive and effective diagnostic enables the experimentalist to observe the real-time beam response (such as evolution of the beam structure, shifts in the beam intensity at various spatial locations within the beam perimeter, and shifts in the beam center and position) to parameter changes.

  12. 7 CFR 58.813 - Dry whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whey. 58.813 Section 58.813 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.813 Dry whey. The quality requirements for dry whey shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Dry Whey. Supplemental Specifications for Plants...

  13. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  14. 7 CFR 51.905 - Dried berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.905 Dried berries. Dried berries means berries which are dry and shriveled to the extent that practically no moisture is present... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dried berries. 51.905 Section 51.905 Agriculture...

  15. Photon beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  16. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  17. Drying properties and quality parameters of dill dried with intermittent and continuous microwave

    OpenAIRE

    Eştürk, Okan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, influence of various microwave-convective air drying applications on drying kinetics, color and sensory quality of dill leaves (Anethum graveolens L.) were investigated. In general, increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time, and increased the drying rate. Increasing microwave pulse ratio increased the drying time. Page, Logarithmic, Midilli et al, Wang & Singh and Logistic models were fitted to drying data and the Page model was found to satisfactorily...

  18. Ion Accelerator Merges Several Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.

    1984-01-01

    Intense ion beam formed by merging multiple ion beamlets into one concentrated beam. Beamlet holes in graphite screen and focusing grids arranged in hexagonal pattern. Merged beam passes through single hole in each of aluminum accelerator and decelerator grids. Ion extraction efficiency, beam intensity, and focusing improved.

  19. Difraction spectrometry by laser beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, M.

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The advances in laser technology have permitted the development of numerous applications, in particular diffraction spectrometry by laser beams for the determination of the distribution curve of the particle sizes of different materials; this permits one to obtain the distribution of particle size in both wet and dry materials. In the present paper a brief description of the technique and its principles is offered. The results obtained with different materials-limestone clay, gypsum, Portland cement and siliceous materials are given.

    Los avances en la tecnología laser han permitido el desarrollo de múltiples aplicaciones, en concreto la espectrometría de difracción de rayos laser para la determinación de la curva de distribución del tamaño de partícula de diferentes materiales, y que permite la obtención de la misma tanto en seco como en húmedo. En este trabajo se hace una descripción breve de la técnica y de sus fundamentos. Se presentan resultados con diferentes materiales: caliza, arcilla, yeso, cemento Portland y materiales silíceos.

  20. Beam abort detection of SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chenxia; Zhou Weimin; Leng Yongbin

    2010-01-01

    Beam abort signal is a timing signal of the SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) storage ring. It is used to synchronize BPM processor Libera logging beam position data to identify beam abort source and improve the stability of accelerator. The concept design and engineering design of beam abort trigger module are introduced in this paper, and lab test results of this module using RF signal source also presented. Online beam test results show that this module has achieved design goal, could be used to log beam position data before beam abort. (authors)

  1. SELECTED DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    to study the functional performance of the constructed experimental kiln and determine its effect on drying characteristics of a selected common hardwood species in Nigerian markets such as Gmelina arborea. MATERIALS AND METHOD. Study area. The experimental solar timber drier was setup at the Forestry Research ...

  2. THE DIRT ON DRY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T.; Dey, Arjun; Cohen, Emma; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we analyze the mid-infrared (3-70 μm) spectral energy distributions of dry merger candidates in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. These candidates were selected by previous authors to be luminous, red, early-type galaxies with morphological evidence of recent tidal interactions. We find that a significant fraction of these candidates exhibit 8 and 24 μm excesses compared to expectations for old stellar populations. We estimate that a quarter of dry merger candidates have mid-infrared-derived star formation rates greater than ∼1 M sun yr -1 . This represents a 'frosting' on top of a large old stellar population, and has been seen in previous studies of elliptical galaxies. Further, the dry merger candidates include a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies relative to a control sample without tidal features. We therefore conclude that the star formation in these massive ellipticals is likely triggered by merger activity. Our data suggest that the mergers responsible for the observed tidal features were not completely dry, and may be minor mergers involving a gas-rich dwarf galaxy.

  3. Flavour release from dried vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of an in vitro model system for isolation of volatile compounds from dried vegetables under mouth conditions, such as volume of the mouth, temperature, salivation and mastication. Instrumental analysis of these

  4. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if pre- served) used twice daily may help. • Cold compresses help itchy eyes due to allergies. Warm compresses work best for dry eye symptoms of burning and sand-gravel sensations. • Anticipate times of the day, week or month ...

  5. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  6. Dry technologies and community bureaucracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain....

  7. Blades Couple Dry Friction Connection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk; Radolfová, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2015), s. 31-40 ISSN 1802-680X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : stick-slip dry friction * 3D friction characteristic * tangential contact stiffness * hysterezis loop * response curves Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  8. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  9. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets. Dileep Mampallil. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 123-134. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/02/0123-0134 ...

  10. Determination of drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant in different drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Bayraktaroglu Urun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the most traditional process used for preserving eggplant a long time. The aim of this study was to determining drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant dried by sun drying, hot air convective drying and infrared assisted convective drying. Convective drying and infrared assisted convective were carried out in a convective dryer at three different temperatures(40°, 50°, 60°C and air velocity at 5 m/s.The increasing of temperatures during the drying of eggplant led to a significant reduction of the drying time. However loss of nutrition was observed in eggplant samples dried at higher temperature.The biggest change in colour parameters was observed in samples dried with sun drying.So it was thought that sun drying had a negative effect on quality properties of eggplant samples.

  11. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  12. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  13. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamura, Yokichi; Suda, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    1991-01-01

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  14. Effects of dry etching on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, S.W.; Lincoln, G.A.; McClelland, R.W.; DeGraff, P.D.; Geis, M.W.; Piacentini, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    A number of dry etching techniques have been developed and their ability to produce anisotropic etch profiles has been demonstrated. In addition to etch anisotropy, an important consideration for device and circuit fabrication is whether a sample suffers radiation damage by exposure to ions, electrons, or ultraviolet light during etching. In this study we evaluate the degree of radiation damage induced in GaAs by ion-beam etching with Ar, reactive-ion etching with CF 4 and CHF 3 , and ion-beam-assisted etching with Ar and Cl 2 . In addition, we propose and demonstrate processing techniques which can be used after dry etching to reduce the effects of radiation damage. GaAs samples were etched under a variety of etching conditions. The degree of radiation damage caused by etching was determined by evaluating Schottky diodes fabricated on the etched surfaces and by using deep level transient spectroscopy to characterize trapping centers. It was found that the barrier heights and breakdown voltages of Schottky diodes were changed after etching. Also, an increase in the density of traps was observed. Variations in the etching conditions had a strong effect on the measured characteristics of the samples

  15. LHC Report: Rehearsing the LHC accelerator systems for the Run 2 start-up with beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Reyes Alemany Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    While the commissioning of the superconducting circuits is ongoing, great care is also being taken to make sure that the other key LHC accelerator systems are qualified for beam. Since spring 2014, small-scale integration tests on the accelerator systems have been scheduled and carried out successfully to exercise them fully and thoroughly debug their multiple interfaces. The LHC Operations team leads this activity in tight collaboration with the equipment experts and the essential support of the Accelerator Controls group. The tests start once individual system qualification has been performed by the equipment owners and they are ready to be handed over to operations. These tests performed by Operations are called dry runs – dry because they are performed without beam – and they are carried out from the CERN Control Centre (CCC) using the same high-level software applications that will be used during beam operation. The dry runs are the first step towards a global integration test ...

  16. Beam Profile Measurement in MTA Beam Line for High Pressure RF Cavity Beam Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, M.R.; Bross, A.; Chung, M.; Greer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwartz, T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent High Pressure RF (HPRF) cavity experiment at MuCool Test Area (MTA) has used 400 MeV Linac proton beam to study the beam loading effect. When the energetic proton beam passes through the cavity, it ionizes the inside gas and produces the electrons. These electrons consume RF power inside the cavity. Number of electrons produced per cm inside the cavity (at 950 psi Hydrogen gas) per incident proton is ∼ 1200. The measurement of beam position and profile are necessary. MTA is flammable gas (Hydrogen) hazard zone so we have developed a passive beam diagnostic instrument using Chromox-6 scintillation screen and CCD camera. This paper presents quantitative information about beam position and beam profile. Neutral density filter was used to avoid saturation of CCD camera. Image data is filtered and fitted with Gaussian function to compute the beam size. The beam profile obtained from scintillation screen shall be compared with multi-wire beam profile.

  17. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al

    2012-07-01

    The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.

  18. Beam Time Accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Seitova, Diana

    2016-01-01

    ISOLDE is one of the leading research facilities in the field of nuclear physics. A proton beam with an energy 1.4 GeV coming from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) hits one of the targets at ISOLDE and produces Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs). Then, the RIBs of interest is selected and delivered to the different experimental stations. In order to deliver the beam to the certain experimental station, the positions of the devices along the beamline should satisfy certain conditions. The purpose of this project is to define the conditions for the beam to pass through the different beamlines and to store the data about device’s status for later analysis and statistics, so it would be possible to know when the beam was used for different experiments. The data with the settings of the different devices is saved in the Timber database and the first steps for making virtual devices to compile the status of the beamlines were completed.

  19. Bringing up beams

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Last month, commissioning began on CERN’s newest linear accelerator: Linac4. As the replacement machine for Linac2, Linac4 will take a negative hydrogen ion beam to a staggering 160 MeV. We check in to see how the Linac4 team is preparing its machine for its new role as the first link in the accelerator chain.   The Linac4 3 MeV beam line, with the ion source in the back, the RFQ in the middle and the chopping line in the front. On 14 November, members of the Linac4 collaboration and the CERN Operations Group were brought together for their first “real day” in the Linac4 Control Room. Together, they successfully accelerated their first hydrogen ion beam to 3 MeV. It was an exciting moment for everyone involved and marked the start of one of the most critical commissioning phases for the new accelerator. At the start of the Linac4 beam line sits the CERN-made Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). This vital piece of machinery takes the beam from 45 keV to 3 MeV in ju...

  20. A better beam quality

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made on two fronts, providing physics data and preparing for higher intensities. Over the Whitsun weekend of May 22 to 24, 5 fills for physics provided almost 30 hours of stable colliding beams, all with bunch intensities around 2x1010 protons and at a β* of 2m. The first three of these fills were with 6 bunches per beam, giving 3 pairs of collisions in all experiments. For the other two fills, the number of bunches per beam was increased to 13, giving 8 pairs of colliding bunches, and for the first time luminosities were pushed above 1029 cm-2s-1, 2 orders of magnitude higher than first collisions in March. In between and after these physics fills, nominal bunches of 1011 protons were successfully ramped and brought into collision in ATLAS and CMS for the first time (not in stable beam conditions and without squeeze). Event rates seen by the experiments were in the expected range for these conditions. In the middle of this work, a short fill with beams of 7 nominal bunches was ...

  1. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  2. Lightweight HPC beam OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sýkora, Michal; Jedlinský, Petr; Komanec, Jan

    2017-09-01

    In the design and construction of precast bridge structures, a general goal is to achieve the maximum possible span length. Often, the weight of individual beams makes them difficult to handle, which may be a limiting factor in achieving the desired span. The design of the OMEGA beam aims to solve a part of these problems. It is a thin-walled shell made of prestressed high-performance concrete (HPC) in the shape of inverted Ω character. The concrete shell with prestressed strands is fitted with a non-stressed tendon already in the casting yard and is more easily transported and installed on the site. The shells are subsequently completed with mild steel reinforcement and cores are cast in situ together with the deck. The OMEGA beams can also be used as an alternative to steel - concrete composite bridges. Due to the higher production complexity, OMEGA beam can hardly substitute conventional prestressed beams like T or PETRA completely, but it can be a useful alternative for specific construction needs.

  3. Microbial growth and sensory quality of dried potato slices irradiated by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to secure the microbial safety of dried purple sweet potato. After purple sweet potato slices had been dehydrated with 20% (w/w) maltodextrin solution, the samples were irradiated at doses 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and then stored at 20 o C for 60 days. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria and of yeast and molds significantly decreased with increase in irradiation dosage. Specifically, microbial load was reduced by about three log cycles at 6 kGy compared to those of the control. Based on the color measurement of the potato slices, electron beam irradiation treatment did not affect the color quality. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect overall sensory scores during storage. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful for improving microbial safety without impairing the quality of the potato slices during storage.

  4. Microbial growth and sensory quality of dried potato slices irradiated by electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2011-06-01

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to secure the microbial safety of dried purple sweet potato. After purple sweet potato slices had been dehydrated with 20% (w/w) maltodextrin solution, the samples were irradiated at doses 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and then stored at 20 °C for 60 days. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria and of yeast and molds significantly decreased with increase in irradiation dosage. Specifically, microbial load was reduced by about three log cycles at 6 kGy compared to those of the control. Based on the color measurement of the potato slices, electron beam irradiation treatment did not affect the color quality. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect overall sensory scores during storage. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful for improving microbial safety without impairing the quality of the potato slices during storage.

  5. Microbial growth and sensory quality of dried potato slices irradiated by electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Song, Hyeon-Jeong [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Bin, E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.k [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to secure the microbial safety of dried purple sweet potato. After purple sweet potato slices had been dehydrated with 20% (w/w) maltodextrin solution, the samples were irradiated at doses 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and then stored at 20 {sup o}C for 60 days. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria and of yeast and molds significantly decreased with increase in irradiation dosage. Specifically, microbial load was reduced by about three log cycles at 6 kGy compared to those of the control. Based on the color measurement of the potato slices, electron beam irradiation treatment did not affect the color quality. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect overall sensory scores during storage. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful for improving microbial safety without impairing the quality of the potato slices during storage.

  6. Key Findings from the Artist Project on Aerosol Retention in a Dry Steam Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelouahab Dehbi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A steam generator tube rupture (SGTR event with a stuck-open safety relief valve constitutes one of the most serious accident sequences in pressurized water reactors (PWRs because it may create an open path for radioactive aerosol release into the environment. The release may be mitigated by the deposition of fission product particles on a steam generator's (SG's dry tubes and structures or by scrubbing in the secondary coolant. However, the absence of empirical data, the complexity of the geometry, and the controlling processes have, until recently, made any quantification of retention difficult to justify. As a result, past risk assessment studies typically took little or no credit for aerosol retention in SGTR sequences. To provide these missing data, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI initiated the Aerosol Trapping In Steam GeneraTor (ARTIST Project, which aimed to thoroughly investigate various aspects of aerosol removal in the secondary side of a breached steam generator. Between 2003 and 2011, the PSI has led the ARTIST Project, which involved intense collaboration between nearly 20 international partners. This summary paper presents key findings of experimental and analytical work conducted at the PSI within the ARTIST program.

  7. A beam position monitor for low current dc beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adderley, P.; Barry, W.; Heefner, J.; Kloeppel, P.; Rossmanith, R.; Wise, M.; Jachim, S.

    1989-01-01

    The 4 GeV recirculating linac, CEBAF, if presently under construction and will produce a CW beam with average current between.1 and 200 μA. In order to measure beam position, the beam current will be amplitude modulated at a frequency of 10 MHz. The modulation is detected by an inductive loop type monitor with electronics sensitive only to the modulation frequency. The first test with beam from the CEBAF injector indicate that beam position can be measured with an accuracy of .1 mm at a modulated beam current of 1 μA. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. Beam-beam studies for FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Furuseth, Sondre Vik

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider hadron-hadron (FCC-hh) design study is currently exploring different IR design possibilities including round and flat optics or different crossing schemes. The present study intends to evaluate each scenario from the beam-beam effects point of view. In particular the single particle long term stability to maximize beam lifetimes and luminosity reach is used to quantify the differences. The impact of strong head on interactions on the beam quality and lifetime is addressed by means of GPU accelerated simulations code featuring a weak-strong 6-dimensional beam-beam interaction.

  9. High intensity beam dump for the Tevatron beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, J.; Mokhov, N.; Murphy, T.; Palmer, M.; Toohig, T.; Turkot, F.; VanGinneken, A.

    1981-01-01

    The beam abort system proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron Accelerator will extract the proton beam from the ring in a single turn (approximately 20/mu/s) and direct it to an external beam dump. It is the function of the beam dump to absorb the unwanted beam and limit the escaping radiation to levels that are acceptable to the surrounding populace and apparatus. A beam dump that is expected to meet these requirements has been designed and constructed. Detailed design of the dump, including considerations leading to the choice of materials, are given. 6 refs

  10. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  11. Light Beam Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a set of controllable light beams by provision of a system for synthesizing a set of light beams, comprising a spatially modulated light source for generation of electromagnetic radiation with a set of replicas of a predetermined......(x-xs, y-ys), a Fourier transforming lens for Fourier transforming the electromagnetic radiation, a first spatial light modulator for phase shifting the Fourier transformed electromagnetic radiation with the phase -F(u, v) of S*, S* is the complex conjugate of the Fourier transformed symbol s, a Fourier...... transforming lens for Inverse Fourier transforming the spatially modulated radiation, whereby a set of light beams are formed propagating through the inverse Fourier plane (x', y') at desired positions (x's, y's), and a controller for controlling the position of a replica of the symbol, s, for movement...

  12. Is every quasar beamed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    A companion paper (Barthel et al.) reports the discovery of superluminal motion in the core of 4C 34.47, the largest known quasi-stellar radio source. Superluminal motion, the apparent continuity of small- and large-scale one-sided radio jets, and the recently established depolarization asymmetry in luminous quasars find a natural explanation in the effects of relativistic beaming. In the frameworkof of this relativistic beaming model, the available data imply that all radio-loud quasars are beamed toward the earth. Powerful radio galaxies may well form the unbeamed parent population. Radio-quiet QSOs and powerful infrared galaxies can be unified using similar orientation effects. 76 references

  13. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...... and finally data analysis based on the ISO approach. The device was calibrated and tested on commercially available laser systems. It showed good reproducibility. It was the target to be able to measure CW lasers with a power up to 200 W, focused down to spot diameters in the range of 10µm. In order...

  14. Drying kinetics and characteristics of dried gambir leaves using solar heating and silica gel dessicant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Hidayati, J.; Sundari, R.; Wicaksono, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    A drying combination of solar heating and silica gel dessicant has been applied to dry gambir leaves. The solar energy is captured by a collector to heat the air and the hot air is used to dry gambir leaves in a drying chamber. An exhaust fan in drying chamber assists to draw water molecules from gambir leaves accelerated by silica gel dessicant. This study has investigated the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves drying. In drying operation the air velocity is tuned by a PWM (pulse width modulation) controller to adjust minimum and maximum level, which is based on the rotation speed of the exhaust fan. The results show that the air velocity influenced the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves using solar-dessicant drying at 40 cm distance between exhaust fan and silica gel dessicant.

  15. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  16. Cracking in Drying Colloidal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karnail B.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2007-05-01

    It has long been known that thick films of colloidal dispersions such as wet clays, paints, and coatings crack under drying. Although capillary stresses generated during drying have been recently identified as the cause for cracking, the existence of a maximum crack-free film thickness that depends on particle size, rigidity, and packing has not been understood. Here, we identify two distinct regimes for crack-free films based on the magnitude of compressive strain at the maximum attainable capillary pressure and show remarkable agreement of measurements with our theory. We anticipate our results to not only form the basis for design of coating formulations for the paints, coatings, and ceramics industry but also assist in the production of crack-free photonic band gap crystals.

  17. Consistency checks in beam emission modeling for neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punyapu, Bharathi; Vattipalle, Prahlad; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Baruah, Ujjwal Kumar; Crowley, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    In positive neutral beam systems, the beam parameters such as ion species fractions, power fractions and beam divergence are routinely measured using Doppler shifted beam emission spectrum. The accuracy with which these parameters are estimated depend on the accuracy of the atomic modeling involved in these estimations. In this work, an effective procedure to check the consistency of the beam emission modeling in neutral beam injectors is proposed. As a first consistency check, at a constant beam voltage and current, the intensity of the beam emission spectrum is measured by varying the pressure in the neutralizer. Then, the scaling of measured intensity of un-shifted (target) and Doppler shifted intensities (projectile) of the beam emission spectrum at these pressure values are studied. If the un-shifted component scales with pressure, then the intensity of this component will be used as a second consistency check on the beam emission modeling. As a further check, the modeled beam fractions and emission cross sections of projectile and target are used to predict the intensity of the un-shifted component and then compared with the value of measured target intensity. An agreement between the predicted and measured target intensities provide the degree of discrepancy in the beam emission modeling. In order to test this methodology, a systematic analysis of Doppler shift spectroscopy data obtained on the JET neutral beam test stand data was carried out

  18. Beam dancer fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    To accomplish fusion of two or more fusion fuel elements numerous minute spots of energy or laser light are directed to a micro target area, there to be moved or danced about by a precision mechanical controlling apparatus at the source of the laser light or electromagnetic energy beams, so that merging and coinciding patterns of light or energy beams can occur around the area of the fuel atoms or ions. The projecting of these merging patterns may be considered as target searching techniques to locate responsive clusters of fuel elements and to compress such elements into a condition in which fusion may occur. Computerized programming may be used

  19. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  20. Euroschool on Exotic Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Pfützner, Marek; The Euroschool on Exotic Beams, vol. IV

    2014-01-01

    This is the forth volume in a series of Lecture Notes based on the highly successful Euro Summer School on Exotic Beams. The aim of these notes is to provide a thorough introduction to radioactive ion-beam physics at the level of graduate students and young postdocs starting out in the field. Each volume covers a range of topics from nuclear theory to experiment and applications. Vol I has been published as LNP 651, Vol II has been published as LNP 700, and Vol. III has been published as LNP 764.

  1. The Colliding Beams Sequencer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.E.; Johnson, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Colliding Beam Sequencer (CBS) is a computer program used to operate the pbar-p Collider by synchronizing the applications programs and simulating the activities of the accelerator operators during filling and storage. The Sequencer acts as a meta-program, running otherwise stand alone applications programs, to do the set-up, beam transfers, acceleration, low beta turn on, and diagnostics for the transfers and storage. The Sequencer and its operational performance will be described along with its special features which include a periodic scheduler and command logger. 14 refs., 3 figs

  2. GTK beam test 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Vostinic, Snezana

    2017-01-01

    The GTK is in operation at NA62 since 2014 and is among the few silicon pixel detectors performing 4D tracking. This summer, a beam test was conducted to study the phenomena determining the detector time resolution. The project described here contributed to the beam test preparation, data taking and data analyses. One of the main goals of the test was to understand the weight field contribution to the detector time resolution. This field is distorting the signal pulse shape at the edge of the pixel. Hence, to study this effect, the position of the hits inside the pixel has to be determined. An external telescope was therefore used for this purpose.

  3. Molecular beam epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pamplin, Brian R

    1980-01-01

    Molecular Beam Epitaxy introduces the reader to the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the generation of III-V and IV-VI compounds and alloys and describes the semiconductor and integrated optics reasons for using the technique. Topics covered include semiconductor superlattices by MBE; design considerations for MBE systems; periodic doping structure in gallium arsenide (GaAs); nonstoichiometry and carrier concentration control in MBE of compound semiconductors; and MBE techniques for IV-VI optoelectronic devices. The use of MBE to fabricate integrated optical devices and to study semicond

  4. Water Damage Mitigation Drying Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Ed N.

    2014-01-01

    The water damage restoration industry has changed dramatically the last 10–15 years when looking at water damage mitigation technology and the perspective of restoring rather than removing and replacing affected materials. When there are weather-related catastrophes, like flooding, the porous materials in the affected structures will need to be removed and replaced in most cases, but the structural framing, which can generally be restored, can now be dried quicker using new and more effici...

  5. An embeddable optical strain gauge based on a buckled beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Chen, Yizheng; Zhu, Chen; Zhuang, Yiyang; Huang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    We report, for the first time, a low cost, compact, and novel mechanically designed extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI)-based optical fiber sensor with a strain amplification mechanism for strain measurement. The fundamental design principle includes a buckled beam with a coated gold layer, mounted on two grips. A Fabry-Perot cavity is produced between the buckled beam and the endface of a single mode fiber (SMF). A ceramic ferrule is applied for supporting and orienting the SMF. The principal sensor elements are packaged and protected by two designed metal shells. The midpoint of the buckled beam will experience a deflection vertically when the beam is subjected to a horizontally/axially compressive displacement. It has been found that the vertical deflection of the beam at midpoint can be 6-17 times larger than the horizontal/axial displacement, which forms the basis of a strain amplification mechanism. The user-configurable buckling beam geometry-based strain amplification mechanism enables the strain sensor to achieve a wide range of strain measurement sensitivities. The designed EFPI was used to monitor shrinkage of a square brick of mortar. The strain was measured during the drying/curing stage. We envision that it could be a good strain sensor to be embedded in civil materials/structures under a harsh environment for a prolonged period of time.

  6. Electron beam hardening type copper plate printing ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Eiji; Inoue, Mitsuo; Kusaki, Satoichiro

    1989-01-01

    Copper plate printing is the printing method of filling ink in the parts of concave printing elements on a type area, and transferring the ink to a base, and it is the feature that the ink in the printing element parts of a print rises. Copper plate prints show profound feeling, in addition, its effect of preventing forgery is high. This method is generally called engraving printing, and is used frequently for printing various bills and artistic prints. The electron beam irradiation apparatus installed in the laboratory of the Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance, is an experimental machine of area beam type, and is so constructed as to do batch conveyance and web conveyance. As the ink in printing element parts rises, the offset at the delivery part of a printing machine becomes a problem. Electron beam is superior in its transparency, and can dry instantaneously to the inside of opaque ink. At 200 kV of acceleration voltage, the ink of copper plate prints can be hardened by electron beam irradiation. The dilution monomers as the vehicle for ink were tested for their dilution capability and the effect of electron beam hardening. The problem in the utilization of electron beam is the deterioration of papers, and the counter-measures were tested. (K.I.)

  7. The cooling of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling

  8. Investigation of the flat-beam model of the beam-beam interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern S. Schmekel

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available At the interaction point of a storage ring collider each beam is subject to perturbations due to the electromagnetic field of the counterrotating beam. For flat beams, a well-known approximation models the beam by a current sheet which is uniform in the horizontal plane, restricting the particle motion to the vertical direction. In this classical model a water-bag beam distribution has been used to find working points and beam-beam tune shift parameters which lead to a stable beam distribution. We investigate the stability of a more realistic Gaussian equilibrium distribution. A linearized Vlasov equation written in action-angle variables is used to compute the radial and angular modes of a perturbation in two-dimensional phase space to first order in the displacement from the design trajectory. We find that the radial modes, which are often neglected, can have a stabilizing effect on the beam motion.

  9. Noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chaohong; Zheng, Yishu; Li, Hanqing

    2016-04-01

    We proposed a new family of noncoaxial Gauss-truncated Bessel beams through multiplying conventional symmetrical Bessel beams by a noncoaxial Gauss function. These beams can also be regarded as the exponential-truncated version of Bessel-Gauss beams since they can be transformed into the product of Bessel-Gauss beams and an exponential window function along a certain Cartesian axis. The closed-form solutions of the angular spectra and paraxial propagation of these beams were derived. These beams have asymmetrical intensity distributions and carry the same orbit angular momentum per photon as the corresponding Bessel-Gauss beams. While propagating along the z axis, the mth (m≠0) noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams rotate their intensity distributions and the mth-order vortex at the beam center has a transverse shift along the direction perpendicular to the offset axis. Depending on the product of the transverse scalar factor of the Bessel beams and the offset between the Gaussian window function and the center of the Bessel beams, the noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams can produce unit vortices with opposite signs in pairs during propagation.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE INTENSIFICATION CONVECTIVE DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gavrilenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identified and analyzed the relationship of the intensity convective drying and air pollution emissions of heat. The ways to reduce the thermal pollution of the atmosphere at convective drying.

  11. WORKSHOP: Beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling - the control of unruly particles to provide well-behaved beams - has become a major new tool in accelerator physics. The main approaches of electron cooling pioneered by Gersh Budker at Novosibirsk and stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer at CERN, are now complemented by additional ideas, such as laser cooling of ions and ionization cooling of muons

  12. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic. Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dis- persion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming ...

  13. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dispersion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming instability.

  14. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  15. Beam current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchnir, Moyses; Mills, Frederick E.

    1987-01-01

    A current sensor for measuring the DC component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivites in the nano-ampere range.

  16. Beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.J.; Gram, P.A.M.

    1978-05-01

    A system used to monitor secondary beam profiles at the LAMPF Linac for channel tune-up and diagnostics is described. The multiwire proportional chamber design is discussed, and descriptions and drawings of the gate card, the amplifier/multiplexer card, the output amplifier card, and the overall system are given

  17. Beam dynamics group summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, S.

    This paper summarizes the activities of the beam dynamics working group of the LHC Collective Effects Workshop that was held in Montreux in 1994. It reviews the presentations that were made to the group, the discussions that ensued, and the consensuses that evolved.

  18. Dual beam vidicon digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    A vidicon waveform digitizer which can simultaneously digitize two independent signals has been developed. Either transient or repetitive waveforms can be digitized with this system. A dual beam oscilloscope is used as the signal input device. The light from the oscilloscope traces is optically coupled to a television camera, where the signals are temporarily stored prior to digitizing

  19. Electron beam processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam Processing Systems (EPS) are used as useful and powerful tools in many industrial application fields such as the production of cross-linked wire, rubber tire, heat shrinkable film and tubing, curing, degradation of polymers, sterilization and environmental application. In this paper, the feature and application fields, the selection of machine ratings and safety measures of EPS will be described. (author)

  20. Ion beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.H.; Chivers, D.J.; Gard, G.A.; Temple, W.

    1977-04-01

    A description of techniques for the production of intense beams of heavy ions is given. A table of recommended operational procedures for most elements is included. The ionisation of boron is considered in some detail because of its particular importance as a dopant for ion implantation. (author)

  1. Beam in on curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, Dr.

    1981-01-01

    Electron beam curing of paints and allied materials is discussed. Examples of applications are: silicone papers; painting of metal; bonding of flake adhesives; bonding of grinding media (binders); paints for external uses; painting shaped parts; bi-reactive painting systems. An example is given of the calculation of the cost of irradiation. (U.K.)

  2. Stochastic nonlinear beam equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzezniak, Z.; Maslowski, Bohdan; Seidler, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2005), s. 119-149 ISSN 0178-8051 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/1197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stochastic beam equation * stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.896, year: 2005

  3. LHC Report: Beam on

    CERN Multimedia

    Rossano Giachino for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The powering tests described in the last edition of the Bulletin were successfully finished at the end of the first week of March opening the way for 4 TeV operations this year. The beam was back in the machine on Wednesday 14 March. The first collisions at 4 TeV are scheduled for the first week of April.   The first beam of 2012 is dumped after making a few rounds in the LHC. The magnet powering tests were followed by the machine checkout phase. Here the operations team in collaboration with the equipment groups performs a sequence of tests to ensure the readiness of the LHC for beam. The tests include driving all the LHC systems – beam dump, injection, collimation, RF, power converters, magnet circuits, vacuum, interlocks, controls, timing and synchronization – through the operational cycle. The “checkout phase” is really a massive de-bugging exercise, which is performed with the objective of ensuring the proper functioning of the whole machine and t...

  4. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  5. Recycled Paper Beam Sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kristin; Tabacchi, Jo

    2011-01-01

    As art department budgets across the country continue to shrink, art teachers are increasingly on the lookout for inexpensive materials that can be used to teach a range of concepts. In this article, the authors describe a newspaper beam tower project inspired by the book, "The Wonderful Towers of Watts" by Patricia Zelver. There are many more…

  6. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  7. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  8. Noninterceptive transverse beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.; Minerbo, G.N.; Teel, L.E. Jr.; Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The transverse emittance properties of a high-current linear accelerator may be measured by using TV cameras sensitive to the visible radiation emitted following beam interactions with residual gas. This paper describes the TV system being used to measure emittances for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project

  9. Convergent beam neutron crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Walter M.; Schultz, Arthur J.; Richardson, James W.; Carpenter, John M.; Mildner, David F. R.; Chen-Mayer, Heather H.; Miller, M. E.; Maxey, E.; Prask, Henry J.; Gnaeupel-Herold, Thomas H.; Youngman, Russell

    2004-01-01

    Applications of neutron diffraction for small samples (small fiducial areas are limited by the available neutron flux density. Recent demonstrations of convergent beam electron and x-ray diffraction and focusing of cold (λ>1 Å) neutrons suggest the possibility to use convergent beam neutron diffraction for small sample crystallography. We have carried out a systematic study of diffraction of both monoenergetic and broad bandwidth neutrons at the NIST Research Reactor and at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory. Combining convergent beams with time-of-flight Laue diffraction is particularly attractive for high efficiency small sample diffraction studies. We have studied single crystal and powder diffraction of neutrons with convergence angles as large as 15° and have observed diffracted peak intensity gains greater than 20. The convergent beam method (CBM) shows promise for crystallography on small samples of small to medium size molecules (potentially even for proteins), ultra-high pressure samples, and for mapping of strain and texture distributions in larger samples.

  10. Beam Position Monitor Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stephen R.

    1996-07-01

    The design of beam position monitors often involves challenging system design choices. Position transducers must be robust, accurate, and generate adequate position signal without unduly disturbing the beam. Electronics must be reliable and affordable, usually while meeting tough requirements on precision. accuracy, and dynamic range. These requirements may be difficult to achieve simultaneously, leading the designer into interesting opportunities for optimization or compromise. Some useful techniques and tools are shown. Both finite element analysis and analytic techniques will be used to investigate quasi-static aspects of electromagnetic fields such as the impedance of and the coupling of beam to striplines or buttons. Finite-element tools will be used to understand dynamic aspects of the electromagnetic fields of beams, such as wake-fields and transmission-line and cavity effects in vacuum-to-air feed through. Mathematical modeling of electrical signals through a processing chain will be demonstrated, in particular to illuminate areas where neither a pure time-domain nor a pure frequency-domain analysis is obviously advantageous. Emphasis will be on calculational techniques, in particular on using both time-domain and frequency domain approaches to the applicable parts of interesting problems

  11. Beam transport elements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  12. Herbal dryer: drying of ginger (zingiber officinale) using tray dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Alexander; Ashari, M.; Ridha, M.

    2018-02-01

    Drying is widely used as a method to preserve food because of its convenience and affordability. Drying of ginger using tray dryer were carried out at various drying conditions, such as air-drying flow, air-drying temperature, and sample dimensions, to achieve the highest drying rate. Samples with various dimensions were placed in the tray dryer and dried using various air-drying flow and temperatures. The weights of samples were observed every 3 minutes interval. Drying was stopped after three times of constant weighing. Data of drying was collected to make the drying curves. Drying curves show that the highest drying rate is achieved using highest air flow and temperature.

  13. Beam experiment at TARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, A.; Chida, K.; Hattori, T.

    1984-01-01

    TARN is a storage ring of low energy ions (T sub(N) -- 10 MeV/u) constructed in 1979 to verify the feasibility of intensity multiplication proposed at NUMATRON project. The mean radius and maximum magnetic rigidity of the ring are 5.06 m and 11.8 kG.m, respectively. Magnet system based on a strong focusing FODO lattice is composed of 8 dipole and 16 quadrupole magnets. Additional 12 sextupole magnets are also installed for chromaticity control. Intensity increase by the multi-turn injection is 20 times with the dilution factor of 2.0 in horizontal transverse phase space. Injected beams are RF captured with the frequency around 8 MHz and moved inner side of the ring by RF deceleration as large as -- 5 % in Δp/p. Beam intensity increases linearly up to around 20 stackings with the capture efficiency of 80 % and 30 Hz repetition rate. Dilution factor of the longitudinal phase space is measured at 1.8. Thus about 300 times total intensity increase has been attained. The e-folding beam life time of 7 MeV proton is measured at 400 s for the vacuum pressure of 1 x 10 -10 Torr. Stochastic momentum cooling experiment of 7 MeV proton has been performed. A feed-back system based on the 'Notch-Filter' method has been adopted for its simplicity and characteristics suitable for lower beam intensity. Cooling time for the 7 MeV proton beam with the intensity of 10 8 is estimated at 19 s for optimum cooling rate with the system gain of 105 dB, while the system gain as large as 111 dB has been achieved without self-oscillation of the electronics system. From the beam experiment, the cooling time of 10 8 proton beam with fractional momentum spread of 1.4 x 10 -2 is measured at --20 sec with the system gain of 97 db. (author)

  14. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Barbisan, M.; Cristofaro, S.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Riedl, R.; Serianni, G.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the Hα light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of Hα spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  15. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects...

  16. Drying Western Red Cedar with Superheated Steam

    OpenAIRE

    Elustondo, Diego; Ahmed, Sheikh Ali; Oliveira, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated the possibility of drying 50-mm-thick western red cedar with superheated steam. Since there are no industrial facilities in Canada drying western red cedar with superheated steam, the study was designed to explore the potential of this technology in terms of lumber quality, moisture content distribution, and drying time. The experiments showed that the 50-mm-thick product can be dried in less than three days without jeopardizing lumber quality (in comparison w...

  17. Latest Apple Drying Technologies: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Yasin; SAYIN, Emir Olcay; KURULTAY, Şefik

    2009-01-01

    Drying is known as one of the oldest preservation methods and can be applicable to many fruits. Sun drying of apple has been known from ancient times. However, this technique is weather-dependent and has contamination problems such as dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Hot air drying of apples has low energy efficiency and requires longer drying period. The desire to eliminate these problems, prevent quality loss, and achieve fast and effective thermal processing has resulted in an incre...

  18. Infrared Drying as a Quick Preparation Method for Dried Tangerine Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the most convenient and effective method to dry tangerine peels, different methods (sun drying, hot-air drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying, and medium- and short-wave infrared drying were exploited. Our results indicated that medium- and short-wave infrared drying was the best method to preserve nutraceutical components; for example, vitamin C was raised to 6.77 mg/g (D.W. from 3.39 mg/g (sun drying. Moreover, the drying time can be shortened above 96% compared with sun drying. Importantly, the efficiency of DPPH radical scavenging was enhanced from 26.66% to 55.92%. These findings would provide a reliable and time-saving methodology to produce high-quality dried tangerine peels.

  19. Economic optimization of selective dry cow treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C G M; Hogeveen, H; Maas, L; Lam, T J G M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to identify a scenario with the lowest costs for mastitis associated with the dry period while restricting the percentage of cows to be dried off with dry cow antimicrobials. Costs of clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as

  20. Experimental studies on mushroom and pollen drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan; Olgun, Hayati; Ayhan, Teoman [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Trabzon (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    In this study, drying periods of mushrooms and pollens (for Anzer honey) were investigated. The experiments of mushrooms were carried out under both laboratory and shady- and sunny-atmospheric conditions and those of pollens were conducted in the drying cupboard heated by electric heater and under sunny atmospheric conditions. The temperature of the drying cupboard was regulated at 45degC during the drying experiment of pollen. The mass loss of pollens and the temperature of each shelf including pollens in the drying cupboard were measured. Drying curves of mushrooms and pollens for each experiment and the variation of the mass change ratio, the moisture ratio of pollens and the temperatures in the shelves with drying time were presented, respectively. Furthermore, their equations of drying curves and the average experimental uncertainty ratios were calculated based on the experimental results. It was concluded that mushrooms can be dried in the cupboards by using hot air at 50degC in a time period of 5-6 h, and the dried must be protected in vacuum, and the pollens also must be dried at temperatures between 40 and 45degC in a time period of 2.5-3 h without their losing the colour, flavour, smell and structure. The average experimental uncertainty ratio of mushrooms and pollens during the drying process were calculated to be 22 and 18% respectively. (Author)