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Sample records for beads confirms trade

  1. New research on glass beads confirms trade and contact between Southern Africa and Southeast Asia ca. AD 950-1250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitowitz-Fenton, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Luxury goods, used in Muslim and medieval long distance trade between ca. AD 900-1250, found an important market among the Iron Age peoples of southern Africa. Indirect evidence of this trade can be seen in the form of archaeological collections of glass beads at sites throughout Africa and Southeast Asia. Texts, chronicles, glass weights, scribal notes and receipts confirm that it was already a successful industrial centre with a history of glass-making when the Fatimids gained control of Egypt. In this study the author addressed three aspects of research to investigate the trade networks associated with internal and foreign contact: (1) the manufacturing origins of the beads, (2) who brought them to southern Africa, and (3) their dispersal in the region. Glass material from Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Southeast Asia was used for comparison, and as possible source material. Scientific techniques were used to confirm these operations. The beads were described, classified, and sampled selectively for physical and chemical analysis. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) used to determine the rare earth element (REE) shows that a particular glass, used to make beads in Egypt, is the same as that used to make some of the beads found at sites in the northern and eastern Transvaal. They document the existence of a trade link with the Mediterranean via the Red Sea 1000 years ago. Until now, both the origin of this contact and the extent of indigenous responses were largely unknown. These findings cast a different light on maritime trade along the east coast of Africa a millennium ago, and on external influences which helped to launch significant political developments in southern Africa

  2. Neutron activation analysis of AD 1660-1930 European copper-coloured blue glass trade beads from Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.; Hancock, R.G.V.; Aufreiter, S.

    1995-01-01

    Blue glass trade beads from well-dated late seventeenth- to early twentieth-century sites and collections have been analysed non-destructively by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The beads display enough variations in their elemental contents to allow us to characterize the different chemistries. The implication of these results is that similar chemical analyses of blue beads from undated archaeological sites may be used to help date the sites, since each bead chemistry has a specific earliest period. (author)

  3. 78 FR 21045 - Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, Portfolio Compression, and Swap Trading Relationship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 RIN 3038-AC96 Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, Portfolio Compression, and Swap Trading Relationship Documentation Requirements for Swap Dealers..., portfolio compression, and swap trading relationship documentation for Swap Dealers and Major Swap...

  4. Neutron activation analysis of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from the eastern Great Lakes area of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.G.V.; Chafe, A.; Kenyon, I.

    1994-01-01

    Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from aboriginal sites in the eastern Great Lakes area of North America have been analysed non-destructively using low neutron dose instrumental neutron activation analysis, so that the beads could be returned to their keepers. Dark blue (cobalt-coloured) beads are readily separable from turquoise (copper-coloured) beads. Differences in the chemistries of the turquoise blue beads appear to be useful in separating glass beads from the two centuries. Low calcium, sixteenth-century turquoise beads tend to disintegrate by a leaching of the alkali metals. (Author)

  5. 77 FR 55903 - Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, Portfolio Compression, and Swap Trading Relationship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Vol. 77 Tuesday, No. 176 September 11, 2012 Part II Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Part 23 Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, Portfolio Compression, and Swap Trading Relationship... FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 RIN 3038-AC96 Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, Portfolio...

  6. Empirical confirmation of creative destruction from world trade data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klimek

    Full Text Available We show that world trade network datasets contain empirical evidence that the dynamics of innovation in the world economy indeed follows the concept of creative destruction, as proposed by J.A. Schumpeter more than half a century ago. National economies can be viewed as complex, evolving systems, driven by a stream of appearance and disappearance of goods and services. Products appear in bursts of creative cascades. We find that products systematically tend to co-appear, and that product appearances lead to massive disappearance events of existing products in the following years. The opposite-disappearances followed by periods of appearances-is not observed. This is an empirical validation of the dominance of cascading competitive replacement events on the scale of national economies, i.e., creative destruction. We find a tendency that more complex products drive out less complex ones, i.e., progress has a direction. Finally we show that the growth trajectory of a country's product output diversity can be understood by a recently proposed evolutionary model of Schumpeterian economic dynamics.

  7. Empirical confirmation of creative destruction from world trade data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Hausmann, Ricardo; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We show that world trade network datasets contain empirical evidence that the dynamics of innovation in the world economy indeed follows the concept of creative destruction, as proposed by J.A. Schumpeter more than half a century ago. National economies can be viewed as complex, evolving systems, driven by a stream of appearance and disappearance of goods and services. Products appear in bursts of creative cascades. We find that products systematically tend to co-appear, and that product appearances lead to massive disappearance events of existing products in the following years. The opposite-disappearances followed by periods of appearances-is not observed. This is an empirical validation of the dominance of cascading competitive replacement events on the scale of national economies, i.e., creative destruction. We find a tendency that more complex products drive out less complex ones, i.e., progress has a direction. Finally we show that the growth trajectory of a country's product output diversity can be understood by a recently proposed evolutionary model of Schumpeterian economic dynamics.

  8. Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Provides a historical overview of analysis of U.S. foreign trade policy during the early decades of the country's history. Examines bilateral U.S. trade relations with France and Great Britain, provides import and export statistics, details on commodities and products imports and exported, trade statistics, and information on the political and economic factors shaping U.S. trade during this period.

  9. Radiocarbon dating of seized ivory confirms rapid decline in African elephant populations and provides insight into illegal trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Gobush, Kathleen S.; Uno, Kevin T.; Wasser, Samuel K.; Xu, Xiaomei

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-14 measurements on 231 elephant ivory specimens from 14 large ivory seizures (≥0.5 ton) made between 2002 and 2014 show that most ivory (ca. 90%) was derived from animals that had died less than 3 y before ivory was confiscated. This indicates that the assumption of recent elephant death for mortality estimates of African elephants is correct: Very little “old” ivory is included in large ivory shipments from Africa. We found only one specimen of the 231 analyzed to have a lag time longer than 6 y. Patterns of trade differ by regions: East African ivory, based on genetic assignments of geographic origin, has a much higher fraction of “rapid” transit than ivory originating in the Tridom region of Cameroon-Gabon-Congo. Carbon-14 is an important tool in understanding patterns of movement of illegal wildlife products.

  10. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations on wastewater nutrient removal. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The bioreactor containing algal beads (4 mm diameter) with 1.5 x 106 cells bead-1 (cell stocking) at concentration of 10.66 beads ml-1 wastewater (1:3 bead: wastewater, v/v) achieved ...

  11. A Magnetic Bead Actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, R.; Prins, M.W.J.; Wimberger-Friedl, R.

    2006-01-01

    Actuation principles of superparamagnetic beads applicable on biosensing (at single beads and chain orderning) are studied in this report. This research can be used to develop new techniques that are able to accelerate bio-assays. An experimental setup containing a sub-microliter fluid volume

  12. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by the unicellular green microalga Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Different cell stockings in beads, different bead sizes and different algal bead concentrations in wastewaters were tested. Significant higher nutrients ...

  13. Half bead welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.; Holz, P.P.

    1978-05-01

    The ORNL has employed the Section XI half-bead procedure for six repair welds. Table 2 identifies the repairs and the components upon which they were accomplished. The weld repairs were performed to permit us to evaluate material properties, residual stresses, weld repair procedures, and structural behavior of repaired pressure vessels. As a consequence of our study we concluded that when the half bead procedure is correctly applied: (1) there is no metallurgical degradation of the base material, (2) residual stresses of yield point magnitude will be present, and (3) the structural integrity of the pressure vessel is not impaired at Charpy V-notch upper shelf temperatures

  14. bEADS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    While there are a great variety of digital musical interfaces available to the working musician, few offer the level of immediate, nuanced and instinctive interaction that one finds in an acoustic shaker. bEADS is a prototype of a digital musical instrument that utilises the gestural vocabulary...... associated with shaken idiophones and expands on the techniques and sonic possibilities associated with them. By using a bespoke physically informed synthesis engine, in conjunction with accelerometer and pressure sensor data, an actuated handheld instrument has been built that allows for quickly switching...... between widely differing percussive sound textures. The prototype has been evaluated by three experts with different levels of involvement in professional music making....

  15. Separation of yttrium using carbon nanotube doped polymeric beads impregnated with D2EHPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Kinshuk; Yadav, Kartikey K.; Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid impregnated polyethersulfone based composite beads in combination with additives such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has been prepared by non-solvent phase inversion method. The synthesized beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and infra-red spectroscopy. Effect of additives on bead morphology, solvent impregnation capacity, extractability and stability has been examined to compare their suitability for yttrium recovery from acidic medium. Microstructural investigation as well as experimental findings confirmed the role of additives in modifying the pore structures in beads, responsible for varied degree of yttrium extraction. Further the role of metal ion concentration in aqueous phase on its recovery by polymeric beads was also evaluated. Among the tested beads PES/D2EHPA/MWCNT/PVA beads were found to be superior for Y(Ill) extraction. (author)

  16. Microfabricated Passive Magnetic Bead separators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Smistrup, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The use and manipulation of functionalized magnetic beads for bioanalysis in lab-on-a-chip systems is receiving growing interest. We have developed microfluidic systems with integrated magnetic structures for the capture and release of magnetic beads. The systems are fabricated in silicon by deep...... reactive ion etching combined with a number of metal deposition and etching steps followed by anodic bonding of a pyrex lid....

  17. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  18. Deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection utilizing an integrated plug-in bead dispenser for single bead-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin; Choi, In Ho; Lee, Sanghyun; Won, Dong-Joon; Oh, Yong Suk; Kwon, Donghoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Joonwon

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection (BIDE) technique that regulates the precise distribution of microbeads in an ejected droplet. The deterministic BIDE was realized through the effective integration of a microfluidic single-particle handling technique with a liquid dispensing system. The integrated bead dispenser facilitates the transfer of the desired number of beads into a dispensing volume and the on-demand ejection of bead-encapsulated droplets. Single bead-encapsulated droplets were ejected every 3 s without any failure. Multiple-bead dispensing with deterministic control of the number of beads was demonstrated to emphasize the originality and quality of the proposed dispensing technique. The dispenser was mounted using a plug-socket type connection, and the dispensing process was completely automated using a programmed sequence without any microscopic observation. To demonstrate a potential application of the technique, bead-based streptavidin-biotin binding assay in an evaporating droplet was conducted using ultralow numbers of beads. The results evidenced the number of beads in the droplet crucially influences the reliability of the assay. Therefore, the proposed deterministic bead-in-droplet technology can be utilized to deliver desired beads onto a reaction site, particularly to reliably and efficiently enrich and detect target biomolecules.

  19. Three-bead steering microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2018-02-01

    The self-propelled microswimmers have recently attracted considerable attention as model systems for biological cell migration as well as artificial micromachines. A simple and well-studied microswimmer model consists of three identical spherical beads joined by two springs in a linear fashion with active oscillatory forces being applied on the beads to generate self-propulsion. We have extended this linear microswimmer configuration to a triangular geometry where the three beads are connected by three identical springs in an equilateral triangular manner. The active forces acting on each spring can lead to autonomous steering motion; i.e., allowing the swimmer to move along arbitrary paths. We explore the microswimmer dynamics analytically and pinpoint its rich character depending on the nature of the active forces. The microswimmers can translate along a straight trajectory, rotate at a fixed location, as well as perform a simultaneous translation and rotation resulting in complex curved trajectories. The sinusoidal active forces on the three springs of the microswimmer contain naturally four operating parameters which are more than required for the steering motion. We identify the minimal operating parameters which are essential for the motion of the microswimmer along any given arbitrary trajectory. Therefore, along with providing insights into the mechanics of the complex motion of the natural and artificial microswimmers, the triangular three-bead microswimmer can be utilized as a model for targeted drug delivery systems and autonomous underwater vehicles where intricate trajectories are involved.

  20. Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Kwon; Hwang, Jong Seung; Hwang, Sung Woo; Ahn, Doyeol

    2010-11-19

    A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

  1. Development of bioactive porous α-TCP/HAp beads for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Teruo; Ohtake, Shoji; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Tamura, Akito; Ushida, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Porous beads of bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) and tribasic calcium phosphate (TCP) are considered a promising scaffold for cultivating bone cells. To realize this, α-TCP/HAp functionally graded porous beads are fabricated with two main purposes: to maintain the function of the scaffold with sufficient strength up to the growth of new bone, and is absorbed completely after the growth. HAp is a bioactive material that has both high strength and strong tissue-adhesive properties, but is not readily absorbed by the human body. On the contrary, α-TCP is highly bioabsorbable, resulting in a scaffold that is absorbed before it is completely replaced by bone. In this study, we produced porous, bead-shaped carriers as scaffolds for osteoblast culture. To control the solubility in vivo, the fabricated beads contained α-TCP at the center and HAp at the surface. Cell adaptability of these beads for bone tissue engineering was confirmed in vitro. It was found that α-TCP/HAp bead carriers exhibit low toxicity in the initial stages of cell seeding and cell adhesion. The presence of HAp in the composite bead form effectively increased ALP activity. In conclusion, it is suggested that these newly developed α-TCP/HAp beads are a promising tool for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Highly Sensitive Bacteria Quantification Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Electrochemical Detection of Guanine-Labeled Secondary Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikrishnan Jayamohan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the ultra-sensitive indirect electrochemical detection of E. coli O157:H7 using antibody functionalized primary (magnetic beads for capture and polyguanine (polyG oligonucleotide functionalized secondary (polystyrene beads as an electrochemical tag. Vacuum filtration in combination with E. coli O157:H7 specific antibody modified magnetic beads were used for extraction of E. coli O157:H7 from 100 mL samples. The magnetic bead conjugated E. coli O157:H7 cells were then attached to polyG functionalized secondary beads to form a sandwich complex (magnetic bead/E. coli secondary bead. While the use of magnetic beads for immuno-based capture is well characterized, the use of oligonucleotide functionalized secondary beads helps combine amplification and potential multiplexing into the system. The antibody functionalized secondary beads can be easily modified with a different antibody to detect other pathogens from the same sample and enable potential multiplexing. The polyGs on the secondary beads enable signal amplification up to 10\\(^{8}\\ guanine tags per secondary bead (\\(7.5\\times10^{6}\\ biotin-FITC per secondary bead, 20 guanines per oligonucleotide bound to the target (E. coli. A single-stranded DNA probe functionalized reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode was used to bind the polyGs on the secondary beads. Fluorescent imaging was performed to confirm the hybridization of the complex to the electrode surface. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV was used to quantify the amount of polyG involved in the hybridization event with tris(2,2'-bipyridineruthenium(II (Ru(bpy\\(_{3}^{2+}\\ as the mediator. The amount of polyG signal can be correlated to the amount of E. coli O157:H7 in the sample. The method was able to detect concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 down to 3 CFU/100 mL, which is 67 times lower than the most sensitive technique reported in literature. The signal to noise ratio for this work was 3

  3. Geochemical features of glass beads excavated from the Iron Age archaeological sites, Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.

    2016-12-01

    The uses of metallic artifacts began 2500-2000 years ago in Taiwan; in the meanwhile glass beads have also been as a common ornament by the prehistoric people. Glass, as the earliest artificial ornament, is made by a mixture of quartz sands and flux which were heated to more than one thousand Celsius degrees. Therefore, the production processes, raw material provenance and exchange systems could be revealed by the chemical compositions of glass artifacts. The chemical composition of glass beads studies from four archaeological sites (PL, PN, CHL and TL sites) in early Iron Age are reported in this study. By the producing in drawn method and limited ranges of colors with various hue, all the studied glass beads here should be classified as Indo-Pacific glass beads. As these ancient glass beads are unique and precious, a non-destructive analytical method is always considered at the initial stage. Therefore, we use the best known and most widely-used of the surface analytical techniques SEM/EDX to get the surface and quantitative elemental information of glass beads. According to the analytical results, the PL and PN glass beads all belong to potassium silica glass and those coexisting with so-called Kueishan sherds excavated from CHL and TL sites should be classified as sodium-calcium glass which is the most general composition of Indo-Pacific glass beads. Not only the different flux using between potassium and sodium glass, the variation in the aluminum contents between potassium and sodium glass also exhibits different provenances of glass-making raw materials. As lack of glass-making remains in Taiwan, these ancient glass beads were considered as a precious and trading artifact to Taiwan from overseas and introduced into prehistoric societies via various sources and paths. Although the trading/exchange routes of ancient glass beads are still debatable, we find that compositional analyses can help answer such questions as what types of glass were used for their

  4. Expanded polylactide bead foaming - A new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.

    2015-05-01

    Bead foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with complex geometries. During the molding stage of the bead foams, the double peak structure generates a strong bead-to-bead sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) bead foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA bead foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA bead foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA bead foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.

  5. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  6. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading...

  7. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  8. Structure and superparamagnetic behaviour of magnetite nanoparticles in cellulose beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Jose R., E-mail: correa@fq.uh.cu [Department of General Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Havana, Zapata and G, Havana City 10400 (Cuba); Bordallo, Eduardo [Sugar Cane-Cellulose Research Center, Cuba-9, Quivican (Cuba); Canetti, Dora [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Havana, Zapata and G, Havana City 10400 (Cuba); Leon, Vivian [Sugar Cane-Cellulose Research Center, Cuba-9, Quivican (Cuba); Otero-Diaz, Luis C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry-1, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Electron Microscopy Center, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Negro, Carlos [Chemical Engineering Department, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gomez, Adrian [Electron Microscopy Center, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Saez-Puche, Regino [Department of Inorganic Chemistry-1, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles were obtained starting from a mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) solutions in a preset total iron concentration from 0.04 to 0.8 mol l{sup -1} with ammonia at 25 and 70 {sup o}C. The regeneration of cellulose from viscose produces micrometrical spherical cellulose beads in which synthetic magnetite were embedded. The characterization of cellulose-magnetite beads by X-ray diffraction, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy and magnetic measurement is reported. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the higher is the total iron concentration and temperature the higher is the crystal size of the magnetite obtained. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies of cellulose-magnetite beads revealed the distribution of magnetite nanoparticles inside pores of hundred nanometers. Magnetite as well as the cellulose-magnetite composites exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics. Field cooling and zero field cooling magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the superparamagnetic behaviour and the blocking temperature for the magnetite with a mean size of 12.5 nm, which is 200 K.

  9. Model confirmation in climate economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Antony; McDermott, Thomas K J

    2016-08-02

    Benefit-cost integrated assessment models (BC-IAMs) inform climate policy debates by quantifying the trade-offs between alternative greenhouse gas abatement options. They achieve this by coupling simplified models of the climate system to models of the global economy and the costs and benefits of climate policy. Although these models have provided valuable qualitative insights into the sensitivity of policy trade-offs to different ethical and empirical assumptions, they are increasingly being used to inform the selection of policies in the real world. To the extent that BC-IAMs are used as inputs to policy selection, our confidence in their quantitative outputs must depend on the empirical validity of their modeling assumptions. We have a degree of confidence in climate models both because they have been tested on historical data in hindcasting experiments and because the physical principles they are based on have been empirically confirmed in closely related applications. By contrast, the economic components of BC-IAMs often rely on untestable scenarios, or on structural models that are comparatively untested on relevant time scales. Where possible, an approach to model confirmation similar to that used in climate science could help to build confidence in the economic components of BC-IAMs, or focus attention on which components might need refinement for policy applications. We illustrate the potential benefits of model confirmation exercises by performing a long-run hindcasting experiment with one of the leading BC-IAMs. We show that its model of long-run economic growth-one of its most important economic components-had questionable predictive power over the 20th century.

  10. Preventive maintenance technique by temper bead welding for reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Ryuichi; Kamo, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Moritatsu; Nakamura, Yasuo; Hirano, Shinro

    2011-01-01

    Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant has some dissimilar weld joint between main components which are made of Low Alloy Steel and piping which is made of Stainless Steel. Previous plants' dissimilar weld joints are made of Alloy 600 which is low resistance to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). It is reported that PWSCC is occurred in some plants. The preventive maintenance technique against PWSCC is needed immediately. One solution is the improvement of the material, for example, the inner surface of Alloy 600 is replaced by welding Alloy 690 which is high resistance to PWSCC. Generally, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of low alloy steel after welding is required Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT), but it is so hard that this operation has to be accomplished in site. So it is necessary to attempt the improvement of HAZ by temper bead welding which isn't needed PWHT. Temper bead welding is that HAZ of 1st weld layer is appropriately covered with heat of after 2nd weld layer, then the mechanical performance of HAZ is improved as well as PWHT. Conventional temper bead welding is required pre-heat and post-heat treatment. However it is impossible to set up the heater due to environment around the dissimilar weld joint in some plants, the development of ambient temperature temper bead welding technique which isn't needed pre-heat and post-heat treatment is expected. It is confirmed that the mechanical performance and the material texture are improved by setting the appropriate welding condition with many welding test pieces. Then, the preventive maintenances called INLAY method are completed in some actual plants. (author)

  11. TETHERED-BEAD, IMMUNE SANDWICH ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Jonathan; Li, Zhenyu; Neuman, Keir

    2014-01-01

    We describe a proof-of-principal, immune sandwich assay in which immune complexes link micron-size beads via DNA tethers to a sensor surface. The number of tethered beads, counted using low-magnification microscopy, provides a measure of the concentration of analyte. The prototype assay was sensitive to pM concentration of analyte. In theory, the assay could be sensitive to sub-fM analyte because beads attached via single-immune complexes and DNA strands form tethers, and tether formation in the absence of analyte is extremely rare. The limiting step at present is binding of streptavidin at the end of DNA to biotin on capture beads. Potential advantages of this type of sensor are discussed. PMID:25064819

  12. BeadArray expression analysis using bioconductor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Ritchie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Illumina whole-genome expression BeadArrays are a popular choice in gene profiling studies. Aside from the vendor-provided software tools for analyzing BeadArray expression data (GenomeStudio/BeadStudio, there exists a comprehensive set of open-source analysis tools in the Bioconductor project, many of which have been tailored to exploit the unique properties of this platform. In this article, we explore a number of these software packages and demonstrate how to perform a complete analysis of BeadArray data in various formats. The key steps of importing data, performing quality assessments, preprocessing, and annotation in the common setting of assessing differential expression in designed experiments will be covered.

  13. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels, coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT levels and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  14. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Igor; Lindh, Jonas; Hong, Jaan; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Ferraz, Natalia

    2018-03-07

    Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  15. CERN confirms LHC schedule

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Council held its 125th session on 20 June. Highlights of the meeting included confirmation that the LHC is on schedule for a 2007 start-up, and the announcement of a new organizational structure in 2004.

  16. The Beads of Translation: Using Beads to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    During this activity, by making beaded bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (beads). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…

  17. Performance Confirmation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    As described, the purpose of the Performance Confirmation Plan is to specify monitoring, testing, and analysis activities for evaluating the accuracy and adequacy of the information used to determine that performance objectives for postclosure will be met. This plan defines a number of specific performance confirmation activities and associated test concepts in support of the MGR that will be implemented to fulfill this purpose. In doing so, the plan defines an approach to identify key factors and processes, predict performance, establish tolerances and test criteria, collect data (through monitoring, testing, and experiments), analyze these data, and recommend appropriate action. The process of defining which factors to address under performance confirmation incorporates input from several areas. In all cases, key performance confirmation factors are those factors which are: (1) important to safety, (2) measurable and predictable, and (3) relevant to the program (i.e., a factor that is affected by construction, emplacement, or is a time-dependent variable). For the present version of the plan, performance confirmation factors important to safety are identified using the principal factors from the RSS (CRWMS M and O 2000a) (which is derived from TSPA analyses) together with other available performance assessment analyses. With this basis, key performance confirmation factors have been identified, and test concepts and test descriptions have been developed in the plan. Other activities are also incorporated into the performance confirmation program outside of these key factors. Additional activities and tests have been incorporated when they are prescribed by requirements and regulations or are necessary to address data needs and model validation requirements relevant to postclosure safety. These other activities have been included with identified factors to construct the overall performance confirmation program

  18. Performance Confirmation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    As described, the purpose of the Performance Confirmation Plan is to specify monitoring, testing, and analysis activities for evaluating the accuracy and adequacy of the information used to determine that performance objectives for postclosure will be met. This plan defines a number of specific performance confirmation activities and associated test concepts in support of the MGR that will be implemented to fulfill this purpose. In doing so, the plan defines an approach to identify key factors and processes, predict performance, establish tolerances and test criteria, collect data (through monitoring, testing, and experiments), analyze these data, and recommend appropriate action. The process of defining which factors to address under performance confirmation incorporates input from several areas. In all cases, key performance confirmation factors are those factors which are: (1) important to safety, (2) measurable and predictable, and (3) relevant to the program (i.e., a factor that i s affected by construction, emplacement, or is a time-dependent variable). For the present version of the plan, performance confirmation factors important to safety are identified using the principal factors from the RSS (CRWMS M and O 2000a) (which is derived from TSPA analyses) together with other available performance assessment analyses. With this basis, key performance confirmation factors have been identified, and test concepts and test descriptions have been developed in the plan. Other activities are also incorporated into the performance confirmation program outside of these key factors. Additional activities and tests have been incorporated when they are prescribed by requirements and regulations or are necessary to address data needs and model validation requirements relevant to postclosure safety. These other activities have been included with identified factors to construct the overall performance confirmation program

  19. Aerogel Beads as Cryogenic Thermal Insulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Rouanet, S.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the use of aerogel beads as thermal insulation for cryogenic applications was conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff methods were used to characterize the thermal performance of aerogel beads in comparison with conventional insulation products such as perlite powder and multilayer insulation (MLI). Aerogel beads produced by Cabot Corporation have a bulk density below 100 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/cubic m) and a mean particle diameter of 1 millimeter (mm). The apparent thermal conductivity values of the bulk material have been determined under steady-state conditions at boundary temperatures of approximately 293 and 77 kelvin (K) and at various cold vacuum pressures (CVP). Vacuum levels ranged from 10(exp -5) torr to 760 torr. All test articles were made in a cylindrical configuration with a typical insulation thickness of 25 mm. Temperature profiles through the thickness of the test specimens were also measured. The results showed the performance of the aerogel beads was significantly better than the conventional materials in both soft-vacuum (1 to 10 torr) and no-vacuum (760 torr) ranges. Opacified aerogel beads performed better than perlite powder under high-vacuum conditions. Further studies for material optimization and system application are in progress.

  20. Repository performance confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part of the

  1. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  2. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool......-in piezoelectric torque transducer. This technique results in a very sensitive measurement of friction, which furthermore enables recording of lubricant film breakdown as function of drawing distance. The proposed test is validated in an experimental investigation of the influence of lubricant viscosity...

  3. Analysis of early medieval glass beads - Glass in the transition period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Ziga, E-mail: ziga.smit@ijs.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, Timotej [National Museum of Slovenia, Presernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jezersek, David [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Istenic, Janka [National Museum of Slovenia, Presernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Glass beads from graves excavated in Slovenia and dated archaeologically to the 7th-10th century AD were analysed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method. The results indicate two groups of glass; natron glass made in the Roman tradition and glass made with alkalis from the ash of halophytic plants, which gradually replaced natron glass after c. 800 AD. The alkalis used in the second group of glass seem to be in close relation to a variant of the Venetian white glass that appeared several centuries later. The origin of this glass may be traced to glass production in Mesopotamia and around the Aral Sea. All the mosaic beads with eye decoration, as well as most of the drawn-segmented and drawn-cut beads analysed, are of plant-ash glass, which confirms their supposed oriental origin.

  4. Online measurement of bead geometry in GMAW-based additive manufacturing using passive vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Jun; Zhang, Guangjun

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing based on gas metal arc welding is an advanced technique for depositing fully dense components with low cost. Despite this fact, techniques to achieve accurate control and automation of the process have not yet been perfectly developed. The online measurement of the deposited bead geometry is a key problem for reliable control. In this work a passive vision-sensing system, comprising two cameras and composite filtering techniques, was proposed for real-time detection of the bead height and width through deposition of thin walls. The nozzle to the top surface distance was monitored for eliminating accumulated height errors during the multi-layer deposition process. Various image processing algorithms were applied and discussed for extracting feature parameters. A calibration procedure was presented for the monitoring system. Validation experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the online measurement system for bead geometry in layered additive manufacturing. (paper)

  5. Beads from Inhumation Rite Burials of Gnezdovo Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrova Olga P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beads from 33 inhumation burials at Gnezdovo burial mound are examined in the article. The beads (total 367 were crafted from stretched tube (258, stretched stick (3, winding (45, press molding (2 pcs., welding (2 pcs., and mosaic beads (9 pcs.. The burial mound contains virtually no broken beads, including the settlement's most common yellow glass beads. Besides glass beads, cornelian, crystal, amber and faience beads have been registered among the burial mound material, as well as beads crafted with metal. Apart from beads, grave inventories contained a series of pendants with a bead strung on a wire ring. The considered complexes contain five pendants of this type. Besides Gnezdovo, similar pendants have been discovered in Kiev, Timerev, Pskov and Vladimir barrows. A comparison between bead sets from Gnezdovo and Kiev burial mounds allows to conclude that the general composition and occurrence frequency of beads is identical for these burials. At the same time, beads crafted with rock crystal, cornelian and metal are more frequently discovered in Kiev inhumations.

  6. Towards emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, S.

    2001-01-01

    A one-day conference organised by the Institute of Energy was held recently to discuss the way forward for emissions trading of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the UK. In the absence of the Government's draft rules for the scheme, the meeting examined the background to the proposed scheme and its implications for participants. Henry Derwent of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) confirmed that emissions trading would happen despite the US rejection of the Kyoto Protocol. Margaret Mogford of the UK Emissions Trading Group explained the special features of the UK scheme, including its voluntary nature, financial incentives from the Government and the use of targets based on units of output. The scheme would be administered by an emissions trading authority and there would be three possible routes to participation (core participants, emissions savings projects and 'unit' participants). Margaret Mogford also outlined the steps for companies interested in participating

  7. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Woodward, Charlene A.; Byers, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  8. Wood mimetic hydrogel beads for enzyme immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Saerom; Kim, Sung Hee; Won, Keehoon; Choi, Joon Weon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-22

    Wood component-based composite hydrogels have potential applications in biomedical fields owing to their low cost, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The controllable properties of wood mimetic composites containing three major wood components are useful for enzyme immobilization. Here, lipase from Candida rugosa was entrapped in wood mimetic beads containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin by dissolving wood components with lipase in [Emim][Ac], followed by reconstitution. Lipase entrapped in cellulose/xylan/lignin beads in a 5:3:2 ratio showed the highest activity; this ratio is very similar to that in natural wood. The lipase entrapped in various wood mimetic beads showed increased thermal and pH stability. The half-life times of lipase entrapped in cellulose/alkali lignin hydrogel were 31- and 82-times higher than those of free lipase during incubation under denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH, respectively. Owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable properties, wood mimetic hydrogel beads can be used to immobilize various enzymes for applications in the biomedical, bioelectronic, and biocatalytic fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...

  10. Analysis of Bead Sizes for MR Capsules Labeled for Sprinkle

    OpenAIRE

    Nagavelli, Laxma R.; Lionberger, Robert A.; Sayeed, Vilayat A.; Yu, Lawrence; Allgire, James; Smith, Anjanette; Wokovich, Anna; Westenberger, Benjamin J.; Buhse, Lucinda

    2010-01-01

    The bead sizes used in approved modified release capsules labeled for sprinkling on food was investigated to generate bead size guidelines for generic products labeled for sprinkling. The conclusions from a survey of FDA databases were corroborated with experimental data obtained by measuring the bead sizes of several reference-listed drugs on the market labeled for administration by sprinkling on food. The experimental data show that majority of the marketed products were found to have bead ...

  11. LAMINAR SETTLING OF GLASS BEADS IN VISCO-PLASTIC LIQUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikoláš Kesely

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a determination of the terminal settling velocity of coarse particles in quiescent visco-plastic liquids of Herschel-Bulkley type. Experiments on laminar settling of glass beads of different sizes were conducted in transparent Carbopol solutions of various rheological properties in a sedimentation column. The terminal settling velocity of a solitude bead was determined together with the rheological parameters of the Carbopol liquid. An evaluation of the experimental results confirms the existence of the laminar regime for all tests and compares the measured velocities with predictions by Wilson et al. method. Furthermore, an alternative method is proposed for a prediction of the terminal settling velocity in the laminar regime which uses a particle-based determination of the strain rate in the expression for the equivalent viscosity. A comparison with our experimental results shows that the predictions using the proposed method agree well with the experiments and the proposed method is in the laminar settling regime more accurate than the Wilson et al. method.

  12. Epidemic Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerner, Lars; Severgnini, Battista

    This paper studies the spread of the Black Death as a proxy for the intensity of medieval trade flows between 1346 and 1351. The Black Death struck most areas of Europe and the wider Mediterranean. Based on a modied version of the gravity model, we estimate the speed (in kilometers per day......, and geographical position are of substantial signicance. These results are the first to enable us to identify and quantify key variables of medieval trade flows based on an empirical trade model. These results shed new light on many qualitative debates on the importance and causes of medieval trade....

  13. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  14. New Nanoparticles Dispersing Beads Mill with Ultra Small Beads and its Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkyo, M; Tahara, T; Imajyo, Y

    2011-01-01

    Two of the major problems related to nanoparticle dispersion with a conventional beads mill are re-agglomeration and damage to the crystalline structure of the particles. The Ultra Apex Mill was developed to solve these problems by enabling the use of ultra-small beads with a diameter of less than 0.1mm. The core of this breakthrough development is centrifugation technology which allows the use of beads as small as 0.015mm. When dispersing agglomerated nanoparticles the impulse of the small beads is very low which means there is little influence on the particles. The surface energy of the nanoparticles remains low so the properties are not likely to change. As a result, stable nanoparticle dispersions can be achieved without re-cohesion. The Ultra Apex Mill is superior to conventional beads mills that are limited to much larger bead sizes. The technology of the Ultra Apex Mill has pioneered practical applications for nanoparticles in various fields: composition materials for LCD screens, ink-jet printing, ceramic condensers and cosmetics.

  15. Compressive and Tensile Strength of Expanded Polystyrene Beads Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Tengku Fitriani L

    2005-01-01

    Penelitian ini betujuan untuk mempelajari property dari beton ringan yang mengandung expanded polystyrene beads, yaitu kuat tekan (compressive strength) dan kuat tarik (tensile strength). Property tersebut kemudian dibandingkan dengan beton normal (beton tanpa expanded polystyrene beads) sebagai campuran pengontrol. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa jumlah polystyrene beads yang dimasukkan sebagai campuran beton mempengaruhi property beton; yaitu dapat menurunkan kuat tekan beton. Tetapi...

  16. Assessment of the Problems of Manual Automobile Tyre Bead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tyre-rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. The use of the locally fabricated manual bead breaking equipment as it is being practiced today by commercial tyre repair artisans in Nigeria is characterized by drudgery. This article reports a study of the local manual bead breaking ...

  17. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  18. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  19. Biosorption of americium by alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The use of biotechnology to remove heavy metals from wastes plays great potential in treatment of radioactive wastes and therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosorption of americium by alginate beads. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. The calcium alginate beads as biosorbent were prepared and analyzed for americium uptaking. The experiments were performed in different solution activity concentrations, pH and exposure time. The results suggest that biosorption process is more efficient at pH 4 and for 75, 150, 300 Bq/mL and 120 minutes were necessary to remove almost 100% of the americium-241 from the solution. (author)

  20. A novel adjuvant: polymerised serum albumin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, J.B.

    1985-09-01

    There is an ongoing need to develop new vaccine formulations. To complement accumulating knowledge on the structure of antigens and their interaction with cells of the immune system, new vaccine vehicles to optimise the immunogenic potential of the antigen must be developed. Associated with this adjuvanticity, should be minimal adverse side effects. This study was initiated to develop a vaccine vehicle, consisting of covalently cross-linked serum albumin beads, themselves non-immunogenic, containing virus. Following inoculation, in vivo proteolysis of the beads would allow a gradual release of antigen for sustained immunostimulation. This system might have application in virus vaccine programmes to improve low immunogenic vaccines, to allow optimal delivery of the recently derived synthetic virus subunit peptides as well as for inactivated virus vaccine preparations. 35 S-methionine labelled Blue Tongue Virus was used in this study

  1. Green stone beads at the dawn of agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella E.; Porat, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    The use of beads and other personal ornaments is a trait of modern human behavior. During the Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods, beads were made out of shell, bone, ivory, egg shell, and occasionally of minerals. During the transition to agriculture in the Near East, stone, in particular green stone, was used for the first time to make beads and pendants. We observed that a large variety of minerals of green colors were sought, including apatite, several copper-bearing minerals, amazonite and serpentinite. There seems to be an increase with time of distance from which the green minerals were sought. Because beads in white, red, yellow, brown, and black colors had been used previously, we suggest that the occurrence of green beads is directly related to the onset of agriculture. Green beads and bead blanks were used as amulets to ward off the evil eye and as fertility charms. PMID:18559861

  2. Structuring and calorie control of bakery products by templating batter with ultra melt-resistant food-grade hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin R; Horozov, Tommy S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2017-08-01

    We report the use of a temperature insensitive, food-grade hydrogel to reduce the caloric density of pancakes that were prepared at temperatures much higher than the boiling point of water. This cheap, facile method utilises a mixed agar-methylcellulose hydrogel, which was blended to produce a slurry of hydrogel microbeads. The pancake batter was mixed with a controlled volume percentage of slurry of hydrogel beads and cooked. From bomb calorimetry experiments, the composites were found to have a reduced caloric density that reflects the volume percentage of hydrogel beads mixed with the batter. Using this procedure, we were able to reduce the caloric density of pancakes by up to 23 ± 3% when the volume percentage of hydrogel beads initially used was 25%. The method is not limited to pancakes and could potentially be applied to various other food products. The structure and morphology of the freeze-dried pancakes and pancake-hydrogel composites were investigated and pores of a similar size to the hydrogel beads were found, confirming that the gel beads maintained their structure during the cooking process. There is scope for further development of this method by the encapsulation of nutritionally beneficial or flavour enhancing ingredients within the hydrogel beads.

  3. The control of beads diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingxiao; Ding, Xin; Tian, Lingling; Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-05-01

    Bead-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the beads diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the beads diameter of electrospun bead-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that bead-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the beads diameter became greater and the shape of the beads changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The bead-on-string nanofibers with different beads diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded bead-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of beads diameter control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  5. Trade marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Khodl, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define the term "trade marketing" and evaluate its role within the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company. With the use of internal resources and relevant literature, I will describe the use of trade marketing from both theoretical and practical point of view. I will also introduce the Coca-Cola HBC and its position on the carbonated soft drinks market in the Czech republic.

  6. Enhanced biocatalytic esterification with lipase-immobilized chitosan/graphene oxide beads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaw Cheng Lau

    Full Text Available In this work, lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized onto chitosan/graphene oxide beads. This was to provide an enzyme-immobilizing carrier with excellent enzyme immobilization activity for an enzyme group requiring hydrophilicity on the immobilizing carrier. In addition, this work involved a process for the preparation of an enzymatically active product insoluble in a reaction medium consisting of lauric acid and oleyl alcohol as reactants and hexane as a solvent. This product enabled the stability of the enzyme under the working conditions and allowed the enzyme to be readily isolated from the support. In particular, this meant that an enzymatic reaction could be stopped by the simple mechanical separation of the "insoluble" enzyme from the reaction medium. Chitosan was incorporated with graphene oxide because the latter was able to enhance the physical strength of the chitosan beads by its superior mechanical integrity and low thermal conductivity. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the graphene oxide was successfully embedded within the structure of the chitosan. Further, the lipase incorporation on the beads was confirmed by a thermo-gravimetric analysis. The lipase immobilization on the beads involved the functionalization with coupling agents, N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide sodium (NHS and 1-ethyl-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC, and it possessed a high enzyme activity of 64 U. The overall esterification conversion of the prepared product was 78% at 60 °C, and it attained conversions of 98% and 88% with commercially available lipozyme and novozyme, respectively, under similar experimental conditions.

  7. HPMA and HEMA copolymer bead interactions with eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina D. Vianna-Soares

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different hydrophilic acrylate beads were prepared via aqueous suspension polymerization. Beads produced of a hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA copolymer were obtained using a polyvinyl alcohol suspending medium. Copolymers of 2hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, methyl methacrylate (MMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA beads were obtained using magnesium hydroxide as the suspending agent. Following characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen sorption analysis (NSA and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP, the beads were cultured with monkey fibroblasts (COS7 to evaluate their ability to support cell growth, attachment and adhesion. Cell growth behavior onto small HPMA/EDMA copolymer beads and large HEMA/MMA/EDMA copolymer beads is evaluated regarding their hidrophilicity/hidrophobicity and surface roughness.

  8. Detection of ''beading faults'' in welded tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondot, J.

    In the steel tube industry the word ''beading'' refers to a highly localised leak affecting the welded zone. During the pneumatic test its flow rate is generally very low no more than a few thousandths of a mm 3 /second. Detection of such a fault by this test is consequently slow, and those which are choked or at the limit of leakage may escape detection. For greater safety, the tube technician is now using non-destructive testing methods such as eddy-currents and ultrasonics [fr

  9. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    to tourism are demonstrated: the general price competitiveness of the destination, tourism infrastructure and the provision of safety. The econometric models also confirm the relevance of other conventional explanatory factors of trade in services such as GDP per capita and internet usage. The last part...... growth rates in the number of arrivals. There is also found to be a positive effect on the average income earned per tourist from being a liberaliser....

  10. Creating nanoshell on the surface of titanium hydride bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLENKO Vyacheslav Ivanovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on the modification of titanium hydride bead by creating titanium nanoshell on its surface by ion-plasma vacuum magnetron sputtering. To apply titanium nanoshell on the titanium hydride bead vacuum coating plant of multifunctional nanocomposite coatings QVADRA 500 located in the center of high technology was used. Analysis of the micrographs of the original surface of titanium hydride bead showed that the microstructure of the surface is flat, smooth, in addition the analysis of the microstructure of material surface showed the presence of small porosity, roughness, mainly cavities, as well as shallow longitudinal cracks. The presence of oxide film in titanium hydride prevents the free release of hydrogen and fills some micro-cracks on the surface. Differential thermal analysis of both samples was conducted to determine the thermal stability of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell. Hydrogen thermal desorption spectra of the samples of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell show different thermal stability of compared materials in the temperature range from 550 to 860о C. Titanium nanoshells applied in this way allows increasing the heat resistance of titanium hydride bead – the temperature of starting decomposition is 695о C and temperature when decomposition finishes is more than 1000о C. Modified in this way titanium hydride bead can be used as a filler in the radiation protective materials used in the construction or upgrading biological protection of nuclear power plants.

  11. Structural evolution of chitosan–palygorskite composites and removal of aqueous lead by composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusmin, Ruhaida; Sarkar, Binoy; Liu, Yanju; McClure, Stuart; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile preparation of chitosan–palygorskite composite beads demonstrated. • Components’ mass ratio impacted structural characteristics of composites. • Mechanism of composite formation and structure of composite beads proposed. • Composite beads adsorbed significantly greater amount of Pb than pristine materials. • In-depth investigation done on Pb adsorption mechanisms. - Abstract: This paper investigates the structural evolution of chitosan–palygorskite (CP) composites in relation to variable mass ratios of their individual components. The composite beads’ performance in lead (Pb) adsorption from aqueous solution was also examined. The composite beads were prepared through direct dispersion of chitosan and palygorskite at 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 mass ratios (CP1, CP2 and C2P, respectively). Analyses by Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the dependence of the composites’ structural characteristics on their composition mass ratio. The chitosan–palygorskite composite beads exhibited a better Pb adsorption performance than the pristine materials (201.5, 154.5, 147.1, 27.7 and 9.3 mg g −1 for CP1, C2P, CP2, chitosan and palygorskite, respectively). Adsorption of Pb by CP1 and CP2 followed Freundlich isothermal model, while C2P fitted to Langmuir model. Kinetic studies showed that adsorption by all the composites fitted to the pseudo-second order model with pore diffusion also acting as a major rate governing step. The surface properties and specific interaction between chitosan and palygorskite in the composites were the most critical factors that influenced their capabilities in removing toxic metals from water.

  12. Structural evolution of chitosan–palygorskite composites and removal of aqueous lead by composite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusmin, Ruhaida, E-mail: ruhaida.rusmin@mymail.unisa.edu.au [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Negeri Sembilan, Kuala Pilah 72000 (Malaysia); Sarkar, Binoy, E-mail: binoy.sarkar@unisa.edu.au [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE – Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Liu, Yanju [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE – Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); McClure, Stuart [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: Ravi.Naidu@newcastle.edu.au [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE – Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile preparation of chitosan–palygorskite composite beads demonstrated. • Components’ mass ratio impacted structural characteristics of composites. • Mechanism of composite formation and structure of composite beads proposed. • Composite beads adsorbed significantly greater amount of Pb than pristine materials. • In-depth investigation done on Pb adsorption mechanisms. - Abstract: This paper investigates the structural evolution of chitosan–palygorskite (CP) composites in relation to variable mass ratios of their individual components. The composite beads’ performance in lead (Pb) adsorption from aqueous solution was also examined. The composite beads were prepared through direct dispersion of chitosan and palygorskite at 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 mass ratios (CP1, CP2 and C2P, respectively). Analyses by Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the dependence of the composites’ structural characteristics on their composition mass ratio. The chitosan–palygorskite composite beads exhibited a better Pb adsorption performance than the pristine materials (201.5, 154.5, 147.1, 27.7 and 9.3 mg g{sup −1} for CP1, C2P, CP2, chitosan and palygorskite, respectively). Adsorption of Pb by CP1 and CP2 followed Freundlich isothermal model, while C2P fitted to Langmuir model. Kinetic studies showed that adsorption by all the composites fitted to the pseudo-second order model with pore diffusion also acting as a major rate governing step. The surface properties and specific interaction between chitosan and palygorskite in the composites were the most critical factors that influenced their capabilities in removing toxic metals from water.

  13. Economic growth, globalization and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Nuno Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between economic growth, globalization and trade. The manuscript uses the assumptions of the economic growth exogenous and endogenous models. It introduces new proxies for explain the economic growth as in intra-industry trade, foreign direct investment and globalization index. The results indicate that economic growth is a dynamic process. The intra-industry has a positive impact on economic growth. This paper confirms relevant t...

  14. The defouling of membranes using polymer beads containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on an investigation into the possibility of obtaining flux enhancement during the filtration process, as well as the cleaning of membranes, using magnetic polymer beads moving under the influence of an AC magnetic field. Methods, procedures and results for cleaning membranes using magnetic beads, ...

  15. exploring traditional glass bead making techniques in jewellery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Decorations with glass beads communicate cultural values in a symbolic lan- guage which expresses status, ... enced by environmental factors. Fitch (1992) traces the history of glass bead making from Western Asia and ... these two areas with similar characteristics from the accessible areas which give a true reflection of ...

  16. The risks of gastrointestinal injury due to ingested magnetic beads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risks of gastrointestinal injury due to ingested magnetic beads. S Cox, R Brown, A Millar, A Numanoglu, A Alexander, A Theron. Abstract. Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in children. Magnetic bead toys are hazardous, having potentially lethal consequences if ingested. These magnets ...

  17. Middle stone age shell beads from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henshilwood, C

    2004-04-16

    Full Text Available undisputed African personal ornaments are 13 ostrich eggshell beads from Enkapune Ya Muto in Kenya similar to 40 ka. Evidence from Eurasia includes two perforated teeth, dated similar to 43 ka, from Bacho Kiro in Bulgaria and 58 marine shell beads from...

  18. Towards a programmable magnetic bead microarray in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    to use larger currents and obtain forces of longer range than from thin current lines at a given power limit. Guiding of magnetic beads in the hybrid magnetic separator and the construction of a programmable microarray of magnetic beads in the microfluidic channel by hydrodynamic focusing is presented....

  19. Bead Collage: An Arts-Based Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, "bead collage," an arts-based research method that invites participants to reflect, communicate and construct their experience through the manipulation of beads and found objects is explained. Emphasizing the significance of one's personal biography and experiences as a researcher, I discuss how my background as an…

  20. Growth and morphology of thermophilic dairy starters in alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, Laurence; St-Gelais, Daniel; Champagne, Claude P; Lamoureux, Maryse

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this research was to produce concentrated biomasses of thermophilic lactic starters using immobilized cell technology (ICT). Fermentations were carried out in milk using pH control with cells microentrapped in alginate beads. In the ICT fermentations, beads represented 17% of the weight. Some assays were carried out with free cells without pH control, in order to compare the ICT populations with those of classical starters. With Streptococcus thermophilus, overall populations in the fermentor were similar, but maximum bead population for (8.2 x 10(9) cfu/g beads) was 13 times higher than that obtained in a traditional starter (4.9 x 10(8) cfu/ml). For both Lactobacillus helveticus strains studied, immobilized-cell populations were about 3 x 10(9) cfu/g beads. Production of immobilized Lb. bulgaricus 210R strain was not possible, since no increases in viable counts occurred in beads. Therefore, production of concentrated cell suspension in alginate beads was more effective for S. thermophilus. Photomicrographs of cells in alginate beads demonstrated that, while the morphology of S. thermophilus remained unchanged during the ICT fermentation, immobilized cells of Lb. helveticus appeared wider. In addition, cells of Lb. bulgaricus were curved and elongated. These morphological changes would also impair the growth of immobilized lactobacilli.

  1. Superparamagnetic bead interactions with functionalized surfaces characterized by an immunomicroarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Moresco, Jacob Lange

    2010-01-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors capable of detecting superparamagnetic micro-/nano-sized beads are promising alternatives to standard diagnostic assays based on absorbance or fluorescence and streptavidin-functionalized beads are widely used as an integral part of these sensors. Here we have developed ...

  2. Configurational Statistics of Magnetic Bead Detection with Magnetoresistive Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect magnetic beads that, mediated by a target, have bound to a functionalized area. This area is often larger than the area of the sensor. Both the sign and magnitude of the average magnetic field experienced by the sensor from a magnetic bead depends on the location of the...

  3. Bead magnetorelaxometry with an on-chip magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Donolato, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Magnetorelaxometry measurements on suspensions of magnetic beads are demonstrated using a planar Hall effect sensor chip embedded in a microfluidic system. The alternating magnetic field used for magnetizing the beads is provided by the sensor bias current and the complex magnetic susceptibility ...

  4. Exploring Traditional Glass Bead Making Techniques in Jewellery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring Traditional Glass Bead Making Techniques in Jewellery. IK Agye, J Adu-Agyem, R Steiner. Abstract. Exploring traditional glass bead making techniques in jewellery in some prominent areas in Ghana is a means to exposing the area for metal and ceramic artists and other related fields of discipline such as ...

  5. A High-Throughput SU-8Microfluidic Magnetic Bead Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Christensen, T. B.; Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on SU-8 fabrication technique for high through-put applications. The experimental results show that magnetic beads can be captured at an efficiency of 91 % and 54 % at flow rates of 1 mL/min and 4 mL/min, respectively. Integration of s...

  6. Static antibiotic spacers augmented by calcium sulphate impregnated beads in revision TKA: Surgical technique and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risitano, Salvatore; Sabatini, Luigi; Atzori, Francesco; Massè, Alessandro; Indelli, Pier Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and represents one of the most common causes of revision. The challenge for surgeons treating an infected TKA is to quickly obtain an infection-free joint in order to re-implant, when possible, a new TKA. Recent literature confirms the role of local antibiotic-loaded beads as a strong bactericidal, allowing higher antibiotic elution when compared with antibiotic loaded spacers only. Unfortunately, classical Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads might allow bacteria adhesion, secondary development of antibiotic resistance and eventually surgical removal once antibiotics have eluted. This article describes a novel surgical technique using static, custom-made antibiotic loaded spacers augmented by calcium sulphate antibiotic-impregnated beads to improve the success rate of revision TKA in a setting of PJI. The use of calcium sulphate beads has several potential benefits, including a longer sustained local antibiotic release when compared with classical PMMA beads and, being resorbable, not requiring accessory surgical interventions.

  7. A new affinity-HPLC packing for protein separation: Cibacron blue attached uniform porous poly(HEMA-co-EDM) beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Ender; Durdu, Aysun; Elmas, Begum; Tuncel, Murvet; Tuncel, Ali

    2005-11-01

    In this study, a new affinity high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) stationary phase suitable for protein separation was synthesized. In the first stage of the synthesis, uniform porous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), poly(HEMA-co-EDM), beads 6.2 mum in size were obtained. Homogeneous distribution of hydroxyl groups in the bead interior was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The plain poly(HEMA-co-EDM) particles gave very low non-specific protein adsorption with albumin. The selected dye ligand Cibacron blue F3G-A (CB F3G-A) was covalently linked onto the beads via hydroxyl groups. In the batch experiments, albumin adsorption up to 60 mg BSA/g particles was obtained with the CB F3G-A carrying poly(HEMA-co-EDM) beads. The affinity-HPLC of selected proteins (albumin and lysozyme) was investigated in a 25 mm x 4.0-mm inner diameter column packed with CB F3G-A carrying beads and both proteins were successfully resolved. By a single injection, 200 mug of protein was loaded and quantitatively eluted from the column. The protein recovery increased with increasing flow rate and salt concentration of the elution buffer and decreased with the increasing protein feed concentration. During the albumin elution, theoretical plate numbers up to 30,000 plates/m were achieved by increasing the salt concentration.

  8. Metallic gold beads in hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Tran, Thao Phuong; Smidt, Kamille

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by recurring attacks of neuroinflammation leading to neuronal death. Immune-suppressing gold salts are used for treating connective tissue diseases; however, side effects occur from systemic spread of gold ions. This is limited...... by exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study...... investigates the anti-inflammatory properties of metallic gold/HA on the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf-α), Interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, Il-10, Colony-stimulating factor (Csf)-v2, Metallothionein (Mt)-1/2, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 in cultured J774 macrophages...

  9. Entrapment of laurel lipase in chitosan hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagar, Hulya; Balkan, Ugur

    2017-08-01

    Laurel seed lipase was entrapped within chitosan beads with ionotropic gelatin method using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as multivalent covalent counter ion. Immobilization yield was 78%. First, optimum immobilization conditions were determined, and morphology of chitosan beads was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Optimum pH and temperature were evaluated as 6.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The immobilized beads saved about 55% of its activities at 60° while saved about 32% at 70 °C for 30 min. V max /K m values were determined as 31.75 and 2.87 using olive oil as substrate for immobilized beads and free enzyme, respectively. Immobilized beads showed the activities during 30 days at +4 °C.

  10. Analysis of bead sizes for MR capsules labeled for sprinkle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagavelli, Laxma R; Lionberger, Robert A; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Yu, Lawrence; Allgire, James; Smith, Anjanette; Wokovich, Anna; Westenberger, Benjamin J; Buhse, Lucinda

    2010-12-01

    The bead sizes used in approved modified release capsules labeled for sprinkling on food was investigated to generate bead size guidelines for generic products labeled for sprinkling. The conclusions from a survey of FDA databases were corroborated with experimental data obtained by measuring the bead sizes of several reference-listed drugs on the market labeled for administration by sprinkling on food. The experimental data show that majority of the marketed products were found to have bead sizes of less than 1,500 microm (1.5 mm). Based on this information, a bead size of less than 1,500 microm should generally be considered acceptable for use in generic products labeled for sprinkling.

  11. On-chip signal amplification of magnetic bead-based immunoassay by aviating magnetic bead chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Uddin M; Jin, Gyeong Jun; Eom, Kyu Shik; Kim, Min Ho; Shim, Joon S

    2017-11-06

    In this work, a Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform is used to electromagnetically actuate magnetic bead chains for an enhanced immunoassay. Custom-made electromagnets generate a magnetic field to form, rotate, lift and lower the magnetic bead chains (MBCs). The cost-effective, disposable LOC platform was made with a polymer substrate and an on-chip electrochemical sensor patterned via the screen-printing process. The movement of the MBCs is controlled to improve the electrochemical signal up to 230% when detecting beta-type human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Thus, the proposed on-chip MBC-based immunoassay is applicable for rapid, qualitative electrochemical point-of-care (POC) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Immobilized OBOC combinatorial bead array to facilitate multiplicative screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jared; Li, Yuanpei; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S.

    2015-01-01

    One-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial library screening has been broadly utilized for the last two decades to identify small molecules, peptides or peptidomimetics targeting variable screening probes such as cell surface receptors, bacteria, protein kinases, phosphatases, proteases etc. In previous screening methods, library beads were suspended in solution and screened against one single probe. Only the positive beads were tracked and isolated for additional screens and finally selected for chemical decoding. During this process, the remaining negative beads were not tracked and discarded. Here we report a novel bead immobilization method such that a bead library array can be conveniently prepared and screened in its entirety, sequentially many times with a series of distinct probes. This method not only allows us to increase the screening efficiency but also permits us to determine the binding profile of each and every library bead against a large number of target receptors. As proof of concept, we serially screened a random OBOC disulfide containing cyclic heptapeptide library with three water soluble dyes as model probes: malachite green, bromocresol purple and indigo carmine. This multiplicative screening approach resulted in a rapid determination of the binding profile of each and every bead respective to each of the three dyes. Beads that interacted with malachite green only, bromocresol purple only, or both indigo carmine and bromocresol purple were isolated, and their peptide sequences were determined with microsequencer. Ultimately, the novel OBOC multiplicative screening approach could play a key role in the enhancement of existing on-bead assays such as whole cell binding, bacteria binding, protein binding, post-translational modifications etc. with increased efficiency, capacity, and specificity. PMID:23488896

  13. Energy efficient bead milling of microalgae: Effect of bead size on disintegration and release of proteins and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, P.R.; Suarez Garcia, E.; Safi, Carl; Yonathan, K.; Olivieri, G.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The disintegration of three industry relevant algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Neochloris oleoabundans and Tetraselmis suecica) was studied in a lab scale bead mill at different bead sizes (0.3–1 mm). Cell disintegration, proteins and carbohydrates released into the water phase followed a first order

  14. Development and optimization of water treatment reactors using TiO2-modified polymer beads with a refractive index identical to that of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoga, Arata; Iwashita, Ryutaro; Unno, Noriyuki; Satake, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Jun; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Seki, Yohji

    2018-03-01

    Various water purification reactors were constructed using beads of TiO2-coated MEXFLON, which is a fluoropolymer exhibiting a refractive index identical to that of water. The performance of these reactors was evaluated in a recirculation experiment utilizing an aqueous solution of methylene blue. Reactor pipes (length = 150 mm, internal diameter = 10 mm) were made of a fluorinated ethylene polymer with a refractive index of 1.338 and contained 206-bead clusters. A UV lamp was used to irradiate eight reactor pipes surrounding it. The above-mentioned eight bead-packed pipes were connected both in series and in parallel, and the performances of these two reactor types were compared. A pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.70 h- 1 was obtained for the series connection, whereas the corresponding value for the parallel connection was 1.5 times smaller, confirming the effectiveness of increasing the reaction surface by employing a larger number of beads.

  15. Integration of antibody by surface functionalization of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads using ammonia gas plasma technology for capturing influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Chou, Han; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    Antibody-integrated magnetic beads have been functionalized for influenza A virus capture. First, ammonia plasma produced by a radio frequency power source was reacted with the surface of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads to introduce amino groups. Anti-influenza A virus hemagglutinin antibody was then anchored by its surface sulfide groups to the amino groups on the beads via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate. After incubation with influenza A virus, adsorption of the virus to the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and inoculation of chicken embryonated eggs, indicating that virus infectivity is maintained and that the proposed method is useful for the enhanced detection and isolation of influenza A virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  17. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.; Pickenheim, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  18. Chelating polymeric beads as potential therapeutics for Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattová, Jana; Poučková, Pavla; Kučka, Jan; Skodová, Michaela; Vetrík, Miroslav; Stěpánek, Petr; Urbánek, Petr; Petřík, Miloš; Nový, Zbyněk; Hrubý, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder caused by a malfunction of ATPase 7B that leads to high accumulation of copper in the organism and consequent toxic effects. We propose a gentle therapy to eliminate the excessive copper content with oral administration of insoluble non-resorbable polymer sorbents containing selective chelating groups for copper(II). Polymeric beads with the chelating agents triethylenetetramine, N,N-di(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQB) were investigated. In a preliminary copper uptake experiment, we found that 8HQB significantly reduced copper uptake (using copper-64 as a radiotracer) after oral administration in Wistar rats. Furthermore, we measured organ radioactivity in rats to demonstrate that 8HQB radiolabelled with iodine-125 is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. Non-resorbability and the blockade of copper uptake were also confirmed with small animal imaging (PET/CT) in mice. In a long-term experiment with Wistar rats fed a diet containing the polymers, we have found that there were no signs of polymer toxicity and the addition of polymers to the diet led to a significant reduction in the copper contents in the kidneys, brains, and livers of the rats. We have shown that polymers containing specific ligands could potentially be novel therapeutics for Wilson's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND FAIR TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jelovac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present different theoretical views and positions on social entrepreneurship, fair trade, buying consumer behaviour and ethical consumerism. The Fair Trade, which is well recognized throughout the world, is an example of good practice of social entrepreneurship. Similarly, globalization processes, the pressure of large corporations, the rapid transmission of information, more and more developed ethical consumer behaviour is clearly contributed to both, the successful development of fair trade and social entrepreneurships. In the empirical part we reviewed and confirmed three of three sets of hypotheses through the quantitative research in Slovenia on sample of 253 respondents. Through the results of our study we also recognized the existence of opportunities for the development of social entrepreneurships in Slovenia. In the discussion and conclusion of the article listed are recommendations for further exploration of ethical consumerism, the development of social entrepreneurship and rising the profile of Fair Trade in Slovenia.

  20. Newsletter Subscribe Confirmation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Thank you. Please check your email to confirm your subscription to the IDRC Bulletin. Please note: the link in your confirmation email is valid for 3 days, so please reply promptly. What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news ...

  1. Towards a programmable magnetic bead microarray in a microfluidic channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel F.

    2007-01-01

    A new hybrid magnetic bead separator that combines an external magnetic field with 175 μm thick current lines buried in the back side of a silicon wafer is presented. A microfluidic channel was etched into the front side of the wafer. The large cross-section of the current lines makes it possible to use larger currents and obtain forces of longer range than from thin current lines at a given power limit. Guiding of magnetic beads in the hybrid magnetic separator and the construction of a programmable microarray of magnetic beads in the microfluidic channel by hydrodynamic focusing is presented

  2. Immunological properties and protective efficacy of a single mycobacterial antigen displayed on polyhydroxybutyrate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Reyes, Patricia; Parlane, Natalie A; Buddle, Bryce M; Wedlock, D Neil; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, there were an estimated 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.4 million deaths worldwide. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the vaccine available against TB, but it is insufficient for global TB control. This study evaluated the immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv1626 in mice while assessing the effect of co-delivering either Cpe30 (immunostimulatory peptide), CS.T3 378-395 (promiscuous T helper epitope) or flagellin (TLR5 agonist) or a combination of all three immunostimulatory agents. Rv1626 and the respective immunostimulatory proteins/peptides were co-displayed on polyhydroxybutyrate beads assembled inside an engineered endotoxin-free mutant of Escherichia coli. Mice vaccinated with these beads produced immune responses biased towards Th1-/Th17-type responses, but inclusion of Cpe30, CS.T3 378-395 and flagellin did not enhance immunogenicity of the Rv1626 protein. This was confirmed in a M. bovis challenge experiment in mice, where Rv1626 beads reduced bacterial cell counts in the lungs by 0.48 log 10 compared with the adjuvant alone control group. Co-delivery of immunostimulatory peptides did not further enhance protective immunity. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. A two-channel detection method for autofluorescence correction and efficient on-bead screening of one-bead one-compound combinatorial libraries using the COPAS fluorescence activated bead sorting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintersteiner, Martin; Auer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    One-bead one-compound combinatorial library beads exhibit varying levels of autofluorescence after solid phase combinatorial synthesis. Very often this causes significant problems for automated on-bead screening using TentaGel beads and fluorescently labeled target proteins. Herein, we present a method to overcome this limitation when fluorescence activated bead sorting is used as the screening method. We have equipped the COPAS bead sorting instrument with a high-speed profiling unit and developed a spectral autofluorescence correction method. The correction method is based on a simple algebraic operation using the fluorescence data from two detection channels and is applied on-the-fly in order to reliably identify hit beads by COPAS bead sorting. Our method provides a practical tool for the fast and efficient isolation of hit beads from one-bead one-compound library screens using either fluorescently labeled target proteins or biotinylated target proteins. This method makes hit bead identification easier and more reliable. It reduces false positives and eliminates the need for time-consuming pre-sorting of library beads in order to remove autofluorescent beads. (technical note)

  4. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  5. Quantitative morphological descriptors confirm traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... J. Appl. Biosci. 2015 Quantitative morphological descriptors confirm traditionally classified morphotypes of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (clusiaceae). 8736. Quantitative morphological descriptors ...... Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis. A, 2004. The WorldClim interpolated global.

  6. Magnetic dye-affinity beads for human serum albumin purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabası, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Cibacron Blue F3GA was covalently attached onto magnetic poly(vinyl alcohol) (mPVAL) beads (100-150 μm in diameter) for human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption from human plasma. Despite low nonspecific adsorption of HSA on mPVAL beads, Cibacron Blue F3GA attachment significantly increased the HSA adsorption. The maximum HSA adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Higher HSA adsorption was observed from human plasma. Desorption of HSA from mPVAL beads was achieved by medium containing 1.0 M KSCN at pH 8.0. To test the efficiency of albumin adsorption from human serum, before and after albumin adsorption was demonstrated with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses. HSA molecules could be reversibly adsorbed and desorbed 10 times with the magnetic beads without noticeable loss in their HSA adsorption capacity.

  7. Prior art relevant to active beads patent application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolman, S

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper entails patents related to active beads containing encapsulated ingredients, patents cited by International Search Report on previous application and US patents related to suspension of inclusions in beverages...

  8. Lightweight High Strength Concrete with Expanded Polystyrene Beads

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Tengku Fitriani L

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a literature study about lightweight high strength concrete by incorporating expanded polystyrene beads. Basically polystyrene is disposal material from packaging industry. However, after being processed in a special manner, polystyrene can be expanded and used as lightweight concrete making material. Therefore, the use of expanded polystyrene beads in concrete is not only beneficial for engineering studies but also provide solution for the environmental problem

  9. Plasma membrane isolation using immobilized concanavalin A magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Srajer Gajdosik, Martina; Josic, Djuro; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Isolation of highly purified plasma membranes is the key step in constructing the plasma membrane proteome. Traditional plasma membrane isolation method takes advantage of the differential density of organelles. While differential centrifugation methods are sufficient to enrich for plasma membranes, the procedure is lengthy and results in low recovery of the membrane fraction. Importantly, there is significant contamination of the plasma membranes with other organelles. The traditional agarose affinity matrix is suitable for isolating proteins but has limitation in separating organelles due to the density of agarose. Immobilization of affinity ligands to magnetic beads allows separation of affinity matrix from organelles through magnets and could be developed for the isolation of organelles. We have developed a simple method for isolating plasma membranes using lectin concanavalin A (ConA) magnetic beads. ConA is immobilized onto magnetic beads by binding biotinylated ConA to streptavidin magnetic beads. The ConA magnetic beads are used to bind glycosylated proteins present in the membranes. The bound membranes are solubilized from the magnetic beads with a detergent containing the competing sugar alpha methyl mannoside. In this study, we describe the procedure of isolating rat liver plasma membranes using sucrose density gradient centrifugation as described by Neville. We then further purify the membrane fraction by using ConA magnetic beads. After this purification step, main liver plasma membrane proteins, especially the highly glycosylated ones and proteins containing transmembrane domains could be identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. While not described here, the magnetic bead method can also be used to isolate plasma membranes from cell lysates. This membrane purification method should expedite the cataloging of plasma membrane proteome.

  10. Beads of the Birsk Burial Ground in the Context of the Antiquities of the Early Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslanova Rida Raisovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early Middle Ages in the Southern Urals is the time of the tumultuous ethnocultural processes, that is an echo of the era of the Great Migration. At this time, the bakhmutinskaya culture was formed (3rd-8th centuries A.D.. The Birsk burial ground is one of the unique monuments of this period – it appeared in the second third of the 1st millennium B.C. The Birsk burial ground is a fiducial monument for studying history, ethno-cultural, migration and trade processes occurring in the Southern Urals, and the content in the composition of grave goods makes it supplies an important source in the study of early medieval history of East European forest. A variety of types of beads from the Birsk burial ground allows suggesting that the necropolis was one of the major points on the caravan trade and exchange path. According to it, the exchange could take place on imports of products (furs, honey, metals. The article describes a set of beads from the Birsk burials – evidence of a monument in the system of early medieval antiquities (3rd-8th centuries A.D.. The complex morpho-technological research dealt with 218 complexes containing 6705 instances of beads and jewelry. The feature of the monument is the presence of necklaces jewelry from all the selected materials along with the material. The Birsk burial ground demonstrates various forms of products, colors used glass for monochrome and polychrome decorations. The presented work can be used in the study of material culture and trade exchange operations of the medieval population of the Urals.

  11. Fabrication of a pen-shaped portable biochemical reaction system based on magnetic bead manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Inagaki, Noriyuki; Okochi, Mina; Honda, Hiroyuki; Sato, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    A pen-shaped platform that is similar to a mechanical pencil is proposed for producing a portable reaction system. A reaction unit, as the key component in the system, was produced by using a heat shrinkable tube. A mechanical pencil supplied by Mitsubishi Pencil Co. Ltd was used as the pen-shaped platform for driving the reaction cylinder. It was actuated using an inchworm motion. We confirmed that the magnetic beads were successfully manipulated in the droplet in the cylinder-shaped reaction units. (technical note)

  12. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  13. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  14. Hydrodynamic Torques and Rotations of Superparamagnetic Bead Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Christopher; Etheridge, J.; Wijesinghe, H. S.; Pierce, C. J.; Prikockis, M. V.; Sooryakumar, R.

    Chains of micro-magnetic particles are often rotated with external magnetic fields for many lab-on-a-chip technologies such as transporting beads or mixing fluids. These applications benefit from faster responses of the actuated particles. In a rotating magnetic field, the magnetization of superparamagnetic beads, created from embedded magnetic nano-particles within a polymer matrix, is largely characterized by induced dipoles mip along the direction of the field. In addition there is often a weak dipole mop that orients out-of-phase with the external rotating field. On a two-bead dimer, the simplest chain of beads, mop contributes a torque Γm in addition to the torque from mip. For dimers with beads unbound to each other, mop rotates individual beads which generate an additional hydrodynamic torque on the dimer. Whereas, mop directly torques bound dimers. Our results show that Γm significantly alters the average frequency-dependent dimer rotation rate for both bound and unbound monomers and, when mop exceeds a critical value, increases the maximum dimer rotation frequency. Models that include magnetic and hydrodynamics torques provide good agreement with the experimental findings over a range of field frequencies.

  15. Configurational Statistics of Magnetic Bead Detection with Magnetoresistive Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect magnetic beads that, mediated by a target, have bound to a functionalized area. This area is often larger than the area of the sensor. Both the sign and magnitude of the average magnetic field experienced by the sensor from a magnetic bead depends on the location of the bead relative to the sensor. Consequently, the signal from multiple beads also depends on their locations. Thus, a given coverage of the functionalized area with magnetic beads does not result in a given detector response, except on the average, over many realizations of the same coverage. We present a systematic theoretical analysis of how this location-dependence affects the sensor response. The analysis is done for beads magnetized by a homogeneous in-plane magnetic field. We determine the expected value and standard deviation of the sensor response for a given coverage, as well as the accuracy and precision with which the coverage can be determined from a single sensor measurement. We show that statistical fluctuations between samples may reduce the sensitivity and dynamic range of a sensor significantly when the functionalized area is larger than the sensor area. Hence, the statistics of sampling is essential to sensor design. For illustration, we analyze three important published cases for which statistical fluctuations are dominant, significant, and insignificant, respectively.

  16. Development of pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2011-11-01

    The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl(2)) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10 h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04 mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender Confirmation Surgery: Guiding Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Loren S; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Cohen, Mimis N; Kocjancic, Ervin; Claes, Karel E Y; Monstrey, Stan

    2017-06-01

    At this time, no formal training or educational programs exist for surgeons or surgery residents interested in performing gender confirmation surgeries. To propose guiding principles designed to aid with the development of formal surgical training programs focused on gender confirmation surgery. We use expert opinion to provide a "first of its kind" framework for training surgeons to care for transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. We describe a multidisciplinary treatment model that describes an educational philosophy and the institution of quality parameters. This article represents the first step in the development of a structured educational program for surgical training in gender confirmation procedures. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health Board of Directors unanimously approved this article as the framework for surgical training. This article builds a framework for surgical training. It is designed to provide concepts that will likely be modified over time and based on additional data and evidence gathered through outcome measurements. We present an initial step in the formation of educational and technical guidelines for training surgeons in gender confirmation procedures. Schechter LS, D'Arpa S, Cohen MN, et al. Gender Confirmation Surgery: Guiding Principles. J Sex Med 2017;14:852-856. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distributive trade\\'s significance in national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper analyzes a significance of distributive trade in contemporary national economies of select European countries (10 from the point of view of employment, gross value-added creation, supply chain establishment, and international expansion. A cause for the paper is a dissatisfactory level of economic development of certain transitional countries on one side and the high distributive trade shares (especially in the number of employees and in the GDP on the other side. Methods: Distributive trade's significance for a country is analyzed entirely and segmental. The data collected by Eurostat and Deloitte are analyzed and depicted graphically via usual statistical methods (relative numbers, indices and shares, tabulation and graphical depictions. Results: The results of the research conducted should confirm a thesis on distributive trade's significance based on its shares in the economic structure; however, as an integrator in the value-creating chains, distributive trade has different significance for certain national economies, for the large-sized companies and groups (especially the retailing ones are also expanded internationally, along with their supply chains. Conclusions: Distributive trade does not have an equal significance for the economic development in all countries. Equally, all the divisions within distributive trade do not have equal significance for the overall country's economy, as well as for a launch of its economic development. Nevertheless, it should be necessary to analyze concentration and internationalization in detail for the sake of an evaluation of distributive trade's significance as an integrator in value-creating chains. In that respect, some transitional countries observed do lag behind.

  19. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  20. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso

    Full Text Available Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  1. Feasibility of Marine Microalgae Immobilization in Alginate Bead for Marine Water Treatment: Bead Stability, Cell Growth, and Ammonia Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Lin Soo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate is the most commonly used polymer matrix in microalgae immobilization for water treatment. However, the susceptibility of alginate matrixes to cation chelating agents and antigelling cation limits the use of alginates in estuarine and marine systems. Hence, the present study aims to investigate the stability of alginate bead in marine water and the feasibility of microalgae to grow when immobilized in alginate bead for marine water treatment. Different concentrations of alginate and hardening cation calcium were used to formulate beads. The beads were incubated in Guillard’s f/2 medium and shaken vigorously by using orbital shaker for 15 days. The results indicated that bead stability was enhanced by increasing alginate and CaCl2 concentrations. Subsequently, the marine microalga, Nannochloropsis sp., was immobilized in calcium alginate bead. The growth and ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH4+-N uptake by immobilized cell were compared with free cell culture in f/2 medium. Specific growth rate of immobilized cell (0.063 hr−1 was significantly higher than free cell (0.027 hr−1. There was no significant difference on specific uptake rate of free cell and immobilized cell; but immobilized cell removed significantly more NH4+-N (82.2% than free cell (47.3% culture at the end of the experiment. The present study demonstrated the potential use of alginate immobilization technique in marine microalgae culture and water treatment simultaneously.

  2. Europe's New Trade Agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahearn, Raymond J

    2006-01-01

    .... Given that the EU is a global economic superpower, its resumption of a bilateral and preferential trade strategy has implications for the global trading system, as well as for U.S. trade interests...

  3. Use of antibiotic beads to salvage infected breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Rami D; Ingargiola, Michael; Sanati-Mehrizy, Paymon; Torina, Philip J; Harmaty, Marco A

    2017-10-01

    When an implant becomes infected, implant salvage is often performed where the implant is removed, capsulectomy is performed, and a new implant is inserted. The patient is discharged with a PICC line and 6-8 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotics. This method has variable success and subjects the patient to long-term systemic antibiotics. In the 1960s, the use of antibiotic-impregnated beads for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis was described. These beads deliver antibiotic directly to the site of the infection, thereby eliminating the complications of systemic IV antibiotics. This study aimed to present a case series illustrating the use of STIMULAN calcium sulfate beads loaded with vancomycin and tobramycin to increase the rate of salvage of the infected implant and forgo IV antibiotics. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who were treated at Mount Sinai Hospital for implant infection with salvage and antibiotic beads. Twelve patients were identified, 10 of whom had breast cancer. Comorbidities included hypertension, smoking, and immunocompromised status. Infections were noted anywhere from 5 days to 8 years postoperatively. Salvage was successful in 9 out of the 12 infected implants using antibiotic bead therapy without home IV antibiotics. The use of antibiotic beads is promising for salvaging infected breast implants without IV antibiotics. Seventy-five percent of the implants were successfully salvaged. Of the three patients who had unsalvageable implants, one was infected with antibiotic-resistant Rhodococcus that was refractory to bead therapy and one was noncompliant with postoperative instructions. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Confocal nanoscanning, bead picking (CONA): PickoScreen microscopes for automated and quantitative screening of one-bead one-compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintersteiner, Martin; Buehler, Christof; Uhl, Volker; Schmied, Mario; Müller, Jürgen; Kottig, Karsten; Auer, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Solid phase combinatorial chemistry provides fast and cost-effective access to large bead based libraries with compound numbers easily exceeding tens of thousands of compounds. Incubating one-bead one-compound library beads with fluorescently labeled target proteins and identifying and isolating the beads which contain a bound target protein, potentially represents one of the most powerful generic primary high throughput screening formats. On-bead screening (OBS) based on this detection principle can be carried out with limited automation. Often hit bead detection, i.e. recognizing beads with a fluorescently labeled protein bound to the compound on the bead, relies on eye-inspection under a wide-field microscope. Using low resolution detection techniques, the identification of hit beads and their ranking is limited by a low fluorescence signal intensity and varying levels of the library beads' autofluorescence. To exploit the full potential of an OBS process, reliable methods for both automated quantitative detection of hit beads and their subsequent isolation are needed. In a joint collaborative effort with Evotec Technologies (now Perkin-Elmer Cellular Technologies Germany GmbH), we have built two confocal bead scanner and picker platforms PS02 and a high-speed variant PS04 dedicated to automated high resolution OBS. The PS0X instruments combine fully automated confocal large area scanning of a bead monolayer at the bottom of standard MTP plates with semiautomated isolation of individual hit beads via hydraulic-driven picker capillaries. The quantification of fluorescence intensities with high spatial resolution in the equatorial plane of each bead allows for a reliable discrimination between entirely bright autofluorescent beads and real hit beads which exhibit an increased fluorescence signal at the outer few micrometers of the bead. The achieved screening speed of up to 200,000 bead assayed in less than 7 h and the picking time of approximately 1 bead

  5. Constructing, Confirming, and Contesting Icons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    to their reception as they help shape and delimit the publics and discourses surrounding visual icons. This article draws on existing research on visual icons and appropriations to develop a theoretical framework for how appropriations construct, confirm and contest icons and how personification constitutes the main......This article argues that appropriations are central to both the production and reception of visual icons. Appropriations are instrumental in iconization processes as they confirm and consolidate the iconic status by recycling the image in question. At the same time, appropriations are vital...... of these appropriations, two overall modes are singled out: the appropriations either decontextualize or recontextualize the figure of Kurdi. The two next analytical cases test the limits of decontextualization and recontextualization: Chinese artist Ai Weiwei decontextualizes the Kurdi imagery in a controversial...

  6. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Beaded channels, consisting of deepened and widened pools and connecting narrow runs, are common fluvial forms in permafrost regions. Recent studies have shown that beaded channels are very important for connecting alluvial rivers with headwater lakes allowing fish passage and foraging habitats, as well as regulating river runoff. Beaded channels are known as typical thermokarst landforms; however, there is no evidence of their origin and formative processes. Geomorphological analyzes of beaded channels have been completed in several permafrost regions including field observations of Shestakovka River in Central Yakutia. The study aims to recognize the modern exogenic processes and formative mechanisms of beaded river channels. We show that beaded channel of Shestakovka River form in the perennially frozen sand with low ice content, leading us to hypothesize that thermokarst is not the main process of formation. Due to the significant volume of water, the pools don't freeze over entirely during winters, even under harsh climatic conditions. As a result, lenses of pressurized water remain under surface ice underlain by perennially thawed sediments. The presence of thawed sediments under the pools and frozen sediments under the runs leads to uneven thermoerosion of the riverbed during floods, providing the beaded form of the channel. In addition, freezing of pools during winter leads to pressure increasing under ice cover and formation of ice mounds, which crack several times during winter leading to disturbance of riverbanks. Many 1st to 3rd order streams have a specific transitional meandering-to-beaded form resembling the shape of unconfined meandering rivers, but consisting of pools and runs. However, such channels exhibit no evidences of present-day erosion of concave banks and sediment accumulation at the convex banks as typically being observed in normally meandering rivers. Such forms of channels indicates that their formation occurred by the greater channel

  7. Performance Confirmation Data Aquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Markman

    2000-10-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, Performance Confirmation Input Criteria (CRWMS M&O 1999c). (2) Identify and describe existing and potential new trends in data acquisition system software and hardware that would support the PC plan. The data acquisition software and hardware will support the field instruments and equipment that will be installed for the observation and perimeter drift borehole monitoring, and in-situ monitoring within the emplacement drifts. The exhaust air monitoring requirements will be supported by a data communication network interface with the ventilation monitoring system database. (3) Identify the concepts and features that a data acquisition system should have in order to support the PC process and its activities. (4) Based on PC monitoring needs and available technologies, further develop concepts of a potential data acquisition system network in support of the PC program and the Site Recommendation and License Application.

  8. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen E Allahverdyan

    Full Text Available Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science.We formulate a (non-Bayesian model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency or the first opinion (primacy -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties.The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  9. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  10. Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.W. Markman

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, Performance Confirmation Input Criteria (CRWMS M and O 1999c). (2) Identify and describe existing and potential new trends in data acquisition system software and hardware that would support the PC plan. The data acquisition software and hardware will support the field instruments and equipment that will be installed for the observation and perimeter drift borehole monitoring, and in-situ monitoring within the emplacement drifts. The exhaust air monitoring requirements will be supported by a data communication network interface with the ventilation monitoring system database. (3) Identify the concepts and features that a data acquisition system should have in order to support the PC process and its activities. (4) Based on PC monitoring needs and available technologies, further develop concepts of a potential data acquisition system network in support of the PC program and the Site Recommendation and License Application

  11. Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-30

    Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) complex, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate beads, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI complex forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The beads were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate beads encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and beads were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer beads as water disinfectants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluorescent detection of C-reactive protein using polyamide beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesh, Shreesha; Chen, Lu; Aitchison, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection causes Sepsis which is one of the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. This infection can be quantified from blood plasma using C - reactive protein (CRP). A quick diagnosis at the patient's location through Point-of- Care (POC) testing could give doctors the confidence to prescribe antibiotics. In this paper, the development and testing of a bead-based procedure for CRP quantification is described. The size of the beads enable them to be trapped in wells without the need for magnetic methods of immobilization. Large (1.5 mm diameter) Polyamide nylon beads were used as the substrate for capturing CRP from pure analyte samples. The beads captured CRP either directly through adsorption or indirectly by having specific capture antibodies on their surface. Both methods used fluorescent imaging techniques to quantify the protein. The amount of CRP needed to give a sufficient fluorescent signal through direct capture method was found suitable for identifying bacterial causes of infection. Similarly, viral infections could be quantified by the more sensitive indirect capture method. This bead-based assay can be potentially integrated as a disposable cartridge in a POC device due to its passive nature and the small quantities needed.

  13. Bead resuspension and saltation in a turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hout, Rene

    2013-11-01

    Resuspension and saltation of near neutrally buoyant, polystyrene beads in a turbulent boundary layer was studied using TR-PIV and PTV in a horizontal, water channel facility (Re = 7353). Near wall coherent structures were visualized using spatial distributions of vorticity and swirling strength in combination with instantaneous u1u2 correlations and u1. Two case studies, (i) on resuspension and (ii) on saltation showed that lift-off coincided with vortex core passage creating an ejection-sweep cycle. In all cases, beads left the wall when immersed in near-wall ejections and exposed to positive shear. A high shear induced lift force coincided with bead lift-off while the Magnus force and translation induced lift were negligible. The wall-normal component of the drag force mostly opposed lift-off. The difference between resuspension and saltation was governed by the type of coherent structures the beads encountered when lifted out of the viscous sublayer. Resuspension occurred when beads were carried upwards by a combination of a strong, spatially coherent upstream fast moving flow structure and a downstream ejection. On the other hand, saltation was accompanied by similar albeit weaker and spatially less coherent near-wall turbulence structures.

  14. Formation of RNA Beads from Various DNA Nanoring Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Lee, Jong Bum

    2016-05-01

    By taking advantages of rolling circle transcription, one of the powerful methods to overcome the instability of RNA, we successfully synthesized RNA particles having high copy numbers of RNA strands. To examine dependence of RNA particle formation to template circular DNA strands, we synthesized RNA beads with 65-nt, 92-nt and 200-nt DNA nanoring structures as template circular DNA. Our conclusion is that characteristics of RNA beads could be controlled with various template circular DNA for RCT. It is feasible that our RNA beads could be used for RNAzyme-based metal sensors such as aqueous lead ion sensing. In this case, we expect that multi-metal ion detection would be possible by using 200-nt circular DNA bearing multiple desired functions as a template for RNA bead formation. Furthermore, certain features of RNA beads such as sensitivity to nuclease digestion and maximum loading amount of drugs when used as a carrier are expected to be further adjusted by choosing appropriate porosity and size.

  15. Bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozere, I.; Sele, A.; Ozolina, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis in children and adults is a growing problem with important public health implications. In Latvia the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in children up to age 14 has increased from 7,1 per 100000 in 1992 to 28,8 per 100000 in 2003. The diagnosis of TB is confirmed by isolation and identification of M. tuberculosis (MT) from clinical specimen. Confirmation of the disease, however, is difficult in children due to poor bacilli excretion and even under the best circumstances only about 30-40% of pediatric TB cases are proved bacteriologically. Of the 370 pediatric TB cases diagnosed between January 1, 2001 and December 1, 2003 in Latvia, 53 (14,3%) were confirmed bacteriologically. The clinical, radiological, immunological and anamnestic features of confirmed TB can serve as cornerstones for diagnosing of TB, when culture is not available. Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of diagnostic criteria of TB, clinical and radiological manifestation of TB and drug susceptibility of MT isolated also. Methods All consecutive children (53 in total) up to age 14 diagnosed with bacteriologically confirmed TB during 01.01.2001. -01.12.2003. were prospectively evaluated for reasons mentioned above. Results Of the 53 children identified all but one had respiratory tract TB. 17(32,1 %) children were under 4 years of age, 9 (17%) children were 5-9 years old, but 27 (50,9%) patients were 10-14 years old. During evaluation data on TB source case were found in addition in 13 children and total TB contact history was positive in 37 (69,8%) patients. All clinical and radiographical forms of respiratory tract TB were diagnosed. The most common encountered forms were intrathoracic adenopathy in 10 (18,9%) cases and TB pneumonia in 6 (11,3%) cases in children aged 10-14 years. lnthrathoracic adenopathy associated with segmental parenchymal lesion was the most common form in children under 4 years of age -7 (13,2%) cases respectively. Conclusions 1. The clinical and radiological

  16. Opinion Dynamics with Confirmation Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Background Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. Methodology/Principal Findings We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect–when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) –and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. Conclusions The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development. PMID:25007078

  17. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kotaro, E-mail: ksato@nelted.co.jp; Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro [Nuclear Engineering, Limited, 1-3-7 Tosabori Nishi-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 550-0001 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO{sub 2} fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  18. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kotaro; Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    2015-12-01

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO2 fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO2 and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  19. The dispersion of fine chitosan particles by beads-milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochima, Emma; Utami, Safira; Hamdani, Herman; Azhary, Sundoro Yoga; Praseptiangga, Danar; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to produce fine chitosan particles from a crab shell waste by beads-milling method by two different concentration of PEG as dispersing agent (150 and 300 wt. %). The characterization was performed to obtain the size and size distribution, the characteristics of functional groups and the degree of deacetylation. The results showed that the chitosan fine particles was obtained with a milling time 120 minutes with the best concentration of PEG 400 150 wt. %. The average particle size of the as-prepared suspension is 584 nm after addition of acetic acid solution (1%, v/v). Beads milling process did not change the glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine content on chitosan structure which is indicated by degree of deacetylation higher than 70%. It was concluded that beads milling process can be applied to prepare chitosan fineparticles by proper adjustment in the milling time, pH and dosage of dispersing agent.

  20. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  1. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    (UNCTAD), “Trade and transport facilitation … addresses a wide agenda in economic development and trade that may include improving transport infrastructure and services, reducing customs tariffs, and removing non-tariff trade barriers including administrative and regulatory barriers.”24. The definition of trade facilitation ...

  2. Microinjected magnetic beads induce curvature in Chara rhizoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherp, P.; Hasenstein, K.

    The gravitropic response of the Chara rhizoid is based on the interaction between the statoliths and the actin network located in the rhizoid apex. The rhizoid represents a model system for the study of gravitropism, because its apical cell contains the gravity sensing and response mechanism. In order to study the function of the statoliths and the cytoskeleton, we supplemented the naturally occurring statoliths with magnetic beads. These beads can be moved by an external magnetic field and they can be coated to interact with the cytoskeleton. The magnetic beads (1μm diameter) were injected close to the tip of the rhizoid in the presence of an external osmoticum to offset turgor pressure. The injection caused the formation of a noticeable plug of dense material at the site of impalement. After a recovery period of ca. 2 - 4 hours, the whole plant was mounted on the rotatable stage of a custom- built horizontal microscope, equipped with a long-working distance objective and a video camera. This stage is designed to reorientate the cell and/or the injected beads. In order to study the effect of the displacement of magnetic beads, an external magnetic field was applied. This external field was capable of displacing the magnetic particles but did not affect the natural statoliths. Work is in progress to quantify the response, to study the effect of microinjection on wall formation, and utilize coating of the beads to investigate their possible interaction with the original statoliths and with the microfilament network. Supported by NASA grant NAG 2- 1423.

  3. Corrosion of ancient glass beads found in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K; Thongkam, Y; Intarasiri, S; Kamwanna, T; Dararutana, P

    2012-01-01

    Glass has been used as ornaments and decorations in Thailand for several hundred years. The archaeological resources suggested that the ancient glass beads excavated in southern Thailand were made more than 1300 years ago. Initial findings revealed that there were number of difference in shade between the glass beads of difference colors. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) system attached with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were firstly used to study the surface corrosion of the samples. SEM micrographs showed more corroded and flaked microstructure. These were contributed to the interaction of both the ground water and its dissolved chemical compounds.

  4. The impact of functionalized CNT in the network of sodium alginate-based nanocomposite beads on the removal of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkeh-abadi, Fatemeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saber-Samandari, Samaneh, E-mail: samaneh.saber@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, TRNC via Mersin 10 (Turkey); Saber-Samandari, Saeed, E-mail: saeedss@aut.ac.ir [New Technologies Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The sodium alginate-hydroxyapatite-CNT nanocomposite beads were prepared. • Amide functionalized CNT imprinted in the network of sodium alginate containing HAp. • The prepared beads were used as adsorbents of cobalt ions from an aqueous solution. • The adsorption was fit with the Freundlich isotherm and second-order kinetic models. • The endothermic adsorption process is spontaneous and thermodynamically favorable. - Abstract: Significant efforts have been made to develop highly efficient adsorbents to remove radioactive Co(II) ion pollutants from medical and industrial wastewaters. In this study, amide group functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT-CONH{sub 2}) imprinted in the network of sodium alginate containing hydroxyapatite, and new nanocomposite beads were synthesized. Then, they were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The prepared nanocomposite beads were used as an adsorbent of Co(II) ions from an aqueous solution. The presence and distribution of Co(II) ions in the surface of the nanocomposite beads was confirmed using FESEM, EDS and metal mapping analysis. The effect of various experimental conditions such as time, pH, and initial concentration of the adsorbate solution and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite beads were explored. The maximum Co(II) ions adsorption capacity of the prepared nanocomposite beads with the largest surface area of 163.4 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} was 347.8 mg g{sup −1} in the optimized condition. The adsorption mechanism followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, the Freundlich appears to produce better fit than the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Finally, thermodynamic studies suggest that endothermic adsorption process of Co(II) ions is spontaneous and

  5. Free trade or just trade? The World Trade Organisation, human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author assesses these claims from a human rights perspective and explores the relationship between trade, human rights and development. The article sketches the history and functions of the WTO, discusses the linkages between trade liberalisation, human rights and development, and assesses the human rights ...

  6. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Isabella; Piccardi, Carlo; Tajoli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of "preferentiality" in countries' trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members' trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech "Textiles and Textile Articles" and the high-tech "Electronics" sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns.

  7. Decomposition of methane hydrates in sand, sandstone, clays, and glass beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Tsutomu; Takeya, Satoshi; Chuvilin, Evgene M.; Ohmura, Ryo; Nagao, Jiro; Yakushev, Vladimir S.; Istomin, Vladimir A.; Minagawa, Hideki; Ebinuma, Takao; Narita, Hideo

    2004-05-01

    Decomposition conditions of methane hydrates in sediments were measured during formation-decomposition cycles. As test sediments, we used silica sand, sandstone, and clays (kaoline and bentonite), which are typical natural materials known as hydrate bearing sediments, and the range of samples cover a range of water saturating abilities. To better understand the results, we also used uniformly sized glass beads. Pore effects on decomposition of these materials were investigated by analyzing the pore-space distributions of the materials and by varying the initial water content of the samples. The results obtained for sand and sandstone samples indicated that the final decomposition temperatures were shifted lower than those for bulk hydrates at the same pressure. Temperature shifts were more negative for smaller initial water contents with the maximum shift being approximately -0.5 K. The results were consistent with those measured for glass beads with nearly the same particle size. For kaoline clays, the shift was at most -1.5 K. We conclude that the decomposition conditions are mainly affected by the pore sizes. The surface textures and mineral components had less influence on the results. We confirmed that glass beads mimic the effect of sediments for sand, sandstone, and kaoline clays, which have little to no swelling when put in contact with water. On the other hand, for bentonite particles, the results indicated that methane hydrates formed not only between the particles but also in the interlayers. A thermodynamic promoting effect was found for dilute bentonite solutions, although the positive decomposition-temperature shift was at most +0.5 K.

  8. Chemoembolization (TACE) of Unresectable Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma with Slow-Release Doxorubicin-Eluting Beads: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliberti, Camillo; Benea, Giorgio; Tilli, Massimo; Fiorentini, Giammaria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TACE with microspheres preloaded with doxorubicin in unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (UCH). Twenty patients with UCH were observed; 9 refused, preferring other palliative care or chemotherapy, and 11 agreed to be treated with one or more cycles of DC beads loaded with doxorubicin (100-150 mg) in a TACE procedure between February 2006 and September 2007. A total of 29 individual TACE procedures were performed. Follow-up imaging was performed on all patients before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after each TACE procedure to evaluate the response and need for further treatment. Each patient received i.v hydration, antibiotics, and medications against nausea and pain before TACE. Survival rate was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival curve. A response rate of 100% followed RECIST criteria was observed. Eight of eleven patients are alive, with a median survival of 13 months. TACE was well tolerated by all patients. One patient developed hepatic abscess requiring antibiotic therapy. No evidence of marrow toxicity has been reported. Only one of nine patients treated with chemotherapy or palliative care is alive (with a median survival of 7 months in this group of patients). In conclusion, we suggest that doxorubicin-eluting beads TACE is a feasible and effective treatment in patients with UCH. Survival seems to be clearly prolonged in the treated group with respect to the palliative group. We consider that doxorubicin-eluting beads TACE of 100-150 mg may be an appropriate palliative therapy for these patients. Further studies are warranted to confirm these interesting preliminary data.

  9. Trade Finance during the Great Trade Collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Chauffour, Jean-Pierre; Malouche, Mariem

    2011-01-01

    The bursting of the subprime mortgage market in the United States in 2008 and the ensuing global financial crisis were associated with a rapid decline in global trade. The extent of the trade collapse was unprecedented: trade flows fell at a faster rate than had been observed even in the early years of the great depression. G-20 leaders held their first crisis-related summit in November 20...

  10. Removal of Lead from Water Using Calcium Alginate Beads Doped with Hydrazine Sulphate-Activated Red Mud as Adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Babu, A; Krishna Mohan, G V; Kalpana, K; Ravindhranath, K

    2017-01-01

    Calcium alginate beads doped with hydrazine sulphate-treated red mud are investigated as adsorbent for extracting lead ions from water using batch methods of extraction. Different extraction conditions are optimised for maximum lead extraction. Substantial amount of lead is removed, and the adsorption ability is found to be 138.6 mg/g. Surface characterization using FTIR, EDX, and FESEM confirms that lead is "onto" the surface of the adsorbent. Thermodynamic parameters, adsorption isotherms, and kinetics of adsorption are analysed. Adsorption is "physisorption" in nature and spontaneous. The adsorbent developed can be regenerated using 0.1 M HCl. Thus regenerated adsorbent can be used as the adsorbent for further removal of lead at least 10 times, and this enables the complete removal of lead from water by repetitive use of the regenerated adsorbent. The beads facilitate the easy filtration. The methodology developed is successfully applied for removing lead from industrial waste waters.

  11. Microencapsulation of probiotics in hydrogel particles: enhancing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 viability using calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Timothy W; Arroyo-Maya, Izlia J; McClements, David J; Sela, David A

    2016-04-01

    Probiotics are beneficial microbes often added to food products to enhance the health and wellness of consumers. A major limitation to producing efficacious functional foods containing probiotic cells is their tendency to lose viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit. In this study, the impact of encapsulating probiotics within food-grade hydrogel particles to mitigate sensitivity to environmental stresses was examined. Confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed that Lactococcus lactis were trapped within calcium alginate beads formed by dripping a probiotic-alginate mixture into a calcium solution. Encapsulation improved the viability of the probiotics during aerobic storage: after seven days, less than a two-log reduction was observed in encapsulated cells stored at room temperature, demonstrating that a high concentration of cells survived relative to non-encapsulated bacteria. These hydrogel beads may have applications for improving the stability and efficacy of probiotics in functional foods.

  12. GMM Estimator: An Application to Intraindustry Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of intraindustry trade (IIT, horizontal IIT (HIIT, and Vertical IIT (VIIT in the automobile industry in Portugal. The trade in this sector between Portugal and the European Union (EU-27 was examined, between 1995 and 2008, using a dynamic panel data. We apply the GMM system to solve the problems of serial correlation and the endogeneity of some explanatory variables. The findings are consistent with the literature. The difference between per capita incomes and factor endowments present a positive sign. These results are according to Heckscher-Ohlin predictions. The economic dimension has a positive impact on trade. A negative effect of the distance on bilateral trade was expected and the results confirm this, underlining the importance of neighbour partnerships for all trade.

  13. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental...

  14. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAffee, D.A.; Raczka, N.T.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided

  15. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAffee, D.A.; Raczka, N.T. [Yucca Mountain Project, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided.

  16. Microstructural characteristics on bead on plate welding of AISI 904 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, bead-on -plate welds were carried out on AISI 904 L super austenitic stainless steel sheets using Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process. In this present investigation AISI 904 L solid wire having 1.2 mm diameter was used as an electrode with direct current electrode positive polarity. Argon was ...

  17. Chitosan-Based Nanocomposite Beads for Drinking Water Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheane, ML; Nthunya, LN; Sambaza, SS; Malinga, SP; Nxumalo, EN; Mamba, BB; Mhlanga, SD

    2017-05-01

    Potable drinking water is essential for the good health of humans and it is a critical feedstock in a variety of industries such as food and pharmaceutical industries. For the first time, chitosan-alumina/functionalised multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) nanocomposite beads were developed and investigated for the reduction of various physico-chemical parameters from water samples collected from open wells used for drinking purposes by a rural community in South Africa. The water samples were analysed before and after the reduction of the identified contaminants by the nanocomposite beads. The nanocomposite beads were effective in the removal of nitrate, chromium and other physico-chemical parameters. Although, the water samples contained these contaminants within the WHO and SANS241 limits for no risk, the long-term exposure and accumulation is an environmental and health concern. The reduction of these contaminants was dependent on pH levels. At lower pH, the reduction was significantly higher, up to 99.2% (SPC), 91.0% (DOC), 92.2% (DO), 92.2% (turbidity), 96.5% (nitrate) and 97.7% (chromium). Generally, the chitosan-alumina/f-MWCNT nanocomposite beads offer a promising alternative material for reduction and removal of various physico-chemical parameters for production portable water.

  18. Efficient functionalization of poly (styrene) beads immobilized metal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three types of new bead-shaped heterogeneous nanoparticle (NP) catalysts were synthesized by simplified procedures and studied for continuous reduction of crystal violet (CV) dye. The stabilizing agent, viz., 2-acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (PAC) was functionalized efficiently onto the surface of insoluble ...

  19. Preparation and thermal properties of chitosan/bentonite composite beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofilović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their biodegradable and nontoxic nature, biopolymer composites are often used as remarkable adsorbents in treatment of wastewater. In this study chitosan/bentonite composite beads were obtained by addition of clay into the polymer using solution process. Before the composite preparation, bentonite was modified with surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB. The morphology of beads was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal properties of the composite beads were studied by simultaneous thermogravimetry coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (SDT and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. TG results showed that the complex decomposition mechanism of the composites depends on the preparation procedure. It was observed that the concentration of NaOH used for composites precipitation affects the final structure of beads. The influence of preparation procedure on the glass transition temperature Tg of chitosan/bentonite samples was not found (Tg values for all samples were about 144 °C. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45022 and ON172014 and Provincial Secretariat of Vojvodina for Science and Technological Development 114-451-2396/2011-01.

  20. Continuous removal and recovery of lead by alginate beads, free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the possibility of using Chlorella vulgaris cells in repeated lead adsorption/desorption cycles. Alginate beads and immobilized with algal cells were more effective and suitable than free cells. Consistently high lead removal (>90%) and recovery (about 100%) were achieved. Lead adsorption was mainly ...

  1. Superparamagnetic bead interactions with functionalized surfaces characterized by an immunomicroarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Moresco, Jacob Lange

    2010-01-01

    an immunomicroarray for systematic studies of the binding properties of 10 different micro-/nano-sized streptavidin-functionalized beads to a biotin substrate immobilized on SiO2 with or without surface modification SiO2 surface cleaning, immobilized substrate concentration and surface blocking conditions were...

  2. Monosize magnetic hydrophobic beads for lysozyme purification under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altintas, Evrim Banu [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-06-01

    Monosize and magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-tryptophan) [mPGMATrp] beads (1.6 {mu}m in diameter) were used for hydrophobic affinity capture of lysozyme from chicken egg-white. N-methacryloyl-(L)-tryptophan (MATrp), which gives hydrophobicity to the resulting polymer, was synthesized by reacting methacryloyl chloride and L-tryptophan methyl ester then characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). mPGMATrp beads were produced by dispersion polymerization in the presence of magnetite nano-powder. mPGMATrp beads were characterized by means of swelling studies, elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Lysozyme adsorption experiments were performed under different experimental conditions (i.e., lysozyme concentration, temperature, and ionic strength) in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed system, (MSFB). Maximum adsorption capacity was 263.9 mg/g. It was observed that mPGMATrp beads can be used without significant loss in lysozyme adsorption capacity after 25 adsorption-elution cycle.

  3. Monosize magnetic hydrophobic beads for lysozyme purification under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altintas, Evrim Banu; Denizli, Adil

    2009-01-01

    Monosize and magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-tryptophan) [mPGMATrp] beads (1.6 μm in diameter) were used for hydrophobic affinity capture of lysozyme from chicken egg-white. N-methacryloyl-(L)-tryptophan (MATrp), which gives hydrophobicity to the resulting polymer, was synthesized by reacting methacryloyl chloride and L-tryptophan methyl ester then characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). mPGMATrp beads were produced by dispersion polymerization in the presence of magnetite nano-powder. mPGMATrp beads were characterized by means of swelling studies, elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Lysozyme adsorption experiments were performed under different experimental conditions (i.e., lysozyme concentration, temperature, and ionic strength) in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed system, (MSFB). Maximum adsorption capacity was 263.9 mg/g. It was observed that mPGMATrp beads can be used without significant loss in lysozyme adsorption capacity after 25 adsorption-elution cycle.

  4. Bead-Based Microfluidic Sediment Analogues: Fabrication and Colloid Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Huang, Jingwei; Xiao, Feng; Yin, Xiaolong; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Neeves, Keith B; Wu, Ning

    2016-09-13

    Mobile colloids can act as carriers for low-solubility contaminants in the environment. However, the dominant mechanism for this colloid-facilitated transport of chemicals is unclear. Therefore, we developed a bead-based microfluidic platform of sediment analogues and measured both single and population transport of model colloids. The porous medium is assembled through a bead-by-bead injection method. This approach has the versatility to build both electrostatically homogeneous and heterogeneous media at the pore scale. A T-junction at the exit also allowed for encapsulation and enumeration of colloids effluent at single particle resolution to give population dynamics. Tortuosity calculated from pore-scale trajectory analysis and its comparison with lattice Boltzmann simulations revealed that transport of colloids was influenced by the size exclusion effect. The porous media packed by positively and negatively charged beads into two layers showed distinctive colloidal particle retention and significant remobilization and re-adsorption of particles during water flushing. We demonstrated the potential of our method to fabricate porous media with surface heterogeneities at the pore scale. With both single and population dynamics measurement, our platform has the potential to connect pore-scale and macroscale colloid transport on a lab scale and to quantify the impact of grain surface heterogeneities that are natural in the subsurface environment.

  5. 485 assessment of the problems of manual automobile tyre bead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the sector, the diverse nature of its inputs and the unlimited value of its end products [1]. It generates employment for very many because of the numerous ..... reducing the energy and time expended on the bead breaking process. Some other respondents believe that the redesign engineer's attention should be focused on ...

  6. The impact of trade on economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Nuno Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of marginal intra-industry trade on economic growth. The manuscript questions the economic growth exogenous models. It introduces new proxies to explain the economic growth as in marginal intra-industry trade, foreign direct investment and globalization index. The results indicate that economic growth is a dynamic process. The change of intra-industry has a positive impact on economic growth. This paper confirms relevant theoretical hyp...

  7. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  8. Single-stage mass spectrometric analyses of resin bead samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. H.; Walker, R. L.; Bertram, L. K.; Carter, J. A.

    1978-10-01

    Plutonium and uranium from dissolver solutions loaded on resin beads can be analyzed on single-stage mass spectrometers with little or no degradation of results provided proper care is exercised with regard to sample handling techniques. Additionally, storage of samples on resin beads is feasible for periods at least as long as six months provided the beads are not exposed to residual HNO/sub 3/ and air; it is probable that beads will retain their integrity much longer than six months when stored under collodion, but as yet no data to support this contention have been collected. Conventional or commercial mass spectrometers can readily be adapted to the resin bead technique by installing a pulse-counting detection system. The cost of such conversion will vary depending on whether or not a data acquisition system will be needed. A reasonable estimate is that the cost will be in the neighborhood of $15,000; this figure includes the price of a multi-channel analyzer to serve as a temporary data storage device, but does not include the cost of a computer. It does not appear that it will be practicable to switch easily back and forth between pulse-counting and current integration modes unless the instrument is provided with a movable Faraday cup. Using the same multiplier in both modes would undoubtedly degrade its performance in each. The requirements of low background counting rates and high gain for pulse counting, and of relatively high signal handling capacity in current integration are mutually incompatible if demanded of the same multiplier.

  9. Potential use of scrap expanded polystyrene beads for the control of Aedes triseriatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, J W; DeFoliart, G R

    1991-06-01

    The potential use of expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads for control of Aedes triseriatus was tested in the laboratory and the field. Laboratory studies showed that beads present in amounts which persisted throughout a season significantly reduced the emergence of Ae. triseriatus adults by preventing normal eclosion from the pupae. In the field, tree holes containing EPS beads had significantly fewer larvae present than untreated controls. These field data suggest that EPS beads may mechanically prevent oviposition by mosquitoes.

  10. Multiscale evaluation of cellular adhesion alteration and cytoskeleton remodeling by magnetic bead twisting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabey, Daniel; Pelle, Gabriel; André Dias, Sofia; Bottier, Mathieu; Nguyen, Ngoc-Minh; Filoche, Marcel; Louis, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Cellular adhesion forces depend on local biological conditions meaning that adhesion characterization must be performed while preserving cellular integrity. We presently postulate that magnetic bead twisting provides an appropriate stress, i.e., basically a clamp, for assessment in living cells of both cellular adhesion and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. A global dissociation rate obeying a Bell-type model was used to determine the natural dissociation rate ([Formula: see text]) and a reference stress ([Formula: see text]). These adhesion parameters were determined in parallel to the mechanical properties for a variety of biological conditions in which either adhesion or cytoskeleton was selectively weakened or strengthened by changing successively ligand concentration, actin polymerization level (by treating with cytochalasin D), level of exerted stress (by increasing magnetic torque), and cell environment (by using rigid and soft 3D matrices). On the whole, this multiscale evaluation of the cellular and molecular responses to a controlled stress reveals an evolution which is consistent with stochastic multiple bond theories and with literature results obtained with other molecular techniques. Present results confirm the validity of the proposed bead-twisting approach for its capability to probe cellular and molecular responses in a variety of biological conditions.

  11. Process and device for fabrication of ice beads and application to abrasive blasting with ice beads for surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnier, M.; Manificat, A.; Perroud, P.

    1989-01-01

    A device is described for cleaning and decontamination by abrasive blasting with ice beads. It comprises a water injector, with many holes, at the top of a column feeded with cold gas where solidification of water droplets begins, solidification is completed in a cooling liquids, ice is extracted by a screw and pushed to the projection nozzle with cold gas [fr

  12. Chemical–physical characterisation of Early Iron Age glass beads from Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Agua

    2017-05-01

    Additionally, results showed microstructural and microcrystalline differences between some glass beads studied here and other glass beads from Mediterranean areas, dated in the same chronological period. This fact pointed out the valuable role given to these beads by Iron Age communities from Central Europe.

  13. Flow Cytometry-Based Bead-Binding Assay for Measuring Receptor Ligand Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprokholt, Joris K.; Hertoghs, Nina; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a fluorescent bead-binding assay, which is an efficient and feasible method to measure interaction between ligands and receptors on cells. In principle, any ligand can be coated on fluorescent beads either directly or via antibodies. Binding between ligand-coated beads

  14. Ionically crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose beads for the delivery of protein therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Sup; Park, Sang Jun; Gu, Bon Kang; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared Fe 3+ crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads. ► Different surface and inner morphology of AC beads were observed on volume of CMC. ► AC beads showed minimum swelling degree in acidic condition. ► Protein release from AC beads was to control in gastrointestinal condition. - Abstract: We developed Fe 3+ -crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads in various volume ratios by dropping an AC solution into a ferric chloride solution to form protein therapeutic carrier beads. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the roughness and pore size of the crosslinked beads increased with the volume ratio of the carboxymethyl cellulose. Fourier transform-infrared analysis revealed the formation of a three-dimensional bonding structure between the anionic polymeric chains of AC and the Fe 3+ ions. The degree of swelling and the release profile of albumin from the beads were investigated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions (pH 1.2, 4.5, and 7.4). The Fe 3+ -crosslinked AC beads displayed different degrees of swelling and albumin release for the various AC volume ratios and under various pH conditions. An in vitro release test was used to monitor the controlled release of albumin from the AC beads under simulated gastrointestinal conditions over 24 h. The Fe 3+ -crosslinked AC beads protected and controlled the release of protein, demonstrating that such beads present a promising protein therapeutic carrier for the oral delivery.

  15. Esferas (beads de alginato como agente encapsulante de óleo de croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm ALG/Ca beads as an encapsulation agent of croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo C. B. de Paula

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esferas de alginato (ALG reticuladas com cálcio e revestidas com goma do cajueiro (GC foram preparadas e dopadas com óleo essencial de Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Cz, visando a seu emprego como larvicida para combate ao vetor da dengue. As esferas foram caracterizadas estruturalmente por espectroscopia de infravermelho, análise térmica, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e em relação aos seus parâmetros de transporte líquido, dopagem, embebição (Q e cinética de liberação in vitro e in vivo. Os resultados revelaram que as esferas possuem morfologia com uma alta regularidade esférica, com superfície porosa. A matriz ALG:Cz =1:1 apresentou maior dopagem e eficiência de encapsulamento e valores de Q entre 10 e 12. O perfil de liberação do óleo encapsulado apresentou-se mais prolongado nas esferas contendo goma do cajueiro, ALG-GC:Cz =1:1. A taxa de mortalidade de larvas de Stegomyia aegypti para teores de 1,81 a 4,25 mg de óleo nas esferas resultou em valores na faixa de 72 a 100%, após 24 h. A matriz polimérica mostrou-se efetiva para proteção do principio ativo até cerca de 70 dias, com perdas da ordem de 35%. A análise térmica revelou que a incorporação de Cz e GC resulta em uma matriz polimérica termicamente mais estável.Alginate beads (ALG crosslinked with calcium and coated with cashew gum (GC were prepared and loaded with an essential oil from Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Cz. The beads were characterized by FTIR, thermal properties, with respect to their size, shape, larvicide loading, swelling, and in vitro and in vivo release kinetics. Results showed that beads with ALG:Cz =1:1 relative ratio showed higher loading and encapsulation efficiency, although presenting a faster release kinetics. On the other hand, ALG beads coated with GC showed Q values from 10 to 12, representing a significant increase in the hydrophilic character of the matrix. Infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirmed the

  16. Iberian major Regions Interregional Trade across the Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carvalho Bruno Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trade flows that one region establishes with other regions in the same country are very rarely analyzed in the economic literature. Even less frequently are the trade relations with other regions in a neighbor country. Based on previous estimates of interregional trade within the Iberian Peninsula, this paper analyses the trade patterns of the four major trading regions: Madrid, Cataluña, Comunidad Valenciana and Lisboa e Vale do Tejo. Similarities among them are identified. A sector analysis is performed showing high levels of concentration. Confirming the literature a strong border effect is identified.

  17. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  18. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  19. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  20. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  1. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  2. JAPAN'S TECHNOLOGY TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Hagiwara, Taiji

    1994-01-01

    Japan's technology balance of trade has improved over the last twenty years. The position of Japan is examined through (1) comparison with other OECD countries, (2) the historical change in Japan's technology trade at the industry level, (3) Toshiba's technology trade as a typical case. The conclusion is that Japan is still behind the frontier of innovation.

  3. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  4. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  5. Managing colonic inflammation associated gut derangements by systematically optimised and targeted ginger extract-Lactobacillus acidophilus loaded pharmacobiotic alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deol, Parneet Kaur; Khare, Pragyanshu; Singh, Dhirendra Pratap; Soman, Girish; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Kaur, Indu Pal

    2017-12-01

    Presently, we explore a cobiotic-ginger extract (GE; antioxidant-antiinflammatory) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAB, probiotic), for control of oxidative-stress, inflammation and dysbiosis mediated gut ailments. Since orally administered LAB looses viability while GE is a gastric irritant with poor ADME, we encapsulated them into calcium-alginate beads. Water-loving, viscolysing, and osmotic-building effects of polyethylene glycol were used to address poor probiotic encapsulation (≤10%) by effective sealing of numerous fine voids formed in the alginate gel. Beads were systematically optimized for maximum entrapment (92±2.3% for GE, and 30±1.2% for LAB) and sustained release, and were coated with eudragit-S100 for colonic-targetability, as established by in-vitro release. In-vivo evaluation in DMH-DSS induced colitis and precancerous lesions, in rats, indicated attenuation of oxidative stress (catalase, SOD, LPO) and inflammatory burden (IL-6 and TNF-α), and downregulation of COX-2, iNOS, and c-Myc by both GE and LAB; restoration of colonic permeability by GE; and modulation of gut bacteria and SCFAs by LAB as the mechanisms of action. Complementing activities of GE and LAB in cobiotic beads lead to better reversals. Histology (H&E and toluidine blue) confirmed healing of precancerous lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study and Understanding Behavior of Alginate-Inulin Synbiotics Beads for Protection and Delivery of Antimicrobial-Producing Probiotics in Colonic Simulated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, Abdelbasset; Gomaa, Ahmed; Fernandez, Benoit; Subirade, Muriel; Fliss, Ismail

    2017-11-27

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), using antibiotics as growth promoters for livestock-particularly swine-is the principal cause of antibiotic resistance. It is therefore clear that finding an alternative to antibiotics becomes an emergency. Hundreds of recent studies have appointed probiotics as potential candidates to replace or to be used in combination with antibiotics. However, bringing probiotics alive to the colon-their site of action-remains a big challenge because of different physiological barriers encountered in proximal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) such as acidic pH and bile salts that may affect the viability of probiotic cultures. To overcome this problem, in previous studies, we developed and characterize a synbiotic formula consisting of beads of a mixture of alginate and inulin. Three potential probiotics strains namely Pediococcus acidilactici UL5 (UL5), Lactobacillus reuteri (LR), and Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) were encapsulated to study their release and the behavior of this synbiotic formula throughout the GIT using in vitro models. The survival and the release of bacteria from beads were studied by specific PMA-qPCR counting. The microscopic aspects of the beads were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the microbial dynamics inside beads were studied by fluorescence microscopy using the live/dead test. Our results have shown that the beads containing 5% inulin were the most stable in the stomach and throughout the small intestine. However, beads were completely degraded in approximately 3 h of incubation in the fermented medium that mimic the colon. These results were confirmed by SEM and fluorescence microscopy images. Therefore, it can be stated that the AI5 formulation well protected the bacteria in the upper part of the digestive tract and allowed their controlled release in the colon.

  7. On the chemical variability of Middelburg glass beads and rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karklins, K.; Kottman, J.; Hancock, R.G.V.; Sempowski, M.L.; Nohe, A.W.; Moreau, J.-F.; Aufreiter, S.; Kenyon, I.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-three glass samples from a late 16th-early 17th century, glass beadmaking house in Middelburg, the Netherlands, were selected for maximum colouring variability, including plain and multi-coloured varieties. The glass chemistries were quite diverse, within each colour grouping. For each single colour of glass, anticipated colouring elements (copper for turquoise blue, cobalt for dark blue, manganese for rose, and tin for white) were used, with the exception of two beads that were opacified wih antimony rather than with tin. Multi-coloured glass glasses (chevron beads) produced chemistries that match the mixing of the different coloured glasses. In some cases, low relative amounts of some inter-mixed glasses were not detectable against the composition of the major glass component. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Random glycopeptide bead libraries for seromic biomarker discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Cló, Emiliano; Clausen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    glycopeptides were resynthesized at the preparative scale by automated parallel peptide synthesis and printed on microarrays for validation and broader analysis with larger sets of sera. We further showed that chemical synthesis of the monosaccharide O-glycopeptide library (Tn-glycoform) could be diversified...... have developed a random glycopeptide bead library screening platform for detection of autoantibodies and other binding proteins. Libraries were build on biocompatible PEGA beads including a safety-catch C-terminal amide linker (SCAL) that allowed mild cleavage conditions (I(2)/NaBH(4) and TFA......) for release of glycopeptides and sequence determination by ESI-Orbitrap-MS(n). As proof-of-principle, tumor -specific glycopeptide reporter epitopes were built-in into the libraries and were detected by tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies and autoantibodies from cancer patients. Sequenced and identified...

  9. Frictionless Demonstration Using Fine Plastic Beads For Teaching Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    New equipment for demonstrating laws of mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine sphere plastic beads (0.3 mm in diameter). Fine plastic beads function as ball bearings to reduce the friction between the object and the plate surface. By this method, a quantitative measurement of energy conservation law has successfully been carried out with a small error of less 3%. The strong advantage of this frictionless method is that we can always use the same objects like Petri dishes for demonstrating many kinds of mechanics laws, such as the first, second, and the third laws of motion, momentum conservation law, and energy conservation law. This demonstration method surely has a beneficial effect for students, who can then understand mechanics laws systematically with a unified concept and no confusion.

  10. A planar conducting microstructure to guide and confine magnetic beads to a sensing zone

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2011-08-01

    A novel planar conducting microstructure is proposed to transport and confine magnetic micro/nano beads to a sensing zone. Manipulation and concentration of magnetic beads are achieved by employing square-shaped conducting micro-loops, with a few hundred nano-meters in thickness, arranged in a unique fashion. These microstructures are designed to produce high magnetic field gradients which are directly proportional to the force applied to manipulate the magnetic beads. Furthermore, the size of the microstructures allows greater maneuverability and control of magnetic beads than what could be achieved by permanent magnets. The aim of the microstructures is to guide magnetic beads from a large area and confine them to a smaller area where for example quantification would take place. Experiments were performed with different concentrations of 2 μm diameter magnetic beads. Experimental results showed that magnetic beads could be successfully guided and confined to the sensing zone. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of the bead flush method to welded pipes to evaluate residual stresses nondestructively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Yamamoto, M.

    2002-01-01

    To assess the structural integrity of welded structures during the design and in-service inspection, it is important to evaluate welding residual stresses. Recently, the design process of structures has shifted from 'the design by rule' to 'the design by analysis' using the FEM (finite element method) codes. As the design process advances, analytical processes have formed a link in the chain of manufacturing and in-service inspection procedures. Under this circumstance, authors have proposed a new method called 'the Bead Flush Method', to evaluate the welding residual stresses by utilizing the FEM data constructed during the structural design. In this method, eigenstrains as sources of residual stresses are calculated from released elastic strains after removal of reinforcement of the weld by applying the inverse analysis. Then, residual stresses as well as displacements at any location concerned are evaluated by imposing eigenstrains as initial strains in the FEM analysis. Mechanical properties required through this analysis are the elastic constants at room temperature. No further properties, such as temperature dependencies of the yield strength and the thermal coefficient, are needed. By now, we have confirmed its utility for welded plates by computer simulations and experiments. In this study, further development of this method for application to welded pipes was attempted. Despite its relatively simple shape of pipes (axe symmetrical) compared with welded plates (3-dimentional), welded pipe problems are more complicated than those of welded plates from a view point of the inverse analysis. As a first step, a basic formulization was attempted to overcome this difficulty and future problems to be solved were made clear. Then computer simulations of the bead flush method conducted for a thin walled welded pipe confirmed its utility. Refs. 2 (author)

  12. Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a magnetic microchip (MMC) is presented, to first trap and then selectively manipulate individual, superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) to another trapping site. Trapping sites are realized through soft magnetic micro disks made of Ni80Fe20, and SPB motion is controlled by current-carrying, tapered, conducting lines made of Au. The MMC was realized using standard microfabrication techniques and provides a cheap and versatile platform for microfluidic systems for cell manipulation. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Hot wire TIG temper bead welding for nuclear repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.A.; Gilston, P.F.

    1989-08-01

    A preliminary assessment has been carried out to determine the suitability of the hot wire tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process for the repair of thick section, ferritic steel nuclear pressure vessels. The objective has been to identify a hot wire TIG temper bead procedure, suitable for repairs without post weld heat treatment. This procedure involves depositing two weld layers with carefully selected welding parameters such that overlapping thermal cycles produce a refined and tempered heat affected zone, HAZ, microstructure. (author)

  14. HOM identification by bead pulling in the Brookhaven ERL cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, H; Jain, Puneet; Johnson, Elliott C; Xu, Wencan

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory measurements of the Brookhaven Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) cavity at superconducting temperature produced a long list of high order modes (HOMs). The niobium 5-cell cavity is terminated at each end with HOM ferrite dampers that successfully reduce the Q-factors to levels required to avoid beam break up (BBU) instabilities. However, a number of un-damped resonances with Q≥106 were found at 4 K and their mode identification forms the focus of this paper. The approach taken here consists of bead pulling on a copper (Cu) replica of the ERL cavity with dampers involving various network analyzer measurements. Several different S21 transmission measurements are used, including those taken from the fundamental input coupler to the pick-up probe across the cavity, others between beam-position monitor probes in the beam tubes, and also between probes placed into the cells. The bead pull technique suitable for HOM identification with a metallic needle or dielectric bead is detailed. This paper presents the...

  15. Measuring Trade and Trade Potential : A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Shiro Armstrong

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a survey and a brief critical review of the literature on the widely used gravity models of trade, as a prelude to the justification of its use with the stochastic frontier methodology. The important papers on the theoretical foundations of the gravity model are reviewed and related to papers applied to explain determinants of trade flows. Then some shortcomings of the gravity model are discussed. The paper introduces the stochastic frontier gravity model as a way of estim...

  16. Dealing with Trading Thinness in Event Studies: An Improved Trade-to-Trade Model

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick Anderson

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an improvement to the trade-to-trade model for event studies. While the trade-to-trade model of Maynes and Rumsey (1993) addresses the problem of thin trading by eliminating periods in which no trading is recorded, the proposed improvement addresses the influence of zero-value returns resulting from liquidity trading. This entails segmentation by the sign of company returns (positive, negative, zero). The approach allows for all levels of thinness in security trading. It is ...

  17. Does the internet generate economic growth, international trade, or both?

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, H.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cross country panel data studies find a positive impact of internet use on economic growth and a positive impact of internet use on trade. The present study challenges the first finding by showing that internet use does not explain economic growth directly in a fully specified growth model. In particular openness to international trade variables seems to be highly correlated with internet use and the findings in the literature that internet use causes trade is confirmed here, suggestin...

  18. Can bilateral trade agreements help induce free trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Riezman, Raymond Glenn

    1999-01-01

    There has been growing debate about whether bilateral trade agreements are damaging multilateral efforts to eliminate barriers to international trade. This paper develops a model in which trading blocks always charge optimal tariffs and make trade agreements based on strategic considerations. We ask a very simple question. Does the fact that trading blocks can form bilateral trade agreements make Free trade less likely to occur? The answer is that it depends on the size distribution of the tr...

  19. 12 CFR 12.7 - Securities trading policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Securities trading policies and procedures. 12.7 Section 12.7 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RECORDKEEPING AND CONFIRMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITIES TRANSACTIONS § 12.7 Securities trading policies and...

  20. Modeling of weld bead geometry for rapid manufacturing by robotic GMAW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Xiong, Jun; Chen, Hui; Chen, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Weld-based rapid prototyping (RP) has shown great promises for fabricating 3D complex parts. During the layered deposition of forming metallic parts with robotic gas metal arc welding, the geometry of a single weld bead has an important influence on surface finish quality, layer thickness and dimensional accuracy of the deposited layer. In order to obtain accurate, predictable and controllable bead geometry, it is essential to understand the relationships between the process variables with the bead geometry (bead width, bead height and ratio of bead width to bead height). This paper highlights an experimental study carried out to develop mathematical models to predict deposited bead geometry through the quadratic general rotary unitized design. The adequacy and significance of the models were verified via the analysis of variance. Complicated cause-effect relationships between the process parameters and the bead geometry were revealed. Results show that the developed models can be applied to predict the desired bead geometry with great accuracy in layered deposition with accordance to the slicing process of RP.

  1. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes...... disputes—the US upland cotton and European Union sugar cases—serve to suggest that the authority of international trade law is not as significant as assumed by the legalisation thesis. Rather, domestic politics and institutions have an important impact on the outcome of trade disputes........ By locating trading disputes in a political analysis of policy implementation, it is argued that it is difficult to establish conceptually how the WTO dispute settlement system could have authority separate from and above the conventional international politics of trade policy relations. Instead, the article...

  2. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  3. WORLD GRAIN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mary Bălan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grain is part of agricultural commodities and is of utmost importance for world agriculture,since it is the essential element of food and animal feed. Against this background, grain trade among countries of the world is dynamic and represents about 10% of global trade in food products.This article examines global grain trade both in terms of quantitative and qualitative developments, and highlights the most important competitor countries in this sector. It also details the patterns of grain trade for the world's main exporters and importers of such commodities.Two distinct sections of the research relate to the evolution of the primary grain quotations(wheat, corn, barley, rice and sorghum at the most representative international agricultural commodities markets (Chicago Board of Trade, based on a comprehensive statistical analysis, and the short-term forecasts for global grain trade, respectively.

  4. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research...

  5. Potential Impact of TPP Trade Agreement on US Bilateral Agricultural Trade: Trade Creation or Trade Diversion?

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Osei Agyeman; Shaik, Saleem; Agyekum, Afia Fosua

    2015-01-01

    Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement is a trade agreement U.S is negotiating with 11 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam) to reduce or eliminate tariffs on U.S. products exported to the TPP countries. With TPP, U.S expects to expand its trade with members of the partnership; resulting in GDP growth. However, there exist large concerns about the potential negative ...

  6. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  7. Globalization, trade and business

    OpenAIRE

    Boskov, Tatjana; Lazaroski, Spire

    2011-01-01

    Globalization refers to the growing interdependence of countries resulting from the increasing integration of trade, finance, people, and ideas in one global marketplace. International trade and cross-border investment flows are the main elements of this global integration. Trade freedom is the best economic strategy for all of the world’s peoples. No single nation has the natural resources, infrastructure, and human capital in sufficient quantity and quality to realize the standard of liv...

  8. Management of ports and maritime trade of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh during the historical period

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Bengal as well as Assam. Similarly, Rouletted ware and Knobbed ware have been reported from Bali, Bangladesh, Java, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam (Schenk 2006 and Glover 1996). The occurrence of Northern Black Polished ware and silver punch... marked coins along the port and coastal sites of the east coast of India indicate the existence of coastal trade (Sila Tripati 2002). Semi- precious stone beads have even been reported from Thailand, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia and Philippines...

  9. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  10. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  11. Biodegradation and kinetic study of benzene in bioreactor packed with PUF and alginate beads and immobilized with Bacillus sp. M3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kureel, M K; Geed, S R; Giri, B S; Rai, B N; Singh, R S

    2017-10-01

    Benzene removal in free and immobilized cells on polyurethane foam (PUF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate beads was studied using an indigenous soil bacterium Bacillus sp. M3 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil. The important process parameters (pH, temperature and inoculums size) were optimized and found to be 7, 37°C and 6.0×10 8 CFU/mL, respectively. Benzene removals were observed to be 70, 84 and 90% within 9days in a free cell, immobilized PVA-alginate beads and PUF, respectively under optimum operating conditions. FT-IR and GC-MS analysis confirm the presence of phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, hydroquinone and benzoate as metabolites. The important kinetic parameter ratios (µ max /K s ; L/mg·day ) calculated using Monod model was found to be 0.00123 for free cell, 0.00159 for immobilized alginate beads and 0.002016 for immobilized PUF. Similarly inhibition constants (K i ; mg/L) calculated using Andrew-Haldane model was found to be 435.84 for free cell, 664.25 for immobilized alginate beads and 724.93 for immobilized PUF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. INDONESIAN TRADE UNDER CHINA FREE TRADE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the implementation of CAFTA (China-Asean Free Trade Area on the international trade flows across Indonesia, China and the rest of ASEAN using a gravitation model. It finds the evidence that the influence of diversion and creation effects on China are significant, while the influence of both effects on Indonesia are not significant. It also finds that the diversion effect, which leads to a decrease in society’s wealth, is greater than that of the creation effect. As a consequence, the gap across countries involved in the trade agreement is wider. Keywords: CAFTA, gravitation model, diversion effect, creation effectJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15

  13. Neuro-differentiated Ntera2 cancer stem cells encapsulated in alginate beads: First evidence of biological functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Ceci, Claudia; Bianco, Alessandra; Pistritto, Giuseppa

    2017-12-01

    The present communication investigates an application of alginate encapsulation technology to the differentiation of the embryonic cancer stem NTera2 cells (NT2) into dopamine-producing cells. The encapsulation of cells in polymeric beads allows their immune isolation and makes them eligible for transplantation, thus representing a promising biotech tool for the delivery of biologically active compounds to the brain. The polysaccharide alginate is one of the most commonly used material for this procedure since it is well tolerated by various tissues, including the brain. Two different initial cell concentrations (i.e. 0.5∗10 6 /ml and 1.0∗10 6 /ml) were tested, in order to identify which one could better reflect the homogeneous cell distribution into the alginate beads and guarantee a good cell viability at different times of culture. As evidenced, the higher number of cells promoted the formation of clusters resulting in a better interaction among encapsulated cells and the subsequent promotion of mitotic activity. The distribution of alive/dead cells into the alginate beads was verified and followed at different time points through the fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide (FDA/PI) staining, confirming the presence of living neuronal positive cells, as determined from fluorescence microscopy imaging. The functionality of the encapsulated NT2 cells was confirmed by their dopamine production capability as assessed by UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis and by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The NT2/microspheres system can be considered a groundbreaking experimental procedure, a functionally active platform, able to produce and release dopamine, and thus potentially exploitable for therapy in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Spherical Frit Beads on Simulated DWPF Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, MICHAEL

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that the rheological properties of simulated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed with the glass former frit as mostly (90 weight percent) solid spherical particles (referred to as beads) were improved as the feed was less viscous as compared to DWPF melter feed that contained the normal irregular shaped frit particles. Because the physical design of the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), Melter Feed Tank (MFT), and melter feed loop are fixed, the impact of changing the rheology might be very beneficial. Most importantly, higher weight percent total solids feed might be processed by reducing the rheological properties (specifically yield stress) of the feed. Additionally, if there are processing problems, such as air entrainment or pumping, these problems might be alleviated by reducing the rheological properties, while maintaining targeted throughputs. Rheology modifiers are chemical, physical, or a combination of the two and can either thin or thicken the rheology of the targeted slurry. The beads are classified as a physical rheological modifier in this case. Even though the improved rheological properties of the feed in the above mentioned DWPF tanks could be quite beneficial, it is the possibility of increased melt rate that is the main driver for the use of beaded glass formers. By improving the rheological properties of the feed, the weight percent solids of the feed could be increased. This higher weight percent solids (less water) feed could be processed faster by the melter as less energy would be required to evaporate the water, and more would be available for the actual melting of the waste and the frit. In addition, the use of beads to thin the feed could possibly allow for the use of a lower targeted acid stoichiometry in the feed preparation process (if in fact acid stoichiometry is being driven by feed rheology as opposed to feed chemistry). Previous work by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with the lab

  15. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  16. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting: a new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kotschy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Kotschy1, Sascha Virnik2, Doris Christ3, Alexander Gaggl21Private Practice, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Central Hospital, Klagenfurt, Austria; 3Klagenfurt, AustriaObjective: The aim of periodontal therapy is the healing of periodontal inflammation; the protection of the attachment and the alveolar bone; and the regeneration of the periodontal structures. In the therapy of periodontitis, supra- and subgingival scaling and root planing plays a main role. The procedure described combines perfect root cleaning without scaling and root planing and minimal invasive periodontal surgery without a scalpel.Material and methods: Glass beads of 90 µm were used with the kinetic preparation unit PrepStart® under a pressure of 0.5–5 bar. This technique was practised only under visual control using the OPMI® PRO Magis microscope. Seven examinations were carried out at baseline after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months.Results: Time shows a statistically significant influence on all of the considered target variables (P < 0.0001 for all. As the according estimate is negative, probing depth decreases over time. The major decrease seems to be during the first 6 months. Considering probing depth, plaque on the main effect root shows significant influence (again, P < 0.0001 for all. Observations with high probing depth at the beginning were faster than those with low probing depth. The same characteristic appears by attachment level. Patients with more loss of attachment show more gain.Conclusions: Using microscope-controlled glass bead blasting results in a perfectly clean root surface using visual control (magnification 20×. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting is therefore a good alternative to periodontal surgery.Keywords: periodontal therapy, microscope, periodontitis

  17. SparseBeads data: benchmarking sparsity-regularized computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jakob S.; Coban, Sophia B.; Lionheart, William R. B.; McDonald, Samuel A.; Withers, Philip J.

    2017-12-01

    Sparsity regularization (SR) such as total variation (TV) minimization allows accurate image reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography (CT) from fewer projections than analytical methods. Exactly how few projections suffice and how this number may depend on the image remain poorly understood. Compressive sensing connects the critical number of projections to the image sparsity, but does not cover CT, however empirical results suggest a similar connection. The present work establishes for real CT data a connection between gradient sparsity and the sufficient number of projections for accurate TV-regularized reconstruction. A collection of 48 x-ray CT datasets called SparseBeads was designed for benchmarking SR reconstruction algorithms. Beadpacks comprising glass beads of five different sizes as well as mixtures were scanned in a micro-CT scanner to provide structured datasets with variable image sparsity levels, number of projections and noise levels to allow the systematic assessment of parameters affecting performance of SR reconstruction algorithms6. Using the SparseBeads data, TV-regularized reconstruction quality was assessed as a function of numbers of projections and gradient sparsity. The critical number of projections for satisfactory TV-regularized reconstruction increased almost linearly with the gradient sparsity. This establishes a quantitative guideline from which one may predict how few projections to acquire based on expected sample sparsity level as an aid in planning of dose- or time-critical experiments. The results are expected to hold for samples of similar characteristics, i.e. consisting of few, distinct phases with relatively simple structure. Such cases are plentiful in porous media, composite materials, foams, as well as non-destructive testing and metrology. For samples of other characteristics the proposed methodology may be used to investigate similar relations.

  18. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J.

    1998-12-08

    This research provides a structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads. 7 figs.

  19. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  20. Intrinsic viscosity of bead models for macromolecules and bioparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, L

    2001-10-01

    A new method based on the fractal dimension dependence of the hydrodynamic radius is proposed for calculation of the intrinsic viscosity of bead models. The method describes properly the viscosity increment except for elongated structures such as linear aggregates and ellipsoids. It is expected to be useful for very compact structures, for which the volume correction does not improve the results calculated by the modified Oseen tensor. The results obtained for the viscosity increment lie between the volume corrected ones and those determined by the cubic substitution procedure. They are close to the values recalculated from the falling velocities of the models analyzed.

  1. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  2. Radiation-induced synthesis of PAN and its amidoximation to produce beads for uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Krishan Kant; Shah, Chetan; Dwivedi, Charu; Kumar, Manmohan; Bajaj, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    Microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) beads, containing the amidoximated polyacrylonitrile sorbent, were synthesized for extraction of uranium. The kinetic measurement showed that about 120 minutes of equilibration time was enough to extract saturation amount of uranium from aqueous solution. The polymeric beads exhibited optimum extraction at 20 deg C and at neutral or near neutral pH conditions. The loaded uranium could also be leached out from the beads, by treating with dilute acids. (author)

  3. Ionically crosslinked alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose beads for the delivery of protein therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Sup; Park, Sang Jun; Gu, Bon Kang [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul 139-240 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chun-Ho, E-mail: chkim@kcch.re.kr [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul 139-240 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared Fe{sup 3+} crosslinked alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different surface and inner morphology of AC beads were observed on volume of CMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AC beads showed minimum swelling degree in acidic condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein release from AC beads was to control in gastrointestinal condition. - Abstract: We developed Fe{sup 3+}-crosslinked alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads in various volume ratios by dropping an AC solution into a ferric chloride solution to form protein therapeutic carrier beads. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the roughness and pore size of the crosslinked beads increased with the volume ratio of the carboxymethyl cellulose. Fourier transform-infrared analysis revealed the formation of a three-dimensional bonding structure between the anionic polymeric chains of AC and the Fe{sup 3+} ions. The degree of swelling and the release profile of albumin from the beads were investigated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions (pH 1.2, 4.5, and 7.4). The Fe{sup 3+}-crosslinked AC beads displayed different degrees of swelling and albumin release for the various AC volume ratios and under various pH conditions. An in vitro release test was used to monitor the controlled release of albumin from the AC beads under simulated gastrointestinal conditions over 24 h. The Fe{sup 3+}-crosslinked AC beads protected and controlled the release of protein, demonstrating that such beads present a promising protein therapeutic carrier for the oral delivery.

  4. IV injection of polystyrene beads for mouse model of sepsis causes severe glomerular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Hajime; Hirate, Hiroyuki; Sugiura, Takeshi; Suzuki, Shugo; Takahashi, Satoru; Sobue, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Infusion fluids may be contaminated with different types of particulates that are a potential health hazard. Particulates larger than microvessels may cause an embolism by mechanical blockage and inflammation; however, it has been reported that particulates smaller than capillary diameter are relatively safe. Against such a background, one report showed that polystyrene beads smaller than capillary diameter decreased tissue perfusion in ischemia-reperfusion injury. This report suggested that polystyrene beads from 1.5- to 6-μm diameter (dia.) may have unfavorable effects after pretreatment. Here, we investigated whether injection of polystyrene beads (3- and 6-μm dia.) as an artificial contaminant of intravenous fluid after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection affected mortality and organ damage in mice. Mice were divided into four groups and injected: polystyrene beads only, LPS only, polystyrene beads 30 min after LPS, or saline. A survival study, histology, blood examination, and urine examination were performed. The survival rate after LPS and polystyrene bead (6-μm dia.) injection was significantly lower than that of the other three groups. In the kidney sections, injured glomeruli were significantly higher with LPS and polystyrene bead injection than that of the other three groups. LPS and polystyrene bead injection decreased the glomerular filtration rate and led to renal failure. Inflammatory reactions induced with LPS were not significantly different between with or without polystyrene beads. Polystyrene beads were found in urine after LPS and polystyrene bead injection. Injection of polystyrene beads after LPS injection enhanced glomerular structural injury and caused renal function injury in a mouse sepsis model.

  5. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  6. Expatriates and trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2012), s. 83-98 ISSN 1488-3473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : migration * trade * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  7. Can immigrants hurt trade?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    -, č. 329 (2007), s. 1-42 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : immigrants * international trade * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp329.pdf

  8. Expatriates and trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    -, č. 387 (2009), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : international trade * migration * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp387.pdf

  9. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  10. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  11. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  12. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Trade Organization (WTO), it was expected that some of the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed. ... inalienable human right by virtue of which every person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute ... of isolation and afflictions brought by disease and poverty, not only increasing their lifespan.

  13. Hierarchically templated beads with tailored pore structure for phosphopeptide capture and phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicka, Celina; Torsetnes, Silje B.; Jensen, Ole N.

    2017-01-01

    Two templating approaches to produce imprinted phosphotyrosine capture beads with a controllable pore structure are reported and compared with respect to their ability to enrich phosphopeptides from a tryptic peptide mixture. The beads were prepared by the polymerization of urea-based host monomers...... and crosslinkers inside the pores of macroporous silica beads with both free and immobilized template. In the final step the silica was removed by fluoride etching resulting in mesoporous polymer replicas with narrow pore size distributions, pore diameters ≈ 10 nm and surface area > 260 m2 g-1. The beads displayed...

  14. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation vs. concentration of 40nm magnetic beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present on-chip Brownian relaxation measurements on a logarithmic dilution series of 40 nm beads dispersed in water with bead concentrations between 16 mu g/ml and 4000 mu g/ml. The measurements are performed using a planar Hall effect bridge sensor at frequencies up to 1 MHz. No external fields...... are needed as the beads are magnetized by the field generated by the applied sensor bias current. We show that the Brownian relaxation frequency can be extracted from fitting the Cole-Cole model to measurements for bead concentrations of 64 mu g/ml or higher and that the measured dynamic magnetic response...

  15. Glass bead cultivation of fungi - combining the best of liquid and agar media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads which allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...

  16. Fluctuations of cytoskeleton-bound microbeads-the effect of bead-receptor binding dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzner, C; Raupach, C; Mierke, C T; Fabry, B

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton (CSK) of living cells is a crosslinked fiber network, subject to ongoing biochemical remodeling processes that can be visualized by tracking the spontaneous motion of CSK-bound microbeads. The bead motion is characterized by anomalous diffusion with a power-law time evolution of the mean square displacement (MSD), and can be described as a stochastic transport process with apparent diffusivity D and power-law exponent β: MSD ∼ D (t/t 0 ) β . Here we studied whether D and β change with the time that has passed after the initial bead-cell contact, and whether they are sensitive to bead coating (fibronectin, integrin antibodies, poly-L-lysine, albumin) and bead size (0.5-4.5 μm). The measurements are interpreted in the framework of a simple model that describes the bead as an overdamped particle coupled to the fluctuating CSK network by an elastic spring. The viscous damping coefficient characterizes the degree of bead internalization into the cell, and the spring constant characterizes the strength of the binding of the bead to the CSK. The model predicts distinctive signatures of the MSD that change with time as the bead couples more tightly to the CSK and becomes internalized. Experimental data show that the transition from the unbound to the tightly bound state occurs in an all-or-nothing manner. The time point of this transition shows considerable variability between individual cells (2-30 min) and depends on the bead size and bead coating. On average, this transition occurs later for smaller beads and beads coated with ligands that trigger the formation of adhesion complexes (fibronectin, integrin antibodies). Once the bead is linked to the CSK, however, the ligand type and bead size have little effect on the MSD. On longer timescales of several hours after bead addition, smaller beads are internalized into the cell more readily, leading to characteristic changes in the MSD that are consistent with increased viscous damping by the

  17. Multi-modal particle manipulator to enhance bead-based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynne-Jones, P.; Boltryk, R. J.; Hill, M.; Zhang, F.; Dong, L.; Wilkinson, J. S.; Brown, T.; Melvin, T.; Harris, N. R.

    2010-01-01

    By sequentially pushing micro-beads towards and away from a sensing surface, we show that ultrasonic radiation forces can be used to enhance the interaction between a functionalized glass surface and polystyrene micro-beads, and distinguish those that bind to the surface, ultimately by using an integrated optical waveguide implanted in the reflector to facilitate optical detection. The movement towards and immobilization of streptavidin coated beads onto a biotin functionalized waveguide surface is achieved by using a quarter-wavelength mode pushing beads onto the surface, while the removal of non-specifically bound beads uses a second quarter-wavelength mode which exhibits a kinetic energy maxima at the boundary between the carrier layer and fluid, drawing beads towards this surface. This has been achieved using a multi-modal acoustic device which exhibits both these quarter-wavelength resonances. Both 1-D acoustic modeling and finite element analysis has been used to design this device and investigate the spatial uniformity of the field. We demonstrate experimentally that 90% of specifically bound beads remain attached after applying ultrasound, with 80% of non-specifically bound control beads being successfully removed acoustically. This approach overcomes problems associated with lengthy sedimentation processes used for bead-based bioassays and surface (electrostatic) forces, which delay or prevent immobilization. We explain the potential of this technique in the development of DNA and protein assays in terms of detection speed and multiplexing.

  18. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the di......We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches...

  19. Ormosil Beads for Insulation of Ground Cryogenic Storage Tanks, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Organically modified silica (Ormosil) aerogel beads developed at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. offer several advantages for retrofitting perlite insulation in NASA's ground...

  20. Orbeez: the magic water absorbing bead--risk of pediatric bowel obstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darracq, Michael A; Cullen, Jennifer; Rentmeester, Landen; Cantrell, F Lee; Ly, Binh T

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission recalled the water-absorbing toy WaterBalz after reports of small intestine obstruction after ingestion by children. Orbeez, another water-absorbing bead, remains available and is marketed as a children's toy. We sought to determine the extent to which Orbeez enlarge in various liquid media and the potential risk for bowel obstruction. Three Orbeez beads were added to 210 mL of the following liquid media: room temperature tap water, whole milk, simulated gastric fluid, GoLytely (polyethelyelene glycol, 3350 and electrolytes), and vodka (40% ethanol by volume). Diameters before exposure to media were measured using a caliper to the nearest 0.1 mm and again at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Ten beads were then added to the beads already immersed in simulated gastric fluid and water and observed for an additional 72 hours (96 hours total) for clumping or increase in diameter. Clumping was defined as two or more beads remaining persistently adherent to one another despite gentle circular movement (swirling) of the liquid. Growth in each of the media was observed. Growth in simulated gastric fluid was minimal, whereas the beads were observed to be the largest after 24 hours in vodka. Clumping of the beads was not observed to occur. Orbeez beads enlarge to a different extent in different liquid media. It is unlikely that Orbeez beads would expand to sizes or demonstrate clumping that would be concerning for intestinal obstruction.

  1. LIBERALIZATION AND UNITED STATES’ INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend of globalization has given rise to a new paradigm in international economics, i.e. the simultaneous exports and imports of a product within country or a particular industry called intra-industry trade (IIT or two-way trade. This study examines country-levels determinants of intra-industry trade, in U.S. trade. The manuscript applies a static and dynamic panel data approach. In contrast to previous studies, this paper used a dynamic panel data to solve the problems of serial correlation and endogeneity. The results indicate that IIT occurs more frequently among countries that are similar in terms of factor endowments. We also introduce economic dimension; this proxy confirms the positive effect of IIT. Our results also confirm the hypothesis that trade increases if the transportation costs decrease.

  2. Flow Cytometric Bead Sandwich Assay Based on a Split Aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Luyao; Bing, Tao; Liu, Xiangjun; Wang, Junyan; Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Nan; Shangguan, Dihua

    2018-01-24

    A few aptamers still bind their targets after being split into two moieties. Split aptamers have shown great potential in the development of aptameric sensors. However, only a few split aptamers have been generated because of lack of knowledge on the binding structure of their parent aptamers. Here, we report the design of a new split aptamer and a flow cytometric bead sandwich assay using a split aptamer instead of double antibodies. Through DMS footprinting and mutation assay, we figured out the target-binding moiety and the structure-stabilizing moiety of the l-selectin aptamer, Sgc-3b. By separating the duplex strand in the structure-stabilizing moiety, we obtained a split aptamer that bound l-selectin. After optimization of one part of the split sequence to eliminate the nonspecific binding of the split sequence pair, we developed a split-aptamer-based cytometric bead assay (SACBA) for the detection of soluble l-selectin. SACBA showed good sensitivity and selectivity to l-selectin and was successfully applied for the detection of spiked l-selectin in the human serum. The strategies for generating split aptamers and designing the split-aptamer-based sandwich assay are simple and efficient and show good practicability in aptamer engineering.

  3. Solid phase extraction of actinides using graphene oxide beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujar, R.B.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Separation of actinide ions from dilute nitric acid feed solutions is important from radioactive waste remediation point of view. A large number of separation methods are available in the literature using methods such as precipitation, ion-exchange, solvent extraction, etc. Graphene oxide (GO) are reported to be a very good sorbent for actinide ions from weakly acidic feed solutions. However, it is difficult to handle GO fine particles and any chromatographic separation is bound to be difficult as the sorbent material may be finely dispersed in the aqueous phase. It was thus thought of interest to prepare GO-based resin materials in polyether sulphone (PES) by phase inversion technique. Preparation of resins by phase inversion technique has been found to be quite efficient for metal ion separation including actinide ions. In the present work, GO based PES resin beads were prepared by phase inversion technique and the uptake of actinide and lanthanide ions. In the present work, GO based beads were prepared by phase inversion technique and the uptake of actinide and lanthanide ions (such as Am(III), Eu(III), Th(IV), Pu(IV) and U(VI)) has been studied using radiotracers

  4. Direct oligonucleotide synthesis onto super-paramagnetic beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michael A; Akhras, Michael S.; Fukushima, Marilyn; Pourmand, Nader; Davis, Ron W.

    2013-01-01

    Super-paramagnetic beads (SPMB)s used for a variety of molecular diagnostic assays are prepared by attaching pre-synthesized oligonucleotides to the surface via a cumbersome and low efficient method of carbodiimide-mediated amide bond formation. To mainstream the process, we describe a novel procedure of direct oligonucleotide synthesis onto the surface of SPMBs (e.g. MyOne Dynabeads). With the many challenges surrounding containment of paramagnetic beads (≤ 1 μm) during automated oligonucleotide synthesis, we show that by applying a magnetic force directly to the SPMBs we prevent their loss caused by high-pressure drain steps during synthesis. To date we have synthesized 40mers using a Spacer 9 phosphoramidite (triethylene glycol) coupled to the surface of hydroxylated SPMBs. HPLC analysis shows successful product generation with an average yield of 200 pmoles per sample. Furthermore, because of the versatility of this powerful research tool, we envision its use in any laboratory working with conventional synthesis automation, as employed for single columns and for multi-well titer plates. In addition to direct synthesis of oligodeoxynucleotides (DNA) onto SPMBs, this platform also has the potential for RNA and peptide nucleic acid synthesis. PMID:23942380

  5. Envenomation by a wild Guatemalan Beaded Lizard Heloderma horridum charlesbogerti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano-Sánchez, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    The Guatemalan Beaded Lizard (Heloderma horridum charlesbogerti) is an endemic venomous lizard that inhabits southeastern Guatemala. Published reports of bites by Beaded Lizard are scarce. This is the first case report of a bite from Heloderma horridum charlesbogerti. A 24-year-old man was bitten on the left hand by a juvenile Heloderma horridum charlesbogerti. The lizard remained attached for approximately 15 seconds. The patient experienced severe local pain, dizziness, diaphoresis, vomiting, severe paresthesia in his left hand and arm, and hypotension (70/52 mm/Hg). He was treated with intravenous ketorolac, chlorpheniramine, methylprednisolone, antibiotics, ondansentron, and normal saline. Hematology tests revealed leukocytosis (12,600/mm3). Symptoms improved and the patient was discharged from hospital 24 hours after admission. The case reported here shows that bites by Heloderma produce severe clinical effects shortly after the bite. Management consists of waiting for the lizard to relax its bite pressure and using pliers to open lizard's mouth and pull out the bitten extremity, a careful manual search for teeth remnants, and supportive care. In our case, severe pain, unresponsive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics, was a major problem. Parethesias resolve quickly but pain may persist for up to 12 hours after the bite. A full recovery is expected.

  6. Simulation of Enzyme Catalysis in Calcium Alginate Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameel M. R. Al-Mayah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A general mathematical model for a fixed bed immobilized enzyme reactor was developed to simulate the process of diffusion and reaction inside the biocatalyst particle. The modeling and simulation of starch hydrolysis using immobilized α-amylase were used as a model for this study. Corn starch hydrolysis was carried out at a constant pH of 5.5 and temperature of . The substrate flow rate was ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 mL/min, substrate initial concentrations 1 to 100 g/L. α-amylase was immobilized on to calcium alginate hydrogel beads of 2 mm average diameter. In this work Michaelis-Menten kinetics have been considered. The effect of substrate flow rate (i.e., residence time and initial concentration on intraparticle diffusion have been taken into consideration. The performance of the system is found to be affected by the substrate flow rate and initial concentrations. The reaction is controlled by the reaction rate. The model equation was a nonlinear second order differential equation simulated based on the experimental data for steady state condition. The simulation was achieved numerically using FINITE ELEMENTS in MATLAB software package. The simulated results give satisfactory results for substrate and product concentration profiles within the biocatalyst bead.

  7. The bead on a rotating hoop revisited: an unexpected resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviola, Lisandro A.; Véliz, Maximiliano E.; Salomone, Horacio D.; Olivieri, Néstor A.; Rodríguez, Eduardo E.

    2017-01-01

    The bead on a rotating hoop is a typical problem in mechanics, frequently posed to junior science and engineering students in basic physics courses. Although this system has a rich dynamics, it is usually not analysed beyond the point particle approximation in undergraduate textbooks, nor empirically investigated. Advanced textbooks show the existence of bifurcations owing to the system's nonlinear nature, and some papers demonstrate, from a theoretical standpoint, its points of contact with phase transition phenomena. However, scarce experimental research has been conducted to better understand its behaviour. We show in this paper that a minor modification to the problem leads to appealing consequences that can be studied both theoretically and empirically with the basic conceptual tools and experimental skills available to junior students. In particular, we go beyond the point particle approximation by treating the bead as a rigid spherical body, and explore the effect of a slightly non-vertical hoop's rotation axis that gives rise to a resonant behaviour not considered in previous works. This study can be accomplished by means of digital video and open source software. The experience can motivate an engaging laboratory project by integrating standard curriculum topics, data analysis and experimental exploration.

  8. Time as a trade barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    International trade occurs in physical space and moving goods requires time. This paper examines the importance of time as a trade barrier, estimates the magnitude of time costs, and relates these to patterns of trade and the international organizati...

  9. Two kinds of ketoprofen enteric gel beads (CA and CS-SA using biopolymer alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingchao Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain expected rapid-release and sustained-release of ketoprofen gel beads, this paper adopted biopolymer alginate to prepare alginate beads and chitosan-alginate gel beads. Formulation factors were investigated and optimized by the single factor test. The release of ketoprofen from calcium alginate gel beads in pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution was less than 10% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 95% during 45 min, which met the requirements of rapid-release preparations. However, the drug release of chitosan-alginate gel beads in pH1.0 was less than 5% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 50% during 6 h and reached more than 95% during 12 h, which had a good sustained-release behavior. In addition, the release kinetics of keteprofen from the calcium alginate gel beads fitted well with the Korsmeyer–Peppas model and followed a case-II transport mechanism. However, the release of keteprofen from the chitosan-alginate gel beads exhibited a non-Fickian mechanism and based on the mixed mechanisms of diffusion and polymer relaxation from chitosan-alginate beads. In a word, alginate gel beads of ketoprofen were instant analgesic, while chitosan-alginate gel beads could control the release of ketoprofen during gastro-intestinal tract and prolong the drug's action time. Keywords: Gel beads, Enteric rapid-release, Enteric sustained-release, Ketoprofen

  10. Chinese and Venetian glass beads excavated from Fais Island in Micronesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intoh, Michiko

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Over 830 glass beads were excavated from a late prehistoric cemetery site on Fais Island in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia In one of the 13 excavated burials a young woman had more that 310 glass beads around her wrist. Bone collagen from this burial was dated by AMS to 387 + 64 BP. The associated glass beads were classified into three groups based on colour and size. A sample from each group was examined for evidence of manufacturing technique. The chemical composition was determined using an X-ray microanalyser. The first group consisted of more than 300 pale green, transparent glass beads which are less than 2 mm in diameter. The chemical composition is high in PbO (75.22%) while low in MgO. Such a high lead content is characteristic of Chinese glass. The manufacturing technique could not be determined because the surfaces were too eroded. The second group contains several yellow, translucent glass beads. The chemical composition is also high in PbO (54.8%) and low in MgO. The beads were made by winding. The combination of winding and high lead strongly indicates that the beads were made in China. The third group had only one white, translucent glass bead. It has particular white stripes which suggest that it is a 'gooseberry' bead which was made in Venice between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. In conclusion, both Chinese and Venetian glass beads co-existed on Fais Island around the time of European contact. They are likely to have been brought in from an area which had access to both beads. Island South-East Asia is tentatively considered to be the source area

  11. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research......History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... are whether policy reform will result in new institutional changes, and how resulting incentives determine the evolution of investment by sector....

  12. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-12-01

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.

  13. Calibration and Confirmation in Geophysical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werndl, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    For policy decisions the best geophysical models are needed. To evaluate geophysical models, it is essential that the best available methods for confirmation are used. A hotly debated issue on confirmation in climate science (as well as in philosophy) is the requirement of use-novelty (i.e. that data can only confirm models if they have not already been used before. This talk investigates the issue of use-novelty and double-counting for geophysical models. We will see that the conclusions depend on the framework of confirmation and that it is not clear that use-novelty is a valid requirement and that double-counting is illegitimate.

  14. Enhanced biological stabilization of heavy metals in sediment using immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads with inner cohesive nutrient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin, E-mail: hgxlixin@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Dai, Lihua; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Yunguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhou, Chen [Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University (United States); Xu, Weihua; Wu, Youe; Tang, Xinquan; Liu, Wei; Lan, Shiming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Nutrient beads of immobilized SRB were more effective in transforming heavy metals into the more stable bound phases. • Inner cohesive nutrient effectively promoted the stabilization process of heavy metals. • The excellent removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 76.3%, 95.6%, 100% and 91.2%, respectively. • Easy to recycle and avoid secondary pollution. - Abstract: A series of experiments were conducted for treating heavy metals contaminated sediments sampled from Xiangjiang River, which combined polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) into beads. The sodium lactate was served as the inner cohesive nutrient. Coupling the activity of the SRB with PVA, along with the porous structure and huge specific surface area, provided a convenient channel for the transmission of matter and protected the cells against the toxicity of metals. This paper systematically investigated the stability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd and its mechanisms. The results revealed the performance of leaching toxicity was lower and the removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 76.3%, 95.6%, 100% and 91.2%, respectively. Recycling experiments showed the beads could be reused 5 times with superbly efficiency. These results were also confirmed by continuous extraction at the optimal conditions. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis indicated the heavy metals could be transformed into stable crystal texture. The stabilization of heavy metals was attributed to the carbonyl and acyl amino groups. Results presented that immobilized bacteria with inner nutrient were potentially and practically applied to multi-heavy-metal-contamination sediment.

  15. Enhanced biological stabilization of heavy metals in sediment using immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads with inner cohesive nutrient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xin; Dai, Lihua; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Yunguo; Zhou, Chen; Xu, Weihua; Wu, Youe; Tang, Xinquan; Liu, Wei; Lan, Shiming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nutrient beads of immobilized SRB were more effective in transforming heavy metals into the more stable bound phases. • Inner cohesive nutrient effectively promoted the stabilization process of heavy metals. • The excellent removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 76.3%, 95.6%, 100% and 91.2%, respectively. • Easy to recycle and avoid secondary pollution. - Abstract: A series of experiments were conducted for treating heavy metals contaminated sediments sampled from Xiangjiang River, which combined polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) into beads. The sodium lactate was served as the inner cohesive nutrient. Coupling the activity of the SRB with PVA, along with the porous structure and huge specific surface area, provided a convenient channel for the transmission of matter and protected the cells against the toxicity of metals. This paper systematically investigated the stability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd and its mechanisms. The results revealed the performance of leaching toxicity was lower and the removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 76.3%, 95.6%, 100% and 91.2%, respectively. Recycling experiments showed the beads could be reused 5 times with superbly efficiency. These results were also confirmed by continuous extraction at the optimal conditions. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis indicated the heavy metals could be transformed into stable crystal texture. The stabilization of heavy metals was attributed to the carbonyl and acyl amino groups. Results presented that immobilized bacteria with inner nutrient were potentially and practically applied to multi-heavy-metal-contamination sediment.

  16. The Impact of Exchange Rate on Poland’s Trade Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Twarowska

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of exchange rate on Poland’s foreign trade, especially on bilateral trade flows between Poland and the Euro area, which is its major trading partner. The research verifies the theoretical concepts that explain how the exchange rate influences the trade turnover. The empirical analysis was preceded by a theoretical basis of the problem. Data used in this study covers the period from 2004 to 2013. The theoretical and empirical analysis confirm ...

  17. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  18. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada L, Luis Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Topics are presented as economic theory and theory of the international trade, international dimension of the environmental problems, economic prosperity, environmental quality and lineament are given for an alternative, among others

  19. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  20. Let's Talk Trade Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Thomas; Olson, Mary W.

    1992-01-01

    Describes strategies that use trade books to teach science to primary students. Strategies include (1) developing concepts and vocabulary; (2) using concrete manipulatives to reinforce learning; (3) encouraging retelling; (4) developing class summaries; and (5) developing visual imagery. (MDH)

  1. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  2. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  3. OBT analysis method using polyethylene beads for limited quantities of animal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Stuart, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products for cases where the amount of water recovered by combustion is limited by sample size or quantity. In the method, the amount of water recovered after combustion is enhanced by adding tritium-free polyethylene beads to the sample prior to combustion in an oxygen bomb. The method reduces process time by allowing the combustion water to be easily collected with a pipette. Sufficient water recovery was achieved using the polyethylene beads method when 2 g of dry animal tissue or animal product were combusted with 2 g of polyethylene beads. Correction factors, which account for the dilution due to the combustion water of the beads, are provided for beef, chicken, pork, fish and clams, as well as egg, milk and cheese. The method was tested by comparing its OBT results with those of the conventional method using animal samples collected on the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. The results determined that the polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used. - Highlights: • Polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products were determined. • The method reduces process time. • The polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used

  4. On-chip measurement of the Brownian relaxation frequency of magnetic beads using magnetic tunneling junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, M.; Sogne, E.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the detection of the Brownian relaxation frequency of 250 nm diameter magnetic beads using a lab-on-chip platform based on current lines for exciting the beads with alternating magnetic fields and highly sensitive magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors with a superparamagnetic free...

  5. Evaluation of the Seismic Characterision of Select Engineered Nanoparticles in Saturated Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory testing apparatus was developed for the study of seismic body wave propagation through nanoparticles dispersed in pore fluid that is essentially saturating glass beads. First, the responses of water-saturated glass bead specimens were studied to establish baseline si...

  6. Planar Hall effect sensor bridge geometries optimized for magnetic bead detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    Novel designs of planar Hall effect bridge sensors optimized for magnetic bead detection are presented and characterized. By constructing the sensor geometries appropriately, the sensors can be tailored to be sensitive to an external magnetic field, the magnetic field due to beads being magnetized...

  7. Chemical–physical characterisation of Early Iron Age glass beads from Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agua, F.; Conde, J.F.; Kobylińska, U.; Kobyliński, Z.; García-Heras, M.; Villegas, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    Archaeological excavation of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology (Polish Academy of Sciences, PAN) at several Iron Age sites located in West Poland and South Germany has allowed the recovery of an important set of coloured glass beads mostly decorated (6th–4th centuries BC). The present paper summarises the results obtained through the chemical and microstructural characterisation of such beads. The research was carried out by binocular microscope observations, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and visible spectrophotometry. The main objective was to attain information on the production technology and conservation state of these beads. The results indicated that all them were produced with soda lime silicate glass, even though two groups can be separated: (i) beads containing high MgO percentages made from plant ashes as an alkaline source, and (ii) beads containing low MgO percentages made from natron as an alkaline source. As regards decorations, opaque white was obtained from tin oxide, turquoise blue from Cu2+-ions, and opaque yellow from lead antimonate. Additionally, results showed microstructural and microcrystalline differences between some glass beads studied here and other glass beads from Mediterranean areas, dated in the same chronological period. This fact pointed out the valuable role given to these beads by Iron Age communities from Central Europe. (Author)

  8. Adipic acid dihydrazide treated partially oxidized alginate beads for sustained oral delivery of flurbiprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Sabyasachi; Singha, Kamalika; Ray, Somasree; Dey, Paramita; Sa, Biswanath

    2009-01-01

    In this study, periodate oxidation of sodium alginate was controlled such that the oxidized alginate could form isolatable beads with Ca(+2) ions. The beads of oxidized alginate having a degree of oxidation 1 mol%, entrapped 89% flurbiprofen and released almost all of its content within 1.5 h in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer solution. The beads were covalently crosslinked with adipic dihydrazide (ADH) in addition to ionic crosslinks and were characterized. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the beads were spherical having smooth surfaces. The drug entrapment efficiency decreased (90-86%) with increasing concentration of ADH (2-6% w/v) in the gelation medium. However, the beads prolonged the drug release in alkaline dissolution medium up to 8 h depending upon the concentration of ADH. The beads prepared with 2% ADH swelled more rapidly and led to faster drug release in either pH 1.2 HCl solution or pH 7.2 phosphate buffer solution. The swelling tendencies were reduced and the drug release became slower with higher concentrations in either fluid. The drug diffusion from the beads followed super case II transport mechanism. FTIR spectroscopy indicated stable nature of flurbiprofen in the beads and therefore had potential as sustained oral delivery system for the drug.

  9. Magnetic nanoparticle-loaded alginate beads for local micro-actuation of in vitro tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Awatef M; Wilson, Otto C; Dahal, Bishnu; Philip, John; Luo, Xiaolong; Raub, Christopher B

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) self-align and transduce magnetic force, two properties which lead to promising applications in cell and tissue engineering. However, the toxicity of MNPs to cells which uptake them is a major impediment to applications in engineered tissue constructs. To address this problem, MNPs were embedded in millimeter-scale alginate beads, coated with glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan, and loaded in acellular and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell-seeded collagen hydrogels, providing local micro-actuation under an external magnetic field. Brightfield microscopy was used to assess nanoparticle diffusion from the bead. Phase contrast microscopy and digital image correlation were used to track collagen matrix displacement and estimate intratissue strain under magnetic actuation. Coating the magnetic alginate beads with glutaraldehyde-chitosan prevents bulk diffusion of nanoparticles into the surrounding microenvironment. Further, the beads exert force on the surrounding collagen gel and cells, resulting in intratissue strains of 0-10% tunable with bead dimensions, collagen density, and distance from the bead. Cells seeded adjacent to the embedded beads are subjected to strain gradients without loss of cell viability over two days culture. This study describes a simple way to fabricate crosslinked magnetic alginate beads to load in a collagen tissue construct without direct exposure of the construct to nanoparticles. The findings are significant to in vitro studies of mechanobiology in enabling precise control over dynamic mechanical loading of tissue constructs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Funding Alert Subscribe Confirmation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Thank you. Please check your email ( ) to confirm your subscription to the IDRC Funding Alerts. Please note: the link in your confirmation email is valid for 3 days, so please reply promptly. We fund researchers driving global change. Careers · Contact Us · Subscribe · Unsubscribe · Site map. Follow us; Facebook · Twitter ...

  11. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  12. Trade and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamiotti, L.; Teh, R.; Kulacoglu, V. (World Trade Organization (WTO), Geneva (Switzerland)); Olhoff, A.; Simmons, B.; Abaza, H. (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    The Report aims to improve understanding about the linkages between trade and climate change. It shows that trade intersects with climate change in a multitude of ways. For example, governments may introduce a variety of policies, such as regulatory measures and economic incentives, to address climate change. This complex web of measures may have an impact on international trade and the multilateral trading system. The Report begins with a summary of the current state of scientific knowledge on climate change and on the options available for responding to the challenge of climate change. The scientific review is followed by a part on the economic aspects of the link between trade and climate change, and these two parts set the context for the subsequent parts of the Report, which looks at the policies introduced at both the international and national level to address climate change. The part on international policy responses to climate change describes multilateral efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the effects of climate change, and also discusses the role of the current trade and environment negotiations in promoting trade in technologies that aim to mitigate climate change. The final part of the Report gives an overview of a range of national policies and measures that have been used in a number of countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency. It presents key features in the design and implementation of these policies, in order to draw a clearer picture of their overall effect and potential impact on environmental protection, sustainable development and trade. It also gives, where appropriate, an overview of the WTO rules that may be relevant to such measures. (author)

  13. Additive versus multiplicative trade costs and the gains from trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    This paper addresses welfare effects from trade liberalization in a heterogeneous-fi…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and fi…xed trade costs. The novel contribution of the paper...... is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from differences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from dissimilar impacts...

  14. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  15. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  16. SparseBeads data: benchmarking sparsity-regularized computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Coban, Sophia B.; Lionheart, William R. B.

    2017-01-01

    Sparsity regularization (SR) such as total variation (TV) minimization allows accurate image reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography (CT) from fewer projections than analytical methods. Exactly how few projections suffice and how this number may depend on the image remain poorly understood....... Compressive sensing connects the critical number of projections to the image sparsity, but does not cover CT, however empirical results suggest a similar connection. The present work establishes for real CT data a connection between gradient sparsity and the sufficient number of projections for accurate TV......, number of projections and noise levels to allow the systematic assessment of parameters affecting performance of SR reconstruction algorithms6. Using the SparseBeads data, TV-regularized reconstruction quality was assessed as a function of numbers of projections and gradient sparsity. The critical number...

  17. Adherence between steel bars and lightweight concrete with EPS beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. SARTORI

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the adherence behavior of a structural lightweight concrete with EPS beads (SLCEB in a monotonic loading, based in a bibliographic review and in pull-out tests. The results of these SLCEB tests were compared with those of an ordinary concrete (OC and with the values based in indications of the Brazilian code ABNT NBR 6118:2014 - Design of concrete structures. The pull-out tests of two batches of SLCEB and one of OC were analyzed, in a total of 60 tests. Mechanical characteristics were determined too, such as: compressive strength and tensile strength in split cylinder test. The calculated results according to the above mentioned standard were very different from those obtained in the tests, indicating that the theoretical values are more conservative than the experimental ones. It was also verified that it is possible to use SLCEB in structures with respect to the adequate adherence of reinforcement in the concrete.

  18. FORMAL TRADE BETWEEN INDIA AND BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K.S. YADAV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  19. Aligned Porous Beads Prepared by Frozen Polymerization of Emulsion-Templates Involving Tiny Emulsifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High internal phase emulsion (HIPE templated porous materials are attracting increasing interests due to its high porosity and tunable structure. However, large amounts (5-50 vol% of suitable non-ionic surfactants are commonly required to stabilize conventional HIPE due to the high internal volume fraction of HIPE. In this work, applying frozen polymerization in HIPE, aligned porous beads were prepared with tiny surfactant (~0.1 wt%. These interconnected aligned porous beads were prepared through directional freezing, and frozen ultraviolet (UV initiation of an oil-in-water (o/w HIPE. The HIPEs are extruded by needle, and then directionally frozen in liquid nitrogen to form beads. The frozen beads were exposed under UV irradiation in a -20 °C ethanol bath to initiate the monomers in the aqueous phase. Moreover, the morphology of the resulting porous beads were tailored by vary the ratio of oil/water and the amount of emulsifier.

  20. Investigation on rare earth magnets recycling by organophosphoric extractant encapsulated polymeric beads for separation of dysprosium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Kartikey K.; Singh, D.K.; Kain, V.

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a basic requirement of the electronics and new industries including green technology. In the present work an organophosphoric extractant encapsulating polyethersulfone (PES) beads has been developed and employed for dysprosium (Dy) separation from aqueous stream. Polyethersulfonic beads encapsulating PC88A were prepared by phase inversion method. During the synthesis of the beads, preparatory parameters were also optimized to obtain best suited beads which were subsequently characterized for their encapsulation capacity and micro structural investigation. The results obtained in the present investigation suggested that PES/PVAJPC88A composite beads could be used for separation of rare earths from aqueous medium obtained from the solubilisation of magnetic scrap materials

  1. Formulation of Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanopowder into Hybrid Beads for Dye Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shokry Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel prepared zinc oxide nanopowder was immobilized onto alginate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer blend to fabricate novel biocomposite beads. Various physicochemical characterization techniques have been utilized to identify the crystalline, morphological, and chemical structures of both the fabricated zinc oxide hybrid beads and their corresponding zinc oxide nanopowder. The thermal stability investigations demonstrate that ZnO nanopowder stability dramatically decreased with its immobilization into the polymeric alginate and PVA matrix. The formulated beads had very strong mechanical strength and they are difficult to be broken up to 1500 rpm. Moreover, these hybrid beads are chemically stable at the acidic media (pH < 7 especially within the pH range of 2–7. Finally, the applicability of the formulated ZnO hybrid beads for C.I. basic blue 41 (BB41 decolorization from aqueous solution was examined.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Spherical Silica-titania Aerogel Beads with High Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yu-xi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The silica-titania aerogel beads were synthesized through sol-gel reaction followed by supercritical drying, in which TEOS and TBT as co-precursors, EtOH as solvents, HAC and NH3·H2O as catalysts. The as-prepared aerogel beads were characterized by SEM,TEM,XRD,FT-IR,TG-DTA and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The results indicate that the diameter distribution of beads are between 1-8mm, the average diameter of beads is 3.5mm. The aerogel beads have nanoporous network structure with high specific surface area of 914.5m2/g, and the TiO2 particles are distributed in the aerogel uniformly, which keep the anatase crystal under high temperature.

  3. Interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethylcellulose and egg albumin for controlled release of lipid lowering drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Rashmi; Kulkarni, Raghavendra V; Mutalik, Srinivas S; Setty, C Mallikarjun; Sa, Biswanath

    2010-01-01

    Novel interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and egg albumin loaded with a lipid lowering drug, simvastatin, were prepared by ionotropic gelation and covalent cross-linking method. The IPN beads were characterized by differential scanning colorimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry to understand the crystalline nature of the drug after entrapment into IPN matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to find the chemical stability of drug in the polymer matrix and scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the surface morphology. The ionically cross-linked beads were capable of releasing drug up to 7 h, whereas the drug release was extended up to 12 h in case of dual cross-linked beads. The beads which were prepared with higher concentration of glutaraldehyde released the drug more slowly. The release data were fitted to an empirical equation to determine the transport mechanism, which indicated the non-Fickian trend for drug transport.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Dual Cross-Linked Pulsatile Beads for Chronotherapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abanesh kumar Bansal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, pulsatile release beads were prepared by ionic gelation technique. Lornoxicam dual cross-linked beads were prepared by dropping dispersed phase of lornoxicam, pectin, and sodium alginate into the dispersion phase of different concentrations of calcium chloride solution followed by aluminium chloride solution. The formulated beads were further coated by Eudragit L & S 100 in the ratio 1 : 2 w/w in order to achieve desired lag time. In vitro release study showed lag time of 5–8 h before release of lornoxicam from the formulated beads. Thus, formulated dual cross-linked beads when administered at bed time may release lornoxicam when needed most for chronotherapeutics of early morning rheumatoid arthritis attacks in chronic patients.

  5. Echicetin coated polystyrene beads: a novel tool to investigate GPIb-specific platelet activation and aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Navdaev

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways.

  6. Social signals and algorithmic trading of Bitcoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-09-01

    The availability of data on digital traces is growing to unprecedented sizes, but inferring actionable knowledge from large-scale data is far from being trivial. This is especially important for computational finance, where digital traces of human behaviour offer a great potential to drive trading strategies. We contribute to this by providing a consistent approach that integrates various datasources in the design of algorithmic traders. This allows us to derive insights into the principles behind the profitability of our trading strategies. We illustrate our approach through the analysis of Bitcoin, a cryptocurrency known for its large price fluctuations. In our analysis, we include economic signals of volume and price of exchange for USD, adoption of the Bitcoin technology and transaction volume of Bitcoin. We add social signals related to information search, word of mouth volume, emotional valence and opinion polarization as expressed in tweets related to Bitcoin for more than 3 years. Our analysis reveals that increases in opinion polarization and exchange volume precede rising Bitcoin prices, and that emotional valence precedes opinion polarization and rising exchange volumes. We apply these insights to design algorithmic trading strategies for Bitcoin, reaching very high profits in less than a year. We verify this high profitability with robust statistical methods that take into account risk and trading costs, confirming the long-standing hypothesis that trading-based social media sentiment has the potential to yield positive returns on investment.

  7. Removal of Lead from Water Using Calcium Alginate Beads Doped with Hydrazine Sulphate-Activated Red Mud as Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naga Babu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium alginate beads doped with hydrazine sulphate-treated red mud are investigated as adsorbent for extracting lead ions from water using batch methods of extraction. Different extraction conditions are optimised for maximum lead extraction. Substantial amount of lead is removed, and the adsorption ability is found to be 138.6 mg/g. Surface characterization using FTIR, EDX, and FESEM confirms that lead is “onto” the surface of the adsorbent. Thermodynamic parameters, adsorption isotherms, and kinetics of adsorption are analysed. Adsorption is “physisorption” in nature and spontaneous. The adsorbent developed can be regenerated using 0.1 M HCl. Thus regenerated adsorbent can be used as the adsorbent for further removal of lead at least 10 times, and this enables the complete removal of lead from water by repetitive use of the regenerated adsorbent. The beads facilitate the easy filtration. The methodology developed is successfully applied for removing lead from industrial waste waters.

  8. Trade Barriers on Capital Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Vural, Gülfer

    2015-01-01

    Capital goods play a major role in international trade. World production of capital goods and R&D activity are highly concentrated in some developed countries. Most of the countries, especially developing countries import the most of their capital equipment from some leading capital goods exporter countries. Therefore technological advances can be transmitted across borders through trade in capital goods. In international trade countries face trade costs. Trade costs can be in the for...

  9. Experience with confirmation measurement at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Wagner, R.P.; Hsue, F.

    1985-01-01

    Confirmation measurements are used at Los Alamos in support of incoming and outgoing shipment accountibility and for support of both at 235 U and Pu inventories. Statistical data are presented to show the consistency of measurements on items of identical composition and on items measured at two facilitis using similar instruments. A description of confirmation measurement techniques used in support of 235 U and Pu inventories and a discussion on the ability of the measurements to identify items with misstated SNM are given

  10. Experience with confirmation measurement at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Wagner, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Confirmation measurements are used at Los Alamos in support of incoming and outgoing shipment accountability and for support of both 235 U and Pu inventories. Statistical data are presented to show the consistency of measurements on items of identical composition and on items measured at two facilities using similar instruments. A description of confirmation measurement techniques used in support of 235 U and Pu inventories and a discussion on the ability of the measurements to identify items with misstated SNM are given

  11. Photo-decolorization and detoxification of toxic dyes using titanium dioxide impregnated chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana, M Hasmath; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    The removal of three different dyes namely Reactive Red 2 (RR), Methylene Blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) using titanium dioxide impregnated chitosan beads (TCB) by photocatalytic method has been studied. The TCB was characterized by Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectral studies and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray (EDAX). The photocatalytic activity of TCB for the decolorization of the three dyes is much higher than that of bare titanium dioxide, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of TiO2 and chitosan. The chitosan adsorbs dye molecule which continuously supplies, dye molecule for degradation by TiO2 thereby preventing the electron-hole recombination. The photocatalytic experiment was carried out by varying different parameters such as irradiation time, dosage, pH, substrate concentration and co-ions. The kinetics of decolorization of dyes are explained on the basis of Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The mineralization of dyes has also been confirmed by COD measurements. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PULMONARY MELANOPHOROMA IN A BEADED LIZARD (HELODERMA HORRIDUM EXASPERATUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Sam; Crane, Maria M; McManamon, Rita; Gregory, Christopher R

    2015-06-01

    An adult male Rio Fuerte beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum exasperatum) was examined because of a history of anorexia and lethargy of one week duration. Diagnostic tests included a physical exam, complete blood cell count, plasma biochemistries, whole-body radiographs, and ultrasonography. The physical exam revealed the presence of a large mass in the midcoelomic cavity. Radiographs confirmed the presence of the midcoelomic mass and showed a smaller mass in the right cranial lung field. The ultrasonogram showed a homogeneous mass with soft tissue echogenicity. A fine-needle aspirate was collected, and the cytology results were suggestive of a melanophoroma. Exploratory surgery revealed a large mass (10×6 cm) within the right lung, with extensive adhesions to the caudolateral margin of the right liver lobe. The smaller mass (2×3 cm) was within the cranial aspect of the right lung. A right pulmonectomy and partial hepatectomy were performed to remove the tumors. The animal died 3.5-yr postsurgery, and histopathologic evaluation did not show evidence of melanophoroma in any of the tissues evaluated.

  13. Preparation of Silk Sericin/Lignin Blend Beads for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyo Won; Shin, Munju; Yun, Haesung; Lee, Ki Hoon

    2016-09-02

    In the present study, novel adsorbents having high adsorption capability and reusability were prepared using agricultural by-products: silk sericin and lignin. Silk sericin and lignin blend beads were successfully prepared using simple coagulation methods for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solution. A 1 M lithium chloride (LiCl)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system successfully dissolved both sericin and lignin and had sufficient viscosity for bead preparation. Compared to the conventional sericin bead adsorbent, sericin/lignin blend beads showed higher Cr(VI) adsorption capacity. The amount of lignin added to the adsorbent greatly affected the adsorption capacity of the beads, and a 50:50 sericin/lignin blend ratio was optimal. Adsorption behavior followed the Freundlich isotherm, which means the adsorption of Cr(VI) occurred on the heterogeneous surface. Cr(VI) adsorption capability increased with temperature because of thermodynamic-kinetic effects. In addition, over 90% of Cr(VI) ions were recovered from the Cr(VI) adsorbed sericin/lignin beads in a 1 M NaOH solution. The adsorption-desorption recycling process was stable for more than seven cycles, and the recycling efficiency was 82%. It is expected that the sericin/lignin beads could be successfully applied in wastewater remediation especially for hazardous Cr(VI) ions in industrial wastewater.

  14. Preparation of Silk Sericin/Lignin Blend Beads for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Won Kwak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, novel adsorbents having high adsorption capability and reusability were prepared using agricultural by-products: silk sericin and lignin. Silk sericin and lignin blend beads were successfully prepared using simple coagulation methods for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI from aqueous solution. A 1 M lithium chloride (LiCl/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO solvent system successfully dissolved both sericin and lignin and had sufficient viscosity for bead preparation. Compared to the conventional sericin bead adsorbent, sericin/lignin blend beads showed higher Cr(VI adsorption capacity. The amount of lignin added to the adsorbent greatly affected the adsorption capacity of the beads, and a 50:50 sericin/lignin blend ratio was optimal. Adsorption behavior followed the Freundlich isotherm, which means the adsorption of Cr(VI occurred on the heterogeneous surface. Cr(VI adsorption capability increased with temperature because of thermodynamic-kinetic effects. In addition, over 90% of Cr(VI ions were recovered from the Cr(VI adsorbed sericin/lignin beads in a 1 M NaOH solution. The adsorption-desorption recycling process was stable for more than seven cycles, and the recycling efficiency was 82%. It is expected that the sericin/lignin beads could be successfully applied in wastewater remediation especially for hazardous Cr(VI ions in industrial wastewater.

  15. Preparation of Silk Sericin/Lignin Blend Beads for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyo Won; Shin, Munju; Yun, Haesung; Lee, Ki Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel adsorbents having high adsorption capability and reusability were prepared using agricultural by-products: silk sericin and lignin. Silk sericin and lignin blend beads were successfully prepared using simple coagulation methods for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solution. A 1 M lithium chloride (LiCl)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system successfully dissolved both sericin and lignin and had sufficient viscosity for bead preparation. Compared to the conventional sericin bead adsorbent, sericin/lignin blend beads showed higher Cr(VI) adsorption capacity. The amount of lignin added to the adsorbent greatly affected the adsorption capacity of the beads, and a 50:50 sericin/lignin blend ratio was optimal. Adsorption behavior followed the Freundlich isotherm, which means the adsorption of Cr(VI) occurred on the heterogeneous surface. Cr(VI) adsorption capability increased with temperature because of thermodynamic-kinetic effects. In addition, over 90% of Cr(VI) ions were recovered from the Cr(VI) adsorbed sericin/lignin beads in a 1 M NaOH solution. The adsorption-desorption recycling process was stable for more than seven cycles, and the recycling efficiency was 82%. It is expected that the sericin/lignin beads could be successfully applied in wastewater remediation especially for hazardous Cr(VI) ions in industrial wastewater. PMID:27598142

  16. Trade creation and trade diversion in the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly A. Clausing

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the changes in trade patterns introduced by the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement are examined. Variation in the extent of tariff liberalization under the agreement is used to identify the impact of tariff liberalization on the growth of trade both with member countries and non-member countries. Data at the commodity level are used, and the results indicate that the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement had substantial trade creation effects, with little evidence of ...

  17. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths......, at the international level, industrial lobbyism was non-significant. Only the 'fossil fuel lobby' played a role. Third, at the national level, one could expect strong political opposition from industry lobbies in case quotas are actually to be distributed at firm level. But trade among countries may benefit industry......, the best 'second-best' solution is argued to be that of trade between governments....

  18. WORLD MERCHANDISE TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the most recent statistical data of the World Trade Organization and some aspects related to the evolution of world merchandise trade, in terms of volume and value, in 2015. The volume of world merchandise trade continued to grow slowly in 2015 while the dollar value of it declined sharply as exports fell 14 per cent to US$ 16 trillion, down from US$ 19 trillion in the previous year. It presents also the contribution of the volume change and of the change in unit values (which account for fluctuations in prices and exchange rates to the value trade growth (in current dollar terms. The discrepancy between trade growth in 2015 in terms of volume and value was mostly attributable to swings in commodity prices and exchange rates The course of economic globalization is also shortly looked on based on some data and considerations of Credit Suisse analysts. Three different scenarios were taken into account in this respect. First one in which globalization continues in the form we know it over the past thirty years, second one in which a multipolar world is a better representation of the state of affairs and third, a scenario in which globalization ends due to the rise of anti-globalization political movements. The second scenario seems to provide a better reflection of reality today, despite the fact that a certain slowdown is observable when taking into account the diminishing growth rate of physical trade, the slower penetration of foreign assets of the developed market companies and signs of reshoring of some business back home. Globalization remains intact in terms of consumption and marketing patterns, while companies seem more reluctant to invest abroad.

  19. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M.; Sanromán, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. ► New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. ► Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2–8). Around 98–100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87–98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  20. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain); Sanroman, M.A., E-mail: sanroman@uvigo.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2-8). Around 98-100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87-98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  1. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed [nl

  2. Metallic Bead Detection by Using Eddy-Current Probe with SV-GMR Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.; Chomsuwan, K.; Hagino, T.; Iwahara, M.; Tian, H.

    2005-01-01

    The progress of the ECT probe with micro magnetic sensor becomes possible to apply to various applications. The detection of micro metallic bead used for electric packaging has been reported in this paper. We proposed micro ECT probes with meander coil as exciter and spin-valve giant magneto-resistance (SV-GMR) as receiver. Micro metallic bead(solder ball) with the diameter of 0.25 to 0.76 mm is used as a measuring object. We discuss the detection and alignment of metallic bead by using ECT technique

  3. Statistical analysis of weld bead geometry in Ti6Al4V laser cladding. Comparison of central composite design and five step full factorial test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marko, Angelina [Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK, Berlin (Germany); Graf, Benjamin; Rethmeier, Michael [Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK, Berlin (Germany). Dept. for Joining and Coating Technology

    2017-11-01

    The process of laser cladding has become more important during recent years because of its broad application for cladding, repair or additive manufacturing. In the field of mechanical engineering, one use is the repair of turbine blades. For high quality and reliability of the repaired components, it is necessary to adjust the weld bead geometry to the specific repair task. The bead geometry influences the metallurgical bonding and the degree of dilution as well as the formation of defects like pores or cracks. Therefore, it is important to know the effects of the different parameters on the welding bead. A valuable tool to meet this industrial challenge is the design of experiments (DoE). In this context, the user can choose between a huge number of test plans. Greater profit of information is expected by a larger test range. In order to confirm the acceptance, a five-step full factorial test plan is compared to a central composite design in this paper. Moreover, the limits of the experimental range are indicated and restrictions can be derived. As the results show, the essential effects are detected with a full factorial test plan as well as with a central composite design. Merely the effect strength could not always be specified unambiguously. On this account and in consideration of cost efficiency, the use of central compound design is recommended in industrial applications.

  4. Pulsed laser manipulation of an optically trapped bead: Averaging thermal noise and measuring the pulsed force amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindballe, Thue Bjerring; Kristensen, Martin V. G.; Keiding, Søren Rud

    2013-01-01

    -bead interaction is repeated hundreds of times. Traces with the bead position following the prompt displacement from equilibrium, induced by each laser pulse, are averaged and reveal the underlying deterministic motion of the bead, which is not visible in a single trace due to thermal noise. The motion of the bead...... is analyzed from the direct time-dependent position measurements and from the power spectrum. The results show that the bead is on average displaced 208 nm from the trap center and exposed to a force amplitude of 71 nanoNewton, more than five orders of magnitude larger than the trapping forces. Our...

  5. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  6. QCM-nanomagnetic beads biosensor for lead ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingli; Cui, Haixia; Xiong, Xingliang; Chen, Jun; Wang, Ying; Shen, Jia; Luo, Yiting; Chen, Longcong

    2018-01-15

    As lead poses a serious threat to humans even in small amounts, all kinds of lead detection sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity are being constantly improved and put forward. In this report, a novel, simple and label-free quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor is proposed for detecting lead ions (Pb 2+ ). The biosensor takes full advantage of the high specificity of GR-5 DNAzyme to Pb 2+ and the high sensitivity of QCM. In particular, nanomagnetic beads (NMBs) are used as a novel and effective mean of signal amplification in the biosensor because of their mass and their ability to enhance the inductive effect, which are very beneficial for both higher sensitivity and a lower detection limit. In practice, GR-5 DNAzyme, innovatively combined with NMBs, was modified on the gold electrode of the QCM through gold-sulfur self-assembly. When the electrode was exposed to Pb 2+ solution, DNAzyme was severed into two parts at the RNA site (rA), along with the release of NMBs, which caused a great increase in frequency shift of the QCM electrode. Finally, a perfect linear correlation between the logarithm of Pb 2+ concentration and the change in frequency was obtained from 1 pM to 50 nM, with a detection limit as low as 0.3 pM. Moreover, the biosensor shows both an average recovery of 97 ± 6% in a drinking water sample and an excellent specificity for Pb 2+ compared with other metal ions.

  7. Nonintrusive irradiated fuel inventory confirmation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdy, E.J.; Nicholson, N.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Successful tests showing correlation between the intensity of the Cerenkov glow surrounding irradiated fuel assemblies in water-filled spent fuel storage ponds and the exposure and cooling times of assemblies have been concluded. Fieldable instruments used in subsequent tests confirmed that such measurements can be made easily and rapidly, without fuel assembly movement or the introduction of apparatus into the storage ponds.

  8. Intra-industry trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntra-industry trade arises if a country simultaneously imports and exports similar types of goods or services. Similarity is identified here by the goods or services being classified in the same “sector”. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that we focus on the sector “cars”.

  9. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based on S...

  10. The Politics of Trade

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chapter Eleven The Other Side of the Equation: How Policy Influences Research in the Trade Policy Domain ...... designing the terms of reference in ways that will yield supportive results, 'advertising' favourable results while 'burying' unfavourable ones, or reviewing the research with suggestions tilted toward influencing ...

  11. Trade-Secret Dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    A Michigan court has ruled that a Wayne State University (Michigan) chemistry professor appropriated a trade secret from a Massachusetts chemist for whom he was consulting and incorporated it into his own patent application, violating a written agreement. The university contends its pursuit of the patent was not improper. (MSE)

  12. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    Aryanization is associated with Nazi Germany's policies to exclude Jews in the Germany from the economy in the pre-war years, but I will show it was a global policy from 1937. The utopian goal of international Aryanization was the total removal of Jews who traded with Germany anywhere in the world...

  13. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  14. Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  15. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  16. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  17. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  18. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  19. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...

  20. Trading health for money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Møller, Jeppe Lykke; Persson, Roger

    2017-01-01

    subjectivity. The analysis draws on interviews with 32 Danish construction workers as well as brief observations. The article shows how ‘trading health for money’ becomes a mode for maintaining positive social, occupational and masculine identity among construction workers. Furthermore, it shows how the agency...

  1. Carbon trading: Literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-01-01

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. At the request of Duisenberg school of finance, this report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on ‘carbon trading’, amongst others addressing

  2. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  3. Transparency for international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  4. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopia Commodity Exchange [ECX] is an organized market place that brings buyers and sellers to trade standardized contracts using its floor based trading system. The fundamental factors to establish successful commodity exchange includes having an efficient and robust trading platform. The focus of this research ...

  5. Ultrasonography for confirmation of gastric tube placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiraku; Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Nakata, Yukihiko; Akazawa, Mai; Kataoka, Yuki

    2017-04-17

    Gastric tubes are commonly used for the administration of drugs and tube feeding for people who are unable to swallow. Feeding via a tube misplaced in the trachea can result in severe pneumonia. Therefore, the confirmation of tube placement in the stomach after tube insertion is important. Recent studies have reported that ultrasonography provides good diagnostic accuracy estimates in the confirmation of appropriate tube placement. Hence, ultrasound could provide a promising alternative to X-rays in the confirmation of tube placement, especially in settings where X-ray facilities are unavailable or difficult to access. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for gastric tube placement confirmation. We searched the Cochrane Library (2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (to March 2016), Embase (to March 2016), National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) PROSPERO Register (to May 2016), Aggressive Research Intelligence Facility Databases (to May 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (to May 2016), ISRCTN registry (May 2016), World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to May 2016) and reference lists of articles, and contacted study authors. We included studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of naso- and orogastric tube placement confirmed by ultrasound visualization using X-ray visualization as the reference standard. We included cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies. We excluded case series or case reports. Studies were excluded if X-ray visualization was not the reference standard or if the tube being placed was a gastrostomy or enteric tube. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from each of the included studies. We contacted authors of the included studies to obtain missing data. We identified 10 studies (545 participants and 560 tube insertions) which met our inclusion criteria.No study was assigned low risk of bias or low concern in every QUADAS-2 domain. We judged only three (30

  6. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by barium ion cross-linked alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzaşçı Sesil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Barium ion cross-linked alginate beads have shown great affinity to toxic hexavalent chromium ions in aqueous solution, contrary to the traditional calcium alginate beads. The adsorption experiments were carried out by the batch contact method. The optimal pH for removal was found to be pH 4. The equilibrium was established in 4 h and the removal efficiency of chromium (VI was found as 95%. The adsorption data fit well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum chromium (VI adsorption capacity determined from Langmuir isotherm was 36.5 mg/g dry alginate beads. Our study suggests that barium alginate beads can be used as cost-effective and efficient adsorbents for the removal of chromium (VI from contaminated waters.

  7. Glass bead cultivation of fungi: combining the best of liquid and agar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

    2013-09-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier than from agar plates and the quality was superior. The system allows simple control of nutrient availability throughout fungal cultivation. This combined with the ease of extraction of nucleic acids and metabolites makes the system highly suitable for the study of gene regulation in response to specific nutrient factors. © 2013.

  8. Immobilization of catalase on chitosan and amino acid- modified chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, Esra; Aydemir, Tülin

    2013-08-01

    Bovine liver catalase was covalently immobilized onto amino acid-modified chitosan beads. The beads were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA and the effects of immobilization on optimum pH and temperature, thermostability, reusability were evaluated. Immobilized catalase showed the maximal enzyme activity at pH 7.0 at 30°C. The kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, for immobilized catalase on alanine-chitosan beads and lysine-chitosan beads were estimated to be 25.67 mM, 27 mM and 201.39 μmol H2O2/min, 197.50 μmol H2O2/min, respectively. The activity of the immobilized catalase on Ala-CB and Lys-CB retained 40% of its high initial activity after 100 times of reuse.

  9. Investigation the influence of dietary fiber on the rheological properties of alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Manev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During the current investigation experiments for the preparation of alginate beads with aqueous solutions of sodium alginate, calcium lactate or calcium dichloride and dietary fiber in different concentrations: inulin with varying degrees of polymerization, wheat bran and amidated apple pectin were carried out. The sodium alginate solutions were at constant concentration 3%, while calcium salts in 7% were applied for bead formation. It was proven that the rupture force of alginate beads was always higher than the pure model system regardless of the chemical structure of dietary fibers used. In the result of the carried research the dependence at a certain concentration was established at which the rupture force and deformation of the beads increased gradually.

  10. Preparations of bifunctional polymeric beads simultaneously incorporated with fluorescent quantum dots and magnetic nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Chifeng; Yang Yunhua; Gao Mingyuan

    2008-01-01

    Bifunctional polystyrene beads simultaneously incorporated with fluorescent CdTe quantum dots (Q-dots) and superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals were prepared by a modified mini-emulsion polymerization method, in which polymerizable surfactants were used as both phase transfer agent for aqueous colloidal nanoparticles and emulsifier. In addition, silica coating was also introduced to Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals for regulating the internal structure of the composite beads. Transmission electron microscopy, confocal fluorescence microscopy and conventional spectroscopy were used to characterize the composite beads, as well as the polymerizable surfactant-coated CdTe Q-dots and silica-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Different mixing methods were also attempted in order to vary the size of the resultant bifunctional beads

  11. CUTANEOUS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A PANTHER CHAMELEON (FURCIFER PARDALIS) AND TREATMENT WITH CARBOPLATIN IMPLANTABLE BEADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James G; Naples, Lisa M; Chu, Caroline; Kinsel, Michael J; Flower, Jennifer E; Van Bonn, William G

    2016-09-01

    A 3-yr-old male panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) presented with bilateral raised crusted skin lesions along the lateral body wall that were found to be carcinoma in situ and squamous cell carcinoma. Similar lesions later developed on the caudal body wall and tail. A subcutaneous implantable carboplatin bead was placed in the first squamous cell carcinoma lesion identified. Additional new lesions sampled were also found to be squamous cell carcinomas, and viral polymerase chain reaction was negative for papillomaviruses and herpesviruses. Significant skin loss would have resulted from excision of all the lesions, so treatment with only carboplatin beads was used. No adverse effects were observed. Lesions not excised that were treated with beads decreased in size. This is the first description of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and treatment with carboplatin implantable beads in a panther chameleon.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads for removal of uranium from aquatic stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Manisha, V.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Sawant, Manjiri; Kamane, Suman

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the feasibility of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads (Cal-Alg-Chi) to sorb the excess uranium from the aquatic stream. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked D glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). The optimal composition of calcium alginate chitosan beads is 4 % (wt/vol) alginate gel having 5% loading of chitosan. The nature and morphology of pure and uranium sorbed calcium alginate chitosan beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATRFTIR). The results of batch sorption experiments suggest that Cal-Alg-Chi beads are very effective for removal of uranium in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 and sorption is more than 80 % in the concentration range of 1-100 mgL -1

  13. Asynchronous Magnetic Bead Rotation (AMBR Microviscometer for Label-Free DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzi Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a label-free viscosity-based DNA detection system, using paramagnetic beads as an asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR microviscometer. We have demonstrated experimentally that the bead rotation period is linearly proportional to the viscosity of a DNA solution surrounding the paramagnetic bead, as expected theoretically. Simple optical measurement of asynchronous microbead motion determines solution viscosity precisely in microscale volumes, thus allowing an estimate of DNA concentration or average fragment length. The response of the AMBR microviscometer yields reproducible measurement of DNA solutions, enzymatic digestion reactions, and PCR systems at template concentrations across a 5000-fold range. The results demonstrate the feasibility of viscosity-based DNA detection using AMBR in microscale aqueous volumes.

  14. [DNA extraction from decomposed tissue by double-digest and magnetic beads methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dian; Liu, Chao; Liu, Hong

    2011-12-01

    To study the effect of the double-digest and magnetic beads method for DNA extraction from 3 types of decomposed tissues. DNA of cartilages, nails and joint capsule in 91 highly decomposed corpses which had not been extracted by common magnetic beads method, were prepared with the double-digest and magnetic beads methods, and quantified with Quantifiler kit, followed by amplification with Sinofiler kit or Minifiler kit. DNA concentration extracted from the 91 highly decomposed cartilages, nails and joint capsule samples was 0-0.225 ng/microL. Sixty-two samples whose DNA concentration were more than 0.020 ng/microL had obtained 9 or more STR loci successfully. The detection rate was 68.13%. The successful rate of STR genotyping for the 3 types of decomposed tissues can be significantly improved by the double-digest and magnetic beads methods.

  15. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads{sup ®} Using Vibration and a Sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Akinaga, E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp; Nitta, Norihisa [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamamoto, Takefumi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Central Research Laboratory (Japan); Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeWe investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads{sup ®}) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization.MethodAfter separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope.ResultsSpectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar.DiscussionThe use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  16. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads®Using Vibration and a Sieve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Takefumi; Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads ® ) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization. After separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope. Spectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar. The use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  17. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  18. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  19. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo [Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taek Seung, E-mail: tslee@cnu.ac.kr [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive {sup 60}Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  20. Immobilization of Lipase from Candida rugosa on Chitosan Beads for Transesterification Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nasratun; H. A. Said; A. Noraziah; A. N.A. Alla

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Further study is recommended to improve the immobilization technique and the immobilized lipases performance as catalysis in transesterification reaction. Approach: To investigate the ability of immobilized lipase on chitosan beads to catalyze the transesterification of cooking oil to an ester. The porous bead of chitosan was used for immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa by physical adsorption. Parameters like reaction time and oil to methanol molar ratios were stud...

  1. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lee, Taek Seung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive 60 Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  2. Biosorption of nonylphenol on dead biomass of Rhizopus arrhizus encapsulated in chitosan beads

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Weeranuch; Dejma, Chomawan; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Sakairi, Nobuo

    2009-01-01

    The nonylphenol (NP) biosorption and desorption potential for fungal biomass used under batch conditions was investigated using kinetics and isotherm models. Fungal biomass of Rhizopus arrhizus TISTR 3610 exhibited preferential uptake of NP, an endocrine disrupting chemicals. Sporangiospores, asexual spores, were immobilisation in chitosan beads. The biosorption data of NP on the moist heat inactivated R. arrhizus-chitosan beads were analyzed using four popular adsorption isotherms and, by us...

  3. Fenugreek seed mucilage-alginate mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl: Design, optimization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pradhan, Jyotiprakash; Hasnain, M Saquib

    2013-03-01

    The work investigates the development and optimization of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed mucilage (FSM)-alginate mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through ionotropic gelation using 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate to FSM) and cross-linker (CaCl(2)) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10h (R(10h), %) was optimized. The DEE (%) of all these beads was within the range of 71.63 ± 2.32 to 95.08 ± 3.73% with sustained in vitro drug release of 69.78 ± 2.43% to 95.70 ± 4.26% over 10h. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern (R(2)=0.9910 to 0.9953) with super case-II transport mechanism. The average size of these beads was within the range of 0.92 ± 0.05 to 1.30 ± 0.14 mm. The beads were also characterized by SEM, FTIR and (1)H NMR. The swelling and degradation of FSM-alginate beads containing metformin HCl were influenced by pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity in wash-off test. The optimized FSM-alginate mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl showed significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hematology, blood chemistry, and bacteriology of the free-ranging Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Avilés, David; Salomón-Soto, Víctor Manuel; Morales-Martínez, Socorro

    2008-03-01

    Blood samples from 16 adult, wild Mexican beaded lizards were obtained for complete blood count and serum biochemical analysis. In addition, both oral and cloacal swab samples were collected and submitted for bacteriologic culture. This is the first report of hematologic and bacterial data from free-living beaded lizards. This information will serve as baseline reference values for future health assessment studies in conservation, captive breeding, and research programs.

  5. Comparative Study on Bacteria Colonization onto Ceramic Beads Originated from Two Devonian Clay Deposits in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Muter, O; Potapova, K; Nikolajeva, V; Petrina, Z; Griba, T; Patmalnieks, A; Švinka, R; Švinka, V

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic carriers for immobilization of microorganisms are widely used in wastewater treatment, air biofiltration technologies, etc. The aim of this study was to compare seven different types of ceramic beads fabricated from two types of Devonian clay, in terms of their appropriateness for bacteria cell attachment and further use for soil/air cleaning technologies. The effect of different ceramic beads on the microbial growth and biofilm formation was studied for pure c...

  6. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses empirically with trade-related measures of corruption. It finds that in general, corruption is detrimental to international trade. However, bribe paying may be beneficial in countries with very long...

  7. PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.T. Raczka

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring

  8. Heat Flux Inhibition by Whistlers: Experimental Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Heat flux in weakly magnetized collisionless plasma is, according to theoretical predictions, limited by whistler turbulence that is generated by heat flux instabilities near threshold. Observations of solar wind electrons by Gary and coworkers appear to confirm the limit on heat flux as being roughly the product of the magnetic energy density and the electron thermal velocity, in agreement with prediction (Pistinner and Eichler 1998)

  9. Capture, isolation and release of cancer cells with aptamer-functionalized glass bead array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuan; Liu, Yaling; Allen, Peter B; Asghar, Waseem; Mahmood, M Arif Iftakher; Tan, Jifu; Duhon, Holli; Kim, Young-tae; Ellington, Andrew D; Iqbal, Samir M

    2012-11-21

    Early detection and isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTC) can enable better prognosis for cancer patients. A Hele-Shaw device with aptamer functionalized glass beads is designed, modeled, and fabricated to efficiently isolate cancer cells from a cellular mixture. The glass beads are functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) aptamer and sit in ordered array of pits in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. A PDMS encapsulation is then used to cover the channel and to flow through cell solution. The beads capture cancer cells from flowing solution depicting high selectivity. The cell-bound glass beads are then re-suspended from the device surface followed by the release of 92% cells from glass beads using combination of soft shaking and anti-sense RNA. This approach ensures that the cells remain in native state and undisturbed during capture, isolation and elution for post-analysis. The use of highly selective anti-EGFR aptamer with the glass beads in an array and subsequent release of cells with antisense molecules provide multiple levels of binding and release opportunities that can help in defining new classes of CTC enumeration devices.

  10. Use of micrometric latex beads to improve the porosity of hydroxyapatite obtained by chemical coprecipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webler, G. D.; Rodrigues, W. C.; Silva, A. E. S.; Silva, A. O. S.; Fonseca, E. J. S.; Degenhardt, M. F. S.; Oliveira, C. L. P.; Otubo, L.; Barros Filho, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite is one of the most important biomaterials whose application mainly extends to implants and drug delivery. This work will discuss the changes in the pore size distribution of hydroxyapatite when there are latex beads present during the synthesis. These changes were monitored using different techniques: small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetrical analysis, N2 adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Latex beads and hydroxyapatite form a single nanocomposite with well-distinguished inorganic and organic phases. Latex bead removal in the temperature range of 300-600 °C did not modify the original crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite. However, the latex beads favored an increase in the adsorption capacity of mesopores at temperatures higher than their glassy transition (Tg). The main result of this research work consists on the increase of surface area and pore size distribution obtained after the removal of latex beads template. Latex beads have been used in a different approach changing the porosity of hydroxyapatite scaffolds not only introducing new routes for cell integration but also broadening the pore size distribution which can result in a more high efficiency for drug release in living cells.

  11. Tamarind seed polysaccharide-gellan mucoadhesive beads for controlled release of metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-03-15

    The paper describes the development, optimization and evaluation of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-blended gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through Ca(2+)-ion cross-linked ionic gelation for oral drug delivery. Effects of GG to TSP ratio and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10h (R10h, %) of TSP-GG mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were optimized by 32 factorial design. The optimized mucoadhesive beads (F-O) showed DEE of 95.73 ± 4.02%, R10h of 61.22 ± 3.44% and mean diameter of 1.70 ± 0.24 mm.These beads were characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The in vitro drug release from these beads showed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern over a period of 10h.The optimized TSP-GG mucoadhesive beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with biological mucosal membrane and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid Detection of Enterobacter Sakazakii in milk Powder using amino modified chitosan immunomagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinglian; Wang, Dongfeng

    2016-12-01

    Chitosan immunomagnetic beads (CIBs) were first prepared through converting hydroxyl groups of natural polymer material-chitosan into amino groups using epichlorohydrin and ethylenediamine as modification agent and then coupling with polyclonal antibodies of Enterobacter sakazakii using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. The beads before coupling with antibodies were characterized by magnetic property measurement, FTIR, SEM and XRD technologies. In the assay a natural polysaccharide-chitosan, which has good biological and chemical properties such as non-toxicity, biocompatibility and high chemical reactivity was first used for synthesis of immunomagnetic beads. The detection method first established in this paper that combined the beads with chromogenic medium together to rapid detect E. sakazakii in milk powder could greatly improve the detection specificity and working efficiency. The beads exhibited a maximum capturing capacity of 1×10 6 cfu/g with the detection sensitivity of 4cfu/g. The results demonstrate that the assay is a straightforward, specific and sensitive alternative for rapid detection of E.sakazakii in food matrix. The total analysis time was as little as about 25h, which greatly shorten the detection time. The method can provides new ideas not only to preparation technique of immunomagnetic beads but to imunne detection technique in food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Calcium pectinate-fenugreek seed mucilage mucoadhesive beads for controlled delivery of metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Das, Sabinesh

    2013-07-01

    Calcium pectinate-fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl was developed through ionic-gelation. Effects of pectin and FSM amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10 h) were optimized using 3(2) factorial design. The DEE (%) was within the range of 63.16 ± 2.88 to 96.03 ± 4.67% (w/w). The in vitro drug release from these beads (56.64 ± 1.47 to 93.63 ± 4.52% over 10h) was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern (R(2)=0.993 to 0.997) with super case-II transport mechanism. The average size of beads was within 1.47 ± 0.14 to 2.08 ± 0.18 mm. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and mucoadhesivity of these beads were influenced by pH of the medium. The optimized beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utility of expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads in the control of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnaname, N; Amalraj, D Dominic; Mariappan, T

    2005-10-01

    The use of chemicals or bio-larvicides for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi breeding in pit latrines and overhead tanks (OHT) respectively is discouraged owing to many undesirable impacts in the environment. Due to faecal contamination and poor survival, use of predatory fish in OHTs is not feasible. The use of expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads is a potential alternative in these habitats. EPS beads not only prevent oviposition but also kill the immature by forming a thick blanket on the water surface. A thick layer of 2 cm with beads of 2 mm is sufficient to suppress and prevent mosquito breeding. These are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need frequent application since they remain on the surface for quiet a long time. Successful trials against C. quinquefasciatus breeding in pit latrines, soakage pits, septic tanks, etc., have been carried out in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Tanzania. Certain trials with EPS indicated reduction in microfilaria (mf) rate besides decline in biting density. In India, EPS beads have also been used on small scale for the control of A. stephensi and A. culicifacies breeding in OHTs and unused wells respectively. The polystyrene beads have also been reported to be effective in the control of mosquito breeding in biogas plants and other industrial situations. The practical utility of EPS beads in the control of vector-borne diseases has been discussed in the present review.

  15. Nanohole 3D-size tailoring through polystyrene bead combustion during thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaofeng; Kamiya, Itaru

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach is presented for nanohole 3D-size tailoring. The process starts with a monolayer of polystyrene (PS) beads spun coat on silicon wafer as a template. The holes can be directly prepared through combustion of PS beads by oxygen plasma during metal or oxide thin film deposition. The incoming particles are prevented from adhering on PS beads by H 2 O and CO 2 generated from the combustion of the PS beads. The hole depth generally depends on the film thickness. The hole diameter can be tailored by the PS bead size, film deposition rate, and also the combustion speed of the PS beads. In this work, a series of holes with depth of 4-24 nm and diameter of 10-36 nm has been successfully prepared. The hole wall materials can be selected from metals such as Au or Pt and oxides such as SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 . These templates could be suitable for the preparation and characterization of novel nanodevices based on single quantum dots or single molecules, and could be extended to the studies of a wide range of coating materials and substrates with controlled hole depth and diameters.

  16. Adsorption of ochratoxin A from grape juice by yeast cells immobilised in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbo, Maria Grazia; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Fiori, Stefano; Marceddu, Salvatore; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2016-01-18

    Grape juice can be easily contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health significance. Among the different approaches to decontaminate juice from this mycotoxin, microbiological methods proved efficient, inexpensive and safe, particularly the use of yeast or yeast products. To ascertain whether immobilisation of the yeast biomass would lead to successful decontamination, alginate beads encapsulating Candida intermedia yeast cells were used in our experiments to evaluate their OTA-biosorption efficacy. Magnetic calcium alginate beads were also prepared by adding magnetite in the formulation to allow fast removal from the aqueous solution with a magnet. Calcium alginate beads were added to commercial grape juice spiked with 20 μg/kg OTA and after 48 h of incubation a significant reduction (>80%), of the total OTA content was achieved, while in the subsequent phases (72-120 h) OTA was slowly released into the grape juice by alginate beads. Biosorption properties of alginate-yeast beads were tested in a prototype bioreactor consisting in a glass chromatography column packed with beads, where juice amended with OTA was slowly flowed downstream. The adoption of an interconnected scaled-up bioreactor as an efficient and safe tool to remove traces of OTA from liquid matrices is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preservation of viability and antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachkova, Mariya I; Duarte, Maria A; Pinto, João F

    2010-12-23

    The objective of the study was to produce calcium alginate beads able to deliver Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus lactis) with preserved viability and antibacterial activity. Four types of beads, containing entrapped (E), surface and entrapped (ES), surface (S) and concentrated surface and entrapped lactobacilli (C(ES)) were prepared and physically characterized. The antibacterial activity of lactobacilli cultures before and after immobilization, freeze-drying and throughout storage was studied in relationship to the viable number of lactobacilli. Multi-resistant clinical isolates (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycine-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, VIM-2-metalo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and CTX-M-15-β-lactamase producing strains: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were used as indicator strains. Alginate beads in which lactobacilli proliferated to the beads surface (ES and C(ES)) differed significantly from the other types of beads in their physicochemical properties, showing smoother surface morphology, more spherical shape, bigger weight, lower calcium content, density and crushing force. Lactobacilli cultures, at high cell concentrations (10(8)cfu/ml) were active against both Gram-positive and negative multi-resistant bacteria. Beads containing both entrapped and surface lactobacilli (ES) resulted in viability and antibacterial activity most similar to non-processed lactobacilli cultures. The viability and antibacterial activity of the immobilized lactobacilli remained stable after 6 months storage. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Concentration and separation of trace metals from seawater using a single anion exchange bead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, M.; Lee, D.S.; Stallard, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the quantitative adsorption of trace metals onto a single anion exchange bead. The application to the assay of trace metals in seawater was explored with the following radionuclides: 109 Cd, 103 Pd, 192 Ir, 195 Au, 237 Pu, and /sup 99m/Tc. The major ions, Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , and Ca 2+ exist primarily as positively charged species in seawater under nearly all conditions and did not interfere in the adsorption of anionic forms of trace metals onto the single bead. Three types of applications of the technique were investigated: (A) determination of metals in seawater by the direct adsorption onto a single bead without prior concentration, with or without a subsequent desorption from the bead (e.g., Cd, Zn); (B) determination of metals in seawater by the adsorption onto a single bead after a preconcentration step from several liters of seawater (e.g., Pd, Au, Ir), and (C) increasing the yield of Pu and Tc onto a single bead for improved sensitivity in mass spectrometric analyses

  19. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-02-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation.

  20. "Nanofiltration" Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2016-02-15

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation.

  1. Optimization of Enzyme Co-Immobilization with Sodium Alginate and Glutaraldehyde-Activated Chitosan Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Sinem Diken; İdil, Neslihan; Aksöz, Nilüfer

    2018-02-01

    In this study, two different materials-alginate and glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads-were used for the co-immobilization of α-amylase, protease, and pectinase. Firstly, optimization of multienzyme immobilization with Na alginate beads was carried out. Optimum Na alginate and CaCl 2 concentration were found to be 2.5% and 0.1 M, respectively, and optimal enzyme loading ratio was determined as 2:1:0.02 for pectinase, protease, and α-amylase, respectively. Next, the immobilization of multiple enzymes on glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads was optimized (3% chitosan concentration, 0.25% glutaraldehyde with 3 h of activation and 3 h of coupling time). While co-immobilization was successfully performed with both materials, the specific activities of enzymes were found to be higher for the enzymes co-immobilized with glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads. In this process, glutaraldehyde was acting as a spacer arm. SEM and FTIR were used for the characterization of activated chitosan beads. Moreover, pectinase and α-amylase enzymes immobilized with chitosan beads were also found to have higher activity than their free forms. Three different enzymes were co-immobilized with these two materials for the first time in this study.

  2. Gellan Gum/Pectin Beads Are Safe and Efficient for the Targeted Colonic Delivery of Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Garavello Prezotti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the establishment and characterization of gellan gum:pectin (GG:P biodegradable mucoadhesive beads intended for the colon-targeted delivery of resveratrol (RES. The impact of the polymer carrier system on the cytotoxicity and permeability of RES was evaluated. Beads of circular shape (circularity index of 0.81 with an average diameter of 914 μm, Span index of 0.29, and RES entrapment efficiency of 76% were developed. In vitro drug release demonstrated that beads were able to reduce release rates in gastric media and control release for up to 48 h at an intestinal pH of 6.8. Weibull’s model correlated better with release data and b parameter (0.79 indicated that the release process was driven by a combination of Fickian diffusion and Case II transport, indicating that both diffusion and swelling/polymer chains relaxation are processes that contribute equally to control drug release rates. Beads and isolated polymers were observed to be safe for Caco-2 and HT29-MTX intestinal cell lines. RES encapsulation into the beads allowed for an expressive reduction of drug permeation in an in vitro triple intestinal model. This feature, associated with low RES release rates in acidic media, can favor targeted drug delivery from the beads in the colon, a promising behavior to improve the local activity of RES.

  3. Development of bead-type radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeter applicable to various purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, F.; Toyota, Y.; Maki, D.; Zushi, N.; Kato, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Iida, T.

    2013-01-01

    Bead-type radiophotoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters were well fabricated with a gas-particle jet flame system for glass melting-cooling process. A rod of silver-activated phosphate glass was pulverized into micrometer-size particles. Spherical glass particles were formed from the pulverized glass particles in the high-temperature jet flame owing to the surface tension of the glass material. Some groups of spherical glass particles were irradiated with X-rays and their RPL was demonstrably observed for their exposure to UV light. A flexible RPL glass sheet was also made of bead-type RPL glass dosimeters and was useful for radiation imaging. Bead-type RPL glass dosimeters are expected to be used for dose monitoring in highly radioactively-contaminated area. -- Highlights: ► We developed bead-type radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeters. ► Bead-type glass RPL dosimeters are satisfactorily used as radiation dosimeters. ► A flexible RPL glass sheet is made of bead-type RPL glass dosimeters

  4. Life History Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Kliman, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs play a central role in life history theory. This article explains why they exist, how they arise, how they can be measured, and briefly discusses their evolution. Three important trade-offs are discussed in detail: the trade-off between current reproduction and survival, between current

  5. Magnetic Bead Based Immunoassay for Autonomous Detection of Toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Y; Hara, C A; Knize, M G; Hwang, M H; Venkatesteswaran, K S; Wheeler, E K; Bell, P M; Renzi, R F; Fruetel, J A; Bailey, C G

    2008-05-01

    As a step towards toward the development of a rapid, reliable analyzer for bioagents in the environment, we are developing an automated system for the simultaneous detection of a group of select agents and toxins. To detect toxins, we modified and automated an antibody-based approach previously developed for manual medical diagnostics that uses fluorescent eTag{trademark} reporter molecules and is suitable for highly multiplexed assays. Detection is based on two antibodies binding simultaneously to a single antigen, one of which is labeled with biotin while the other is conjugated to a fluorescent eTag{trademark} through a cleavable linkage. Aqueous samples are incubated with the mixture of antibodies along with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads coupled to a photo-activatable porphyrin complex. In the presence of antigen, a molecular complex is formed where the cleavable linkage is held in proximity to the photoactivable group. Upon excitation at 680 nm, free radicals are generated, which diffuse and cleave the linkage, releasing the eTags{trademark}. Released eTags{trademark} are analyzed using capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Limits of detection for ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid individually were 4 ng/mL (or 80 pg) and 16 ng/mL (or 320 pg), respectively, using the manual assay. In addition, we demonstrated the use of pairs of antibodies from different sources in a single assay to decrease the rate of false positives. Automation of the assay was demonstrated on a flow-through format with higher LODs of 125 ng/mL (or 2.5 ng) each of a mixture of ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid. This versatile assay can be easily modified with the appropriate antibodies to detect a wide range of toxins and other proteins.

  6. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model......’ has spread far beyond the Anglo-Saxon countries and is now commonplace for unions as a way to reach new worker constituencies. Thus, even in ‘institutionally secure’ countries like Germany and the Nordic countries, unions are employing organising strategies while at the same time trying to defend...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...

  7. Worlds Apart Trading Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    This study sets out to replace the out-dated notion of ‘Indo-Roman trade’ with a more informed perspective integrating the new findings of the last 30 years.In order to accomplish this, a perspective focusing on concrete demand from the ground up is adopted, also shedding light on the role...... of the market in long-distance exchange. Accordingly, the analysis conducted demonstrates that an economically highly substantial trade took place between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean in the 1st–6th century CE, altering patterns of consumption and modes of production in India andSouth Arabia as well...... as the Roman Empire.Significantly, it can be documented that this trade was organised at the centres of demand and supply, in Rome and India, respectively, by comparable urban associations, the transport in-between being handled by equally well-organised groups of seagoing merchants.Consequently, this study...

  8. Theoretical study of in-plane response of magnetic field sensor to magnetic beads in an in-plane homogeneous field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the average in-plane magnetic field on square and rectangular magnetic field sensors from a single magnetic bead and a monolayer of magnetic beads magnetized by an in-plane externally applied homogeneous magnetic field. General theoretical expressions...... are derived such that the sensor response and its dependence on the sensor size, spacer layer thickness, bead diameter, and bead susceptibility can easily be evaluated. The average magnetic field from a single bead close to the sensor shows a strong dependence on the position of the bead and a change of sign...... when the bead passes the edge of the sensor in the direction of the applied field. Analytical approximations are derived for the average field from a homogeneous monolayer of beads for beads much smaller than the sensor dimension and for a bead size chosen to minimize the position sensitivity...

  9. Globalization and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Yirmibeşoğlu, Gözde

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has been a significant debate issue inthe academic research for the last decades. There is not a consensus on theinitiation of globalization. Although there are many aspects of globalizationsuch as economic, social, political and cultural features, this paper focusesmostly on its economic aspect. Globalization broke down commercial bordersbetween countries and destroyed barriers against trade among countries. As aresult, business performing in the international arena were forced...

  10. Trading as Entertainment?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Dorn; Paul Sengmueller

    2009-01-01

    Among 1,000 German brokerage clients for whom both survey responses and actual trading records are available, investors who report enjoying investing or gambling turn over their portfolio at twice the rate of their peers. Including entertainment attributes as additional explanatory variables in cross-sectional regressions of portfolio turnover on objective investor attributes more than doubles the fraction of the total variation of portfolio turnover that can be explained. The results are rob...

  11. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Spielmann, Christian; Busse, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  12. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  13. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, Luis Guillermo

    1998-01-01

    The international trade conventional theory not only continues being supported upon the classic principle of comparative advantage, but also, in response to the rationality inherent to the traditional economic system, al so neglects considering the biophysical conditions under which transable goods are produced. The linkage of environment to trade is a recent concern, and it is explained on the basis that the first one has become a barrier for the second one. The environmental cause defenders, so as the free market advocates, are exposing their arguments in a context in which not necessarily to build viable solutions to the conflict is possible. The world economy behavior and tendencies do not offer the conditions needed so as that the official thesis in which the GATT - Rio - WTO thought can be summarized and the positive linkage towards the environmental quality, explicitly claimed by that thesis, becomes reality. Form these considerations, it is argument in this article in the direction of establishing a new international trade pattern and also some ideas are presented as to its characterization ecological economic view

  14. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  15. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  16. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  17. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  18. Does trade affect child health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth.

  19. The International Trade in Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Botescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the globalization of the world economy is the result of the amplification and diversification without precedent of the material, financial and human flows between the world’s states. The international commerce has known in the last period o strong expansion, almost uninterrupted, surpassing the industrial production growth and PIB on a world scale. Among the PIB evolution and the evolution of the world commerce there is a strong relationship of correlation, fact shown by the linear correlation coefficient. The structure on exports of country categories confirms the fact that the process of globalization has been fully completed in the world. Romania, through its achieved economic opening, has boosted its participation to the international economic trades. In this way there is a chance for Romania’s economy in the future to become more competitive, even though in the present our country faces serious problems concerning the strong deficit of the foreign trade balance.

  20. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Calvo-Pardo; Caroline Freund; Emanuel Ornelas

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that prefe...

  1. Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.

  2. Troubleshooting Requests e-mail Confirmation

    CERN Document Server

    TS Department

    2004-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve quality of the repair requests, a new e-mail confirmation automatic system will be implemented starting from the 21st October. All repair requests transmitted to the TCR (72201) or the FM Helpdesk (77777) will be confirmed in an e-mail to the requestor, provided that the latter has a valid e-mail address in the HR database. The e-mail will contain a reference number, a brief description of the problem, the location and a contact where more information can be obtained. A second e-mail will be sent when the processing of the repair request is finished. We hope that this initiative will improve the transparency and quality of our service. Helpdesk Troubleshooting Requests (reminder) We remind you that all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN machine buildings have to be transmitted to the TCR via 72201, whereas the ones concerning tertiary buildings are handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equ...

  3. [Cutaneous gnathostomiasis, first confirmed case in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Leonardo F; Palacios, Diana M; López, Rocío; Baldión, Margarita; Matijasevic, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by some species of helminthes belonging to the genus Gnathostoma . It has a wide clinical presentation and its diagnosis is a challenge. Tropical and subtropical countries are endemic, and its transmission is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat from fresh water animals. Increasing global tourism and consuming exotic foods have produced a noticeable rise in cases of the disease in the last decades. However, in our country, there has not been any confirmed case of gnathostomiasis previously reported. We present the case of a 63-year-old Colombian man with an international travel history, who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. During the hospital stay, he developed a cutaneous lesion on the upper right abdominal quadrant, where later, a larva was found. A morphological study allowed us to identify it as Gnathostoma spinigerum . As such, this is the first report of an imported case of gnathostomiasis confirmed in Colombia. This article describes the principles, etiology, pathogenic cycle and treatment of this disease with special considerations to our patient´s particular features.

  4. Profiling post-centrifugation delay of serum and plasma with antibody bead arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qundos, Ulrika; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Tybring, Gunnel; Divers, Mark; Odeberg, Jacob; Uhlen, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2013-12-16

    Several biobanking initiatives have emerged to create extensive collections of specimen for biomedical studies and various analytical platforms. An affinity proteomic analysis with antibody suspension bead arrays was conducted to investigate the influence of the pre-analytical time and temperature conditions on blood derived samples. Serum and EDTA plasma prepared from 16 individuals was centrifuged and aliquots were kept either at 4°C or in ambient temperature for 1h and up to 36h prior to first storage. Multiplexed protein profiles of post-centrifugation delay were generated in 384 biotinylated samples using 373 antibodies that targeted 343 unique proteins. Very few profiles were observed as significantly altered by the studied temperature and time intervals. Single binder and sandwich assays revealed decreasing levels of caldesmon 1 (CALD1) related to EDTA standard tubes and prolonged post-centrifugation delay of 36h. Indications from changes in CALD1 levels require further confirmation in independent material, but the current data suggests that samples should preferentially be frozen during the day of collection when to be profiled with antibody arrays selected for this study. Affinity-based profiling of serum and plasma by microarray assays can provide unique opportunities for the discovery of biomarkers. It is though often not known how differences in sample handling after collection influence the downstream analysis. By profiling three types of blood preparations for alterations in protein profiles with respect to time and temperature post centrifugation, we addressed an important component in the analysis and of such specimen. We believe that this analysis adds valuable information to be considered when biobanking blood derived samples. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Standardization and Quality Control in Proteomics. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adsorption of Polyanion onto Large Alpha Alumina Beads with Variably Charged Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Duc Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of strong polyelectrolyte, poly(styrenesulfonate, PSS, of different molecular weights onto large α-Al2O3 beads was systematically investigated as functions of pH and NaCl concentrations. The ultraviolet (UV absorption spectra of PSS at different pH and salt concentrations confirmed that the structure of PSS is independent of pH. With the change of molecular weight from 70 kg/mol (PSS 70 to 1000 kg/mol (PSS 1000, adsorption amount of PSS increases and proton coadsorption on the surface of α-Al2O3 decreases at given pH and salt concentration. It suggests that higher molecular weight of PSS was less flat conformation than lower one. The adsorption density of PSS 70 and PSS 1000 decreases with decreasing salt concentrations, indicating that both electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions are involved. Experimental results of both PSS 70 and PSS 1000 adsorption isotherms onto α-Al2O3 at different pH and salt concentrations can be represented well by two-step adsorption model. The effects of molecular weight and salt concentration are explained by structure of adsorbed PSS onto α-Al2O3. The influence of added SDS on the isotherms is evaluated from the sequential adsorption. The SDS uptake onto α-Al2O3 in the presence of hemimicelles can prevent the adsorption of PSS at low concentration so that adsorption of PSS reduces with preadsorbed SDS.

  6. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and...

  7. Development of Expanded Thermoplastic Polyurethane Bead Foams and Their Sintering Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossieny, Nemat

    Polymer bead foaming technology represents a breakthrough in the production of low density plastic foamed components that have a complex geometrical structure and has helped to expand the market for plastic foams by broadening their applications. In this research, the unique microstructure of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) consisting of phase-separated hard segment (HS) domains dispersed in the soft segment (SS) matrix has been utilized to develop expanded TPU (E-TPU) bead foam with microcellular morphologies and also to create inter-bead sintering into three dimensional products using steam-chest molding machine. The phase-separation and crystallization behavior of the HS chains in the TPU microstructure was systematically studied in the presence of dissolved gases and also by changing the microstructure of TPU by melt-processing and addition of nano-/micro-sized additives. It was observed that the presence of gas improved the phase separation (i.e. crystallization) of HSs and increased the overall crystallinity of the TPU. It was also shown that by utilizing the HS crystalline domains, the overall foaming behavior of TPU (i.e. cell nucleation and expansion ratio) can be significantly improved. Moreover, the HS crystalline domains can be effective for both sintering of the beads as well strengthening the individual beads to improve the property of the moulded part. It was also observed that unlike other polymer bead foaming technologies, the E-TPU bead foaming sintering does not require formation of double melting-peak. The original broad melting peak existing in the TPU microstructure due to the wide size distribution of HS crystallites can be effectively utilized for the purpose of sintering as well as maintenance of the overall dimensional stability of the moulded part.

  8. Magnetic chitosan/clay beads: A magsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bée, Agnès, E-mail: agnes.bee@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France); Obeid, Layaly, E-mail: lghannoum@hotmail.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France); CertiNergy Solutions, 33 avenue du Maine, BP 195, 75755 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Mbolantenaina, Rakotomalala, E-mail: mbolantenaina@yahoo.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France); Welschbillig, Mathias, E-mail: welschbillig@certinergysolutions.com [CertiNergy Solutions, 33 avenue du Maine, BP 195, 75755 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Talbot, Delphine, E-mail: delphine.talbot@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2017-01-01

    A magnetic composite material composed of magnetic nanoparticles and clay encapsulated in cross-linked chitosan beads was prepared, characterized and used as a magsorbent for the removal of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. The magnetic properties of these beads represent an advantage to recover them at the end of the depollution process. The optimal weight ratio R=clay:chitosan for the removal of MB in a large range of pH was determined. For beads without clay, the maximal adsorption capacity of MB occurs in the pH range [9–12], while for beads with clay, the pH range extends by increasing the amount of clay to reach [3–12] for R>0.5. Adsorption isotherms show that the adsorption capacity of magnetic beads is equal to 82 mg/g. Moreover, the kinetics of dye adsorption is relatively fast since 50% of the dye is removed in the first 13 min for an initial MB concentration equal to 100 mg/L. The estimation of the number of adsorption sites at a given pH shows that the main driving force for adsorption of MB in a large range of pH is the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged dye and the permanent negative charges of clay. - Highlights: • A magsorbent based on magnetic nanoparticles and clay encapsulated in chitosan beads was prepared and characterized. • Clay played significant role for the removal of a cationic dye. • The magnetic beads exhibit a maximum adsorption capacity of 82 mg/g for methylene blue. • The pH range of the maximum adsorption extends from [9–12] to [3–12] by increasing the amount of clay. • The magsorbent could be magnetically removed from solution.

  9. Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural and Food Products Between Poland and EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łapinska Justyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the country-specific determinants of intra-industry trade between Poland and its European Union trading partners in agricultural and food products during the time period 2002-2011. An econometric model for panel data is applied for the analysis of the factors determining Polish bilateral intra-industry trade with European Union countries. The research leads to the formulation of a statement that the intensity of intra-industry trade in agricultural and food products is positively influenced by the intensity of trade with EU countries and the level of economic development of the member countries (as measured by the size of their GDP per capita. Increase in intra-trade turnover is also facilitated by EU membership and by the fact that Poland’s trade partners use similar Slavic-based languages. Relative differences in the size of the economies and relative differences in Poland’s and its trading partners’ levels of economic development have a negative impact. The degree of the imbalance of trade turnover between trading partners also negatively influences the intensity of intra-trade exchange. The research confirms that the impact of all of the identified factors determining intra-industry trade is consistent with the predictions of the theory.

  10. Pakistan Intra-industry Trade: A Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahbaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the determinants of intra-industry trade (IIT between Pakistan and trade patterns in the period 1980-2006, using a static and dynamic panel data approach. In the recent years, the government of Pakistan had realized factors to liberalize the international trade. The literature of international economics demonstrates that this condition (trade liberalization induces the IIT. The case study for Pakistan has been negligence in the economic literature. This study uses country-specific characteristics as explanatory variables. This study utilizes country-specific characteristics as explanatory variables. The empirical evidence indicates that IIT is a negative function of the difference in GDP per capita between Pakistan and her trading partners. Furthermore, econometric results point out that trading is influenced by the similar demand. We have also introduced an economic dimension; this proxy confirms the positive effects of IIT. Our findings reveal the importance of scales economies and the variety of differentiated products. The study supports to accept the hypothesis that trading increases if the transportation costs decrease.

  11. Reversible immobilization of laccase to poly(4-vinylpyridine) grafted and Cu(II) chelated magnetic beads: biodegradation of reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoğlu, Gülay; Yilmaz, Meltem; Arica, M Yakup

    2010-09-01

    Poly(4-vinyl pyridine), poly(VP), as a novel metal-chelating fibrous polymer was grafted on the magnetic beads. Poly(4-VP) grafted and/or Cu(II) ions chelated magnetic beads were used for reversible immobilization of Trametes versicolor laccase, and the amounts of immobilized laccase on the beads were determined as 36.8 and 56.4 mg/g beads, respectively. The adsorption of laccase on both modified magnetic beads appeared to follow the Langmuir isotherm model. The degradation of textile dyes with immobilized laccase on the metal chelated magnetic beads was evaluated in a batch system. Three different reactive textile dyes (i.e., Reactive Green 19, Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Brown 10) were successfully degraded in the enzyme reactor. It was observed that the decolorization rate varied widely with chemical structure and types of the substitute group of the reactive dye molecules. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteomic profiling of renal allograft rejection in serum using magnetic bead-based sample fractionation and MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Weiguo; Huang, Liling; Dai, Yong; Chen, Jiejing; Yan, Qiang; Huang, He

    2010-12-01

    Proteomics is one of the emerging techniques for biomarker discovery. Biomarkers can be used for early noninvasive diagnosis and prognosis of diseases and treatment efficacy evaluation. In the present study, the well-established research systems of ClinProt Micro solution incorporated unique magnetic bead sample preparation technology, which, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), have become very successful in bioinformatics due to its outstanding performance and reproducibility for discovery disease-related biomarker. We collected fasting blood samples from patients with biopsy-confirmed acute renal allograft rejection (n = 12), chronic rejection (n = 12), stable graft function (n = 12) and also from healthy volunteers (n = 13) to study serum peptidome patterns. Specimens were purified with magnetic bead-based weak cation exchange chromatography and analyzed with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. The results indicated that 18 differential peptide peaks were selected as potential biomarkers of acute renal allograft rejection, and 6 differential peptide peaks were selected as potential biomarkers of chronic rejection. A Quick Classifier Algorithm was used to set up the classification models for acute and chronic renal allograft rejection. The algorithm models recognize 82.64% of acute rejection and 98.96% of chronic rejection episodes, respectively. We were able to identify serum protein fingerprints in small sample sizes of recipients with renal allograft rejection and establish the models for diagnosis of renal allograft rejection. This preliminary study demonstrated that proteomics is an emerging tool for early diagnosis of renal allograft rejection and helps us to better understand the pathogenesis of disease process.

  13. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show......This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...... demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...

  14. International trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two reports are presented; one has been prepared by the Uranium Institute and is submitted by the United Kingdom delegation, the other by the United States delegation. The report of the Uranium Institute deals with the influence of the government on international trade in uranium. This influence becomes apparent predominantly by export and import restrictions, as well as by price controls. The contribution submitted by the United States is a uranium market trend analysis, with pricing methods and contracting modes as well as the effect of government policies being investigated in the light of recent developments

  15. Distribution and biophysical processes of beaded streams in Arctic permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Heim, Kurt C.

    2015-01-01

    Beaded streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a Circum-Arctic survey of beaded streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with beaded morphology throughout the continuous permafrost zone of northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia and found the highest abundance associated with medium- to high- ground ice content permafrost in moderately sloping terrain. In the Fish Creek watershed, beaded streams accounted for half of the drainage density, occurring primarily as low-order channels initiating from lakes and drained lake basins. Beaded streams predictably transition to alluvial channels with increasing drainage area and decreasing channel slope, although this transition is modified by local controls on water and sediment delivery. Comparison of one beaded channel using repeat photography between 1948 and 2013 indicate a relatively stable landform and 14C dating of basal sediments suggest channel formation may be as early as the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Contemporary processes, such as deep snow accumulation in riparian zones effectively insulates channel ice and allows for perennial liquid water below most beaded stream pools. Because of this, mean annual temperatures in pool beds are greater than 2°C, leading to the development of perennial thaw bulbs or taliks underlying these thermokarst features. In the summer, some pools thermally stratify, which reduces permafrost thaw and maintains coldwater habitats. Snowmelt generated peak-flows decrease rapidly by two or more orders of magnitude to summer low flows with slow reach-scale velocity distributions ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 m/s, yet channel runs still move water rapidly

  16. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  17. Disintegration of Nannochloropsis sp. cells in an improved turbine bead mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhidong; Huang, Ying; Wang, Yanmin; Wu, Zhiwei

    2017-12-01

    The Nannochloropsis sp. cells in aqueous solution were disintegrated in an improved bead mill with turbine agitator. The disintegration rates of cell samples disrupted under various operating parameters (i.e., circumferential speed, bead size, disintegration time, and cell concentration) were analyzed. An experimental strategy to optimize the parameters affecting the cell disintegration process was proposed. The results show that Nannochloropsis sp. cells can be effectively disintegrated in the turbine stirred bead mill under the optimum condition (i.e., circumferential speed of 2.3m/s, concentration of 15vol.%, disintegration time of 40min and bead size of 0.3-0.4mm). The disintegration mechanism was discussed via the selection and breakage functions from population balance modelling. It is revealed that the impact and compression effects of stirring beads are more effective for the disruption of coarser fraction of cells, and the shear effect dominates the production of finer fractions of disintegrated cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study of the Rheology, Processing and Flow Induced Mesostructures of Glass Bead Filled Polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, P. J.; Embery, J. E.; Tassieri, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some recent experimental results on the effects of the addition of glass beads (both coupled and uncoupled) on the linear and non-linear rheology, and hence processability, of a commercial polystyrene. Oscillatory, low strain, measurements showed an increase in viscosity with the addition of the glass beads, which varied depending on the testing frequency and degree of coupling. For the coupled beads, at low frequencies the increase in viscosity was well predicted by the Kreiger-Dougherty relationship, while at higher frequencies a smaller increase than this was seen, linked with a shift to lower frequencies of the lower frequency cross-over between G' and G''. For the uncoupled beads, the viscosity was found to shift vertically with no change in the position of the G',G'' cross-over. For the non-linear shear and extension measurements, at low shear rates and low strains the increase in viscosity agreed well with the linear results, whereas at high strain rates and strains, more disparity was seen, which in non-linear extension was been linked to voiding. For non-linear shear measurements, the plateau viscosities of the pure polystyrene were found to fit the Cox-Merz rule, while the glass bead filled materials did not. The deviations in behaviour of the filled materials were found to be closely linked to the characteristic relaxation times of the polymer, particularly the reptation time τ d and the Rouse time τ R

  19. Development of calcium pectinate-tamarind seed polysaccharide mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-01-30

    Novel mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl made of low methoxy (LM) pectin-tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) polymer-blend was developed through ionotropic-gelation technique and optimized using 3(2) factorial design. Effects of LM pectin and TSP amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h) were analyzed using response surface methodology. The optimized calcium pectinate-TSP beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 95.12 ± 4.26%, R10h of 46.53 ± 3.28%, and mean diameter of 1.93 ± 0.26 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation and characterization of physically modified glass beads used as model carriers in dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnitz, Sarah; Redlinger-Pohn, Jakob Dominik; Kappl, Michael; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is the physical modification and characterization of the surface topography of glass beads used as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs). By surface modification the contact area between drug and carrier and thereby interparticle forces may be modified. Thus the performance of DPIs that relies on interparticle interactions may be improved. Glass beads were chosen as model carriers because various prospects of physical surface modification may be applied without affecting other factors also impacting interparticle interactions like particle size and shape. To generate rough surfaces glass beads were processed mechanically by friction and impaction in a ball mill with different grinding materials that were smaller and harder with respect to the glass beads. By varying the grinding time (4 h, 8 h) and by using different grinding media (tungsten carbide, quartz) surfaces with different shades of roughness were generated. Depending on the hardness of the grinding material and the grinding time the surface roughness was more or less pronounced. Surface roughness parameters and specific surface area were determined via several complementary techniques in order to get an enhanced understanding of the impact of the modifying procedure on the surface properties of the glass beads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of pectinate-ispagula mucilage mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl by central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-05-01

    Ionotropically-gelled mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl composed of low methoxy (LM) pectin-ispaghula husk mucilage (IHM) polymer-blend was developed and optimized using central composite design (spherical type, single center point, and α=1.414). Effects of LM pectin and IHM amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h) were analysed using response surface methodology. The optimized beads containing metformin HCl (F-O) showed DEE of 86.98 ± 3.26% and R10h of 47.20 ± 1.28%. All these beads exhibited suitable controlled in vitro sustained drug release pattern with super case-II transport mechanism over 10h. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration, which could possibly be lucrative in terms of prolonged systemic absorption of metformin HCl maintaining tight blood glucose level and advanced patient compliance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Appropriate welding conditions of temper bead weld repair for SQV2A pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, R.; Matsuda, F.; Brziak, P.; Lomozik, M.

    2004-01-01

    Temper bead welding technique is one of the most important repair welding methods for large structures for which it is difficult to perform the specified post weld heat treatment. In this study, appropriate temper bead welding conditions to improve the characteristics of heat affected zone (HAZ) are studied using pressure vessel steel SQV2A corresponding to ASTM A533 Type B Class 1. Thermal/mechanical simulator is employed to give specimens welding thermal cycles from single to quadruple cycle. Charpy absorbed energy and hardness of simulated CGHAZ by first cycle were degraded as compared with base metal. Improvability of these degradations by subsequent cycles is discussed and appropriate temper bead thermal cycles are clarified. When the peak temperature lower than Ac1 and near Ac1 in the second thermal cycle is applied to CGAHZ by first thermal cycle, the characteristics of CGHAZ improve enough. When the other peak temperatures (that is, higher than Ac1) in the second thermal cycle are applied to the CGHAZ, third or more thermal cycle temper bead process should be applied to improve the properties. Appropriate weld condition ranges are selected based on the above results. The validity of the selected ranges is verified by the temper bead welding test. (orig.)

  3. Construction of microscale structures in enclosed microfluidic networks by using a magnetic beads based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhong; Wan, Xiaoping; Hu, Ning; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-08-20

    A large number of microscale structures have been used to elaborate flowing control or complex biological and chemical reaction on microfluidic chips. However, it is still inconvenient to fabricate microstructures with different heights (or depths) on the same substrate. These kinds of microstructures can be fabricated by using the photolithography and wet-etching method step by step, but involves time-consuming design and fabrication process, as well as complicated alignment of different masters. In addition, few existing methods can be used to perform fabrication within enclosed microfluidic networks. It is also difficult to change or remove existing microstructures within these networks. In this study, a magnetic-beads-based approach is presented to build microstructures in enclosed microfluidic networks. Electromagnetic field generated by microfabricated conducting wires (coils) is used to manipulate and trap magnetic beads on the bottom surface of a microchannel. These trapped beads are accumulated to form a microscale pile with desired shape, which can adjust liquid flow, dock cells, modify surface, and do some other things as those fabricated microstructures. Once the electromagnetic field is changed, trapped beads may form new shapes or be removed by a liquid flow. Besides being used in microfabrication, this magnetic-beads-based method can be used for novel microfluidic manipulation. It has been validated by forming microscale dam structure for cell docking and modified surface for cell patterning, as well as guiding the growth of neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Am/Cm TTR testing - 3/8-inch glass beads evaluation in CIM5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    To facilitate the procurement and handling of the glass former for Am/Cm vitrification in the F-Canyon MPPF, 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch diameter glass beads were purchased from Corning for evaluation in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Prior to evaluating the beads in the CIM5, tests were conducted in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) with 1/4 inch beads, 3/8 inch beads, and a 50/50 mixture to identify any process concerns. Results of the DTTS tests are summarized in Attachment 1. A somewhat larger volume expansion was experienced in all three DTTS runs as compared to a standard run using cullet. Further testing of the use of glass beads in the CIM5 was requested by the Design Authority as Task 1.02 of Technical Task Request 99-MNSS/SE-006. Since the Technical Task Plan was not yet approved, the completion of this task was conducted under an authorization request approved by the SRTC Laboratory Director, S. Wood. This request is included as Attachment 2

  5. Adsorption of Cu2+ from aqueous solution onto modified glass beads with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Torkshavand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of heavy metals into the aquatic ecosystem is a main concern over the last few decades. These pollutants are introduced into aquatic systems as a result of various industrial operations. This study investigates the efficiency of the modified glass beads with APTES ligand for removal of Cu2+ from the aqueous solution. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken was used to assess the effect of independent variables, including flow rate, solution pH, initial concentration and glass beads size on the response function and prediction of the best response value. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of eluents of a column of the modified glass beads showed that Cu2+ ion was more than 90% entrapped on a column of glass beads. The isotherm evaluations indicate that the equilibrium data for Cu2+ adsorption could be fitted with the Langmuir model. Experimental data were also evaluated in terms of adsorption kinetics using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results also showed that the adsorption process of the Cu2+ well suited with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. All the results demonstrated that modified glass beads successfully absorbed heavy metals from aqueous solution.

  6. Use of sterile pre-fabricated antibiotic beads in the combat hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Wade T; Petrides, Michael G; Gunn, Philip A; Howard, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Time and manpower constraints associated with acute combat casualty care can make antibiotic bead production at the point of care prohibitively difficult, if not impossible. The purpose of this study is to evaluate our technique for the sterile prefabrication of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads in the combat hospital environment by assessing their sterility at the time of use. This investigation is a prospective study of a consecutive series of specimens. Imipenem-impregnated antibiotic beads were sterilely prepared, threaded on a suture strand, and packaged. Over a 6-week period, 50 consecutive packages were evaluated for sterility with aerobic and anaerobic culture swabs performed at the time of opening. Culture results, as well as number of shelf days for each specimen, were then reviewed. Of the 50 packages of antibiotic-impregnated PMMA beads, the average number of days on the shelf before use was 9.3 (range: 2-17). None of the packages showed growth of organisms from the cultures, indicating that antibiotic-impregnated PMMA beads can be sterilely produced and maintained in their sterile state for future use in the combat hospital environment. This practice should be considered a safe adjunct in the management of contaminated, open traumatic injuries in this setting. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Magnetic chitosan/clay beads: A magsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bée, Agnès; Obeid, Layaly; Mbolantenaina, Rakotomalala; Welschbillig, Mathias; Talbot, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    A magnetic composite material composed of magnetic nanoparticles and clay encapsulated in cross-linked chitosan beads was prepared, characterized and used as a magsorbent for the removal of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. The magnetic properties of these beads represent an advantage to recover them at the end of the depollution process. The optimal weight ratio R=clay:chitosan for the removal of MB in a large range of pH was determined. For beads without clay, the maximal adsorption capacity of MB occurs in the pH range [9-12], while for beads with clay, the pH range extends by increasing the amount of clay to reach [3-12] for R>0.5. Adsorption isotherms show that the adsorption capacity of magnetic beads is equal to 82 mg/g. Moreover, the kinetics of dye adsorption is relatively fast since 50% of the dye is removed in the first 13 min for an initial MB concentration equal to 100 mg/L. The estimation of the number of adsorption sites at a given pH shows that the main driving force for adsorption of MB in a large range of pH is the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged dye and the permanent negative charges of clay.

  8. Enhancing the ecological validity of the Beads Task as a behavioral measure of intolerance of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Ryan J; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Reuman, Lillian; Blakey, Shannon M

    2016-06-01

    To broaden the measurement of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) beyond self-report methods, recent research has examined the Beads Task as a behavioral measure of IU. In the present study, we enhanced this task to increase its ecological validity by maximizing decisional uncertainty and the importance of a correct response. Undergraduate participants (n=102) completed the Beads Task with instructions that they would complete the Cold Pressor Task (CPT) if they answered incorrectly. As hypothesized, baseline CPT endurance time and self-reported pain level were weakly associated with later Beads Task distress during the decision-making process. Furthermore, in vivo Beads Task distress was associated with self-report inhibitory IU, which measures avoidance and paralysis in the face of uncertainty, but not with prospective IU, perfectionism, or general psychological distress after making statistical adjustments for multiple comparisons. Comparisons to previous work using the Beads Task, clinical implications, and avenues for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The characterization of ceramic alumina prepared by using additive glass beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapedi; Muljadi; Sardjono, Priyo

    2018-01-01

    The ceramic alumina has been made by using additive glass bead (5 and 10 % wt.). There are two kinds of materials, such as : gamma Alumina and glass bead. Synthesis of alumina was done by ball milling for 24 hours, then the mixed powder was dried in drying oven at 100 °C for 6 hours. Furthermore, the dried powder was mixed by using 2 % of PVA and continued with compacted to form a pellet with pressure of 50 MPA. The next step is sintering process with variation temperature of 1150, 1200, 1250, 1300 and 1400 °C and holding time for 2 hours. The characterization conducted are consist of test density, hardness, shrinkage, and microstructure. The results show that ceramic alumina with addition of 10 % wt. glass bead has the higher value of density, hardness and shrinkage than addition of 5% wt. glass bead. The highest characterization of ceramic alumina with addition 10 % glass bead was achieved at sintering temperature of 1400 °C with density 3.68 g/cm3, hardness vickers 780.40 Hv and shrinkage 15.23 %. The XRD results show that it was founds a corrundum (alpha Alumina) as dominant phase and mullite as minor phase.

  10. Encapsulation of thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) aqueous extract in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Radoslava; Belscak-Cvitanovic, Ana; Manojlovic, Verica; Komes, Drazenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2012-02-01

    Encapsulation of Thymus serpyllum L. aqueous extract within calcium alginate beads was studied in order to produce dosage formulations containing polyphenolic compounds. Electrostatic extrusion was applied for encapsulation of thyme aqueous extract in alginate gel beads. In addition to hydrogel beads, heat-dried and freeze-dried forms of beads were examined. Encapsulation systems were examined and compared in order to choose the optimal one with respect to entrapment efficiency, preservation of antioxidant activity and thermal behaviour under heating conditions simulating the usual food processing. The beads obtained with approximately 2 mg g⁻¹ of gallic acid equivalents encapsulated in 0.015 g mL⁻¹ of alginate were spheres of a uniform size of about 730 µm. Encapsulation efficiency varied in the range 50-80% depending on the encapsulation method. Besides, the analysis reveals that the encapsulation process and the material used did not degrade the bioactive compounds, as the total antioxidant content remained unchanged. This was verified by Fourier transform infrared analysis, which proved the absence of chemical interactions between extracted compounds and alginate. Addition of a filler substance, such as sucrose and inulin, in the dried product reduced its collapse and roundness distortion during drying process. This study demonstrates the potential of using hydrogel material for encapsulation of plant poplyphenols to improve their functionality and stability in food products. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Development of polymer-extractant composite beads for separation of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manmohan; Singh, Krishankant; Bajaj, P.N.

    2009-01-01

    A novel micro porous polymer-extractant composite bead system, containing liquid extractant encapsulated in the core of a polymeric shell, with required porosity and hydrophilicity, to allow exchange of radionuclides without, any significant leaching out of the encapsulated extractant, has been developed for solid-liquid extraction of radionuclides from acidic waste solutions. The reuse of the beads is possible as there is practically no change in its radionuclide extraction efficiency, after repeated extraction second time. The high porosity and hydrophilicity of the synthesized TBP-encapsulated polymeric beads is evident from the presence of ∼ 78% water in the swollen condition. Evaluation of the synthesized beads for extraction of uranium and plutonium from aqueous acidic waste solutions, indicated possibility of their use under the conditions of PUREX process. The aliquate 336-encapsulated polymeric beads showed selective extraction of plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions in the presence of uranium, and back extraction of the loaded plutonium, using dilute nitric acid or ascorbic acid. (author)

  12. Optical vortex beam transmission with different OAM in scattering beads and brain tissue media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. B.; Shi, Lingyan; Lindwasser, Lukas; Marque, Paulo; Lavery, M. P. J.; Alfano, R. R.

    2016-03-01

    Light transmission of Laguerre Gaussian (LG) vortex beams with different orbital angular momentum (OAM) values (L) in scattering beads and mouse brain tissue media were experimentally investigated for the first time in comparison with Gaussian (G) beams. The LG beams with different OAM were generated using a spatial light modulator (SLM) in reflection mode. The scattering beads media consist of various sizes and concentrations of latex beads in water solutions. The transmissions of LG and G beams through scattering beads and brain tissue media were measured with different ratios of sample thicknesses (z) to scattering mean free path (ls) of the turbid media, z/ls. The results indicate that within the ballistic region where z/ls is small, the LG and G beams show no significant difference, while in the diffusive region where z/ls is higher, the vortex beams show higher transmission than G beams. In the diffusive region, the LG beams with higher L values show higher transmission than the beams with lower L values due to the eigen channels in the media. The transition points from the ballistic to diffusive regions for different scattering beads and brain tissue media were studied.

  13. Successful subretinal delivery and monitoring of MicroBeads in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dominik Fischer

    Full Text Available To monitor viability of implanted genetically engineered and microencapsulated human stem cells (MicroBeads in the mouse eye, and to study the impact of the beads and/or xenogenic cells on retinal integrity.MicroBeads were implanted into the subretinal space of SV126 wild type mice using an ab externo approach. Viability of microencapsulated cells was monitored by noninvasive retinal imaging (Spectralis™ HRA+OCT. Retinal integrity was also assessed with retinal imaging and upon the end of the study by light and electron microscopy. The implanted GFP-marked cells encapsulated in subretinal MicroBeads remained viable over a period of up to 4 months. Retinal integrity and viability appeared unaltered apart from the focal damage due to the surgical implantation, GFAP upregulation, and opsin mistargeting in the immediate surrounding tissue.The accessibility for routine surgery and its immune privileged state make the eye an ideal target for release system implants for therapeutic substances, including neurotrophic and anti-angiogenic compounds or protein based biosimilars. Microencapsulated human stem cells (MicroBeads promise to overcome limitations inherent with single factor release systems, as they are able to produce physiologic combinations of bioactive compounds.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymer beads for nicotine recognition prepared by RAFT precipitation polymerization: a step forward towards multifunctionalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Tongchang; Jørgensen, Lars; Mattebjerg, Maria Ahlm

    2014-01-01

    A nicotine imprinted polymer was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer. The resulting molecularly imprinted polymers were monodispersed beads with an average diameter of 1.55 mm. The molecular...... selectivity of the imprinted polymer beads was evaluated by studying the uptake of nicotine and its structural analogs by the polymer beads. Equilibrium binding results indicate that the amount of nicotine bound to the imprinted polymer beads is significantly higher than that bound to the nonimprinted polymer...

  15. Selective extraction of plutonium from nitric acid medium by bifunctional polyethersulfone beads for quantification with thermal ionisation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sumana; Aggarwal, S.K.; Pandey, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Polyethersulfone (PES) magnetic beads were prepared by phase inversion technique. The beads were grafted with two monomers, viz. 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate phosphoric acid (HEMP) and (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethyl ammonium chloride (AMAC), by photo-induced free radical polymerization. Effect of different HNO 3 concentrations on the sorption profiles of Am(III) and Pu(IV) was studied using the grafted PES beads. The beads were found to extract plutonium quantitatively from high nitric acid medium (3-8 M). The effect of presence of competing actinide, e.g. U(VI), on the sorption of Pu(IV) was also studied. (author)

  16. Determining the unique refractive index properties of solid polystyrene aerosol using broadband Mie scattering from optically trapped beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie H; King, Martin D; Ward, Andrew D

    2013-12-21

    A method is described to measure the refractive index dispersion with wavelength of optically trapped solid particles in air. Knowledge of the refraction properties of solid particles is critical for the study of aerosol; both in the laboratory and in the atmosphere for climate studies. Single micron-sized polystyrene beads were optically trapped in air using a vertically aligned counter-propagating configuration of focussed laser beams. Each bead was illuminated using white light from a broadband light emitting diode (LED) and elastic scattering within the bead was collected onto a spectrograph. The resulting Mie spectra were analysed to accurately determine polystyrene bead radii to ±0.4 nm and values of the refractive index to ±0.0005 over a wavelength range of 480-700 nm. We demonstrate that optical trapping combined with elastic scattering can be used to both accurately size polystyrene beads suspended in air and determine their wavelength dependent refractive index. The refractive index dispersions are in close agreement with reported values for polystyrene beads in aqueous dispersion. Our results also demonstrate a variation in the refractive index of polystyrene, from bead to bead, in a commercial sample. The measured variation highlights that care must be taken when using polystyrene beads as a calibration aerosol.

  17. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  18. Trade, investment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, H.; Brack, D.

    2000-01-01

    As liberalisation of global trade and investment accelerates, what happens to the environment? As the world heads for confrontation in Seattle, the questions intensify. Does foreign direct investment mean forsaking environmental protection? Or do multinational corporations export higher standards when they invest abroad? Can a powerful trading nation ban imports of tropical timber produced unsustainably? Should the World Trade Organisation take the views of industry or environmental groups into account when deciding? Must world trade rules be changed to accommodate environmental concerns? This book analyzes key issues in this increasingly controversial arena and includes contributions from Renato Ruggiero, former Director General of the World Trade Organization; The Rt Hon Brian Wilson MP, former UK Minister of Trade; Dr Magda Shahin, Deputy Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs at the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Pradeep Mehta, Secretary General, Consumer Unity and Trust Society, India; and Dr Michel Potier, Head of the Economics Division at the OECD's Environment Directorate. (Author)

  19. Confirming a case of ball lightening production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balyberdin, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    Model confirmation of ball lightening production was carried out on a three-cascade unit having a working voltage of 150 kV in an air atmosphere at a pressure of 730 to 750 mg Hg std. with C-shaped bending of the lightening drawoff. The electrical discharge parameters were held constant as follows: maximum current amplitude of 7 kA, oscillatory period of the quenched discharge of 6.5 x 10/sup -6/ sec, and energy used up in the unit approximately 2.2 k joules. Moving pictures are presented of the generation of one long luminous bundle displaced from a solid with a velocity up to 240 m/sec, whose luminosity was observed over a period of approximately 3 x 10/sup -3/ sec. Analysis of the experimental results showed that the appearance of plasma bundles is associated with the development of turbulent flows of a low-temperature plasma near the tip of a solid. (SJR)

  20. Confirmation of Kepler Planet Candidates around Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Bun-ei

    2014-01-01

    Detecting planetary transits is extremely valuable not only because it makes an independent confirmation of a planet from Doppler method but also because the photometric transits yield unambiguous information on planet masses and radii, and thus mean density and interior structure, and obliquity of planetary orbits. Planets around giants and subgiants have been intensively surveyed over the decade by precise radial velocity (RV) measurements, mainly from the viewpoint of planet searches around intermediate-mass (1.5-5M⊙) stars. The planets show remarkable properties in their masses and orbital parameters. Unfortunately, however, it is quite difficult to detect transiting ones around such evolved stars because of the large sizes of the host stars. Therefore, our understanding of properties of planets around intermediate-mass stars are still far behind from those around solar-like stars. In S13B, we made the first RV follow-up observations with HDS for the transiting planet candidates around giants found by Kepler space telescope, and identified promising candidates of true transiting planets. Here we propose to take additional RV data for them with HDS in order to make sure that the RV periodicity is the same as the transit one.

  1. Web-Based Honorarium Confirmation System Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisswani, N. W.; Catur Bawa, I. G. N. B.

    2018-01-01

    Improving services in academic environment can be applied by regulating salary payment process for all employees. As a form of control to maintain financial transparency, employees should have information concerning salary payment process. Currently, notification process of committee honorarium will be accepted by the employees in a manual manner. The salary will be received by the employee bank account and to know its details, they should go to the accounting unit to find out further information. Though there are some employees entering the accounting unit, they still find difficulty to obtain information about detailed honor information that they received in their accounts. This can be caused by many data collected and to be managed. Based on this issue, this research will design a prototype of web-based system for accounting unit system in order to provide detailed financial transaction confirmation to employee bank accounts that have been informed through mobile banking system. This prototype will be developed with Waterfall method through testing on final users after it is developed through PHP program with MySQL as DBMS

  2. Confirmation of ETI: initial organizational response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2003-08-01

    Perhaps the most crucial responses to the confirmation of extraterrestrial intelligence will come from organizations, rather than from individual people. Among the key organizations that will help shape humanity's response are political institutions such as the US Congress, administrative bodies such as the US Department of State, security agencies, the military, professional societies, and the media. Although popular culture and individual beliefs will affect organizational performance, organizational reactions will depend also on organizational cultures and traditions, administrative structures, communication patterns, decision-making processes, and the actions of other organizations. Prompt and effective responses may be blocked by sociopolitical constraints, jurisdictional disputes, cumbersome structures and procedures, stresses that frequently slow and distort information processing, and potentially counterproductive efforts to maintain positive organizational images. Efforts undertaken by governmental agencies will be hampered by public perceptions of low credibility. Foresight and advance preparation are among the steps that organizations may take to prepare for contact, but conservative values, skepticism towards SETI, and competing organizational priorities make serious preparation unlikely.

  3. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  4. International climate policy and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuik, O.

    2000-01-01

    If a country takes steps to counter the greenhouse effect, it could influence the country's foreign trade. If a large group of countries consider such measures, e.g. the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol, that could possibly have major consequences for global trading patterns. How will the measures work out for countries, industries, and climate policy itself? Can countries mitigate any negative consequences for their trade balance? The results of a study to answer those questions are discussed

  5. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  6. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  7. Fraud risks in emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The system of emission trading is a complex composed entity with on the one hand a strong environmental component and on the other hand a financial world that hooked on this instrument. In chapter 2 an introduction is provided to the emission trading system. The subsequent chapters elaborate Types of Fraud (Chapter 3), Powers (Chapter 4), and Instruments (Chapter 5). The report shows that various forms of fraud are occurring in emission trading, such as VAT fraud and identity theft. [nl

  8. Analysis of platinum content in biodegradable carboplatin-impregnated beads and retrospective assessment of tolerability for intralesional use of the beads in dogs following excision of subcutaneous sarcomas: 29 cases (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Theresa A; Drinkhouse, Macy E; Prey, Joshua D; Miller, Jonathan M; Fettig, Arthur A; Carberry, Carol A; Brenn, Stephen H; Bailey, Dennis B

    2018-02-15

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate platinum content in biodegradable carboplatin-impregnated beads and retrospectively assess tolerability and outcome data for dogs treated by intralesional placement of such beads following surgical excision of subcutaneous sarcomas. DESIGN Evaluation study and retrospective case series. SAMPLE 9 carboplatin-impregnated beads and 29 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Platinum content in 9 carboplatin-impregnated beads from 3 lots was measured by spectrophotometry, and calculated carboplatin content was compared with the labeled content. Medical records were searched to identify dogs with subcutaneous sarcomas for which treatment included placement of carboplatin-impregnated beads between 2011 and 2014. Signalment, tumor characteristics, surgical and histologic data, adverse events, and local recurrences were recorded. Associations between variables of interest and adverse events or local disease-free interval were analyzed. RESULTS In vitro analysis identified a mean ± SD platinum content of 5.38 ± 0.97 mg/bead. Calculated carboplatin content (10.24 ± 1.84 mg/bead) was significantly greater than the labeled amount (4.6 mg/bead). Bead weight and total platinum content differed significantly among lots, but platinum content per bead weight did not. Mild-to-moderate local adverse events were reported for 11 of 29 tumors; all resolved without additional surgery. No dogs had signs of systemic toxicosis. Overall local disease-free rates 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery were 70%, 70%, and 58%, respectively, as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Carboplatin-impregnated beads were well tolerated; however, results of in vitro tests indicated that caution is needed because of manufacturing inconsistencies.

  9. Climate Change Creates Trade Opportunity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging challenge to developing economy like India however it also creates opportunity to grow through climate friendly goods production and new direction of trade. This paper focuses India’s potential export trade in climate friendly goods. The estimated gravity model is defined as the potential trade and potential trade gap is measured as how well a bilateral trade flow performs relative to the mean as predicted by the model. Potential trade gap means that actual trade...

  10. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  11. Trade Effects of Export Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Solleder

    2013-01-01

    Export taxes usage has recently risen. They are widely presumed to affect trade, but the lack of data has prevented a systematic evaluation of their trade effects. Based on a new dataset of tax rates at the product level, this paper estimates the distortionary trade effects of export taxes. The results, which are based on theory-consistent estimation of a structural gravity model, indicate that the elasticity of trade quantities to tax is -1.8 on average, rising to -5.5 for extractive sectors...

  12. The Outlook for World Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sutherland

    2003-01-01

    The former GATT and World Trade Organization Director-General (1993–1995) defends the multilateral trade system—“If goods do not pass frontiers, armies will†—and describes the challenges facing the World Trade Organization particularly in meeting the Doha Development Agenda. He responds to critics whose beliefs about globalisation and the role of the WTO he says are based on muddled thinking, and addresses trade-related issues including global governance and the situation of the dev...

  13. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  14. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  15. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  16. Using microwave heating to improve the desorption efficiency of high molecular weight VOC from beaded activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, Mohammadreza; Shariaty, Pooya; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher; Phillips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark

    2015-04-07

    Incomplete regeneration of activated carbon loaded with organic compounds results in heel build-up that reduces the useful life of the adsorbent. In this study, microwave heating was tested as a regeneration method for beaded activated carbon (BAC) loaded with n-dodecane, a high molecular weight volatile organic compound. Energy consumption and desorption efficiency for microwave-heating regeneration were compared with conductive-heating regeneration. The minimum energy needed to completely regenerate the adsorbent (100% desorption efficiency) using microwave regeneration was 6% of that needed with conductive heating regeneration, owing to more rapid heating rates and lower heat loss. Analyses of adsorbent pore size distribution and surface chemistry confirmed that neither heating method altered the physical/chemical properties of the BAC. Additionally, gas chromatography (with flame ionization detector) confirmed that neither regeneration method detectably altered the adsorbate composition during desorption. By demonstrating improvements in energy consumption and desorption efficiency and showing stable adsorbate and adsorbent properties, this paper suggests that microwave heating is an attractive method for activated carbon regeneration particularly when high-affinity VOC adsorbates are present.

  17. Drug Release Profile from Calcium-Induced Alginate-Phosphate Composite Gel Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-induced alginate-phosphate composite gel beads were prepared, and model drug release profiles were investigated in vitro. The formation of calcium phosphate in the alginate gel matrix was observed and did not affect the rheological properties of the hydrogel beads. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the calcium phosphate does not exist in crystalline form in the matrix. The initial release amount and release rate of a water-soluble drug, diclofenac, from the alginate gel beads could be controlled by modifying the composition of the matrix with calcium phosphate. In contrast, the release profile was not affected by the modification for hydrocortisone, a drug only slightly soluble in water.

  18. Quantitative determination of glycine in aqueous solution using glutamate dehydrogenase-immobilized glyoxal agarose beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Semra Yilmazer; Keskin, Can Serkan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatic procedure for the determination of glycine (Gly) was developed by using a column containing immobilized glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) on glyoxal agarose beads. Ammonia is produced from the enzymatic reactions between Gly and GDH with NAD(+) in phosphate buffer medium. The indophenol blue method was used for ammonia detection based on the spectrophotometric measurements of blue-colored product absorbing at 640 nm. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 0.1-10 mM of Gly concentrations. The effect of pH, temperature, and time interval was studied to find column stability, and also the interference effects of other amino acids was investigated. The interaction between GDH and glyoxal agarose beads was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphology of the immobilized and non-immobilized agarose beads were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  19. Characterization of bead trajectories through the draft tube of a turbine physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mueller, R. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinstry, C. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) makes extensive use of 1:25 scale Plexiglass models of hydroelectric turbines along the Columbia River to study turbine hydraulic performance and to identify potential hazards for fish passing through the turbines. Plastic beads are sent through the models and imaging has been done with laser Doppler velocimetry and high-speed videography to measure flow field variables and to study the probable paths of fish through the turbine units. Understanding has been limited by the lack of data showing actual bead trajectories in three dimensions (3-D) and the lack of quantified velocity, acceleration, and other kinematics describing the trajectories of beads as they pass through the physical models.

  20. Feasibility study of plutonium isotopic analysis of resin beads by nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.

    1985-01-01

    We have initiated a feasibility study on the use of nondestructive low-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy for plutonium isotopic analysis on resin beads. Seven resin bead samples were measured, with each sample containing an average of 9 μg of plutonium; the isotopic compositions of the samples varied over a wide range. The gamma-ray spectroscopy results, obtained from 4-h counting-time measurements, were compared with mass spectrometry results. The average ratios of gamma-ray spectroscopy to mass spectrometry were 1.014 +- 0.025 for 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 0.996 +- 0.018 for 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 0.980 +- 0.038 for 241 Pu/ 239 Pu. The rapid, automated, and accurate nondestructive isotopic analysis of resin beads may be very useful to process technicians and International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Randomised controlled trial of extraarticular gold bead implantation for treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejrup, Kirsten; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Jacobsen, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial was to determine if implanting gold beads at five acupuncture points around the knee joint improves 1-year outcomes for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Participants were 43 adults aged 18-80 years with pain...... and stiffness from non-specific OA of the knee for over a year. The intervention was blinded implantation of gold beads at five acupuncture points around the affected knee through a hypodermic needle, or needle insertion alone. Primary outcome measures were knee pain, stiffness and function assessed...... acupuncture had greater relative improvements in self-assessed outcomes. The treatment was well tolerated. This 1-year pilot study indicates that extraarticular gold bead implantation is a promising treatment modality for patients with OA of the knee. The new treatment should be tested in a larger trial...

  2. In situ measurement of ferric iron in lunar glass beads using Fe-XAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCanta, Molly C.; Dyar, M. Darby; Rutherford, Malcolm J.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Sutton, Stephen R.; Thomson, Bradley J.

    2017-03-01

    Through use of a new X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) calibration for Fe3+ analysis in silicate glasses, the first direct measurements of ferric iron in natural lunar picritic glasses are presented. Lunar glass beads from the Apollo sample collection contain up to 60.0% Fe3+. No correlation with melt chemical properties, such as Mg# or weight % TiO2, or physical properties, such as bead diameter, was observed. Fe3+/ΣFe is negatively correlated with NBO/T. These elevated Fe3+/ΣFe values reflect eruption and post-eruption oxidation due to magmatic degassing of H or OH. Glass beads observed to be zoned to lower Fe3+/ΣFe rims may represent a subsequent reduction in the lunar vacuum prior to cooling through the glass transition temperature.

  3. In situ measurement of ferric iron in lunar glass beads using Fe-XAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCanta, Molly C.; Dyar, M. Darby; Rutherford, Malcolm J.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Sutton, Stephen R.; Thomson, Bradley J.

    2017-03-01

    Through use of a new X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) calibration for Fe3+ analysis in silicate glasses, the first direct measurements of ferric iron in natural lunar picritic glasses are presented. Lunar glass beads from the Apollo sample collection contain up to 60.0% Fe3+. No correlation with melt chemical properties, such as Mg# or weight % TiO2, or physical properties, such as bead diameter, was observed. Fe3+/ΣFe is negatively correlated with NBO/T. These elevated Fe3+/ΣFe values reflect eruption and post-eruption oxidation due to magmatic degassing of H or OH. Glass beads observed to be zoned to lower Fe3+/ΣFe rims may represent a subsequent reduction in the lunar vacuum prior to cooling through the glass transition temperature

  4. Biosorption of strontium ions from aqueous solution using Ca-alginate biopolymer beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goek, C.; Aytas, S.; Gerstmann, U.

    2009-01-01

    Biosorption of strontium ions from aqueous solution onto calcium alginate biopolymer beads was investigated in a batch system. Ca-alginate biopolymer beads were prepared from Na-alginate via cross-linking with divalent calcium ions according to the egg box model. Optimum biosorption conditions were determined as a function of initial solution pH, initial Sr concentration, contact time, biomass dosage and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of Sr ions by Ca-alginate biopolymer beads. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, ΔG) for Sr sorption onto biosorbent were also determined from the temperature dependence. The results indicate that this biosorbent has a good potential for removal of Sr ions from dilute aqueous solution.

  5. Isolation of Cyclospora oocysts from fruits and vegetables using lectin-coated paramagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B; Campbell, A T

    2000-10-01

    Published techniques for recovering parasites from fruit and vegetables are generally inadequate, with low and variable recovery efficiencies. Herein, we describe an improved method for analyzing fruit and vegetables for Cyclospora oocysts. The technique includes washing procedures, sonication, and separation using lectin-coated paramagnetic beads. Identification is by microscopy (differential interference contrast and fluorescence). Oocyst recovery efficiencies from mushrooms, lettuce, and raspberries were approximately 12%. Recovery efficiencies from bean sprouts were approximately 4%. Although no significant difference in recovery efficiency could be detected between samples processed using the lectin-coated beads and samples processed without this procedure, distinct advantages were apparent when the lectin-coated beads were used. A considerably smaller, cleaner final volume remained for microscopy, which increases the sensitivity of the technique and reduces operator time.

  6. Rising Trade Costs? Agglomeration and Trade with Endogenous Transaction Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Duranton; Michael Storper

    2005-01-01

    costs. In a model of industry location with endogenous transaction costs that seeks to replicate features from the machinery industry, we show how and under which conditions a decline in transport costs can lead to an increase in the total cost of trade. The subtle relationship between (endogenous) transport costs and the sensitivity of trade to distance is also explored.

  7. Universal approach for selective trace metal determinations via sequential injection-bead injection-lab-on-valve using renewable hydrophobic bead surfaces as reagent carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    that the bead material exhibits excellent chemical stability at low pH values. On-line pH sample adjustment prevents alteration of the original distribution of chromium species while assuring fast rates for the DPC-Cr(VI) reaction. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of trace...... levels of Cr(VI) in natural waters containing high levels of dissolved salts (such as seawater and hard tap water) without requiring any dilution step. Method validation was performed by determination of total chromium in an NIST standard reference material (NIST 1640, natural water) after Cr...... favourable elution mode in order to attain the highest sensitivity. The potential of the SI-BI-LOV scheme is demonstrated by taking Cr(VI) as a model analyte, using a 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC)-loaded bead column as the active microzone. As this reaction requires the use of high acidity, it is also shown...

  8. Identification and correction of previously unreported spatial phenomena using raw Illumina BeadArray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavaré Simon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key stage for all microarray analyses is the extraction of feature-intensities from an image. If this step goes wrong, then subsequent preprocessing and processing stages will stand little chance of rectifying the matter. Illumina employ random construction of their BeadArrays, making feature-intensity extraction even more important for the Illumina platform than for other technologies. In this paper we show that using raw Illumina data it is possible to identify, control, and perhaps correct for a range of spatial-related phenomena that affect feature-intensity extraction. Results We note that feature intensities can be unnaturally high when in the proximity of a number of phenomena relating either to the images themselves or to the layout of the beads on an array. Additionally we note that beads neighbour beads of the same type more often than one might expect, which may cause concern in some models of hybridization. We highlight issues in the identification of a bead's location, and in particular how this both affects and is affected by its intensity. Finally we show that beads can be wrongly identified in the image on either a local or array-wide scale, with obvious implications for data quality. Conclusions The image processing issues identified will often pass unnoticed by an analysis of the standard data returned from an experiment. We detail some simple diagnostics that can be implemented to identify problems of this nature, and outline approaches to correcting for such problems. These approaches require access to the raw data from the arrays, not just the summarized data usually returned, making the acquisition of such raw data highly desirable.

  9. Encapsulated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by alginate gel beads as an in vitro metastasis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Li, Nan; Guo, Xin; Wang, Shu-jun; Sun, Guang-wei; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and often forms metastases, which are the most important prognostic factors. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the progression and metastasis of HCC, a culture system mimicking the in vivo tumor microenvironment is needed. In this study, we investigated the metastatic ability of HCC cells cultured within alginate gel (ALG) beads. In the culture system, HCC cells formed spheroids by proliferation and maintained in nuclear abnormalities. The gene and protein expression of metastasis-related molecules was increased in ALG beads, compared with the traditional adhesion culture. Furthermore, several gene expression levels in ALG bead culture system were even closer to liver cancer tissues. More importantly, in vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion cells derived from ALG beads was 7.8-fold higher than adhesion cells. Our results indicated that the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model based on ALG beads increased metastatic ability compared with adhesion culture, even partly mimicked the in vivo tumor tissues. Moreover, due to the controllable preparation conditions, steady characteristics and production at large-scale, the 3D ALG bead model would become an important tool used in the high-throughput screening of anti-metastasis drugs and the metastatic mechanism research. -- Highlights: •We established a 3D metastasis model mimicking the metastatic ability in vivo. •The invasion ability of cells derived from our model was increased significantly. •The model is easy to reproduce, convenient to handle, and amenable for large-scale

  10. Taste masking of ofloxacin and formation of interpenetrating polymer network beads for sustained release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Michael Rajesh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to carry out taste masking of ofloxacin (Ofl by ion exchange resins (IERs followed by sustained release of Ofl by forming interpenetrating polymer network (IPN beads. Drug-resin complexes (DRCs with three different ratios of Ofl to IERs (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 were prepared by batch method and investigated for in vivo and in vitro taste masking. DRC of methacrylic acid-divinyl benzene (MD resin and Ofl prepared at a ratio of 1:4 was used to form IPN beads. IPN beads of MD 1:4 were prepared by following the ionic cross-linking method using sodium carboxymethyl xanthan gum (SCMXG and SCMXG-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMXG-SCMC. IPN beads were characterized with FT-IR and further studied on sustained release of Ofl at different pH. In vivo taste masking carried out by human volunteers showed that MD 1:4 significantly reduced the bitterness of Ofl. Characterization studies such as FT-IR, DSC, P-XRD and taste masking showed that complex formation took place between drug and resin. In vitro study at gastric pH showed complete release of drug from MD 1:4 within 30 min whereas IPN beads took 5 h at gastric pH and 10 h at salivary pH for the complete release of drug. As the crosslinking increased the release kinetics changed into non-Fickian diffusion to zero-order release mechanism. MD 1:4 showed better performance for the taste masking of Ofl and IPNs beads prepared from it were found useful for the sustained release of Ofl at both the pH, indicating a versatile drug delivery system.

  11. Dentalium beads - shells of fosillised sea molluscs at the Vinča-Belo brdo site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During excavation of the Vinča-Belo Brdo site a significant number of decorated items made from clay, stone, bone, and seashells or snail shells have been collected over the years. Amongst the decorated objects which could be classified as jewellery the majority are bracelets, pendants, and beads made from Spondylus and Glycymeris shells, as well as beads made from Dentalium shells. The appearance of these beads and the question of their origin have not yet been specifically considered within studies of prehistoric cultures in the central Balkans. Furthermore, they have rarely been illustrated and mentioned in archaeological site inventories, which we presume has not been because of their poor representation, but rather because of their being unfamiliar. The aim of this work is therefore to: a systematize data about Dentalium beads from all phases of excavation of the Belo Brdo site in Vinča; b to show the importance of this kind of jewellery in the study of resources around the Vinča settlement; and c to indicate the wider chronological perspective and the significance of studying Dentalium beads within the prehistory of the central Balkans. Dentalium is a carnivorous Scaphopoda sea mollusc, uncommon and insufficiently studied. Representatives of this class of Scaphopoda have been found on Serbian territory in the Badenian sediments, deposited fifteen million years ago. Badenian sediments were discovered around Loznica, Belgrade, Aranđelovac, Golubac, Zaječar, and Negotin. The region of Belgrade and the surrounding area had been covered by a warm, shallow sea of normal salination. On the territory of Belgrade, offsprings of the Badenian sediments, rich in fossils, have been discovered in the city centre (Tašmajdan, Kalemegdan, as well as in many surrounding places (Rakovica, Kaluđerica, Leštani, and Jajinci (fig. 2. Scaphopod shells found at the Vinča-Belo Brdo archaeological site are usually transversally broken. Judging by the basic

  12. Performance of dye-affinity beads for aluminium removal in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Handan; Say, Ridvan; Andaç, Müge; Bayraktar, Necmi; Denizli, Adil

    2004-01-01

    Background Aluminum has recently been recognized as a causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy, osteodystrophy, and microcytic anemia occurring in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo long-term hemodialysis. Only a small amount of Al(III) in dialysis solutions may give rise to these disorders. Methods Magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mPHEMA) beads in the size range of 80–120 μm were produced by free radical co-polymerization of HEMA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of magnetite particles (Fe3O4). Then, metal complexing ligand alizarin yellow was covalently attached onto mPHEMA beads. Alizarin yellow loading was 208 μmol/g. These beads were used for the removal of Al(III) ions from tap and dialysis water in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. Results Al(III) adsorption capacity of the beads decreased with an increase in the flow-rate. The maximum Al(III) adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Comparison of batch and magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) maximum capacities determined using Langmuir isotherms showed that dynamic capacity (17.5 mg/g) was somewhat higher than the batch capacity (11.8 mg/g). The dissociation constants for Al(III) were determined using the Langmuir isotherm equation to be 27.3 mM (MSFB) and 6.7 mM (batch system), indicating medium affinity, which was typical for pseudospecific affinity ligands. Al(III) ions could be repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed with these beads without noticeable loss in their Al(III) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Adsorption of Al(III) demonstrate the affinity of magnetic dye-affinity beads. The MSFB experiments allowed us to conclude that this inexpensive sorbent system may be an important alternative to the existing adsorbents in the removal of aluminium. PMID:15329149

  13. International trade law perspectives on paperless trade and inclusive digital trade

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Andrew D.; Mishra, Neha

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border paperless trade is increasingly important to generate economic gains in a digitalised economy. Several developing and least developed countries will need to modernise their domestic laws and regulations to facilitate cross-border electronic transmissions, particularly to promote cloud computing and electronic payments. In recent trade agreements, trading partners have committed to deeper and more comprehensive provisions on electronic commerce, including adopting domestic laws on...

  14. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  15. Control system of reverse side bead width by surface temperature monitoring of TIG weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozono, Yuzoo; Kokura, Satoshi; Onuma, Akira

    1986-01-01

    An experimental model of a reverse side bead width control system which employs a fiber-optic thermal sensor and a microcomputer has been developed. The system is worked by monitoring infrared radiation emitted from the surface of the workpiece. In this system, infrared rays emitted from the surface of the weld are picked up and transmitted via optical fiber to a photodiode which converts them into electrical signals. The welding current is controlled by an 8-bit microcomputer in accordance with fluctuations in these signals so as to ensure the optimum surface temperature is obtained for a high quality reverse side bead. (author)

  16. Bifunctional groups grafted polyethersulfone magnetic beads for selective sequestration of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sumana; Aggarwal, S.K.; Pandey, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study involves synthesis of polyethersulfone (PES) beads grafted with two different monomers viz. 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate phosphoric acid ester (HEMP) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS) by photo-induced free radical polymerization method. The selection of bifunctional polymer was based on our previous studies, which indicated its efficacy for selective preconcentration of Pu from 3-4 mol L -1 HNO 3 . The HEMP-co-AMPS grafted PES beads were used for selective extraction of plutonium from dissolver solution

  17. Evil Eye Belief In Turkish Culture: Myth Of Evil Eye Bead

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncer Manzakoğlu, Bilgen; Türkmenoğlu Berkan, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    Evil eye belief is found in many parts of the world and it plays a major social role in a large number of cultural contexts. The history of evil eye bead usage dated back to ancient times, but upon time it’s meaning have been re-constructed by culture. This paper focused on an amulet based commodity “evil eye bead” used against evil eye and for ornament in Turkey. In order to analyze the myth of evil eye bead, two-sectioned survey was conducted. First section determined evil eye b...

  18. The Numerical Welding Simulation - Developments and Validation of Simplified and Bead Lumping Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baup, Olivier

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the TIG multipass welding process on stainless steel, by means of numerical methods and then to work out simplified and bead lumping methods in order to reduce adjusting and realisation times of these calculations. A simulation was used as reference for the validation of these methods; after the presentation of the test series having led to the option choices of this calculation (2D generalised plane strains, elastoplastic model with an isotropic hardening, hardening restoration due to high temperatures), various simplifications were tried on a plate geometry. These simplifications related various modelling points with a correct plastic flow representation in the plate. The use of a reduced number of thermal fields characterising the bead deposit and a low number of tensile curves allow to obtain interesting results, decreasing significantly the Computing times. In addition various lumping bead methods have been studied and concerning both the shape and the thermic of the macro-deposits. The macro-deposit shapes studied are in 'L', or in layer or they represent two beads one on top of the other. Among these three methods, only those using a few number of lumping beads gave bad results since thermo-mechanical history was deeply modified near and inside the weld. Thereafter, simplified methods have been applied to a tubular geometry. On this new geometry, experimental measurements were made during welding, which allow a validation of the reference calculation. Simplified and reference calculations gave approximately the same stress fields as found on plate geometry. Finally, in the last part of this document a procedure for automatic data setting permitting to reduce significantly the calculation phase preparation is presented. It has been applied to the calculation of thick pipe welding in 90 beads; the results are compared with a simplified simulation realised by Framatome and with experimental measurements. A bead by

  19. Study of Spatio-Temporal Immunofluorescence on Bead Patterns in a Microfluidic Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Venkataragavalu; Yang, Hui; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2010-12-01

    We performed a direct immunoassay inside a microfluidic channel on patterned streptavidin-coated beads, which captured fluorescently-labeled biotin target molecules from a continuous flow. We arranged the beads in a dot array at the bottom of the channel and demonstrated their position- and flow rate-dependent fluorescence. As the target analyte gets gradually depleted from the flow when passing downstream the channel, the highest fluorescence intensity was observed on the most upstream positioned dot patterns. We propose a simple analytical convection model to explain this spatio-temporal fluorescence.

  20. Resin bead methodology as applied to fuel burn-up and fissile inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; Carter, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A new technique has been developed that allows acquisition of samples from matrices difficult to access. While the examples given in this paper are from the nuclear field, the technique is readily modified to address other areas. The technique involves obtaining samples on resin beads; each bead then comprises a sample for mass spectrometric analysis. Through the application of isotope dilution, concentrations of the target elements can be obtained in addition to their isotopic compositions. Examples of application of this technique are given for U, Pu, and Nd. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  1. e-Trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    PetroCosm is a B2B online exchange for the oil and gas industry. It links buyers and sellers to service providers in real-time product and service trading across the supply chain. It can facilitate the transfer of equipment and services for oil and gas companies around the world. This paper referred to the value-creation opportunities associated with electronically transforming oil and gas companies. Traditional businesses that use Internet technology extensively can shift their strategic perspective to an e-business perspective where the need for capital is minimized and more focus can be placed on productivity, creating a more efficient and dynamic company with potential for long-term competitive advantages. Many oil companies have moved forward with implementing the needed technology and management infrastructure for e-business. 10 figs

  2. The uranium International trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez U, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the understanding of how the present dynamic of uranium International trade is developed, the variables which fall into, the factors that are affecting and conditioning it, in order to clarify which are going to be the outlook in the future of this important resource in front of the present ecological situation and the energetic panorama of XXI Century. For this purpose, as starting point, the uranium is considered as a strategic material which importance take root in its energetic potential as alternate energy source, and for this reason in Chapter I, the general problem of raw materials, its classification and present situation in the global market is presented. In Chapter II, by means of a historical review, is explain what uranium is, how it was discovered, and how since the end of the past Century and during the last three decades of present, uranium pass of practically unknown element, to the position of a strategic raw material, which by degrees, generate an International market, owing to its utilization as a basic resource in the generation of energy. Chapter III, introduce us in the roll played by uranium, since its warlike applications until its utilization in nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity. Also is explain the reason for this change in the perception at global level. Finally, in Chapter IV we enter upon specifically in the present conditions of the International market of this mineral throughout the trends of supply and demand, the main producers, users, price dynamics, and the correlation among these economical variables and other factors of political, social and ecological nature. All of these with the purpose to found out, if there exist, a meaning of the puzzle that seems to be the uranium International trade

  3. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  4. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2). (b...

  5. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  6. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in heterogeneous-firms trade models. Accordingly, several of the predictions on exit stemming from new-new trade theory are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productivity firms survive longer, higher...

  7. The Characteristics of Informed Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Hadiye; Easley, David; Hvidkjær, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the linkage of microstructure, accounting, and asset pricing. We determine the relationship between firm characteristics as captured by accounting and market data and a firm's probability of private information-based trade (PIN) as estimated from trade data. This allows us...

  8. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  9. Does corruption discourage international trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Bogmans, C.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    We use measures of trade-related corruption to investigate the effects of corruption on international trade and compare the results with those of corruption in general. We distinguish corruption in an exporting economy from that in an importing economy. Both distinctions appear to be important.

  10. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  11. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  12. International trade and currency unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This short article critically reviews the existing empirical literature on the potential trade benefi ts of currency unions and, more in particular, the EMU. Joining a currency union decreases transaction and information costs associated with international trade. From the existing literature two

  13. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  14. Improving U.S. Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  15. Factors of trade in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2014), s. 518-535 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP403/12/0080 Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : bilateral trade * factors of trade * panel data Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2014

  16. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  17. Trading strategies of corporate insiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, O.; Maug, E.; Schneider, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We test two complementary theories of optimal trading strategies by analyzing the transaction patterns of corporate insiders. According to information-based theories, investors trade faster if they compete with others for exploiting the same information, while liquidity-based theories predict the

  18. The Readability of Trade Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Alison; Wagner, Graham

    A 1982 study assessed the comparative reading comprehension levels and writing ability performance of Trades Certification Board (TCB) apprentices in five trades in New Zealand. Test data were collected for 1,389 apprentices and a comparison group of 361 secondary school students. The cloze procedure format was adopted for assessing apprentices'…

  19. A Universal Approach for Selective Trace Metal Determinations via Sequential Injection-Bead Injection-Lab-on-Valve (SI-BI-LOV) Using Renewable Reagent-loaded Hydrophobic Beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    -Lab-on-Valve (SI-LOV) mode. The methodology uses poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) beads containing pendant octadecyl moieties (C18-PS/DVB), which are pre-impregnated with a selective organic metal chelating agent prior to the automatic manipulation of the beads in the microbore conduits of the LOV unit. By adapting......A new sample pretreatment approach is presented for selective and sensitive determination of trace metals via electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) based on the principle of bead injection (BI) with renewable reagent-loaded hydrophobic beads in a Sequential Injection...... in selecting the most favourable elution mode in order to attain the highest sensitivity. Cr(VI) is used as model analyte to demonstrate the potential of the SI-BI-LOV scheme, in which 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) is pre-impregnated on the beads, the surface of which serves as the active microzone. It is shown...

  20. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  1. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-05-18

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Geographies of High Frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographies of high frequency trading. Today shares shift hands within micro seconds, giving rise to a form of financial geographies termed algorithmic capitalism. This notion refers to the different spatio-temporalities produced by high frequency trading, under...... the valuation of time. As high frequency trading accelerates financial markets, the paper examines the spatio-temporalities of automated trading by the ways in which the speed of knowledge exploitation in financial markets is not only of interest, but also the expansion between different temporalities....... The paper demonstrates how the intensification of time-space compression produces radical new dynamics in the financial market and develops information rent in HFT as convertible to a time rent and a spatio-temporal rent. The final section discusses whether high frequency trading only responds to crises...

  3. Theoretical study of moving magnetic beads on an inclined plane and its application in the ratchet separation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, M.M., E-mail: mm_rashidi@tongji.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Lab of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management Systems, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Rd., Jiading, Shanghai, 201804 (China); ENN-Tongji Clean Energy Institute of Advanced Studies, Shanghai (China); ENN-Tongji Clean Energy Institute of Advanced Studies, Shanghai (China); Johnson, S., E-mail: mm_rashidi@sawtc.com [University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Z., E-mail: shane.johnson@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Lab of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management Systems, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Rd., Jiading, Shanghai, 201804 (China); ENN-Tongji Clean Energy Institute of Advanced Studies, Shanghai (China)

    2016-01-15

    For first time, motion of a magnetic bead ascending an inclined surface is investigated. The translational and rotational velocities of magnetic beads traveling on an inclined plane in the creeping flow regime are studied. The governing equations considering lift force and magnetic torque are obtained. Rolling and slipping cases are studied in detail. It is shown that the lift force effect is critical for large values of sedimentation Reynolds number (Res) and negligible for small values of Res. This method is applicable for neutrally buoyant and heavy magnetic bead motion. Practical application of this study is implemented in the ratchet configuration for separation of magnetic beads with different sizes. This is applicable for novel applications such as drug delivery, magnetic tweezers, and magnetic actuated stiffness testing systems which require accurate magnetic bead sizes for accurate function. - Graphical abstract: Free body diagram for rolling/slipping motion a rough magnetic bead up a smooth plane. - Highlights: • For first time, motion of a magnetic bead ascending an inclined surface is investigated. • The governing equations considering lift force and magnetic torque are obtained. • Practical application of this study is implemented in the ratchet configuration for separation of magnetic beads with different sizes.

  4. Resin bead U and PU analysis of WAK input solutions: a statistical summary of experiment No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayne, C.K.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    A statistical analysis of the resin bead experimental data was made to identify sources of variations among the measurements of isotopic atom ratios and elemental concentrations of plutonium and uranium. Comparisons among treatment means of the analytical laboratory and the resin bead preparation methods are tabulated using Duncan's multiple range test.

  5. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters from 10 nm to 250 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of planar Hall effect magnetoresistive sensors for AC susceptibility measurements of magnetic beads with frequencies ranging from DC to 1 MHz. This wide frequency range allows for measuring Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 250 nm...

  6. 77 FR 12311 - Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Sprinkle.'' This guidance provides applicants preparing or submitting new drug applications (NDAs... that are labeled to be administered via sprinkling (e.g., capsules or packets containing beads). In the...

  7. 76 FR 3144 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability AGENCY... Labeled for Sprinkle.'' This draft guidance provides sponsors of new drug applications (NDAs), abbreviated... that are labeled to be administered via sprinkling (e.g., capsules or packets containing beads). DATES...

  8. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Flow-orthogonal bead oscillation in a microfluidic chip with a magnetic anisotropic flux-guide array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Pelt, Stijn; Derks, Roy; Matteucci, Marco

    2011-01-01

    A new concept for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads inside a microfluidic chip is presented in this paper. The concept allows for bead actuation orthogonal to the flow direction inside a microchannel. Basic manipulation functionalities were studied by means of finite element simulations...

  10. ASEAN-New Zealand Trade Relations and Trade Potential: Evidence and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bano, Sayeeda; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Scrimgeour, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of trade between ASEAN and New Zealand. Indices of trade intensity and trade potential are used to analyse the intensity of existing trade for the period 1980~2010 and trade potential going forward. This is the first use of the trade potential method to assess the trade potential between New Zealand and ASEAN across industries. The results show significant potential for future growth in specific export sectors and demonstrate changing trade patterns between...

  11. Theoretical study of moving magnetic beads on an inclined plane and its application in the ratchet separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, M. M.; Johnson, S.; Yang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    For first time, motion of a magnetic bead ascending an inclined surface is investigated. The translational and rotational velocities of magnetic beads traveling on an inclined plane in the creeping flow regime are studied. The governing equations considering lift force and magnetic torque are obtained. Rolling and slipping cases are studied in detail. It is shown that the lift force effect is critical for large values of sedimentation Reynolds number (Res) and negligible for small values of Res. This method is applicable for neutrally buoyant and heavy magnetic bead motion. Practical application of this study is implemented in the ratchet configuration for separation of magnetic beads with different sizes. This is applicable for novel applications such as drug delivery, magnetic tweezers, and magnetic actuated stiffness testing systems which require accurate magnetic bead sizes for accurate function.

  12. COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION OF FIRE DEVELOPMENT INSIDE A TRADE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin LUPU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Real scale fire experiments involve considerable costs compared to computational mathematical modelling. This paperwork is the result of such a virtual simulation of a fire occurred in a hypothetical wholesale warehouse comprising a large number of trade stands. The analysis starts from the ignition source located inside a trade stand towards the fire expansion over three groups of compartments, by highlighting the heat transfer, both in small spaces, as well as over large distances. In order to confirm the accuracy of the simulation, the obtained values are compared to the ones from the specialized literature.

  13. The role of trade costs in global production networks : evidence from China's processing trade regime

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Alyson C.; Van Assche, Ari

    2010-01-01

    In a seminal contribution, Yi (2003) has shown that vertically specialized trade should be more sensitive to changes in trade costs than regular trade. Yet empirical evidence of this remains remarkably scant. This paper uses data from China's processing trade regime to analyze the role of trade costs on trade within global production networks (GPNs). Under this regime, firms are granted du...

  14. Free trade or just trade? The world trade organisation, human rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author critically examines the role of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). In recent years, it is noted, the organisation's agenda of trade liberalisation, its perceived lack of accountability and insensitivity to human rights have attracted intense criticism. It has been asserted that provisions of WTO agreements concerning ...

  15. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  16. Application of multiplexed kinase inhibitor beads to study kinome adaptations in drug-resistant leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Cooper

    Full Text Available Protein kinases play key roles in oncogenic signaling and are a major focus in the development of targeted cancer therapies. Imatinib, a BCR-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a successful front-line treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML. However, resistance to imatinib may be acquired by BCR-Abl mutations or hyperactivation of Src family kinases such as Lyn. We have used multiplexed kinase inhibitor beads (MIBs and quantitative mass spectrometry (MS to compare kinase expression and activity in an imatinib-resistant (MYL-R and -sensitive (MYL cell model of CML. Using MIB/MS, expression and activity changes of over 150 kinases were quantitatively measured from various protein kinase families. Statistical analysis of experimental replicates assigned significance to 35 of these kinases, referred to as the MYL-R kinome profile. MIB/MS and immunoblotting confirmed the over-expression and activation of Lyn in MYL-R cells and identified additional kinases with increased (MEK, ERK, IKKα, PKCβ, NEK9 or decreased (Abl, Kit, JNK, ATM, Yes abundance or activity. Inhibiting Lyn with dasatinib or by shRNA-mediated knockdown reduced the phosphorylation of MEK and IKKα. Because MYL-R cells showed elevated NF-κB signaling relative to MYL cells, as demonstrated by increased IκBα and IL-6 mRNA expression, we tested the effects of an IKK inhibitor (BAY 65-1942. MIB/MS and immunoblotting revealed that BAY 65-1942 increased MEK/ERK signaling and that this increase was prevented by co-treatment with a MEK inhibitor (AZD6244. Furthermore, the combined inhibition of MEK and IKKα resulted in reduced IL-6 mRNA expression, synergistic loss of cell viability and increased apoptosis. Thus, MIB/MS analysis identified MEK and IKKα as important downstream targets of Lyn, suggesting that co-targeting these kinases may provide a unique strategy to inhibit Lyn-dependent imatinib-resistant CML. These results demonstrate the utility of MIB/MS as a tool to identify

  17. On the motion of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquid filaments: Stretching, beading, blistering, pinching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Linda Beth

    The motion and stability of a liquid filament drawn out behind a falling drop is examined experimentally and mathematically for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. We confirm experimentally that an exact solution for the interfacial motion of an infinite Newtonian filament captures the thinning of the filament in experiments with several fluids. We also show experimentally that a linear stability analysis of this solution correctly predicts whether the filament end-pinches or internally-pinches, creating either one or several satellite drops. We derive an exact solution for a purely extensional cylindrical filament of non-Newtonian fluid that satisfies both the Upper Convected Maxwell and Oldroyd-B constitutive laws. The resulting prediction of decreasing filament thickness agrees with our experimental measurements for dilute polymer solutions. In the limit t → infinity, the exact solution approaches that for a Newtonian fluid. In experiments with a polyelectrolyte polymer (xanthan gum) solution, the drop length sensitively depends on the ionic strength of the solvent environment due to charge screening effects. We also study the "beadon-string" phenomenon, in which a nascent disturbance grows to finite size along a filament. In experiments with an aqueous polymer solution the perturbation grows logarithmically, and may saturate in size to a nearly spherical shape. Numerical simulations of a simple 1-D model for the bead predicts the logarithmic growth, but fail to capture saturation. Finally, in experiments with surfactant solutions composed of wormlike micelles, with low concentrations, the drop pinches-off in one location along the filament, and the free filament ends contract toward the orifice or drop. For higher concentrations, this free filament does not fully retract, instead it retains some of its deformation. The drop may also stall in its downward motion, such that elasticity balances the weight of the drop. For still higher concentration surfactant

  18. Removal of textile dye, direct red 23, with glutaraldehyde cross-linked magnetic chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlier, Senay Hamarat; Ak, Güliz; Yilmaz, Habibe; Ozbakir, Gizem; Cagliyan, Oguzhan

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important classes of pollutants is dyes, and today there are more than 100,000 commercial dyes. Conventional treatment processes are very expensive, so it is essential to develop low-cost sorbent materials with high adsorption capacities. The aim of this study is to prepare magnetic microsized adsorbents that have high adsorption capacity for removal of direct red 23. Through this objective, glutaraldehyde cross-linked magnetic chitosan beads were formed in order to remove the textile dye direct red 23. Barium ferrite was used to give a magnetic property so that the beads could easily be separated from the water after treatment. The effects of barium ferrite, pH, incubation time, dye concentration, and glutaraldehyde amounts were investigated. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The adsorption capacity had a very large value: 1250 mg/g at pH 4.0, at room temperature. Compared with activated carbon, magnetic cross-linked chitosan exhibits excellent performance in the adsorption of anionic dyes and the magnetic properties of beads enable us to remove the beads from the water after treatment. Pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models were applied.

  19. Analysis of U and Pu resin bead samples with a single stage mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; Bertram, L.K.; Carter, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Resin bead sampling enables the shipment of nanogram U and Pu quantities for analysis. Application of this sampling technique to safeguards was investigated with a single-stage mass spectrometer. Standards gave results in good agreement with NBS certified values. External precisions of +-0.5% were obtained on isotopic ratios of approx. 0.01; precisions on quantitative measurements are +-1.0%

  20. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.