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Sample records for bead-based cbne detection

  1. Viral RNA testing and automation on the bead-based CBNE detection microsystem.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Farrell, Cara M.; Rossito, Paul (University of California at Davis); McClain, Jaime L.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Cullor, James Sterling (University of California at Davis); Rahimian, Kamayar

    2008-09-01

    We developed prototype chemistry for nucleic acid hybridization on our bead-based diagnostics platform and we established an automatable bead handling protocol capable of 50 part-per-billion (ppb) sensitivity. We are working towards a platform capable of parallel, rapid (10 minute), raw sample testing for orthogonal (in this case nucleic acid and immunoassays) identification of biological (and other) threats in a single sensor microsystem. In this LDRD we developed the nucleic acid chemistry required for nucleic acid hybridization. Our goal is to place a non-cell associated RNA virus (Bovine Viral Diarrhea, BVD) on the beads for raw sample testing. This key pre-requisite to showing orthogonality (nucleic acid measurements can be performed in parallel with immunoassay measurements). Orthogonal detection dramatically reduces false positives. We chose BVD because our collaborators (UC-Davis) can supply samples from persistently infected animals; and because proof-of-concept field testing can be performed with modification of the current technology platform at the UC Davis research station. Since BVD is a cattle-prone disease this research dovetails with earlier immunoassay work on Botulinum toxin simulant testing in raw milk samples. Demonstration of BVD RNA detection expands the repertoire of biological macromolecules that can be adapted to our bead-based detection. The resources of this late start LDRD were adequate to partially demonstrate the conjugation of the beads to the nucleic acids. It was never expected to be adequate for a full live virus test but to motivate that additional investment. In addition, we were able to reduce the LOD (Limit of Detection) for the botulinum toxin stimulant to 50 ppb from the earlier LOD of 1 ppm. A low LOD combined with orthogonal detection provides both low false negatives and low false positives. The logical follow-on steps to this LDRD research are to perform live virus identification as well as concurrent nucleic acid and

  2. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lee, Taek Seung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive 60 Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  3. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo [Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taek Seung, E-mail: tslee@cnu.ac.kr [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive {sup 60}Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  4. A dynamic bead-based microarray for parallel DNA detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochol, R D; Lin, L; Casavant, B P; Dueck, M E; Lee, L P

    2011-01-01

    A microfluidic system has been designed and constructed by means of micromachining processes to integrate both microfluidic mixing of mobile microbeads and hydrodynamic microbead arraying capabilities on a single chip to simultaneously detect multiple bio-molecules. The prototype system has four parallel reaction chambers, which include microchannels of 18 × 50 µm 2 cross-sectional area and a microfluidic mixing section of 22 cm length. Parallel detection of multiple DNA oligonucleotide sequences was achieved via molecular beacon probes immobilized on polystyrene microbeads of 16 µm diameter. Experimental results show quantitative detection of three distinct DNA oligonucleotide sequences from the Hepatitis C viral (HCV) genome with single base-pair mismatch specificity. Our dynamic bead-based microarray offers an effective microfluidic platform to increase parallelization of reactions and improve microbead handling for various biological applications, including bio-molecule detection, medical diagnostics and drug screening

  5. IMPLEMENTING THE COMPUTER-BASED NATIONAL EXAMINATION IN INDONESIAN SCHOOLS: THE CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Retnawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In line with technological development, the computer-based national examination (CBNE has become an urgent matter as its implementation faces various challenges, especially in developing countries. Strategies in implementing CBNE are thus needed to face the challenges. The aim of this research was to analyse the challenges and strategies of Indonesian schools in implementing CBNE. This research was qualitative phenomenological in nature. The data were collected through a questionnaire and a focus group discussion. The research participants were teachers who were test supervisors and technicians at junior high schools and senior high schools (i.e. Level 1 and 2 and vocational high schools implementing CBNE in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The data were analysed using the Bogdan and Biklen model. The results indicate that (1 in implementing CBNE, the schools should initially make efforts to provide the electronic equipment supporting it; (2 the implementation of CBNE is challenged by problems concerning the Internet and the electricity supply; (3 the test supervisors have to learn their duties by themselves and (4 the students are not yet familiar with the beneficial use of information technology. To deal with such challenges, the schools employed strategies by making efforts to provide the standard electronic equipment through collaboration with the students’ parents and improving the curriculum content by adding information technology as a school subject.

  6. Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kwon; Ahn, Doyeol [Institute of Quantum Information Processing and Systems, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong, Dongdaemun, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jong Seung; Hwang, Sung Woo, E-mail: dahn@uos.ac.kr [Research Center for Time-domain Nano-functional Devices and School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam, Sungbuk, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-19

    A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

  7. Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Kwon; Hwang, Jong Seung; Hwang, Sung Woo; Ahn, Doyeol

    2010-11-19

    A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

  8. Simultaneous detection and removal of radioisotopes with modified alginate beads containing an azo-based probe using RGB coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Ara; Jang, Geunseok; Namgung, Ho; Kim, Choongho; Kim, Daigeun; Kim, Yujun; Kim, Jongho; Lee, Taek Seung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modified alginate with azo-based probe (ABO) was synthesized by a reaction between sodium alginate and azo-based probe (BO2). • BO2 was found to be a good probe molecule for radioisotopes using colorimetric analysis. • Detection of Co 2+ and Sr 2+ was mainly carried out via interaction between BO2 and metal ions. • Simultaneous removal of radioisotopes was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in sodium alginate. • The alginate beads with dual functions of detection and removal of metal ions are successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We prepared alginate beads that were modified with an azo-based probe molecule to monitor simultaneously the removal (by alginate) and probing (by the azo-probe molecule) of radioisotopes such as cobalt, strontium, and cesium ions. As an azo-probe molecule, Basic Orange 2 (BO2) was immobilized to the alginate bead. The BO2 in aqueous solution exhibited a slight red shift in absorption with a change in color from orange to dark orange upon addition of cobalt and strontium ions. In contrast, the color of BO2 did not change upon exposure to cesium ions. Thus, the covalently embedded BO2 in alginate beads could adsorb cobalt and strontium ions resulting in recognizable color change of the beads, which was induced by the formation of a complex between BO2 and metal ions. The color changes of the beads in the presence of metal ions were determined quantitatively using RGB color coordinate values. In addition to effectively removing metal ions, the colorimetric coordinate method provides a convenient and simple sensing technique for naked-eye metal ion detection.

  9. Microfluidic bead-based multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification for detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood using quantum dots labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He, E-mail: mzhang_he@126.com; Fu, Xin; Hu, Jiayi; Zhu, Zhenjun

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: A microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dots labels was developed. The chip-based CTCs analysis could detect reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell (e.g. CEA expressing cell) in 1 mL blood sample. This microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor is a promising platform for disease-related nucleic acid molecules at the lowest level at their earliest incidence. -- Highlights: •Combination of microfluidic bead-based platform and enzyme–probe–AuNPs is proposed. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to 5 fM of tumor associated DNA. •Microfluidic platform and multienzyme-labeled AuNPs greatly enhanced sensitivity. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to RT-PCR products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell in 1 mL blood sample. •We report a sensitive nucleic acid sensor for detection of circulating tumor cells. -- Abstract: This study reports the development of a microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells in blood samples using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dot labels. In this method, the microbeads functionalized with the capture probes and modified electron rich proteins were arrayed within a microfluidic channel as sensing elements, and the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with the horseradish peroxidases (HRP) and DNA probes were used as labels. Hence, two signal amplification approaches are integrated for enhancing the detection sensitivity of circulating tumor cells. First, the large surface area of Au nanoparticle carrier allows several binding events of HRP on each nanosphere. Second, enhanced mass transport capability inherent from microfluidics leads to higher capture efficiency of targets because continuous flow within micro

  10. A two-channel detection method for autofluorescence correction and efficient on-bead screening of one-bead one-compound combinatorial libraries using the COPAS fluorescence activated bead sorting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintersteiner, Martin; Auer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    One-bead one-compound combinatorial library beads exhibit varying levels of autofluorescence after solid phase combinatorial synthesis. Very often this causes significant problems for automated on-bead screening using TentaGel beads and fluorescently labeled target proteins. Herein, we present a method to overcome this limitation when fluorescence activated bead sorting is used as the screening method. We have equipped the COPAS bead sorting instrument with a high-speed profiling unit and developed a spectral autofluorescence correction method. The correction method is based on a simple algebraic operation using the fluorescence data from two detection channels and is applied on-the-fly in order to reliably identify hit beads by COPAS bead sorting. Our method provides a practical tool for the fast and efficient isolation of hit beads from one-bead one-compound library screens using either fluorescently labeled target proteins or biotinylated target proteins. This method makes hit bead identification easier and more reliable. It reduces false positives and eliminates the need for time-consuming pre-sorting of library beads in order to remove autofluorescent beads. (technical note)

  11. Comparison of non-magnetic and magnetic beads in bead-based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansenová Maňásková, S.; van Belkum, A.; Endtz, H.P.; Bikker, F.J.; Veerman, E.C.I.; van Wamel, W.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex bead-based flow cytometry is an attractive way for simultaneous, rapid and cost-effective analysis of multiple analytes in a single sample. Previously, we developed various bead-based assays using non-magnetic beads coated with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens

  12. Magnetic Bead Based Immunoassay for Autonomous Detection of Toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Y; Hara, C A; Knize, M G; Hwang, M H; Venkatesteswaran, K S; Wheeler, E K; Bell, P M; Renzi, R F; Fruetel, J A; Bailey, C G

    2008-05-01

    As a step towards toward the development of a rapid, reliable analyzer for bioagents in the environment, we are developing an automated system for the simultaneous detection of a group of select agents and toxins. To detect toxins, we modified and automated an antibody-based approach previously developed for manual medical diagnostics that uses fluorescent eTag{trademark} reporter molecules and is suitable for highly multiplexed assays. Detection is based on two antibodies binding simultaneously to a single antigen, one of which is labeled with biotin while the other is conjugated to a fluorescent eTag{trademark} through a cleavable linkage. Aqueous samples are incubated with the mixture of antibodies along with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads coupled to a photo-activatable porphyrin complex. In the presence of antigen, a molecular complex is formed where the cleavable linkage is held in proximity to the photoactivable group. Upon excitation at 680 nm, free radicals are generated, which diffuse and cleave the linkage, releasing the eTags{trademark}. Released eTags{trademark} are analyzed using capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Limits of detection for ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid individually were 4 ng/mL (or 80 pg) and 16 ng/mL (or 320 pg), respectively, using the manual assay. In addition, we demonstrated the use of pairs of antibodies from different sources in a single assay to decrease the rate of false positives. Automation of the assay was demonstrated on a flow-through format with higher LODs of 125 ng/mL (or 2.5 ng) each of a mixture of ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid. This versatile assay can be easily modified with the appropriate antibodies to detect a wide range of toxins and other proteins.

  13. [Evaluation of TB-beads assay utilizing the technique of magnetic beads--an innovative assay method for detection of acid fast bacilli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuma, Masanori; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Obayashi, Konen; Ando, Yukio; Koriyama, Toyoyasu; Kimu, Minhi; Hirose, Nobuyuki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The centrifuge method with the use of Semi-Alkalin Proteinase (SAP) and NALC-NaOH, recommended by the "2007 edition of the assay guideline for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis," has significantly contributed to improving the sensitivities and specificities of both smear and culture tests for detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, this method poses some challenges in terms of its cumbersome and time-consuming assay protocol. "TB-beads (Kyokuto Pharmaceutical Industrial Co., Ltd.)" is a newly-developed method for detection of AFB utilizing magnetic beads. We evaluated the quality of this method in comparison with the centrifuge method, focusing on the results of smear and culture tests. This evaluation study was conducted using both 5 positive and 5 negative sputum samples. The sensitivity of TB-beads for fluorescent smear tests, conducted using "Acri-stain," was almost the same as that of the centrifuge method. One advantage of TB-beads, however, was that it was very convenient to practice microscopic observation due to the clear background of the smeared glass slides. The comparison of the contamination rates between the two methods showed that TB-beads suggested significantly lower contamination rates. The centrifuge method resulted in 50% and 60% of contamination rates for HK Semisolid Isolation Medium and BacT/ALERT MP, respectively. On the other hand, the contamination rates of TB-beads for both of the culture methods were only 10%. With regard to the 5 positive sputum samples, the comparison of the detection rates between the centrifuge and TB-Beads method was made utilizing Myco Acid, Ogawa K, and BacT/ALERT MP. The TB-Beads method suggested higher detection rates for Myco Acid and Ogawa K, while there were no significant differences between the two methods for BacT/ALERT MP (16-23 days). TB-beads is an easy method that allows to simplify the process of smear tests, and contributes to significantly reducing the contamination rate of culture

  14. Configurational Statistics of Magnetic Bead Detection with Magnetoresistive Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect magnetic beads that, mediated by a target, have bound to a functionalized area. This area is often larger than the area of the sensor. Both the sign and magnitude of the average magnetic field experienced by the sensor from a magnetic bead depends on the location...... of the bead relative to the sensor. Consequently, the signal from multiple beads also depends on their locations. Thus, a given coverage of the functionalized area with magnetic beads does not result in a given detector response, except on the average, over many realizations of the same coverage. We present...... a systematic theoretical analysis of how this location-dependence affects the sensor response. The analysis is done for beads magnetized by a homogeneous in-plane magnetic field. We determine the expected value and standard deviation of the sensor response for a given coverage, as well as the accuracy...

  15. Sensitive detection of nucleic acids by PNA hybridization directed co-localization of fluorescent beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Büscher, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    )avidin-coated fluorescent beads, differing in size and color [green beads (1 µm) and red beads (5.9 µm)], thereby allowing distinct detection of each PNA probe by conventional fluorescence microscopy. These two PNA beads showed easily detectable co-localization when simultaneously hybridizing to a target nucleic acid...

  16. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches....... The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover...

  17. On-chip signal amplification of magnetic bead-based immunoassay by aviating magnetic bead chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Uddin M; Jin, Gyeong Jun; Eom, Kyu Shik; Kim, Min Ho; Shim, Joon S

    2017-11-06

    In this work, a Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform is used to electromagnetically actuate magnetic bead chains for an enhanced immunoassay. Custom-made electromagnets generate a magnetic field to form, rotate, lift and lower the magnetic bead chains (MBCs). The cost-effective, disposable LOC platform was made with a polymer substrate and an on-chip electrochemical sensor patterned via the screen-printing process. The movement of the MBCs is controlled to improve the electrochemical signal up to 230% when detecting beta-type human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Thus, the proposed on-chip MBC-based immunoassay is applicable for rapid, qualitative electrochemical point-of-care (POC) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A magnetic bead-based method for concentrating DNA from human urine for downstream detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Hali; Russ, Patricia K; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R

    2013-01-01

    Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ∼50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×10(3) to 5×10(8) copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×10(6), 14×10(6), and 8×10(6) copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR.

  19. A flow cytometric assay technology based on quantum dots-encoded beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiqiao; Liu Tiancai; Cao Yuancheng; Huang Zhenli; Wang Jianhao; Li Xiuqing; Zhao Yuandi

    2006-01-01

    A flow cytometric detecting technology based on quantum dots (QDs)-encoded beads has been described. Using this technology, several QDs-encoded beads with different code were identified effectively, and the target molecule (DNA sequence) in solution was also detected accurately by coupling to its complementary sequence probed on QDs-encoded beads through DNA hybridization assay. The resolution of this technology for encoded beads is resulted from two longer wavelength fluorescence identification signals (yellow and red fluorescent signals of QDs), and the third shorter wavelength fluorescence signal (green reporting signal of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)) for the determination of reaction between probe and target. In experiment, because of QDs' unique optical character, only one excitation light source was needed to excite the QDs and probe dye FITC synchronously comparing with other flow cytometric assay technology. The results show that this technology has present excellent repeatability and good accuracy. It will become a promising multiple assay platform in various application fields after further improvement

  20. Rapid Detection of Enterobacter Sakazakii in milk Powder using amino modified chitosan immunomagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinglian; Wang, Dongfeng

    2016-12-01

    Chitosan immunomagnetic beads (CIBs) were first prepared through converting hydroxyl groups of natural polymer material-chitosan into amino groups using epichlorohydrin and ethylenediamine as modification agent and then coupling with polyclonal antibodies of Enterobacter sakazakii using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. The beads before coupling with antibodies were characterized by magnetic property measurement, FTIR, SEM and XRD technologies. In the assay a natural polysaccharide-chitosan, which has good biological and chemical properties such as non-toxicity, biocompatibility and high chemical reactivity was first used for synthesis of immunomagnetic beads. The detection method first established in this paper that combined the beads with chromogenic medium together to rapid detect E. sakazakii in milk powder could greatly improve the detection specificity and working efficiency. The beads exhibited a maximum capturing capacity of 1×10 6 cfu/g with the detection sensitivity of 4cfu/g. The results demonstrate that the assay is a straightforward, specific and sensitive alternative for rapid detection of E.sakazakii in food matrix. The total analysis time was as little as about 25h, which greatly shorten the detection time. The method can provides new ideas not only to preparation technique of immunomagnetic beads but to imunne detection technique in food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Confocal nanoscanning, bead picking (CONA): PickoScreen microscopes for automated and quantitative screening of one-bead one-compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintersteiner, Martin; Buehler, Christof; Uhl, Volker; Schmied, Mario; Müller, Jürgen; Kottig, Karsten; Auer, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Solid phase combinatorial chemistry provides fast and cost-effective access to large bead based libraries with compound numbers easily exceeding tens of thousands of compounds. Incubating one-bead one-compound library beads with fluorescently labeled target proteins and identifying and isolating the beads which contain a bound target protein, potentially represents one of the most powerful generic primary high throughput screening formats. On-bead screening (OBS) based on this detection principle can be carried out with limited automation. Often hit bead detection, i.e. recognizing beads with a fluorescently labeled protein bound to the compound on the bead, relies on eye-inspection under a wide-field microscope. Using low resolution detection techniques, the identification of hit beads and their ranking is limited by a low fluorescence signal intensity and varying levels of the library beads' autofluorescence. To exploit the full potential of an OBS process, reliable methods for both automated quantitative detection of hit beads and their subsequent isolation are needed. In a joint collaborative effort with Evotec Technologies (now Perkin-Elmer Cellular Technologies Germany GmbH), we have built two confocal bead scanner and picker platforms PS02 and a high-speed variant PS04 dedicated to automated high resolution OBS. The PS0X instruments combine fully automated confocal large area scanning of a bead monolayer at the bottom of standard MTP plates with semiautomated isolation of individual hit beads via hydraulic-driven picker capillaries. The quantification of fluorescence intensities with high spatial resolution in the equatorial plane of each bead allows for a reliable discrimination between entirely bright autofluorescent beads and real hit beads which exhibit an increased fluorescence signal at the outer few micrometers of the bead. The achieved screening speed of up to 200,000 bead assayed in less than 7 h and the picking time of approximately 1 bead

  2. Detection of low-abundance biomarker lipocalin 1 for diabetic retinopathy using optoelectrokinetic bead-based immunosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jhih-Cheng; Ku, Hu-Yao; Chen, Tain-Song; Chuang, Han-Sheng

    2017-03-15

    Early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is vital but challenging. DR is a common complication and a major cause of vision loss in patients with diabetes mellitus. Without appropriate medical intervention, visual impairment may become a great burden to our healthcare system. In clinical practice, the current diagnostic methods, such as fluorescence angiography and optical coherence tomography, remain constrained by non-quantitative examinations and individual ophthalmologists' experiences. Late diagnosis often prevents early treatment. To address the constraints on current diagnostics, this study developed an optoelectrokinetic bead-based immunosensing technique for detecting lipocalin 1 (LCN1), a DR biomarker. The concentration level of LCN1 in the tears of DR patients increases with DR severity. The immunoassay was dependent on the formation of sandwiched immunocomplexes on the particles. A secondary antibody labeled with dyes/quantum dots (QDs) was used to visualize the presence of the target antigens. Rapid electrokinetic patterning (REP), an optoelectrokinetic technique, was used to dynamically enhance the fluorescent signal by concentrating the modified particles. The limit of detection (LOD) of the technique could reach 110pg/mL. Only 1.5μL of a sample fluid was required for the measurement. Our results showed that highly sensitive and improved LOD is subjected to particle stacking, small particle size, and compact cluster. By labeling different particle sizes with dyes/QDs for LCN1 and TNF-α, we successfully used REP to detect the two DR biomarkers on the same platform. The development of an optoelectrokinetic bead-based immunosensing technique can provide new insights into diagnosing other low-abundance diseases in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A magnetic bead-based method for concentrating DNA from human urine for downstream detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hali Bordelon

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ∼50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×10(3 to 5×10(8 copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×10(6, 14×10(6, and 8×10(6 copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR.

  4. Improved Peak Capacity for Capillary Electrophoretic Separations of Enzyme Inhibitors with Activity-Based Detection Using Magnetic Bead Microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Gilman, S. Douglass

    2010-01-01

    A technique for separating and detecting enzyme inhibitors was developed using capillary electrophoresis with an enzyme microreactor. The on-column enzyme microreactor was constructed using NdFeB magnet(s) to immobilize alkaline phosphatase-coated superparamagnetic beads (2.8 μm diameter) inside a capillary before the detection window. Enzyme inhibition assays were performed by injecting a plug of inhibitor into a capillary filled with the substrate, AttoPhos. Product generated in the enzyme microreactor was detected by laser-induced fluorescence. Inhibitor zones electrophoresed through the capillary, passed through the enzyme microreactor, and were observed as negative peaks due to decreased product formation. The goal of this study was to improve peak capacities for inhibitor separations relative to previous work, which combined continuous engagement electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA) and transient engagement EMMA to study enzyme inhibition. The effects of electric field strength, bead injection time and inhibitor concentrations on peak capacity and peak width were investigated. Peak capacities were increased to ≥20 under optimal conditions of electric field strength and bead injection time for inhibition assays with arsenate and theophylline. Five reversible inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase (theophylline, vanadate, arsenate, L-tryptophan and tungstate) were separated and detected to demonstrate the ability of this technique to analyze complex inhibitor mixtures. PMID:20024913

  5. Planar Hall effect sensor bridge geometries optimized for magnetic bead detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    Novel designs of planar Hall effect bridge sensors optimized for magnetic bead detection are presented and characterized. By constructing the sensor geometries appropriately, the sensors can be tailored to be sensitive to an external magnetic field, the magnetic field due to beads being magnetized...... by the sensor self-field or a combination thereof. The sensors can be made nominally insensitive to small external magnetic fields, while being maximally sensitive to magnetic beads, magnetized by the sensor self-field. Thus, the sensor designs can be tailored towards specific applications with minimal...... of the dynamic magnetic response of suspensions of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 80 nm are performed. Furthermore, a method to amplify the signal by appropriate combinations of multiple sensor segments is demonstrated....

  6. Rapid, highly sensitive detection of herpes simplex virus-1 using multiple antigenic peptide-coated superparamagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Ying-Fen; Fields, Conor; Muzard, Julien; Liauchuk, Viktoryia; Carr, Michael; Hall, William; Lee, Gil U

    2014-12-07

    A sensitive, rapid, and label free magnetic bead aggregation (MBA) assay has been developed that employs superparamagnetic (SPM) beads to capture, purify, and detect model proteins and the herpes simplex virus (HSV). The MBA assay is based on monitoring the aggregation state of a population of SPM beads using light scattering of individual aggregates. A biotin-streptavidin MBA assay had a femtomolar (fM) level sensitivity for analysis times less than 10 minutes, but the response of the assay becomes nonlinear at high analyte concentrations. A MBA assay for the detection of HSV-1 based on a novel peptide probe resulted in the selective detection of the virus at concentrations as low as 200 viral particles (vp) per mL in less than 30 min. We define the parameters that determine the sensitivity and response of the MBA assay, and the mechanism of enhanced sensitivity of the assay for HSV. The speed, relatively low cost, and ease of application of the MBA assay promise to make it useful for the identification of viral load in resource-limited and point-of-care settings where molecular diagnostics cannot be easily implemented.

  7. Detection of ''beading faults'' in welded tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondot, J.

    In the steel tube industry the word ''beading'' refers to a highly localised leak affecting the welded zone. During the pneumatic test its flow rate is generally very low no more than a few thousandths of a mm 3 /second. Detection of such a fault by this test is consequently slow, and those which are choked or at the limit of leakage may escape detection. For greater safety, the tube technician is now using non-destructive testing methods such as eddy-currents and ultrasonics [fr

  8. Fluorescent detection of C-reactive protein using polyamide beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesh, Shreesha; Chen, Lu; Aitchison, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection causes Sepsis which is one of the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. This infection can be quantified from blood plasma using C - reactive protein (CRP). A quick diagnosis at the patient's location through Point-of- Care (POC) testing could give doctors the confidence to prescribe antibiotics. In this paper, the development and testing of a bead-based procedure for CRP quantification is described. The size of the beads enable them to be trapped in wells without the need for magnetic methods of immobilization. Large (1.5 mm diameter) Polyamide nylon beads were used as the substrate for capturing CRP from pure analyte samples. The beads captured CRP either directly through adsorption or indirectly by having specific capture antibodies on their surface. Both methods used fluorescent imaging techniques to quantify the protein. The amount of CRP needed to give a sufficient fluorescent signal through direct capture method was found suitable for identifying bacterial causes of infection. Similarly, viral infections could be quantified by the more sensitive indirect capture method. This bead-based assay can be potentially integrated as a disposable cartridge in a POC device due to its passive nature and the small quantities needed.

  9. Fluorescence-Based Multiplex Protein Detection Using Optically Encoded Microbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hong Jeong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential utilization of proteins for early detection and diagnosis of various diseases has drawn considerable interest in the development of protein-based multiplex detection techniques. Among the various techniques for high-throughput protein screening, optically-encoded beads combined with fluorescence-based target monitoring have great advantages over the planar array-based multiplexing assays. This review discusses recent developments of analytical methods of screening protein molecules on microbead-based platforms. These include various strategies such as barcoded microbeads, molecular beacon-based techniques, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based techniques. Their applications for label-free protein detection are also addressed. Especially, the optically-encoded beads such as multilayer fluorescence beads and SERS-encoded beads are successful for generating a large number of coding.

  10. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F.

    2015-01-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP. - Highlights: • We apply magnetoresistive sensors to study solid-surface hybridization kinetics of DNA. • We measure DNA melting profiles for perfectly matching DNA duplexes and for a single base mismatch. • We present a procedure to correct for temperature dependencies of the sensor output. • We reliably extract melting temperatures for the DNA hybrids. • We demonstrate direct measurement of differential binding signal for two probes on a single sensor

  11. Passive detection of Pb in water using rock phosphate agarose beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenborn, Harry M; Howard, Bret H; Sams, James I; Vesper, Dorothy J; Edenborn, Sherie L

    2017-08-15

    In this study, passive detectors for Pb were prepared by immobilizing powdered rock phosphate in agarose beads. Rock phosphate has been used to treat Pb-contaminated waters and soil by fixing the metal as an insoluble pyromorphite mineral. Under lab conditions, Pb was rapidly adsorbed from aqueous solution by the beads over time, consistent with the acidic dissolution of rock phosphate, the precipitation of pyromorphite within the pore space of the agarose gel matrix, and surface exchange reactions. Net accumulation of Pb occurred when beads were exposed to simulated periodic releases of Pb over time. Under field conditions, beads in mesh bags were effective at detecting dissolved Pb being transported as surface runoff from a site highly contaminated with Pb. Rates of Pb accumulation in beads under field conditions appeared to be correlated with the frequency of storm events and total rainfall. The rock phosphate agarose bead approach could be an inexpensive way to carry out source-tracking of Pb pollution, to verify the successful remediation of sites with Pb-contaminated soil, and to routinely monitor public water systems for potential Pb contamination. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Detection of Clonorchis sinensis circulating antigen in sera from Chinese patients by immunomagnetic bead ELISA based on IgY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is widely distributed in Southeast Asia including China. Clonorchiasis is included in control programs of neglected tropical diseases by World Health Organization (WHO because it is one of the major health problems in most endemic areas. Diagnosis of clonorchiasis plays a key role in the control programs. However, so far, there is no satisfactory method for clonorchiasis because of low sensitivity, poor practicality and high false positivity of available diagnostic tools. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed an immunomagnetic bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA based on IgY (egg yolk immunoglobulin against cysteine proteinase of C. sinensis for detection of circulating antigen in serum samples of patients infected with C. sinensis. The polyclonal IgY, coated with magnetic beads, was used as a capture antibody and a monoclonal IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase as a detection antibody in the IgY-based immunomagnetic bead ELISA system (IgY-IMB-ELISA. The results showed that the sensitivity of IgY-IMB-ELISA was 93.3% (14 of 15 in cases of heavy infection (5000 to 9999 eggs per gram feces, i.e, EPG 5000-9999, 86.7% (13 of 15 in cases of moderate infection (EPG 1000-4999 and 75.0% (9 of 12 in cases of light infection (EPG <1000 of clonorchiasis. Together 36 of total 42 (85.7% serum samples of human clonorchiasis gave a positive reaction. There was a significant correlation between ELISA optical density and egg counts (EPG with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 in total 42 patients. There were no positive results in patients with trichinosis (n = 10 or cysticercosis (n = 10. Cross-reactivity was 6.7% (2 of 30 with schistosomiasis japonica and 10.0% (3 of 30 with paragonimiasis, respectively. No positive reaction was found in 20 healthy persons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that IgY-IMB-ELISA appears to be a sensitive and specific assay for detection of circulating

  13. Detection of Clonorchis sinensis circulating antigen in sera from Chinese patients by immunomagnetic bead ELISA based on IgY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ge; Wang, Ting; Lu, Shengjun; Liu, Wenqi; Li, Yonglong; Lei, Jiahui

    2014-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is widely distributed in Southeast Asia including China. Clonorchiasis is included in control programs of neglected tropical diseases by World Health Organization (WHO) because it is one of the major health problems in most endemic areas. Diagnosis of clonorchiasis plays a key role in the control programs. However, so far, there is no satisfactory method for clonorchiasis because of low sensitivity, poor practicality and high false positivity of available diagnostic tools. We developed an immunomagnetic bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on IgY (egg yolk immunoglobulin) against cysteine proteinase of C. sinensis for detection of circulating antigen in serum samples of patients infected with C. sinensis. The polyclonal IgY, coated with magnetic beads, was used as a capture antibody and a monoclonal IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase as a detection antibody in the IgY-based immunomagnetic bead ELISA system (IgY-IMB-ELISA). The results showed that the sensitivity of IgY-IMB-ELISA was 93.3% (14 of 15) in cases of heavy infection (5000 to 9999 eggs per gram feces, i.e, EPG 5000-9999), 86.7% (13 of 15) in cases of moderate infection (EPG 1000-4999) and 75.0% (9 of 12) in cases of light infection (EPG <1000) of clonorchiasis. Together 36 of total 42 (85.7%) serum samples of human clonorchiasis gave a positive reaction. There was a significant correlation between ELISA optical density and egg counts (EPG) with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 in total 42 patients. There were no positive results in patients with trichinosis (n = 10) or cysticercosis (n = 10). Cross-reactivity was 6.7% (2 of 30) with schistosomiasis japonica and 10.0% (3 of 30) with paragonimiasis, respectively. No positive reaction was found in 20 healthy persons. Our findings suggest that IgY-IMB-ELISA appears to be a sensitive and specific assay for detection of circulating antigen in human clonorchiasis.

  14. A novel multiplex bead-based platform highlights the diversity of extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliha, Nina; Wiencek, Yvonne; Heider, Ute; Jüngst, Christian; Kladt, Nikolay; Krauthäuser, Susanne; Johnston, Ian C D; Bosio, Andreas; Schauss, Astrid; Wild, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The surface protein composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is related to the originating cell and may play a role in vesicle function. Knowledge of the protein content of individual EVs is still limited because of the technical challenges to analyse small vesicles. Here, we introduce a novel multiplex bead-based platform to investigate up to 39 different surface markers in one sample. The combination of capture antibody beads with fluorescently labelled detection antibodies allows the analysis of EVs that carry surface markers recognized by both antibodies. This new method enables an easy screening of surface markers on populations of EVs. By combining different capture and detection antibodies, additional information on relative expression levels and potential vesicle subpopulations is gained. We also established a protocol to visualize individual EVs by stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. Thereby, markers on single EVs can be detected by fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. We used the multiplex platform and STED microscopy to show for the first time that NK cell-derived EVs and platelet-derived EVs are devoid of CD9 or CD81, respectively, and that EVs isolated from activated B cells comprise different EV subpopulations. We speculate that, according to our STED data, tetraspanins might not be homogenously distributed but may mostly appear as clusters on EV subpopulations. Finally, we demonstrate that EV mixtures can be separated by magnetic beads and analysed subsequently with the multiplex platform. Both the multiplex bead-based platform and STED microscopy revealed subpopulations of EVs that have been indistinguishable by most analysis tools used so far. We expect that an in-depth view on EV heterogeneity will contribute to our understanding of different EVs and functions.

  15. A giant magnetoresistance ring-sensor based microsystem for magnetic bead manipulation and detection

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2011-03-28

    In this paper a novel spin valvegiant magnetoresistance(GMR) ring-sensor integrated with a microstructure is proposed for concentrating, trapping, and detecting superparamagnetic beads (SPBs). Taking advantage of the fact that SPBs can be manipulated by an external magnetic field, a unique arrangement of conducting microrings is utilized to manipulate the SPBs toward the GMR sensing area in order to increase the reliability of detection. The microrings are arranged and activated in such a manner so as to enable the detection of minute concentrations of SPBs in a sample. Precise manipulation is achieved by applying current sequentially to the microrings. The fabricated ring-shaped GMR element is located underneath the innermost ring and has a magnetoresistance of approximately 5.9%. By the performed experiments it was shown that SPBs could be successfully manipulated toward the GMR sensing zone.

  16. A giant magnetoresistance ring-sensor based microsystem for magnetic bead manipulation and detection

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Liang, Cai; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a novel spin valvegiant magnetoresistance(GMR) ring-sensor integrated with a microstructure is proposed for concentrating, trapping, and detecting superparamagnetic beads (SPBs). Taking advantage of the fact that SPBs can be manipulated by an external magnetic field, a unique arrangement of conducting microrings is utilized to manipulate the SPBs toward the GMR sensing area in order to increase the reliability of detection. The microrings are arranged and activated in such a manner so as to enable the detection of minute concentrations of SPBs in a sample. Precise manipulation is achieved by applying current sequentially to the microrings. The fabricated ring-shaped GMR element is located underneath the innermost ring and has a magnetoresistance of approximately 5.9%. By the performed experiments it was shown that SPBs could be successfully manipulated toward the GMR sensing zone.

  17. Detection of HLA Antibodies in Organ Transplant Recipients – Triumphs and Challenges of the Solid Phase Bead Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines the development of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody detection assays and their use in organ transplantation in both antibody screening and crossmatching. The development of sensitive solid phase assays such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique, and in particular the bead-based technology has revolutionized this field over the last 10–15 years. This revolution however has created a new paradigm in clinical decision making with respect to the detection of low level pretransplant HLA sensitization and its clinical relevance. The relative sensitivities of the assays used are discussed and the relevance of conflicting inter-assay results. Each assay has its advantages and disadvantages and these are discussed. Over the last decade, the bead-based assay utilizing the Luminex® fluorocytometer instrument has become established as the “gold standard” for HLA antibody testing. However, there are still unresolved issues surrounding this technique, such as the presence of denatured HLA molecules on the beads which reveal cryptic epitopes and the issue of appropriate fluorescence cut off values for positivity. The assay has been modified to detect complement binding (CB) in addition to non-complement binding (NCB) HLA antibodies although the clinical relevance of the CB and NCB IgG isotypes is not fully resolved. The increase sensitivity of the Luminex® bead assay over the complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch has permitted the concept of the “virtual crossmatch” whereby the crossmatch is predicted to a high degree of accuracy based on the HLA antibody specificities detected by the solid phase assay. Dialog between clinicians and laboratory staff on an individual patient basis is essential for correct clinical decision making based on HLA antibody results obtained by the various techniques. PMID:28018342

  18. A half-ring GMR sensor for detection of magnetic beads immobilized on a circular micro-trap

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2011-11-01

    Utilizing magnetic principles in biological immunoassays is an attractive option given its ability to remotely and non-invasively manipulate and detect cells tagged with micro/nano size superparamagnetic type beads and due to the fact that even the most complex biological immunoassays will have very little magnetic effect. The presence of magnetic beads can be detected by a magnetic sensor which quantifies the amount of target cells present in the immunoassay. In order to increase the detection rate a circular conducting micro-trap is employed to attract, trap and transport the magnetic beads to the sensing area. In this research we propose a half-ring spin valve type giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor for the measurement of stray fields produced by 2 μm magnetic beads which are around the circular micro-trap. A couple of half-ring GMR sensors can be used to cover the entire circular border width, in order to detect the majority of the immobilized magnetic beads. Analytical and numerical analysis leading towards the fabrication of the half-ring GMR sensor are presented. DC characterization of the fabricated sensor showed a magnetoresistance of 5.9 %. Experimental results showed that the half-ring GMR sensor detected the presence of 2 μm magnetic beads. Hence, half-ring GMR sensors integrated with a circular micro-trap have great potential to be used as an effective disease diagnostic device. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. A half-ring GMR sensor for detection of magnetic beads immobilized on a circular micro-trap

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Liang, Cai; Useinov, Arthur; Kosel, Jü rgen; Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing magnetic principles in biological immunoassays is an attractive option given its ability to remotely and non-invasively manipulate and detect cells tagged with micro/nano size superparamagnetic type beads and due to the fact that even the most complex biological immunoassays will have very little magnetic effect. The presence of magnetic beads can be detected by a magnetic sensor which quantifies the amount of target cells present in the immunoassay. In order to increase the detection rate a circular conducting micro-trap is employed to attract, trap and transport the magnetic beads to the sensing area. In this research we propose a half-ring spin valve type giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor for the measurement of stray fields produced by 2 μm magnetic beads which are around the circular micro-trap. A couple of half-ring GMR sensors can be used to cover the entire circular border width, in order to detect the majority of the immobilized magnetic beads. Analytical and numerical analysis leading towards the fabrication of the half-ring GMR sensor are presented. DC characterization of the fabricated sensor showed a magnetoresistance of 5.9 %. Experimental results showed that the half-ring GMR sensor detected the presence of 2 μm magnetic beads. Hence, half-ring GMR sensors integrated with a circular micro-trap have great potential to be used as an effective disease diagnostic device. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Quantitative and multiplexed detection for blood typing based on quantum dot-magnetic bead assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Ya-Han; Li, Ru-Qing; Lu, Hua; Zhao, Shu-Ming; Jiang, Tian-Lun

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and reliable blood grouping is essential for safe blood transfusion. However, conventional methods are qualitative and use only single-antigen detection. We overcame these limitations by developing a simple, quantitative, and multiplexed detection method for blood grouping using quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic beads. In the QD fluorescence assay (QFA), blood group A and B antigens were quantified using QD labeling and magnetic beads, and the blood groups were identified according to the R value (the value was calculated with the fluorescence intensity from dual QD labeling) of A and B antigens. The optimized performance of QFA was established by blood typing 791 clinical samples. Quantitative and multiplexed detection for blood group antigens can be completed within 35 min with more than 10 5 red blood cells. When conditions are optimized, the assay performance is satisfactory for weak samples. The coefficients of variation between and within days were less than 10% and the reproducibility was good. The ABO blood groups of 791 clinical samples were identified by QFA, and the accuracy obtained was 100% compared with the tube test. Receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed that the QFA has high sensitivity and specificity toward clinical samples, and the cutoff points of the R value of A and B antigens were 1.483 and 1.576, respectively. In this study, we reported a novel quantitative and multiplexed method for the identification of ABO blood groups and presented an effective alternative for quantitative blood typing. This method can be used as an effective tool to improve blood typing and further guarantee clinical transfusion safety.

  1. Bead Collage: An Arts-Based Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, "bead collage," an arts-based research method that invites participants to reflect, communicate and construct their experience through the manipulation of beads and found objects is explained. Emphasizing the significance of one's personal biography and experiences as a researcher, I discuss how my background as an…

  2. Ultra-sensitive chemiluminescent detection of Staphylococcus aureus based on competitive binding of Staphylococcus protein A-modified magnetic beads to immunoglobulin G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Jie; Wang, Wenwen; Zhou, Yali; Kong, Weijun; Wang, Zhenxing; Fu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus protein A (SPA) is a surface protein only expressed naturally in the cell walls of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and binds specifically to the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG). This fact can be utilized for the detection of S. aureus. Specifically, SPA-modified magnetic beads, compete with S. aureus pathogens for binding to rabbit IgG that previously was labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The beads were then magnetically separated, and chemiluminescence (CL) was generated by adding the reagents luminol and H_2O_2. Under optimal conditions, the intensity of CL decreases with increasing concentration of S. aureus over a very wide linear range (10 to 1.0 × 10"9 cfu·mL"−"1), with a limit of detection of 6.0 cfu·mL"−"1 at an S/N ratio of 3. The assay (including binding reaction, magnetic separation, washing of beads and detection) is completed within 50 min which is faster than many reported methods. It can well distinguish S. aureus from other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The magnetic beads have the beneficial effect of eliminating undesired matrix effects and of concentrating the sample. The method was applied to the analysis of urine, apple juice and glucose injection samples spiked with S. aureus, and recoveries ranged from 85 to 107 %. (author)

  3. A Rapid Detection Method of Brucella with Quantum Dots and Magnetic Beads Conjugated with Different Polyclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dandan; Qu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yushen; Li, Li; Yin, Dehui; Li, Juan; Xu, Kun; Xie, Renguo; Zhai, Yue; Zhang, Huiwen; Bao, Hao; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Juan; Song, Xiuling; Song, Wenzhi

    2017-03-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic disease of brucellosis worldwide. Traditional methods for detection of Brucella spp. take 48-72 h that does not meet the need of rapid detection. Herein, a new rapid detection method of Brucella was developed based on polyclonal antibody-conjugating quantum dots and antibody-modified magnetic beads. First, polyclonal antibodies IgG and IgY were prepared and then the antibody conjugated with quantum dots (QDs) and immunomagnetic beads (IMB), respectively, which were activated by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- N'-ethylcar-bodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) to form probes. We used the IMB probe to separate the Brucella and labeled by the QD probe, and then detected the fluorescence intensity with a fluorescence spectrometer. The detection method takes 105 min with a limit of detection of 103 CFU/mL and ranges from 10 to 105 CFU/mL ( R 2 = 0.9983), and it can be well used in real samples.

  4. Development of an in situ magnetic beads based RT-PCR method for electrochemiluminescent detection of rotavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Fangfang; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2012-12-01

    Rotaviruses are double-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family of enteric pathogens. It is a major cause of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children worldwide. Consequently, rapid and accurate detection of rotaviruses is of great importance in controlling and preventing food- and waterborne diseases and outbreaks. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a reliable method that possesses high specificity and sensitivity. It has been widely used to detection of viruses. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) can be considered as an important and powerful tool in analytical and clinical application with high sensitivity, excellent specificity, and low cost. Here we have developed a method for the detection of rotavirus by combining in situ magnetic beads (MBs) based RT-PCR with ECL. RT of rotavirus RNA was carried out in a traditional way and the resulting cDNA was directly amplified on MBs. Forward primers were covalently bounded to MBs and reverse primers were labeled with tris-(2, 2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR). During the PCR cycling, the TBR labeled products were directly loaded and enriched on the surface of MBs. Then the MBs-TBR complexes could be analyzed by a magnetic ECL platform without any post-modification or post-incubation which avoid some laborious manual operations and achieve rapid yet sensitive detection. In this study, rotavirus from fecal specimens was successfully detected within 2 h, and the limit of detection was estimated to be 104copies/μL. This novel in situ MBs based RT-PCR with ECL detection method can be used for pathogen detection in food safety field and clinical diagnosis.

  5. Highly specific and rapid immuno-fluorescent visualization and detection of E. coli O104:H4 with protein-A coated magnetic beads based LST-MUG assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barizuddin, Syed; Balakrishnan, Baskar; Stringer, R Cody; Dweik, Majed

    2015-08-01

    A method combining immunomagnetic separation and fluorescent sensing was developed to detect Escherichia coli (E. coli) O104:H4. The antibody specific to E. coli O104:H4 was immobilized on protein A-coated magnetic beads. This protein-A-anti E. coli O104:H4 complex was used to bind Fluorescein IsoThioCyanate (FITC) labeled E. coli O104:H4 antigen (whole cell) on it. The goal was to achieve a fluorescently detectable protein-A-anti E. coli O104:H4-E. coli O104:H4 complex on the magnetic beads. Fluorescent microscopy was used to image the magnetic beads. The resulting fluorescence on the beads was due to the FITC labeled antigen binding on the protein-A-anti E. coli O104:H4 immobilized magnetic beads. This visually proves the antigen-antibody binding. The fluorescent imaging results were obtained in 2 h if the minimum available bacteria in the sample were at least 10(5) CFU/ml. If no fluorescence was observed on the magnetic beads during fluorescent imaging, it indicates the bacterial concentration in the sample to be too low for it to have bound to the magnetic beads and hence no detection was possible. To detect bacterial concentration less than 10(5) CFU/ml in the sample, an additional step was required for detection. The magnetic bead complex was added to the LST-MUG (lauryl sulfate tryptose-4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide), a signaling reporter. The E. coli O104:H4 grows in LST-MUG and releases β-glucuronidase enzyme. This enzyme cleaves the MUG substrate that produces 4-methylumbelliferone, a highly fluorescent species. This fluorescence was detected using a spectrofluorometer. The emission peak in the fluorescent spectrum was found to be at 450 nm. The lower and upper detection range for this LST-MUG assay was found to be 2.05×10(5)-4.09×10(8) CFU/ml. The results for the LST-MUG assay for concentrations below 10(5) CFU/ml were ascertained in 8h. The advantages of this technique include the specific detection of bacteria without an enrichment step and

  6. Development of a magnetic bead-based method for the collection of circulating extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Liang; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Hsu, Shih-Che; Chien, Hsin-Jung; Ma, Ching-Ting; Chang, John Wen-Cheng; Yu, Chia-Jung; Chiou, Chiuan-Chian

    2016-01-25

    Cells release different types of extracellular vesicles (EVs). These EVs contain biomolecules, including proteins and nucleic acids, from their parent cells, which can be useful for diagnostic applications. The aim of this study was to develop a convenient procedure to collect circulating EVs with detectable mRNA or other biomolecules. Magnetic beads coated with annexin A5 (ANX-beads), which bound to phosphatidylserine moieties on the surfaces of most EVs, were tested for their ability to capture induced apoptotic bodies in vitro and other phosphatidylserine-presenting vesicles in body fluids. Our results show that up to 60% of induced apoptotic bodies could be captured by the ANX-beads. The vesicles captured from cultured media or plasma contained amplifiable RNA. Suitable blood samples for EV collection included EDTA-plasma and serum but not heparin-plasma. In addition, EVs in plasma were labile to freeze-and-thaw cycles. In rodents xenografted with human cancer cells, tumor-derived mRNA could be detected in EVs captured from serum samples. Active proteins could be detected in EVs captured from ascites but not from plasma. In conclusion, we have developed a magnetic bead-based procedure for the collection of EVs from body fluids and proved that captured EVs contain biomolecules from their parent cells, and therefore have great potential for disease diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic beads for rapid and efficient separation of specific or unspecific nucleic acid sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, J.; Parker, Jeffrey; Brassard, Lothar

    2001-01-01

    The versatile application of polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic M-PVA beads is demonstrated in the separation of genomic DNA, sequence specific nucleic acid purification, and binding of bacteria for subsequent DNA extraction and detection. It is shown that nucleic acids can be obtained in high yield and purity using M-PVA beads, making sample preparation efficient, fast and highly adaptable for automation processes

  8. Preparation of Immuno-magnetic Beads and Their Separation & Detection to Ovary Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The organic monomer-molecule with nanometer magnetic powder by means of reforming the surface of nanometer magnetic powder have been synthesized.Magnetic beads in diameter of 2μm or so are obtained by controlling conditions.Ovary cancer cells of ascites are separated and ovary cancer cells of blood are detected by using immuno-magnetic beads linked with ovary cancer cell mono-antibodies.Results show that the specificity is 85%,sensitivity is 87%,accuracy is 84%,cells acquiring purity is 90%,cells activity is 92% and detection sensitivity is 25×10-7.

  9. On-bead fluorescent DNA nanoprobes to analyze base excision repair activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gines, Guillaume; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Gasparutto, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •On magnetic beads fluorescent enzymatic assays. •Simple, easy, non-radioactive and electrophoresis-free functional assay. •Lesion-containing hairpin DNA probes are selective for repair enzymes. •The biosensing platform allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or within cell free extracts. -- Abstract: DNA integrity is constantly threatened by endogenous and exogenous agents that can modify its physical and chemical structure. Changes in DNA sequence can cause mutations sparked by some genetic diseases or cancers. Organisms have developed efficient defense mechanisms able to specifically repair each kind of lesion (alkylation, oxidation, single or double strand break, mismatch, etc). Here we report the adjustment of an original assay to detect enzymes’ activity of base excision repair (BER), that supports a set of lesions including abasic sites, alkylation, oxidation or deamination products of bases. The biosensor is characterized by a set of fluorescent hairpin-shaped nucleic acid probes supported on magnetic beads, each containing a selective lesion targeting a specific BER enzyme. We have studied the DNA glycosylase alkyl-adenine glycosylase (AAG) and the human AP-endonuclease (APE1) by incorporating within the DNA probe a hypoxanthine lesion or an abasic site analog (tetrahydrofuran), respectively. Enzymatic repair activity induces the formation of a nick in the damaged strand, leading to probe's break, that is detected in the supernatant by fluorescence. The functional assay allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or in cell-free extracts in a fast, specific, quantitative and sensitive way, using only 1 pmol of probe for a test. We recorded a detection limit of 1 μg mL −1 and 50 μg mL −1 of HeLa nuclear extracts for APE1 and AAG enzymes, respectively. Finally, the on-bead assay should be useful to screen inhibitors of DNA repair activities

  10. Asynchronous Magnetic Bead Rotation (AMBR Microviscometer for Label-Free DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzi Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a label-free viscosity-based DNA detection system, using paramagnetic beads as an asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR microviscometer. We have demonstrated experimentally that the bead rotation period is linearly proportional to the viscosity of a DNA solution surrounding the paramagnetic bead, as expected theoretically. Simple optical measurement of asynchronous microbead motion determines solution viscosity precisely in microscale volumes, thus allowing an estimate of DNA concentration or average fragment length. The response of the AMBR microviscometer yields reproducible measurement of DNA solutions, enzymatic digestion reactions, and PCR systems at template concentrations across a 5000-fold range. The results demonstrate the feasibility of viscosity-based DNA detection using AMBR in microscale aqueous volumes.

  11. Rapid Detection of Ricin in Serum Based on Cu-Chelated Magnetic Beads Using Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Qiang; Song, Jian; Wang, Hong-Li; Xu, Bin; Liu, Feng; He, Kun; Wang, Na

    2016-04-01

    The protein toxin ricin obtained from castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) seeds is a potent biological warfare agent due to its ease of availability and acute toxicity. In this study, we demonstrated a rapid and simple method to detect ricin in serum in vitro. The ricin was mixed with serum and digested by trypsin, then all the peptides were efficiently extracted using Cu-chelated magnetic beads and were detected with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The specific ricin peptides were identified by Nanoscale Ultra Performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry according to their sequences. The assay required 2.5 hours, and a characteristic peptide could be detected down to 4 ng/μl and used as a biomarker to detect ricin in serum. The high sensitivity and simplicity of the procedure makes it valuable in clinical practice.

  12. REVIEW: CHITOSAN BASED HYDROGEL POLYMERIC BEADS – AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Rani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin is a non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable natural polymer. Chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads have been extensively studied as micro- or nano-particulate carriers in the pharmaceutical and medical fields, where they have shown promise for drug delivery as a result of their controlled and sustained release properties, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. To introduce desired properties and enlarge the scope of the potential applications of chitosan, graft copolymerization with natural or synthetic polymers on it has been carried out, and also, various chitosan derivatives have been utilized to form beads. The desired kinetics, duration, and rate of drug release up to therapeutical level from polymeric beads are limited by specific conditions such as beads material and their composition, bead preparation method, amount of drug loading, drug solubility, and drug polymer interaction. The present review summarizes most of the available reports about compositional and structural effects of chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads on swelling, drug loading, and releasing properties. From the studies reviewed it is concluded that chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads are promising drug delivery systems.

  13. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens through the luminex magplex bead system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.; Raaij, van H.M.G.; Weerdt, de M.; Bergervoet, J.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a versatile multiplex method for both the serological and molecular detection of plant pathogens. The Luminex MagPlex bead system uses small paramagnetic microspheres (“beads”), either coated with specific antibodies or oligonucleotides, which capture respectively viruses and/or

  14. Rapid bead-based immunoassay for measurement of mannose-binding lectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, J T; Garred, P

    2009-01-01

    have been developed more automated platforms for MBL analysis is urgently needed. To pursue this, we set out to develop a flexible bead-based MBL immunoassay. Serum was obtained from 98 healthy individuals and 50 patients investigated for possible immunodeficiencies. We used the Luminex xMAP bead array...... coefficient were found be 7.88% and 5.70%, respectively. A close correlation between the new assay and a reference MBL measurement ELISA was found (rho 0.9381, P bead-based assay was less sensitive to interfering anti-murine antibodies in the blood samples than when the antibodies employed were...... used in the reference polystyrene-based ELISA. The new assay could be performed in 3 h with less than 25 microl serum required of each sample. These results show that MBL can be measured readily using a bead-based platform, which may form an efficient basis for a multiplex approach to measure different...

  15. Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in ground beef by a bead-free quantum dot-facilitated isolation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luxin; Wu, Chung-Shieh; Fan, Xudong; Mustapha, Azlin

    2012-05-01

    The aims of this study were to introduce a new immunological bead-free cell detection method using quantum dots (QDs) as reporter markers for foodborne pathogen detection. QDs are nanosized particles with long-term photostability, high quantum yield, broad absorption spectra, and narrow, symmetric emission and high signal-to-noise ratio. The chemical compound [(1-ethyl-3-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride] (EDC) and protein A were used as crosslinkers for manufacturing QD-antibody conjugates. To minimize the inhibition of QD fluorescence by the magnetic beads, the beads were removed after the primary pathogen isolation and before fluorescence measurement. Detection signals were increased four-fold after employing the bead-free isolation method. With a 24-h enrichment, the bead-free QD-facilitated detection method was able to detect 10 CFU/g Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella from artificially contaminated ground beef. To our knowledge, this detection method is the first research that combined a new EDC-protein A QD-labeling technique and bead-free fluorescence measurement to detect E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in ground beef. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Online measurement of bead geometry in GMAW-based additive manufacturing using passive vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Jun; Zhang, Guangjun

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing based on gas metal arc welding is an advanced technique for depositing fully dense components with low cost. Despite this fact, techniques to achieve accurate control and automation of the process have not yet been perfectly developed. The online measurement of the deposited bead geometry is a key problem for reliable control. In this work a passive vision-sensing system, comprising two cameras and composite filtering techniques, was proposed for real-time detection of the bead height and width through deposition of thin walls. The nozzle to the top surface distance was monitored for eliminating accumulated height errors during the multi-layer deposition process. Various image processing algorithms were applied and discussed for extracting feature parameters. A calibration procedure was presented for the monitoring system. Validation experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the online measurement system for bead geometry in layered additive manufacturing. (paper)

  17. Standardization of a cytometric p24-capture bead-assay for the detection of main HIV-1 subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbah, Mélanie; Onkar, Sayali; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Vanpouille, Christophe; Biancotto, Angélique; Bonar, Lydia; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Kijak, Gustavo; Michael, Nelson; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence

    2016-04-01

    The prevailing method to assess HIV-1 replication and infectivity is to measure the production of p24 Gag protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since fluorescent bead-based technologies offer a broader dynamic range and higher sensitivity, this study describes a p24 capture Luminex assay capable of detecting HIV-1 subtypes A-D, circulating recombinant forms (CRF) CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG, which together are responsible for over 90% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. The success of the assay lies in the identification and selection of a cross-reactive capture antibody (clone 183-H12-5C). Fifty-six isolates that belonged to six HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs were successfully detected with p-values below 0.021; limits of detection ranging from 3.7 to 3 × 104 pg/ml. The intra- and inter-assay variation gave coefficient of variations below 6 and 14%, respectively. The 183-bead Luminex assay also displayed higher sensitivity of 91% and 98% compared to commercial p24 ELISA and a previously described Luminex assay. The p24 concentrations measured by the 183-bead Luminex assay showed a significant correlation (R=0.92, passay leverages the advantages of the Luminex platform, which include smaller sample volume and simultaneous detection of up to 500 analytes in a single sample, and delivers a valuable tool for the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic actuator for the control and mixing of magnetic bead-based reactions on-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguel-Alonso, Miguel; Granados, Xavier; Faraudo, Jordi; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián; Puyol, Mar

    2014-10-01

    While magnetic bead (MB)-based bioassays have been implemented in integrated devices, their handling on-chip is normally either not optimal--i.e. only trapping is achieved, with aggregation of the beads--or requires complex actuator systems. Herein, we describe a simple and low-cost magnetic actuator to trap and move MBs within a microfluidic chamber in order to enhance the mixing of a MB-based reaction. The magnetic actuator consists of a CD-shaped plastic unit with an arrangement of embedded magnets which, when rotating, generate the mixing. The magnetic actuator has been used to enhance the amplification reaction of an enzyme-linked fluorescence immunoassay to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 whole cells, an enterohemorrhagic strain, which have caused several outbreaks in food and water samples. A 2.7-fold sensitivity enhancement was attained with a detection limit of 603 colony-forming units (CFU) /mL, when employing the magnetic actuator.

  19. Chip-Based Measurements of Brownian Relaxation of Magnetic Beads Using a Planar Hall Effect Magnetic Field Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Snakenborg, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    using only the self-field arising from the bias current applied to the sensors as excitation field. We present measurements on a suspension of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 250 nm vs. temperature and find that the observations are consistent with the Cole-Cole model for Brownian relaxation...... with a constant hydrodynamic bead diameter when the temperature dependence of the viscosity of water is taken into account. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of performing measurements of the Brownian relaxation response in a lab-on-a-chip system and constitute the first step towards an integrated...... biosensor based on the detection of the dynamic response of magnetic beads....

  20. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, S.; Frijns, A.J.H.; den Toonder, J.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil

  1. On-bead fluorescent DNA nanoprobes to analyze base excision repair activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gines, Guillaume; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Gasparutto, Didier, E-mail: didier.gasparutto@cea.fr

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •On magnetic beads fluorescent enzymatic assays. •Simple, easy, non-radioactive and electrophoresis-free functional assay. •Lesion-containing hairpin DNA probes are selective for repair enzymes. •The biosensing platform allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or within cell free extracts. -- Abstract: DNA integrity is constantly threatened by endogenous and exogenous agents that can modify its physical and chemical structure. Changes in DNA sequence can cause mutations sparked by some genetic diseases or cancers. Organisms have developed efficient defense mechanisms able to specifically repair each kind of lesion (alkylation, oxidation, single or double strand break, mismatch, etc). Here we report the adjustment of an original assay to detect enzymes’ activity of base excision repair (BER), that supports a set of lesions including abasic sites, alkylation, oxidation or deamination products of bases. The biosensor is characterized by a set of fluorescent hairpin-shaped nucleic acid probes supported on magnetic beads, each containing a selective lesion targeting a specific BER enzyme. We have studied the DNA glycosylase alkyl-adenine glycosylase (AAG) and the human AP-endonuclease (APE1) by incorporating within the DNA probe a hypoxanthine lesion or an abasic site analog (tetrahydrofuran), respectively. Enzymatic repair activity induces the formation of a nick in the damaged strand, leading to probe's break, that is detected in the supernatant by fluorescence. The functional assay allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or in cell-free extracts in a fast, specific, quantitative and sensitive way, using only 1 pmol of probe for a test. We recorded a detection limit of 1 μg mL{sup −1} and 50 μg mL{sup −1} of HeLa nuclear extracts for APE1 and AAG enzymes, respectively. Finally, the on-bead assay should be useful to screen inhibitors of DNA repair

  2. A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for mm sized beads on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segerink, Loes Irene; Koster, Maarten J.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact fluorescence detection system for on-chip analysis of beads, comprising a low-cost optical HD-DVD pickup. The complete system consists of a fluorescence detection unit, a control unit and a microfluidic chip containing microchannels and optical markers. With these

  3. Spherical porphyrin sensor array based on encoded colloidal crystal beads for VOC vapor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Cao, Kai-Di; Ding, Hai-Bo; Zhong, Qi-Feng; Gu, Hong-Cheng; Xie, Zhuo-Ying; Zhao, Yuan-Jin; Gu, Zhong-Ze

    2012-12-01

    A spherical porphyrin sensor array using colloidal crystal beads (CCBs) as the encoding microcarriers has been developed for VOC vapor detection. Six different porphyrins were coated onto the CCBs with distinctive encoded reflection peaks via physical adsorption and the sensor array was fabricated by placing the prepared porphyrin-modified CCBs together. The change in fluorescence color of the porphyrin-modified CCBs array serves as the detection signal for discriminating between different VOC vapors and the reflection peak of the CCBs serves as the encoding signal to distinguish between different sensors. It was demonstrated that the VOC vapors detection using the prepared sensor array showed excellent discrimination: not only could the compounds from the different chemical classes be easily differentiated (e.g., alcohol vs acids vs ketones) but similar compounds from the same chemical family (e.g., methanol vs ethanol) and the same compound with different concentration ((e.g., Sat. ethanol vs 60 ppm ethanol vs 10 ppm ethanol) could also be distinguished. The detection reproducibility and the humidity effect were also investigated. The present spherical sensor array, with its simple preparation, rapid response, high sensitivity, reproducibility, and humidity insensitivity, and especially with stable and high-throughput encoding, is promising for real applications in artificial olfactory systems.

  4. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations on wastewater nutrient removal. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The bioreactor containing algal beads (4 mm diameter) with 1.5 x 106 cells bead-1 (cell stocking) at concentration of 10.66 beads ml-1 wastewater (1:3 bead: wastewater, v/v) achieved ...

  5. Determination of glycated albumin using boronic acid-derived agarose beads on paper-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Euna; Tran, Van-Khue; Geng, Yanfang; Kim, Min Ki; Jin, Ga Hyun; Son, Seong Eun; Hur, Won; Seong, Gi Hun

    2018-01-01

    Self-monitoring of glycated albumin (GA), a useful glycemic marker, is an established method for preventing diabetes complications. Here, the paper-based lateral flow assay devices were developed for the sensitive detection of GA and the total human serum albumin (tHSA) in self-monitoring diabetes patients. Boronic acid-derived agarose beads were packed into a hole on a lateral flow channel. These well-coordinated agarose beads were used to capture GA through specific cis-diol interactions and to enhance the colorimetric signals by concentrating the target molecules. The devices exhibited large dynamic ranges (from 10  μ g/ml to 10 mg/ml for GA and from 10 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml for tHSA) and low detection limits (7.1  μ g/ml for GA and 4.7 mg/ml for tHSA), which cover the range of GA concentration in healthy plasma, which is 0.21-1.65 mg/ml (0.6%-3%). In determining the unknown GA concentrations in two commercial human plasma samples, the relative percentage difference between the values found by a standard ELISA kit and those found by our developed devices was 2.62% and 8.80%, which are within an acceptable range. The measurements of GA and tHSA were completed within 20 min for the total sample-to-answer diagnosis, fulfilling the demand for rapid analysis. Furthermore, the recovery values ranged from 99.4% to 110% in device accuracy tests. These results indicate that the developed paper-based device with boronic acid-derived agarose beads is a promising platform for GA and tHSA detection as applied to self-monitoring systems.

  6. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  7. Magnetic bead and gold nanoparticle probes based immunoassay for β-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Meng, X Y; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y Y; Meng, X M; Yang, L; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Wang, X R

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a double-probe based immunoassay was developed for rapid and sensitive determination of β-casein in bovine milk samples. In the method, magnetic beads (MBs), employed as supports for the immobilization of anti-β-casein polyclonal antibody (PAb), were used as the capture probe. Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), employed as a bridge for loading anti-β-casein monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were used as the amplification probe. The presence of β-casein causes the sandwich structures of MBs-PAb-β-casein-McAb-AuNPs through the interaction between β-casein and the anti-β-casein antibodies. The HRP, used as an enzymatic-amplified tracer, can catalytically oxidize the substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), generating optical signals that are proportional to the quantity of β-casein. The linear range of the immunoassay was from 6.5 to 1520ngmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.8ngmL(-1) which was 700 times lower than that of MBs-antibody-HRP based immunoassay and 6-7 times lower than that from the microplate-antibody-HRP based assay. The recoveries of β-casein from bovine milk samples were from 95.0% to 104.3% that had a good correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9956) with those obtained by an official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment and shorter time requirement of the antigen-antibody reaction, the developed immunoassay demonstrated the viability for detection of β-casein in bovine milk samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. New Detection Modality for Label-Free Quantification of DNA in Biological Samples via Superparamagnetic Bead Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Daniel C.; Li, Jingyi; Strachan, Briony C.; Begley, Matthew R.; Finkler, David; Bazydlo, Lindsay L.; Barker, N. Scott; Haverstick, Doris; Utz, Marcel; Landers, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Combining DNA and superparamagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field produces multiparticle aggregates that are visually striking, and enables label-free optical detection and quantification of DNA at levels in the picogram per microliter range. DNA in biological samples can be quantified directly by simple analysis of optical images of microfluidic wells placed on a magnetic stirrer without DNA purification. Aggregation results from DNA/bead interactions driven either by the presence of a chaotrope (a nonspecific trigger for aggregation) or by hybridization with oligonucleotides on functionalized beads (sequence-specific). This paper demonstrates quantification of DNA with sensitivity comparable to that of the best currently available fluorometric assays. The robustness and sensitivity of the method enable a wide range of applications, illustrated here by counting eukaryotic cells. Using widely available and inexpensive benchtop hardware, the approach provides a highly accessible low-tech microscale alternative to more expensive DNA detection and cell counting techniques. PMID:22423674

  9. A magnetic bead-based ligand binding assay to facilitate human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kris; Mole, Damian J; Homer, Natalie Z M; Iredale, John P; Auer, Manfred; Webster, Scott P

    2015-02-01

    Human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is emerging as an important drug target enzyme in a number of inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease states. Recombinant protein production of KMO, and therefore discovery of KMO ligands, is challenging due to a large membrane targeting domain at the C-terminus of the enzyme that causes stability, solubility, and purification difficulties. The purpose of our investigation was to develop a suitable screening method for targeting human KMO and other similarly challenging drug targets. Here, we report the development of a magnetic bead-based binding assay using mass spectrometry detection for human KMO protein. The assay incorporates isolation of FLAG-tagged KMO enzyme on protein A magnetic beads. The protein-bound beads are incubated with potential binding compounds before specific cleavage of the protein-compound complexes from the beads. Mass spectrometry analysis is used to identify the compounds that demonstrate specific binding affinity for the target protein. The technique was validated using known inhibitors of KMO. This assay is a robust alternative to traditional ligand-binding assays for challenging protein targets, and it overcomes specific difficulties associated with isolating human KMO. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. Fused Bead Analysis of Diogenite Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Beck, B.W.; McSween, H.Y.; Lee, C.T. A.

    2009-01-01

    Bulk rock chemistry is an essential dataset in meteoritics and planetary science [1]. A common method used to obtain the bulk chemistry of meteorites is ICP-MS. While the accuracy, precision and low detection limits of this process are advantageous [2], the sample size used for analysis (approx.70 mg) can be a problem in a field where small and finite samples are the norm. Fused bead analysis is another bulk rock analytical technique that has been used in meteoritics [3]. This technique involves forming a glass bead from 10 mg of sample and measuring its chemistry using a defocused beam on a microprobe. Though the ICP-MS has lower detection limits than the microprobe, the fused bead method destroys a much smaller sample of the meteorite. Fused bead analysis was initially designed for samples with near-eutectic compositions and low viscosities. Melts generated of this type homogenize at relatively low temperatures and produce primary melts near the sample s bulk composition [3]. The application of fused bead analysis to samples with noneutectic melt compositions has not been validated. The purpose of this study is to test if fused bead analysis can accurately determine the bulk rock chemistry of non-eutectic melt composition meteorites. To determine this, we conduct two examinations of the fused bead. First, we compare ICP-MS and fused bead results of the same samples using statistical analysis. Secondly, we inspect the beads for the presence of crystals and chemical heterogeneity. The presence of either of these would indicate incomplete melting and quenching of the bead.

  11. Development of a bead-based multiplex genotyping method for diagnostic characterization of HPV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Young Chung

    Full Text Available The accurate genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV is clinically important because the oncogenic potential of HPV is dependent on specific genotypes. Here, we described the development of a bead-based multiplex HPV genotyping (MPG method which is able to detect 20 types of HPV (15 high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 and 5 low-risk HPV types 6, 11, 40, 55, 70 and evaluated its accuracy with sequencing. A total of 890 clinical samples were studied. Among these samples, 484 were HPV positive and 406 were HPV negative by consensus primer (PGMY09/11 directed PCR. The genotyping of 484 HPV positive samples was carried out by the bead-based MPG method. The accuracy was 93.5% (95% CI, 91.0-96.0, 80.1% (95% CI, 72.3-87.9 for single and multiple infections, respectively, while a complete type mismatch was observed only in one sample. The MPG method indiscriminately detected dysplasia of several cytological grades including 71.8% (95% CI, 61.5-82.3 of ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and more specific for high grade lesions. For women with HSIL (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and SCC diagnosis, 32 women showed a PPV (positive predictive value of 77.3% (95% CI, 64.8-89.8. Among women >40 years of age, 22 women with histological cervical cancer lesions showed a PPV of 88% (95% CI, 75.3-100. Of the highest risk HPV types including HPV-16, 18 and 31 positive women of the same age groups, 34 women with histological cervical cancer lesions showed a PPV of 77.3% (95% CI, 65.0-89.6. Taken together, the bead-based MPG method could successfully detect high-grade lesions and high-risk HPV types with a high degree of accuracy in clinical samples.

  12. Magnetic Bead and Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles Based Optical Immunodetection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB in Bottled Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva K. RASTOGI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs are a major cause of food-borne diseases, most commonly SEs assayed immunologically with ELISA. An immunoassay based on fluorescein dye doped silica dioxide nanoparticles (F-SiNPs and magnetic bead (MB is described here for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB. F-SiNPs have unique optical properties which make them attractive for biosensing. The water-in-oil (W/O reverse microemulsion method was used for the synthesis of F-SiNPs (~ 95 nm of diameter. The F-SiNPs were characterized using SEM, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The detection of SEB is preformed in PBS buffer, and bottled drinking water using sandwich immunoassay format. Target analytes were captured using MBs modified with the antigen-specific “capture” antibody, and detected using F-SiNP labeled secondary antigen-specific antibody. We report a limit of detection down to 1 ng/mL SEB spiked sample in less than 2 hr assay time using fluorocount method. This study demonstrates the bio warfare agent SEB capture by magnetic beads and detection using F-SiNPs.

  13. Bead-based competitive fluorescence immunoassay for sensitive and rapid diagnosis of cyanotoxin risk in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye-Weon; Jang, Am; Kim, Lan Hee; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, In S

    2011-09-15

    Due to the increased occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins in drinking water sources, effective management based on a sensitive and rapid analytical method is in high demand for security of safe water sources and environmental human health. Here, a competitive fluorescence immunoassay of microcystin-LR (MCYST-LR) is developed in an attempt to improve the sensitivity, analysis time, and ease-of-manipulation of analysis. To serve this aim, a bead-based suspension assay was introduced based on two major sensing elements: an antibody-conjugated quantum dot (QD) detection probe and an antigen-immobilized magnetic bead (MB) competitor. The assay was composed of three steps: the competitive immunological reaction of QD detection probes against analytes and MB competitors, magnetic separation and washing, and the optical signal generation of QDs. The fluorescence intensity was found to be inversely proportional to the MCYST-LR concentration. Under optimized conditions, the proposed assay performed well for the identification and quantitative analysis of MCYST-LR (within 30 min in the range of 0.42-25 μg/L, with a limit of detection of 0.03 μg/L). It is thus expected that this enhanced assay can contribute both to the sensitive and rapid diagnosis of cyanotoxin risk in drinking water and effective management procedures.

  14. Bead-based screening in chemical biology and drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; Qvortrup, Katrine

    2018-01-01

    libraries for early drug discovery. Among the various library forms, the one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) library, where each bead carries many copies of a single compound, holds the greatest potential for the rapid identification of novel hits against emerging drug targets. However, this potential has not yet...... been fully realized due to a number of technical obstacles. In this feature article, we review the progress that has been made towards bead-based library screening and applications to the discovery of bioactive compounds. We identify the key challenges of this approach and highlight key steps needed......High-throughput screening is an important component of the drug discovery process. The screening of libraries containing hundreds of thousands of compounds requires assays amanable to miniaturisation and automization. Combinatorial chemistry holds a unique promise to deliver structural diverse...

  15. Aptamer-Modified Magnetic Beads in Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, Thomas; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic beads (MBs) are versatile tools for the purification, detection, and quantitative analysis of analytes from complex matrices. The superparamagnetic property of magnetic beads qualifies them for various analytical applications. To provide specificity, MBs can be decorated with ligands like aptamers, antibodies and peptides. In this context, aptamers are emerging as particular promising ligands due to a number of advantages. Most importantly, the chemical synthesis of aptamers enables straightforward and controlled chemical modification with linker molecules and dyes. Moreover, aptamers facilitate novel sensing strategies based on their oligonucleotide nature that cannot be realized with conventional peptide-based ligands. Due to these benefits, the combination of aptamers and MBs was already used in various analytical applications which are summarized in this article. PMID:29601533

  16. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by the unicellular green microalga Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Different cell stockings in beads, different bead sizes and different algal bead concentrations in wastewaters were tested. Significant higher nutrients ...

  17. New advances in electrochemical biosensors for the detection of toxins: Nanomaterials, magnetic beads and microfluidics systems. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reverté, Laia; Prieto-Simón, Beatriz; Campàs, Mònica

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in bioanalytical devices has special advantages in the detection of toxins of interest in food safety and environmental applications. The low levels to be detected and the small size of toxins justify the increasing number of publications dealing with electrochemical biosensors, due to their high sensitivity and design versatility. The incorporation of nanomaterials in their development has been exploited to further increase their sensitivity, providing simple and fast devices, with multiplexed capabilities. This paper gives an overview of the electrochemical biosensors that have incorporated carbon and metal nanomaterials in their configurations for the detection of toxins. Biosensing systems based on magnetic beads or integrated into microfluidics systems have also been considered because of their contribution to the development of compact analytical devices. The roles of these materials, the methods used for their incorporation in the biosensor configurations as well as the advantages they provide to the analyses are summarised. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials improve the performance of electrochemical biosensors. • Carbon nanomaterials can act as electrocatalysts or label supports in biosensors. • Metal nanomaterials can act as nanostructured supports or labels in biosensors. • Magnetic beads are exploited as immobilisation supports and/or label carriers.

  18. New advances in electrochemical biosensors for the detection of toxins: Nanomaterials, magnetic beads and microfluidics systems. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverté, Laia [IRTA, Carretera Poble Nou km. 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Tarragona (Spain); Prieto-Simón, Beatriz [ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Campàs, Mònica, E-mail: monica.campas@irta.cat [IRTA, Carretera Poble Nou km. 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Tarragona (Spain)

    2016-02-18

    The use of nanotechnology in bioanalytical devices has special advantages in the detection of toxins of interest in food safety and environmental applications. The low levels to be detected and the small size of toxins justify the increasing number of publications dealing with electrochemical biosensors, due to their high sensitivity and design versatility. The incorporation of nanomaterials in their development has been exploited to further increase their sensitivity, providing simple and fast devices, with multiplexed capabilities. This paper gives an overview of the electrochemical biosensors that have incorporated carbon and metal nanomaterials in their configurations for the detection of toxins. Biosensing systems based on magnetic beads or integrated into microfluidics systems have also been considered because of their contribution to the development of compact analytical devices. The roles of these materials, the methods used for their incorporation in the biosensor configurations as well as the advantages they provide to the analyses are summarised. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials improve the performance of electrochemical biosensors. • Carbon nanomaterials can act as electrocatalysts or label supports in biosensors. • Metal nanomaterials can act as nanostructured supports or labels in biosensors. • Magnetic beads are exploited as immobilisation supports and/or label carriers.

  19. Zanamivir immobilized magnetic beads for voltammetric measurement of neuraminidase at gold-modified boron doped diamond electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahyuni, Wulan Tri, E-mail: wulantriws@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Ivandini, Tribidasari A.; Saepudin, Endang [Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); CREST, JST, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-04-19

    Biomolecule modified magnetic beads has been widely used in separation and sensing process. This study used streptavidin modified magnetic beads to immobilize biotin modified zanamivir. Biotin-streptavidin affinity facilitates immobilization of zanamivir on magnetic beads. Then interaction of zanamivir and neuraminidase was adopted as basic for enzyme detection. Detection of neuraminidase was performed at gold modified BDD using cyclic voltammetry technique. The measurement was carried out based on alteration of electrochemical signals of working electrode as neuraminidase response. The result showed that zanamivir was successfully immobilized on magnetic beads. The optimum amount of magnetic beads for zanamivir immobilization was 120 ug. Linear responses of neuraminidase were detected in concentration range of 0-15 mU. Detection limit (LOD) of measurement was 2.32 mU (R2 = 0.959) with precision as % RSD of 1.41%. Measurement of neuraminidase on magnetic beads could be also performed in the presence of mucin matrix. The linearity range was 0-8 mU with LOD of 0.64 mU (R2 = 0.950) and % RSD of 7.25%.

  20. Magnetic beads-based DNAzyme recognition and AuNPs-based enzymatic catalysis amplification for visual detection of trace uranyl ion in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Lin, Ling; Zeng, Xiaoxue; Ruan, Yajuan; Wu, Yongning; Lin, Minggui; He, Ye; Fu, FengFu

    2016-04-15

    We herein developed a novel biosensor for the visual detection of trace uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) in aqueous environment with high sensitivity and specificity by using DNAzyme-functionalized magnetic beads (MBs) for UO2(2+) recognition and gold nano-particles (AuNPs)-based enzymatic catalysis oxidation of TMB (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine sulfate) for signal generation. The utilization of MBs facilitates the magnetic separation and collection of sensing system from complex sample solution, which leads to more convenient experimental operation and more strong resistibility of the biosensor to the matrix of sample, and the utilization of AuNPs-based enzymatic catalysis amplification greatly improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Compared with the previous DNAzyme-based UO2(2+) sensors, the proposed biosensor has outstanding advantages such as relative high sensitivity and specificity, operation convenience, low cost and more strong resistibility to the matrix of sample. It can be used to detect as low as 0.02 ppb (74 pM) of UO2(2+) in aqueous environment by only naked-eye observation and 1.89 ppt (7.0 pM) of UO2(2+) by UV-visible spectrophotometer with a recovery of 93-99% and a RSD ≤ 5.0% (n=6) within 3h. Especially, the visual detection limit of 0.02 ppb (74 pM) is much lower than the maximum allowable level of UO2(2+) (130 nM) in the drinking water defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indicating that our method meets the requirement of rapid and on-site detection of UO2(2+) in the aqueous environment by only naked-eye observation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kodzius, Rimantas; Li, Fuquan; Foulds, Ian G.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA) for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs), and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads® demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead® SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads® travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device

  2. On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2016-08-26

    The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA) for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs), and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads® demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead® SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads® travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device

  3. On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthaka P. Gooneratne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs, and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads® demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead® SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads® travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device.

  4. A tosyl-activated magnetic bead cellulose as solid support for sensitive protein detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yan, J.; Horák, Daniel; Lenfeld, Jiří; Hammond, M.; Kamali-Moghaddam, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 3 (2013), s. 235-240 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/0664; GA MŠk 7E12054 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 259796 - DIATOOLS Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : bead cellulose * magnetic * protein detection Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.884, year: 2013

  5. Preparation of ionic-crosslinked chitosan-based gel beads and effect of reaction conditions on drug release behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shilan; Liu, Mingzhu; Jin, Shuping; Wang, Bin

    2008-02-12

    Drug-loaded chitosan (CS) beads were prepared under simple and mild condition using trisodium citrate as ionic crosslinker. The beads were further coated with poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) by dipping the beads in PMAA aqueous solution. The surface and cross-section morphology of these beads were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the observation showed that the coating beads had core-shell structure. In vitro release of model drug from these beads obtained under different reaction conditions was investigated in buffer medium (pH 1.8). The results showed that the rapid drug release was restrained by PMAA coating and the optimum conditions for preparing CS-based drug-loaded beads were decided through the effect of reaction conditions on the drug release behaviors. In addition, the drug release mechanism of CS-based drug-loaded beads was analyzed by Peppa's potential equation. According to this study, the ionic-crosslinked CS beads coated by PMAA could serve as suitable candidate for drug site-specific carrier in stomach.

  6. Detection of a magnetic bead by hybrid nanodevices using scanning gate microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-León, H.; Krzysteczko, P.; Marchi, F.; Motte, J.-F.; Manzin, A.; Schumacher, H. W.; Antonov, V.; Kazakova, O.

    2016-05-01

    Hybrid ferromagnetic(Py)/non-magnetic metal(Au) junctions with a width of 400 nm are studied by magnetotransport measurements, magnetic scanning gate microscopy (SGM) with a magnetic bead (MB) attached to the probe, and micromagnetic simulations. In the transverse geometry, the devices demonstrate a characteristic magnetoresistive behavior that depends on the direction of the in plane magnetic field, with minimum/maximum variation when the field is applied parallel/perpendicular to the Py wire. The SGM is performed with a NdFeB bead of 1.6 μm diameter attached to the scanning probe. Our results demonstrate that the hybrid junction can be used to detect this type of MB. A rough approximation of the sensing volume of the junction has the shape of elliptical cylinder with the volume of ˜1.51 μm3. Micromagnetic simulations coupled to a magnetotransport model including anisotropic magnetoresistance and planar Hall effects are in good agreement with the experimental findings, enabling the interpretation of the SGM images.

  7. On-chip measurement of the Brownian relaxation frequency of magnetic beads using magnetic tunneling junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, M.; Sogne, E.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the detection of the Brownian relaxation frequency of 250 nm diameter magnetic beads using a lab-on-chip platform based on current lines for exciting the beads with alternating magnetic fields and highly sensitive magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors with a superparamagnetic free...

  8. Simultaneous Determination of the Main Peanut Allergens in Foods Using Disposable Amperometric Magnetic Beads-Based Immunosensing Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel magnetic beads (MBs-based immunosensing approach for the rapid and simultaneous determination of the main peanut allergenic proteins (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 is reported. It involves the use of sandwich-type immunoassays using selective capture and detector antibodies and carboxylic acid-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs. Amperometric detection at −0.20 V was performed using dual screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPdCEs and the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ system. This methodology exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for the target proteins providing detection limits of 18.0 and 0.07 ng/mL for Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, respectively, with an assay time of only 2 h. The usefulness of the approach was evaluated by detecting the endogenous content of both allergenic proteins in different food extracts as well as trace amounts of peanut allergen (0.0001% or 1.0 mg/kg in wheat flour spiked samples. The developed platform provides better Low detection limits (LODs in shorter assay times than those claimed for the allergen specific commercial ELISA kits using the same immunoreagents and quantitative information on individual food allergen levels. Moreover, the flexibility of the methodology makes it readily translate to the detection of other food-allergens.

  9. Quantification of equine immunoglobulin A in serum and secretions by a fluorescent bead-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Christiane L; Babasyan, Susanna; Freer, Heather; Wagner, Bettina

    2017-06-01

    Only few quantitative reports exist about the concentrations and induction of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mucosal secretions of horses. Despite this, it is widely assumed that IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin on mucosal surfaces in the horse. Here, two new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against equine IgA, clones 84-1 and 161-1, were developed and characterized in detail. Both IgA mAbs specifically bound monomeric and dimeric equine IgA in different applications, such as Western blots and fluorescent bead-based assays. Cross-reactivity with other equine immunoglobulin isotypes was not observed. The new IgA mAb 84-1 was used in combination with the previously characterized anti-equine IgA mAb BVS2 for the development and validation of a fluorescent bead-based assay to quantify total IgA in equine serum and various secretions. The IgA assay's linear detection ranged from 64pg/ml to 1000ng/ml. For the quantification of IgA in serum or in secretions an IgA standard was purified from serum or nasal wash fluid (secretory IgA), respectively. The different standards were needed for accurate IgA quantification in the respective samples taking the different signal intensities of monomeric and dimeric IgA on the florescent bead-based assay into account. IgA was quantified by the bead-based assay established here in different equine samples of healthy adult individuals. In serum the median total IgA was 0.45mg/ml for Thoroughbred horses (TB, n=10) and 1.16mg/ml in Icelandic horses (ICH, n=12). In nasopharyngeal secretions of TB (n=7) 0.13mg/ml median total IgA was measured, and 0.25mg/ml for ICH (n=12). Saliva of ICH (n=6) contained a median of 0.15mg/ml, colostrum of Warmbloods (n=8) a median of 1.89mg/ml IgA. Compared to IgG1 and IgG4/7 quantified in the same samples, IgA appeared as the major immunoglobulin isotype in nasopharyngeal secretions and saliva while it is a minor isotype in serum and colostrum. The newly developed monoclonal antibodies against equine IgA and the

  10. Detection of a magnetic bead by hybrid nanodevices using scanning gate microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Corte-León

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid ferromagnetic(Py/non-magnetic metal(Au junctions with a width of 400 nm are studied by magnetotransport measurements, magnetic scanning gate microscopy (SGM with a magnetic bead (MB attached to the probe, and micromagnetic simulations. In the transverse geometry, the devices demonstrate a characteristic magnetoresistive behavior that depends on the direction of the in plane magnetic field, with minimum/maximum variation when the field is applied parallel/perpendicular to the Py wire. The SGM is performed with a NdFeB bead of 1.6 μm diameter attached to the scanning probe. Our results demonstrate that the hybrid junction can be used to detect this type of MB. A rough approximation of the sensing volume of the junction has the shape of elliptical cylinder with the volume of ∼1.51 μm3. Micromagnetic simulations coupled to a magnetotransport model including anisotropic magnetoresistance and planar Hall effects are in good agreement with the experimental findings, enabling the interpretation of the SGM images.

  11. Francisella tularensis detection using magnetic labels and a magnetic biosensor based on frequency mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Martin H.F.; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Hartmann, Markus; Miethe, Peter; Oster, Juergen; Keusgen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A biosensor that uses resonant coils with a special frequency-mixing technique and magnetic beads as detectable labels has been established for the detection of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent for tularemia. The detection principle is based on a sandwich immunoassay using an anti-Ft antibody for immunofiltration immobilized to ABICAP[reg] polyethylene filters, and biotinylated with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads as labels. The linear detection range of this biosensor was found to be 10 4 -10 6 cfu F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per ml. Tested sample matrices were physiological PBS buffer and rabbit serum

  12. A Wide-Field Fluorescence Microscope Extension for Ultrafast Screening of One-Bead One-Compound Libraries Using a Spectral Image Subtraction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusermann, Wolf; Ludin, Beat; Pham, Nhan T; Auer, Manfred; Weidemann, Thomas; Hintersteiner, Martin

    2016-05-09

    The increasing involvement of academic institutions and biotech companies in drug discovery calls for cost-effective methods to identify new bioactive molecules. Affinity-based on-bead screening of combinatorial one-bead one-compound libraries combines a split-mix synthesis design with a simple protein binding assay operating directly at the bead matrix. However, one bottleneck for academic scale on-bead screening is the unavailability of a cheap, automated, and robust screening platform that still provides a quantitative signal related to the amount of target protein binding to individual beads for hit bead ranking. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy has long been considered unsuitable due to significant broad spectrum autofluorescence of the library beads in conjunction with low detection sensitivity. Herein, we demonstrate how such a standard microscope equipped with LED-based excitation and a modern CMOS camera can be successfully used for selecting hit beads. We show that the autofluorescence issue can be overcome by an optical image subtraction approach that yields excellent signal-to-noise ratios for the detection of bead-associated target proteins. A polymer capillary attached to a semiautomated bead-picking device allows the operator to efficiently isolate individual hit beads in less than 20 s. The system can be used for ultrafast screening of >200,000 bead-bound compounds in 1.5 h, thereby making high-throughput screening accessible to a wider group within the scientific community.

  13. Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Beads served both as ornaments and as a medium of exchange, and the Indians manufactured them from such natural sources as bones, stones, beans, nuts, animal teeth, and polished antlers. Even after the introduction of European glass beads, the Indians continued to make their favorite beads from the natural sources. (DS)

  14. Development of a bead-based Luminex assay using lipopolysaccharide specific monoclonal antibodies to detect biological threats from Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbereisen, Angelika; Tamborrini, Marco; Wittwer, Matthias; Schürch, Nadia; Pluschke, Gerd

    2015-10-05

    Brucella, a Gram-negative bacterium, is classified as a potential bioterrorism agent mainly due to the low dose needed to cause infection and the ability to transmit the bacteria via aerosols. Goats/sheep, cattle, pigs, dogs, sheep and rodents are infected by B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, B. canis, B. ovis and B. neotomae, respectively, the six classical Brucella species. Most human cases are caused by B. melitensis and B. abortus. Our aim was to specifically detect Brucellae with 'smooth' lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a highly sensitive monoclonal antibody (mAb) based immunological assay. To complement molecular detection systems for potential bioterror agents, as required by international biodefense regulations, sets of mAbs were generated by B cell hybridoma technology and used to develop immunological assays. The combination of mAbs most suitable for an antigen capture assay format was identified and an immunoassay using the Luminex xMAP technology was developed. MAbs specific for the LPS O-antigen of Brucella spp. were generated by immunising mice with inactivated B. melitensis or B. abortus cells. Most mAbs recognised both B. melitensis and B. abortus and antigen binding was not impeded by inactivation of the bacterial cells by γ irradiation, formalin or heat treatment, a step required to analyse the samples immunologically under biosafety level two conditions. The Luminex assay recognised all tested Brucella species with 'smooth' LPS with detection limits of 2×10(2) to 8×10(4) cells per mL, depending on the species tested. Milk samples spiked with Brucella spp. cells were identified successfully using the Luminex assay. In addition, the bead-based immunoassay was integrated into a multiplex format, allowing for simultaneous, rapid and specific detection of Brucella spp., Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis within a single sample. Overall, the robust Luminex assay should allow detection of Brucella spp. in both natural

  15. Discrete dipole approximation simulation of bead enhanced diffraction grating biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, Khalid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    We present the discrete dipole approximation simulation of light scattering from bead enhanced diffraction biosensor and report the effect of bead material, number of beads forming the grating and spatial randomness on the diffraction intensities of 1st and 0th orders. The dipole models of gratings are formed by volume slicing and image processing while the spatial locations of the beads on the substrate surface are randomly computed using discrete probability distribution. The effect of beads reduction on far-field scattering of 632.8 nm incident field, from fully occupied gratings to very coarse gratings, is studied for various bead materials. Our findings give insight into many difficult or experimentally impossible aspects of this genre of biosensors and establish that bead enhanced grating may be used for rapid and precise detection of small amounts of biomolecules. The results of simulations also show excellent qualitative similarities with experimental observations. - Highlights: • DDA was used to study the relationship between the number of beads forming gratings and ratio of first and zeroth order diffraction intensities. • A very flexible modeling program was developed to design complicated objects for DDA. • Material and spatial effects of bead distribution on surfaces were studied. • It has been shown that bead enhanced grating biosensor can be useful for fast detection of small amounts of biomolecules. • Experimental results qualitatively support the simulations and thus open a way to optimize the grating biosensors.

  16. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation. PMID:26876979

  17. Francisella tularensis detection using magnetic labels and a magnetic biosensor based on frequency mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Martin H.F. [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Krause, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Bio-and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Center Juelich (Germany); Hartmann, Markus [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Miethe, Peter [SENOVA GmbH, Jena (Germany); Oster, Juergen [chemagen GmbH, Baesweiler (Germany); Keusgen, Michael [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany)]. E-mail: Keusgen@staff.uni-marburg.de

    2007-04-15

    A biosensor that uses resonant coils with a special frequency-mixing technique and magnetic beads as detectable labels has been established for the detection of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent for tularemia. The detection principle is based on a sandwich immunoassay using an anti-Ft antibody for immunofiltration immobilized to ABICAP[reg] polyethylene filters, and biotinylated with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads as labels. The linear detection range of this biosensor was found to be 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} cfu F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per ml. Tested sample matrices were physiological PBS buffer and rabbit serum.

  18. Electrochemical Detection of E. coli O157:H7 in Water after Electrocatalytic and Ultraviolet Treatments Using a Polyguanine-Labeled Secondary Bead Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Michael G; Nze, Ugochukwu C; Sant, Himanshu J; Malik, Hammad; Mohanty, Swomitra; Gale, Bruce K; Carlson, Krista

    2018-05-10

    The availability of clean drinking water is a significant problem worldwide. Many technologies exist for purifying drinking water, however, many of these methods require chemicals or use simple methods, such as boiling and filtering, which may or may not be effective in removing waterborne pathogens. Present methods for detecting pathogens in point-of-use (POU) sterilized water are typically time prohibitive or have limited ability differentiating between active and inactive cells. This work describes a rapid electrochemical sensor to differentially detect the presence of active Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 in samples that have been partially or completely sterilized using a new POU electrocatalytic water purification technology based on superradicals generated by defect laden titania (TiO₂) nanotubes. The sensor was also used to detect pathogens sterilized by UV-C radiation for a comparison of different modes of cell death. The sensor utilizes immunomagnetic bead separation to isolate active bacteria by forming a sandwich assay comprised of antibody functionalized secondary magnetic beads, E. coli O157:H7, and polyguanine (polyG) oligonucleotide functionalized secondary polystyrene beads as an electrochemical tag. The assay is formed by the attachment of antibodies to active receptors on the membrane of E. coli , allowing the sensor to differentially detect viable cells. Ultravioloet (UV)-C radiation and an electrocatalytic reactor (ER) with integrated defect-laden titania nanotubes were used to examine the sensors’ performance in detecting sterilized cells under different modes of cell death. Plate counts and flow cytometry were used to quantify disinfection efficacy and cell damage. It was found that the ER treatments shredded the bacteria into multiple fragments, while UV-C treatments inactivated the bacteria but left the cell membrane mostly intact.

  19. Electrochemical Detection of E. coli O157:H7 in Water after Electrocatalytic and Ultraviolet Treatments Using a Polyguanine-Labeled Secondary Bead Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Beeman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The availability of clean drinking water is a significant problem worldwide. Many technologies exist for purifying drinking water, however, many of these methods require chemicals or use simple methods, such as boiling and filtering, which may or may not be effective in removing waterborne pathogens. Present methods for detecting pathogens in point-of-use (POU sterilized water are typically time prohibitive or have limited ability differentiating between active and inactive cells. This work describes a rapid electrochemical sensor to differentially detect the presence of active Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 in samples that have been partially or completely sterilized using a new POU electrocatalytic water purification technology based on superradicals generated by defect laden titania (TiO2 nanotubes. The sensor was also used to detect pathogens sterilized by UV-C radiation for a comparison of different modes of cell death. The sensor utilizes immunomagnetic bead separation to isolate active bacteria by forming a sandwich assay comprised of antibody functionalized secondary magnetic beads, E. coli O157:H7, and polyguanine (polyG oligonucleotide functionalized secondary polystyrene beads as an electrochemical tag. The assay is formed by the attachment of antibodies to active receptors on the membrane of E. coli, allowing the sensor to differentially detect viable cells. Ultravioloet (UV-C radiation and an electrocatalytic reactor (ER with integrated defect-laden titania nanotubes were used to examine the sensors’ performance in detecting sterilized cells under different modes of cell death. Plate counts and flow cytometry were used to quantify disinfection efficacy and cell damage. It was found that the ER treatments shredded the bacteria into multiple fragments, while UV-C treatments inactivated the bacteria but left the cell membrane mostly intact.

  20. New miRNA labeling method for bead-based quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfranchi Gerolamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs that act as crucial regulators of gene expression. Different methods have been developed for miRNA expression profiling in order to better understand gene regulation in normal and pathological conditions. miRNAs expression values obtained from large scale methodologies such as microarrays still need a validation step with alternative technologies. Results Here we have applied with an innovative approach, the Luminex® xMAP™ technology validate expression data of differentially expressed miRNAs obtained from high throughput arrays. We have developed a novel labeling system of small RNA molecules (below 200 nt, optimizing the sensitive cloning method for miRNAs, termed miRNA amplification profiling (mRAP. The Luminex expression patterns of three miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-27a and miR-199a in seven different cell lines have been validated by TaqMan miRNA assay. In all cases, bead-based meas were confirmed by the data obtained by TaqMan and microarray technologies. Conclusions We demonstrate that the measure of individual miRNA by the bead-based method is feasible, high speed, sensitive and low cost. The Luminex® xMAP™ technology also provides flexibility, since the central reaction can be scaled up with additional miRNA capturing beads, allowing validation of many differentially expressed miRNAs obtained from microarrays in a single experiment. We propose this technology as an alternative method to qRT-PCR for validating miRNAs expression data obtained with high-throughput technologies.

  1. Tumour metastasis-associated gene profiling using one-dimensional microfluidic beads array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Great efforts have been made on the early diagnosis and molecular mechanism research of tumour metastasis in recent years. In this paper, based on the one-dimensional microfluidic beads array, a novel platform for tumour metastasis-associated genes profiling has been developed by depositing nucleic acids functional beads in the microchannel. This platform is sensitive (limit of detection: 0.02 nmol/L) and can perform mRNAs analysis without PCR. Two human colon cancer cell lines (primary and metastatic) from the same patient were used as a model, and transcriptional expression profiling of multiple tumour metastasis-associated genes in these two cell lines was successfully achieved. Furthermore, the results obtained on the beads array were validated by RT-PCR. This novel beads array has advantages of high sensitivity, little sample consumption, short assay time, low cost and high throughput capability. It holds the potential in early diagnosis and mechanism research of tumour metastasis.

  2. Random glycopeptide bead libraries for seromic biomarker discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Cló, Emiliano; Clausen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    have developed a random glycopeptide bead library screening platform for detection of autoantibodies and other binding proteins. Libraries were build on biocompatible PEGA beads including a safety-catch C-terminal amide linker (SCAL) that allowed mild cleavage conditions (I(2)/NaBH(4) and TFA...... to other tumor glycoforms by on-bead enzymatic glycosylation reactions with recombinant glycosyltransferases. Hence, we have developed a high-throughput flexible platform for rapid discovery of O-glycopeptide biomarkers and the method has applicability in other types of assays such as lectin...

  3. Multilayer sodium alginate beads with porous core containing chitosan based nanoparticles for oral delivery of anticancer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Changqing; Lang, Xuqian; Kong, Ming; Cheng, Xiaojie; Liu, Ya; Feng, Chao; Chen, Xiguang

    2016-04-01

    To develop efficient and safe anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) delivery system for oral chemotherapy, chitosan based nanoparticles (CS/CMCS-NPs) composed of chitosan (CS) and o-carboxymeymethy chitosan (CMCS) were immobilized in multilayer sodium alginate beads (NPs-M-Beads). Two kinds of NPs-M-Beads, with or without porous core, were respectively prepared by internal or external ionic gelation method. In the small intestine, the intact CS/CMCS-NPs were able to escape from porous-beads and sustained release the loading DOX. In vivo results showed that the DOX could be efficiently absorbed by small intestine of SD rat and the higher concentration of the DOX in major organs of rats were found after oral administration of Porous-Beads, which were about 2-4 folds higher than that of non-porous-beads. These results suggested that the NPs-M-Beads with porous core to be exciting and promising for oral delivery of DOX. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Flow Cytometry-Based Bead-Binding Assay for Measuring Receptor Ligand Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprokholt, Joris K.; Hertoghs, Nina; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a fluorescent bead-binding assay, which is an efficient and feasible method to measure interaction between ligands and receptors on cells. In principle, any ligand can be coated on fluorescent beads either directly or via antibodies. Binding between ligand-coated beads

  5. Engineering sodium alginate-based cross-linked beads with high removal ability of toxic metal ions and cationic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zi-Jian; Huang, Xue-Lian; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Xin-Zhi; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) beads with ultrahigh adsorption capacity were prepared via hydrogen bonds between SA and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropa-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and the AMPS was then post-cross-linked to manufacture SA/PAMPS beads. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of methylene blue (MB) and Pb 2+ for the SA/PAMPS10 beads were 2977 and 2042 mg/g, respectively. Although the SA beads exhibited higher equilibrium adsorption capacities of MB and Pb 2+ than those of the SA/PAMPS10 beads, the SA/PAMPS10 beads had better mechanical property and higher stability. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption processes of the SA/PAMPS10 beads for MB well. In addition, the SA/PAMPS10 beads could be reused with stable adsorption capacity for at least three cycles. The beads also had excellent performances on absorbing methylene violet and other heavy metal ions (Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Ni 2+ ). Therefore, the SA-based beads with high adsorption capacity might be good candidates for industrial pollutant treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Yersinia pestis detection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with magnetic bead capture of DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Feng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the detection of Y. pestis by targeting the 3a sequence on chromosome. All 11 species of the genus Yersinia were used to evaluate the specificity of LAMP and PCR, demonstrating that the primers had a high level of specificity. The sensitivity of LAMP or PCR was 2.3 or 23 CFU for pure culture, whereas 2.3 × 104 or 2.3 × 106 CFU for simulated spleen and lung samples. For simulated liver samples, the sensitivity of LAMP was 2.3 × 106 CFU, but PCR was negative at the level of 2.3 × 107 CFU. After simulated spleen and lung samples were treated with magnetic beads, the sensitivity of LAMP or PCR was 2.3 × 103 or 2.3 × 106 CFU, whereas 2.3 × 105 or 2.3 × 107 CFU for magnetic bead-treated liver samples. These results indicated that some components in the tissues could inhibit LAMP and PCR, and liver tissue samples had a stronger inhibition to LAMP and PCR than spleen and lung tissue samples. LAMP has a higher sensitivity than PCR, and magnetic bead capture of DNAs could remarkably increase the sensitivity of LAMP. LAMP is a simple, rapid and sensitive assay suitable for application in the field or poverty areas.

  7. Parental experiences with a hospital-based bead programme for children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Valerie; Chando, Shingisai

    2015-02-01

    To present survey findings on parental experiences with a hospital-based bead programme for children with congenital heart disease. The Heart Beads programme commenced at a paediatric hospital in Australia in 2008. Children enrolled in the programme are awarded a distinctive bead for every procedure/treatment they have while in hospital. A previous evaluation study on the programme revealed that the beads are therapeutic for the child and parents; however, due to a small sample size, the results were representative of the experiences of a small number of families who participated in the programme. This was an evaluation study which employed a nonexperimental descriptive design. Surveys were mailed to all eligible families who enrolled in the programme. Data collection occurred between July-December 2012. Questions on parental experiences with the Heart Beads programme were divided into three categories: understanding, acknowledgement and quality. Descriptive statistics were obtained and analysed. One hundred and sixty-two mothers and 136 fathers responded to the survey. Heart Beads assisted mothers (83%) and fathers (80%) with understanding their child's condition and helped them with communication (mothers 80%, fathers 58%). The majority of fathers felt that their experience was acknowledged by nursing staff (64%) and medical staff (62%), while mothers indicated a higher response from nurses (76%) compared to medical staff (67%). Overall, parents rated the programme positively; however, there was some concern that children at times missed out on beads. Understanding how mothers and fathers experience the programme differently can guide staff in their communication with parents and inform future initiatives. The Heart Beads help nurses understand how parents are experiencing care and ways in which they can provide support and acknowledgement of the parent's experience. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    The application of draw beads in sheet metal stamping ensures controlled drawing-in of flange parts. Lubrication conditions in draw beads are severe due to sliding under simultaneous bending. Based on the original draw bead test design by Nine [1] comprehensive studies of friction in draw beads...... have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool...... and a freely rotating tool respectively, an approach, which inevitably implies large uncertainties due to scatter in the experimental conditions. In order to avoid this problem a new draw bead test is proposed by the authors measuring the friction force acting on the tool radius directly by a build...

  9. Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol in Animal Urine Using Immunomagnetic Bead Treatment and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Su, Xiao-Ou; Wang, Shi; Zhao, Yiping

    2016-09-01

    Combining surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of aggregated graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle hybrids with immunomagnetic bead sample preparation method, a highly sensitive strategy to determine the clenbuterol content in animal urine was developed. Based on a linear calibration curve of the SERS characteristic peak intensity of clenbuterol at Δv = 1474 cm-1 versus the spiked clenbuterol concentration in the range of 0.5-20 ng·mL-1, the quantity of clenbuterol in real animal urine samples can be determined and matches well with those determined by LC-MS/MS, while the detection time is significantly reduced to 15 min/sample. The limits of detection and quantification in the urine are 0.5 ng·mL-1 and 1 ng·mL-1, respectively, and the recovery clenbuterol rates are 82.8-92.4% with coefficients of variation farming.

  10. A Phos-tag-based magnetic-bead method for rapid and selective separation of phosphorylated biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunehiro, Masaya; Meki, Yuma; Matsuoka, Kanako; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Kinoshita, Eiji; Koike, Tohru

    2013-04-15

    A simple and efficient method based on magnetic-bead technology has been developed for the separation of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated low-molecular-weight biomolecules, such as nucleotides, phosphorylated amino acids, or phosphopeptides. The phosphate-binding site on the bead is an alkoxide-bridged dinuclear zinc(II) complex with 1,3-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)propan-2-olate (Phos-tag), which is linked to a hydrophilic cross-linked agarose coating on a magnetic core particle. All steps for the phosphate-affinity separation are conducted in buffers of neutral pH with 50 μL of the magnetic beads in a 1.5-mL microtube. The entire separation protocol for phosphomonoester-type compounds, from addition to elution, requires less than 12 min per sample if the buffers and the zinc(II)-bound Phos-tag magnetic beads have been prepared in advance. The phosphate-affinity magnetic beads are reusable at least 15 times without a decrease in their phosphate-binding ability and they are stable for three months in propan-2-ol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bead Capture and Release on a Magnetic Sensor in a Microfluidic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Freitas, S.C.

    Planar Hall effect magnetic sensors for detection of biological agents using surface treated magnetic beads are integrated with a fluid injection system. The response of the sensors is used to evaluate bead capture rates for different bead concentrations c and fluid flow rates Q, and to monitor...... subsequent removal of the beads. It is found that the capture rate scales directly with c and that it depends linearly on Q. At low Q the capture rate is only partially due to gravitational sedimentation of beads. At higher Q an additional term proportional to Q becomes important, which is attributed...... to capture of beads by the magnetic fields near the sensor. It is shown that beads can be washed off the sensor surface....

  12. Alginate and Algal-Based Beads for the Sorption of Metal Cations: Cu(II and Pb(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengye Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alginate and algal-biomass (Laminaria digitata beads were prepared by homogeneous Ca ionotropic gelation. In addition, glutaraldehyde-crosslinked poly (ethyleneimine (PEI was incorporated into algal beads. The three sorbents were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX: the sorption occurs in the whole mass of the sorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of pH, sorption isotherms, and uptake kinetics. A special attention was paid to the effect of drying (air-drying vs. freeze-drying on the mass transfer properties. For alginate, freeze drying is required for maintaining the porosity of the hydrogel, while for algal-based sorbents the swelling of the material minimizes the impact of the drying procedure. The maximum sorption capacities observed from experiments were 415, 296 and 218 mg Pb g−1 and 112, 77 and 67 mg Cu g−1 for alginate, algal and algal/PEI beads respectively. Though the sorption capacities of algal-beads decreased slightly (compared to alginate beads, the greener and cheaper one-pot synthesis of algal beads makes this sorbent more competitive for environmental applications. PEI in algal beads decreases the sorption properties in the case of the sorption of metal cations under selected experimental conditions.

  13. Sensitive detection of point mutation by electrochemiluminescence and DNA ligase-based assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huijuan; Wu, Baoyan

    2008-12-01

    The technology of single-base mutation detection plays an increasingly important role in diagnosis and prognosis of genetic-based diseases. Here we reported a new method for the analysis of point mutations in genomic DNA through the integration of allele-specific oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) with magnetic beads-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection scheme. In this assay the tris(bipyridine) ruthenium (TBR) labeled probe and the biotinylated probe are designed to perfectly complementary to the mutant target, thus a ligation can be generated between those two probes by Taq DNA Ligase in the presence of mutant target. If there is an allele mismatch, the ligation does not take place. The ligation products are then captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the ECL signal of the TBR label. Results showed that the new method held a low detection limit down to 10 fmol and was successfully applied in the identification of point mutations from ASTC-α-1, PANC-1 and normal cell lines in codon 273 of TP53 oncogene. In summary, this method provides a sensitive, cost-effective and easy operation approach for point mutation detection.

  14. Comparison of pre-processing methods for multiplex bead-based immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Tanja K; Schillert, Arne; Ziegler, Andreas; Lüking, Angelika; Zucht, Hans-Dieter; Schulz-Knappe, Peter

    2016-08-11

    High throughput protein expression studies can be performed using bead-based protein immunoassays, such as the Luminex® xMAP® technology. Technical variability is inherent to these experiments and may lead to systematic bias and reduced power. To reduce technical variability, data pre-processing is performed. However, no recommendations exist for the pre-processing of Luminex® xMAP® data. We compared 37 different data pre-processing combinations of transformation and normalization methods in 42 samples on 384 analytes obtained from a multiplex immunoassay based on the Luminex® xMAP® technology. We evaluated the performance of each pre-processing approach with 6 different performance criteria. Three performance criteria were plots. All plots were evaluated by 15 independent and blinded readers. Four different combinations of transformation and normalization methods performed well as pre-processing procedure for this bead-based protein immunoassay. The following combinations of transformation and normalization were suitable for pre-processing Luminex® xMAP® data in this study: weighted Box-Cox followed by quantile or robust spline normalization (rsn), asinh transformation followed by loess normalization and Box-Cox followed by rsn.

  15. Development of a PCR/LDR/flow-through hybridization assay using a capillary tube, probe DNA-immobilized magnetic beads and chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommatsu, Manami; Okahashi, Hisamitsu; Ohta, Keisuke; Tamai, Yusuke; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ligase detection reaction (LDR)/flow-through hybridization assay using chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for analyzing point mutations in gene fragments with high diagnostic value for colorectal cancers. A flow-through hybridization format using a capillary tube, in which probe DNA-immobilized magnetic beads were packed, provided accelerated hybridization kinetics of target DNA (i.e. LDR product) to the probe DNA. Simple fluid manipulations enabled both allele-specific hybridization and the removal of non-specifically bound DNA in the wash step. Furthermore, the use of CL detection greatly simplified the detection scheme, since CL does not require a light source for excitation of the fluorescent dye tags on the LDR products. Preliminary results demonstrated that this analytical system could detect both homozygous and heterozygous mutations, without the expensive instrumentation and cumbersome procedures required by conventional DNA microarray-based methods.

  16. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RETRO-REFLECTIVE COATED PAPER BASED ON MICRO-GLASS BEADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YulongWang; ChuanshanZhao; TaoZhang

    2004-01-01

    High-reflectivity micro-glass bead, as a kind ofretro-reflective material, is widely used in reflectivefabric or film and other reflective coatings. But it israrely used in coated paper. The retro-reflectivetheory of micro-bead is described. Also the effect ofsize of micro-bead, dosage of binder and differentcolor layers on reflective properties of coated paperare discussed in this article. The results show that itsretro-reflective efficiency is good, equally toreflective fabric or film when the micro-glass bead isused in coated paper.

  17. Characterization of Antigen-Specific B Cells Using Nominal Antigen-Coated Flow-Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Ahmed; Lepetit, Maud; Crochette, Romain; Giral, Magali; Lepourry, Julie; Pallier, Annaick; Castagnet, Stéphanie; Dugast, Emilie; Guillot-Gueguen, Cécile; Jacq-Foucher, Marylène; Saulquin, Xavier; Cesbron, Anne; Laplaud, David; Nicot, Arnaud; Brouard, Sophie; Soulillou, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize the reactivity of B cells against nominal antigens, a method based on the coupling of antigens onto the surface of fluorescent core polystyrene beads was developed. We first demonstrate that murine B cells with a human MOG-specific BCR are able to interact with MOG-coated beads and do not recognize beads coated with human albumin or pp65. B cells purified from human healthy volunteer blood or immunized individuals were tested for their ability to interact with various nominal antigens, including viral, vaccine, self and alloantigens, chosen for their usefulness in studying a variety of pathological processes. A substantial amount of B cells binding self-antigen MOG-coated beads can be detected in normal blood. Furthermore, greater frequencies of B cell against anti-Tetanic Toxin or anti-EBNA1 were observed in primed individuals. This method can reveal increased frequencies of anti-HLA committed B cells in patients with circulating anti-HLA antibodies compared to unsensitized patients and normal individuals. Of interest, those specific CD19 cells were preferentially identified within CD27−IgD+ (i-e naïve) subset. These observations suggest that a broad range of medical situations could benefit from a tool that allows the detection, the quantification and the characterization of antigen-specific blood B cells. PMID:24386360

  18. Miniaturized bead-beating device to automate full DNA sample preparation processes for gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu-Youn; Kwon, Sung Hong; Jung, Sun-Ok; Lim, Hee-Kyun; Jung, Won-Jong; Park, Chin-Sung; Kim, Joon-Ho; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Huh, Nam

    2011-11-07

    We have developed a miniaturized bead-beating device to automate nucleic acids extraction from Gram-positive bacteria for molecular diagnostics. The microfluidic device was fabricated by sandwiching a monolithic flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane between two glass wafers (i.e., glass-PDMS-glass), which acted as an actuator for bead collision via its pneumatic vibration without additional lysis equipment. The Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, were captured on surface-modified glass beads from 1 mL of initial sample solution and in situ lyzed by bead-beating operation. Then, 10 μL or 20 μL of bacterial DNA solution was eluted and amplified successfully by real-time PCR. It was found that liquid volume fraction played a crucial role in determining the cell lysis efficiency in a confined chamber by facilitating membrane deflection and bead motion. The miniaturized bead-beating operation disrupted most of S. aureus within 3 min, which turned out to be as efficient as the conventional benchtop vortexing machine or the enzyme-based lysis technique. The effective cell concentration was significantly enhanced with the reduction of initial sample volume by 50 or 100 times. Combination of such analyte enrichment and in situ bead-beating lysis provided an excellent PCR detection sensitivity amounting to ca. 46 CFU even for the Gram-positive bacteria. The proposed bead-beating microdevice is potentially useful as a nucleic acid extraction method toward a PCR-based sample-to-answer system. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  19. Construction of microscale structures in enclosed microfluidic networks by using a magnetic beads based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhong; Wan, Xiaoping; Hu, Ning; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-08-20

    A large number of microscale structures have been used to elaborate flowing control or complex biological and chemical reaction on microfluidic chips. However, it is still inconvenient to fabricate microstructures with different heights (or depths) on the same substrate. These kinds of microstructures can be fabricated by using the photolithography and wet-etching method step by step, but involves time-consuming design and fabrication process, as well as complicated alignment of different masters. In addition, few existing methods can be used to perform fabrication within enclosed microfluidic networks. It is also difficult to change or remove existing microstructures within these networks. In this study, a magnetic-beads-based approach is presented to build microstructures in enclosed microfluidic networks. Electromagnetic field generated by microfabricated conducting wires (coils) is used to manipulate and trap magnetic beads on the bottom surface of a microchannel. These trapped beads are accumulated to form a microscale pile with desired shape, which can adjust liquid flow, dock cells, modify surface, and do some other things as those fabricated microstructures. Once the electromagnetic field is changed, trapped beads may form new shapes or be removed by a liquid flow. Besides being used in microfabrication, this magnetic-beads-based method can be used for novel microfluidic manipulation. It has been validated by forming microscale dam structure for cell docking and modified surface for cell patterning, as well as guiding the growth of neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiplexed detection of DNA sequences using a competitive displacement assay in a microfluidic SERRS-based device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Soroush H; Giles, Kristen L; White, Ian M

    2013-11-05

    We demonstrate sensitive and multiplexed detection of DNA sequences through a surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS)-based competitive displacement assay in an integrated microsystem. The use of the competitive displacement scheme, in which the target DNA sequence displaces a Raman-labeled reporter sequence that has lower affinity for the immobilized probe, enables detection of unlabeled target DNA sequences with a simple single-step procedure. In our implementation, the displacement reaction occurs in a microporous packed column of silica beads prefunctionalized with probe-reporter pairs. The use of a functionalized packed-bead column in a microfluidic channel provides two major advantages: (i) immobilization surface chemistry can be performed as a batch process instead of on a chip-by-chip basis, and (ii) the microporous network eliminates the diffusion limitations of a typical biological assay, which increases the sensitivity. Packed silica beads are also leveraged to improve the SERRS detection of the Raman-labeled reporter. Following displacement, the reporter adsorbs onto aggregated silver nanoparticles in a microfluidic mixer; the nanoparticle-reporter conjugates are then trapped and concentrated in the silica bead matrix, which leads to a significant increase in plasmonic nanoparticles and adsorbed Raman reporters within the detection volume as compared to an open microfluidic channel. The experimental results reported here demonstrate detection down to 100 pM of the target DNA sequence, and the experiments are shown to be specific, repeatable, and quantitative. Furthermore, we illustrate the advantage of using SERRS by demonstrating multiplexed detection. The sensitivity of the assay, combined with the advantages of multiplexed detection and single-step operation with unlabeled target sequences makes this method attractive for practical applications. Importantly, while we illustrate DNA sequence detection, the SERRS-based competitive

  1. Fast label-free detection of Legionella spp. in biofilms by applying immunomagnetic beads and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusić, Dragana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Legionellae colonize biofilms, can form a biofilm by itself and multiply intracellularly within the protozoa commonly found in water distribution systems. Approximately half of the known species are pathogenic and have been connected to severe multisystem Legionnaires' disease. The detection methods for Legionella spp. in water samples are still based on cultivation, which is time consuming due to the slow growth of this bacterium. Here, we developed a cultivation-independent, label-free and fast detection method for legionellae in a biofilm matrix based on the Raman spectroscopic analysis of isolated single cells via immunomagnetic separation (IMS). A database comprising the Raman spectra of single bacterial cells captured and separated from the biofilms formed by each species was used to build the identification method based on a support vector machine (SVM) discriminative classifier. The complete method allows the detection of Legionella spp. in 100 min. Cross-reactivity of Legionella spp. specific immunomagnetic beads to the other studied genera was tested, where only small cell amounts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli compared to the initial number of cells were isolated by the immunobeads. Nevertheless, the Raman spectra collected from isolated non-targeted bacteria were well-discriminated from the Raman spectra collected from isolated Legionella cells, whereby the Raman spectra of the independent dataset of Legionella strains were assigned with an accuracy of 98.6%. In addition, Raman spectroscopy was also used to differentiate between isolated Legionella species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RETRO-REFLECTIVE COATED PAPER BASED ON MICRO-GLASS BEADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Wang; Chuanshan Zhao; Tao Zhang

    2004-01-01

    High-reflectivity micro-glass bead, as a kind of retro-reflective material, is widely used in reflective fabric or film and other reflective coatings. But it is rarely used in coated paper. The retro-reflective theory of micro-bead is described. Also the effect of size of micro-bead, dosage of binder and different color layers on reflective properties of coated paper are discussed in this article. The results show that its retro-reflective efficiency is good, equally to reflective fabric or film when the micro-glass bead is used in coated paper.

  3. Metal-Containing Polystyrene Beads as Standards for Mass Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Kinach, Robert; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Tanner, Scott; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the suitability of metal-containing polystyrene beads for the calibration of a mass cytometer instrument, a single particle analyser based on an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a time of flight mass spectrometer. These metal-containing beads are also verified for their use as internal standards for this instrument. These beads were synthesized by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with acrylic acid as a comonomer. Acrylic acid acts as a ligand to anchor the metal ions within the interior of the beads. Mass cytometry enabled the bead-by-bead measurement of the metal-content and determination of the metal-content distribution. Beads synthesized by dispersion polymerization that involved three stages were shown to have narrower bead-to-bead variation in their lanthanide content than beads synthesized by 2-stage dispersion polymerization. The beads exhibited insignificant release of their lanthanide content to aqueous solutions of different pHs over a period of six months. When mixed with KG1a or U937 cell lines, metal-containing polymer beads were shown not to affect the mass cytometry response to the metal content of element-tagged antibodies specifically attached to these cells.

  4. Towards Hypoxia-responsive Drug-eluting Embolization Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Koorosh; Heaysman, Clare L; Phillips, Gary J; Lloyd, Andrew W; Lewis, Andrew L

    2017-05-30

    Drug release from chemoembolization microspheres stimulated by the presence of a chemically reducing environment may provide benefits for targeting drug resistant and metastatic hypoxic tumours. A water-soluble disulfide-based bifunctional cross-linker bis(acryloyl)-(l)-cystine (BALC) was synthesised, characterised and incorporated into a modified poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) hydrogel beads at varying concentrations using reverse suspension polymerisation. The beads were characterised to confirm the amount of cross-linker within each formulation and its effects on the bead properties. Elemental and UV/visible spectroscopic analysis confirmed the incorporation of BALC within the beads and sizing studies showed that in the presence of a reducing agent, all bead formulations increased in mean diameter. The BALC beads could be loaded with doxorubicin hydrochloride and amounts in excess of 300mg of drug per mL of hydrated beads could be achieved but required conversion of the carboxylic acid groups of the BALC to their sodium carboxylate salt forms. Elution of doxorubicin from the beads demonstrated a controlled release via ionic exchange. Some formulations exhibited an increase in size and release of drug in the presence of a reducing agent, and therefore demonstrated the ability to respond to an in vitro reducing environment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lab-on-a-disc agglutination assay for protein detection by optomagnetic readout and optical imaging using nano- and micro-sized magnetic beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco

    2016-01-01

    30 s) using the two differently sized beads for the two detection methods. In both cases a sample volume of only 10 μl is required. The demonstrated automation, low sample-to-answer time and portability of both detection instruments as well as integration of the assay on a low-cost disc are important...

  6. Influence of Immobilized Biomolecules on Magnetic Bead Plug Formation and Retention in Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henken, Rachel L.; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Gilman, S. Douglass

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes in the formation and retention of magnetic bead plugs in a capillary during electrophoresis were studied, and it was demonstrated that these effects were due to the type of biological molecule immobilized on the surface of these beads. Three biological molecules, an antibody, an oligonucleotide and alkaline phosphatase, were attached to otherwise identical streptavidin-coated magnetic beads through biotin-avidin binding in order to isolate differences in bead immobilization in a magnetic field resulting from the type of biological molecule immobilized on the bead surface. Alkaline phosphatase also was attached to the magnetic beads using epoxy groups on the bead surfaces (instead of avidin-biotin binding) to study the impact of immobilization chemistry. The formation and retention of magnetic bead plugs were studied quantitatively using light scattering detection of magnetic particles eluting from the bead plugs and qualitatively using microscopy. Both the type of biomolecule immobilized on the magnetic bead surface and the chemistry used to link the biomolecule to the magnetic bead impacted the formation and retention of the bead plugs. PMID:22437880

  7. Fabrication of micromagnetic beads with molecular recognition/electron-transfer peptides for the sensing of ovalbumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu, E-mail: kzsuga@maebashi-it.ac.jp [Maebashi Institute of Technology, Gunma, 371-0816 (Japan); Kuramitz, Hideki [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, 930-8555 (Japan); Shinohara, Hiroki [Maebashi Institute of Technology, Gunma, 371-0816 (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Electrochemical sensing of ovalbumin (OVA) was performed using magnetic beads with OVA recognition (RNRCKGTDVQAW)/electron-transfer (YYYYC) peptides. The focus of this study was to construct a highly sensitive and regenerative tool for OVA detection based on the interaction between a protein and peptide-1(RNRCKGTDVQAWYYYYC). The peptide-1 was introduced to the bead through four types of cross-linking reagents. Magnetic beads of different sizes with N-(6-maleimidocaproyloxy)sulfosuccinimide (Sulfo-EMCS) were also prepared. An oxidation peak due to tyrosine residues at 0.65 V depended on the distance of the electron-transfer peptide from the bead surface and on the surface area of the magnetic beads that contacted the electrode surface. The response of the electro-transfer peptide moiety was decreased because the protein was accumulated via the recognition peptide on the beads. When using Sulfo-EMCS and beads that were 6.0–6.9 μm in diameter, the calibration curve of OVA was linear and ranged from 8.0 × 10{sup −13} to 2.0 × 10{sup −11} M. To regenerate the magnetic beads, the measurements were achieved after removal of the OVA using a denaturing reagent. When OVA was added to fetal bovine serum containing a complex matrix, OVA was recovered at a rate of 98–100%. Consequently, these magnetic beads could be a powerful tool for the sensing of OVA in real samples. - Highlights: • Ovalbumin recognition/electron-transfer peptides were immobilized on magnetic beads. • The accumulation of the protein through the peptides on the beads caused the change of electrode response. • The magnetic beads could be reused for sensing of ovalbumin.

  8. Modeling of welded bead profile for rapid prototyping by robotic MAG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong; ZHU Sheng; WANG Tao; WANG Wanglong

    2009-01-01

    As a deposition technology, robotic metal active gas(MAG) welding has shown new promise for rapid prototyping (RP) of metallic parts. During the process of metal forming using robotic MAG welding, sectional profile of single-pass welded bead is critical to formed accuracy and quality of metal pans. In this paper, the experiments of single-pass welded bead for rapid prototyping using robotic MAG welding were carried out. The effect of some edge detectors on the cross-sectional edge of welded bead was discussed and curve fitting was applied using leat square fitting. Consequently, the mathematical model of welded bead profile was developed. The experimental results show that good shape could be obtained under suitable welding parameters. Canny operawr is suitable to edge detection of welded bead profile, and the mathematical model of welded bead profile developed is approximately parabola.

  9. Floating-bioadhesive gastroretentive Caesalpinia pulcherrima-based beads of amoxicillin trihydrate for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombre, Nilima A; Gide, Paraag S

    2016-01-01

    An oral dosage form containing floating bioadhesive gastroretentive microspheres forms a stomach-specific drug delivery system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori. To prepare and evaluate controlled release floating bioadhesive gastroretentive chitosan-coated amoxicillin trihydrate-loaded Caesalpinia pulcherrima galactomannan (CPG)-alginate beads (CCA-CPG-A), for H. pylori eradication. CCA-CPG-A beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation, using 2(3) factorial design with quantity of drug, combination of CPG with sodium alginate and concentration of calcium chloride as variables. Beads facilitated mucoadhesion to gastric mucosa with floating nature caused by chitosan coating for wide distribution throughout GIT. Developed beads were evaluated for characteristics like beads size-morphology, entrapment efficiency, DSC, XRD, FTIR, swelling ratio, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, in vitro floating and in vitro H. pylori growth inhibition studies. CCA-CPG-A beads were studied in Wistar rats for in vivo gastric mucoadhesion, in vivo H. pylori growth inhibition studies using PCR amplification of isolated DNA, rapid urease test. Developed beads possess drug release of 79-92%, entrapment efficiency of 65-89%, mucoadhesion of 61-89%. In vivo mucoadhesion study showed more than 85% mucoadhesion of beads even after 7th hour. In vitro-in vivo growth inhibition study showed complete eradication of H. pylori. CPG-alginate and chitosan in beads interacts with gastric mucosubstrate surface for prolonged gastric residence with floating bioadhesion mechanism for H. pylori eradication in rats. Floating bioadhesive CCA-CPG-A beads offer a promising drug delivery system for H. pylori eradication at lower dose, reduced adverse effect and enhance bioavailability.

  10. An ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay of chloramphenicol based on gold nanoparticles and magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-05-01

    A competitive, direct, chemiluminescent immunoassay based on a magnetic beads (MBs) separation and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) labelling technique to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) has been developed. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled anti-CAP monoclonal antibody conjugated with AuNPs and antigen-immobilized MBs were prepared. After optimization parameters of immunocomplex MBs, the IC50 values of chemiluminescence magnetic nanoparticles immunoassay (CL-MBs-nano-immunoassay) were 0.017 µg L(-1) for extract method I and 0.17 µg L(-1) for extract method II. The immunoassay with two extract methods was applied to detect CAP in milk. Comparison of these two extract methods showed that extract method I was advantageous in better sensitivity, in which the sensitivity was 10 times compared to that of extract method II, while extract method II was superior in simple operation, suitable for high throughout screen. The recoveries were 86.7-98.0% (extract method I) and 80.0-103.0% (extract method II), and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were all recovery with both extract methods and high correlation with traditional ELISA kit in milk system confirmed that the immunomagnetic assay based on AuNPs exhibited promising potential in rapid field screening for trace CAP analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Sangadzhi Kononov, Buddhist Prayer Beads

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton; Kovaeva, Bair

    2016-01-01

    Prayer beads have special dividers that divide the beads into 7, 21 and 33. Apart from using in prayers, the Kalmyks also keep beads as amulets that are believed to have strong energy. After prayers, old people often bless their children and grandchildren with their beads. Such beads are also kept in families from one generation to the next. Sangadzhi believes that prayer beads store inside them the energy of mantras that have been read with them. There is an interesting story about the pray...

  12. Coated Aerogel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  13. Characterization of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase and Histidine-Rich Protein 2 Clearance Patterns via Rapid On-Bead Detection from a Single Dried Blood Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwalter, Christine F.; Gibson, Lauren E.; Mudenda, Lwiindi; Kimmel, Danielle W.; Mbambara, Saidon; Thuma, Philip E.; Wright, David W.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. A rapid, on-bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) was adapted for use with dried blood spot (DBS) samples. This assay detected both biomarkers from a single DBS sample with only 45 minutes of total incubation time and detection limits of 600 ± 500 pM (pLDH) and 69 ± 30 pM (HRP2), corresponding to 150 and 24 parasites/μL, respectively. This sensitive and reproducible on-bead detection method was used to quantify pLDH and HRP2 in patient DBS samples from rural Zambia collected at multiple time points after treatment. Biomarker clearance patterns relative to parasite clearance were determined; pLDH clearance followed closely with parasite clearance, whereas most patients maintained detectable levels of HRP2 for 35–52 days after treatment. Furthermore, weak-to-moderate correlations between biomarker concentration and parasite densities were found for both biomarkers. This work demonstrates the utility of the developed assay for epidemiological study and surveillance of malaria. PMID:29557342

  14. Quantitative determination of glycine in aqueous solution using glutamate dehydrogenase-immobilized glyoxal agarose beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Semra Yilmazer; Keskin, Can Serkan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatic procedure for the determination of glycine (Gly) was developed by using a column containing immobilized glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) on glyoxal agarose beads. Ammonia is produced from the enzymatic reactions between Gly and GDH with NAD(+) in phosphate buffer medium. The indophenol blue method was used for ammonia detection based on the spectrophotometric measurements of blue-colored product absorbing at 640 nm. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 0.1-10 mM of Gly concentrations. The effect of pH, temperature, and time interval was studied to find column stability, and also the interference effects of other amino acids was investigated. The interaction between GDH and glyoxal agarose beads was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphology of the immobilized and non-immobilized agarose beads were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  15. Detection of mitochondrial DNA with the compact bead array sensor system (cBASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shawn P.; Ibe, Carol N.; Caldwell, Jane M.; Levine, Jay F.; Whitman, Lloyd J.; Tamanaha, Cy R.

    2009-02-01

    Enteric pathogens are a significant contaminant in surface waters used for recreation, fish and shellfish harvesting, crop irrigation, and human consumption. The need for water monitoring becomes more pronounced when industrial, agricultural, and residential lands are found in close proximity. Fecal contamination is particularly problematic and identification of the pollution source essential to remediation efforts. Standard monitoring for fecal contamination relies on indicator organisms, but the technique is too broad to identify the source of contamination. Instead, real-time PCR of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an emerging method for identification of the contamination source. Presented herein, we evaluate an alternative technology, the compact Bead Array Sensor System (cBASS®) and its assay approach Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD), for the detection of mtDNA. Previously, we achieved multiplexed, attomolar detection of toxins and femtomolar detection of nucleic acids in minutes with FFD assays. More importantly, FFD assays are compatible with a variety of complex matrices and therefore potentially applicable for samples where the matrix would interfere with PCR amplification. We have designed a triplex assay for the NADH gene found in human, swine, and bovine mtDNA and demonstrated the specific detection of human mtDNA spiked into a waste water sample.

  16. Strategies for enumeration of circulating microvesicles on a conventional flow cytometer: Counting beads and scatter parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatatbeh, Mohammad J; Enjeti, Anoop K; Baqar, Sara; Ekinci, Elif I; Liu, Dorothy; Thorne, Rick F; Lincz, Lisa F

    2018-01-01

    Enumeration of circulating microvesicles (MVs) by conventional flow cytometry is accomplished by the addition of a known amount of counting beads and calculated from the formula: MV/μl = (MV count/bead count) × final bead concentration. We sought to optimize each variable in the equation by determining the best parameters for detecting 'MV count' and examining the effects of different bead preparations and concentrations on the final calculation. Three commercially available bead preparations (TruCount, Flow-Count and CountBright) were tested, and MV detection on a BD FACSCanto was optimized for gating by either forward scatter (FSC) or side scatter (SSC); the results were compared by calculating different subsets of MV on a series of 74 typical patient plasma samples. The relationship between the number of beads added to each test and the number of beads counted by flow cytometry remained linear over a wide range of bead concentrations ( R 2 ≥ 0.997). However, TruCount beads produced the most consistent (concentration variation = 3.8%) calculated numbers of plasma CD41 + /Annexin V + MV, which were significantly higher from that calculated using either Flow-Count or CountBright ( p beads by FSC and 0.16 μm beads by SSC, but there were significantly more background events using SSC compared with FSC (3113 vs. 470; p = 0.008). In general, sample analysis by SSC resulted in significantly higher numbers of MV ( p beads provided linear results at concentrations ranging from 6 beads/μl to 100 beads/μl, but TruCount was the most consistent. Using SSC to gate MV events produced high background which negatively affected counting bead enumeration and overall MV calculations. Strategies to reduce SSC background should be employed in order to reliably use this technique.

  17. New Nanoparticles Dispersing Beads Mill with Ultra Small Beads and its Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkyo, M; Tahara, T; Imajyo, Y

    2011-01-01

    Two of the major problems related to nanoparticle dispersion with a conventional beads mill are re-agglomeration and damage to the crystalline structure of the particles. The Ultra Apex Mill was developed to solve these problems by enabling the use of ultra-small beads with a diameter of less than 0.1mm. The core of this breakthrough development is centrifugation technology which allows the use of beads as small as 0.015mm. When dispersing agglomerated nanoparticles the impulse of the small beads is very low which means there is little influence on the particles. The surface energy of the nanoparticles remains low so the properties are not likely to change. As a result, stable nanoparticle dispersions can be achieved without re-cohesion. The Ultra Apex Mill is superior to conventional beads mills that are limited to much larger bead sizes. The technology of the Ultra Apex Mill has pioneered practical applications for nanoparticles in various fields: composition materials for LCD screens, ink-jet printing, ceramic condensers and cosmetics.

  18. Graphene Oxide Conjugated Magnetic Beads for RNA Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Xuan-Hung; Baek, Ahruem; Kim, Tae Han; Lee, Sang Hun; Rho, Won-Yeop; Chung, Woo-Jae; Kim, Dong-Eun; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2017-08-04

    A magnetic material that consists of silica-coated magnetic beads conjugated with graphene oxide (GO) was successfully prepared for facile ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction. When the GO-modified magnetic beads were applied to separate the RNA from the lysed cell, the cellular RNAs were readily adsorbed to and readily desorbed from the surface of the GO-modified magnetic beads by urea. The amount of RNA extracted by the GO-modified magnetic beads was ≈170 % as much as those of the control extracted by a conventional phenol-based chaotropic solution. These results demonstrate that the facile method of RNA separation by using GO-modified magnetic beads as an adsorbent is an efficient and simple way to purify intact cellular RNAs and/or microRNA from cell lysates. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Stability of alginate-titanium dioxide based photocatalyst beads for water treatment application under UV irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    WENG HOONG LAM

    2017-01-01

    Immobilizing TiO2 photocatalyst in alginate beads has been considered to be a green approach for the separation and recycling of the photocatalyst in UV water treatment. However, the feasibility of using alginate beads in industry is largely dependent on their photo-stability during operation. This study aimed to provide a better understanding on the degradation of alginate/TiO2 beads under UV irradiation and to improve beads stability. The beads stability can be improved by increasing the al...

  20. X-ray fluorescent analysis on Indo-Pacific glass beads from Sungai Mas archaeological sites, Kedah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuliskandar Ramli; Nik Hassan Shuhaimi; Nik Abdul Rahman; Abdul Latif Samian

    2011-01-01

    Sungai Mas was an ancient port-kingdom located on West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia in a district of Kota Kuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia. The port-kingdom evolved as an entrepot since fifth century AD and continuously visited by international trader from India, China, Middle East and Europe until eighteenth century AD. Sungai Mas was also one of the Indo-Pacific beads making centers in Southeast Asia since sixth to thirteenth century AD and also produced pottery and brick. X-ray fluorescent analysis (XRF) on Sungai Mas Indo-Pacific beads is carried out to determine whether the glass beads originated from Arikamedu, India or locally made by community in Sungai Mas. Totally, twenty-two samples of beads and beads materials assayed by XRF were chosen. Contents of nine major elements and nine trace elements, which might be present of flux, stabilizer, colorants or opacifier were examined. The elements Si, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Mn, Mg, Cu, Pb, Zr, Sr, Ba, La, U, Ni and Cr were detectable in all samples. The concentration of elements found are discussed in terms of flux, silica or lead base glass, color and/or opacity of the glass beads and glass samples. The result showed that Sungai Mas produced their own Indo-Pacific beads from sixth to thirteenth century AD. (author)

  1. Half bead welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.; Holz, P.P.

    1978-05-01

    The ORNL has employed the Section XI half-bead procedure for six repair welds. Table 2 identifies the repairs and the components upon which they were accomplished. The weld repairs were performed to permit us to evaluate material properties, residual stresses, weld repair procedures, and structural behavior of repaired pressure vessels. As a consequence of our study we concluded that when the half bead procedure is correctly applied: (1) there is no metallurgical degradation of the base material, (2) residual stresses of yield point magnitude will be present, and (3) the structural integrity of the pressure vessel is not impaired at Charpy V-notch upper shelf temperatures

  2. Polymerase-free measurement of microRNA-122 with single base specificity using single molecule arrays: Detection of drug-induced liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Rissin

    Full Text Available We have developed a single probe method for detecting microRNA from human serum using single molecule arrays, with sequence specificity down to a single base, and without the use of amplification by polymerases. An abasic peptide nucleic acid (PNA probe-containing a reactive amine instead of a nucleotide at a specific position in the sequence-for detecting a microRNA was conjugated to superparamagnetic beads. These beads were incubated with a sample containing microRNA, a biotinylated reactive nucleobase-containing an aldehyde group-that was complementary to the missing base in the probe sequence, and a reducing agent. When a target molecule with an exact match in sequence hybridized to the capture probe, the reactive nucleobase was covalently attached to the backbone of the probe by a dynamic covalent chemical reaction. Single molecules of the biotin-labeled probe were then labeled with streptavidin-β-galactosidase (SβG, the beads were resuspended in a fluorogenic enzyme substrate, loaded into an array of femtoliter wells, and sealed with oil. The array was imaged fluorescently to determine which beads were associated with single enzymes, and the average number of enzymes per bead was determined. The assay had a limit of detection of 500 fM, approximately 500 times more sensitive than a corresponding analog bead-based assay, with target specificity down to a single base mis-match. This assay was used to measure microRNA-122 (miR-122-an established biomarker of liver toxicity-extracted from the serum of patients who had acute liver injury due to acetaminophen, and control healthy patients. All patients with liver injury had higher levels of miR-122 in their serum compared to controls, and the concentrations measured correlated well with those determined using RT-qPCR. This approach allows rapid quantification of circulating microRNA with single-based specificity and a limit of quantification suitable for clinical use.

  3. Friction of N-bead macromolecules in solution: Effects of the bead-solvent interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, Alexander; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    The role of the bead-solvent interaction has been studied for its influence on the dynamics of an N-bead macromolecule which is immersed into a solution. Using a Fokker-Planck equation for the phase-space distribution function of the macromolecule, we show that all the effects of the solution can be treated entirely in terms of the friction tensors which are assigned to each pair of interacting beads in the chain. For the high-density as well as for the critical solvent, the properties of these tensors are discussed in detail and are calculated by using several (realistic) choices of the bead-solvent potential. From the friction tensors, moreover, an expression for the center-of-mass friction coefficient of a (N-bead) chain macromolecule is derived. Numerical data for this coefficient for 'truncated' Lennard-Jones bead-solvent potential are compared with results from molecular dynamic simulations and from the phenomenological theoretical data as found in the literature

  4. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer

  5. Gold Nanoparticles-Based Barcode Analysis for Detection of Norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jeung Hee; Lee, Kwon-Jai; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology-based bio-barcode amplification analysis offers an innovative approach for detecting neurotransmitters. We evaluated the efficacy of this method for detecting norepinephrine in normal and oxidative-stress damaged dopaminergic cells. Our approach use a combination of DNA barcodes and bead-based immunoassays for detecting neurotransmitters with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and provides polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-like sensitivity. This method relies on magnetic Dynabeads containing antibodies and nanoparticles that are loaded both with DNA barcords and with antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the Dynabead-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from the solution and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes are then identified by SERS and PCR analysis. The concentration of norepinephrine in dopaminergic cells can be readily detected using the bio-barcode assay, which is a rapid, high-throughput screening tool for detecting neurotransmitters.

  6. Beautiful Beads: A Lesson in Making Beads with Friendly Clay. AMACO[R] Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Harriet; Gamble, David

    This lesson resource includes a brief summary of the history of bead making and historic fascination with beads as adornment. A focus on design elements, color theory, craftsmanship, and technical skill in bead making is encouraged. The plan includes lesson goals and objectives; background preparation; a glossary of terms; a list of supplies; and…

  7. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  8. Induced movement of the magnetic beads and DNA-based dumbbell in a micro fluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, B.; Ghai, R.; Dimitrov, K.

    2007-12-01

    We have explored controlled movement of magnetic beads and a dumbbell structure composed of DNA, a magnetic and a non-magnetic bead in a micro fluidic channel. Movement of the beads and dumbbells is simulated assuming that a net force is described as a superposition between the magnetic and hydrodynamic drag forces. Trajectories of beads and dumbbells are observed with optical light microscopy. The experimentally measured data show a good agreement with the simulations. This dynamical approach offers the prospect to stretch the DNA within the dumbbell and investigate its conformational changes. Further on, we demonstrate that short sonication can reduce multiple attachments of DNA to the beads.

  9. Towards a peptide-based suspension array for the detection of pestivirus antibodies in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Fimme J; Jelsma, Tinka; Fijten, Helmi; Achterberg, René P; Loeffen, Willie L A

    2016-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and lethal disease in swine. Serological tests for the diagnosis of CSF need not only to detect antibodies against CSFV, but also need to differentiate these from antibodies against other pestiviruses. To investigate the possibilities of specific peptide-based serology, various synthetic peptides that represent a well-described linear epitope of the CSFV E2 protein (TAVSPTTLR) were used to test the viability of a peptide-based suspension array for the detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in swine. The results show that N-terminally biotinylated peptides can bind to avidin conjugated beads, and function in detection of the corresponding monoclonal antibody WH303. There are indications that the length of the spacer between epitope and biotin affect the efficiency of the peptide-antibody interaction. A protocol was established that enables probing for antibodies in porcine sera, where neutravidin-blocking of serum and the use of empty control beads for normalization was crucial. With a set of porcine sera with antibodies against various pestiviruses, the proof of concept of a peptide-based suspension array for specific detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in porcine sera was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiplexed Analysis of Serum Breast and Ovarian Cancer Markers by Means of Suspension Bead-quantum Dot Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnik, Kristina; Sokolova, Zinaida; Baryshnikova, Maria; Bilan, Regina; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    Multiplexed analysis of cancer markers is crucial for early tumor diagnosis and screening. We have designed lab-on-a-bead microarray for quantitative detection of three breast cancer markers in human serum. Quantum dots were used as bead-bound fluorescent tags for identifying each marker by means of flow cytometry. Antigen-specific beads reliably detected CA 15-3, CEA, and CA 125 in serum samples, providing clear discrimination between the samples with respect to the antigen levels. The novel microarray is advantageous over the routine single-analyte ones due to the simultaneous detection of various markers. Therefore the developed microarray is a promising tool for serum tumor marker profiling.

  11. Development of a new passive sampler based on diffusive milligel beads for copper analysis in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Reynaud, S.; Lespes, G.; Potin-Gautier, M.; Mignard, E.; Chéry, P.; Schaumlöffel, D.; Grassl, B.

    2015-01-01

    A new passive sampler was designed and characterized for the determination of free copper ion (Cu 2+ ) concentration in aqueous solution. Each sampling device was composed of a set of about 30 diffusive milligel (DMG) beads. Milligel beads with incorporated cation exchange resin (Chelex) particles were synthetized using an adapted droplet-based millifluidic process. Beads were assumed to be prolate spheroids, with a diameter of 1.6 mm and an anisotropic factor of 1.4. The milligel was controlled in chemical composition of hydrogel (monomer, cross-linker, initiator and Chelex concentration) and characterized in pore size. Two types of sampling devices were developed containing 7.5% and 15% of Chelex, respectively, and 6 nm pore size. The kinetic curves obtained demonstrated the accumulation of copper in the DMG according to the process described in the literature as absorption (and/or adsorption) and release following the Fick's first law of diffusion. For their use in water monitoring, the typical physico-chemical characteristics of the samplers, i.e. the mass-transfer coefficient (k 0 ) and the sampler-water partition coefficient (K sw ), were determined based on a static exposure design. In order to determine the copper concentration in the samplers after their exposure, a method using DMG bead digestion combined to Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis was developed and optimized. The DMG devices proved to be capable to absorb free copper ions from an aqueous solution, which could be accurately quantified with a mean recovery of 99% and a repeatability of 7% (mean relative uncertainty). - Highlights: • Controlled geometry of new passive sampler with ellipsoidal shape. • Original manufacturing process based on droplet-based millifluidic device. • Pore size characterization of the sampler. • Mass-transfer and sampler-water partitioning coefficients by static exposure experiments

  12. Development of a new passive sampler based on diffusive milligel beads for copper analysis in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M.; Reynaud, S.; Lespes, G.; Potin-Gautier, M. [Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour/CNRS UMR IPREM 5254, Hélioparc, 2 av. du Président Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Mignard, E. [CNRS-Solvay-Université Bordeaux, UMR5258, Laboratoire du Futur, 178 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Chéry, P. [Bordeaux Science Agro, 1 cours du Général De Gaulle, Gradignan, 33175 (France); Schaumlöffel, D. [Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour/CNRS UMR IPREM 5254, Hélioparc, 2 av. du Président Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Grassl, B., E-mail: bruno.grassl@univ-pau.fr [Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour/CNRS UMR IPREM 5254, Hélioparc, 2 av. du Président Angot, 64053 Pau (France)

    2015-08-26

    A new passive sampler was designed and characterized for the determination of free copper ion (Cu{sup 2+}) concentration in aqueous solution. Each sampling device was composed of a set of about 30 diffusive milligel (DMG) beads. Milligel beads with incorporated cation exchange resin (Chelex) particles were synthetized using an adapted droplet-based millifluidic process. Beads were assumed to be prolate spheroids, with a diameter of 1.6 mm and an anisotropic factor of 1.4. The milligel was controlled in chemical composition of hydrogel (monomer, cross-linker, initiator and Chelex concentration) and characterized in pore size. Two types of sampling devices were developed containing 7.5% and 15% of Chelex, respectively, and 6 nm pore size. The kinetic curves obtained demonstrated the accumulation of copper in the DMG according to the process described in the literature as absorption (and/or adsorption) and release following the Fick's first law of diffusion. For their use in water monitoring, the typical physico-chemical characteristics of the samplers, i.e. the mass-transfer coefficient (k{sub 0}) and the sampler-water partition coefficient (K{sub sw}), were determined based on a static exposure design. In order to determine the copper concentration in the samplers after their exposure, a method using DMG bead digestion combined to Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis was developed and optimized. The DMG devices proved to be capable to absorb free copper ions from an aqueous solution, which could be accurately quantified with a mean recovery of 99% and a repeatability of 7% (mean relative uncertainty). - Highlights: • Controlled geometry of new passive sampler with ellipsoidal shape. • Original manufacturing process based on droplet-based millifluidic device. • Pore size characterization of the sampler. • Mass-transfer and sampler-water partitioning coefficients by static exposure experiments.

  13. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SYNTHESIZE CHITOSAN BEADS CROSSLINKED BY EPICHLOROHYDRIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongjian; BAI Shu; SUN Yan

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation describes a novel method for preparing spherical chitosan particles based on crosslinking with epichlorohydrin. Certain amount of pre-crosslinking agent was added to form chitosan gels by traditional inverse phase suspension polymerization. Then the gels were crosslinked by epichlorohydrin at basic condition to obtain chitosan beads. The effects of reaction conditions, such as crosslinking time, the amount of crosslinking agent and the NaOtt concentration,on the physical properties of the chitosan beads were investigated. The beads were found to have more amino groups in the polymer chains than the beads crosslinked by glutaraldehyde. The capacity for copper ions is as high as 40mg/g. The beads have good mechanical strength and can be reused.

  14. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SYNTHESIZE CHITOSAN BEADS CROSSLINKED BY EPICHLOROHYDRIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYongjina; BAIShu; 等

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation describes a novel method for preparing spherical chitosan particles based on crosslinking with epichlorohydrin.Certain amount of pre-crosslinking agent was added to form chitosan gels by traditional inverse phase suspension polymerization.Then the gels were crosslinked by epichlorohydrin at basic condition to obtain chitosan beads.The effects of reaction conditions,such as crosslinking time,the amount of crosslinking agent and the NaOH concentration,on the physical properties of the chitosan beads were investigated.The beads were found to have more amino groups in the polymer chains than the beads crosslinked by glutaraldehyde.The capacity for copper ions in as high as 40mg/g,The beads have good mechanical strength and can be reused.

  15. A Magnetic Sensor System for Biological Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect biological targets through sensing the stray field of magnetic beads which label the targets. Commonly, magnetic biosensors employ the “sandwich” method to immobilize biological targets, i.e., the targets are sandwiched between a bio-functionalized sensor surface and bio-functionalized magnetic beads. This method has been used very successfully in different application, but its execution requires a rather elaborate procedure including several washing and incubation steps. This dissertation investigates a new magnetic biosensor concept, which enables a simple and effective detection of biological targets. The biosensor takes advantage of the size difference between bare magnetic beads and compounds of magnetic beads and biological targets. First, the detection of super-paramagnetic beads via magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors is implemented. Frequency modulation is used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the detection of a single magnetic bead. Second, the concept of the magnetic biosensor is investigated theoretically. The biosensor consists of an MTJ sensor, which detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside of a trap on top of the MTJ. A microwire between the trap and the MTJ is used to attract magnetic beads to the trapping well by applying a current to it. The MTJ sensor’s output depends on the number of beads inside the trap. If biological targets are in the sample solution, the beads will form bead compounds consisting of beads linked to the biological targets. Since bead compounds are larger than bare beads, the number of beads inside the trapping well will depend on the presence of biological targets. Hence, the output of the MTJ sensor will depend on the biological targets. The dependences of sensor signals on the sizes of the MTJ sensor, magnetic beads and biological targets are studied to find the optimum constellations for the detection of specific biological targets. The optimization is demonstrated

  16. DNA & Protein detection based on microbead agglutination

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2012-06-06

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microparticles in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Agglutination-based tests are most often used to explore the antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for mode protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin two-component system, as well as a hybridization based two-component assay; however, as our work shows, two-component systems are prone to self-termination of the linking analyte and thus have a lower sensitivity. Three component systems have also been used with DNA hybridization, as in our work; however, their assay requires 48 hours for incubation, while our assay is performed in 5 minutes making it a real candidate for POC testing. We demonstrate three assays: a two-component biotin/streptavidin assay, a three-component hybridization assay using single stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules and a stepped three-component hybridization assay. The comparison of these three assays shows our simple stepped three-component agglutination assay to be rapid at room temperature and more sensitive than the two-component version by an order of magnitude. An agglutination assay was also performed in a PDMS microfluidic chip where agglutinated beads were trapped by filter columns for easy observation. We developed a rapid (5 minute) room temperature assay, which is based on microbead agglutination. Our three-component assay solves the linker self-termination issue allowing an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity over two–component assays. Our stepped version of the three-component assay solves the issue with probe site saturation thus enabling a wider range of detection. Detection of the agglutinated beads with the naked eye by trapping in microfluidic channels has been shown.

  17. Development of a novel colorimetric sensor based on alginate beads for monitoring rainbow trout spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdinasab, Marjan; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hashem; Sepidname, Marziyeh; Negahdarifar, Manizheh; Li, Peiwu

    2018-05-01

    Alginate is a non-toxic, renewable, and linear copolymer obtained from the brown algae Laminaria digitata that can be easily shaped into beads. Its good gel forming properties have made it useful for entrapping food and pharmaceutical ingredients. In this study, alginate beads were used in a novel application as a colorimetric sensor in food intelligent packaging. Colorimetric sensor was developed through entrapping red cabbage extract as a pH indicator in alginate beads. The pH indicator beads were used in rainbow trout packaging for monitoring fillets spoilage. Color change of beads during fish storage was measured using the CIELab method. The alginate bead colorimetric sensor is validated by measuring total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels and microbial populations in fish samples. Moreover, peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated during storage. Results indicated that increasing the bacterial population during storage and production of proteolytic enzymes resulted in protein degradation, accumulation of volatile amine compounds, increase in the pH and finally color change of alginate beads. The values of TVB-N, pH, PV and TBARS increased with time of storage. The results of TVB-N and microbial growth were in accordance with color change of beads and CIELab data. Therefore, the proposed system enjoys a high sensitivity to pH variations and is capable of monitoring the spoilage of fish or other protein-rich products through its wide range of color changes. The alginate beads containing the red cabbage extract can, thus, be used as a low-cost colorimetric sensor for intelligent packaging applications.

  18. Concanavalin A immobilized magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) beads for prostate specific antigen binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idil, Neslihan; Perçin, Işık; Karakoç, Veyis; Yavuz, Handan; Aksöz, Nilüfer; Denizli, Adil

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare Concanavalin A (Con A) immobilized magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (mPGMA) beads for prostate specific antigen (PSA) binding and to study binding capacities of the beads using lectin-glycoprotein interactions. Firstly, iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method and then, beads were synthesized by dispersion polymerization in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles. Con A molecules were both covalently immobilized onto the beads directly and through the spacer arm (1,6-diaminohexane-HDMA). The total PSA and free PSA binding onto the mPGMA-HDMA-Con A beads were higher than that of the mPGMA-Con A beads. Maximum PSA binding capacity was observed as 91.2 ng/g. Approximately 45% of the bound PSA was eluted by using 0.1 M mannose as elution agent. The mPGMA-HDMA-Con A beads could be reused without a remarkable decrease in the binding capacities after 5 binding-desorption cycles. Serum fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The mPGMA-HDMA-Con A beads could be useful for the detection of PSA and suggested as a model system for other glycoprotein biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibody-integrated and functionalized graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads, produced using ammonia gas plasma technology, for capturing Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Chou, Han; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella spp. is the single and most important causative agent of foodborne infections, especially involving foods such as eggs, milk and meat. To prevent infection, a reliable surveillance system is required that can quickly and sensitively detect Salmonella. Here, we describe the development of antibody-integrated magnetic beads that are functionalized by a novel strategy using ammonia gas plasma. Ammonia plasma, produced by a radio frequency (RF) power supply, was allowed to react with the surface of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads, resulting in the introduction of amino groups. An anti-Salmonella antibody was then anchored by sulfide groups present on the protein surface to the amino groups of the magnetic beads via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The potential usefulness of these magnetic beads for capturing Salmonella was examined as follows. The beads were incubated with Salmonella in liquid medium and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thorough washing, adsorption of Salmonella to the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction and a direct culture assay. Our findings indicate that the capture and concentration of Salmonella using the antibody-integrated magnetic beads was more efficient than commercial Dynabeads® anti-Salmonella, which are conventionally used for concentrating Salmonella from liquid cultures. We believe this novel bead technology will contribute to the enhanced detection of Salmonella. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A High-Throughput SU-8Microfluidic Magnetic Bead Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Christensen, T. B.; Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on SU-8 fabrication technique for high through-put applications. The experimental results show that magnetic beads can be captured at an efficiency of 91 % and 54 % at flow rates of 1 mL/min and 4 mL/min, respectively. Integration...... of soft magnetic elements in the chip leads to a slightly higher capturing efficiency and a more uniform distribution of captured beads over the separation chamber than the system without soft magnetic elements....

  1. [DNA extraction from decomposed tissue by double-digest and magnetic beads methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dian; Liu, Chao; Liu, Hong

    2011-12-01

    To study the effect of the double-digest and magnetic beads method for DNA extraction from 3 types of decomposed tissues. DNA of cartilages, nails and joint capsule in 91 highly decomposed corpses which had not been extracted by common magnetic beads method, were prepared with the double-digest and magnetic beads methods, and quantified with Quantifiler kit, followed by amplification with Sinofiler kit or Minifiler kit. DNA concentration extracted from the 91 highly decomposed cartilages, nails and joint capsule samples was 0-0.225 ng/microL. Sixty-two samples whose DNA concentration were more than 0.020 ng/microL had obtained 9 or more STR loci successfully. The detection rate was 68.13%. The successful rate of STR genotyping for the 3 types of decomposed tissues can be significantly improved by the double-digest and magnetic beads methods.

  2. Sequestering HMGB1 via DNA-Conjugated Beads Ameliorates Murine Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Daniel J.; Dancho, Meghan; Tsaava, Teá; Li, Jianhua; Lu, Ben; Levine, Yaakov A.; Stiegler, Andrew; Tamari, Yehuda; Al-Abed, Yousef; Roth, Jesse; Tracey, Kevin J.; Yang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that affects millions of people worldwide. Although the etiology of IBD is not clear, it is known that products from stressed cells and enteric microbes promote intestinal inflammation. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), originally identified as a nuclear DNA binding protein, is a cytokine-like protein mediator implicated in infection, sterile injury, autoimmune disease, and IBD. Elevated levels of HMGB1 have been detected in inflamed human intestinal tissues and in feces of IBD patients and mouse models of colitis. Neutralizing HMGB1 activity by administration of anti-HMGB1 antibodies or HMGB1-specific antagonist improves clinical outcomes in animal models of colitis. Since HMGB1 binds to DNA with high affinity, here we developed a novel strategy to sequester HMGB1 using DNA immobilized on sepharose beads. Screening of DNA-bead constructs revealed that B2 beads, one linear form of DNA conjugated beads, bind HMGB1 with high affinity, capture HMGB1 ex vivo from endotoxin-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell supernatant and from feces of mice with colitis. Oral administration of B2 DNA beads significantly improved body weight, reduced colon injury, and suppressed colonic and circulating cytokine levels in mice with spontaneous colitis (IL-10 knockout) and with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Thus, DNA beads reduce inflammation by sequestering HMGB1 and may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of IBD. PMID:25127031

  3. Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hee Chul; Jang, Bohyun; Song, Myeong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a widely used standard treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are not suitable candidates for curative treatments. The rationale for TACE is that intra-arterial chemotherapy using lipiodol and chemotherapeutic agents, followed by selective vascular embolization, results in a strong cytotoxic effect as well as ischemia (conventional TACE). Recently, drug-eluting beads (DC Beads®) have been developed for transcatheter treatment of HCC to deliver higher doses of the chemotherapeutic agent and to prolong contact time with the tumor. DC Beads® can actively sequester doxorubicin hydrochloride from solution and release it in a controlled sustained fashion. Treatment with DC Beads® substantially reduced the amount of chemotherapeutic agent that reached the systemic circulation compared with conventional, lipiodol-based regimens, significantly reducing drug-related adverse events. In this article, we describe the treatment response, survival, and safety of TACE used with drug-eluting beads for the treatment of HCC and discuss future therapeutic possibilities. PMID:27833376

  4. The control of beads diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingxiao [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Xin, E-mail: xding@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Tian, Lingling, E-mail: lingling_tian@nus.edu.sg [Center of Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center of Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of CNS Regeneration (GHMICR), Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Bead-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the beads diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the beads diameter of electrospun bead-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that bead-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the beads diameter became greater and the shape of the beads changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The bead-on-string nanofibers with different beads diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded bead-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of beads diameter control. - Highlights: • Bead diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was controlled by varying solvent ratio and polymer concentration. • The effect of the addition of particle drugs on BD of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was studied. • The corresponding release behaviors of nanofibers with different BD loading micro-particle drugs were investigated. • Bead-on-string nanofibers with bigger BD could alleviate the initial burst release.

  5. The control of beads diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingxiao; Ding, Xin; Tian, Lingling; Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-01-01

    Bead-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the beads diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the beads diameter of electrospun bead-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that bead-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the beads diameter became greater and the shape of the beads changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The bead-on-string nanofibers with different beads diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded bead-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of beads diameter control. - Highlights: • Bead diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was controlled by varying solvent ratio and polymer concentration. • The effect of the addition of particle drugs on BD of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was studied. • The corresponding release behaviors of nanofibers with different BD loading micro-particle drugs were investigated. • Bead-on-string nanofibers with bigger BD could alleviate the initial burst release.

  6. Cell surface clustering of Cadherin adhesion complex induced by antibody coated beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cadherin receptors mediate cell-cell adhesion, signal transduction and assembly of cytoskeletons. How a single transmembrane molecule Cadherin can be involved in multiple functions through modulating its binding activities with many membrane adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal components is an unanswered question which can be elucidated by clues from bead experiments. Human lung cells expressing N-Cadherin were examined. After co-incubation with anti-N-Cadherin monoclonal antibody coated beads, cell surface clustering of N-Cadherin was induced. Immunofluorescent detection demonstrated that in addition to Cadherin, β-Catenin, α-Catenin, α-Actinin and Actin fluorescence also aggregated respectively at the membrane site of bead attachment. Myosin heavy chain (MHC), another major component of Actin cytoskeleton, did not aggregate at the membrane site of bead attachment. Adhesion unrelated protein Con A and polylysine conjugated beads did not induce the clustering of adhesion molecules. It is indicated that the Cadherin/Catenins/α-Actinin/Actin complex is formed at Cadherin mediated cell adherens junction; occupancy and cell surface clustering of Cadherin is crucial for the formation of Cadherin adhesion protein complexes.

  7. Electrochemical biotin detection based on magnetic beads and a new magnetic flow cell for screen printed electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscay, Julien; González García, María Begoña; Costa García, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    The use of the first flow-cell for magnetic assays with an integrated magnet is reported here. The flow injection analysis system (FIA) is used for biotin determination. The reaction scheme is based on a one step competitive assay between free biotin and biotin labeled with horseradish peroxidase (B-HRP). The mixture of magnetic beads modified with streptavidin (Strep-MB), biotin and B-HRP is left 15 min under stirring and then a washing step is performed. After that, 100 μL of the mixture is injected and after 30s 100 μL of 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is injected and the FIAgram is recorded applying a potential of -0.2V. The linear range obtained is from 0.01 to 1 nM of biotin and the sensitivity is 758 nA/nM. The modification and cleaning of the electrode are performed in an easy way due to the internal magnet of the flow cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-09-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors in combination with magnetic beads provide sensing platforms, which are small in size and highly sensitive. These platforms can be fully integrated with microchannels and electronics to enable devices capable of performing complex tasks. Commonly, a sandwich method is used that requires a specific coating of the sensor\\'s surface to immobilize magnetic beads and biological targets on top of the sensor. This paper concerns a micro device to detect biological targets using magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer and reduces the number of steps required to run an experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Observation of self-assembled fluorescent beads by scanning near-field optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Jo, W.; Kim, Min-Gon; Kyu Park, Hyun; Hyun Chung, Bong

    2006-01-01

    Optical response and topography of fluorescent latex beads both on flat self-assembled monolayer and on a micron-patterned surface with poly(dimethylsiloxane) are studied. Scanning near-field optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy were utilized together for detecting fluorescence and imaging topography of the patterned latex beads, respectively. As a result, the micro-patterned latex beads where a specific chemical binding occurred show a strong signal, whereas no signals are observed in the case of nonspecific binding. With fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), it is convenient to measure fluorescence signal from the patterned beads allowing us to monitor the small balls of fluorescent latex

  10. Development of a new passive sampler based on diffusive milligel beads for copper analysis in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Reynaud, S; Lespes, G; Potin-Gautier, M; Mignard, E; Chéry, P; Schaumlöffel, D; Grassl, B

    2015-08-26

    A new passive sampler was designed and characterized for the determination of free copper ion (Cu(2+)) concentration in aqueous solution. Each sampling device was composed of a set of about 30 diffusive milligel (DMG) beads. Milligel beads with incorporated cation exchange resin (Chelex) particles were synthetized using an adapted droplet-based millifluidic process. Beads were assumed to be prolate spheroids, with a diameter of 1.6 mm and an anisotropic factor of 1.4. The milligel was controlled in chemical composition of hydrogel (monomer, cross-linker, initiator and Chelex concentration) and characterized in pore size. Two types of sampling devices were developed containing 7.5% and 15% of Chelex, respectively, and 6 nm pore size. The kinetic curves obtained demonstrated the accumulation of copper in the DMG according to the process described in the literature as absorption (and/or adsorption) and release following the Fick's first law of diffusion. For their use in water monitoring, the typical physico-chemical characteristics of the samplers, i.e. the mass-transfer coefficient (k0) and the sampler-water partition coefficient (Ksw), were determined based on a static exposure design. In order to determine the copper concentration in the samplers after their exposure, a method using DMG bead digestion combined to Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis was developed and optimized. The DMG devices proved to be capable to absorb free copper ions from an aqueous solution, which could be accurately quantified with a mean recovery of 99% and a repeatability of 7% (mean relative uncertainty). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic bead/capture DNA/glucose-loaded nanoliposomes for amplifying the glucometer signal in the rapid screening of hepatitis C virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haijian; Lin, Kun; Lun, Yongzhi; Yu, Liuming

    2018-06-01

    A digital detection strategy based on a portable personal glucometer (PGM) was developed for the simple, rapid, and sensitive detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA, involving the release of glucose-loaded nanoliposomes due to coupling-site-specific cleavage by the endonuclease BamHI. The glucose-loaded nanoliposomes were synthesized using a reversed-phase evaporation method and provided an amplified signal at the PGM in the presence of HCV RNA. Initially, a 21-mer oligonucleotide complementary to HCV RNA was covalently conjugated to a magnetic bead through the amino group at the 5' end of the oligonucleotide, and then bound to a glucose-loaded liposome by typical carbodiimide coupling at its 3' end. In the presence of the target HCV RNA, the target hybridized with the oligonucleotide to form double-stranded DNA. The symmetrical duplex sequence 5'-GGATCC-3' between guanines was then catalytically cleaved by BamHI, which detached the glucose-loaded liposome from the magnetic bead. Following magnetic separation of the bead, the detached glucose-loaded liposome was lysed using Triton X-100 to release the glucose molecules within it, which were then detected as an amplified signal at the digital PGM. Under optimal conditions, the PGM signal increased with increasing HCV RNA, and displayed a strongly linear dependence on the level of HCV RNA for concentrations ranging from 10 pM to 1.0 μM. The detection limit (LOD) of the system was 1.9 pM. Good reproducibility and favorable specificity were achieved in the analysis of the target HCV RNA. Human serum samples containing HCV RNA were analyzed using this strategy, and the developed sensing platform was observed to yield satisfactory results based on a comparison with the corresponding results from a Cobas ® Amplicor HCV Test Analyzer. Graphical abstract A digital detection strategy utilizing a personal glucometer was developed for the detection of hepatitis C virus RNA. The strategy involved the use of the

  12. Magnetic measurements of suspended functionalised ferromagnetic beads under DC applied fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Santos V, Luis; Llandro, Justin; Lee, Dongwook; Mitrelias, Thanos; Palfreyman, Justin J.; Hayward, Thomas J.; Cooper, Jos; Bland, J.A.C.; Barnes, Crispin H.W.; Arroyo C, Juan L.; Lees, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a simple technique to obtain the hysteresis loops of magnetic beads (Spherotech Inc.) in liquid suspension is presented. The magnetic measurements were taken in a DC Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS-SQUID sensor). Samples were based on ferromagnetic beads (surface-functionalized NH 2 , mean diameter 4.32 μm) prepared in three conditions: dry, suspended in sucrose solution and in suspension after functionalization with fluorophore. Special small containers (1.3 cm long) made of non magnetic plastic were designed to hold the beads in liquid. The results indicate that the bead's remnant magnetization is half of the value at maximum applied field in all cases. However, due to the additional degrees of rotational freedom, beads suspended in a liquid do not present coercivity. The use of ferromagnetic beads and magnetic elements of different architectures for applications in bioassays is also discussed.

  13. Capture, isolation and release of cancer cells with aptamer-functionalized glass bead array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuan; Liu, Yaling; Allen, Peter B; Asghar, Waseem; Mahmood, M Arif Iftakher; Tan, Jifu; Duhon, Holli; Kim, Young-tae; Ellington, Andrew D; Iqbal, Samir M

    2012-11-21

    Early detection and isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTC) can enable better prognosis for cancer patients. A Hele-Shaw device with aptamer functionalized glass beads is designed, modeled, and fabricated to efficiently isolate cancer cells from a cellular mixture. The glass beads are functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) aptamer and sit in ordered array of pits in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. A PDMS encapsulation is then used to cover the channel and to flow through cell solution. The beads capture cancer cells from flowing solution depicting high selectivity. The cell-bound glass beads are then re-suspended from the device surface followed by the release of 92% cells from glass beads using combination of soft shaking and anti-sense RNA. This approach ensures that the cells remain in native state and undisturbed during capture, isolation and elution for post-analysis. The use of highly selective anti-EGFR aptamer with the glass beads in an array and subsequent release of cells with antisense molecules provide multiple levels of binding and release opportunities that can help in defining new classes of CTC enumeration devices.

  14. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.A.; Story, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  15. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  16. Automated solid-phase subcloning based on beads brought into proximity by magnetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Elton P; Nikoshkov, Andrej; Uhlen, Mathias; Rockberg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In the fields of proteomics, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology there is a need for high-throughput and reliable cloning methods to facilitate construction of expression vectors and genetic pathways. Here, we describe a new approach for solid-phase cloning in which both the vector and the gene are immobilized to separate paramagnetic beads and brought into proximity by magnetic force. Ligation events were directly evaluated using fluorescent-based microscopy and flow cytometry. The highest ligation efficiencies were obtained when gene- and vector-coated beads were brought into close contact by application of a magnet during the ligation step. An automated procedure was developed using a laboratory workstation to transfer genes into various expression vectors and more than 95% correct clones were obtained in a number of various applications. The method presented here is suitable for efficient subcloning in an automated manner to rapidly generate a large number of gene constructs in various vectors intended for high throughput applications.

  17. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistrup, Kasper, E-mail: kkis@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Skotte Sørensen, Karen, E-mail: karen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Integrated Point of Care Technologies (CiPoC), DELTA, Venlighedsvej 4, DK-2870 Hørsholm (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fougt Hansen, Mikkel, E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution.

  18. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution

  19. Salt and divalent cations affect the flexible nature of the natural beaded chromatin structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Griffith, J

    1977-01-01

    Cl or 0.6M NaCL, and is compact in 0.01 M NaCl solutions if histone H 1 is present. Even high concentrations of urea did not alter the fundamental beaded structure, consisting of 110A beads of 200 base pair content, each joined by thin DNA bridges of 50 base pairs. The physical bead observed by EM...

  20. Microwave synthesis of gibberellin acid 3 magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads for the trace analysis of gibberellin acids in plant samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Tan, Wei; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke; Zan, Song

    2012-02-21

    In this study, novel GA3 magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) beads were synthesized by a microwave irradiation method, and the beads were applied for the trace analysis of gibberellin acids (GAs) in plant samples including rice and cucumber coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The microwave synthetic procedure was optimized in detail. In particular, the interaction between GA3 and functional monomers was further studied for the selection of the optimal functional monomers during synthesis. It can be seen that the interaction between GA3 and acrylamide (AM) finally selected was stronger than that between GA3 and other functional monomers. GA3 mag-MIP beads were characterized by a series of physical tests. GA3 mag-MIP beads had a porous and homogeneous surface morphology with stable chemical, thermal and magnetic properties. Moreover, GA3 mag-MIP beads demonstrated selective and specific absorption behavior for the target compounds during unsaturated extraction, which resulted in a higher extraction capacity (∼708.4 pmol for GA3) and selectivity than GA3 mag-non-imprinted polymer beads. Finally, an analytical method of GA3 mag-AM-MIP bead extraction coupled with HPLC-MS detection was established and applied for the determination of trace GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 in rice and cucumber samples. It was satisfactory that GA4 could be actually found to be 121.5 ± 1.4 μg kg(-1) in real rice samples by this novel analytical method. The recoveries of spiked rice and cucumber samples were found to be 76.0-109.1% and 79.9-93.6% with RSDs of 2.8-8.8% and 3.1-7.7% (n = 3), respectively. The proposed method is efficient and applicable for the trace analysis of GAs in complicated plant samples.

  1. BACs-on-Beads Technology: A Reliable Test for Rapid Detection of Aneuploidies and Microdeletions in Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra García-Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF or chorionic villus (CV samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples.

  2. Heterogeneous time-resolved electrochemiluminoimmunoassay of thyroid stimulating hormone with magnetic beads at oxide-covered aluminum electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala-Kleme, Timo, E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi

    2017-06-15

    The heterogeneous immunoassay of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was detected by the time-resolved cathodic electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (tr-CECLIA) method using magnetic beads as a mobile support. The magnetic beads coated with sandwich type TSH immunoassay were captured with a magnet for washing and detection processes. The time-resolved cathodic electrochemiluminescence (tr-CECL) signal of Tb(III) chelate label was generated by cathodic pulse polarization in the aluminum working electrode and platinum counter electrode system. The detection method causes injection of high energy electrons into the aqueous solution near the aluminum electrode and creates rigid simultaneous oxidative and reductive conditions that excitate the Tb(III) chelate used as a label luminophore in the heterogeneous sandwich type immunoassay of TSH in the surface of the magnetic beads. The limit of detection of the method was about 50 mIU L{sup −1}. The precision of it was noticed to be good; the coefficient variation percentage was realized to be lower than 10 %. Unfortunately the limit of detection is not good enough for determination of analyte levels of very low concentrations for instance TSH in body fluids. The possible application areas of the method are in highly sophisticated micro or nano fluidic detection and sensor systems where the aspiration level of the analyte detection limit is not very high and the mobility and manageability and the large surface area of the magnetic beads can be utilized efficiently in separating, washing, moving, coating and detecting processes. In the case of tr-CECLIA the presented method makes possible to use multipurpose working electrodes instead of disposable ones.

  3. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  4. Chinese and Venetian glass beads excavated from Fais Island in Micronesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intoh, Michiko

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Over 830 glass beads were excavated from a late prehistoric cemetery site on Fais Island in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia In one of the 13 excavated burials a young woman had more that 310 glass beads around her wrist. Bone collagen from this burial was dated by AMS to 387 + 64 BP. The associated glass beads were classified into three groups based on colour and size. A sample from each group was examined for evidence of manufacturing technique. The chemical composition was determined using an X-ray microanalyser. The first group consisted of more than 300 pale green, transparent glass beads which are less than 2 mm in diameter. The chemical composition is high in PbO (75.22%) while low in MgO. Such a high lead content is characteristic of Chinese glass. The manufacturing technique could not be determined because the surfaces were too eroded. The second group contains several yellow, translucent glass beads. The chemical composition is also high in PbO (54.8%) and low in MgO. The beads were made by winding. The combination of winding and high lead strongly indicates that the beads were made in China. The third group had only one white, translucent glass bead. It has particular white stripes which suggest that it is a 'gooseberry' bead which was made in Venice between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. In conclusion, both Chinese and Venetian glass beads co-existed on Fais Island around the time of European contact. They are likely to have been brought in from an area which had access to both beads. Island South-East Asia is tentatively considered to be the source area

  5. Immuno-magnetic beads-based extraction-capillary zone electrophoresis-deep UV laser-induced fluorescence analysis of erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heye; Dou, Peng; Lü, Chenchen; Liu, Zhen

    2012-07-13

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is an important glycoprotein hormone. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is an important therapeutic drug and can be also used as doping reagent in sports. The analysis of EPO glycoforms in pharmaceutical and sports areas greatly challenges analytical scientists from several aspects, among which sensitive detection and effective and facile sample preparation are two essential issues. Herein, we investigated new possibilities for these two aspects. Deep UV laser-induced fluorescence detection (deep UV-LIF) was established to detect the intrinsic fluorescence of EPO while an immuno-magnetic beads-based extraction (IMBE) was developed to specifically extract EPO glycoforms. Combined with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), CZE-deep UV-LIF allows high resolution glycoform profiling with improved sensitivity. The detection sensitivity was improved by one order of magnitude as compared with UV absorbance detection. An additional advantage is that the original glycoform distribution can be completely preserved because no fluorescent labeling is needed. By combining IMBE with CZE-deep UV-LIF, the overall detection sensitivity was 1.5 × 10⁻⁸ mol/L, which was enhanced by two orders of magnitude relative to conventional CZE with UV absorbance detection. It is applicable to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations of EPO, but the sensitivity is insufficient for the anti-doping analysis of EPO in blood and urine. IMBE can be straightforward and effective approach for sample preparation. However, antibodies with high specificity were the key for application to urine samples because some urinary proteins can severely interfere the immuno-extraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters from 10 nm to 250 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of planar Hall effect magnetoresistive sensors for AC susceptibility measurements of magnetic beads with frequencies ranging from DC to 1 MHz. This wide frequency range allows for measuring Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 250 nm....... Brownian relaxation is measured for six different magnetic bead types and their hydrodynamic diameters are determined. The hydrodynamic diameters are found to be within 40% of the nominal bead diameters. We discuss the applicability of the different bead types for volume-based biosensing with respect...... to sedimentation, magnetic trapping, and signal per bead. Among the investigated beads, we conclude that the beads with a nominal diameter of 80 nm are best suited for future on-chip volume-based biosensing experiments using planar Hall effect sensors....

  7. Dual Recognition Strategy for Specific and Sensitive Detection of Bacteria Using Aptamer-Coated Magnetic Beads and Antibiotic-Capped Gold Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Yu, Mengqun; Fu, Fei; Han, Weiye; Li, Gan; Xie, Jianping; Song, Yang; Swihart, Mark T; Song, Erqun

    2016-01-05

    Food poisoning and infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) are serious public health concerns. A method of specific, sensitive, and rapid detection of such bacteria is essential and important. This study presents a strategy that combines aptamer and antibiotic-based dual recognition units with magnetic enrichment and fluorescent detection to achieve specific and sensitive quantification of SA in authentic specimens and in the presence of much higher concentrations of other bacteria. Aptamer-coated magnetic beads (Apt-MB) were employed for specific capture of SA. Vancomycin-stabilized fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@Van) were prepared by a simple one-step process and used for sensitive quantification of SA in the range of 32-10(8) cfu/mL with the detection limit of 16 cfu/mL via a fluorescence intensity measurement. And using this strategy, about 70 cfu/mL of SA in complex samples (containing 3 × 10(8) cfu/mL of other different contaminated bacteria) could be successfully detected. In comparison to prior studies, the developed strategy here not only simplifies the preparation procedure of the fluorescent probes (AuNCs@Van) to a great extent but also could sensitively quantify SA in the presence of much higher concentrations of other bacteria directly with good accuracy. Moreover, the aptamer and antibiotic used in this strategy are much less expensive and widely available compared to common-used antibodies, making it cost-effective. This general aptamer- and antibiotic-based dual recognition strategy, combined with magnetic enrichment and fluorescent detection of trace bacteria, shows great potential application in monitoring bacterial food contamination and infectious diseases.

  8. Influence of recycled polystyrene beads on cement paste properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaroufi Maroua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the requirements of sustainable development, there is a growing interest towards reducing the energy consumption in the construction and rehabilitation of buildings and the promotion of recycling waste in building materials. The use of recycled polystyrene beads in cement-based materials composition constitutes a solution to improve the insulation in buildings. This allows also limiting landfill by reusing the polystyrene waste. The aim of this study is to compare some properties and performances of a cement paste containing polystyrene beads to a reference paste designed with only the same cement. An experimental campaign was conducted and the obtained results showed that adding recycled polystyrene beads to a cement paste improves its hygro-thermal properties. Further studies are however necessary to better understand the real role of the polystyrene beads in the heat and mass transfers.

  9. Magnetic bead micromixer: Influence of magnetic element geometry and field amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Buus, Bjarke B.; Howalt, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A scheme for the silicon microfabrication of lab-on-a-chip systems with mixing based on dynamic plugs of magnetic beads is presented. The systems consist of a microfluidic channel integrated with a number of soft magnetic elements by the sides of the channel. The elements are magnetized by a homo......A scheme for the silicon microfabrication of lab-on-a-chip systems with mixing based on dynamic plugs of magnetic beads is presented. The systems consist of a microfluidic channel integrated with a number of soft magnetic elements by the sides of the channel. The elements are magnetized...... by a homogeneous external ac magnetic field. The systems are scalable with respect to the number of magnetic bead plugs and number of parallel channels, and thus they have high potential for use in biological separation using functionalized magnetic beads. The mixing efficiency is characterized for two different...

  10. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  11. Thermoelectric Cooling-Aided Bead Geometry Regulation in Wire and Arc-Based Additive Manufacturing of Thin-Walled Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and arc-based additive manufacturing (WAAM is a rapidly developing technology which employs a welding arc to melt metal wire for additive manufacturing purposes. During WAAM of thin-walled structures, as the wall height increases, the heat dissipation to the substrate is slowed down gradually and so is the solidification of the molten pool, leading to variation of the bead geometry. Though gradually reducing the heat input via adjusting the process parameters can alleviate this issue, as suggested by previous studies, it relies on experience to a large extent and inevitably sacrifices the deposition rate because the wire feed rate is directly coupled with the heat input. This study introduces for the first time an in-process active cooling system based on thermoelectric cooling technology into WAAM, which aims to eliminate the difference in heat dissipation between upper and lower layers. The case study shows that, with the aid of thermoelectric cooling, the bead width error is reduced by 56.8%, the total fabrication time is reduced by 60.9%, and the average grain size is refined by 25%. The proposed technique provides new insight into bead geometry regulation during WAAM with various benefits in terms of geometric accuracy, productivity, and microstructure.

  12. Beads from Inhumation Rite Burials of Gnezdovo Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrova Olga P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beads from 33 inhumation burials at Gnezdovo burial mound are examined in the article. The beads (total 367 were crafted from stretched tube (258, stretched stick (3, winding (45, press molding (2 pcs., welding (2 pcs., and mosaic beads (9 pcs.. The burial mound contains virtually no broken beads, including the settlement's most common yellow glass beads. Besides glass beads, cornelian, crystal, amber and faience beads have been registered among the burial mound material, as well as beads crafted with metal. Apart from beads, grave inventories contained a series of pendants with a bead strung on a wire ring. The considered complexes contain five pendants of this type. Besides Gnezdovo, similar pendants have been discovered in Kiev, Timerev, Pskov and Vladimir barrows. A comparison between bead sets from Gnezdovo and Kiev burial mounds allows to conclude that the general composition and occurrence frequency of beads is identical for these burials. At the same time, beads crafted with rock crystal, cornelian and metal are more frequently discovered in Kiev inhumations.

  13. A String of Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Kelly C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she designed a math activity she called Beads to use in conjunction with their school's 100th day celebration. Beads has provided her kindergarten class with many opportunities to practice a variety of math skills - counting, patterning, sorting, comparing, making sets, predicting, identifying numerals,…

  14. Construction and characterisation of a modular microfluidic system: coupling magnetic capture and electrochemical detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godino, N.; Snakenborg, Detlef; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2010-01-01

    , and a polycarbonate base where permanent magnets are hosted; these parts are designed to fit so that wire bonding and encapsulation are avoided. This system can perform bioassays over the surface of magnetic beads and uses only 50 mu L of bead suspension per assay. Following detection, captured beads are released...

  15. A versatile, high through-put, bead-based phagocytosis assay for Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, Yukie M.; Ngati, Elise P.; Salanti, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Antibody-mediated phagocytosis is an important immune effector mechanism against Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE); however, current phagocytosis assays use IE collected from infected individuals or from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum, making them prone to high variation....... A simple, high-throughput flow cytometric assay was developed that uses THP-1 cells and fluorescent beads covalently-coupled with the malarial antigen VAR2CSA. The assay is highly repeatable, provides both the overall percent phagocytosis and semi-quantitates the number of antigen-coupled beads...

  16. Heat generation ability in AC magnetic field of nano MgFe2O4-based ferrite powder prepared by bead milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirazawa, Hideyuki; Aono, Hiromichi; Naohara, Takashi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Sato, Mitsunori; Watanabe, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Nanosized MgFe 2 O 4 -based ferrite powder having heat generation ability in an AC magnetic field was prepared by bead milling and studied for thermal coagulation therapy applications. The crystal size and the particle size significantly decreased by bead milling. The heat generation ability in an AC magnetic field improved with the milling time, i.e. a decrease in crystal size. However, the heat generation ability decreased for excessively milled samples with crystal sizes of less than 5.5 nm. The highest heat ability (ΔT=34 o C) in the AC magnetic field (370 kHz, 1.77 kA/m) was obtained for fine MgFe 2 O 4 powder having a ca. 6 nm crystal size (the samples were milled for 6-8 h using 0.1 mm φ beads). The heat generation of the samples was closely related to hysteresis loss, a B-H magnetic property. The reason for the high heat generation properties of the samples milled for 6-8 h using 0.1 mm φ beads was ascribed to the increase in hysteresis loss by the formation of a single domain. Moreover, the improvement in heating ability was obtained by calcination of the bead-milled sample at low temperature. In this case, the maximum heat generation (ΔT=41 o C) ability was obtained for a ca. 11 nm crystal size sample was prepared by crystal growth during the sample calcination. On the other hand, the ΔT value for Mg 0.5 Ca 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 was synthesized using a reverse precipitation method decreased by bead milling. - Research Highlights: →The crystal and particle size for MgFe 2 O 4 based ferrite were decreased by bead milling. →The highest heat ability was obtained for MgFe 2 O 4 having a ca. 6 nm crystal size. →This high heat generation ability was ascribed to the increase in hysteresis loss. →Hysteresis loss was increased by the formation of a single domain.

  17. Detection of Avian Influenza Virus by Fluorescent DNA Barcode-based Immunoassay with Sensitivity Comparable to PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Cuong; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bang, Dang Duong

    2010-01-01

    involves the sandwiching of the target AIV between magnetic immunoprobes and barcode-carrying immunoprobes. Because each barcode-carrying immunoprobe is functionalized with a multitude of fluorophore-DNA barcode strands, many DNA barcodes are released for each positive binding event resulting......In this paper, a coupling of fluorophore-DNA barcode and bead-based immunoassay for detecting avian influenza virus (AIV) with PCR-like sensitivity is reported. The assay is based on the use of sandwich immunoassay and fluorophore-tagged oligonucleotides as representative barcodes. The detection...

  18. Pulsed laser manipulation of an optically trapped bead: Averaging thermal noise and measuring the pulsed force amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindballe, Thue Bjerring; Kristensen, Martin V. G.; Keiding, Søren Rud

    2013-01-01

    An experimental strategy for post-eliminating thermal noise on position measurements of optically trapped particles is presented. Using a nanosecond pulsed laser, synchronized to the detection system, to exert a periodic driving force on an optically trapped 10 polystyrene bead, the laser pulse-bead...... interaction is repeated hundreds of times. Traces with the bead position following the prompt displacement from equilibrium, induced by each laser pulse, are averaged and reveal the underlying deterministic motion of the bead, which is not visible in a single trace due to thermal noise. The motion of the bead...... is analyzed from the direct time-dependent position measurements and from the power spectrum. The results show that the bead is on average displaced 208 nm from the trap center and exposed to a force amplitude of 71 nanoNewton, more than five orders of magnitude larger than the trapping forces. Our...

  19. One pot synthesis of new poly(vinyl alcohol) blended natural polymer based magnetic hydrogel beads: Controlled natural anticancer alkaloid delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Mookkandi Palsamy; Ayyanaar, Srinivasan; Lenin, Nayagam; Sankarganesh, Murugesan; Dhaveethu Raja, Jeyaraj; Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban

    2018-02-01

    Facile one-pot synthesis has been demonstrated for new biocompatible and dual responsive magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended natural polymer chitosan (CS) based hydrogel beads (mCS-PVA) as a controlled natural anticancer alkaloid Luotonin A (LuA) delivery system. The prepared magnetic hydrogel beads were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction measurement, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic hydrogel beads are exhibited significant water retention and follow the second order kinetic model in swelling study. The swelling ratio of the magnetic gel beads increased by the addition of PVA and showed a maximum swelling ratio of 40.83 ± 1.01 g/g and follows non-Fickian water transport mechanism. Stimuli responsive mCS and mCS-PVA hydrogel beads functionalized with LuA is demonstrated for controlled release at physiological pH and under magnetic field. The magnetic hydrogel beads show highest LuA releasing efficacy at acidic medium (pH = 5.0) with maximum efficiency of 73.33 ± 1.44%. This efficacy may also be tuned by altering the external magnetic field as well as the weight percentage (wt %) of polyethylene glycol. It is clearly that the newly produced magnetic hydrogel beads can be served as an effective intestinal LuA delivery system. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 543-551, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison between simulation and experimentally observed interactions between two magnetic beads in a fluidic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduwole, Olayinka, E-mail: olayinka.oduwole@eng.ox.ac.uk; Grob, David Tim, E-mail: tim.grob@eng.ox.ac.uk; Sheard, Steve, E-mail: steve.sheard@eng.ox.ac.uk

    2016-06-01

    Continuous flow separation of magnetic particles within a microfluidic device could lead to improved performance of magnetic bead-based assays but the undesirable formation of bead clusters reduces its efficiency; this efficiency refers to the ability to separate bound magnetic beads from a mixture of particles. Such agglomerates are formed due to magnetic binding forces while hydrodynamic interactions strongly influence the particles' movement. This paper presents a model for interactions between a pair of equal sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, we present for the first time a comparison between simulated trajectories and the beads' movement captured on video; the beads were suspended in a stationary fluid placed within a uniform magnetic field. In conclusion, the model is a good approximation for beads interacting with their nearest neighbours and is able to predict the trajectory pattern of these particles in a magnetic bead-based assay. Predicting the magnetically induced interaction of nearby beads will help in determining the density of beads in an assay and in avoiding agglomeration over a fixed time duration. - Highlights: • We modelled the interactions between a pair of super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. • We tracked the movement of the bead pair and captured it on video. • We compared the numerical results with the video data and achieved a good agreement. • We predicted the agglomeration time as a function of the separation distance.

  1. Detection of dopamine in dopaminergic cell using nanoparticles-based barcode DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jeung Hee; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong Woo

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based bio-barcode-amplification analysis may be an innovative approach to dopamine detection. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of this bio-barcode DNA method in detecting dopamine from dopaminergic cells. Herein, a combination DNA barcode and bead-based immunoassay for neurotransmitter detection with PCR-like sensitivity is described. This method relies on magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies and nanoparticles that are encoded with DNA, and antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the nanoparticle-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from solution, and treated in order to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes were then identified via PCR analysis. The dopamine concentration in dopaminergic cells can be readily and rapidly detected via the bio-barcode assay method. The bio-barcode assay method is, therefore, a rapid and high-throughput screening tool for the detection of neurotransmitters such as dopamine.

  2. Microstructural Study on Oxygen Permeated Arc Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Heng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated short circuit of loaded copper wire at ambient atmosphere and successfully identified various phases of the arc bead. A cuprous oxide flake was formed on the surface of the arc bead in the rapid solidification process, and there were two microstructural constituents, namely, Cu-κ eutectic structure and solutal dendrites. Due to the arc bead formed at atmosphere during the local equilibrium solidification process, the phase of arc bead has segregated to the cuprous oxide flake, Cu-κ eutectic, and Cu phase solutal dendrites, which are the fingerprints of the arc bead permeated by oxygen.

  3. Simulation of solid-liquid flows in a stirred bead mill based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winardi, S.; Widiyastuti, W.; Septiani, E. L.; Nurtono, T.

    2018-05-01

    The selection of simulation model is an important step in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain an agreement with experimental work. In addition, computational time and processor speed also influence the performance of the simulation results. Here, we report the simulation of solid-liquid flow in a bead mill using Eulerian model. Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) was also used to model the interaction between moving (shaft and disk) and stationary (chamber exclude shaft and disk) zones. Bead mill dimension was based on the experimental work of Yamada and Sakai (2013). The effect of shaft rotation speed of 1200 and 1800 rpm on the particle distribution and the flow field was discussed. For rotation speed of 1200 rpm, the particles spread evenly throughout the bead mill chamber. On the other hand, for the rotation speed of 1800 rpm, the particles tend to be thrown to the near wall region resulting in the dead zone and found no particle in the center region. The selected model agreed well to the experimental data with average discrepancies less than 10%. Furthermore, the simulation was run without excessive computational cost.

  4. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  5. Design and Performance of GMR Sensors for the Detection of Magnetic Microbeads in Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rife, J. C; Miller, M. M; Sheehan, P. E; Tamanaha, C. R; Tondra, M; Whitman, L. J

    2003-01-01

    We are developing a biosensor system, the Bead ARray Counter (BARC), based on the capture and detection of micron-sized, paramagnetic beads on a chip containing an array of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors...

  6. Applied Study on Magnetic Nanometer Beads in Preparation of Genechip Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧; 高华方; 谢欣; 马雪梅; 杨渝珍

    2004-01-01

    Summary: A protocol for enrichment and adsorption of karyocyte from whole blood by using magnetic nanometer beads as solid-phase absorbents was presented. The PCR amplification could be accomplished by using the nanobeads with karyocyte as template directly and the PCR products were applied on an oligonucleotide array to do gene typing. The HLA-A PCR amplification system and a small HLA-A oligonucleotide microarray were applied as the platform and an experiment protocol of separating karyocyte from whole blood using the magnetic nanometer beads (Fe2O3) were set up.The experimental conditions were also discussed. It showed that pH level of PBS eluent, Taq enzyme quantity and fragment length of products could influent the amplification results, and the magnetic nano-beads could succeed in sample preparation in microarray to provide a promising way in automatic detection and lab-on-a-chip.

  7. Self-organizing magnetic beads for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Kovacs, Alexander; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Özelt, Harald; Schrefl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the field of biomedicine magnetic beads are used for drug delivery and to treat hyperthermia. Here we propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells using lab-on-chip technologies. Typically blood flows past microposts functionalized with antibodies for circulating tumor cells. Creating these microposts with interacting magnetic beads makes it possible to tune the geometry in size, position and shape. We developed a simulation tool that combines micromagnetics and discrete particle dynamics, in order to design micropost arrays made of interacting beads. The simulation takes into account the viscous drag of the blood flow, magnetostatic interactions between the magnetic beads and gradient forces from external aligned magnets. We developed a particle–particle particle–mesh method for effective computation of the magnetic force and torque acting on the particles. - Highlights: ► We propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells. ► Flexible ways are important to get a high probability of catching cancer cells. ► The beads make it possible to tune the geometry in size position and shape.

  8. Separation of yttrium using carbon nanotube doped polymeric beads impregnated with D2EHPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Kinshuk; Yadav, Kartikey K.; Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid impregnated polyethersulfone based composite beads in combination with additives such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has been prepared by non-solvent phase inversion method. The synthesized beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and infra-red spectroscopy. Effect of additives on bead morphology, solvent impregnation capacity, extractability and stability has been examined to compare their suitability for yttrium recovery from acidic medium. Microstructural investigation as well as experimental findings confirmed the role of additives in modifying the pore structures in beads, responsible for varied degree of yttrium extraction. Further the role of metal ion concentration in aqueous phase on its recovery by polymeric beads was also evaluated. Among the tested beads PES/D2EHPA/MWCNT/PVA beads were found to be superior for Y(Ill) extraction. (author)

  9. Identification of Brucella genus and eight Brucella species by Luminex bead-based suspension array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk Pfefer, Tina S; Timme, Ruth; Kase, Julie A

    2018-04-01

    Globally, unpasteurized milk products are vehicles for the transmission of brucellosis, a zoonosis responsible for cases of foodborne illness in the United States and elsewhere. Existing PCR assays to detect Brucella species are restricted by the resolution of band sizes on a gel or the number of fluorescent channels in a single real-time system. The Luminex bead-based suspension array is performed in a 96-well plate allowing for high throughput screening of up to 100 targets in one sample with easily discernible results. We have developed an array using the Bio-Plex 200 to differentiate the most common Brucella species: B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, B. suis bv5, B. canis, B. ovis, B. pinnipedia, and B. neotomae, as well as Brucella genus. All probes showed high specificity, with no cross-reaction with non-Brucella strains. We could detect pure DNA from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and genus-level Brucella at concentrations of ≤5 fg/μL. Pure DNA from all other species tested positive at concentrations well below 500 fg/μL and we positively identified B. neotomae in six artificially contaminated cheese and milk products. An intra-laboratory verification further demonstrated the assay's accuracy and robustness in the rapid screening (3-4 h including PCR) of DNA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Bead perturbation measurement for the KEK linac cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Shoji; Swenson, D.A.

    1975-03-01

    The axial electric field in the KEK linac cavity is measured by a bead perturbation method. The beat signal of around 1 kHz is generated with the rf signals from the cavity in self-excitation and from a signal generator whose output frequency is fixed. The period of the beat signal is measured by a counter in order to detect the small change in the resonant frequency of the cavity due to a bead perturbation. The counting data are transferred to a mini-computer after each period of the beat signal. The average fields of each gap are calculated in the computer and they are displayed on a storage oscilloscope. It takes about 50 seconds to complete the whole process of the measurement. The measuring system and the results obtained are described in this paper. (auth.)

  11. A magnetic biosensor system for detection of E. coli

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2013-07-01

    This work describes a device for detecting E. coli bacteria by manipulating superparamagnetic beads to a sensing area and immobilizing them in a trapping well. The trapping well replaces the biochemical immobilization layer, which is commonly used in magnetic biosensor systems. A concept exploiting the volume difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic bead-bioanalyte compounds is utilized to detect E. coli bacteria. Trapped beads are detected by the help of a tunnel magneto-resistive sensor. Frequency modulation is employed, in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the detection of individual superparamagnetic beads of 2.8 μm in diameter. Replacing the biochemical immobilization layer by the trapping well greatly simplifies the detection process. After applying the mixture of E. coli and magnetic beads to the biosensor system, bacteria detection is achieved in a single step, within a few minutes. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Hierarchically templated beads with tailored pore structure for phosphopeptide capture and phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicka, Celina; Torsetnes, Silje B.; Jensen, Ole N.

    2017-01-01

    Two templating approaches to produce imprinted phosphotyrosine capture beads with a controllable pore structure are reported and compared with respect to their ability to enrich phosphopeptides from a tryptic peptide mixture. The beads were prepared by the polymerization of urea-based host monomers...... and crosslinkers inside the pores of macroporous silica beads with both free and immobilized template. In the final step the silica was removed by fluoride etching resulting in mesoporous polymer replicas with narrow pore size distributions, pore diameters ≈ 10 nm and surface area > 260 m2 g-1. The beads displayed...... pronounced phosphotyrosine affinity and selectivity in binding tests using model peptides in acetonitrile rich solutions with a performance surpassing solution polymerized bulk imprinted materials. Tests of the beads for the enrichment of phosphopeptides from tryptic digests of twelve proteins revealed both...

  13. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: An anticipated analytical tool for food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, Miriam; Lopez, Miguel Angel; Escarpa, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 μg L -1 and EC 50 0.079 μg L -1 were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  14. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: an anticipated analytical tool for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Miriam; López, Miguel Angel; Escarpa, Alberto

    2009-10-27

    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 microg L(-1) and EC(50) 0.079 microg L(-1) were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  15. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: An anticipated analytical tool for food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervas, Miriam; Lopez, Miguel Angel [Departamento Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33600, E-28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Escarpa, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.escarpa@uah.es [Departamento Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33600, E-28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-27

    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 {mu}g L{sup -1} and EC{sub 50} 0.079 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  16. Microfabricated Passive Magnetic Bead separators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Smistrup, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The use and manipulation of functionalized magnetic beads for bioanalysis in lab-on-a-chip systems is receiving growing interest. We have developed microfluidic systems with integrated magnetic structures for the capture and release of magnetic beads. The systems are fabricated in silicon by deep...

  17. Study of The Effect of Draw-bead Geometry on Stretch Flange Formability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, O. S.; Winkler, S. L.; Worswick, M. J.; Lloyd, D. J.; Finn, M. J.

    2004-06-01

    A fully instrumented stretch flange press equipped with a back-up punch and draw-beads near the specimen cutout area is simulated. The utilization of different draw-bead geometries is examined numerically to determine the restraining forces, strains and amount of damage generated in stretch flanges during forming. Simulations of the forming process are conducted for 1mm AA5182 sheets with circular cutouts. The damage evolution with the deformed specimens is investigated using the explicit dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA, with a modified Gurson-based material model. It was found that double draw-beads can provide the same amount of restraining force as single draw-beads, but at reduced levels of damage.

  18. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/cashew gum beads loaded with Lippia sidoides essential oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Haroldo C.B.; Sombra, Fernanda Matoso; Cavalcante, Rafaela de Freitas; Abreu, Flavia O.M.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Beads based on chitosan (CH) and cashew gum (CG), were prepared and loaded with an essential oil with larvicide activity (Lippia sidoides - Ls). CH and CH-CG beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared and UV-VIS spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as, regarding their larvicide loading, swelling, in vitro and in vivo release kinetics. The oil encapsulation was evidenced by FTIR analysis and LS loading ranges from 2.4% to 4.4%. CH beads duly showed swelling degree (Q) values from 4.0 to 6.7, reaching equilibrium after 30 min, whereas crosslinked CH-CG beads showed lower swelling values, from 0.4 to 3.8, exhibiting a longer equilibrium time. Liquid transport parameters have revealed diffusion coefficient for CH-CG beads, as low as 2 x 10 -15 m 2 /s. TGA and DSC revealed that CH:CG crosslinked beads are more thermally stable than CH beads. In vitro release follows a non-Fickian diffusion profile for both bead types, however, and a prolonged release being achieved only after beads crosslinking. In vivo release showed that both CH and CH-CG presented a prolonged larvicide effect. These aforesaid results, indicate that CH-CG beads loaded with LS are efficient for A. aegypti larval control.

  19. Development of an immunomagnetic bead-based time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for rapid determination of levels of carcinoembryonic antigen in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Jingyuan; Liu Tiancai; Lin Guanfeng; Li Zhixiong; Zou Liping; Li Ming [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Wu Yingsong, E-mail: wg@fimmu.com [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic beads was used as the solid phase for TRFIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The linearity range was broadened greatly compared with conventional TRFIA method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis time was significantly shorter compared with conventional TRFIA method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method could be developed for practical clinical detections of tumor-associated antigens. - Abstract: A novel immunoassay for the determination of tumor markers in human serum was established by combining a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) and immunomagnetic separation. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, analytes in samples were captured by magnetic beads coated with one monoclonal antibody and 'sandwiched' by another monoclonal antibody labeled with europium chelates. The immunocomplex was separated and washed by exposure to a magnetic field and treatment with enhancement solution; fluorescence was then measured according to the number of europium ions dissociated. Levels of the model analyte, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), were determined in a linear range (1-1000 ng mL{sup -1}) with a limit of detection of 0.5 ng mL{sup -1} under optimal conditions. The reproducibility, recovery, and specificity of the immunoassay were demonstrated to be acceptable. To evaluate this novel assay for clinical applications, 239 serum samples were evaluated. Compared with the conventional TRFIA and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), the correlation coefficients of the developed immunoassay were 0.985 and 0.975, respectively. These results showed good correlation and confirmed that our method is feasible and could be used for the clinical determination of CEA (or other tumor antigens) in human serum.

  20. Successful subretinal delivery and monitoring of MicroBeads in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dominik Fischer

    Full Text Available To monitor viability of implanted genetically engineered and microencapsulated human stem cells (MicroBeads in the mouse eye, and to study the impact of the beads and/or xenogenic cells on retinal integrity.MicroBeads were implanted into the subretinal space of SV126 wild type mice using an ab externo approach. Viability of microencapsulated cells was monitored by noninvasive retinal imaging (Spectralis™ HRA+OCT. Retinal integrity was also assessed with retinal imaging and upon the end of the study by light and electron microscopy. The implanted GFP-marked cells encapsulated in subretinal MicroBeads remained viable over a period of up to 4 months. Retinal integrity and viability appeared unaltered apart from the focal damage due to the surgical implantation, GFAP upregulation, and opsin mistargeting in the immediate surrounding tissue.The accessibility for routine surgery and its immune privileged state make the eye an ideal target for release system implants for therapeutic substances, including neurotrophic and anti-angiogenic compounds or protein based biosimilars. Microencapsulated human stem cells (MicroBeads promise to overcome limitations inherent with single factor release systems, as they are able to produce physiologic combinations of bioactive compounds.

  1. The Beads of Translation: Using Beads to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    During this activity, by making beaded bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (beads). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…

  2. Magnetic microbead detection using the planar Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejsing, Louise; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Menon, Aric K.; Ferreira, Hugo A.; Graham, Daniel L.; Freitas, Paulo P.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic sensors based on the planar Hall effect of exchanged-biased permalloy have been fabricated and characterized. It is demonstrated that the sensors are feasible for detecting just a few commercial 2.0 μm magnetic beads commonly used for bioseparation (Micromer-M, Micromod, Germany) and that the sensor sense current is sufficient to generate a signal from the beads

  3. K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ''Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,'' proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process''. Engineering study BNF-3128, ''Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,'' Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge's non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column's ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge

  4. A high-throughput liquid bead array-based screening technology for Bt presence in GMO manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Wang, Huiyu; Wang, Chenguang; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei; Han, Xueqing; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-03-15

    The number of species and planting areas of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been rapidly developed during the past ten years. For the purpose of GMO inspection, quarantine and manipulation, we have now devised a high-throughput Bt-based GMOs screening method based on the liquid bead array. This novel method is based on the direct competitive recognition between biotinylated antibodies and beads-coupled antigens, searching for Bt presence in samples if it contains Bt Cry1 Aa, Bt Cry1 Ab, Bt Cry1 Ac, Bt Cry1 Ah, Bt Cry1 B, Bt Cry1 C, Bt Cry1 F, Bt Cry2 A, Bt Cry3 or Bt Cry9 C. Our method has a wide GMO species coverage so that more than 90% of the whole commercialized GMO species can be identified throughout the world. Under our optimization, specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and availability validation, the method shows a high specificity and 10-50 ng/mL sensitivity of quantification. We then assessed more than 1800 samples in the field and food market to prove capacity of our method in performing a high throughput screening work for GMO manipulation. Our method offers an applicant platform for further inspection and research on GMO plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Magneto-mechanical trapping systems for biological target detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2014-03-29

    We demonstrate a magnetic microsystem capable of detecting nucleic acids via the size difference between bare magnetic beads and bead compounds. The bead compounds are formed through linking nonmagnetic beads and magnetic beads by the target nucleic acids. The system comprises a tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) sensor, a trapping well, and a bead-concentrator. The TMR sensor detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside the trapping well, while the sensor output depends on the number of beads. The size of the bead compounds is larger than that of bare magnetic beads, and fewer magnetic beads are required to fill the trapping well. The bead-concentrator, in turn, is capable of filling the trap in a controlled fashion and so to shorten the assay time. The bead-concentrator includes conducting loops surrounding the trapping well and a conducting line underneath. The central conducting line serves to attract magnetic beads in the trapping well and provides a magnetic field to magnetize them so to make them detectable by the TMR sensor. This system excels by its simplicity in that the DNA is incubated with magnetic and nonmagnetic beads, and the solution is then applied to the chip and analyzed in a single step. In current experiments, a signal-to-noise ratio of 40.3 dB was obtained for a solution containing 20.8 nM of DNA. The sensitivity and applicability of this method can be controlled by the size or concentration of the nonmagnetic bead, or by the dimension of the trapping well.

  6. Magneto-mechanical trapping systems for biological target detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fuquan; Kodzius, Rimantas; Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Foulds, Ian G.; Kosel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a magnetic microsystem capable of detecting nucleic acids via the size difference between bare magnetic beads and bead compounds. The bead compounds are formed through linking nonmagnetic beads and magnetic beads by the target nucleic acids. The system comprises a tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) sensor, a trapping well, and a bead-concentrator. The TMR sensor detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside the trapping well, while the sensor output depends on the number of beads. The size of the bead compounds is larger than that of bare magnetic beads, and fewer magnetic beads are required to fill the trapping well. The bead-concentrator, in turn, is capable of filling the trap in a controlled fashion and so to shorten the assay time. The bead-concentrator includes conducting loops surrounding the trapping well and a conducting line underneath. The central conducting line serves to attract magnetic beads in the trapping well and provides a magnetic field to magnetize them so to make them detectable by the TMR sensor. This system excels by its simplicity in that the DNA is incubated with magnetic and nonmagnetic beads, and the solution is then applied to the chip and analyzed in a single step. In current experiments, a signal-to-noise ratio of 40.3 dB was obtained for a solution containing 20.8 nM of DNA. The sensitivity and applicability of this method can be controlled by the size or concentration of the nonmagnetic bead, or by the dimension of the trapping well. (author)

  7. Bead Capture on Magnetic Sensors in a Microfluidic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of magnetic beads by gravitational sedimentation and magnetic capture on a planar Hall-effect sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel is studied systematically as a function of the bead concentration, the fluid flow rate, and the sensor bias current. It is demonstrated...... that the sedimentation flux is proportional to the bead concentration and has a power law relation to the fluid flow rate. The mechanisms for the bead accumulation are investigated and it is found that gravitational sedimentation dominates the bead accumulation, whereas the stability of the sedimented beads against...

  8. Planar Hall effect bridge sensors with NiFe/Cu/IrMn stack optimized for self-field magnetic bead detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2016-01-01

    , and 30 nm, and 0 ≤ tCu ≤ 0.6 nm. The sensors were characterized by magnetic hysteresis measurements, by measurements of the sensor response vs. applied field, and by measurements of the sensor response to a suspension of magnetic beads magnetized by the sensor self-field due to the sensor bias current....... The exchange bias field was found to decay exponentially with tCu and inversely with tFM. The reduced exchange field for larger values of tFM and tCu resulted in higher sensitivities to both magnetic fields and magnetic beads. We argue that the maximum magnetic bead signal is limited by Joule heating...

  9. Insights on novel particulate self-assembled drug delivery beads based on partial inclusion complexes between triglycerides and cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Most of the newly designed drug molecules are lipophilic in nature and often encounter erratic absorption and low bioavailability after oral administration. Finding ways to enhance the absorption and bioavailability of these lipophilic drugs is one of the major challenges that face pharmaceutical industry nowadays. In view of that, the purpose of this review is to shed some light on a novel particulate self-assembling system named "beads" than can act as a safe carrier for delivering lipophilic drugs. The beads are prepared simply by mixing oils with cyclodextrin (CD) aqueous solution in mild conditions. A unique interaction between oil components and CD molecules occurs to form in situ surface-active complexes which are prerequisites for beads formation. This review mainly focuses on the fundamentals of beads preparation through reviewing present, yet scarce, literature. The key methods used for beads characterization are discussed in details. Also, the potential mechanisms by which beads increase the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs are illustrated. Finally, the related research areas that needs to be addressed in future for optimizing this promising delivery system are briefly outlined.

  10. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  11. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.; Pickenheim, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  12. Two kinds of ketoprofen enteric gel beads (CA and CS-SA using biopolymer alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingchao Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain expected rapid-release and sustained-release of ketoprofen gel beads, this paper adopted biopolymer alginate to prepare alginate beads and chitosan-alginate gel beads. Formulation factors were investigated and optimized by the single factor test. The release of ketoprofen from calcium alginate gel beads in pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution was less than 10% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 95% during 45 min, which met the requirements of rapid-release preparations. However, the drug release of chitosan-alginate gel beads in pH1.0 was less than 5% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 50% during 6 h and reached more than 95% during 12 h, which had a good sustained-release behavior. In addition, the release kinetics of keteprofen from the calcium alginate gel beads fitted well with the Korsmeyer–Peppas model and followed a case-II transport mechanism. However, the release of keteprofen from the chitosan-alginate gel beads exhibited a non-Fickian mechanism and based on the mixed mechanisms of diffusion and polymer relaxation from chitosan-alginate beads. In a word, alginate gel beads of ketoprofen were instant analgesic, while chitosan-alginate gel beads could control the release of ketoprofen during gastro-intestinal tract and prolong the drug's action time. Keywords: Gel beads, Enteric rapid-release, Enteric sustained-release, Ketoprofen

  13. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/cashew gum beads loaded with Lippia sidoides essential oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Haroldo C.B., E-mail: hpaula@ufc.br [Department of Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Sombra, Fernanda Matoso; Cavalcante, Rafaela de Freitas; Abreu, Flavia O.M.S. [Department of Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Paula, Regina C.M. de [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)

    2011-03-12

    Beads based on chitosan (CH) and cashew gum (CG), were prepared and loaded with an essential oil with larvicide activity (Lippia sidoides - Ls). CH and CH-CG beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared and UV-VIS spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as, regarding their larvicide loading, swelling, in vitro and in vivo release kinetics. The oil encapsulation was evidenced by FTIR analysis and LS loading ranges from 2.4% to 4.4%. CH beads duly showed swelling degree (Q) values from 4.0 to 6.7, reaching equilibrium after 30 min, whereas crosslinked CH-CG beads showed lower swelling values, from 0.4 to 3.8, exhibiting a longer equilibrium time. Liquid transport parameters have revealed diffusion coefficient for CH-CG beads, as low as 2 x 10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/s. TGA and DSC revealed that CH:CG crosslinked beads are more thermally stable than CH beads. In vitro release follows a non-Fickian diffusion profile for both bead types, however, and a prolonged release being achieved only after beads crosslinking. In vivo release showed that both CH and CH-CG presented a prolonged larvicide effect. These aforesaid results, indicate that CH-CG beads loaded with LS are efficient for A. aegypti larval control.

  14. On the chemical variability of Middelburg glass beads and rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karklins, K.; Kottman, J.; Hancock, R.G.V.; Sempowski, M.L.; Nohe, A.W.; Moreau, J.-F.; Aufreiter, S.; Kenyon, I.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-three glass samples from a late 16th-early 17th century, glass beadmaking house in Middelburg, the Netherlands, were selected for maximum colouring variability, including plain and multi-coloured varieties. The glass chemistries were quite diverse, within each colour grouping. For each single colour of glass, anticipated colouring elements (copper for turquoise blue, cobalt for dark blue, manganese for rose, and tin for white) were used, with the exception of two beads that were opacified wih antimony rather than with tin. Multi-coloured glass glasses (chevron beads) produced chemistries that match the mixing of the different coloured glasses. In some cases, low relative amounts of some inter-mixed glasses were not detectable against the composition of the major glass component. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  16. Analysis of surface properties of fixed and live cells using derivatized agarose beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vanessa M; Walker, Sherri L; Badali, Oliver; Abundis, Maria I; Ngo, Lylla L; Weerasinghe, Gayani; Barajas, Marcela; Zem, Gregory; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2002-01-01

    A novel assay has been developed for the histochemical characterization of surface properties of cells based on their adhesion to agarose beads derivatized with more than 100 types of molecules, including sugars, lectins and other proteins, and amino acids. The assay simply involves mixing small quantities of washed cells and beads in droplets on glass microscope slides and determining to which beads various cell types adhere. Distilled water was found to be the best medium for this assay because added ions or molecules in other media inhibit adhesion in some cases. Many cells, however, cannot tolerate distilled water. Here we show that cells fixed with either of two fixatives (1% formaldehyde or Prefer fixative) displayed similar bead-binding properties as did live cells. Specificity of cell-bead binding was tested by including specific free molecules in the test suspensions in hapten-type inhibition experiments. If a hapten compound inhibited live-cell adhesion to a specific bead, it also inhibited fixed-cell adhesion to a specific bead. The results of these experiments suggest that fixed cells display authentic surface properties, opening the door for the use of this assay with many cell types that cannot tolerate distilled water.

  17. Chitosan–Cellulose Multifunctional Hydrogel Beads: Design, Characterization and Evaluation of Cytocompatibility with Breast Adenocarcinoma and Osteoblast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Poonam; Saloranta-Simell, Tiina; Gradišnik, Lidija; Prabhakar, Neeraj; Smått, Jan-Henrik; Mohan, Tamilselvan; Gericke, Martin; Heinze, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Cytocompatible polysaccharide-based functional scaffolds are potential extracellular matrix candidates for soft and hard tissue engineering. This paper describes a facile approach to design cytocompatible, non-toxic, and multifunctional chitosan-cellulose based hydrogel beads utilising polysaccharide dissolution in sodium hydroxide-urea-water solvent system and coagulation under three different acidic conditions, namely 2 M acetic acid, 2 M hydrochloric acid, and 2 M sulfuric acid. The effect of coagulating medium on the final chemical composition of the hydrogel beads is investigated by spectroscopic techniques (ATR–FTIR, Raman, NMR), and elemental analysis. The beads coagulated in 2 M acetic acid displayed an unchanged chitosan composition with free amino groups, while the beads coagulated in 2 M hydrochloric and sulfuric acid showed protonation of amino groups and ionic interaction with the counterions. The ultrastructural morphological study of lyophilized beads showed that increased chitosan content enhanced the porosity of the hydrogel beads. Furthermore, cytocompatibility evaluation of the hydrogel beads with human breast adenocarcinoma cells (soft tissue) showed that the beads coagulated in 2 M acetic acid are the most suitable for this type of cells in comparison to other coagulating systems. The acetic acid fabricated hydrogel beads also support osteoblast growth and adhesion over 192 h. Thus, in future, these hydrogel beads can be tested in the in vitro studies related to breast cancer and for bone regeneration. PMID:29315214

  18. Chitosan-Cellulose Multifunctional Hydrogel Beads: Design, Characterization and Evaluation of Cytocompatibility with Breast Adenocarcinoma and Osteoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Poonam; Saloranta-Simell, Tiina; Maver, Uroš; Gradišnik, Lidija; Prabhakar, Neeraj; Smått, Jan-Henrik; Mohan, Tamilselvan; Gericke, Martin; Heinze, Thomas; Fardim, Pedro

    2018-01-09

    Cytocompatible polysaccharide-based functional scaffolds are potential extracellular matrix candidates for soft and hard tissue engineering. This paper describes a facile approach to design cytocompatible, non-toxic, and multifunctional chitosan-cellulose based hydrogel beads utilising polysaccharide dissolution in sodium hydroxide-urea-water solvent system and coagulation under three different acidic conditions, namely 2 M acetic acid, 2 M hydrochloric acid, and 2 M sulfuric acid. The effect of coagulating medium on the final chemical composition of the hydrogel beads is investigated by spectroscopic techniques (ATR-FTIR, Raman, NMR), and elemental analysis. The beads coagulated in 2 M acetic acid displayed an unchanged chitosan composition with free amino groups, while the beads coagulated in 2 M hydrochloric and sulfuric acid showed protonation of amino groups and ionic interaction with the counterions. The ultrastructural morphological study of lyophilized beads showed that increased chitosan content enhanced the porosity of the hydrogel beads. Furthermore, cytocompatibility evaluation of the hydrogel beads with human breast adenocarcinoma cells (soft tissue) showed that the beads coagulated in 2 M acetic acid are the most suitable for this type of cells in comparison to other coagulating systems. The acetic acid fabricated hydrogel beads also support osteoblast growth and adhesion over 192 h. Thus, in future, these hydrogel beads can be tested in the in vitro studies related to breast cancer and for bone regeneration.

  19. Energy efficient bead milling of microalgae: Effect of bead size on disintegration and release of proteins and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, P R; Suarez-Garcia, E; Safi, C; Yonathan, K; Olivieri, G; Barbosa, M J; Wijffels, R H; Eppink, M H M

    2017-01-01

    The disintegration of three industry relevant algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Neochloris oleoabundans and Tetraselmis suecica) was studied in a lab scale bead mill at different bead sizes (0.3-1mm). Cell disintegration, proteins and carbohydrates released into the water phase followed a first order kinetics. The process is selective towards proteins over carbohydrates during early stages of milling. In general, smaller beads led to higher kinetic rates, with a minimum specific energy consumption of ⩽0.47kWhkg DW -1 for 0.3mm beads. After analysis of the stress parameters (stress number and stress intensity), it appears that optimal disintegration and energy usage for all strains occurs in the 0.3-0.4mm range. During the course of bead milling, the native structure of the marker protein Rubisco was retained, confirming the mildness of the disruption process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. TiO2 beads and TiO2-chitosan beads for urease immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, İlyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO 2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO 2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO 2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO 2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2 mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5 mg/ml for A and 1.0 mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0 mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60 °C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4–70 °C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30 °C (A), 40 °C (B) and 35 °C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65 °C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. - Highlights: • TiO 2 and TiO 2 -chitosan beads for urease immobilization have been prepared and characterized. • The beads used in this work are good matrices for the immobilization of urease. • The immobilized urease was shown to have good properties and stabilities (pH and thermal stability, operational stability). • The 50

  1. Alginate-based polysaccharide beads for cationic contaminant sorption from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei Li; Thomas Elder; Gisela Buschle-Diller

    2016-01-01

    Massive amounts of agricultural and industrial water worldwide are polluted by different types of contaminants that harm the environment and impact human health. Removing the contaminants from effluents by adsorbent materials made from abundant, inexpensive polysaccharides is a feasible approach to deal with this problem. In this research, alginate beads combined with...

  2. Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-30

    Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) complex, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate beads, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI complex forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The beads were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate beads encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and beads were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer beads as water disinfectants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Calcium Pectinate Beads Formation: Shape and Size Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon-Beng Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-relationship between process variables and the size and shape of pectin solution droplets upon detachment from a dripping tip as well as Ca-pectinate beads formed after gelation via image analysis. The sphericity factor (SF of the droplets was generally smaller than 0.05. There was no specific trend between the SF of the droplets and the pectin concentration or the dripping tip radius. The SF the beads formed from high-concentration pectin solutions and a small dripping tip was smaller than 0.05. The results show that the Reynolds number and Ohnesorge number of the droplets fall within the operating region for forming spherical beads in the shape diagram, with the exception to the lower boundary. The lower boundary of the operating region has to be revised to Oh = 2.3. This is because the critical viscosity for Ca-pectinate bead formation is higher than that of Ca-alginate beads. On the other hand, the radius of the droplets and beads increased as the dripping tip radius increased. The bead radius can easily be predicted by Tate’s law equation.

  4. HPMA and HEMA copolymer bead interactions with eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina D. Vianna-Soares

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different hydrophilic acrylate beads were prepared via aqueous suspension polymerization. Beads produced of a hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA copolymer were obtained using a polyvinyl alcohol suspending medium. Copolymers of 2hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, methyl methacrylate (MMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA beads were obtained using magnesium hydroxide as the suspending agent. Following characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen sorption analysis (NSA and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP, the beads were cultured with monkey fibroblasts (COS7 to evaluate their ability to support cell growth, attachment and adhesion. Cell growth behavior onto small HPMA/EDMA copolymer beads and large HEMA/MMA/EDMA copolymer beads is evaluated regarding their hidrophilicity/hidrophobicity and surface roughness.

  5. Use of magnetic beads for Gram staining of bacteria in aqueous suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdankhah, S P; Sørum, H; Larsen, H J; Gogstad, G

    2001-12-01

    A Gram staining technique was developed using monodisperse magnetic beads in concentrating bacteria in suspension for downstream application. The technique does not require heat fixation of organisms, electrical power, or a microscope. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were identified macroscopically based on the colour of the suspension. The bacteria concentrated on magnetic beads may also be identified microscopically.

  6. High Performance Affinity Chromatography of Antithrombin III Based on Monodisperse Poly (glycidyl methacrylate) Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for the separation of antithrombin III with high performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) was described. A novel monodisperse,non-porous,cross-linked poly (glycidyl methacrylate) beads (PGMA) were used as the affinity support. With the water-soluble carbodiimide,heparin was linked covalently to amino-PGMA-beads,which was prepared by amination of PGMA. The adsorbent obtained exhibits high binding activity to antithrombin III (ATIII),good resolution and excellent mechanical properties and can be used under high flow rate.

  7. Controlled torque on superparamagnetic beads for functional biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, X.J.A.; Schellekens, A.J.; van Ommering, K.; IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Prins, M.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that a rotating magnetic field can be used to apply a controlled torque on superparamagnetic beads which leads to a tunable bead rotation frequency in fluid. Smooth rotation is obtained for field rotation frequencies many orders of magnitude higher than the bead rotation frequency. A

  8. Bead magnetorelaxometry with an on-chip magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Donolato, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Magnetorelaxometry measurements on suspensions of magnetic beads are demonstrated using a planar Hall effect sensor chip embedded in a microfluidic system. The alternating magnetic field used for magnetizing the beads is provided by the sensor bias current and the complex magnetic susceptibility...... spectra are recorded as the 2nd harmonic of the sensor response. The complex magnetic susceptibility signal appears when a magnetic bead suspension is injected, it scales with the bead concentration, and it follows the Cole-Cole expression for Brownian relaxation. The complex magnetic susceptibility...... signal resembles that from conventional magnetorelaxometry done on the same samples apart from an offset in Brownian relaxation frequency. The time dependence of the signal can be rationalized as originating from sedimented beads....

  9. Entrapment of laurel lipase in chitosan hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagar, Hulya; Balkan, Ugur

    2017-08-01

    Laurel seed lipase was entrapped within chitosan beads with ionotropic gelatin method using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as multivalent covalent counter ion. Immobilization yield was 78%. First, optimum immobilization conditions were determined, and morphology of chitosan beads was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Optimum pH and temperature were evaluated as 6.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The immobilized beads saved about 55% of its activities at 60° while saved about 32% at 70 °C for 30 min. V max /K m values were determined as 31.75 and 2.87 using olive oil as substrate for immobilized beads and free enzyme, respectively. Immobilized beads showed the activities during 30 days at +4 °C.

  10. Discontinuity Detection in the Shield Metal Arc Welding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocota, José Alberto Naves; Garcia, Gabriel Carvalho; da Costa, Adilson Rodrigues; de Lima, Milton Sérgio Fernandes; Rocha, Filipe Augusto Santos; Freitas, Gustavo Medeiros

    2017-05-10

    This work proposes a new methodology for the detection of discontinuities in the weld bead applied in Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) processes. The detection system is based on two sensors-a microphone and piezoelectric-that acquire acoustic emissions generated during the welding. The feature vectors extracted from the sensor dataset are used to construct classifier models. The approaches based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers are able to identify with a high accuracy the three proposed weld bead classes: desirable weld bead, shrinkage cavity and burn through discontinuities. Experimental results illustrate the system's high accuracy, greater than 90% for each class. A novel Hierarchical Support Vector Machine (HSVM) structure is proposed to make feasible the use of this system in industrial environments. This approach presented 96.6% overall accuracy. Given the simplicity of the equipment involved, this system can be applied in the metal transformation industries.

  11. Bead-bead interaction parameters in dissipative particle dynamics: Relation to bead-size, solubility parameter, and surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Amitesh; McGrother, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is a mesoscale modeling method for simulating equilibrium and dynamical properties of polymers in solution. The basic idea has been around for several decades in the form of bead-spring models. A few years ago, Groot and Warren [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)] established an important link between DPD and the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter theory for polymer solutions. We revisit the Groot-Warren theory and investigate the DPD interaction parameters as a function of bead size. In particular, we show a consistent scheme of computing the interfacial tension in a segregated binary mixture. Results for three systems chosen for illustration are in excellent agreement with experimental results. This opens the door for determining DPD interactions using interfacial tension as a fitting parameter.

  12. Three-bead steering microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2018-02-01

    The self-propelled microswimmers have recently attracted considerable attention as model systems for biological cell migration as well as artificial micromachines. A simple and well-studied microswimmer model consists of three identical spherical beads joined by two springs in a linear fashion with active oscillatory forces being applied on the beads to generate self-propulsion. We have extended this linear microswimmer configuration to a triangular geometry where the three beads are connected by three identical springs in an equilateral triangular manner. The active forces acting on each spring can lead to autonomous steering motion; i.e., allowing the swimmer to move along arbitrary paths. We explore the microswimmer dynamics analytically and pinpoint its rich character depending on the nature of the active forces. The microswimmers can translate along a straight trajectory, rotate at a fixed location, as well as perform a simultaneous translation and rotation resulting in complex curved trajectories. The sinusoidal active forces on the three springs of the microswimmer contain naturally four operating parameters which are more than required for the steering motion. We identify the minimal operating parameters which are essential for the motion of the microswimmer along any given arbitrary trajectory. Therefore, along with providing insights into the mechanics of the complex motion of the natural and artificial microswimmers, the triangular three-bead microswimmer can be utilized as a model for targeted drug delivery systems and autonomous underwater vehicles where intricate trajectories are involved.

  13. Development of an aptamer-based concentration method for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Nagarkatti

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, a blood-borne parasite, is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. T. cruzi trypomastigotes, the infectious life cycle stage, can be detected in blood of infected individuals using PCR-based methods. However, soon after a natural infection, or during the chronic phase of Chagas disease, the number of parasites in blood may be very low and thus difficult to detect by PCR. To facilitate PCR-based detection methods, a parasite concentration approach was explored. A whole cell SELEX strategy was utilized to develop serum stable RNA aptamers that bind to live T. cruzi trypomastigotes. These aptamers bound to the parasite with high affinities (8-25 nM range. The highest affinity aptamer, Apt68, also demonstrated high specificity as it did not interact with the insect stage epimastigotes of T. cruzi nor with other related trypanosomatid parasites, L. donovani and T. brucei, suggesting that the target of Apt68 was expressed only on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Biotinylated Apt68, immobilized on a solid phase, was able to capture live parasites. These captured parasites were visible microscopically, as large motile aggregates, formed when the aptamer coated paramagnetic beads bound to the surface of the trypomastigotes. Additionally, Apt68 was also able to capture and aggregate trypomastigotes from several isolates of the two major genotypes of the parasite. Using a magnet, these parasite-bead aggregates could be purified from parasite-spiked whole blood samples, even at concentrations as low as 5 parasites in 15 ml of whole blood, as detected by a real-time PCR assay. Our results show that aptamers can be used as pathogen specific ligands to capture and facilitate PCR-based detection of T. cruzi in blood.

  14. Safeguards Analytical Laboratory evaluation program. Part 1. Resin bead mass spectrometry. Part 2. Results of a resin bead field experiment-Tastex-J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.L.; Smith, D.H.; Carter, J.A.; Musick, W.R.; Donohue, D.L.; Deron, S.; Asakura, Y.; Kagami, K.; Irinouchi, S.; Masui, J.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of this report covers background of resin bead spectrometry and the new batch resin bead method. In the original technique, about ten anion resin beads in the nitrate form were exposed to the diluted sample solution. The solution was adjusted to be a 8 M HNO 3 and to have about 1 μg U per bead. Up to 48 hours of static contact between beads and solution was required for adsorption of 1 to 3 ng Pu and U per bead to be achieved. Under these conditions, contamination was a problem at reprocessing facilities. The new batch techniques reduces the risk of contamination by handling one hundred times more U in the final diluted sample which is exposed to a proportionately larger number of beads. Moreover, it only requires ten minutes adsorption time to provide about 1000 purified samples for mass spectrometry. The amounts of Pu and U adsorbed versus time were determined and results are tabulated. The second part of this report briefly summarizes results of resin bead field tests completed at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura, Japan. Both methods, the original small-sample resin bead and the batch technique, were investigated on spent fuel solutions. Beads were prepared at PNC and distributed to IAEA and ORNL along with dried residues for conventional mass spectrometric analysis at IAEA. Parallel measurements were made at PNC using their normal measuring routines. The U and Pu measurements of all resin and those of PNC are in excellent agreement for the batch method. Discrepancies were noted in the U measurements by the original method

  15. TiO₂ beads and TiO₂-chitosan beads for urease immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, Ilyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5mg/ml for A and 1.0mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60°C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70°C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30°C (A), 40°C (B) and 35°C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65°C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting of bead undercut defects in high-speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jing XU; Chuan-song WU; De-gang ZOU

    2008-01-01

    In the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process, when the welding speed reaches a certain threshold, there will be an onset of weld bead undercut defects which limit the further increase of the welding speed. Establishing a mathematical model for high-speed GMAW to predict the tendency of bead undercuts is of great significance to pre-vent such defects. Under the action of various forces, the transferred metal from filler wire to the weld pool, and the geometry and dimension of the pool itself decide if the bead undercut occurs or not. The previous model simpli-fied the pool shape too much. In this paper, based on the actual weld pool geometry and dimension calculated from a numerical model, a hydrostatic model for liquid metal surface is used to study the onset of bead undercut defects in the high-speed welding process and the effects of dif-ferent welding parameters on the bead undercut tendency.

  17. Tunable bead-on-string microstructures fabricated by mechano-electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Ningbin; Huang Yongan; Deng Huixu; Yin Zhouping

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, bead-on-string microstructures are fabricated by the mechano-electrospinning (MES) process in a continuously tunable manner. The thin jet is pulled onto the substrate by the stable electric field force and tunable mechanical drawing force, and then the bead-on-string structures are generated by means of the force exerted on the jet, which changes from capillary force and resisting viscosity force to friction force at the contact point in the horizontal direction. In a stable bead-on-string formation process, one cycle can be divided into three stages from the point of view of the jet behaviour: being anchored, being stretched, and skipping. The bead size and the bead gap are continuously tunable through the MES process. The fabrication mechanisms of the bead-on-string microstructure are uncovered through theoretical analysis and experimental characterization. When a critical velocity is achieved, the jet directly falls on the substrate without accumulation since the mechanical drawing force in the horizontal direction overtakes the capillary force, which leads the bead-on-string microstructures to a continuous fibre line. It is a flexible and highly controllable method to fabricate bead-on-string microstructures.

  18. Enzyme-linked electrochemical DNA ligation assay using magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskalová, Eva; Horáková, Petra; Vacek, Jan; Bowater, Richard P; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-07-01

    DNA ligases are essential enzymes in all cells and have been proposed as targets for novel antibiotics. Efficient DNA ligase activity assays are thus required for applications in biomedical research. Here we present an enzyme-linked electrochemical assay based on two terminally tagged probes forming a nicked junction upon hybridization with a template DNA. Nicked DNA bearing a 5' biotin tag is immobilized on the surface of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and ligated product is detected via a 3' digoxigenin tag recognized by monoclonal antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. Enzymatic conversion of napht-1-yl phosphate to napht-1-ol enables sensitive detection of the voltammetric signal on a pyrolytic graphite electrode. The technique was tested under optimal conditions and various situations limiting or precluding the ligation reaction (such as DNA substrates lacking 5'-phosphate or containing a base mismatch at the nick junction, or application of incompatible cofactor), and utilized for the analysis of the nick-joining activity of a range of recombinant Escherichia coli DNA ligase constructs. The novel technique provides a fast, versatile, specific, and sensitive electrochemical assay of DNA ligase activity.

  19. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  20. Artocarpus heterophyllus L. seed starch-blended gellan gum mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-04-01

    Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., family: Moraceae) seed starch (JFSS)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic gelation technique. The effect of GG to JFSS ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h, %) was optimized and analyzed using response surface methodology based on 3(2) factorial design. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 92.67±4.46%, R10h of 61.30±2.37%, and mean diameter of 1.67±0.27 mm. The optimized beads showed pH-dependent swelling and mucoadhesivity with the goat intestinal mucosa. The in vitro drug release from all these JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl was followed zero-order pattern (R(2)=0.9907-0.9975) with super case-II transport mechanism over a period of 10 h. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl exhibited significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanohole 3D-size tailoring through polystyrene bead combustion during thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaofeng; Kamiya, Itaru

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach is presented for nanohole 3D-size tailoring. The process starts with a monolayer of polystyrene (PS) beads spun coat on silicon wafer as a template. The holes can be directly prepared through combustion of PS beads by oxygen plasma during metal or oxide thin film deposition. The incoming particles are prevented from adhering on PS beads by H 2 O and CO 2 generated from the combustion of the PS beads. The hole depth generally depends on the film thickness. The hole diameter can be tailored by the PS bead size, film deposition rate, and also the combustion speed of the PS beads. In this work, a series of holes with depth of 4-24 nm and diameter of 10-36 nm has been successfully prepared. The hole wall materials can be selected from metals such as Au or Pt and oxides such as SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 . These templates could be suitable for the preparation and characterization of novel nanodevices based on single quantum dots or single molecules, and could be extended to the studies of a wide range of coating materials and substrates with controlled hole depth and diameters.

  2. Rapid detection of Salmonella in pet food: design and evaluation of integrated methods based on real-time PCR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Priya; Friberg, Maria; Vanlandingham, V; Kozak, K; Manolis, Amanda; Brevnov, Maxim; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Goins, David; Furtado, Manohar R; Petrauskene, Olga V; Tebbs, Robert S; Charbonneau, Duane

    2012-02-01

    Reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination in pet food is critical for both companion animals and humans, and its importance is reflected by the substantial increase in the demand for pathogen testing. Accurate and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens improves food safety, protects the public health, and benefits food producers by assuring product quality while facilitating product release in a timely manner. Traditional culture-based methods for Salmonella screening are laborious and can take 5 to 7 days to obtain definitive results. In this study, we developed two methods for the detection of low levels of Salmonella in pet food using real-time PCR: (i) detection of Salmonella in 25 g of dried pet food in less than 14 h with an automated magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction method and (ii) detection of Salmonella in 375 g of composite dry pet food matrix in less than 24 h with a manual centrifugation-based nucleic acid preparation method. Both methods included a preclarification step using a novel protocol that removes food matrix-associated debris and PCR inhibitors and improves the sensitivity of detection. Validation studies revealed no significant differences between the two real-time PCR methods and the standard U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (chapter 5) culture confirmation method.

  3. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Sørensen, Karen Skotte; Wolff, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible......-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis...

  4. A bead-based western for high-throughput cellular signal transduction analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treindl, Fridolin; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Beiter, Yvonne; Schultz, Silke; Döttinger, Anette; Staebler, Annette; Joos, Thomas O.; Kling, Simon; Poetz, Oliver; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans; Kuster, Bernhard; Templin, Markus F.

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting cellular signalling requires the analysis of large number of proteins. The DigiWest approach we describe here transfers the western blot to a bead-based microarray platform. By combining gel-based protein separation with immobilization on microspheres, hundreds of replicas of the initial blot are created, thus enabling the comprehensive analysis of limited material, such as cells collected by laser capture microdissection, and extending traditional western blotting to reach proteomic scales. The combination of molecular weight resolution, sensitivity and signal linearity on an automated platform enables the rapid quantification of hundreds of specific proteins and protein modifications in complex samples. This high-throughput western blot approach allowed us to identify and characterize alterations in cellular signal transduction that occur during the development of resistance to the kinase inhibitor Lapatinib, revealing major changes in the activation state of Ephrin-mediated signalling and a central role for p53-controlled processes. PMID:27659302

  5. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels, coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT levels and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  6. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Igor; Lindh, Jonas; Hong, Jaan; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Ferraz, Natalia

    2018-03-07

    Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  7. Elastase-coupled beads as a tool for characterizing localized alveolar tissue destruction associated with the onset of emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J. M.; Scott, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Intratracheal elastase challenge of laboratory animals has long been established as a model for observing the physiological and morphological changes that result from alveolar destruction, the hallmark of emphysema. However, instillation of elastase suspended in buffer results in widespread inflammation and variable emphysematous lesions, which has made the identification of specific cellular and molecular events associated with the onset of emphysema difficult to define. Here we establish a bead-based elastase delivery system that induces localized tissue destruction, a key event in the initiation of emphysema. Elastase was coupled to bisacrylamide beads, which were shown to retain enzymatic activity prior to intratracheal administration in mice. C57BL/6 mice were given a single dose of 40,000 beads, which became distributed throughout the small airways and parenchyma of the lung. Elastase-coupled beads resulted in a quantifiable loss of alveolar tissue immediately surrounding the beads, an effect that was not observed with beads that lacked protein altogether or with beads containing elastase inactivated by an irreversible inhibitor. Furthermore, beads bound with active elastase elicited local recruitment of mononuclear cells, including macrophages, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils to the site of bead deposition, a feature consistent with the cellular infiltration observed following conventional solubilized elastase challenges. This work identifies a novel bead-based enzyme delivery system that also extends the elastase model of emphysema to permit the characterization of mechanisms that drive alveolar surface area loss following elastin degradation in focal emphysematous lesions. PMID:23558388

  8. Hardness prediction of HAZ in temper bead welding by non-consistent layer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lina; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Kameyama, Masashi; Chigusa, Naoki; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Based on the experimentally obtained hardness database, the neural network-based hardness prediction system of heat affect zone (HAZ) in temper bead welding by Consistent Layer (CSL) technique has been constructed by the authors. However in practical operation, CSL technique is sometimes difficult to perform because of difficulty of the precise heat input controlling, and in such case non-CSL techniques are mainly used in the actual repair process. Therefore in the present study, the neural network-based hardness prediction system of HAZ in temper bead welding by non-CSL techniques has been constructed through thermal cycle simplification, from the view of engineering. The hardness distribution in HAZ with non-CSL techniques was calculated based on the thermal cycles numerically obtained by finite element method. The experimental result has shown that the predicted hardness is in good accordance with the measured ones. It follows that the currently proposed method is effective for estimating the tempering effect during temper bead welding by non-CSL techniques. (author)

  9. Ecohydraulics of Strings and Beads in Bedrock Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.

    2016-12-01

    Twenty years ago, Jack Stanford and others described rivers in bedrock canyons as resembling beads on a string when viewed in planform. The beads are relatively wide, low gradient river segments with floodplains, whereas the strings are the intervening steep, narrow river segments with minimal floodplain development. This pattern of longitudinal variations in channel and valley morphology along bedrock canyon rivers is very common, from small channels to major rivers such as the Colorado. Basic understanding of river ecosystems, as well as limited studies, indicates that the beads are more retentive and biologically productive. Although both strings and beads can provide habitat for diverse organisms, strings are more likely to serve as migration corridors, whereas beads provide spawning and nursery habitat, facilitate lateral (channel-floodplain) and vertical (channel-hyporheic) exchanges and associated habitat diversity, and retain dissolved and particulate organic matter. Recognition of the different characteristics and functions of strings and beads can be used to identify their spatial distribution along a river or within a river network and the hydraulically driven processes that sustain channel form, water quality, and biota within strings and beads. Diverse modeling approaches can then be used to quantify the fluxes of water and sediment needed to maintain these hydraulically driven processes. This conceptual framework is illustrated using examples from mountain streams in the Southern Rockies and canyon rivers in the southwestern United States.

  10. Study on the etched carnelian beads unearthed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Etched carnelian beads originated in the Indus Civilization;this kind of ornaments and its manufacturing techniques were spread to the whole Eurasia Continent.The etched carnelian beads unearthed in China can be classified into four types,the comparisons of which to their foreign counterparts may reveal their different sources and diffusion routes.The etched carnelian beads and their glass imitations unearthed in China had influences to the making of the glass "eye beads" in

  11. Highly sensitive determination of diclofenac based on resin beads and a novel polyclonal antibody by using flow injection chemiluminescence competitive immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Xu, Mingxia; Tang, Qinghui; Zhao, Kang; Deng, Anping; Li, Jianguo

    2018-02-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for simple, sensitive and low-cost detection of diclofenac was established based on specific binding of antigen and antibody. Carboxylic resin beads used as solid phase carrier materials provided good biocompatibility and large surface-to-volume ratio for modifying more coating antigen. There was a competitive process between the diclofenac in solution and the immobilized coating antigen to react with the limited binding sites of the polyclonal antibody to form the immunocomplex. The second antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase was introduced into the immunosensor and trapped by captured polyclonal antibody against diclofenac, which could effectively amplify chemiluminescence signals of luminol-PIP-H2O2. Under optimal conditions, the diclofenac could be detected quantitatively. The chemiluminescence intensity decreased linearly with the logarithm of the diclofenac concentration in the range of 0.1-100 ng mL- 1 with a detection limit of 0.05 ng mL- 1 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity, specificity and acceptable stability. This easy-operated and cost-effective analytical method could be valuable for the diclofenac determination in real water samples.

  12. Single bead near-infrared random laser based on silica-gel infiltrated with Rhodamine 640

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, André L.; Barbosa-Silva, Renato; Dominguez, Christian T.; Pecoraro, Édison; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2018-04-01

    Photoluminescence properties of single bead silica-gel (SG) embedded with a laser-dye were studied aiming at the operation of near-infrared (NIR) Random Lasers (RLs). The operation of RLs in the NIR spectral region is especially important for biological applications since the optical radiation has deep tissue penetration with negligible damage. Since laser-dyes operating in the NIR have poor stability and are poor emitters, ethanol solutions of Rhodamine 640 (Rh640) infiltrated in SG beads were used. The Rh640 concentrations in ethanol varied from 10-5 to 10-2 M and the excitation at 532 nm was made by using a 7 ns pulsed laser. The proof-of-principle RL scheme herein presented was adopted in order to protect the dye-molecules from the environment and to favor formation of aggregates. The RL emission from ≈650 nm to 720 nm, beyond the typical Rh640 monomer and dimer wavelengths emissions range, was attributed to the trade-off between reabsorption and reemission processes along the light pathways inside the SG bead and the contribution of Rh640 aggregates.

  13. Human MLPA Probe Design (H-MAPD: a probe design tool for both electrophoresis-based and bead-coupled human multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatchwell Eli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA is an efficient and reliable technique for gene dosage analysis. Currently MLPA can be conducted on two platforms: traditional electrophoresis-based, and FlexMAP bead-coupled. Since its introduction in 2002, MLPA has been rapidly adopted in both clinical and research situations. However, MLPA probe design is a time consuming process requiring many steps that address multiple criteria. There exist only one or two commercial software packages for traditional electrophoresis-based MLPA probe design. To our knowledge, no software is yet available that performs bead-coupled MLPA probe design. Results We have developed H-MAPD, a web-based tool that automates the generation and selection of probes for human genomic MLPA. The software performs physical-chemical property tests using UNAFold software, and uniqueness tests using the UCSC genome browser. H-MAPD supports both traditional electrophoresis-based assays, as well as FlexMAP bead-coupled MLPA. Conclusion H-MAPD greatly reduces the efforts for human genomic MLPA probe design. The software is written in Perl-CGI, hosted on a Linux server, and is freely available to non-commercial users.

  14. Inhibitive Effect of antibiotic-loaded beads to cure chronic osteomyelitis in developing country : Hand-made vs commercial beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasyid, Hcrmawan N.; Van Horn, Jim R.; Van der Mei, Henny C.; Soegijoko, Sooegijardjo; Busscher, Henk J.; Neut, Danielle; Ibrahim, F; Osman, NAA; Usman, J; Kadri, NA

    2007-01-01

    Local antibiotic-loaded beads have been approved for standard treatment of orthopaedic pathogens, especially chronic osteomyelitis. Septopal (R), the only commercial local antibiotic bead available on the market, is expensive and contains only gentamicin. This study aimed to compare the in vitro

  15. Nanoparticle-based sandwich electrochemical immunoassay for carbohydrate antigen 125 with signal enhancement using enzyme-coated nanometer-sized enzyme-doped silica beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dianping; Su, Biling; Tang, Juan; Ren, Jingjing; Chen, Guonan

    2010-02-15

    A novel nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassay of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) as a model was designed to couple with a microfluidic strategy using anti-CA125-functionalized magnetic beads as immunosensing probes. To construct the immunoassay, thionine-horseradish peroxidase conjugation (TH-HRP) was initially doped into nanosilica particles using the reverse micelle method, and then HRP-labeled anti-CA125 antibodies (HRP-anti-CA125) were bound onto the surface of the synthesized nanoparticles, which were used as recognition elements. Different from conventional nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassays, the recognition elements of the immunoassay simultaneously contained electron mediator and enzyme labels and simplified the electrochemical measurement process. The sandwich-type immunoassay format was used for the online formation of the immunocomplex in an incubation cell and captured in the detection cell with an external magnet. The electrochemical signals derived from the carried HRP toward the reduction of H(2)O(2) using the doped thionine as electron mediator. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunoassay exhibited a wide working range from 0.1 to 450 U/mL with a detection limit of 0.1 U/mL CA125. The precision, reproducibility, and stability of the immunoassay were acceptable. The assay was evaluated for clinical serum samples, receiving in excellent accordance with results obtained from the standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Concluding, the nanoparticle-based assay format provides a promising approach in clinical application and thus represents a versatile detection method.

  16. Hydrodynamic Torques and Rotations of Superparamagnetic Bead Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Christopher; Etheridge, J.; Wijesinghe, H. S.; Pierce, C. J.; Prikockis, M. V.; Sooryakumar, R.

    Chains of micro-magnetic particles are often rotated with external magnetic fields for many lab-on-a-chip technologies such as transporting beads or mixing fluids. These applications benefit from faster responses of the actuated particles. In a rotating magnetic field, the magnetization of superparamagnetic beads, created from embedded magnetic nano-particles within a polymer matrix, is largely characterized by induced dipoles mip along the direction of the field. In addition there is often a weak dipole mop that orients out-of-phase with the external rotating field. On a two-bead dimer, the simplest chain of beads, mop contributes a torque Γm in addition to the torque from mip. For dimers with beads unbound to each other, mop rotates individual beads which generate an additional hydrodynamic torque on the dimer. Whereas, mop directly torques bound dimers. Our results show that Γm significantly alters the average frequency-dependent dimer rotation rate for both bound and unbound monomers and, when mop exceeds a critical value, increases the maximum dimer rotation frequency. Models that include magnetic and hydrodynamics torques provide good agreement with the experimental findings over a range of field frequencies.

  17. Highly Efficient Release of Glycopeptides from Hydrazide Beads by Hydroxylamine Assisted PNGase F Deglycosylation for N-Glycoproteome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junfeng; Wan, Hao; Yao, Yating; Li, Jinan; Cheng, Kai; Mao, Jiawei; Chen, Jin; Wang, Yan; Qin, Hongqiang; Zhang, Weibing; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2015-10-20

    Selective enrichment of glycopeptides from complex sample followed by cleavage of N-glycans by PNGase F to expose an easily detectable mark on the former glycosylation sites has become the popular protocol for comprehensive glycoproteome analysis. On account of the high enrichment specificity, hydrazide chemistry based solid-phase extraction of N-linked glycopeptides technique has sparked numerous interests. However, the enzymatic release of glycopeptides captured by hydrazide beads through direct incubation of the beads with PNGase F is not efficient due to the inherent steric hindrance effect. In this study, we developed a hydroxylamine assisted PNGase F deglycosylation (HAPD) method using the hydroxylamine to release glycopeptides captured on the hydrazide beads through the cleavage of hydrazone bonds by transamination followed with the PNGase F deglycosylation of the released glycopeptides in the free solution. Because of the homogeneous condition for the deglycosylation, the recovery of deglycosylated peptides (deglycopeptides) was improved significantly. It was found that 27% more N-glycosylation sites were identified by the HAPD strategy compared with the conventional method. Moreover, the ratio of identified N-terminal glycosylated peptides was improved over 5-fold.

  18. Creating nanoshell on the surface of titanium hydride bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLENKO Vyacheslav Ivanovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on the modification of titanium hydride bead by creating titanium nanoshell on its surface by ion-plasma vacuum magnetron sputtering. To apply titanium nanoshell on the titanium hydride bead vacuum coating plant of multifunctional nanocomposite coatings QVADRA 500 located in the center of high technology was used. Analysis of the micrographs of the original surface of titanium hydride bead showed that the microstructure of the surface is flat, smooth, in addition the analysis of the microstructure of material surface showed the presence of small porosity, roughness, mainly cavities, as well as shallow longitudinal cracks. The presence of oxide film in titanium hydride prevents the free release of hydrogen and fills some micro-cracks on the surface. Differential thermal analysis of both samples was conducted to determine the thermal stability of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell. Hydrogen thermal desorption spectra of the samples of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell show different thermal stability of compared materials in the temperature range from 550 to 860о C. Titanium nanoshells applied in this way allows increasing the heat resistance of titanium hydride bead – the temperature of starting decomposition is 695о C and temperature when decomposition finishes is more than 1000о C. Modified in this way titanium hydride bead can be used as a filler in the radiation protective materials used in the construction or upgrading biological protection of nuclear power plants.

  19. [Detection of serum proteins in the patients of lung adenocarcinoma by the method of magnetic bead based sample fractionation and MALDI-TOF-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Lun-Xu; Yuan, Quan; Li, Xiao-Liang; Huang, Na; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2010-05-01

    To screen the serum proteins related to human lung adenocarcinoma using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) technology. The blood samples were collected from 10 patients of lung adenocarcinoma before and one week after the surgery, while 10 healthy subjects were used as control. The differential protein expression between the two groups and the change of those proteins after surgery were studied by ClinProt magnetic bead enrichment and MALDI-TOF-MS. Six protein peaks were identified, 2 of them were highly expressed protein biomarkers with relative molecular weights of 2661, 2991, and increased after the surgery, 4 of them were lowly expressed protein biomarkers with relative molecular weights of 4091, 4210, 4644, 5336, which continuously decreased after the surgery. ClinProt magnetic bead enrichment and MALDI-TOF-MS is a quick, easy and sensitive method of proteomics. The differential expressed proteins may be the latent tumor marker of lung adenocarcinoma. The alteration of those proteins after surgery might be helpful to assess the therapeutic effect and prognosis.

  20. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  1. A dedicated on-line system for the preparation and validation of standard beads in XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Ogasawara, Noriko; Nakata, Akio; Shoji, Shizuko.

    1995-01-01

    A dedicated on-line system in X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis with glass-bead method was developed in which preparation of standard beads was automated including proper choice of reagents, assignment of bead compositions and validation of the prepared beads. This system features: a. Fundamental Parameter (FP) Method for validation of standard beads. b. An original database of high purity reagents for standards. c. Automatic calculation of suitable composition for each standard bead, by giving a range for each element and the number of standard beads. 1) The calculation is based on random numbers, and makes a random assignment of composition for each bead. 2) The calculation results are automatically stored in a computer as a condition file for quantitative analysis. 3) An amount of a material for a standard mixture is corrected if a valence or a chemical compound for an analysis element is different from that of the standard material in the database. In order to realize these features, many high purity reagents were examined for their purities and other characteristics to test a suitability to use for a standard material, and a software for on-line processings was originally developed. (author)

  2. Microarray of DNA probes on carboxylate functional beads surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄承志; 李原芳; 黄新华; 范美坤

    2000-01-01

    The microarray of DNA probes with 5’ -NH2 and 5’ -Tex/3’ -NH2 modified terminus on 10 um carboxylate functional beads surface in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) is characterized in the preseni paper. it was found that the microarray capacity of DNA probes on the beads surface depends on the pH of the aqueous solution, the concentra-tion of DNA probe and the total surface area of the beads. On optimal conditions, the minimum distance of 20 mer single-stranded DNA probe microarrayed on beads surface is about 14 nm, while that of 20 mer double-stranded DNA probes is about 27 nm. If the probe length increases from 20 mer to 35 mer, its microarray density decreases correspondingly. Mechanism study shows that the binding mode of DNA probes on the beads surface is nearly parallel to the beads surface.

  3. Microarray of DNA probes on carboxylate functional beads surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The microarray of DNA probes with 5′-NH2 and 5′-Tex/3′-NH2 modified terminus on 10 m m carboxylate functional beads surface in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- carbodiimide (EDC) is characterized in the present paper. It was found that the microarray capacity of DNA probes on the beads surface depends on the pH of the aqueous solution, the concentration of DNA probe and the total surface area of the beads. On optimal conditions, the minimum distance of 20 mer single-stranded DNA probe microarrayed on beads surface is about 14 nm, while that of 20 mer double-stranded DNA probes is about 27 nm. If the probe length increases from 20 mer to 35 mer, its microarray density decreases correspondingly. Mechanism study shows that the binding mode of DNA probes on the beads surface is nearly parallel to the beads surface.

  4. Effects of agitation rate on aggregation during beads-to-beads subcultivation of microcarrier culture of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Iori; Sato, Keigo; Mera, Hisashi; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2017-06-01

    With the aim to utilize human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) grown in large scale for regenerative medicine, effects of agitation rate on aggregation during beads-to-beads subcultivation of microcarrier culture of hMSCs were studied. hMSCs could attach and grew on surface-type microcarriers of Cytodex 1, whereas almost no cell elongation and growth were observed on porous type microcarriers of Cytopores. The percentages of aggregated Cytodex 1 microcarriers at an agitation rate of 60 and 90 rpm were lower than that at 30 rpm, which was the lowest agitation rate necessary for the suspension of Cytodex 1 microcarriers, and the cells grew fastest at 60 rpm. hMSC could be subcultivated on Cytodex 1 by the beads-to-beads method at both 30 and 60 rpm without trypsinization. However, agitation at 60 rpm resulted in a markedly lower percentage of aggregated microcarriers not only before but also after subcultivation. The percentages of CD90- and CD166-positive cells among cells grown on Cytodex 1 at 60 rpm (91.5 and 87.6 %) were comparable to those of cells grown in the pre-culture on dishes. In conclusion, hMSCs could be subcultivated on Cytodex 1 by beads-to-beads method maintaining the expressions of the cell surface antigens CD90 and CD166, while adjusting agitation rate could decrease the microcarrier aggregation.

  5. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads® Using Vibration and a Sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Takefumi; Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    PurposeWe investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads ® ) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization.MethodAfter separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope.ResultsSpectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar.DiscussionThe use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  6. Bifunctional groups grafted polyethersulfone magnetic beads for selective sequestration of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sumana; Aggarwal, S.K.; Pandey, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study involves synthesis of polyethersulfone (PES) beads grafted with two different monomers viz. 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate phosphoric acid ester (HEMP) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS) by photo-induced free radical polymerization method. The selection of bifunctional polymer was based on our previous studies, which indicated its efficacy for selective preconcentration of Pu from 3-4 mol L -1 HNO 3 . The HEMP-co-AMPS grafted PES beads were used for selective extraction of plutonium from dissolver solution

  7. The negative enrichment by immunomagnetic beads for tumor cells from malignant pleural effusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a method (negative enrichment by immunomagnetic beads) for detection of tumor cells in pleural effusions and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the method for clinical application. Methods Five,10,20,50 and 100 A549(lung adenocarcinoma) cells were labeled with

  8. Chemical and toxicological assessment of arsenic sorption onto Fe-sericite composite powder and beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwon; Lee, Cheongho; Lee, Seung Mok; Lalhmunsiama; Jung, Jinho

    2018-01-01

    Batch sorption and leaching of arsenic (1-30mgL -1 ) on Fe-sericite composite powder and beads were investigated in this study. Fe-sericite composite powder was made from natural sericite modified with iron, and alginate was used to transform the powder into beads. The maximum sorption capacities of the Fe-sericite composite powder (15.04 and 13.21mgg -1 for As(III) and As(V), respectively) were higher than those of the corresponding beads (9.02 and 7.11mgg -1 for As(III) and As(V), respectively) owing to the higher specific surface area of the powder. In addition, the leaching amounts of As(III) from Fe-sericite composite beads (≤ 15.03%) were higher than those of the corresponding powder (≤ 5.71%). However, acute toxicity of As(III)-sorbed Fe-sericite composite beads toward Daphnia magna was not significantly different from that of the corresponding powder (p > 0.05). Considering higher uptake of the powder particles by the daphnids, Fe-sericite composite beads seem to be a more appropriate and safer sorbent for arsenic removal in practical application. Based on Fe content, Fe-sericite composite beads had similar or higher maximum sorption capacities (71.19 and 56.11mgg -1 Fe for As(III) and As(V), respectively) than those of previously reported sorbents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Two Contrasting Failure Modes of Enteric Coated Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Galen H; Dong, Xia; Lytle, Michelle; Kemp, Craig A J; Behme, Robert J; Hinds, Jeremy; Xiao, Zhicheng

    2018-04-09

    This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms and kinetics of coating failure for enteric coated beads exposed to high-humidity conditions at different storage temperatures. Enteric coated beads were placed on high-humidity conditions (75 to 98% relative humidity (RH)) in the temperature range of 5 to 40°C. These stability samples of beads were tested for acid dissolution and water activity and also analyzed with SEM, X-ray CT, and DMA. Exposure of enteric coated beads to high humidity led to increased gastric release of drug which eventually failed the dissolution specification. SEM showed visible cracks on the surface of beads exposed to 5°C/high humidity and fusion of enteric beads into agglomerates at 40°C/high humidity. In a non-destructive time elapse study, X-ray CT demonstrated swelling of microcrystalline cellulose cores, crack initiation, and propagation through the API layer within days under 5°C/98% RH storage conditions and ultimately fracture through the enteric coating. DMA data showed a marked reduction in T g of the enteric coating materials after exposure to humidity. At 5°C/high humidity, the hygroscopic microcrystalline cellulose core absorbed moisture leading to core swelling and consequent fracture through the brittle API and enteric layers. At 40°C (high humidity) which is above the T g of the enteric polymer, enteric coated beads coalesced into agglomerates due to melt flow of the enteric coating. We believe it is the first report on two distinct failure models of enteric coated dosage forms.

  10. A novel magnet focusing plate for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization analysis of magnetic bead-bound analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gode, David; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2013-05-15

    Magnetic beads are often used for serum profiling of peptide and protein biomarkers. In these assays, the bead-bound analytes are eluted from the beads prior to mass spectrometric analysis. This study describes a novel matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) technique for direct application and focusing of magnetic beads to MALDI plates by means of dedicated micro-magnets as sample spots. Custom-made MALDI plates with magnetic focusing spots were made using small nickel-coated neodymium micro-magnets integrated into a stainless steel plate in a 16 × 24 (384) pattern. For demonstrating the proof-of-concept, commercial C-18 magnetic beads were used for the extraction of a test compound (reserpine) from aqueous solution. Experiments were conducted to study focusing abilities, the required laser energies, the influence of a matrix compound, dispensing techniques, solvent choice and the amount of magnetic beads. Dispensing the magnetic beads onto the micro-magnet sample spots resulted in immediate and strong binding to the magnetic surface. Light microscope images illustrated the homogeneous distribution of beads across the surfaces of the magnets, when the entire sample volume containing the beads was pipetted onto the surface. Subsequent MALDI analysis of the bead-bound analyte demonstrated excellent and reproducible ionization yields. The surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) properties of the strongly light-absorbing γ-Fe2O3-based beads resulted in similar ionization efficiencies to those obtained from experiments with an additional MALDI matrix compound. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated the magnetic focusing abilities for magnetic bead-bound analytes on a novel MALDI plate containing small micro-magnets as sample spots. One of the key advantages of this integrated approach is that no elution steps from magnetic beads were required during analyses compared with conventional bead experiments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley

  11. Preparation of Bio-beads and Their Atrazine Degradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Hai-tao; ZHANG Lan-ying; LIU Na; ZHU Bo-lin

    2011-01-01

    Screened atrazine-mineralizing bacterium-Pseudomonas W4 was embedded inside an improved PVAH3BO3 embedment matrix to make bio-beads to degrade atrazine. The atrazine degradation characteristics were studied. The preparation procedure of bio-beads was as follows: (1) preparing a mixture of 100, 12.5, 10, 1.5 and 1 g/L PVA, bentonite(Ca), activated carbon powder, sodium alginate and centrifuged Pseudomonas W4 bacterium, respectively; (2) the mixture was dropped into a gently stirred cross linker solution(pH=6.7) and cured at 10 ℃ for 24 h.The optimal atrazine degradation conditions by bio-beads were as follows: pH=7, the auxiliary carbon source was glucose, and the concentration of glucose was greater than 325 mg/L. The bio-beads demonstrated stronger tolerance ability than the free microorganism to the increase of PCBs, hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion. SEM images show the uniform distribution of the microorganism inside bio-beads and the porous cross-linked structure of bio-beads which provides excellent mass transfer capacity.

  12. Integration of antibody by surface functionalization of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads using ammonia gas plasma technology for capturing influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Chou, Han; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    Antibody-integrated magnetic beads have been functionalized for influenza A virus capture. First, ammonia plasma produced by a radio frequency power source was reacted with the surface of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads to introduce amino groups. Anti-influenza A virus hemagglutinin antibody was then anchored by its surface sulfide groups to the amino groups on the beads via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate. After incubation with influenza A virus, adsorption of the virus to the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and inoculation of chicken embryonated eggs, indicating that virus infectivity is maintained and that the proposed method is useful for the enhanced detection and isolation of influenza A virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of magnetoresistive sensor current for on-chip magnetic bead detection using the sensor self-field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the self-heating of magnetoresistive sensors used for measurements on magnetic beads in magnetic biosensors. The signal from magnetic beads magnetized by the field due to the sensor bias current is proportional to the bias current squared. Therefore, we aim to maximize the bias...... current while limiting the sensor self-heating. We systematically characterize and model the Joule heating of magnetoresistive sensors with different sensor geometries and stack compositions. The sensor heating is determined using the increase of the sensor resistance as function of the bias current......, thus the heat conductance is proportional to the sensor area and inversely proportional to the oxide thickness. This simple heat conductance determines the relationship between bias current and sensor temperature, and we show that View the MathML source25μm wide sensor on a View the MathML source1μm...

  14. Elemental analysis of bead samples using a laser-induced plasma at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Kurniawan, Davy P.; Pardede, Marincan; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Khumaeni, Ali; Natiq, Shouny A.; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lee, Yong Inn; Kagawa, Kiichiro; Idris, Nasrullah; Tjia, May On

    2006-01-01

    An Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 8 ns, 30 mJ) was focused on various types of fresh, fossilized white coral and giant shell samples, including samples of imitation shell and marble. Such samples are extremely important as material for preparing prayer beads that are extensively used in the Buddhist faith. The aim of this research was to develop a non-destructive method to distinguish original beads from their imitations by means of spectral measurements of the carbon, hydrogen, sodium and magnesium emission intensities and by measuring the hardness of the sample using the ratio between Ca (II) 396.8 nm and Ca (I) 422.6 nm. Based on these measurements, original fresh coral beads can be distinguished from any imitation made from hard wood. The same technique was also effective in distinguishing beads made of shell from its imitation. A spectral analysis of bead was also performed on a fossilized white coral sample and the result can be used to distinguish to some extent the fossilized white coral beads from any imitation made from marble. It was also found that the plasma plume should be generated at low ambient pressure to significantly improve the hydrogen and carbon emission intensity and also to avoid energy loss inside the crater during laser irradiation at atmospheric pressure. The results of this study confirm that operating the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy at reduced ambient pressure offers distinct advantage for bead analysis over the conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique operated at atmospheric pressure

  15. Elemental analysis of bead samples using a laser-induced plasma at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, Tjung Jie [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)]. E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id; Kurniawan, Davy P. [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Graduate Program in Opto Electrotechniques and Laser Applications, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Indonesia, 4 Salemba Raya, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia); Khumaeni, Ali [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Natiq, Shouny A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23116 (Indonesia); Lee, Yong Inn [Physics Department, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756, South Korea (Korea); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Idris, Nasrullah [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Tjia, May On [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2006-01-15

    An Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 8 ns, 30 mJ) was focused on various types of fresh, fossilized white coral and giant shell samples, including samples of imitation shell and marble. Such samples are extremely important as material for preparing prayer beads that are extensively used in the Buddhist faith. The aim of this research was to develop a non-destructive method to distinguish original beads from their imitations by means of spectral measurements of the carbon, hydrogen, sodium and magnesium emission intensities and by measuring the hardness of the sample using the ratio between Ca (II) 396.8 nm and Ca (I) 422.6 nm. Based on these measurements, original fresh coral beads can be distinguished from any imitation made from hard wood. The same technique was also effective in distinguishing beads made of shell from its imitation. A spectral analysis of bead was also performed on a fossilized white coral sample and the result can be used to distinguish to some extent the fossilized white coral beads from any imitation made from marble. It was also found that the plasma plume should be generated at low ambient pressure to significantly improve the hydrogen and carbon emission intensity and also to avoid energy loss inside the crater during laser irradiation at atmospheric pressure. The results of this study confirm that operating the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy at reduced ambient pressure offers distinct advantage for bead analysis over the conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique operated at atmospheric pressure.

  16. Assessment of the Problems of Manual Automobile Tyre Bead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tyre-rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. The use of the locally fabricated manual bead breaking equipment as it is being practiced today by commercial tyre repair artisans in Nigeria is characterized by drudgery. This article reports a study of the local manual bead breaking ...

  17. Growth and morphology of thermophilic dairy starters in alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, Laurence; St-Gelais, Daniel; Champagne, Claude P; Lamoureux, Maryse

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this research was to produce concentrated biomasses of thermophilic lactic starters using immobilized cell technology (ICT). Fermentations were carried out in milk using pH control with cells microentrapped in alginate beads. In the ICT fermentations, beads represented 17% of the weight. Some assays were carried out with free cells without pH control, in order to compare the ICT populations with those of classical starters. With Streptococcus thermophilus, overall populations in the fermentor were similar, but maximum bead population for (8.2 x 10(9) cfu/g beads) was 13 times higher than that obtained in a traditional starter (4.9 x 10(8) cfu/ml). For both Lactobacillus helveticus strains studied, immobilized-cell populations were about 3 x 10(9) cfu/g beads. Production of immobilized Lb. bulgaricus 210R strain was not possible, since no increases in viable counts occurred in beads. Therefore, production of concentrated cell suspension in alginate beads was more effective for S. thermophilus. Photomicrographs of cells in alginate beads demonstrated that, while the morphology of S. thermophilus remained unchanged during the ICT fermentation, immobilized cells of Lb. helveticus appeared wider. In addition, cells of Lb. bulgaricus were curved and elongated. These morphological changes would also impair the growth of immobilized lactobacilli.

  18. Development of simple immunoradiometric assays using avidin coupled to polystyrene beads as a common solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyotsna, N.; Singh, Y.; Chouthkanthiwar, V.; Paradkar, S.; Sivaprasad, N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the preparation and application of avidin coupled polystyrene beads as a common solid phase for use in immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs). The assay system is based on two matched commercial monoclonal antibodies, of which, the capture antibody is biotinylated using biotinamidocaproate N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and the detection antibody is radiolabeled with 125 I by conventional Chloramine-T method. Avidin was immobilized on the polystyrene beads through a primary coat of bovine serum albumin using glutaraldhyde activation method. Various factors, such as concentration of reagents, incubation time, etc. were optimised to obtain a simple assay protocol consisting of only two pipetting steps, namely, that of a mixture of the two labelled antibodies (radiolabelled and biotinylated) and of the standard or sample. The advantage of the Avidin-Biotin system is the improved sensitivity, economy of antibody and the possibility to use a common solid phase in assays for different analytes. Using the polystyrene beads along with the novel decanting device, it has been possible to achieve the convenience of the 'coated-tube' technology without the expensive automation necessary for large scale preparation of antibody coated tubes. This protocol has been successfully applied to Prolactin, LH and FSH assays. The sensitivity of the Prolactin assay is 8μIU/mL (0.3 ng/mL), that of the FSH assay is 1mIU/mL and that of the LH assay is 0.9 mIU/mL. The intra-assay and inter-assay variations were <10%. Shelf life of the avidin coupled beads was found to be about 8 months and that of the biotin labelled antibodies up to 18 months. (author)

  19. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads{sup ®} Using Vibration and a Sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Akinaga, E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp; Nitta, Norihisa [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamamoto, Takefumi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Central Research Laboratory (Japan); Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeWe investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads{sup ®}) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization.MethodAfter separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope.ResultsSpectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar.DiscussionThe use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  20. Direct identification of on-bead peptides using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic barcoding system for high-throughput bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Homan; Jeong, Sinyoung; Koh, Yul; Geun Cha, Myeong; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kyeong, San; Kim, Jaehi; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Chang, Hye-Jin; Lee, Hyunmi; Jeong, Cheolhwan; Kim, Jong-Ho; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Hong Jeong, Dae; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2015-05-28

    Recently, preparation and screening of compound libraries remain one of the most challenging tasks in drug discovery, biomarker detection, and biomolecular profiling processes. So far, several distinct encoding/decoding methods such as chemical encoding, graphical encoding, and optical encoding have been reported to identify those libraries. In this paper, a simple and efficient surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) barcoding method using highly sensitive SERS nanoparticles (SERS ID) is presented. The 44 kinds of SERS IDs were able to generate simple codes and could possibly generate more than one million kinds of codes by incorporating combinations of different SERS IDs. The barcoding method exhibited high stability and reliability under bioassay conditions. The SERS ID encoding based screening platform can identify the peptide ligand on the bead and also quantify its binding affinity for specific protein. We believe that our SERS barcoding technology is a promising method in the screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) libraries for drug discovery.

  1. Rapid detection of Avian Influenza Virus - Towards point of care diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram

    barcode and fluorescent beads were also developed for rapid detection and identification of the AIV. In both methods, the detection involved sandwiching of the target AIV between monoclonal antibodies for nucleoproteins and for matrix proteins. In the fluorescent DNA barcode-based immunoassay, fluorophore...

  2. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A; Leach, Jennie B; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2013-04-21

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and oxygen insensitive Nile blue reference dye, and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shell rendering biocompatibility. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were cultivated on a series of PDMS and type I collagen based substrates patterned with micro-well arrays for 3 or 7 days, and then brought into contact with oxygen sensing beads. Using an image analysis algorithm to convert florescence intensity of beads to partial oxygen pressure in the culture system, tens of microns-size oxygen sensing beads enabled the spatial measurement of local oxygen concentration in the microfabricated system. Results generally indicated lower oxygen level inside wells than on top of wells, and local oxygen level dependence on structural features of cell culture surfaces. Interestingly, chemical composition of cell culture substrates also appeared to affect oxygen level, with type-I collagen based cell culture systems having lower oxygen concentration compared to PDMS based cell culture systems. In general, results suggest that oxygen sensing beads can be utilized to achieve real-time and local monitoring of micro-environment oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems.

  3. Studies on Benzo-DODA encapsulated polymeric beads for separation of Pu from acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.K.; Panja, S.; Kumar, M.; Ruhela, R.; Tripathi, S.C.; Singh, A.K.; Hubli, R.C.; Bajaj, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel contains a few mg of Pu per litre of waste volume. Therefore, there is a need for selective separation of Pu from above solution as well as other such acidic waste streams. The widely used technology for separation and recovery of metal ions from radioactive wastes is liquid-liquid extraction.Though, such technologies play major role in all the bulk separation processes, they have marked limitations involving the losses of extractant in aqueous phase, third phase problems at higher metal loading, etc. These limitations have necessitated the exploration of advance, more efficient and technically feasible alternatives. In this regard it is thought that solid-liquid based Extractant Encapsulated Polymeric Beads (EEPBs) may solve some of the problems. Benzodioxodiamide (BenzoDODA) is a recently reported extractant for the separation of plutonium from radioactive waste, containing nitric acid. BenzoDODA extractant encapsulated polymeric beads were prepared by phase inversion technique and found to be quite stable as no significant structural deformation or leaching out of the extractant was observed in 4.0 M HNO 3 solution, up to studied equilibration time of 8 days. These beads have been characterized by FT-IR, TGA and SEM techniques to gain insight into their structure and morphology. Morphology and porosity of the beads, as studied by the SEM analysis, indicate that the surface of the beads is quite rough, and has enough porosity. Thermo gravimetric analysis of the synthesized composite beads shows a weight loss of ∼74% during the heating from room temperature to 120℃, due to the loss of water present in the swollen beads. Such high water content also confirms that the beads have enough porosity for efficient exchange of metal ions.The synthesized beads were evaluated, for their ability to absorb Pu from acidic solution. The kinetics measurement showed that about 45 min of

  4. Appropriate welding conditions of temper bead weld repair for SQV2A pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, R.; Matsuda, F.; Brziak, P.; Lomozik, M.

    2004-01-01

    Temper bead welding technique is one of the most important repair welding methods for large structures for which it is difficult to perform the specified post weld heat treatment. In this study, appropriate temper bead welding conditions to improve the characteristics of heat affected zone (HAZ) are studied using pressure vessel steel SQV2A corresponding to ASTM A533 Type B Class 1. Thermal/mechanical simulator is employed to give specimens welding thermal cycles from single to quadruple cycle. Charpy absorbed energy and hardness of simulated CGHAZ by first cycle were degraded as compared with base metal. Improvability of these degradations by subsequent cycles is discussed and appropriate temper bead thermal cycles are clarified. When the peak temperature lower than Ac1 and near Ac1 in the second thermal cycle is applied to CGAHZ by first thermal cycle, the characteristics of CGHAZ improve enough. When the other peak temperatures (that is, higher than Ac1) in the second thermal cycle are applied to the CGHAZ, third or more thermal cycle temper bead process should be applied to improve the properties. Appropriate weld condition ranges are selected based on the above results. The validity of the selected ranges is verified by the temper bead welding test. (orig.)

  5. Fluctuations of cytoskeleton-bound microbeads-the effect of bead-receptor binding dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzner, C; Raupach, C; Mierke, C T; Fabry, B

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton (CSK) of living cells is a crosslinked fiber network, subject to ongoing biochemical remodeling processes that can be visualized by tracking the spontaneous motion of CSK-bound microbeads. The bead motion is characterized by anomalous diffusion with a power-law time evolution of the mean square displacement (MSD), and can be described as a stochastic transport process with apparent diffusivity D and power-law exponent β: MSD ∼ D (t/t 0 ) β . Here we studied whether D and β change with the time that has passed after the initial bead-cell contact, and whether they are sensitive to bead coating (fibronectin, integrin antibodies, poly-L-lysine, albumin) and bead size (0.5-4.5 μm). The measurements are interpreted in the framework of a simple model that describes the bead as an overdamped particle coupled to the fluctuating CSK network by an elastic spring. The viscous damping coefficient characterizes the degree of bead internalization into the cell, and the spring constant characterizes the strength of the binding of the bead to the CSK. The model predicts distinctive signatures of the MSD that change with time as the bead couples more tightly to the CSK and becomes internalized. Experimental data show that the transition from the unbound to the tightly bound state occurs in an all-or-nothing manner. The time point of this transition shows considerable variability between individual cells (2-30 min) and depends on the bead size and bead coating. On average, this transition occurs later for smaller beads and beads coated with ligands that trigger the formation of adhesion complexes (fibronectin, integrin antibodies). Once the bead is linked to the CSK, however, the ligand type and bead size have little effect on the MSD. On longer timescales of several hours after bead addition, smaller beads are internalized into the cell more readily, leading to characteristic changes in the MSD that are consistent with increased viscous damping by the

  6. Elution of Clindamycin and Enrofloxacin From Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Beads In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Heidi; Boothe, Dawn M; Bennett, R Avery

    2015-11-01

    To compare the in vitro elution characteristics of clindamycin and enrofloxacin from calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads containing a single antibiotic, both antibiotics, and each antibiotic incubated in the same eluent well. Experimental in vitro study. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads were formed by mixing with clindamycin and/or enrofloxacin to create 4 study groups: (1) 160 mg clindamycin/10 beads; (2) 160 mg enrofloxacin/10 beads; (3) 160 mg clindamycin + 160 mg enrofloxacin/10 beads; and (4) 160 mg clindamycin/5 beads and 160 mg enrofloxacin/5 beads. Chains of beads were formed in triplicate and placed in 5 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4 and room temperature) with constant agitation. Antibiotic-conditioned PBS was sampled at 14 time points from 1 hour to 30 days. Clindamycin and enrofloxacin concentrations in PBS were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Eluent concentrations from clindamycin-impregnated beads failed to remain sufficiently above minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for common infecting bacteria over the study period. Enrofloxacin eluent concentrations remained sufficiently above MIC for common wound pathogens of dogs and cats and demonstrated an atypical biphasic release pattern. No significant differences in elution occurred as a result of copolymerization of the antibiotics into a single bead or from individual beads co-eluting in the same eluent well. Clindamycin-impregnated beads cannot be recommended for treatment of infection at the studied doses; however, use of enrofloxacin-impregnated beads may be justified when susceptible bacteria are cultured. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Plasma membrane isolation using immobilized concanavalin A magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Srajer Gajdosik, Martina; Josic, Djuro; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Isolation of highly purified plasma membranes is the key step in constructing the plasma membrane proteome. Traditional plasma membrane isolation method takes advantage of the differential density of organelles. While differential centrifugation methods are sufficient to enrich for plasma membranes, the procedure is lengthy and results in low recovery of the membrane fraction. Importantly, there is significant contamination of the plasma membranes with other organelles. The traditional agarose affinity matrix is suitable for isolating proteins but has limitation in separating organelles due to the density of agarose. Immobilization of affinity ligands to magnetic beads allows separation of affinity matrix from organelles through magnets and could be developed for the isolation of organelles. We have developed a simple method for isolating plasma membranes using lectin concanavalin A (ConA) magnetic beads. ConA is immobilized onto magnetic beads by binding biotinylated ConA to streptavidin magnetic beads. The ConA magnetic beads are used to bind glycosylated proteins present in the membranes. The bound membranes are solubilized from the magnetic beads with a detergent containing the competing sugar alpha methyl mannoside. In this study, we describe the procedure of isolating rat liver plasma membranes using sucrose density gradient centrifugation as described by Neville. We then further purify the membrane fraction by using ConA magnetic beads. After this purification step, main liver plasma membrane proteins, especially the highly glycosylated ones and proteins containing transmembrane domains could be identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. While not described here, the magnetic bead method can also be used to isolate plasma membranes from cell lysates. This membrane purification method should expedite the cataloging of plasma membrane proteome.

  8. Ionically crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose beads for the delivery of protein therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Sup; Park, Sang Jun; Gu, Bon Kang; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared Fe 3+ crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads. ► Different surface and inner morphology of AC beads were observed on volume of CMC. ► AC beads showed minimum swelling degree in acidic condition. ► Protein release from AC beads was to control in gastrointestinal condition. - Abstract: We developed Fe 3+ -crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads in various volume ratios by dropping an AC solution into a ferric chloride solution to form protein therapeutic carrier beads. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the roughness and pore size of the crosslinked beads increased with the volume ratio of the carboxymethyl cellulose. Fourier transform-infrared analysis revealed the formation of a three-dimensional bonding structure between the anionic polymeric chains of AC and the Fe 3+ ions. The degree of swelling and the release profile of albumin from the beads were investigated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions (pH 1.2, 4.5, and 7.4). The Fe 3+ -crosslinked AC beads displayed different degrees of swelling and albumin release for the various AC volume ratios and under various pH conditions. An in vitro release test was used to monitor the controlled release of albumin from the AC beads under simulated gastrointestinal conditions over 24 h. The Fe 3+ -crosslinked AC beads protected and controlled the release of protein, demonstrating that such beads present a promising protein therapeutic carrier for the oral delivery.

  9. exploring traditional glass bead making techniques in jewellery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Glass bead making techniques and their mass production will help the individual ... communicate cultural values in a symbolic lan- guage which ..... Surface of most of the new beads were rough ... tourism potential to be developed further to.

  10. Glass bead transformation method for gram-positive bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive and reproducible transformation method was developed for Gram-positive bacteria. It was based on agitation of bacterial protoplasts with glass beads in the presence of DNA and polyethylene glycol. By using this method, introduction of pGK12 into protoplasts of several strains of Gram-positive bacteria was achieved.

  11. Characterization of some tin-contained ancient glass beads found in China by means of SEM-EDS and raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghui; Liu, Song; Su, Bomin; Zhao, Hongxia; Fu, Qiang; Dong, Junqing

    2013-02-01

    A total of nine tin-contained ancient glass beads were characterized by a combination of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. These glass beads dated from 1st century BC to 10th century AD were excavated from the Xinjiang and Guangxi provinces of China. Two kinds of tin-based opacifiers/colorants included crystalline cassiterite (SnO(2)) and lead-tin yellow types II were first found in these soda lime glass beads. The tentative chronology of the tin-based opacifiers/colorants used in ancient glasses from China and the West was compared. In addition, several transition metal ions colorants were also found in these beads. The detailed study of the glassy matrices, crystalline inclusions, and the microstructural heterogeneities for these glass beads has revealed some valuable information to trace the possible making technology and provenances. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of Transgastric NOTES and laparoscopic peritoneoscopy for detection of peritoneal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voermans, Rogier P; Sheppard, Brett; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Fockens, Paul; Faigel, Douglas O

    2009-08-01

    Transgastric peritoneoscopy (TGP) may be a future alternative to the diagnostic laparoscopy (LAP). To create a model of peritoneal metastases for development of TGP and to employ this model to compare TGP to LAP. Small beads were stapled in porcine peritoneal cavities to simulate metastases. Using a noninferiority design a sample size of 64 beads was determined, which were divided over 12 animals. Randomization was performed for number and location of beads. LAP was performed by one of 2 blinded surgeons. TGP was then performed in the same pig using either standard endoscopic accessories (TGP-s) or a specially designed toolkit (TGP-t) in randomized order by 1 of 2 blinded endoscopists. Primary outcome was number of beads found and touched during peritoneoscopy. Locations of beads included: abdominal peritoneum (14 beads), diaphragm (11), surface of liver and hepatoduodenal ligament (32), and miscellaneous sites (7). LAP detected 61 beads (yield = 95%), TGP-s 40 beads (63%), and TGP-t 40 beads (63%). TGP-s and TGP-t were both inferior in comparison with LAP (P = 0.8465 and P = 0.7440 respectively). TGP-s and TGP-t were similar in number, distribution and time to detect beads. TGP was superior for detecting beads on the abdominal and diaphragmatic peritoneum than for the liver, namely TGP-s: 23/25 (92%) versus 12/32 (38%) (P TGP-t: 25/25 (100%) versus 11/32 (34%) (P TGP was inferior to LAP for the detection of simulated metastases. Future development for NOTES peritoneoscopy should focus on improved access to the region of the liver and enhanced endoscopic optics and performance.

  13. StoryBeads: Preserving indigenous knowledge through tangible interaction design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reitsma, L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available in technology adoption. The study resulted in a recording device that fits the target group’s oral tradition and is based on a concept in which oral stories are recorded and associated with tangible beads that can be incorporated into traditional beadwork...

  14. Detection of Target ssDNA Using a Microfabricated Hall Magnetometer with Correlated Optical Readout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Hira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensing biological agents at the genomic level, while enhancing the response time for biodetection over commonly used, optics-based techniques such as nucleic acid microarrays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, is an important criterion for new biosensors. Here, we describe the successful detection of a 35-base, single-strand nucleic acid target by Hall-based magnetic transduction as a mimic for pathogenic DNA target detection. The detection platform has low background, large signal amplification following target binding and can discriminate a single, 350 nm superparamagnetic bead labeled with DNA. Detection of the target sequence was demonstrated at 364 pM (<2 target DNA strands per bead target DNA in the presence of 36 μM nontarget (noncomplementary DNA (<10 ppm target DNA using optical microscopy detection on a GaAs Hall mimic. The use of Hall magnetometers as magnetic transduction biosensors holds promise for multiplexing applications that can greatly improve point-of-care (POC diagnostics and subsequent medical care.

  15. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) beads for nattokinase purification from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengli; Xing, Jianmin; Guan, Yueping; Liu, Huizhou

    2006-09-01

    An effective method for purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth using magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads immobilized with p-aminobenzamidine was proposed in this study. Firstly, magnetic PMMA beads with a narrow size distribution were prepared by spraying suspension polymerization. Then, they were highly functionalized via transesterification reaction with polyethylene glycol. The surface hydroxyl-modified magnetic beads obtained were further modified with chloroethylamine to transfer the surface amino-modified magnetic functional beads. The morphology and surface functionality of the magnetic beads were examined by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. An affinity ligand, p-aminobenzamidine was covalently immobilized to the amino-modified magnetic beads by the glutaraldehyde method for nattokinase purification directly from the fermentation broth. The purification factor and the recovery of the enzyme activity were found to be 8.7 and 85%, respectively. The purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth by magnetic beads only took 40 min, which shows a very fast purification of nattokinase compared to traditional purification methods.

  16. Note: A quartz cell with Pt single crystal bead electrode for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhigang; Wang, Jihao; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we provide and demonstrate a design of a unique cell with Pt single crystal bead electrode for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) measurements. The active metal Pt electrode can be protected from air contamination during the preparation process. The transparency of the cell allows the tip and bead to be aligned by direct observation. Based on this, a new and effective alignment method is introduced. The high-quality bead preparations through this new cell have been confirmed by the ECSTM images of Pt (111).

  17. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  18. Detection of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neuron cell using gold nanoparticles-based barcode DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jeung Hee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong Woo

    2013-04-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosysthesis, is predominantly expressed in several cell groups within the brain, including the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. We evaluated the efficacy of this protein-detection method in detecting tyrosine hydroxylase in normal and oxidative stress damaged dopaminergic cells. In this study, a coupling of DNA barcode and bead-based immnunoassay for detecting tyrosine hydroxylaser with PCR-like sensitivity is reported. The method relies on magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies and nanoparticles that are encoded with DNA and antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the nanoparticle-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from solution, and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes were identified by PCR analysis. The concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic cell can be easily and rapidly detected using bio-barcode assay. The bio-barcode assay is a rapid and high-throughput screening tool to detect of neurotransmitter such as dopamine.

  19. Development of hydrogel TentaGel shell-core beads for ultrahigh throughput solution-phase screening of encoded OBOC combinatorial small molecule libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyoung Gee; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S

    2009-01-01

    The one-bead one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial library method enables the rapid generation and screening of millions of discrete chemical compounds on beads. Most of the OBOC screening methods require the library compounds to remain tethered to the bead during screening process. Methods have also been developed to release library compounds from immobilized beads for in situ solution phase or "lawn" assays. However, this latter approach, while extremely powerful, is severely limited by the lack of suitable solid supports for such assays. Here, we report on the development of a novel hydrogel TentaGel shell-core (HTSC) bead in which hydrogel is grafted onto the polystyrene-based TentaGel (TG) bead as an outer shell (5-80 mum thick) via free radical surface-initiated polymerization. This novel shell-core bilayer resin enables the preparation of encoded OBOC combinatorial small molecule libraries, such that the library compounds reside on the highly hydrophilic outer layer and the coding tags reside in the polystyrene-based TG core. Using fluorescein as a model small molecule compound, we have demonstrated that fluorescein molecules that have been linked covalently to the hydrogel shell via a disulfide bond could readily diffuse out of the hydrogel layer into the bead surrounding after reduction with dithiothreitol. In contrast, under identical condition, the released fluorescein molecules remained bound to unmodified TG bead. We have prepared an encoded OBOC small molecule library on the novel shell-core beads and demonstrated that the beads can be readily decoded.

  20. Highly sensitive chemiluminescent point mutation detection by circular strand-displacement amplification reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Ge, Yujie; Gu, Hongxi; Ma, Cuiping

    2011-08-15

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is attracting extensive attentions owing to its direct connections with human diseases including cancers. Here, we have developed a highly sensitive chemiluminescence biosensor based on circular strand-displacement amplification and the separation by magnetic beads reducing the background signal for point mutation detection at room temperature. This method took advantage of both the T4 DNA ligase recognizing single-base mismatch with high selectivity and the strand-displacement reaction of polymerase to perform signal amplification. The detection limit of this method was 1.3 × 10(-16)M, which showed better sensitivity than that of most of those reported detection methods of SNP. Additionally, the magnetic beads as carrier of immobility was not only to reduce the background signal, but also may have potential apply in high through-put screening of SNP detection in human genome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Diffraction-based BioCD biosensor for point-of-care diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.; Chang, C.; Savran, C.; Nolte, D.

    2018-02-01

    The BioCD platform technology uses spinning-disk interferometry to detect molecular binding to target molecular probes in biological samples. Interferometric configurations have included differential phase contrast and in-line quadrature detection. For the detection of extremely low analyte concentrations, nano- or microparticles can enhance the signal through background-free diffraction detection. Diffraction signal measurements on BioCD biosensors are achieved by forming gratings on a disc surface. The grating pattern was printed with biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and streptavidin coated beads were deployed. The diameter of the beads was 1 micron and strong protein bonding occurs between BSA and streptavidin-coated beads at the printed location. The wavelength for the protein binding detection was 635 nm. The periodic pattern on the disc amplified scattered light into the first-order diffraction position. The diffracted signal contains Mie scattering and a randomly-distributed-bead noise contributions. Variation of the grating pattern periodicity modulates the diffraction efficiency. To test multiple spatial frequencies within a single scan, we designed a fan-shaped grating to perform frequency filter multiplexing on a diffraction-based BioCD.

  2. Magnetic Bead-Based Serum Peptidome Profiling in Patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a frequent medical condition during pregnancy. Early diagnosis and treatment of GDM are crucial for both the mother and the baby. In the present study, we aimed to identify specific biomarkers to assist in the early detection of GDM and give some clues to the possible causes of GDM by comparing serum peptide profile differences between GDM patients and healthy controls. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS was used in combination with weak cation exchange magnetic bead (WCX-MB. Levels of four peptides (4418.9, 2219.7, 2211.5, and 1533.4 Da were significantly different. Interestingly, three of them (4418.9, 2211.5, and 1533.4 Da were identified when GDM patients with two degrees of glucose intolerance were compared. Additionally, peptides 2211.5 and 1533.4 Da showed a decreasing trend as glucose intolerance increased, while peptide 4418.9 Da exhibited the reverse tendency. In conclusion, our study provides novel insights into the altered serum peptide profile of GDM patients. The specific candidate biomarkers may contribute to the development of GDM.

  3. Polymerized serum albumin beads for use as slow-release adjuvants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.E.D.

    1987-02-01

    Experimental vaccines have been made by covalently bonding virus particles into polymerized rabbit serum albumin beads. Using Nodamura virus as a model antigen, these model vaccines induced specific humoral antibody production, comparable with that achieved using Freund's adjuvants. Virus specific antibodies were also induced when Nodamura virus was covalently attached to the bead surface using different crosslinkers. However, when poliovirus type 2 (Sabin strain) was polymerized into beads, the levels of neutralizing antibodies were insignificant compared with control aqueous vaccines. The synthetic immunostimulator, muramyl dipeptide, was included with bead vaccines in an attempt to potentiate the immune response. Immunostimulation is achieved by a slow release of antigen coinciding with the gradual breakdown of bead structure. Methods used include radio-iodination and radioimmunoassay. 65 figs., 6 tabs., 173 refs

  4. Process parameters-weld bead geometry interactions and their influence on mechanical properties: A case of dissimilar aluminium alloy electron beam welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mastanaiah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of weld bead geometry is always an interesting and challenging research topic as it involves understanding of complex multi input and multi output system. The weld bead geometry has a profound impact on the load bearing capability of a weld joint, which in-turn decides the performance in real time service conditions. The present study introduces a novel approach of detecting a relationship between weld bead geometry and mechanical properties (e.g. tensile load for the purpose of catering the best the process could offer. The significance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by a case of dissimilar aluminium alloy (AA2219 and AA5083 electron beam welds. A mathematical model of tensile braking load as a function of geometrical attributes of weld bead geometry is presented. The results of investigation suggests the effective thickness of weld – a geometric parameter of weld bead has the most significant influence on tensile breaking load of dissimilar weld joint. The observations on bead geometry and the mechanical properties (microhardness, ultimate tensile load and face bend angle are correlated with detailed metallurgical analysis. The fusion zone of dissimilar electron beam weld has finer grain size with a moderate evaporation and segregation of alloying elements magnesium and copper respectively. The mechanical properties of weld joint are controlled by optimum bead geometry and HAZ softening in weaker AA5083 Al alloy. Keywords: Electron beam welding, AA2219, AA5083, Bead geometry, Tensile breaking load

  5. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of kappa-Carrageenan Beads Containing Silver Nanoparticles with Dye Adsorption and Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we used a simple and totally green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles using kappa-carrageenan as reducing and stabilizing agent. The beads were prepared in aqueous medium by microwave heating, and then followed by cross-linking with K+ cations without using any additional toxic and expensive chemical agents. The preparation method of the carrageenan-based beads is easy, fast, simple, effective, and safe. The synthesized beads loaded with were characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra, transmition electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. The as-prepared beads were evaluated to remove cationic crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions. The thermodynamic parameters shown that the sorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. The kinetics and isotherm of crystal violet adsorption were found to well fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the obtained beads was examined using the nutrient agar disc diffusion method.

  6. Characterisation of bare and tannase-loaded calcium alginate beads by microscopic, thermogravimetric, FTIR and XRD analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larosa, Claudio; Salerno, Marco; de Lima, Juliana Silva; Merijs Meri, Remo; da Silva, Milena Fernandes; de Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Converti, Attilio

    2018-08-01

    Incorporating enzymes into calcium alginate beads is an effective method to immobilise them and to preserve, at the same time, their catalytic activity. Sodium alginate was mixed with Aspergillus ficuum tannase in aqueous solution, and tannase-loaded calcium alginate beads were prepared using a simple droplet-based microfluidic system. Extensive experimental analysis was carried out to characterise the samples. Microscopic imaging revealed morphological differences between the surfaces of bare alginate matrix and tannase-loaded alginate beads. Thermal analysis allowed assessing the hydration contents of alginate and revealed the presence of tannase entrapped in the loaded beads, which was confirmed by vibrational spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction allowed us to conclude that alginate of tannase-loaded beads is not crystalline, which would make them suitable as carriers for possible controlled release. Moreover, they could be used in food applications to improve tea quality or clarify juices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lab-on-a-Chip Magneto-Immunoassays: How to Ensure Contact between Superparamagnetic Beads and the Sensor Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hütten

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lab-on-a-chip immuno assays utilizing superparamagnetic beads as labels suffer from the fact that the majority of beads pass the sensing area without contacting the sensor surface. Different solutions, employing magnetic forces, ultrasonic standing waves, or hydrodynamic effects have been found over the past decades. The first category uses magnetic forces, created by on-chip conducting lines to attract beads towards the sensor surface. Modifications of the magnetic landscape allow for additional transport and separation of different bead species. The hydrodynamic approach uses changes in the channel geometry to enhance the capture volume. In acoustofluidics, ultrasonic standing waves force µm-sized particles onto a surface through radiation forces. As these approaches have their disadvantages, a new sensor concept that circumvents these problems is suggested. This concept is based on the granular giant magnetoresistance (GMR effect that can be found in gels containing magnetic nanoparticles. The proposed design could be realized in the shape of paper-based test strips printed with gel-based GMR sensors.

  8. Long-term cryopreservation of non-spore-forming fungi in Microbank™ beads for plant pathological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Dilip K; Singh, Vimla; Camacho, Manuel E

    2018-05-01

    Long-term preservation of experimental fungi without genetic, morphological, and pathogenic changes is of paramount importance in mycological and plant pathological investigations. Several cryogenic and non-cryogenic methods are available for the preservation of fungi, but the methods can be cumbersome, hazardous, expensive, and often not suitable for long-term storage of non-spore-forming (sterile) fungi. A method of preservation of spore-forming fungi in commercially available porous beads (Micrbank™) under cryogenic condition was successfully tested for three non-spore-forming basidiomycetes genera: Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) (n = 19), Ceratobasidium species (n = 1), and Waitea circinata (n = 3), and a non-spore forming ascomycetes, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (n = 1). For comparison, spore-forming ascomycetous fungi, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Bauveria basiana (n = 2), Botrytis cinerea (n = 1), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladiolii (n = 1), Trichoderma spp. (n = 3), and Thielaviopsis basicola (n = 2) were also cryopreserved in Microbank beads. Viable fungal isolates of all test species were retrieved after five years of storage at -80 °C, which was longer than the viabilities of the corresponding isolates cryopreserved in agar plugs or colonized wheat seeds. Fungi revived from the Microbank beads maintained identical morphology and cultural characteristics of the parent isolates. Randomly selected Rhizoctonia isolates revived from the Microbank beads maintained respective pathological properties of the parent isolates; also, no mutation was detected in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA when compared with respective cultures maintained at ambient temperature. This finding demonstrated the utility of cryopreservation in Microbank beads as a convenient alternative to conventional long-term preservation of a wide group of fungal cultures for plant pathological investigations

  9. Effect of formulation of alginate beads on their mechanical behavior and stiffness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eng-Seng Chan; Tek-Kaun Lim; Wan-Ping Voo; Ravindra Pogaku; Beng Ti Tey; Zhibing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of formulation of alginate beads on their mechanical behavior and stiffness when compressed at high speed. The alginate beads were formulated using different types and concentrations of alginate and gelling cations and were produced using an extrusiondripping method. Single wet beads were compressed at a speed of 40 mm/min, and their elastic limits were investigated, and the corresponding force versus displacement data were obtained. The Young's moduli of the beads were determined from the force versus displacement data using the Hertz's contact mechanics theory. The alginate beads were found to exhibit plastic behavior when they were compressed beyond 50% with the exception of copper-alginate beads for which yield occured at lower deformation.Alginate beads made of higher guluronic acid contents and gelling cations of higher chemical affinity were found to have greater stiffness. Increasing the concentration of alginate and gelling ions also generated a similar effect. At such a compression speed, the values of Young's modulus of the beads were found to be in the range between 250 and 900 kPa depending on the bead formulation.

  10. ADSORPTION AND RELEASING PROPERTIES OF BEAD CELLULOSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Morales; E. Bordallo; V. Leon; J. Rieumont

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of some dyes on samples of bead cellulose obtained in the Unit of Research-Production "Cuba 9"was studied. Methylene blue, alizarin red and congo red fitted the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir. Adsorption kinetics at pH = 6 was linear with the square root of time indicating the diffusion is the controlling step. At pH = 12 a non-Fickian trend was observed and adsorption was higher for the first two dyes. Experiments carried out to release the methylene blue occluded in the cellulose beads gave a kinetic behavior of zero order. The study of cytochrome C adsorption was included to test a proteinic material. Crosslinking of bead cellulose was performed with epichlorohydrin decreasing its adsorption capacity in acidic or alkaline solution.

  11. Electrochemical enzyme sensor arrays for the detection of the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine and cadaverine using magnetic beads as immobilisation supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardo, Sandra; Campàs, Mònica

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensors based on diamine oxidase (DAO) conjugated to magnetic beads (MBs) were developed for the detection of histamine (Hist), putrescine (Put) and cadaverine (Cad), the most relevant biogenic amines (BAs) related to food safety and quality. DAO-MBs were immobilised on Co(II)-phthalocyanine/carbon and Prussian Blue/carbon electrodes to obtain mono-enzymatic biosensors, and on Os-wired HRP-modified carbon electrodes to obtain bi-enzymatic biosensors. The three sensor have low working potentials (+0.4 V, −0.1 V and −0.05 V vs Ag/AgCl, respectively), a linear range of two orders of magnitude (from 0.01 to 1 mM BA), good reproducibility (variability lower than 10 %), high repeatability (up to 8 consecutive measurements), limits of detection in the µM concentration range for Hist and in the sub-µM concentration range for Put and Cad, and no response from possible interfering compounds. The DAO-MB conjugates display excellent long-term stability (at least 3 months). The biosensor has been applied to the determination of BAs in spiked and naturally-spoiled fish, demonstrating its suitability both as screening tool and for BAs quantification. The use of MBs as supports for enzyme immobilisation is advantageous because the resulting biosensors are simple, fast, stable, affordable, and can be integrated into array platforms. This makes them suitable for high-throughput analysis of BAs in the food industry. (author)

  12. Optimization of weld bead geometry of MS plate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The considered specimen was checked to harmonize the optimum setting between input factors, for example, welding current, open circuit voltage, and thickness of plate, with respect to obtaining prosperous weld strength as well as bead geometry quality characteristics, for example, tensile strength, bead width, ...

  13. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) cross-linked natural polymer-based hybrid gel beads: Controlled nano anti-TB drug delivery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Mookkandi Palsamy; Ayyanaar, Srinivasan; Vijayakumar, Vijayaparthasarathi; Dhaveethu Raja, Jeyaraj; Annaraj, Jamespandi; Sakthipandi, Kathiresan; Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban

    2018-04-01

    The nanosized rifampicin (RIF) has been prepared to increase the solubility in aqueous solution, which leads to remarkable enhancement of its bioavailability and their convenient delivery system studied by newly produced nontoxic, biodegradable magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) cross-linked polyethylene glycol hybrid chitosan (mCS-PEG) gel beads. The functionalization of both nano RIF and mCS-PEG gel beads were studied using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The size of prepared nano RIF was found to be 70.20 ± 3.50 nm. The mechanical stability and swelling ratio of the magnetic gel beads increased by the addition of PEG with a maximum swelling ratio of 38.67 ± 0.29 g/g. Interestingly, this magnetic gel bead has dual responsive assets in the nano drug delivery application (pH and the magnetic field). As we expected, magnetic gel beads show higher nano drug releasing efficacy at acidic medium (pH = 5.0) with maximum efficiency of 71.00 ± 0.87%. This efficacy may also be tuned by altering the external magnetic field and the weight percentage (wt%) of PEG. These results suggest that such a dual responsive magnetic gel beads can be used as a potential system in the nano drug delivery applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1039-1050, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Beaded channels, consisting of deepened and widened pools and connecting narrow runs, are common fluvial forms in permafrost regions. Recent studies have shown that beaded channels are very important for connecting alluvial rivers with headwater lakes allowing fish passage and foraging habitats, as well as regulating river runoff. Beaded channels are known as typical thermokarst landforms; however, there is no evidence of their origin and formative processes. Geomorphological analyzes of beaded channels have been completed in several permafrost regions including field observations of Shestakovka River in Central Yakutia. The study aims to recognize the modern exogenic processes and formative mechanisms of beaded river channels. We show that beaded channel of Shestakovka River form in the perennially frozen sand with low ice content, leading us to hypothesize that thermokarst is not the main process of formation. Due to the significant volume of water, the pools don't freeze over entirely during winters, even under harsh climatic conditions. As a result, lenses of pressurized water remain under surface ice underlain by perennially thawed sediments. The presence of thawed sediments under the pools and frozen sediments under the runs leads to uneven thermoerosion of the riverbed during floods, providing the beaded form of the channel. In addition, freezing of pools during winter leads to pressure increasing under ice cover and formation of ice mounds, which crack several times during winter leading to disturbance of riverbanks. Many 1st to 3rd order streams have a specific transitional meandering-to-beaded form resembling the shape of unconfined meandering rivers, but consisting of pools and runs. However, such channels exhibit no evidences of present-day erosion of concave banks and sediment accumulation at the convex banks as typically being observed in normally meandering rivers. Such forms of channels indicates that their formation occurred by the greater channel

  15. Synthesis and characterization of monosize magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evrim Banu Alt1nta(s); Lokman Uzun; Adil Denizli

    2007-01-01

    Monosize, 1.6 μm, magnetic beads of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) [M-poly(GMA)], were prepared by dispersion polymerization in the presence of Fe3O4 nano-powder. Monosize M-poly(GMA) beads were characterized by swelling tests, density measurements, electron spin resonance (ESR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristic functional groups of M-poly(GMA)beads were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The M-poly(GMA) beads are highly uniform in size and have a spherical shape and non-porous structure. Polydispersity index (PDI) of M-poly(GMA) beads was calculated to be around 1.008. The hydrated density of the M-poly(GMA) beads measured at 25 ℃ was 1.14 g/cm3. The content of oxirane groups on the surface of the M-poly(GMA) sample was found to be 3.46 mmol/g by using perchloric acid titration. The specific surface area of the M-poly(GMA) beads was determined to be 3.2 m2/g.The equilibrium swelling ratio was 52%. The volume fraction of magnetite nanopowder in the M-poly(GMA) beads was found to be 4.5%. The g factor, that can be considered as a quantity characteristic of the molecules in which the unpaired electrons are located, was found to be 2.28for M-poly(GMA). The external magnetic field at resonance was calculated to be 2055 Gs which was found sufficient to excite all of the dipole moments present in 1.0 g of M-poly(GMA) sample.

  16. Development and validation of predictive simulation model of multi-layer repair welding process by temper bead technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Shigetaka; Miyasaka, Fumikazu; Mochizuki, Masahito; Tanaka, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has recently been observed in the nickel base alloy weld metal of dissimilar pipe joint used in pressurized water reactor (PWR) . Temper bead technique has been developed as one of repair procedures against SCC applicable in case that post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is difficult to carry out. In this regard, however it is essential to pass the property and performance qualification test to confirm the effect of tempering on the mechanical properties at repair welds before temper bead technique is actually used in practice. Thus the appropriate welding procedure conditions in temper bead technique are determined on the basis of the property and performance qualification testing. It is necessary for certifying the structural soundness and reliability at repair welds but takes a lot of work and time in the present circumstances. Therefore it is desirable to establish the reasonable alternatives for qualifying the property and performance at repair welds. In this study, mathematical modeling and numerical simulation procedures were developed for predicting weld bead configuration and temperature distribution during multi-layer repair welding process by temper bead technique. In the developed simulation technique, characteristics of heat source in temper bead welding are calculated from weld heat input conditions through the arc plasma simulation and then weld bead configuration and temperature distribution during temper bead welding are calculated from characteristics of heat source obtained through the coupling analysis between bead surface shape and thermal conduction. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results under the same welding heat input conditions. As the results, the bead surface shape and temperature distribution, such as A cl lines, were in good agreement between simulation and experimental results. It was concluded that the developed simulation technique has the potential to become useful for

  17. Removal of Uranium from Aqueous Solution by Alginate Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of uranium (VI by calcium alginate beads was examined by batch experiments. The effects of environmental conditions on U (VI adsorption were studied, including contact time, pH, initial concentration of U (VI, and temperature. The alginate beads were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that hydroxyl and alkoxy groups are present at the surface of the beads. The experimental results showed that the adsorption of U (VI by alginate beads was strongly dependent on pH, the adsorption increased at pH 3∼7, then decreased at pH 7∼9. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 2 minutes. The adsorption kinetics of U (VI onto alginate beads can be described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 237.15 mg/g. The sorption process is spontaneous and has an exothermic reaction.

  18. Removal of uranium from aqueous solution by aliginate beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jing; Wang, Jian Long [Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Jiang, Yizhou [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xian (China)

    2017-04-15

    The adsorption of uranium (VI) by calcium alginate beads was examined by batch experiments. The effects of environmental conditions on U (VI) adsorption were studied, including contact time, pH, initial concentration of U (VI), and temperature. The alginate beads were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that hydroxyl and alkoxy groups are present at the surface of the beads. The experimental results showed that the adsorption of U (VI) by alginate beads was strongly dependent on pH, the adsorption increased at pH 3∼7, then decreased at pH 7∼9. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 2 minutes. The adsorption kinetics of U (VI) onto alginate beads can be described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 237.15 mg/g. The sorption process is spontaneous and has an exothermic reaction.

  19. Bead Injection Extraction Chromatography using High-capacity Lab-on-Valve as a Front End to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Urine Radiobioassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-01-01

    A novel bead injection (BI) extraction chromatographic microflow system exploiting high-capacity lab-on-valve (LOV) platform coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection is developed for rapid and automated determination of plutonium in human urine. A microconduit (1 m......L) incorporated within the LOV processing unit is loaded on-line with a metered amount of disposable extraction chromatographic resin (up to 330 mg of TEVA) through programmable beads transport. Selective capture and purification of plutonium onto the resin beads is then performed by pressure driven flow after...

  20. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation vs. concentration of 40nm magnetic beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present on-chip Brownian relaxation measurements on a logarithmic dilution series of 40 nm beads dispersed in water with bead concentrations between 16 mu g/ml and 4000 mu g/ml. The measurements are performed using a planar Hall effect bridge sensor at frequencies up to 1 MHz. No external fields...... are needed as the beads are magnetized by the field generated by the applied sensor bias current. We show that the Brownian relaxation frequency can be extracted from fitting the Cole-Cole model to measurements for bead concentrations of 64 mu g/ml or higher and that the measured dynamic magnetic response...... is proportional to the bead concentration. For bead concentrations higher than or equal to 500 mu g/ml, we extract a hydrodynamic diameter of 47(1) nm for the beads, which is close to the nominal bead size of 40 nm. Furthermore, we study the signal vs. bead concentration at a fixed frequency close to the Brownian...

  1. Oxytetracycline removal from water by novel microbial embedding gel beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Pan, Peng; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Wei; Xu, Chenshan; Zhang, Zongpeng; Liu, Xinyuan; Wang, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    As a common antibiotic in aquatic environment, excessive oxytetracycline (OTC) is urgent to be removed due to its great biological toxicity. Compared with the traditional activated sludge, microbial embedding can enhance the treating efficiency. In this study, novel microbial embedding gel beads were produced with the additional agent of cyclodextrin (CD). Results show that CD could increase the mass transfer of OTC into gel beads, possibly because of its strong affinity for organic matters. In terms of OTC biodegradation, gel beads with CD were comparable to gel beads without CD, while the former’s sucrose removal efficiency was higher than the latter. The biodegradation of OTC only occurred in the presence of sucrose. The respiration test also confirmed these findings. Overall, the produced novel gel beads modified with CD could improve the removal performance of OTC.

  2. A novel automated device for rapid nucleic acid extraction utilizing a zigzag motion of magnetic silica beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Uehara, Masayuki; Honda, Takayuki; Saito, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel automated device for nucleic acid extraction, which consists of a mechanical control system and a disposable cassette. The cassette is composed of a bottle, a capillary tube, and a chamber. After sample injection in the bottle, the sample is lysed, and nucleic acids are adsorbed on the surface of magnetic silica beads. These magnetic beads are transported and are vibrated through the washing reagents in the capillary tube under the control of the mechanical control system, and thus, the nucleic acid is purified without centrifugation. The purified nucleic acid is automatically extracted in 3 min for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleic acid extraction is dependent on the transport speed and the vibration frequency of the magnetic beads, and optimizing these two parameters provided better PCR efficiency than the conventional manual procedure. There was no difference between the detection limits of our novel device and that of the conventional manual procedure. We have already developed the droplet-PCR machine, which can amplify and detect specific nucleic acids rapidly and automatically. Connecting the droplet-PCR machine to our novel automated extraction device enables PCR analysis within 15 min, and this system can be made available as a point-of-care testing in clinics as well as general hospitals. - Highlights: • Automatic nucleic acid extraction is performed in 3 min. • Zigzag motion of magnetic silica beads yields rapid and efficient extraction. • The present our device provides better performance than the conventional procedure.

  3. Use of antibiotic beads to salvage infected breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Rami D; Ingargiola, Michael; Sanati-Mehrizy, Paymon; Torina, Philip J; Harmaty, Marco A

    2017-10-01

    When an implant becomes infected, implant salvage is often performed where the implant is removed, capsulectomy is performed, and a new implant is inserted. The patient is discharged with a PICC line and 6-8 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotics. This method has variable success and subjects the patient to long-term systemic antibiotics. In the 1960s, the use of antibiotic-impregnated beads for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis was described. These beads deliver antibiotic directly to the site of the infection, thereby eliminating the complications of systemic IV antibiotics. This study aimed to present a case series illustrating the use of STIMULAN calcium sulfate beads loaded with vancomycin and tobramycin to increase the rate of salvage of the infected implant and forgo IV antibiotics. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who were treated at Mount Sinai Hospital for implant infection with salvage and antibiotic beads. Twelve patients were identified, 10 of whom had breast cancer. Comorbidities included hypertension, smoking, and immunocompromised status. Infections were noted anywhere from 5 days to 8 years postoperatively. Salvage was successful in 9 out of the 12 infected implants using antibiotic bead therapy without home IV antibiotics. The use of antibiotic beads is promising for salvaging infected breast implants without IV antibiotics. Seventy-five percent of the implants were successfully salvaged. Of the three patients who had unsalvageable implants, one was infected with antibiotic-resistant Rhodococcus that was refractory to bead therapy and one was noncompliant with postoperative instructions. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimony sorption properties of chitosan - nano TiO2 composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2015-01-01

    Routine decontamination campaigns of nuclear reactors are generally effective in removing various radionuclides such as cobalt, caesium, etc., and bring down the radiation field. However, during some of the decontamination campaigns, the radiation field at some surfaces was seen to have actually gone up. This was found to be due to lack of removal of antimony isotopes by the regular ion exchange resins used, which subsequently deposited over out of core surfaces leading to increased radiation field on those surfaces. Thus there exists a need for efficient antimony removal system. We have synthesised nano titania impregnated - epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan beads, which were found to have high sorption capacity for antimony. The beads, which were synthesised in formats suitable for large scale (column mode) applications, were shown to be effective sorbent of antimony in both +3 and +5 oxidation states. The sorbent exhibited complete removal of antimony from its aqueous solutions of concentration ranging from 150 ppb to 120 ppm. In order to understand the sorption mechanism and to fine tune the bead composition, the effect of crosslinker concentration used during the synthesis on the swelling and sorption properties of the beads was investigated in detail. The variation effected significant changes in physical parameters such as bead diameter, swelling ratio, equilibrium water content and true wet density. Sorption capacity, unlike with regular resins, was found to increase with increase in crosslinker amount. The antimony sorption capacity of the crosslinked beads prepared by crosslinking 0.3 g uncrosslinked beads with 6.4 mmol epichlorohydrin (crosslinker) was 493 μmol/g. Non-crosslinked beads showed a capacity of 75 μmol/g, while the crosslinked beads made with the least amount of crosslinker (0.64 mmol per 0.3 g beads) showed a capacity of 133 μmol/g. These results indicate the possible involvement of the crosslinker in the sorption. (author)

  5. SparseBeads data: benchmarking sparsity-regularized computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Coban, Sophia B.; Lionheart, William R. B.

    2017-01-01

    -regularized reconstruction. A collection of 48 x-ray CT datasets called SparseBeads was designed for benchmarking SR reconstruction algorithms. Beadpacks comprising glass beads of five different sizes as well as mixtures were scanned in a micro-CT scanner to provide structured datasets with variable image sparsity levels...

  6. Evaluation of a Bead-Free Coimmunoprecipitation Technique for Identification of Virus-Host Protein Interactions Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Bereman, Michael S; Mahoney, Jaclyn; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Gray, Stewart M; MacCoss, Michael J; Cilia Heck, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    Protein interactions between virus and host are essential for viral propagation and movement, as viruses lack most of the proteins required to thrive on their own. Precision methods aimed at disrupting virus-host interactions represent new approaches to disease management but require in-depth knowledge of the identity and binding specificity of host proteins within these interaction networks. Protein coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) provides a high-throughput way to characterize virus-host interactomes in a single experiment. Common co-IP methods use antibodies immobilized on agarose or magnetic beads to isolate virus-host complexes in solutions of host tissue homogenate. Although these workflows are well established, they can be fairly laborious and expensive. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of using antibody-coated microtiter plates coupled with MS analysis as an easy, less expensive way to identify host proteins that interact with Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), an insect-borne RNA virus that infects potatoes. With the use of the bead-free platform, we were able to detect 36 plant and 1 nonstructural viral protein significantly coimmunoprecipitating with PLRV. Two of these proteins, a 14-3-3 signal transduction protein and malate dehydrogenase 2 (mMDH2), were detected as having a weakened or lost association with a structural mutant of the virus, demonstrating that the bead-free method is sensitive enough to detect quantitative differences that can be used to pin-point domains of interaction. Collectively, our analysis shows that the bead-free platform is a low-cost alternative that can be used by core facilities and other investigators to identify plant and viral proteins interacting with virions and/or the viral structural proteins.

  7. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  8. PCR-free quantitative detection of genetically modified organism from raw materials. An electrochemiluminescence-based bio bar code method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Debin; Tang, Yabing; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R

    2008-05-15

    A bio bar code assay based on oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) provides a PCR-free method for quantitative detection of nucleic acid targets. However, the current bio bar code assay requires lengthy experimental procedures including the preparation and release of bar code DNA probes from the target-nanoparticle complex and immobilization and hybridization of the probes for quantification. Herein, we report a novel PCR-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based bio bar code assay for the quantitative detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) from raw materials. It consists of tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled bar code DNA, nucleic acid hybridization using Au-NPs and biotin-labeled probes, and selective capture of the hybridization complex by streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads. The detection of target DNA is realized by direct measurement of ECL emission of TBR. It can quantitatively detect target nucleic acids with high speed and sensitivity. This method can be used to quantitatively detect GMO fragments from real GMO products.

  9. Detection of Nosema bombycis by FTA cards and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Shen, Zhongyuan; Tang, Xudong; Xu, Li; Li, Qianlong; Yue, Yajie; Xiao, Shengyan; Fu, Xuliang

    2014-10-01

    We successfully established a detection method which exhibited a markedly higher sensitivity than previously developed detection methods for Nosema bombycis by combining glass beads, FTA card, and LAMP. Spores of N. bombycis were first broken by acid-washed glass beads; the DNA was subsequently extracted and purified with the FTA card, and LAMP was performed using primers (LSU296) designed based on the sequence of the LSU rRNA of N. bombycis. The minimum detection concentration was 10 spores/mL. When this method was used to detect pebrine disease in silkworm egg, the detection rate for 500 silkworm eggs, in which only one egg was infected with N. bombycis, was 100 % under our optimized conditions. If the number of eggs in the sample increased to 800 or 1,000, the sample was divided into two equal portions, and the eggs were smashed with glass beads after the addition of 1 mL of TE buffer. The liquid in two tubes was later mixed and applied to the FTA card, and the detection rates were 100 %. Furthermore, the LAMP method established in our study could detect N. bombycis infection in silkworm 24 h earlier than microscopy.

  10. l-Arginine grafted alginate hydrogel beads: A novel pH-sensitive system for specific protein delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Mohy Eldin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel pH-sensitive hydrogels based on l-arginine grafted alginate (Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads were synthesized and utilized as a new carrier for protein delivery (BSA in specific pH media. l-arginine was grafted onto the polysaccharide backbone of virgin alginate via amine functions. Evidences of grafting of alginate were extracted from FT-IR and thermal analysis, while the morphological structure of Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads was investigated by SEM photographs. Factors affecting on the grafting process e.g. l-arginine concentration, reaction time, reaction temperature, reaction pH, and crosslinking conditions, have been studied. Whereas, grafting efficiency of each factor was evaluated. Grafting of alginate has improved both thermal and morphological properties of Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads. The swelling behavior of Arg-g-Alg beads was determined as a function of pH and compared with virgin calcium alginate beads. The cumulative in vitro release profiles of BSA loaded beads were studied at different pHs for simulating the physiological environments of the gastrointestinal tract. The amount of BSA released from neat alginate beads at pH 2 was almost 15% after 5 h, while the Arg-g-Alg beads at the same conditions were clearly higher than 45%, then it increased to 90% at pH 7.2. Accordingly, grafting of alginate has improved its release profile behavior particularly in acidic media. The preliminary results clearly suggested that the Arg-g-Alg hydrogel may be a potential candidate for polymeric carrier for oral delivery of protein or drugs.

  11. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and Plastic...

  12. Development of bead-type radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeter applicable to various purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, F.; Toyota, Y.; Maki, D.; Zushi, N.; Kato, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Iida, T.

    2013-01-01

    Bead-type radiophotoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters were well fabricated with a gas-particle jet flame system for glass melting-cooling process. A rod of silver-activated phosphate glass was pulverized into micrometer-size particles. Spherical glass particles were formed from the pulverized glass particles in the high-temperature jet flame owing to the surface tension of the glass material. Some groups of spherical glass particles were irradiated with X-rays and their RPL was demonstrably observed for their exposure to UV light. A flexible RPL glass sheet was also made of bead-type RPL glass dosimeters and was useful for radiation imaging. Bead-type RPL glass dosimeters are expected to be used for dose monitoring in highly radioactively-contaminated area. -- Highlights: ► We developed bead-type radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeters. ► Bead-type glass RPL dosimeters are satisfactorily used as radiation dosimeters. ► A flexible RPL glass sheet is made of bead-type RPL glass dosimeters

  13. On the occurrence of ‘bead lightning’ phenomena in long laboratory sparks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayanganie, S.P.A., E-mail: amilavayanganie@gmail.com [Atmospheric Physics and Lightning Research Group, University of Colombo, Colombo 03 (Sri Lanka); Cooray, V.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Hettiarachchi, Pasan; Diaz, Oscar [Lightning Research Group, The Ångström Laboratory Division of Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Fernando, M. [Atmospheric Physics and Lightning Research Group, University of Colombo, Colombo 03 (Sri Lanka)

    2016-02-22

    The formation of bead lightning, where the lightning channel appears to break up into luminous fragments, is still an object of speculation. Here we report similar observations in laboratory discharges. Analysis of time resolved photographs shows that the discharge channel exhibits a ‘bead pattern’ in the decaying stage of the discharge and the occurrence of loops in the channel sections where the bead pattern is observed. This result presents the first evidence that the rapid cooling of non-uniform channel sections could lead to the formation of beads. It is suggested that periodically occurring non-uniform channel sections could explain the bead pattern of lightning discharges. - Highlights: • For the first time, the occurrence of bead patterns in the channel of laboratory sparks was reported. • Depending on the geometry some regions of the channel decays faster than the other sections. • A possible mechanism for the occurrence of beads in decaying states of lightning flashes is proposed.

  14. Arsenic and fluoride removal from contaminated drinking water with Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Debra H; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar; Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Sen Gupta, Arup K

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the study was to carry-out batch tests to examine the effectiveness of Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads in the removal of As(III), As(V) and F - from groundwater with a similar geochemistry to a site where a community-based drinking water plant has been installed in West Bengal, India. The groundwater was spiked separately with ∼200 μg/L As(III) and As(V) and 5 mg/L F - . Haix-Zr resin beads were more effective than Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads in removing As(III) and As(V). Haix-Zr resin beads showed higher removal of As(V) compared to As(III). Haix-Zr resin beads removed As(V) below the WHO (10 μg/L) drinking water standards at 8.79 μg/L after 4 h of shaking, while As(III) was reduced to 7.72 μg/L after 8 h of shaking. Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads were more effective in removing F - from the spiked groundwater compared to Haix-Zr resin beads. Concentrations of F - decreased from 6.27 mg/L to 1.26 mg/L, which is below the WHO drinking water standards (1.5 mg/L) for F - , after 15 min of shaking with Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads. After 20 min of shaking in groundwater treated with Haix-Zr resin beads, F - concentrations decreased from 6.27 mg/L to 1.43 mg/L. In the removal of As(III), As(V), and F - from the groundwater, Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads fit the parabolic diffusion equation (PDE) suggesting that adsorption of these contaminants was consistent with inter-particle diffusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Zhu, Yun; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2015-10-13

    We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based microarrays/biochips, such as antibody/protein microarrays, bead/suspension arrays, capillary/sensor arrays, DNA microarrays/polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based arrays, glycan/lectin arrays, immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based arrays, microfluidic chips and tissue arrays, have been developed and used for the assessment of allergy/poisoning/toxicity, contamination and efficacy/mechanism, and quality control/safety. DNA microarray assays have been used widely for food safety and quality as well as searches for active components. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling may be useful for such purposes due to its advantages in the evaluation of pathway-based intracellular signaling in response to food materials.

  16. Fluorescence-Based Bioassays for the Detection and Evaluation of Food Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nishi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based microarrays/biochips, such as antibody/protein microarrays, bead/suspension arrays, capillary/sensor arrays, DNA microarrays/polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based arrays, glycan/lectin arrays, immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-based arrays, microfluidic chips and tissue arrays, have been developed and used for the assessment of allergy/poisoning/toxicity, contamination and efficacy/mechanism, and quality control/safety. DNA microarray assays have been used widely for food safety and quality as well as searches for active components. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling may be useful for such purposes due to its advantages in the evaluation of pathway-based intracellular signaling in response to food materials.

  17. Beads task vs. box task: The specificity of the jumping to conclusions bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzan, Ryan P; Ephraums, Rachel; Delfabbro, Paul; Andreou, Christina

    2017-09-01

    Previous research involving the probabilistic reasoning 'beads task' has consistently demonstrated a jumping-to-conclusions (JTC) bias, where individuals with delusions make decisions based on limited evidence. However, recent studies have suggested that miscomprehension may be confounding the beads task. The current study aimed to test the conventional beads task against a conceptually simpler probabilistic reasoning "box task" METHODS: One hundred non-clinical participants completed both the beads task and the box task, and the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI) to assess for delusion-proneness. The number of 'draws to decision' was assessed for both tasks. Additionally, the total amount of on-screen evidence was manipulated for the box task, and two new box task measures were assessed (i.e., 'proportion of evidence requested' and 'deviation from optimal solution'). Despite being conceptually similar, the two tasks did not correlate, and participants requested significantly less information on the beads task relative to the box task. High-delusion-prone participants did not demonstrate hastier decisions on either task; in fact, for box task, this group was observed to be significantly more conservative than low-delusion-prone group. Neither task was incentivized; results need replication with a clinical sample. Participants, and particularly those identified as high-delusion-prone, displayed a more conservative style of responding on the novel box task, relative to the beads task. The two tasks, whilst conceptually similar, appear to be tapping different cognitive processes. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the JTC bias and the theoretical mechanisms thought to underlie it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic tweezers with high permeability electromagnets for fast actuation of magnetic beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, La; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Bioelectronics (ICS-8/PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    As a powerful and versatile scientific instrument, magnetic tweezers have been widely used in biophysical research areas, such as mechanical cell properties and single molecule manipulation. If one wants to steer bead position, the nonlinearity of magnetic properties and the strong position dependence of the magnetic field in most magnetic tweezers lead to quite a challenge in their control. In this article, we report multi-pole electromagnetic tweezers with high permeability cores yielding high force output, good maneuverability, and flexible design. For modeling, we adopted a piece-wise linear dependence of magnetization on field to characterize the magnetic beads. We implemented a bi-linear interpolation of magnetic field in the work space, based on a lookup table obtained from finite element simulation. The electronics and software were custom-made to achieve high performance. In addition, the effects of dimension and defect on structure of magnetic tips also were inspected. In a workspace with size of 0.1 × 0.1 mm{sup 2}, a force of up to 400 pN can be applied on a 2.8 μm superparamagnetic bead in any direction within the plane. Because the magnetic particle is always pulled towards a tip, the pulling forces from the pole tips have to be well balanced in order to achieve control of the particle’s position. Active video tracking based feedback control is implemented, which is able to work at a speed of up to 1 kHz, yielding good maneuverability of the magnetic beads.

  19. Chitosan and chemically modified chitosan beads for acid dyes sorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AZLAN Kamari; WAN SAIME Wan Ngah; LAI KEN Liew

    2009-01-01

    The capabilities of chitosan and chitosan-EGDE (ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) beads for removing Acid Red 37 (AR 37) and Acid Blue 25 (AB 25) from aqueous solution were examined. Chitosan beads were cross-linked with EGDE to enhance its chemical resistance and mechanical strength. Experiments were performed as a function of pH, agitation period and concentration of AR 37 and AB 25. It was shown that the adsorption capacities of chitosan were comparatively higher than chitosan-EGDE for both acid dyes. This is mainly because cross-linking using EGDE reduces the major adsorption sites -NH3+ on chitosan. Langmuir isotherm model showed best conformity compared to Freundlich and BET. The kinetic experimental data agreed very well to the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The desorption study revealed that after three cycles of adsorption and desorption by NaOH and HCl, both adsorbents retained their promising adsorption abilities. FT-IR analysis proved that the adsorption of acid dyes onto chitosan-based adsorbents was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that chitosan and chitosan-EGDE beads were favourable adsorbers and could be employed as low-cost alternatives for the removal of acid dyes in wastewater treatment.

  20. Development of polymer-extractant composite beads for separation of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manmohan; Singh, Krishankant; Bajaj, P.N.

    2009-01-01

    A novel micro porous polymer-extractant composite bead system, containing liquid extractant encapsulated in the core of a polymeric shell, with required porosity and hydrophilicity, to allow exchange of radionuclides without, any significant leaching out of the encapsulated extractant, has been developed for solid-liquid extraction of radionuclides from acidic waste solutions. The reuse of the beads is possible as there is practically no change in its radionuclide extraction efficiency, after repeated extraction second time. The high porosity and hydrophilicity of the synthesized TBP-encapsulated polymeric beads is evident from the presence of ∼ 78% water in the swollen condition. Evaluation of the synthesized beads for extraction of uranium and plutonium from aqueous acidic waste solutions, indicated possibility of their use under the conditions of PUREX process. The aliquate 336-encapsulated polymeric beads showed selective extraction of plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions in the presence of uranium, and back extraction of the loaded plutonium, using dilute nitric acid or ascorbic acid. (author)

  1. Simulation of non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Tachi, K.; Takano, S.; Irisawa, J.

    2002-01-01

    A ferrite sharpener is a non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads, which produces high-voltage, high-dV/dt pulses. We have been examining the characteristics of ferrite sharpeners experimentally, varying various parameters. Also we have made the simulation of the ferrite sharpener and compared the predictions with the experimental results in detail to analyze the characteristics of the sharpener. In this report, calculating the magnetization M of the ferrite bead, we divide the bead into n sections radially instead of adopting M at the average radius in the previous report. (author)

  2. Porous chitosan beads of superior mechanical properties for the covalent immobilization of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Marwa I

    2017-12-01

    Porous chitosan beads of superior mechanical properties were produced via a two stepped treatment process. First, the chitosan ionotropic gelation solution was supplemented with Na 2 CO 3 , which acted as a porogen. Afterwards, the beads were chemically cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. This treatment also caused the produced porous chitosan beads to acquire higher observed activities of immobilized β-d-galactosidase (β-gal). The observed activities of the β-gal immobilized onto the 0.2M and the 0.35M Na 2 CO 3 treated beads were 1.63 and 1.91 fold respectively, higher than the activity offered by the control beads. Nevertheless, both the control beads and the 0.2M Na 2 CO 3 beads caused the optimum pH range of β-gal to shift from 4.6-5.1 to ∼2.7-5. The enzyme's optimum temperature shifted from 55 to 60°C after its immobilization onto the control chitosan beads whereas the β-gal immobilized onto the 0.2M Na 2 CO 3 chitosan beads exhibited a temperature optimum of 55-60°C. The reusability study revealed the superiority of the 0.2M Na 2 CO 3 treated beads which retained 59.1% of their initial activity during the 13th enzymatic cycle. On the other hand, the control chitosan beads were fragmented and lost their activity after only four enzymatic cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic chitosan/clay beads: A magsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bée, Agnès, E-mail: agnes.bee@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France); Obeid, Layaly, E-mail: lghannoum@hotmail.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France); CertiNergy Solutions, 33 avenue du Maine, BP 195, 75755 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Mbolantenaina, Rakotomalala, E-mail: mbolantenaina@yahoo.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France); Welschbillig, Mathias, E-mail: welschbillig@certinergysolutions.com [CertiNergy Solutions, 33 avenue du Maine, BP 195, 75755 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Talbot, Delphine, E-mail: delphine.talbot@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2017-01-01

    A magnetic composite material composed of magnetic nanoparticles and clay encapsulated in cross-linked chitosan beads was prepared, characterized and used as a magsorbent for the removal of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. The magnetic properties of these beads represent an advantage to recover them at the end of the depollution process. The optimal weight ratio R=clay:chitosan for the removal of MB in a large range of pH was determined. For beads without clay, the maximal adsorption capacity of MB occurs in the pH range [9–12], while for beads with clay, the pH range extends by increasing the amount of clay to reach [3–12] for R>0.5. Adsorption isotherms show that the adsorption capacity of magnetic beads is equal to 82 mg/g. Moreover, the kinetics of dye adsorption is relatively fast since 50% of the dye is removed in the first 13 min for an initial MB concentration equal to 100 mg/L. The estimation of the number of adsorption sites at a given pH shows that the main driving force for adsorption of MB in a large range of pH is the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged dye and the permanent negative charges of clay. - Highlights: • A magsorbent based on magnetic nanoparticles and clay encapsulated in chitosan beads was prepared and characterized. • Clay played significant role for the removal of a cationic dye. • The magnetic beads exhibit a maximum adsorption capacity of 82 mg/g for methylene blue. • The pH range of the maximum adsorption extends from [9–12] to [3–12] by increasing the amount of clay. • The magsorbent could be magnetically removed from solution.

  4. Covalent attachment of the plant natural product naringenin to small glass and ceramic beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grotewold Erich

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural products have numerous medicinal applications and play important roles in the biology of the organisms that accumulate them. Few methods are currently available for identifying proteins that bind to small molecules, therefore the discovery of cellular targets for natural products with pharmacological activity continues to pose a significant challenge in drug validation. Similarly, the identification of enzymes that participate in the biosynthesis or modification of natural products remains a formidable bottleneck for metabolic engineering. Flavonoids are one large group of natural products with a diverse number of functions in plants and in human health. The coupling of flavonoids to small ceramic and glass beads provides a first step in the development of high-throughput, solid-support base approaches to screen complex libraries to identify proteins that bind natural products. Results The utilization of small glass and ceramic beads as solid supports for the coupling of small molecules was explored. Initial characterization of the beads indicated uniform and high capacity loading of amino groups. Once the beads were deemed adequate for the linking of small molecules by the coupling of NHS-fluorescein followed by microscopy, chemical hydrolysis and fluorometry, the flavonoid naringenin was modified with 1,4-dibromobutane, followed by the attachment of aminopropyltriethoxysilane. After NMR structural confirmation, the resulting 7-(4-(3-(triethoxysilylpropylaminobutoxy naringenin was attached to the ceramic beads. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ceramic and glass beads provide convenient solid supports for the efficient and facile coupling of small molecules. We succeeded in generating naringenin-coupled ceramic and glass beads. We also developed a convenient series of steps that can be applied for the solid-support coupling of other related flavonoids. The availability of solid-support coupled naringenin opens

  5. Electrochemical DNA sandwich assay with a lipase label for attomole detection of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferapontova, Elena; Hansen, Majken Nørgaard; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    2010-01-01

    A fast and sensitive electrochemical lipase-based sandwich hybridization assay for detection of attomole levels of DNA has been developed. A combination of magnetic beads, used for pre-concentration and bioseparation of the analyte with a lipase catalyst label allowed detection of DNA with a limi...

  6. Single particle detection: Phase control in submicron Hall sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Michele, Lorenzo; Shelly, Connor; Gallop, John; Kazakova, Olga

    2010-01-01

    We present a phase-sensitive ac-dc Hall magnetometry method which allows a clear and reliable separation of real and parasitic magnetic signals of a very small magnitude. High-sensitivity semiconductor-based Hall crosses are generally accepted as a preferential solution for non-invasive detection of superparamagnetic nanobeads used in molecular biology, nanomedicine, and nanochemistry. However, detection of such small beads is often hindered by inductive pick-up and other spurious signals. The present work demonstrates an unambiguous experimental route for detection of small magnetic moments and provides a simple theoretical background for it. The reliability of the method has been tested for a variety of InSb Hall sensors in the range 600 nm-5 μm. Complete characterization of empty devices, involving Hall coefficients and noise measurements, has been performed and detection of a single FePt bead with diameter of 140 nm and magnetic moment of μ≅10 8 μ B has been achieved with a 600 nm-wide sensor.

  7. Suspension polymerization a process for the production of beaded polymer supports and derived ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Suspension polymerization techniques for production of beaded polymers are discussed with special reference to styrene divinylbenzene copolymers. Methods to control particle size and size distribution of final copolymer beads are given. Mechanism of copolymerization and constituents of aqueous and oil phase are discussed. Mechanism of porous structure formation and control of porosity are also discussed. Chemical conversion of base copolymers into ion exchange resins is also discussed. (author) 16 figs

  8. Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rigid bead arrays at low shear: accounting for the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stuart A; Pei, Hongxia

    2009-06-11

    In this work, we examine the viscosity of a dilute suspension of irregularly shaped particles at low shear. A particle is modeled as a rigid array of nonoverlapping beads of variable size and geometry. Starting from a boundary element formalism, approximate account is taken of the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the surface of the individual beads. For a touching dimer of two identical beads, the predicted viscosity is lower than the exact value by 5.2%. The methodology is then applied to several other model systems including tetramers of variable conformation and linear strings of touching beads. An analysis is also carried out of the viscosity and translational diffusion of several dilute amino acids and diglycine in water. It is concluded that continuum hydrodynamic modeling with stick boundary conditions is unable to account for the experimental viscosity and diffusion data simultaneously. A model intermediate between "stick" and "slip" could possibly reconcile theory and experiment.

  9. Piroxicam loaded alginate beads obtained by prilling/microwave tandem technique: morphology and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Rita P; Auriemma, Giulia; d'Amore, Matteo; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Mencherini, Teresa; Del Gaudio, Pasquale

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a tandem technique, based on the combination of prilling and microwave (MW) assisted treatments, to produce biodegradable alginate carriers of piroxicam with different drug controlled release behaviours. Results showed that alginate/piroxicam beads demonstrated high encapsulation efficiency and very narrow dimensional distribution. Beads dried by MW retained shape and size distribution of the hydrated particles while drying rate was strongly increased compared to convective drying processes. Moreover, different MW irradiation regimes promoted interactions between the drug and alginate matrix, affected drug polymorphism as well as inner and surface matrix structure leading to different piroxicam release profiles. High level MW irradiation led to beads with highly porous and swellable matrix able to release piroxicam in few minutes in the intestine while convective drying produced gastro-resistant beads that exhibit sustained piroxicam release (total release in 5.5h) in intestinal environment. On these results the tandem technique prilling/MW irradiation appears to be promising to obtain alginate carrier with tailored NSAIDs release depending on drug characteristics and MW irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PCR-free quantitative detection of genetically modified organism from raw materials – A novel electrochemiluminescence-based bio-barcode method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Debin; Tang, Yabing; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R.

    2018-01-01

    Bio-barcode assay based on oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) provides a PCR-free method for quantitative detection of nucleic acid targets. However, the current bio-barcode assay requires lengthy experimental procedures including the preparation and release of barcode DNA probes from the target-nanoparticle complex, and immobilization and hybridization of the probes for quantification. Herein, we report a novel PCR-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based bio-barcode assay for the quantitative detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) from raw materials. It consists of tris-(2’2’-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labele barcode DNA, nucleic acid hybridization using Au-NPs and biotin-labeled probes, and selective capture of the hybridization complex by streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads. The detection of target DNA is realized by direct measurement of ECL emission of TBR. It can quantitatively detect target nucleic acids with high speed and sensitivity. This method can be used to quantitatively detect GMO fragments from real GMO products. PMID:18386909

  11. pH-Dependent Behavior of Novel Gellan Beads Loaded with Naproxen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmalek, Tomasz; Froelich, Anna; Milanowski, Bartlomiej; Bialas, Magdalena; Hyla, Kinga; Szybowicz, Miroslaw

    2018-01-01

    Oral administration of non-selective COX inhibitors involves the risk of serious side-effects. In the case of naproxen (NPX), the most frequent are those related to malfunctioning of the gastric mucosa. On the other hand, NPX and other NSAIDs are extensively studied in terms of colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention and inhibition, since it has been evidenced that COX-2 corresponds with the risk of the tumor occurrence and growth. Both side-effects in the stomach and possible antitumor activity of NPX justify the attempts to search for novel carriers for NPX with the site specific release in the colon. Thus, the aim of the work was to design, formulate and characterize low-acyl gellan gum (GG) macro beads as potential carriers for the delivery of NPX to the distal parts of the gastrointestinal tract. The beads were obtained by the ionotropic gelation technique. CaCl2 solution was used as a cross-linking medium. After production, the beads were dried and used for further experiments. First, pure NPX and the beads were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and DSC studies. The surface and morphology of the beads were analyzed by SEM. Next, the drug encapsulation efficiency and content in the beads were determined. The swelling and degradation behavior of the beads were evaluated in four simulated gastrointestinal fluids at different pH (1.2; 4.5; 6.8 and 7.4). The NPX in vitro release studies were conducted on USP I apparatus (rotating basket) at pH=7.4 and compared to the commercial enteric tablet. The polymer content of 0.5 % was considered as too low to obtain spherical beads in the dried form. Raman spectra confirmed that NPX did not undergo structural changes during production process. DSC studies showed that thermal decomposition at lower temperatures was observed for formulations with the lowest amount of GG. It turned out that the most important factor which determined the morphology of the beads was the amount of gellan gum in the initial mixture. The beads revealed

  12. PCR-free detection of genetically modified organisms using magnetic capture technology and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhou

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs has attracted much attention recently. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification is a common method used in the identification of GMOs. However, a major disadvantage of PCR is the potential amplification of non-target DNA, causing false-positive identification. Thus, there remains a need for a simple, reliable and ultrasensitive method to identify and quantify GMO in crops. This report is to introduce a magnetic bead-based PCR-free method for rapid detection of GMOs using dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS. The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S promoter commonly used in transgenic products was targeted. CaMV35S target was captured by a biotin-labeled nucleic acid probe and then purified using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads through biotin-streptavidin linkage. The purified target DNA fragment was hybridized with two nucleic acid probes labeled respectively by Rhodamine Green and Cy5 dyes. Finally, FCCS was used to detect and quantify the target DNA fragment through simultaneously detecting the fluorescence emissions from the two dyes. In our study, GMOs in genetically engineered soybeans and tomatoes were detected, using the magnetic bead-based PCR-free FCCS method. A detection limit of 50 pM GMOs target was achieved and PCR-free detection of GMOs from 5 microg genomic DNA with magnetic capture technology was accomplished. Also, the accuracy of GMO determination by the FCCS method is verified by spectrophotometry at 260 nm using PCR amplified target DNA fragment from GM tomato. The new method is rapid and effective as demonstrated in our experiments and can be easily extended to high-throughput and automatic screening format. We believe that the new magnetic bead-assisted FCCS detection technique will be a useful tool for PCR-free GMOs identification and other specific nucleic acids.

  13. An integrated open-cavity system for magnetic bead manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Nimeh, F T; Salem, F M

    2013-02-01

    Superparamagnetic beads are increasingly used in biomedical assays to manipulate, transport, and maneuver biomaterials. We present a low-cost integrated system designed in bulk CMOS to manipulate and separate biomedical magnetic beads. The system consists of 8 × 8 coil-arrays suitable for single bead manipulation, or collaborative multi-bead manipulation, using pseudo-parallel executions. We demonstrate the flexibility of the design in terms of different coil sizes, DC current levels, and layout techniques. In one array module example, the size of a single coil is 30 μm × 30 μm and the full array occupies an area of 248 μm × 248 μm in 0.5 μm CMOS technology. The programmable DC current source supports 8 discrete levels up to 1.5 mA. The total power consumption of the entire module is 9 mW when running at full power.

  14. Digital quantification of gene methylation in stool DNA by emulsion-PCR coupled with hydrogel immobilized bead-array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunlong; Wu, Haiping; Zhou, Qiang; Song, Qinxin; Rui, Jianzhong; Zou, Bingjie; Zhou, Guohua

    2017-06-15

    Aberrations of gene methylation in stool DNA (sDNA) is an effective biomarker for non-invasive colorectal cancer diagnosis. However, it is challenging to accurately quantitate the gene methylation levels in sDNA due to the low abundance and degradation of sDNA. In this study, a digital quantification strategy was proposed by combining emulsion PCR (emPCR) with hydrogel immobilized bead-array. The assay includes following steps: bisulfite conversion of sDNA, pre-amplification by PCR with specific primers containing 5' universal sequences, emPCR of pre-amplicons with beaded primers to achieve single-molecular amplification and identification of hydrogel embedding beads coated with amplicons. The sensitivity and the specificity of the method are high enough to pick up 0.05% methylated targets from unmethylated DNA background. The successful detection of hypermethylated vimentin gene in clinical stool samples suggests that the proposed method should be a potential tool for non-invasive colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nickel-base alloy overlay weld with improved ultrasonic flaw detection by magnetic stirring welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi, Hirano; Kenji, Hirano; Masayuki, Watando; Takahiro, Arakawa; Minoru, Maeda

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in Nickel-base alloy welds containing dendrites owing to the decrease ultrasonic transmissibility they cause. The present paper discusses application of magnetic stirring welding as a means for reducing dendrite growth with consequent improvement in ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were conducted to determine optimal welding conditions. By PT and macro observation subsequent to welding was carried out, optimal operation conditions were clarified. Overlay welding tests and UT clearly indicated ultrasonic beam transmissibility in overlay welds to be improved and detection capacity to be greater through application of magnetic stirring welding. Optimal operation conditions were determined based on examination of temper bead effects in the heat affected zone of low alloy steel by application of magnetic stirring welding to the butt welded joints between low alloy and stainless steel. Hardness in this zone of low alloy steel after the fourth layer was less than 350 HV. (author)

  16. Developement of Spherical Polyurethane Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Maeda; H. Ohmori; H. Gyotoku

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion We established a new method to produce the spherical polyurethane beads which have narrower distribution of particle size. This narrower distribution was achieved by the polyurethane prepolymer which contains ketimine as a blocked chain-extending agent. Firstly, the prepolymer is dispersed into the aqueous solution containing surfactant. Secondaly, water comes into the inside of prepolymer as oil phase. Thirdly, ketimine is hydrolyzed to amine, and amine reacts with prepolymer immediately to be polyurethane.Our spherical polyurethane beads are very suitable for automotive interior parts especially for instrument panel cover sheet producing under the slush molding method, because of good process ability, excellent durability to the sunlight and mechanical properties at low temperature. See Fig. 1 ,Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 (Page 820).

  17. Analysis of platinum content in biodegradable carboplatin-impregnated beads and retrospective assessment of tolerability for intralesional use of the beads in dogs following excision of subcutaneous sarcomas: 29 cases (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Theresa A; Drinkhouse, Macy E; Prey, Joshua D; Miller, Jonathan M; Fettig, Arthur A; Carberry, Carol A; Brenn, Stephen H; Bailey, Dennis B

    2018-02-15

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate platinum content in biodegradable carboplatin-impregnated beads and retrospectively assess tolerability and outcome data for dogs treated by intralesional placement of such beads following surgical excision of subcutaneous sarcomas. DESIGN Evaluation study and retrospective case series. SAMPLE 9 carboplatin-impregnated beads and 29 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Platinum content in 9 carboplatin-impregnated beads from 3 lots was measured by spectrophotometry, and calculated carboplatin content was compared with the labeled content. Medical records were searched to identify dogs with subcutaneous sarcomas for which treatment included placement of carboplatin-impregnated beads between 2011 and 2014. Signalment, tumor characteristics, surgical and histologic data, adverse events, and local recurrences were recorded. Associations between variables of interest and adverse events or local disease-free interval were analyzed. RESULTS In vitro analysis identified a mean ± SD platinum content of 5.38 ± 0.97 mg/bead. Calculated carboplatin content (10.24 ± 1.84 mg/bead) was significantly greater than the labeled amount (4.6 mg/bead). Bead weight and total platinum content differed significantly among lots, but platinum content per bead weight did not. Mild-to-moderate local adverse events were reported for 11 of 29 tumors; all resolved without additional surgery. No dogs had signs of systemic toxicosis. Overall local disease-free rates 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery were 70%, 70%, and 58%, respectively, as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Carboplatin-impregnated beads were well tolerated; however, results of in vitro tests indicated that caution is needed because of manufacturing inconsistencies.

  18. Preparation and swelling properties of pH-sensitive composite hydrogel beads based on chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid)/vermiculite and sodium alginate for diclofenac controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Xie, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2010-04-01

    A series of pH-sensitive composite hydrogel beads, chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid)/vermiculite/sodium alginate (CTS-g-PAA/VMT/SA), was prepared using CTS-g-PAA/VMT composite and SA by Ca(2+) as the crosslinking agent. The structure and morphologies of the developed composite hydrogel beads were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The swelling properties and pH-sensitivity of the beads were investigated. In addition, the drug loading and controlled release behaviors of the beads were also evaluated using diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug in stimulated gastric fluids (pH 2.1) and intestinal fluids (pH 6.8). The results indicate that the composite hydrogel beads showed good pH-sensitivity. The release rate of the drug from the composite hydrogel beads is remarkably slowed down, which indicated that incorporating VMT into the composite hydrogel beads can improve the burst release effect of the drug. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface imprinted beads for the recognition of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Piletsky, Sergey; Turner, Anthony P F; Speghini, Adolfo; Bossi, Alessandra

    2007-04-15

    The synthesis of poly-aminophenylboronic acid (ABPA) imprinted beads for the recognition of the protein human serum albumin (HSA) is reported. In order to create homogeneous recognition sites, covalent immobilisation of the template HSA was exploited. The resulting imprinted beads were selective for HSA. The indirect imprinting factor (IF) calculated from supernatant was 1.6 and the direct IF, evaluated from the protein recovered from the beads, was 1.9. The binding capacity was 1.4 mg/g, which is comparable to commercially available affinity materials. The specificity of the HSA recognition was evaluated with competitive experiments, indicating a molar ratio 4.5/1 of competitor was necessary to displace half of the bound HSA. The recognition and binding of the imprinted beads was also tested with a complex sample, human serum and targeted removal of HSA without a loss of the other protein components was demonstrated. The easy preparation protocol of derivatised beads and a good protein recognition properties make the approach an attractive solution to analytical and bio-analytical problems in the field of biotechnology.

  20. Implementation of molecularly imprinted polymer beads for surface enhanced Raman detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamra, Tripta; Zhou, Tongchang; Montelius, Lars; Schnadt, Joachim; Ye, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have a predesigned molecular recognition capability that can be used to build robust chemical sensors. MIP-based chemical sensors allow label-free detection and are particularly interesting due to their simple operation. In this work we report the use of thiol-terminated MIP microspheres to construct surfaces for detection of a model organic analyte, nicotine, by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The nicotine-imprinted microspheres are synthesized by RAFT precipitation polymerization and converted into thiol-terminated microspheres through aminolysis. The thiol groups on the MIP surface allow the microspheres to be immobilized on a gold-coated substrate. Three different strategies are investigated to achieve surface enhanced Raman scattering in the vicinity of the imprinted sites: (1) direct sputtering of gold nanoparticles, (2) immobilization of gold colloids through the MIP's thiol groups, and (3) trapping of the MIP microspheres in a patterned SERS substrate. For the first time we show that large MIP microspheres can be turned into selective SERS surfaces through the three different approaches of assembly. The MIP-based sensing surfaces are used to detect nicotine to demonstrate the proof of concept. As synthesis and surface functionalization of MIP microspheres and nanoparticles are well established, the methods reported in this work are handy and efficient for constructing label-free chemical sensors, in particular for those based on SERS detection.

  1. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M.; Sanromán, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. ► New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. ► Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2–8). Around 98–100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87–98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  2. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain); Sanroman, M.A., E-mail: sanroman@uvigo.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2-8). Around 98-100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87-98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  3. Comparison of four supports for adsorption of reactive dyes by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-e; HU Yong-you

    2007-01-01

    Four materials, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC), sodium alginate (SA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and chitosan (CTS), were prepared as supports for entrapping fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The adsorption of synthetic dyes, reactive brilliant blue KN-R, and reactive brilliant red K-2BP, by these immobilized gel beads and plain gel beads was evaluated. The adsorption efficiencies of reactive brilliant red K-2BP and reactive brilliant blue KN-R by CTS immobilized beads were 89.1% and 93.5% in 12 h, respectively. The adsorption efficiency by Na-CMC immobilized beads was slightly lower than that of mycelial pellets. But the dye culture mediums were almost completely decolorized in 48 h using the above-mentioned two immobilized beads (exceeding 95%). The adsorption efficiency by SA immobilized beads exceeded 92% in 48 h. PVA-SA immobilized beads showed the lowest adsorption efficiency, which was 79.8% for reactive brilliant red K-2BP and 92.5% for reactive brilliant blue KN-R in 48 h. Comparing the adsorption efficiency by plain gel beads, Na-CMC plain gel beads ranked next to CTS ones. SA and PVA-SA plain gel beads hardly had the ability of adsorbing dyes. Subsequently, the growth of mycelia in Na-CMC and SA immobilized beads were evaluated. The biomass increased continuously in 72 h. The adsorption capacity of reactive brilliant red K-2BP and reactive brilliant blue KN-R by Na-CMC immobilized beads was 78.0 and 86.7 mg/g, respectively. The SEM micrographs show that the surface structure of Na-CMC immobilized bead is loose and finely porous, which facilitates diffusion of the dyes.

  4. Boiling phenomenon and heat transfer in bead-packed porous structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaojie; ZHu Yanlei; Bai Bofeng; Yan Xiao; Xiao Zejun

    2009-01-01

    A visual study on pool boiling behavior and phase distribution was conducted on the porous structures made of staggered glass beads at atmospheric pressure. The bead-packed structure was heated on the bottom. The investigations were carried out respectively at different glass bead diameters which were 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm. The results show that during subcooled boiling, small isolated bubbles are formed on the heated surface and combine into main-bubbles, the dispersion frequency of the main-bubbles is low and the small bubbles scatter in the bead-packed porous structures. At the initial stage of saturated boiling, the bubble growth rate, the volume of main-bubbles and the range of continuous vapor phase increase. The dispersion frequency of main-bubbles increases with the increasing of heat flux. During film boiling, the heated surface is absolutely covered with vapor film and the porous structure is full of liquid. The larger the diameter of beads is, the higher heat flux is needed for the same phenomenon, and the higher maximum value of heat transfer coefficient will be. During the whole saturated boiling, and the heat transfer enhanced firstly and then weakened. Being opposite to that of the diameters of 4 mm and 8 mm, the heat transfer coefficient in the 6 mm-bead-packed porous structure decreases with the increasing of the heat flux. (authors)

  5. Chemical–physical characterisation of Early Iron Age glass beads from Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agua, F.; Conde, J.F.; Kobylińska, U.; Kobyliński, Z.; García-Heras, M.; Villegas, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    Archaeological excavation of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology (Polish Academy of Sciences, PAN) at several Iron Age sites located in West Poland and South Germany has allowed the recovery of an important set of coloured glass beads mostly decorated (6th–4th centuries BC). The present paper summarises the results obtained through the chemical and microstructural characterisation of such beads. The research was carried out by binocular microscope observations, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and visible spectrophotometry. The main objective was to attain information on the production technology and conservation state of these beads. The results indicated that all them were produced with soda lime silicate glass, even though two groups can be separated: (i) beads containing high MgO percentages made from plant ashes as an alkaline source, and (ii) beads containing low MgO percentages made from natron as an alkaline source. As regards decorations, opaque white was obtained from tin oxide, turquoise blue from Cu2+-ions, and opaque yellow from lead antimonate. Additionally, results showed microstructural and microcrystalline differences between some glass beads studied here and other glass beads from Mediterranean areas, dated in the same chronological period. This fact pointed out the valuable role given to these beads by Iron Age communities from Central Europe. (Author)

  6. OBT analysis method using polyethylene beads for limited quantities of animal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Stuart, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products for cases where the amount of water recovered by combustion is limited by sample size or quantity. In the method, the amount of water recovered after combustion is enhanced by adding tritium-free polyethylene beads to the sample prior to combustion in an oxygen bomb. The method reduces process time by allowing the combustion water to be easily collected with a pipette. Sufficient water recovery was achieved using the polyethylene beads method when 2 g of dry animal tissue or animal product were combusted with 2 g of polyethylene beads. Correction factors, which account for the dilution due to the combustion water of the beads, are provided for beef, chicken, pork, fish and clams, as well as egg, milk and cheese. The method was tested by comparing its OBT results with those of the conventional method using animal samples collected on the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. The results determined that the polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used. - Highlights: • Polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products were determined. • The method reduces process time. • The polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used

  7. Determination of diffusion coefficients and diffusion characteristics for chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate in Ca-alginate gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jiyeon; Engler, Cady R; Lee, Seung Jae

    2008-07-01

    Diffusion characteristics of chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) in Ca-alginate gel beads were studied to assist in designing and operating bioreactor systems. Diffusion coefficients for chlorferon and DETP in Ca-alginate gel beads determined at conditions suitable for biodegradation studies were 2.70 x 10(-11) m(2)/s and 4.28 x 10(-11) m(2)/s, respectively. Diffusivities of chlorferon and DETP were influenced by several factors, including viscosity of the bulk solution, agitation speed, and the concentrations of diffusing substrate and immobilized cells. Diffusion coefficients increased with increasing agitation speed, probably due to poor mixing at low speed and some attrition of beads at high speeds. Diffusion coefficients also increased with decreasing substrate concentration. Increased cell concentration in the gel beads caused lower diffusivity. Theoretical models to predict diffusivities as a function of cell weight fraction overestimated the effective diffusivities for both chlorferon and DETP, but linear relations between effective diffusivity and cell weight fraction were derived from experimental data. Calcium-alginate gel beads with radii of 1.65-1.70 mm used in this study were not subject to diffusional limitations: external mass transfer resistances were negligible based on Biot number calculations and effectiveness factors indicated that internal mass transfer resistance was negligible. Therefore, the degradation rates of chlorferon and DETP inside Ca-alginate gel beads were reaction-limited. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Microfluidic Platform for Enzyme-Linked and Magnetic Particle-Based Immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota G. Pijanowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents design and testing of a microfluidic platform for immunoassay. The method is based on sandwiched ELISA, whereby the primary antibody is immobilized on nitrocelluose and, subsequently, magnetic beads are used as a label to detect the analyte. The chip takes approximately 2 h and 15 min to complete the assay. A Hall Effect sensor using 0.35-μm BioMEMS TSMC technology (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Bio-Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems was fabricated to sense the magnetic field from the beads. Furthermore, florescence detection and absorbance measurements from the chip demonstrate successful immunoassay on the chip. In addition, investigation also covers the Hall Effect simulations, mechanical modeling of the bead–protein complex, testing of the microfluidic platform with magnetic beads averaging 10 nm, and measurements with an inductor-based system.

  9. Removal of organic dyes by magnetic alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Vincent; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Cabuil, Valérie; Bee, Agnès

    2008-02-01

    This study deals with the development of a clean and safe process for water pollution remediation. We have synthesized a magnetic adsorbent in order to develop a solid-phase extraction process assisted by a magnetic field. To follow an 'ecoconception' approach, magnetic beads containing magnetic nanoparticles and activated carbon are prepared with a biopolymer extracted from algae, sodium alginate. The use of renewable bioresources of low cost and those disposable in large amount allows the development of a product with a low impact on the environment. The adsorption properties of activated carbon and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles are combined to produce an interesting magnetic composite. Synthesis and characterization of the magnetic beads have been reported. Their adsorption capacity was investigated by measuring the removal of two dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) of different charges from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the beads has been compared with that of non-encapsulated activated carbon. The effects of initial dye concentration, pH and calcium content of the beads have been studied. Adsorption kinetics experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation.

  10. FUZZY REGRESSION MODEL TO PREDICT THE BEAD GEOMETRY IN THE ROBOTIC WELDING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.S. Sung; I.S. Kim; Y. Xue; H.H. Kim; Y.H. Cha

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there has been a rapid development in computer technology, which has in turn led todevelop the fully robotic welding system using artificial intelligence (AI) technology. However, therobotic welding system has not been achieved due to difficulties of the mathematical model andsensor technologies. The possibilities of the fuzzy regression method to predict the bead geometry,such as bead width, bead height, bead penetration and bead area in the robotic GMA (gas metalarc) welding process is presented. The approach, a well-known method to deal with the problemswith a high degree of fuzziness, is used to build the relationship between four process variablesand the four quality characteristics, respectively. Using these models, the proper prediction of theprocess variables for obtaining the optimal bead geometry can be determined.

  11. Universal approach for selective trace metal determinations via sequential injection-bead injection-lab-on-valve using renewable hydrophobic bead surfaces as reagent carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    involves the use of poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) beads containing pendant octadecyl moieties (C18-PS/DVB), which are preimpregnated with a selective organic metal chelating agent prior to the automatic manipulation of the beads in the microbore conduits of the LOV unit. By adapting this approach...

  12. Formation of beads-on-a-string structures during break-up of viscoelastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep P.; Appathurai, Santosh; Harris, Michael T.; Pasquali, Matteo; McKinley, Gareth H.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2010-08-01

    Break-up of viscoelastic filaments is pervasive in both nature and technology. If a filament is formed by placing a drop of saliva between a thumb and forefinger and is stretched, the filament's morphology close to break-up corresponds to beads of several sizes interconnected by slender threads. Although there is general agreement that formation of such beads-on-a-string (BOAS) structures occurs only for viscoelastic fluids, the underlying physics remains unclear and controversial. The physics leading to the formation of BOAS structures is probed by numerical simulation. Computations reveal that viscoelasticity alone does not give rise to a small, satellite bead between two much larger main beads but that inertia is required for its formation. Viscoelasticity, however, enhances the growth of the bead and delays pinch-off, which leads to a relatively long-lived beaded structure. We also show for the first time theoretically that yet smaller, sub-satellite beads can also form as seen in experiments.

  13. Beaded Fiber Mats of PVA Containing Unsaturated Heteropoly Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Cheng YANG; Yan PAN; Jian GONG; Chang Lu SHAO; Shang Bin WEN; Chen SHAO; Lun Yu QU

    2004-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber mats containing unsaturated heteropoly salt was prepared for the first time. IR, X-ray diffraction and SEM photographs characterized the beaded fiber mats.The viscoelasticity and the conductivity of the solution were the key factors that influence the formation of the beaded fiber mats.

  14. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  15. Bead-based immunoassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der F.J.; Bergervoet, J.H.W.; Achterberg, R.P.; Haasnoot, W.

    2014-01-01

    Since the first immunoassay with (radioactive) labeled antibodies in the middle of the 20th century [1], many different formats on various platforms have been developed, using antibodies for capture and/or detection. If antibodies are used to capture compounds, a support, such as the wall of a

  16. The absolute counting of red cell-derived microparticles with red cell bead by flow rate based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantakomol, Duangdao; Imwong, Malika; Soontarawirat, Ingfar; Kotjanya, Duangporn; Khakhai, Chulalak; Ohashi, Jun; Nuchnoi, Pornlada

    2009-05-01

    Activation of red blood cell is associated with the formation of red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs). Analysis of circulating RMPs is becoming more refined and clinically useful. A quantitative Trucount tube method is the conventional method uses for quantitating RMPs. In this study, we validated a quantitative method called "flow rate based assay using red cell bead (FCB)" to measure circulating RMPs in the peripheral blood of healthy subjects. Citrated blood samples collected from 30 cases of healthy subjects were determined the RMPs count by using double labeling of annexin V-FITC and anti-glycophorin A-PE. The absolute RMPs numbers were measured by FCB, and the results were compared with the Trucount or with flow rate based calibration (FR). Statistical correlation and agreement were analyzed using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. There was no significant difference in the absolute number of RMPs quantitated by FCB when compared with those two reference methods including the Trucount tube and FR method. The absolute RMPs count obtained from FCB method was highly correlated with those obtained from Trucount tube (r(2) = 0.98, mean bias 4 cell/microl, limit of agreement [LOA] -20.3 to 28.3 cell/microl), and FR method (r(2) = 1, mean bias 10.3 cell/microl, and LOA -5.5 to 26.2 cell/microl). This study demonstrates that FCB is suitable and more affordable for RMPs quantitation in the clinical samples. This method is a low cost and interchangeable to latex bead-based method for generating the absolute counts in the resource-limited areas. (c) 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  17. Weld Bead Geometry of Ni-Based Alloy Deposited by PTA Process for Pipe Conduction of Shale Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarria-Figueroa, C.; García-Vázquez, F.; Ruiz-Mondragón, J.; Hernández-García, H. M.; González-González, D.; Vargas, A.

    The transportation of shale gas has the problem that the piping used for the extraction does not resist the erosion generated by the amount of solids causing cracks over the surface and it is necessary to extend the life of the pipelines. Plasma transferred arc (PTA) welded coatings are used to improve the surface properties of mechanical parts. Therefore, in this paper is studied the use of Ni-based filler metal as weld bead deposits on A36 steel substrates by PTA. In order to determine the suitable conditions to ensure coating quality on the substrate a design of experiments (DOE) was determined. Welding current, feed rate, and travel speed were used as input parameters and the dilution percentage as the response variable. The composition and properties of hardfacing or overlay deposited are strongly influenced by the dilution obtained. Control of dilution is important, where typically low dilution is desirable. When the dilution is low, the final deposit composition will be closer to that of the filler metal, and the wear and corrosion resistance of the hardfacing will also be maintained. To evaluate the features on the weld beads/substrate interface a microstructural characterization was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and to evaluate the mechanical properties was carried out hardness test.

  18. Peptidome profiling of human serum of uveal melanoma patients based on magnetic bead fractionation and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yu Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To find new biomarkers for uveal melanoma (UM by analyzing the serum peptidome profile. METHODS: Proteomic spectra in patients with UM before and after operation were analyzed and compared with those of healthy controls. Magnetic affinity beads were used to capture serum peptides and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer were used to compile serum peptide profiles. RESULTS: A panel of 49 peptides were differentially expressed between UM patients and controls, of which 33 peptides were of higher intensities in patient group and 16 peptides were of higher intensities in control group. Based on combined use of these potential markers, peptides with mean molecular masses of 1467 and 9289.0 Da provide high sensitivity (83.3%, specificity (100% and accuracy rate (93.0% together to differentiate melanoma patients from healthy controls. At the time point of 6mo postoperatively, the levels of many peptides differentially expressed before surgery showed no more statistical difference between the patients and the control group. Fibrinogen α-chain precursors were identified as potential UM markers. CONCLUSION: We have shown that a convenient and fast proteomic technique, affinity bead separation and MALDI-TOF analysis combined with bioinformatic software, facilitates the identification of novel biomarkers for UM.

  19. Improvement of removal characteristics for uranium by immobilization of diphosil powder into alginate bead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. J.; Kang, I. S.; Lee, Y. H.; Son, J. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical wastes containing small amounts of uranium can not be disposed of them as industrial wastes. Especially for the removal of uranium, In this study, the method of immobilizing Diphosil powder within alginate beads is adopted to make a bead from powdered resin. Sodium alginate bead itself showed a capability to uptake uranium to above 60%, but the value was decreased to below 30% after equilibrium. The rate of uranium adsorption increased with increasing content of Diphosil in sodium alginate bead. Diphosil resin itself showed very fast uptake of uranium from early stages, and then the rates were leveled off. Diphosil bead showed a improved capability to uptake uranium considering Diphosil content in the bead, and a considerable potential for further applications of a continuous process by using a bead form of Diphosil

  20. Synthesis and Characterisation of Biocompatible Polymer-Conjugated Magnetic Beads for Enhancement Stability of Urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğaç, Yasemin Ispirli; Teke, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    We reported natural polymer-conjugated magnetic featured urease systems for removal of urea effectively. The optimum temperature (20-60 °C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70 °C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-250 min), reusability (18 times) and storage stability (24 weeks) were studied for characterisation of the urease-encapsulated biocompatible polymer-conjugated magnetic beads. Also, the surface groups and chemical structure of the magnetic beads were determined by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The all urease-encapsulated magnetic beads protected their stability of 30-45 % relative activity at 70 °C. A significant increase was observed at their pH stability compared with the free urease for both acidic and alkaline medium. Besides this, their repeatability activity were approximately 100 % during 4(th) run. They showed residual activity of 50 % after 16 weeks. The importance of this work is enhancement stability of immobilised urease by biocompatible polymer-conjugated magnetic beads for the industrial application based on removal of urea.

  1. Disintegration of Nannochloropsis sp. cells in an improved turbine bead mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhidong; Huang, Ying; Wang, Yanmin; Wu, Zhiwei

    2017-12-01

    The Nannochloropsis sp. cells in aqueous solution were disintegrated in an improved bead mill with turbine agitator. The disintegration rates of cell samples disrupted under various operating parameters (i.e., circumferential speed, bead size, disintegration time, and cell concentration) were analyzed. An experimental strategy to optimize the parameters affecting the cell disintegration process was proposed. The results show that Nannochloropsis sp. cells can be effectively disintegrated in the turbine stirred bead mill under the optimum condition (i.e., circumferential speed of 2.3m/s, concentration of 15vol.%, disintegration time of 40min and bead size of 0.3-0.4mm). The disintegration mechanism was discussed via the selection and breakage functions from population balance modelling. It is revealed that the impact and compression effects of stirring beads are more effective for the disruption of coarser fraction of cells, and the shear effect dominates the production of finer fractions of disintegrated cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alginate/magnetite hybrid beads for magnetically stimulated release of dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaveeti, Stalin; Cornejo, Daniel R; Petri, Denise Freitas Siqueira

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid beads composed of magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) and alginate (Alg) were synthesized and coded as Alg-MNP. They were incubated in dopamine (DOPA) solution (5 g/L), at pH 7.4 and 8 °C, during 12 h, promoting the DOPA loaded magnetic beads, coded as Alg-MNP/DOPA. The release of DOPA was further evaluated in the absence and the presence of external magnetic field (EMF) of 0.4 T. The products Alg-MNP and Alg-MNP/DOPA were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR), UV spectrophotometry, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analyses and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The magnetic and chemical properties of Alg-MNP beads were not affected by DOPA loading. The incorporation of DOPA into the beads depended on the pH and on the negative charge density. At pH 7.4 38% of DOPA were loaded into Alg-MNP beads, whereas at pH 2 or using neat Alg beads (lower charge density than Alg-MNP) the loading efficiency decreased to one third or less. In the absence of EMF, 24% of the loaded DOPA was released from Alg-MNP at pH 7.4 over a period of 26 h. The released amount increased to 33% under the stimulus of EMF. A model was proposed to explain the loading efficiency of charged drugs, as DOPA, into hybrid beads and the role played by EMF on delivery systems, where drug and matrix are oppositely charged. The results suggest that the alginate combined with magnetite nanoparticles is a promising system for release of DOPA in the presence of EMF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Encapsulated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by alginate gel beads as an in vitro metastasis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Li, Nan; Guo, Xin; Wang, Shu-jun; Sun, Guang-wei; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and often forms metastases, which are the most important prognostic factors. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the progression and metastasis of HCC, a culture system mimicking the in vivo tumor microenvironment is needed. In this study, we investigated the metastatic ability of HCC cells cultured within alginate gel (ALG) beads. In the culture system, HCC cells formed spheroids by proliferation and maintained in nuclear abnormalities. The gene and protein expression of metastasis-related molecules was increased in ALG beads, compared with the traditional adhesion culture. Furthermore, several gene expression levels in ALG bead culture system were even closer to liver cancer tissues. More importantly, in vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion cells derived from ALG beads was 7.8-fold higher than adhesion cells. Our results indicated that the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model based on ALG beads increased metastatic ability compared with adhesion culture, even partly mimicked the in vivo tumor tissues. Moreover, due to the controllable preparation conditions, steady characteristics and production at large-scale, the 3D ALG bead model would become an important tool used in the high-throughput screening of anti-metastasis drugs and the metastatic mechanism research. -- Highlights: •We established a 3D metastasis model mimicking the metastatic ability in vivo. •The invasion ability of cells derived from our model was increased significantly. •The model is easy to reproduce, convenient to handle, and amenable for large-scale

  4. In vivo cleansing efficacy of biodegradable exfoliating beads assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsongsermthon, J; Duangweang, K; Kreepoke, J; Tansirikongkol, A

    2017-11-01

    The plastic microbeads, used in many cleansers, will be banned in cosmetic and personal care products within 2017 since they are non-degradable and can disturb the living organisms in water reservoirs. Various choices of biodegradable beads are commercially available, but their efficacy has not been proven yet. This study aimed to compare the cleansing efficacy in dirt and sebum removal aspects of three types of exfoliating beads. The gel scrubs with polyethylene (PE) beads, mannan beads or wax beads, were formulated and evaluated for their stability. The in vivo evaluation was done in 38 healthy volunteers and the skin irritation, efficacy for dirt and sebum removal were measured by Mexameter ® , Colorimeter ® , and Sebumeter ® , respectively. The selected gel scrubs did not cause an irritation in any volunteers. The differences in dirt residues between before and after scrubbing were not statistically significant among three gel scrubs and the similar result was also reported in the sebum removal study. All gel scrubs demonstrated the comparable cleansing efficacy in term of dirt and sebum removal. Thus, mannan beads and wax beads may be replaced non-biodegradable PE beads to achieve the similar cleansing effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Integration of agglutination assay for protein detection in microfluidic disc using Blu-ray optical pickup unit and optical fluid scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for thrombin detection by combining a magnetic bead based agglutination assay and low-cost microfluidic disc. The detection method is based on an optomagnetic readout system implemented using a Blu-ray optical pickup unit (OPU) as main optoelectronic component. The ass...

  6. Air plasma processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-beads: Surface characterisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chaozong; Cui Naiyi; Osbeck, Susan; Liang He

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PMMA micro-beads were processed using a rotary air plasma reactor. ► Surface chemistry and surface texture of PMMA micro-beads were characterised. ► Surface wettability was evaluated using “floating” water contact angle method. ► Surface oxidation and texture changes induced by air plasma attributed to the improvement of surface wettability. - Abstract: This paper reports the surface processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) micro-beads by using a rotary air plasma reactor, and its effects on surface properties. The surface properties, including surface wettability, surface chemistry and textures of the PMMA beads, were characterised. It was observed that the air plasma processing can improve the surface wettability of the PMMA microbeads significantly. A 15 min plasma processing can reduce the surface water contact angle of PMMA beads to about 50° from its original value of 80.3°. This was accompanied by about 8% increase in surface oxygen concentration as confirmed by XPS analysis. The optical profilometry examination revealed the air plasma processing resulted in a rougher surface that has a “delicate” surface texture. It is concluded that the surface chemistry and texture, induced by air plasma processing, co-contributed to the surface wettability improvement of PMMA micro-beads.

  7. Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Emilio Pinto-Lopera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Associated to the weld quality, the weld bead geometry is one of the most important parameters in welding processes. It is a significant requirement in a welding project, especially in automatic welding systems where a specific width, height, or penetration of weld bead is needed. This paper presents a novel technique for real-time measuring of the width and height of weld beads in gas metal arc welding (GMAW using a single high-speed camera and a long-pass optical filter in a passive vision system. The measuring method is based on digital image processing techniques and the image calibration process is based on projective transformations. The measurement process takes less than 3 milliseconds per image, which allows a transfer rate of more than 300 frames per second. The proposed methodology can be used in any metal transfer mode of a gas metal arc welding process and does not have occlusion problems. The responses of the measurement system, presented here, are in a good agreement with off-line data collected by a common laser-based 3D scanner. Each measurement is compare using a statistical Welch’s t-test of the null hypothesis, which, in any case, does not exceed the threshold of significance level α = 0.01, validating the results and the performance of the proposed vision system.

  8. Dendrimer-based biosensor for chemiluminescent detection of DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Hun, X.; Qing, H.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a highly sensitive chemiluminescent (CL) biosensor for the sequence-specific detection of DNA using a novel bio barcode DNA probe modified with gold nanoparticles that were covered with a dendrimer. The modified probe is composed of gold nanoparticles, a dendrimer, the CL reagent, and the DNA. The capture probe DNA was immobilized on magnetic beads covered with gold. It first hybridizes with the target DNA and then with one terminal end of the signal DNA on the barcoded DNA probe. CL was generated by adding H 2 O 2 and Co(II) ions as the catalyst. The immobilization of dendrimer onto the gold nanoparticles can significantly enhance sensitivity and gives a detection limit of 6 fmol L -1 of target DNA. (author)

  9. Effect of patterned micro-magnets on superparamagnetic beads in microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S S; Deng, Y L; Zhao, L B; Zhao, X-Z; Chan, H L W

    2008-01-01

    The trapping response of patterned micro-magnets (PMMs) was studied based on the parameters affecting superparamagnetic beads in microfluidic channels. Using replica moulding and electroplating technologies, the PMMs were fabricated on the microchannel bottom, which generated sufficient magnetic forces to bias the moments of magnetic particles in a flowing stream. A simplified physical principle was used to analyse the relative velocity of the magnetic particle in the confined space of a microchannel. The results revealed that the magnetic force contributed to the fluidic flow rate as well as to the hydrodynamic drag force. The relative velocity of magnetic particles was dependent on the frequency under an external magnetic field driven by an alternate current (ac) source. It showed that the magnetic gradient induced hysteresis characteristics of the transmission spectrum, associated with the interaction of superparamagnetic beads and magnetic field

  10. Development of an Automated Microfluidic System for DNA Collection, Amplification, and Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Bethany S.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2002-12-01

    This project was focused on developing and testing automated routines for a microfluidic Pathogen Detection System. The basic pathogen detection routine has three primary components; cell concentration, DNA amplification, and detection. In cell concentration, magnetic beads are held in a flow cell by an electromagnet. Sample liquid is passed through the flow cell and bacterial cells attach to the beads. These beads are then released into a small volume of fluid and delivered to the peltier device for cell lysis and DNA amplification. The cells are lysed during initial heating in the peltier device, and the released DNA is amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or strand displacement amplification (SDA). Once amplified, the DNA is then delivered to a laser induced fluorescence detection unit in which the sample is detected. These three components create a flexible platform that can be used for pathogen detection in liquid and sediment samples. Future developments of the system will include on-line DNA detection during DNA amplification and improved capture and release methods for the magnetic beads during cell concentration.

  11. Development and evaluation of alginate-chitosan gastric floating beads loading with oxymatrine solid dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhua; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Chengming; Yang, Jianhong; Hou, Yanhui; Wang, Wenping

    2016-01-01

    Oxymatrine (OM) can be metabolized to matrine in gastrointestinal ileocecal valve after oral administration, which affects pharmacological activity and reduce bioavailability of OM. A type of multiple-unit alginate-chitosan (Alg-Cs) floating beads was prepared by the ionotropic gelation method for gastroretention delivery of OM. A solid dispersion technique was applied and incorporated into beads to enhance the OM encapsulation efficiency (EE) and sustain the drug release. The surface morphology and internal hollow structure of beads were evaluated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The developed Alg-Cs beads were spherical in shape with hollow internal structure and had particle size of 3.49 ± 0.09 mm and 1.33 ± 0.09 mm for wet and dried beads. Over 84% of the optimized OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads were able to continuously float over the simulated gastric fluid for 12 h in vitro. The OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads showed drug EE of 67.07%, which was much higher than that of beads loading with pure OM. Compared with the immediate release of OM capsules and pure OM-loaded beads, the release of OM from solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads was in a sustained-release manner for 12 h. Prolonged gastric retention time of over 8.5 h was achieved for OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs floating beads in healthy rabbit in in vivo floating ability evaluated by X-ray imaging. The developed Alg-Cs beads loading with OM solid dispersion displayed excellent performance features characterized by excellent gastric floating ability, high drug EE and sustained-release pattern. The study illustrated the potential use of Alg-Cs floating beads combined with the solid dispersion technique for prolonging gastric retention and sustaining release of OM, which could provide a promising drug delivery system for gastric-specific delivery of OM for bioavailability enhancement.

  12. Magnetization of large polystyrene peptide beads for capturing and expanding cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, Jan; Lau, D.H.; Song Aimin; Wang Xiaobing; Liu Ruiwu; Lam, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    A method is described for preparation of large magnetic polystyrene beads coupled with peptide ligands for surface receptors of lung cancer cells. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using these magnetic peptide beads for capturing and enriching lung cancer cells spiked into blood. These magnetic peptide beads potentially can be used to efficiently isolate cancer cells from body fluids

  13. Early Diagnosis of Irkut Virus Infection Using Magnetic Bead-Based Serum Peptide Profiling by MALDI-TOF MS in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis is important for the prompt post-exposure prophylaxis of lyssavirus infections. To diagnose Irkut virus (IRKV infection during incubation in mice, a novel method using magnetic bead-based serum peptide profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS has been established. For this test, serum peptides were concentrated by adsorption to and elution from the magnetic bead-based weak cation ion exchanger. Mass spectrograms obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were analyzed using ClinProTools bioinformatics software. Construction of the diagnostic model was performed using serum samples from mice infected with IRKV and rabies virus (RABV BD06, Flury-LEP, and SRV9 (as controls. The method accurately diagnosed sera 2, 4 and 8 days after IRKV and RABV infections. The sensitivity, specificity, and total accuracy of diagnosis were 86.7%, 95.2%, and 92.9%, respectively. However, IRKV could not be differentiated from RABV 1 day after infection. The results of the present study indicate that serum peptide profiling by MALDI-TOF MS is a promising technique for the early clinical diagnosis of lyssavirus infections and needs to be further tested in humans and farm animals.

  14. Low-cost commercial glass beads as dosimeters in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, S.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Gouldstone, C.A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.; Alalawi, A.; Jordan, T.J.; Clark, C.H.; Nisbet, A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size ( 60 Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500 cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1 cGy using the TL system while that for the EPR system was approximately 1000 cGy. The fading rate was found to be 10% 30 days after irradiation with both readout systems. The dose response is linear with measured dose over the dose range 1 to 2500 cGy, with an R 2 correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of a set of dosimeters after a single irradiation was found to be 3% (1 SD). The reproducibility of individual dosimeters was found to be 1.7%. No measurable angular dependence was found (results agreed within 1%). Dose rate response was found to agree within 1% for dose rates of 100 to 600 cGy/min. These results demonstrate the potential use of glass beads as TL dosimeters over the dose range commonly applied in radiotherapy. - Highlights: • We examined the dosimetric properties of a low cost commercially produced glass seed beads. • Glass beads are available in small size of 1–3 mm, suitable for dosimetry of small radiation fields. • The results demonstrate a mean reproducibility of 0.23% (2 SD), batch homogeneity of within 5%. • Dose response was linear over wide dose range tested for 1 cGy to kGy. • Improved fading effect of 10

  15. Development of the rectal dosage form with silver-coated glass beads for local-action applications in lower sections of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siczek, Krzysztof; Fichna, Jakub; Zatorski, Hubert; Karolewicz, Bożena; Klimek, Leszek; Owczarek, Artur

    2018-03-01

    Recent findings indicating the anti-inflammatory action of silver preparations through modulation of the gut microbiota and apoptosis of inflammatory cells predestine silver use in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of our study was to validate the possibility of effective silver release from silver-coated glass beads for anti-inflammatory local application in the lower sections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Silver-coated glass beads were prepared using magnetron method. Release of silver from the silver-coated glass bead surface was carried out in BIO-DIS reciprocating cylinder apparatus. Erosion of silver coating and indirect estimation of the silver release dynamics was assessed using scanning electron microscope. Rectal suppositories containing silver-coated glass beads were prepared using five different methods (M1-M5) and X-ray scanned for their composition. The XR microanalysis and the chemical composition analysis evidenced for a rapid (within 30 min) release of nearly 50% of silver from the coating of the glass beads, which remained stable up to 24 h of incubation. The most homogeneous distribution of beads in the entire volume of the suppository was obtained for formulation M5, where the molten base was poured into mold placed in an ice bath, and the beads were added after 10 s. Our study is the first to present the concept of enclosing silver-coated glass beads in the lipophilic suppository base to attenuate inflammation in the lower GI tract and promises efficient treatment with reduced side effects.

  16. Sensitive electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of one-bead-one-compound peptide libraries labeled by quaternary ammonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąchor, Remigiusz; Cydzik, Marzena; Rudowska, Magdalena; Kluczyk, Alicja; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and straightforward method for high-throughput analysis of single resin beads from one-bead-one-compound combinatorial libraries with high resolution electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS/MS) is presented. The application of an efficient method of peptide derivatization by quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) formation increases ionization efficiency and reduces the detection limit, allowing analysis of trace amounts of compounds by ESI-MS. Peptides, synthesized on solid support, contain a new cleavable linker composed of a Peg spacer (9-aza-3,6,12,15-tetraoxa-10-on-heptadecanoic acid), lysine with ɛ-amino group marked by the N,N,N-triethylglycine salt, and methionine, which makes possible the selective cleavage by cyanogen bromide. Even a small portion of peptides derivatized by QAS cleaved from a single resin bead is sufficient for sequencing by HR ESI-MS/MS experiments. The developed strategy was applied to a small training library of α chymotrypsin substrates. The obtained results confirm the applicability of the proposed method in combinatorial chemistry.

  17. Response rates of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic colorectal cancer metastases to drug eluting bead regional liver therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Glenn W. Stambo; Deborah Cragan

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare how hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal metastases respond to LC Bead chemoembolization using doxorubicin and irinotecan. Methods: The authors report their experience with doxorubicin and irinotecan eluting beads to treat 13 patients with primary HCC and 25 patients with colorectal metastases over a 1-year period at a single community based oncology practice. Within the colorectal cancer group they compared irinotecan eluting beads to doxorubicin eluting beads. Results:Nine of the 11 (81.8%) doxorubicin treated HCC patients had either complete response or partial response. All of the HCC lesions showed reduction in size and tumor enhancement and 10/11 (91%) HCC patients were alive at 24 months post treatment. Fisher's exact test revealed that among the 22 with colorectal metastases for whom follow-up data were available, those 11 who were treated with doxorubicin were significantly more likely to demonstrate complete or partial response compared to the 11 in the irinotecan treated group (P < 0.001). Conclusion:Overall, HCC and colon metastasis patients clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of drug eluting beads with 91% of the HCC patients alive 24 months after treatment.

  18. A simple elution strategy for biotinylated proteins bound to streptavidin conjugated beads using excess biotin and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Joleen S; Yamada, Soichiro

    2017-12-02

    Protein-protein interactions are the molecular basis of cell signaling. Recently, proximity based biotin identification (BioID) has emerged as an alternative approach to traditional co-immunoprecipitation. In this protocol, a mutant biotin ligase promiscuously labels proximal binding partners with biotin, and resulting biotinylated proteins are purified using streptavidin conjugated beads. This approach does not require preservation of protein complexes in vitro, making it an ideal approach to identify transient or weak protein complexes. However, due to the high affinity bond between streptavidin and biotin, elution of biotinylated proteins from streptavidin conjugated beads requires harsh denaturing conditions, which are often incompatible with downstream processing. To effectively release biotinylated proteins bound to streptavidin conjugated beads, we designed a series of experiments to determine optimal binding and elution conditions. Interestingly, the concentrations of SDS and IGEPAL-CA630 during the incubation with streptavidin conjugated beads were the key to effective elution of biotinylated proteins using excess biotin and heating. This protocol provides an alternative method to isolate biotinylated proteins from streptavidin conjugated beads that is suitable for further downstream analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Formulation of Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanopowder into Hybrid Beads for Dye Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shokry Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel prepared zinc oxide nanopowder was immobilized onto alginate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer blend to fabricate novel biocomposite beads. Various physicochemical characterization techniques have been utilized to identify the crystalline, morphological, and chemical structures of both the fabricated zinc oxide hybrid beads and their corresponding zinc oxide nanopowder. The thermal stability investigations demonstrate that ZnO nanopowder stability dramatically decreased with its immobilization into the polymeric alginate and PVA matrix. The formulated beads had very strong mechanical strength and they are difficult to be broken up to 1500 rpm. Moreover, these hybrid beads are chemically stable at the acidic media (pH < 7 especially within the pH range of 2–7. Finally, the applicability of the formulated ZnO hybrid beads for C.I. basic blue 41 (BB41 decolorization from aqueous solution was examined.

  20. Immobilization of catalase on chitosan and amino acid- modified chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, Esra; Aydemir, Tülin

    2013-08-01

    Bovine liver catalase was covalently immobilized onto amino acid-modified chitosan beads. The beads were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA and the effects of immobilization on optimum pH and temperature, thermostability, reusability were evaluated. Immobilized catalase showed the maximal enzyme activity at pH 7.0 at 30°C. The kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, for immobilized catalase on alanine-chitosan beads and lysine-chitosan beads were estimated to be 25.67 mM, 27 mM and 201.39 μmol H2O2/min, 197.50 μmol H2O2/min, respectively. The activity of the immobilized catalase on Ala-CB and Lys-CB retained 40% of its high initial activity after 100 times of reuse.

  1. Distribution and biophysical processes of beaded streams in Arctic permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Heim, Kurt C.

    2015-01-01

    Beaded streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a Circum-Arctic survey of beaded streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with beaded morphology throughout the continuous permafrost zone of northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia and found the highest abundance associated with medium- to high- ground ice content permafrost in moderately sloping terrain. In the Fish Creek watershed, beaded streams accounted for half of the drainage density, occurring primarily as low-order channels initiating from lakes and drained lake basins. Beaded streams predictably transition to alluvial channels with increasing drainage area and decreasing channel slope, although this transition is modified by local controls on water and sediment delivery. Comparison of one beaded channel using repeat photography between 1948 and 2013 indicate a relatively stable landform and 14C dating of basal sediments suggest channel formation may be as early as the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Contemporary processes, such as deep snow accumulation in riparian zones effectively insulates channel ice and allows for perennial liquid water below most beaded stream pools. Because of this, mean annual temperatures in pool beds are greater than 2°C, leading to the development of perennial thaw bulbs or taliks underlying these thermokarst features. In the summer, some pools thermally stratify, which reduces permafrost thaw and maintains coldwater habitats. Snowmelt generated peak-flows decrease rapidly by two or more orders of magnitude to summer low flows with slow reach-scale velocity distributions ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 m/s, yet channel runs still move water rapidly

  2. How capping protein enhances actin filament growth and nucleation on biomimetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruizhe; Carlsson, Anders E

    2015-11-25

    Capping protein (CP), which caps the growing ends of actin filaments, accelerates actin-based motility. Recent experiments on biomimetic beads have shown that CP also enhances the rate of actin filament nucleation. Proposed explanations for these phenomena include (i) the actin funneling hypothesis (AFH), in which the presence of CP increases the free-actin concentration, and (ii) the monomer gating model, in which CP binding to actin filament barbed ends makes more monomers available for filament nucleation. To establish how CP increases the rates of filament elongation and nucleation on biomimetic beads, we perform a quantitative modeling analysis of actin polymerization, using rate equations that include actin filament nucleation, polymerization and capping, as modified by monomer depletion near the surface of the bead. With one adjustable parameter, our simulation results match previously measured time courses of polymerized actin and filament number. The results support a version of the AFH where CP increases the local actin monomer concentration at the bead surface, but leaves the global free-actin concentration nearly constant. Because the rate of filament nucleation increases with the monomer concentration, the increased local monomer concentration enhances actin filament nucleation. We derive a closed-form formula for the characteristic CP concentration where the local free-actin concentration reaches half the bulk value, and find it to be comparable to the global Arp2/3 complex concentration. We also propose an experimental protocol for distinguishing branching nucleation of filaments from spontaneous nucleation.

  3. Effect of Weld Bead Shape on the Fatigue Behavior of GMAW Lap Fillet Joint in GA 590 MPa Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insung Hwang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of weld bead shape on the fatigue strength of lap fillet joints using the gas metal arc welding (GMAW process was investigated. The base material used in the experiment was 590 MPa grade galvanealed steel sheet with 2.3 mm and 2.6 mm thickness. In order to make the four types of weld beads with different shapes by factors such as length, angle, and area, the welding process, wire feeding speed, and joint shape were changed. The stress-number of cycles to failure (S–N curve and fatigue strength were obtained from the fatigue test for four types of weld bead, and the cause of the fatigue strength difference was clarified through the analysis of the geometrical factors, such as length, angle, and area of the weld bead. In addition, the relationship between weld bead shape and fatigue strength was discussed.

  4. Coupling sequential injection on-line preconcentration by means of a renewable microcolumn with ion-exchange beads with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparing the performance of eluting the loaded beads with transporting them directly into the graphite tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2001-01-01

    The design of a flow injection/sequential injection (FIA/SIA) on-line preconcentration system incorporating a renewable microcolumn with ion-exchange beads and interfaced with an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) detector is described, and its practical applicability.......4% for the procedure in which the loaded beads are transported directly to the graphite furnace for pyrolysis and atomization, and even improved in comparison to the traditional unidirectional and bidirectional repetitive elution procedures which under comparable conditions yield R.S.D.-values of 5.8 and 4...

  5. Jllumina - A comprehensive Java-based API for statistical Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 and Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Diogo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring differential methylation of the DNA is the nowadays most common approach to linking epigenetic modifications to diseases (called epigenome-wide association studies, EWAS. For its low cost, its efficiency and easy handling, the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and its successor, the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip, is the by far most popular techniques for conduction EWAS in large patient cohorts. Despite the popularity of this chip technology, raw data processing and statistical analysis of the array data remains far from trivial and still lacks dedicated software libraries enabling high quality and statistically sound downstream analyses. As of yet, only R-based solutions are freely available for low-level processing of the Illumina chip data. However, the lack of alternative libraries poses a hurdle for the development of new bioinformatic tools, in particular when it comes to web services or applications where run time and memory consumption matter, or EWAS data analysis is an integrative part of a bigger framework or data analysis pipeline. We have therefore developed and implemented Jllumina, an open-source Java library for raw data manipulation of Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 and Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip data, supporting the developer with Java functions covering reading and preprocessing the raw data, down to statistical assessment, permutation tests, and identification of differentially methylated loci. Jllumina is fully parallelizable and publicly available at http://dimmer.compbio.sdu.dk/download.html

  6. Concepts for increasing gentamicin release from handmade bone cement beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasyid, Hermawan N; van der Mei, Henny C; Frijlink, Henderik W; Soegijoko, Soegijardjo; Van Horn, Jim R; Busscher, Hendrik; Neut, Daniëlle

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Commercial gentamicin-loaded bone cement beads (Septopal) constitute an effective delivery system for local antibiotic therapy. These beads are not available in all parts of the world, and are too expensive for frequent use in others. Thus, orthopedic surgeons worldwide make

  7. Multiplex assay (Mikrogen recomBead) for detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies to 13 recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with neuroborreliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram Benny; Møller, Jens K.; Kolmos, Birte

    2015-01-01

    A multiplex-bead-based assay for the detection of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was evaluated. The assay contained 13 different antigens in both the IgG and the IgM assay; thus, a total of 26 measurement results were available from each sample. A total of 49 Danish patients......, the construction of a diagnostic score, evaluation of the scoring method using an independent dataset and an assessment of the analytical quality of the multiplex assay. The VlsE IgG had the highest diagnostic value with an AUC (area under the curve) of 96% on the receiver operating characteristic curve. The Osp......C IgM had AUCs just above 80%. All the other antigens had both low quantitative reactivity and lower contrast in the patients with LNB compared to controls. The diagnostic value of the assay may be improved by using a logistic model giving a sensitivity of 90 and 79% for the specificities at 92 and 98...

  8. Highly efficient amplification of chronic wasting disease agent by protein misfolding cyclic amplification with beads (PMCAb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Johnson

    Full Text Available Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA has emerged as an important technique for detecting low levels of pathogenic prion protein in biological samples. The method exploits the ability of the pathogenic prion protein to convert the normal prion protein to a proteinase K-resistant conformation. Inclusion of Teflon® beads in the PMCA reaction (PMCAb has been previously shown to increase the sensitivity and robustness of detection for the 263 K and SSLOW strains of hamster-adapted prions. Here, we demonstrate that PMCAb with saponin dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection for chronic wasting disease (CWD agent without compromising the specificity of the assay (i.e., no false positive results. Addition of Teflon® beads increased the robustness of the PMCA reaction, resulting in a decrease in the variability of PMCA results. Three rounds of serial PMCAb allowed detection of CWD agent from a 6.7 × 10(-13 dilution of 10% brain homogenate (1.3 fg of source brain. Titration of the same brain homogenate in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein (Tg(CerPrP1536(+/- mice allowed detection of CWD agent from the 10(-6 dilution of 10% brain homogenate. PMCAb is, thus, more sensitive than bioassay in transgenic mice by a factor exceeding 10(5. Additionally, we are able to amplify CWD agent from brain tissue and lymph nodes of CWD-positive white-tailed deer having Prnp alleles associated with reduced disease susceptibility.

  9. Highly efficient amplification of chronic wasting disease agent by protein misfolding cyclical amplification with beads (PMCAb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chad J.; Aiken, Judd M.; McKenzie, Debbie; Samuel, Michael D.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) has emerged as an important technique for detecting low levels of pathogenic prion protein in biological samples. The method exploits the ability of the pathogenic prion protein to convert the normal prion protein to a proteinase K-resistant conformation. Inclusion of Teflon® beads in the PMCA reaction (PMCAb) has been previously shown to increase the sensitivity and robustness of detection for the 263 K and SSLOW strains of hamster-adapted prions. Here, we demonstrate that PMCAb with saponin dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection for chronic wasting disease (CWD) agent without compromising the specificity of the assay (i.e., no false positive results). Addition of Teflon® beads increased the robustness of the PMCA reaction, resulting in a decrease in the variability of PMCA results. Three rounds of serial PMCAb allowed detection of CWD agent from a 6.7×10−13 dilution of 10% brain homogenate (1.3 fg of source brain). Titration of the same brain homogenate in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein (Tg(CerPrP)1536+/−mice) allowed detection of CWD agent from the 10−6 dilution of 10% brain homogenate. PMCAb is, thus, more sensitive than bioassay in transgenic mice by a factor exceeding 105. Additionally, we are able to amplify CWD agent from brain tissue and lymph nodes of CWD-positive white-tailed deer having Prnp alleles associated with reduced disease susceptibility.

  10. A planar conducting microstructure to guide and confine magnetic beads to a sensing zone

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2011-08-01

    A novel planar conducting microstructure is proposed to transport and confine magnetic micro/nano beads to a sensing zone. Manipulation and concentration of magnetic beads are achieved by employing square-shaped conducting micro-loops, with a few hundred nano-meters in thickness, arranged in a unique fashion. These microstructures are designed to produce high magnetic field gradients which are directly proportional to the force applied to manipulate the magnetic beads. Furthermore, the size of the microstructures allows greater maneuverability and control of magnetic beads than what could be achieved by permanent magnets. The aim of the microstructures is to guide magnetic beads from a large area and confine them to a smaller area where for example quantification would take place. Experiments were performed with different concentrations of 2 μm diameter magnetic beads. Experimental results showed that magnetic beads could be successfully guided and confined to the sensing zone. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combining magnetic nanoparticle with biotinylated nanobodies for rapid and sensitive detection of influenza H3N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Hu, Yonghong; Li, Guirong; Ou, Weijun; Mao, Panyong; Xin, Shaojie; Wan, Yakun

    2014-09-01

    Our objective is to develop a rapid and sensitive assay based on magnetic beads to detect the concentration of influenza H3N2. The possibility of using variable domain heavy-chain antibodies (nanobody) as diagnostic tools for influenza H3N2 was investigated. A healthy camel was immunized with inactivated influenza H3N2. A nanobody library of 8 × 108 clones was constructed and phage displayed. After three successive biopanning steps, H3N2-specific nanobodies were successfully isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Sequence analysis of the nanobodies revealed that we possessed four classes of nanobodies against H3N2. Two nanobodies were further used to prepare our rapid diagnostic kit. Biotinylated nanobody was effectively immobilized onto the surface of streptavidin magnetic beads. The modified magnetic beads with nanobody capture specifically influenza H3N2 and can still be recognized by nanobodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugates. Under optimized conditions, the present immunoassay exhibited a relatively high sensitive detection with a limit of 50 ng/mL. In conclusion, by combining magnetic beads with specific nanobodies, this assay provides a promising influenza detection assay to develop a potential rapid, sensitive, and low-cost diagnostic tool to screen for influenza infections.

  12. Development of multifunctional chitosan beads for fluoride removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Natrayasamy [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Sairam Sundaram, C. [Department of Science and Humanities, Karaikal Polytechnic College, Karaikal 609 609, Puducherry (India); Meenakshi, S., E-mail: drs_meena@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-08-15

    Chitosan beads (CB) which have negligible defluoridation capacity (DC) have been chemically modified by introducing multifunctional groups, viz., NH{sub 3}{sup +} and COOH groups by means of protonation and carboxylation in order to utilize both amine and hydroxyl groups for fluoride removal. The protonated cum carboxylated chitosan beads (PCCB) showed a maximum DC of 1800 mg F{sup -}/kg whereas raw chitosan beads displayed only 52 mg F{sup -}/kg. Sorption process was found to be independent of pH and slightly influenced in the presence of other common anions. The fluoride sorption on modified forms was reasonably explained by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The sorbents were characterised by FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The sorption process follows pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The suitability of PCCB has been tested with field sample collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area.

  13. Preparation of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked Chitosan Beads Under Microwave Irradiation and Properties of Urease Immobilized onto the Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zupei; FENG Yaqing; MENG Shuxian; ZHANG Weihong

    2005-01-01

    The glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan beads were prepared under microwave irradiation and urease was immobilized onto the beads. The activity and the yield of enzyme activity of the immobilized urease were 10.83 U/g carrier and 47.7%, respectively. The optimum conditions of immobilization were 1% of glutaraldehyde volume fraction, 10 mg/g of urease/beads weight ratio, 24 h of the processing time and pH 6.5 of the reaction medium for immobilization. The properties of the immobilized urease were investigated and compared with those of the free enzyme. The optimum pH values were 6.5 and 7.0 for the immobilized and free urease, respectively. The optimum temperature was 60 ℃ for the free urease, while it shifted to 65 ℃ for the immobilized enzyme. The Michaelis constant K m was 9.1 mmol/L for the immobilized and 12.5 mmol/L for the free urease. The immobilized urease retained 40% of its initial enzyme activity even after 10 repeated uses. The immobilized urease stored at 4 ℃ retained 46% of its initial activity even after 35 d.

  14. Design and characteristics of gellan gum beads for modified release of meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmałek, Tomasz; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Froelich, Anna; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Białowąs, Wojciech; Kapela, Marcin; Gadziński, Piotr; Ancukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the presented work was to design, formulate and evaluate the properties of low-acyl gellan macro beads with the potential application as carriers for oral delivery of meloxicam (MLX) in the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer. The beads were obtained by means of ionotropic gelation technique. Calcium chloride (1.0%, 9.0 × 10 -2  M) was used as the cross-linking agent. Nine different polymer, drug and surfactant (Tween ® 80) mixtures were used for production of the beads. The quantitative compositions of the mixtures were generated with the application of the Design of Experiments (DoE) modulus from the STATISTICA Software. The prepared formulations revealed 7.2-27.0% of drug loading and 29.2-50.7% drug encapsulation efficiency. It turned out that 0.5% amount of gellan gum in the mixtures was not sufficient to obtain spherical beads. The morphology and surface of the dried beads were analyzed by SEM. Raman spectra confirmed that MLX did not undergo structural changes during production of the beads. The swelling behavior and degradation of the beads were evaluated in three simulated gastrointestinal fluids at different pH (1.2; 4.5; 6.8). The MLX in vitro release studies were conducted on USP apparatus IV, working in the open loop mode. The obtained results showed that MLX release from the dried beads was pH-dependent. The formulations obtained from mixtures containing 1.0 and 1.5% of gellan may be considered as oral dosage forms for MLX, intended to omit the stomach and release the drug in the distal parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. An approach to implement virtual channels for flowing magnetic beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Shih-Hao; Chiang, Hung-Wei; Hsieh, Min-Chien; Chang, Yen-Di; Yeh, Po-Fan; Tsai, Jui-che; Shieh, Wung-Yang

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel microfluidic system with virtual channels formed by ‘walls’ of magnetic fields, including collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels. The channels are defined by the nickel patterns. With its own ferromagnetism, nickel can be magnetized using an external magnetic field; the nickel structures then generate magnetic fields that can either guide or trap magnetic beads. A glass substrate is sandwiched between the liquid containing magnetic beads and the chip with nickel structures, preventing the liquid from directly contacting the nickel. In this work, collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels are displayed sequentially. In the collecting channel portion, channels with different shapes are compared. Next, in the transporting channel portion we demonstrate I-, S- and Y-shaped channels can steer magnetic beads smoothly. Finally, in the function channel portion, a switchable trapping channel implemented with a bistable mechanism performs the passing and blocking of a magnetic bead. (paper)

  16. Three new potential ovarian cancer biomarkers detected in human urine with equalizer bead technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Yip, Tai-Tung

    2008-01-01

    samples were aliquotted and frozen at -80 degrees until the time of analysis. The urine was fractionated using equalizer bead technology and then analyzed with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Biomarkers were purified and identified using combinations...... of chromatographic techniques and tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Benign and malignant ovarian cancer cases were compared; 21 significantly different peaks (p...OBJECTIVE: To examine whether urine can be used to measure specific ovarian cancer proteomic profiles and whether one peak alone or in combination with other peaks or CA125 has the sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between ovarian cancer pelvic mass and benign pelvic mass. METHODS...

  17. Speciation-dependent studies on removal of arsenic by iron-doped calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Anupam; Nayak, Dalia; Lahiri, Susanta

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the differential attitude of Fe-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) beads towards As(III) and As(V) compounds so that speciation-dependent environmentally sustainable methodologies can be developed for removal of arsenic from contaminated water. Throughout the experiment, 76 As has been used as precursor of stable arsenic. The affinity of As(V) towards the Fe-CA beads is greater than that of As(III). Removal efficiency of Fe-CA beads for As(V) increases with increasing number of beads and longer shaking times. At pH 3, 30 Fe-CA beads remove As(V) completely from a solution containing 20 mg kg -1 As(V). The technique has been successfully applied to the ground water collected from an arsenic-contaminated area

  18. Development and characterization of a magnetic bead-quantum dot nanoparticles based assay capable of Escherichia coli O157:H7 quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gha-Young [Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Son, Ahjeong, E-mail: ason@auburn.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-09-10

    The development and characterization of a magnetic bead (MB)-quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles based assay capable of quantifying pathogenic bacteria is presented here. The MB-QD assay operates by having a capturing probe DNA selectively linked to the signaling probe DNA via the target genomic DNA (gDNA) during DNA hybridization. The signaling probe DNA is labeled with fluorescent QD{sub 565} which serves as a reporter. The capturing probe DNA is conjugated simultaneously to a MB and another QD{sub 655}, which serve as a carrier and an internal standard, respectively. Successfully captured target gDNA is separated using a magnetic field and is quantified via a spectrofluorometer. The use of QDs (i.e., QD{sub 565}/QD{sub 655}) as both a fluorescence label and an internal standard increased the sensitivity of the assay. The passivation effect and the molar ratio between QD and DNA were optimized. The MB-QD assay demonstrated a detection limit of 890 zeptomolar (i.e., 10{sup -21} mol L{sup -1}) concentration for the linear single stranded DNA (ssDNA). It also demonstrated a detection limit of 87 gene copies for double stranded DNA (dsDNA) eaeA gene extracted from pure Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 culture. Its corresponding dynamic range, sensitivity, and selectivity were also presented. Finally, the bacterial gDNA of E. coli O157:H7 was used to highlight the MB-QD assay's ability to detect below the minimum infective dose (i.e., 100 organisms) of E. coli O157:H7 in water environment.

  19. Fluorescent Beads Are a Versatile Tool for Staging Caenorhabditis elegans in Different Life Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberta Nika

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Precise staging of Caenorhabditis elegans is essential for developmental studies in different environmental conditions. In favorable conditions, larvae develop continuously through four larval stages separated by molting periods. Distinguishing molting from intermolt larvae has been achieved using transgenes with molting reporters, therefore requiring strain constructions, or careful observation of individuals for pharyngeal pumping or behavioral quiescence. In unfavorable conditions, larvae can enter the stress-resistant and developmentally arrested dauer larva stage. Identifying dauer larvae has been based on their ability to withstand detergent selection, precluding identification of recovering animals or of mutants with defects in dauer morphogenesis. Here, we describe a simple method to distinguish molting larvae or dauer larvae from intermolt larvae that bypasses the limitations of current methods. Fluorescent latex beads are mixed with the bacterial food source and ingested by intermolt larvae and adults. Molting and dauer larvae do not feed, and therefore lack beads in their digestive tract. The presence of beads can be determined using a dissecting microscope at magnifications as low as 100 ×, or by using a wormsorter for high-throughput experiments. We find that continuously developing bead-lacking larvae display hallmarks of molting, including expression of the mlt-10::gfp molting marker and a lack of pharyngeal pumping. Furthermore, wild-type and mutant dauer larvae produced by any of three common methods are accurately identified by a lack of beads. Importantly, this method is effective in SDS-sensitive mutant backgrounds and can identify recovering dauer larvae, a stage for which there is no other method of positive selection.

  20. Fluorescent Beads Are a Versatile Tool for Staging Caenorhabditis elegans in Different Life Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Liberta; Gibson, Taylor; Konkus, Rebecca; Karp, Xantha

    2016-01-01

    Precise staging of Caenorhabditis elegans is essential for developmental studies in different environmental conditions. In favorable conditions, larvae develop continuously through four larval stages separated by molting periods. Distinguishing molting from intermolt larvae has been achieved using transgenes with molting reporters, therefore requiring strain constructions, or careful observation of individuals for pharyngeal pumping or behavioral quiescence. In unfavorable conditions, larvae can enter the stress-resistant and developmentally arrested dauer larva stage. Identifying dauer larvae has been based on their ability to withstand detergent selection, precluding identification of recovering animals or of mutants with defects in dauer morphogenesis. Here, we describe a simple method to distinguish molting larvae or dauer larvae from intermolt larvae that bypasses the limitations of current methods. Fluorescent latex beads are mixed with the bacterial food source and ingested by intermolt larvae and adults. Molting and dauer larvae do not feed, and therefore lack beads in their digestive tract. The presence of beads can be determined using a dissecting microscope at magnifications as low as 100 ×, or by using a wormsorter for high-throughput experiments. We find that continuously developing bead-lacking larvae display hallmarks of molting, including expression of the mlt-10::gfp molting marker and a lack of pharyngeal pumping. Furthermore, wild-type and mutant dauer larvae produced by any of three common methods are accurately identified by a lack of beads. Importantly, this method is effective in SDS-sensitive mutant backgrounds and can identify recovering dauer larvae, a stage for which there is no other method of positive selection. PMID:27172224

  1. Biosorption of americium by alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The use of biotechnology to remove heavy metals from wastes plays great potential in treatment of radioactive wastes and therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosorption of americium by alginate beads. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. The calcium alginate beads as biosorbent were prepared and analyzed for americium uptaking. The experiments were performed in different solution activity concentrations, pH and exposure time. The results suggest that biosorption process is more efficient at pH 4 and for 75, 150, 300 Bq/mL and 120 minutes were necessary to remove almost 100% of the americium-241 from the solution. (author)

  2. Towards a programmable magnetic bead microarray in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    to use larger currents and obtain forces of longer range than from thin current lines at a given power limit. Guiding of magnetic beads in the hybrid magnetic separator and the construction of a programmable microarray of magnetic beads in the microfluidic channel by hydrodynamic focusing is presented....

  3. Silica-supported Macroporous Chitosan Bead for Affinity Purification of Trypsin Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Na XI; Jian Min WU; Ming Ming LUAN

    2005-01-01

    Macroporous cross-linking chitosan layer coated on silica gel (CTS-SiO2) was prepared by phase inversion and polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecular imprinting methods. Formation of macroporous surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET analysis.The prepared bead was activated by reacting with 1,2-ethylene diglycidyl ether for introducing epoxy groups, and trypsin could be efficiently immobilized on the bead as a biospecific ligand.The bead bearing trypsin was employed to purify trypsin inhibitor (TIs) from egg white as affinity adsorbent.

  4. Kinase-loaded magnetic beads for sequential in vitro phosphorylation of peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromadkova, Lenka; Kupcik, Rudolf; Vajrychova, Marie; Prikryl, Petr; Charvatova, Andrea; Jankovicova, Barbora; Ripova, Daniela; Bilkova, Zuzana; Slovakova, Marcela

    2018-01-15

    Post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, greatly impact the physiological function of proteins, especially those that are natively unfolded and implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, structural and functional studies of such proteins require fully defined phosphorylation, including those that are not physiological. Thus, the kinases ERK2 and GSK-3β were immobilized to various superparamagnetic beads with carboxylic, aldehyde, Ni 2+ , or Co 3+ functional groups, with a view to efficiently phosphorylate peptides and proteins in vitro. Full phosphorylation of specific synthetic peptides confirmed that beads were successfully loaded with kinases. Remarkably, enzymes covalently immobilized on carboxylated SeraMag beads remained active upon reuse, with residual activity after 10 uses 99.5 ± 0.34% for GSK-3β and 36.2 ± 2.01% for ERK2. The beads were also used to sequentially phosphorylate recombinant tau, which in vivo is a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, a system consisting of two fully active kinases immobilized to magnetic beads is demonstrated for the first time. In comparison to soluble enzymes, the beads are easier to handle, reusable, and thus low-cost. Importantly, these beads are also convenient to remove from reactions to minimize contamination of phosphorylated products or to exchange with other kinases.

  5. Sustained multiple organ ischaemia after transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Woon; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Nam, Soon Woo; Jang, Jeong Won; Jung, Hyun Suk; Shin, Yu Ri; Park, Eun Su; Shim, Dong Jae

    2018-02-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with drug-eluting beads (DC beads) may enhance drug delivery to tumours and reduce systemic toxicity. TACE with DC beads leads to significantly fewer serious side-effects compared with conventional TACE. A 66-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complained of continuous abdominal pain 1 month after TACE with DC beads. At the time of TACE, angiography revealed severe stenosis of both hepatic arteries. The diagnostic work up on admission suggested severe bile duct injury with regional bile duct dilatation, segmental liver and spleen infarction, necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as gastric and duodenal ulcers. The pathology specimens of the duodenum contained DC beads that had passed through small vessels in the connective tissue. The patient's condition appeared to improve after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment and supportive care, but new multifocal liver and spleen infarction subsequently developed. After 2 months, he was well enough to be discharged. His HCC partially responded to the TACE with DC beads but eventually progressed and he died after 11 months. The present case report highlights unexpected ongoing multiple organ ischaemia in a 66-year-old man treated for HCC using TACE with DC beads. The use of TACE with DC beads should be carefully considered in patients with vascular strictures or aberrant blood supply.

  6. Simultaneous capture and sequential detection of two malarial biomarkers on magnetic microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwalter, Christine F; Ricks, Keersten M; Bitting, Anna L; Mudenda, Lwiindi; Wright, David W

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a rapid magnetic microparticle-based detection strategy for malarial biomarkers Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II (PfHRPII). In this assay, magnetic particles functionalized with antibodies specific for pLDH and PfHRPII as well as detection antibodies with distinct enzymes for each biomarker are added to parasitized lysed blood samples. Sandwich complexes for pLDH and PfHRPII form on the surface of the magnetic beads, which are washed and sequentially re-suspended in detection enzyme substrate for each antigen. The developed simultaneous capture and sequential detection (SCSD) assay detects both biomarkers in samples as low as 2.0parasites/µl, an order of magnitude below commercially available ELISA kits, has a total incubation time of 35min, and was found to be reproducible between users over time. This assay provides a simple and efficient alternative to traditional 96-well plate ELISAs, which take 5-8h to complete and are limited to one analyte. Further, the modularity of the magnetic bead-based SCSD ELISA format could serve as a platform for application to other diseases for which multi-biomarker detection is advantageous. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1 specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  8. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  9. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires. PMID:29628923

  10. Formation of beads-on-a-string structures during the pinch-off of viscoelastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep; Appathurai, Santosh; Harris, Michael; Pasquali, Matteo; McKinley, Gareth; Basaran, Osman

    2009-11-01

    Breakup of liquid filaments is omnipresent in nature and technology. When a filament formed by placing a drop of syrup between a thumb and a forefinger is stretched by pulling apart the two fingers, it resembles a thinning cylinder. If the same experiment is repeated with saliva, the filament's morphology close to pinch-off resembles that of beads of several sizes interconnected by slender threads. Although there is general agreement that formation of such beads-on-a-string (BOAS) morphology only occurs for viscoelastic fluids, the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear and controversial. The physics of formation of BOAS structures is probed here by simulation which reveals that viscoelasticity alone does not give rise to a small, satellite bead between two much larger main drops (beads) but that inertia is required for its formation. Viscoelasticity, however, enhances the growth of the satellite bead and delays pinch-off, which leads to a relatively long-lived, stable beaded filament. The new simulations also show the formation of second-generation sub-satellite beads in certain cases, as observed experimentally but not, heretofore, predicted theoretically.

  11. Improved stability and catalytic activity of graphene oxide/chitosan hybrid beads loaded with porcine liver esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderrajan, Shruthi; Miranda, Lima Rose; Pennathur, Gautam

    2018-04-21

    Graphene oxide/chitosan and reduced graphene oxide/chitosan (GO/CS and RGO/CS) beads were prepared by precipitation with NaOH. Porcine liver esterase was immobilized on these beads to give GO/CS/E and RGO/CS/E beads. The optimum conditions for the maximum activity of RGO/CS/E beads were pH 8 and 50°C. The stability of the enzyme immobilized on GO/CS/E and RGO/CS/E was high in the pH range of 5-8. The GO/CS/E beads showed superior stability compared to that of the free enzyme and CS/E beads between 20 and 50°C. Kinetic analysis showed that GO/CS/E was a better catalyst than the RGO/CS/E beads with a lower K m value of 0.9 mM. The hybrid beads also retained more than 95% activity after 10 consecutive cycles. The GO/CS/E and RGO/CS/E beads retained 84% and 87% activity after 40 days at 4°C. The GO/CS/E beads were used for the successful hydrolysis of methyl 4-hydroxy benzoate.

  12. On-bead chemical synthesis and display of phosphopeptides for affinity pull-down proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malene, Brandt; Madsen, Jens C.; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new method for phosphopeptide proteomics based on the solid-phase synthesis of phosphopeptides on beads suitable for affinity pull-down experiments. Peptide sequences containing the Bad Ser112 and Ser136 phosphorylation motifs were used as bait in affinity pull-down experiments...... (aldehyde) at the C terminus for potential activity-based proteomics. The synthetic support-bound Bad phosphopeptides were able to pull down 14-3-3zeta. Furthermore, Bad phosphopeptides bound endogenous 14-3-3 proteins, and all seven members of the 14-3-3 family were identified by mass spectrometry....... In control experiments, none of the unphosphorylated Bad peptides bound transfected 14-3-3zeta or endogenous 14-3-3. We conclude that the combined synthesis and display of phosphopeptides on-bead is a fast and efficient method for affinity pull-down proteomics....

  13. Functionalized glass beads for the recovery of waste radioactive elements. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldard, J.F.

    1979-09-01

    Various substituted ethylenediamine tetraacetic acids and their precursors have been prepared and characterized. In addition to containing groups that can chelate metal ions, these substances also contain groups that can be used to bond them to glass beads. Experiments have shown, however, that a large enough number of active sites cannot be achieved by this route. An alternative scheme was devised, whereby trimethoxysilyl groups are incorporated into molecules that have the necessary functional groups. These silyl compounds can be bonded directly to glass beads; the ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid can then be formed in place. The prognosis for this reaction scheme is good, based on the experiments done so far. Stability constants have been measured for some metal ion complexes of the acids mentioned above

  14. Metallurgical Characterization of a Weld Bead Coating Applied by the PTA Process on the D2 Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tahaei

    Full Text Available Abstract In this investigation, a nickel-base powder mixed with tungsten carbide particles was applied by Plasma Transferred Arc welding (PTA on the surface of the D2 cold work tool steel to improve surface quality and to extend its lifetime during applications. The Design of Experiment (DoE method was applied to obtain the appropriate combination of hardfacing parameters and to run the minimum number of tests. Current, travel speed and preheat were considered as variable parameters. These parameters are important to reach a final layer with an appropriate bead geometry accompanied with good metallurgical properties. All samples were prepared for metallurgical investigations and the effect of process parameters on the weld bead geometry was considered. For each experiment run, weld bead geometry parameters were measured including dilution, penetration and reinforcement. Microstructures and the distribution of tungsten carbide particles after welding were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM equipped with an EDS microprobe. In addition, hardness tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the weld bead layers. Finally, among all the experiments, the best sample with appropriate bead geometry and microstructure was selected.

  15. A Universal Approach for Selective Trace Metal Determinations via Sequential Injection-Bead Injection-Lab-on-Valve (SI-BI-LOV) Using Renewable Reagent-loaded Hydrophobic Beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    -Lab-on-Valve (SI-LOV) mode. The methodology uses poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) beads containing pendant octadecyl moieties (C18-PS/DVB), which are pre-impregnated with a selective organic metal chelating agent prior to the automatic manipulation of the beads in the microbore conduits of the LOV unit. By adapting...

  16. Echicetin coated polystyrene beads: a novel tool to investigate GPIb-specific platelet activation and aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Navdaev

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways.

  17. Echicetin Coated Polystyrene Beads: A Novel Tool to Investigate GPIb-Specific Platelet Activation and Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Alexey; Clemetson, Kenneth J.; Gambaryan, Stepan; Walter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R) induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways. PMID:24705415

  18. Proteomic profiling of renal allograft rejection in serum using magnetic bead-based sample fractionation and MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Weiguo; Huang, Liling; Dai, Yong; Chen, Jiejing; Yan, Qiang; Huang, He

    2010-12-01

    Proteomics is one of the emerging techniques for biomarker discovery. Biomarkers can be used for early noninvasive diagnosis and prognosis of diseases and treatment efficacy evaluation. In the present study, the well-established research systems of ClinProt Micro solution incorporated unique magnetic bead sample preparation technology, which, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), have become very successful in bioinformatics due to its outstanding performance and reproducibility for discovery disease-related biomarker. We collected fasting blood samples from patients with biopsy-confirmed acute renal allograft rejection (n = 12), chronic rejection (n = 12), stable graft function (n = 12) and also from healthy volunteers (n = 13) to study serum peptidome patterns. Specimens were purified with magnetic bead-based weak cation exchange chromatography and analyzed with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. The results indicated that 18 differential peptide peaks were selected as potential biomarkers of acute renal allograft rejection, and 6 differential peptide peaks were selected as potential biomarkers of chronic rejection. A Quick Classifier Algorithm was used to set up the classification models for acute and chronic renal allograft rejection. The algorithm models recognize 82.64% of acute rejection and 98.96% of chronic rejection episodes, respectively. We were able to identify serum protein fingerprints in small sample sizes of recipients with renal allograft rejection and establish the models for diagnosis of renal allograft rejection. This preliminary study demonstrated that proteomics is an emerging tool for early diagnosis of renal allograft rejection and helps us to better understand the pathogenesis of disease process.

  19. Miniature Laboratory for Detecting Sparse Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Yu, Nan

    2005-01-01

    A miniature laboratory system has been proposed for use in the field to detect sparsely distributed biomolecules. By emphasizing concentration and sorting of specimens prior to detection, the underlying system concept would make it possible to attain high detection sensitivities without the need to develop ever more sensitive biosensors. The original purpose of the proposal is to aid the search for signs of life on a remote planet by enabling the detection of specimens as sparse as a few molecules or microbes in a large amount of soil, dust, rocks, water/ice, or other raw sample material. Some version of the system could prove useful on Earth for remote sensing of biological contamination, including agents of biological warfare. Processing in this system would begin with dissolution of the raw sample material in a sample-separation vessel. The solution in the vessel would contain floating microscopic magnetic beads coated with substances that could engage in chemical reactions with various target functional groups that are parts of target molecules. The chemical reactions would cause the targeted molecules to be captured on the surfaces of the beads. By use of a controlled magnetic field, the beads would be concentrated in a specified location in the vessel. Once the beads were thus concentrated, the rest of the solution would be discarded. This procedure would obviate the filtration steps and thereby also eliminate the filter-clogging difficulties of typical prior sample-concentration schemes. For ferrous dust/soil samples, the dissolution would be done first in a separate vessel before the solution is transferred to the microbead-containing vessel.

  20. Compositional characterization of sintered (U,Th)O2 pellets by EDXRF using fused bead specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjay Kumar, S.; Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Fused bead specimens were used for analyzing sintered (U,Th)O 2 pellets by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The bead specimens of calibration mixtures U 3 O 8 and ThO 2 were made by fusing them in Lithium Tetraborate/Metaborate fusion mixtures using a fusion bead machine. The EDXRF spectra of these beads were used for making calibration plot for U% determination in (U+Th) amounts. Using these calibration plots and EDXRF spectra of bead of sintered (U,Th)O 2 pellets, U% in these pellets was successfully determined. (author)

  1. The impact of functionalized CNT in the network of sodium alginate-based nanocomposite beads on the removal of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkeh-abadi, Fatemeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saber-Samandari, Samaneh, E-mail: samaneh.saber@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, TRNC via Mersin 10 (Turkey); Saber-Samandari, Saeed, E-mail: saeedss@aut.ac.ir [New Technologies Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The sodium alginate-hydroxyapatite-CNT nanocomposite beads were prepared. • Amide functionalized CNT imprinted in the network of sodium alginate containing HAp. • The prepared beads were used as adsorbents of cobalt ions from an aqueous solution. • The adsorption was fit with the Freundlich isotherm and second-order kinetic models. • The endothermic adsorption process is spontaneous and thermodynamically favorable. - Abstract: Significant efforts have been made to develop highly efficient adsorbents to remove radioactive Co(II) ion pollutants from medical and industrial wastewaters. In this study, amide group functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT-CONH{sub 2}) imprinted in the network of sodium alginate containing hydroxyapatite, and new nanocomposite beads were synthesized. Then, they were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The prepared nanocomposite beads were used as an adsorbent of Co(II) ions from an aqueous solution. The presence and distribution of Co(II) ions in the surface of the nanocomposite beads was confirmed using FESEM, EDS and metal mapping analysis. The effect of various experimental conditions such as time, pH, and initial concentration of the adsorbate solution and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite beads were explored. The maximum Co(II) ions adsorption capacity of the prepared nanocomposite beads with the largest surface area of 163.4 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} was 347.8 mg g{sup −1} in the optimized condition. The adsorption mechanism followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, the Freundlich appears to produce better fit than the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Finally, thermodynamic studies suggest that endothermic adsorption process of Co(II) ions is spontaneous and

  2. SparseBeads data: benchmarking sparsity-regularized computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jakob S.; Coban, Sophia B.; Lionheart, William R. B.; McDonald, Samuel A.; Withers, Philip J.

    2017-12-01

    Sparsity regularization (SR) such as total variation (TV) minimization allows accurate image reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography (CT) from fewer projections than analytical methods. Exactly how few projections suffice and how this number may depend on the image remain poorly understood. Compressive sensing connects the critical number of projections to the image sparsity, but does not cover CT, however empirical results suggest a similar connection. The present work establishes for real CT data a connection between gradient sparsity and the sufficient number of projections for accurate TV-regularized reconstruction. A collection of 48 x-ray CT datasets called SparseBeads was designed for benchmarking SR reconstruction algorithms. Beadpacks comprising glass beads of five different sizes as well as mixtures were scanned in a micro-CT scanner to provide structured datasets with variable image sparsity levels, number of projections and noise levels to allow the systematic assessment of parameters affecting performance of SR reconstruction algorithms6. Using the SparseBeads data, TV-regularized reconstruction quality was assessed as a function of numbers of projections and gradient sparsity. The critical number of projections for satisfactory TV-regularized reconstruction increased almost linearly with the gradient sparsity. This establishes a quantitative guideline from which one may predict how few projections to acquire based on expected sample sparsity level as an aid in planning of dose- or time-critical experiments. The results are expected to hold for samples of similar characteristics, i.e. consisting of few, distinct phases with relatively simple structure. Such cases are plentiful in porous media, composite materials, foams, as well as non-destructive testing and metrology. For samples of other characteristics the proposed methodology may be used to investigate similar relations.

  3. Development and in vivo evaluation of chitosan beads for the colonic delivery of azathioprine for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Abdelrahman M; Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Soliman, Ghareb M; Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; Ibrahim, Elsayed A

    2017-11-15

    Azathioprine is a highly efficient immunosuppressant drug used for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Systemic administration of azathioprine results in delayed therapeutic effect and serious adverse reactions. In the current study, we have developed, for the first time, colon-targeted chitosan beads for delivery of azathioprine in colitis rabbit model. Several characterizations were performed for the azathioprine-loaded beads (e.g. drug encapsulation efficiency, drug loading capacity, yield, size, shape and compatibility with other ingredients). The in vitro release profiles of acid-resistant capsules filled with azathioprine-loaded beads showed that most of azathioprine was released in IBD colon simulating medium. The therapeutic effects of azathioprine-loaded beads and azathioprine crude drug were examined on acetic acid-induced colitis rabbit model. Improved therapeutic outcomes were observed in the animals treated with the azathioprine-loaded beads, as compared to the untreated animal controls and the animals treated with the azathioprine free drug, based on the clinical activity score, index of tissue edema, mortality rate, colon macroscopic score and colon histopathological features. In the animals treated with the azathioprine-loaded beads, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, myeloperoxidase enzyme and tumor necrosis factor-α, were significantly reduced to levels similar to those observed in the normal rabbits. Furthermore, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were restored considerably in the animals treated with the drug-loaded beads. The azathioprine-loaded beads developed in the current study might have great potential in the management of IBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of chitosan/amino multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite beads for bilirubin adsorption in hemoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Wenhui; Chen, Jian; Han, Wenyan; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yue; Wang, Weichao; Cheng, Guanghui; Ou, Lailiang; Yu, Yaoting

    2018-01-01

    Chitosan-carbon nanotube composite beads combines the advantages of chitosan in forming a stable biocompatible framework and carbon nanotube that provide nanometer effects (high strength and high specific surface area etc.). In this study, chitosan/amino multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CS/AMWCNT) composite beads was prepared by phase-inversion method, in which CS and AMWCNT was crosslinked by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE). The CS/AMWCNT nanocomposite beads produced has been characterized by BET, SEM, TGA, and Raman spectroscopy which exhibited enhanced thermal stability due to the incorporation of AMWCNT. Mechanical test results showed that mechanical strength of the CS/AMWCNT composite beads was significantly enhanced when comparing to unmodified chitosan beads, the breakage percentage decreased from 34.1% to 0.67%. The adsorption capacity for bilirubin was measured in PBS and BSA solutions, and the CS/AMWCNT composite beads with 5 wt% AMWCNT showed much higher adsorption capacity (12.7 mg/g in PBS and 7.6 mg/g in BSA) to bilirubin than chitosan beads (8.5 mg/g in PBS and 4.2 mg/g in BSA). Our nanocomposite beads with excellent hemocompatibility has a high potential application in blood purification as an efficient adsorbent for bilirubin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 96-103, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Usability of human Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip for mouse DNA methylation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needhamsen, Maria; Ewing, Ewoud; Lund, Harald; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Harris, Robert Adam; Kular, Lara; Jagodic, Maja

    2017-11-15

    The advent of array-based genome-wide DNA methylation methods has enabled quantitative measurement of single CpG methylation status at relatively low cost and sample input. Whereas the use of Infinium Human Methylation BeadChips has shown great utility in clinical studies, no equivalent tool is available for rodent animal samples. We examined the feasibility of using the new Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip for studying DNA methylation in mouse. In silico, we identified 19,420 EPIC probes (referred as mEPIC probes), which align with a unique best alignment score to the bisulfite converted reference mouse genome mm10. Further annotation revealed that 85% of mEPIC probes overlapped with mm10.refSeq genes at different genomic features including promoters (TSS1500 and TSS200), 1st exons, 5'UTRs, 3'UTRs, CpG islands, shores, shelves, open seas and FANTOM5 enhancers. Hybridization of mouse samples to Infinium Human MethylationEPIC BeadChips showed successful measurement of mEPIC probes and reproducibility between inter-array biological replicates. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of mEPIC probes for data exploration such as hierarchical clustering. Given the absence of cost and labor convenient genome-wide technologies in the murine system, our findings show that the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip platform is suitable for investigation of the mouse methylome. Furthermore, we provide the "mEPICmanifest" with genomic features, available to users of Infinium Human MethylationEPIC arrays for mouse samples.

  6. Enhancing the antimony sorption properties of nano titania-chitosan beads using epichlorohydrin as the crosslinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2017-07-15

    Antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority importance by USEPA. We have earlier reported the synthesis of nano-titania impregnated epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan (TA-Cts-Epi) beads, in a format suitable for large scale applications with high sorption capacity for antimony. To understand the sorption mechanism, and to fine tune the bead composition, the effect of crosslinking density on the swelling and sorption properties of the beads was investigated in detail. Epichlorohydrin effected significant changes in physical and sorption properties of the beads. The antimony sorption capacity of the TA-Cts-Epi beads prepared by crosslinking 0.3g non-crosslinked titania-chitosan beads (TA-Cts-NCL) with 6.4mmol epichlorohydrin was 493μmol/g, while those crosslinked with 0.64mmol showed a capacity of 133μmol/g. Whereas, TA-Cts-NCL beads showed a capacity of 75μmol/g. The increase in uptake capacity with increase in crosslinking demonstrated the active involvement of the epichlorohydrin moieties in antimony binding leading to enhanced sorption. Apart from altering the stability, swelling behaviour and sorption kinetics of the beads, crosslinking significantly increased the uptake of the anionic species via electrostatic interactions. Epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan beads prepared without TiO 2 also showed similar behaviour. The results demonstrated the involvement of chitosan, TiO 2 and epichlorohydrin in sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ferrite bead effect on Class-D amplifier audio quality

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad , Kevin El; Mrad , Roberto; Morel , Florent; Pillonnet , Gael; Vollaire , Christian; Nagari , Angelo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the effect of ferrite beads on the audio quality of Class-D audio amplifiers. This latter is a switch-ing circuit which creates high frequency harmonics. Generally, a filter is used at the amplifier output for the sake of electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC). So often, in integrated solutions, this filter contains ferrite beads which are magnetic components and present nonlinear behavior. Time domain measurements and their equivalence in frequency do...

  8. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)-Based Models for Predicting the Weld Bead Width and Depth of Penetration from the Infrared Thermal Image of the Weld Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashini, L.; Vasudevan, M.

    2012-02-01

    Type 316 LN stainless steel is the major structural material used in the construction of nuclear reactors. Activated flux tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding has been developed to increase the depth of penetration because the depth of penetration achievable in single-pass TIG welding is limited. Real-time monitoring and control of weld processes is gaining importance because of the requirement of remoter welding process technologies. Hence, it is essential to develop computational methodologies based on an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) or artificial neural network (ANN) for predicting and controlling the depth of penetration and weld bead width during A-TIG welding of type 316 LN stainless steel. In the current work, A-TIG welding experiments have been carried out on 6-mm-thick plates of 316 LN stainless steel by varying the welding current. During welding, infrared (IR) thermal images of the weld pool have been acquired in real time, and the features have been extracted from the IR thermal images of the weld pool. The welding current values, along with the extracted features such as length, width of the hot spot, thermal area determined from the Gaussian fit, and thermal bead width computed from the first derivative curve were used as inputs, whereas the measured depth of penetration and weld bead width were used as output of the respective models. Accurate ANFIS models have been developed for predicting the depth of penetration and the weld bead width during TIG welding of 6-mm-thick 316 LN stainless steel plates. A good correlation between the measured and predicted values of weld bead width and depth of penetration were observed in the developed models. The performance of the ANFIS models are compared with that of the ANN models.

  9. The characterization of ceramic alumina prepared by using additive glass beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapedi; Muljadi; Sardjono, Priyo

    2018-01-01

    The ceramic alumina has been made by using additive glass bead (5 and 10 % wt.). There are two kinds of materials, such as : gamma Alumina and glass bead. Synthesis of alumina was done by ball milling for 24 hours, then the mixed powder was dried in drying oven at 100 °C for 6 hours. Furthermore, the dried powder was mixed by using 2 % of PVA and continued with compacted to form a pellet with pressure of 50 MPA. The next step is sintering process with variation temperature of 1150, 1200, 1250, 1300 and 1400 °C and holding time for 2 hours. The characterization conducted are consist of test density, hardness, shrinkage, and microstructure. The results show that ceramic alumina with addition of 10 % wt. glass bead has the higher value of density, hardness and shrinkage than addition of 5% wt. glass bead. The highest characterization of ceramic alumina with addition 10 % glass bead was achieved at sintering temperature of 1400 °C with density 3.68 g/cm3, hardness vickers 780.40 Hv and shrinkage 15.23 %. The XRD results show that it was founds a corrundum (alpha Alumina) as dominant phase and mullite as minor phase.

  10. Structure of yttria stabilized zirconia beads produced by gel supported precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.; Somers, J.; Fernandez, A.; Specht, Eliot D.; Hunn, John D.; Boulet, P.; Denecke, M. A.; Gobel, C.

    2007-01-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is one of the inert matrix candidates selected for investigation as host matrix for minor actinide (MA) transmutation. The structural properties of (Zr0.84, Y0.16)O1.92 beads prepared by a sol-gel method for MA infiltration, are characterized as calcined (850 C) and sintered (1,600 C) beads. The calcined YSZ beads are fine-grained and homogenous over the entire sphere and are surrounded by a uniform outer layer of approximately 30 (micro)m thickness. After sintering at 1,600 C, the beads are compacted to 51% of their initial volume and exhibit a granular structure. The thermal expansion is nearly linear for the calcined material, but shows a parabolic behavior for the sintered (1,400 C) beads. In addition, the thermal expansion of calcined material is 20-25% less than after sintering. During heating up to 1,400 C, two processes can be distinguished. The first occurs between 900 and 1,000 C and is related to an increase in unit cell order. The second process involves grain-growth of the less crystalline calcined material between 1,100 and 1,300 C. These results have implications for preparation of YSZ and its use as an inert MA transmutation matrix

  11. Electrochemical Sandwich Immunoassay for the Ultrasensitive Detection of Human MUC1 Cancer Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Taleat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new electrochemical sandwich immunoassay for the ultrasensitive detection of human MUC1 cancer biomarker using protein G-functionalized magnetic beads (MBs and graphite-based screen-printed electrodes (SPEs was developed. Magnetic beads were employed as the platforms for the immobilization and immunoreaction process. A pair of primary and secondary antibodies was used to capture the MUC1 protein. After labeling with a third antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP, the resulting conjugate was trapped at the surface of the graphite-based SPEs and MUC1 determination was carried out by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV at 0.4 V upon H2O2 addition using acetaminophen (APAP as the redox mediator. A linear relationship was obtained for the detection of human MUC1 over a range of 0–25 ppb with the lowest detection limit of 1.34 ppb when HRP was applied as a label. Preliminary experiments were performed using disposable electrochemical sensors in order to optimize some parameters (i.e., incubation times, concentrations, and blocking agent.

  12. Radiation synthesis of chitosan beads grafted with acrylic acid for metal ions sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamer, S.; Mahlous, M.; Tahtat, D.; Nacer-Khodja, A.; Arabi, M.; Lounici, H.; Mameri, N.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan beads was performed in solution at a dose rate of 20.6 Gy/min of cobalt-60 gamma rays. The effect of absorbed dose on grafting yield was investigated. The characterization of the grafted material was performed by FTIR spectroscopy and the swelling measurements at different pHs. The grafting yield increased with the increase in dose, it reached 80% at 40 kGy irradiation dose. The removal of Pb and Cd ions from aqueous solutions was investigated with both ungrafted and grafted chitosan beads. The sorption behavior of the sorbents was examined through pH, kinetics and equilibrium measurements. Grafted chitosan beads presented higher sorption capacity for both metal ions than unmodified chitosan beads. - Highlights: → Pb and Cd ions are removed from aqueous solution by adsorption on chitosan beads. → Crosslinking process improves chemical stability of chitosan beads. → Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan improves its metal adsorption capacity. → Increase in grafting degree enhances the adsorption capacity of the material. → Gamma radiation is a powerful tool for an accurate control of the grafting yield.

  13. Optimization of Enzyme Co-Immobilization with Sodium Alginate and Glutaraldehyde-Activated Chitosan Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Sinem Diken; İdil, Neslihan; Aksöz, Nilüfer

    2018-02-01

    In this study, two different materials-alginate and glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads-were used for the co-immobilization of α-amylase, protease, and pectinase. Firstly, optimization of multienzyme immobilization with Na alginate beads was carried out. Optimum Na alginate and CaCl 2 concentration were found to be 2.5% and 0.1 M, respectively, and optimal enzyme loading ratio was determined as 2:1:0.02 for pectinase, protease, and α-amylase, respectively. Next, the immobilization of multiple enzymes on glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads was optimized (3% chitosan concentration, 0.25% glutaraldehyde with 3 h of activation and 3 h of coupling time). While co-immobilization was successfully performed with both materials, the specific activities of enzymes were found to be higher for the enzymes co-immobilized with glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads. In this process, glutaraldehyde was acting as a spacer arm. SEM and FTIR were used for the characterization of activated chitosan beads. Moreover, pectinase and α-amylase enzymes immobilized with chitosan beads were also found to have higher activity than their free forms. Three different enzymes were co-immobilized with these two materials for the first time in this study.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Psyllium on the Viability of Lactobacillus Acidophilus in Alginate-Polyl Lysine Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Jaleh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Maghsoodi, Maryam; Lotfipour, Farzaneh

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Psylliumseeds are used in traditional herbal medicine to treat various disorders. Moreover, as a soluble fiber, psyllium has potential to stimulate bacterial growth in digestive system. We aimed to substitute alkali-extractable polysaccharides of psyllium for alginate in beads with second coat of poly-l-lysine to coat Lactobacillus acidophilus. Methods: Beads were prepared using extrusion technique. Poly-l-lysine as second coat was incorporated on optimum alginate/psyllium beads using immersion technique. Beads were characterized in terms of size, encapsulation efficiency, integrity and bacterial survival in harsh conditions. Results: Beads with narrow size distribution ranging from 1.85 ± 0.05 to 2.40 ± 0.18 mm with encapsulation efficiency higher than 96% were achieved. Psyllium concentrations in beads did not produce constant trend in bead sizes. Surface topography by SEM showed that substitution of psyllium enhanced integrity of obtained beads. Psyllium successfully protected the bacteria against acidic condition and lyophilization equal to alginate in the beads. Better survivability with beads of alginate/psyllium-poly-l-lysine was achieved with around 2 log rise in bacterial count in acid condition compared to the corresponding single coat beads. Conclusion: Alginate/psyllium (1:2) beads with narrow size distribution and high encapsulation efficiency of the bacteria have been achieved. Presence of psyllium produced a much smoother and integrated surface texture for the beads with sufficient protection of the bacteria against acidic condition as much as alginate. Considering the health benefits of psyllium and its prebiotic activity, psyllium can be beneficially replaced in part for alginate in probiotic coating.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Spherical Silica-titania Aerogel Beads with High Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yu-xi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The silica-titania aerogel beads were synthesized through sol-gel reaction followed by supercritical drying, in which TEOS and TBT as co-precursors, EtOH as solvents, HAC and NH3·H2O as catalysts. The as-prepared aerogel beads were characterized by SEM,TEM,XRD,FT-IR,TG-DTA and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The results indicate that the diameter distribution of beads are between 1-8mm, the average diameter of beads is 3.5mm. The aerogel beads have nanoporous network structure with high specific surface area of 914.5m2/g, and the TiO2 particles are distributed in the aerogel uniformly, which keep the anatase crystal under high temperature.

  16. [XPS analysis of beads formed by fuse breaking of electric copper wire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Meng, Qing-Shan; Wang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Wei; Di, Man

    2010-05-01

    The in-depth composition of beads formed by fuse breaking of the electric copper wire in different circumstances was studied by XPS with Ar+ ion sputtering. In addition, the measured Auger spectra and the calculated Auger parameters were compared for differentiation of the substances of Cu and Cu2O. Corresponding to the sputtering depth, the molten product on a bead induced directly by fuse breaking of the copper wire without cover may be distinguished as three portions: surface layer with a drastic decrease in carbon content; intermediate layer with a gentle change in oxygen content and gradually diminished carbon peak, and consisting of Cu2O; transition layer without Cu2O and with a rapid decrease in oxygen content. While the molten product on a bead formed by fuse breaking of the copper wire after its insulating cover had been burned out may be distinguished as two portions: surface layer with carbon content decreasing quickly; subsurface layer without Cu2O and with carbon and oxygen content decreasing gradually. Thus, it can be seen that there was an obvious interface between the layered surface product and the substrate for the first type of bead, while as to the second type of bead there was no interface. As a result, the presence of Cu2O and the quantitative results can be used to identify the molten product on a bead induced directly by fuse breaking of the copper wire without cover and the molten product on a bead formed by fuse breaking of the cupper wire after its insulating cover had been burned out, as a complementary technique for the judgments of fire cause.

  17. bEADS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    While there are a great variety of digital musical interfaces available to the working musician, few offer the level of immediate, nuanced and instinctive interaction that one finds in an acoustic shaker. bEADS is a prototype of a digital musical instrument that utilises the gestural vocabulary...... associated with shaken idiophones and expands on the techniques and sonic possibilities associated with them. By using a bespoke physically informed synthesis engine, in conjunction with accelerometer and pressure sensor data, an actuated handheld instrument has been built that allows for quickly switching...... between widely differing percussive sound textures. The prototype has been evaluated by three experts with different levels of involvement in professional music making....

  18. Magnetic nanoparticle-loaded alginate beads for local micro-actuation of in vitro tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Awatef M; Wilson, Otto C; Dahal, Bishnu; Philip, John; Luo, Xiaolong; Raub, Christopher B

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) self-align and transduce magnetic force, two properties which lead to promising applications in cell and tissue engineering. However, the toxicity of MNPs to cells which uptake them is a major impediment to applications in engineered tissue constructs. To address this problem, MNPs were embedded in millimeter-scale alginate beads, coated with glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan, and loaded in acellular and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell-seeded collagen hydrogels, providing local micro-actuation under an external magnetic field. Brightfield microscopy was used to assess nanoparticle diffusion from the bead. Phase contrast microscopy and d