WorldWideScience

Sample records for bead array technology

  1. Assessment of phytoplankton community dynamics using bead array technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Asako

    2010-01-01

    Molecular methods are becoming increasingly popular in the field of microbial ecology for the characterization of phytoplankton communities at the taxonomic level. However, many techniques lack the potential for large scale spatiotemporal studies due to limitations in their methodology. In this study, a high-throughput, rapid and cost effective hybridization-based bead assay was applied to two sets of samples : (1) a yearlong time series (March 2009-2010) of surface seawater samples taken off...

  2. BeadArray expression analysis using bioconductor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Ritchie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Illumina whole-genome expression BeadArrays are a popular choice in gene profiling studies. Aside from the vendor-provided software tools for analyzing BeadArray expression data (GenomeStudio/BeadStudio, there exists a comprehensive set of open-source analysis tools in the Bioconductor project, many of which have been tailored to exploit the unique properties of this platform. In this article, we explore a number of these software packages and demonstrate how to perform a complete analysis of BeadArray data in various formats. The key steps of importing data, performing quality assessments, preprocessing, and annotation in the common setting of assessing differential expression in designed experiments will be covered.

  3. A high-throughput liquid bead array-based screening technology for Bt presence in GMO manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Wang, Huiyu; Wang, Chenguang; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei; Han, Xueqing; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-03-15

    The number of species and planting areas of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been rapidly developed during the past ten years. For the purpose of GMO inspection, quarantine and manipulation, we have now devised a high-throughput Bt-based GMOs screening method based on the liquid bead array. This novel method is based on the direct competitive recognition between biotinylated antibodies and beads-coupled antigens, searching for Bt presence in samples if it contains Bt Cry1 Aa, Bt Cry1 Ab, Bt Cry1 Ac, Bt Cry1 Ah, Bt Cry1 B, Bt Cry1 C, Bt Cry1 F, Bt Cry2 A, Bt Cry3 or Bt Cry9 C. Our method has a wide GMO species coverage so that more than 90% of the whole commercialized GMO species can be identified throughout the world. Under our optimization, specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and availability validation, the method shows a high specificity and 10-50 ng/mL sensitivity of quantification. We then assessed more than 1800 samples in the field and food market to prove capacity of our method in performing a high throughput screening work for GMO manipulation. Our method offers an applicant platform for further inspection and research on GMO plants. PMID:26499065

  4. Expanded polylactide bead foaming - A new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.

    2015-05-01

    Bead foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with complex geometries. During the molding stage of the bead foams, the double peak structure generates a strong bead-to-bead sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) bead foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA bead foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA bead foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA bead foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.

  5. Development, Characterisation and Application of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Detection and Quantification of Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus in Plasma Samples Using Luminex Bead Array Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, R.; Thompson, K. D.; Herath, T.; Collet, B.; Bron, J. E.; Adams, A.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus that has had a significant economic impact on Atlantic salmon farming in Europe, North America and Chile. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed against Segment 3 (encoding the viral nucleoprotein, NP) of the virus. Six of the mAbs were shown to be specific to ISAV and recognised all isolates from Scotland, Norway and Canada. They reacted with ISAV in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and western blotting. They were also used to develop a novel detection method based on Luminex (Bio-Plex) bead-based flow cytometric technology for the detection of ISAV in the plasma of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts experimentally infected with ISAV. Fish were challenged by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of virus at 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50) = 2.8 x106 per animal. Virus present in plasma of infected fish, collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 28 days post infection using a non-lethal sampling method (n = 12 at each time point), was quantified using the optimised Bio-Plex assay. The results obtained with this assay were compared with absolute quantification of the virus by RT-qPCR using SYBR Green I and TaqMan chemistries. The Bio-Plex assay developed using the NP mAbs appears to be a rapid, sensitive method for detecting and quantifying ISAV in small volumes of fish plasma and has the potential to be multiplexed for the detection of other fish pathogens (e.g. during co-infections). To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of Luminex (Bio-Plex) technology for the detection of a fish pathogen. PMID:27434377

  6. Multiplex bead-array competitive immunoassay for simultaneous detection of three pesticides in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a multiplex bead-based competitive immunoassay using suspension array technology for the simultaneous detection of the pesticides triazophos, carbofuran and chlorpyrifos. Three hapten-protein conjugates were covalently bound to carboxylated fluorescent microspheres to serve as probes. The amount of conjugates and antibodies were optimized. The new multi-analyte assay has dynamic ranges of 0.02-50 ng mL-1, 0.5-500 ng mL-1 and 1.0-1000 ng mL-1 for triazophos, carbofuran and chlorpyrifos, respectively, and the detection limits are 0.024, 0.93 and 1.68 ng mL-1. This new multiplex assay is superior to the traditional ELISA in possessing a wider detection range, better reproducibility and the feature of multi-target detection. Cross-reactivity studies indicated that the bead-array method is highly selective for the three target pesticides, and that individual analyses have no significant influence between each other, also without cross-reactions from other structurally related pesticides. The method was applied to analyze vegetables spiked with the three pesticides, and the recoveries were in ranges of 78.5-112.1 %, 72.2-120.2 % and 70.2-112.8 %, respectively, with mean coefficients of variation of <15 %. (author)

  7. Tumour metastasis-associated gene profiling using one-dimensional microfluidic beads array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Great efforts have been made on the early diagnosis and molecular mechanism research of tumour metastasis in recent years. In this paper, based on the one-dimensional microfluidic beads array, a novel platform for tumour metastasis-associated genes profiling has been developed by depositing nucleic acids functional beads in the microchannel. This platform is sensitive (limit of detection: 0.02 nmol/L) and can perform mRNAs analysis without PCR. Two human colon cancer cell lines (primary and metastatic) from the same patient were used as a model, and transcriptional expression profiling of multiple tumour metastasis-associated genes in these two cell lines was successfully achieved. Furthermore, the results obtained on the beads array were validated by RT-PCR. This novel beads array has advantages of high sensitivity, little sample consumption, short assay time, low cost and high throughput capability. It holds the potential in early diagnosis and mechanism research of tumour metastasis.

  8. Bead-based suspension array for simultaneous differential detection of five major swine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Gao, Xiao-Bo; Xue, Cun-Yi; Song, Chang-Xu; Li, Yan; Cao, Yong-Chang

    2015-01-01

    A novel multiplex detection array based on Luminex xMAP technology was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of five major viruses causing swine reproductive diseases. By combining one-step asymmetric multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with xMAP bead-based hybridization and flow cytometry analysis, the resulting multiplex assay was capable of detecting single and mixed infections of PRRSV, PCV-2, PRV, CSFV, and PPV in a single reaction. The assay accurately detected and differentiated 23 viral strains used in this study. The low detection limit was determined as 2.2-22 copies/μL (corresponding to 0.5-6.8 fg/μL DNA template) on plasmid constructs containing viral fragments. The intra-assay and inter-assay variances (CV%) were low that ranged from 2.5 to 5.4 % and 4.1 to 7.6 %, respectively. The assay was applied to test field samples and detected single and mixed viral infections. The detection rate was higher than that of uniplex conventional PCR and RT-PCR methods. The detection of PRRSV by the bead-based multiplex assay was comparable with a commercially available real time RT-PCR kit. The test procedure on purified DNA or RNA samples could be completed within 2 h. In conclusion, the bead-based suspension array presented here proved to be a high-throughput practical tool that provided highly specific and sensitive identification of single and multiple infections of five major viruses in pigs and boar semen. PMID:25557628

  9. Micromachined filter-chamber array with passive valves for biochemical assays on beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenberg, Jan; Verpoorte, Elisabeth; De Rooij, Nico F.

    2001-01-01

    The filter-chamber array presented here enables a real-time parallel analysis of three different samples on beads in a volume of 3 nL, on a 1 cm2chip. The filter-chamber array is a system containing three filter-chambers, three passive valves at the inlet channels and a common outlet. The design ena

  10. Single-bead arrays for fluorescence-based immunoassays on capillary-driven microfluidic chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Yuksel; Lim, Michel; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    We report a concept for the simple fabrication of easy-to-use chips for immunoassays in the context of point-of-care diagnostics. The chip concept comprises mainly three features: (1) the efficient integration of reagents using beads functionalized with receptors, (2) the generation of capillary-driven liquid flows without using external pumps, and (3) a high-sensitivity detection of analytes using fluorescence microscopy. We fabricated prototype chips using dry etching of Si wafers. 4.5-μm-diameter beads were integrated into hexagonal arrays by sedimentation and removing the excess using a stream of water. We studied the effect of different parameters and showed that array occupancies from 30% to 50% can be achieved by pipetting a 250 nL droplet of 1% bead solution and allowing the beads sediment for 3 min. Chips with integrated beads were sealed using a 50-μm-thick dry-film resist laminated at 45 °C. Liquids pipetted to loading pads were autonomously pulled by capillary pumps at a rate of 0.35 nL s-1 for about 30 min. We studied ligand-receptor interactions and binding kinetics using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and demonstrated a 5 pM limit of detection (LOD) for an anti-biotin immunoassay. As a clinically-relevant example, we implemented an immunoassay to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA) and showed an LOD of 108 fM (i.e. 3.6 pg mL-1). While a specific implementation is provided here for the detection of PSA, we believe that combining capillary-driven microfluidics with arrays of single beads and fluorescence readout to be very flexible and sufficiently sensitive for the detection of other clinically-relevant analytes.

  11. A Multiplex PCR-coupled Liquid Bead Array for the Simultaneous Detection of Four Biothreat Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W J; Erler, A M; Nasarabadi, S L; Skowronski, E W; McCready, P M

    2004-02-04

    We have developed a 10-plexed PCR assay coupled to a 12-plexed liquid bead array to rapidly screen environmental samples for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, and B. melitensis. Highly validated species -specific primer sets were used to simultaneously amplify multiple diagnostic regions unique to each individual pathogen. Resolution of the mix of amplified products was achieved by PCR product hybridization to corresponding probe sequences, attached to unique sets of fluorescent beads. The hybridized beads were processed through a flow cytometer, which detected presence and quantity of each PCR product. The assay was optimized to allow for maximum sensitivity in a multiplexed format. A high- throughput demonstration was performed where 384 simulated environmental samples were spiked with different amounts of B. thuringensis spores and pathogen DNA. The samples were robotically processed to extract DNA and arrayed for multiplexed PCR-liquid bead detection. The assay correctly identified the presence or absence of each pathogen and collected over 3,000 individual data points within a single 8-hour shift for approximately $1.20 per sample in a 10-plexed assay.

  12. Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rigid bead arrays at low shear: accounting for the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stuart A; Pei, Hongxia

    2009-06-11

    In this work, we examine the viscosity of a dilute suspension of irregularly shaped particles at low shear. A particle is modeled as a rigid array of nonoverlapping beads of variable size and geometry. Starting from a boundary element formalism, approximate account is taken of the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the surface of the individual beads. For a touching dimer of two identical beads, the predicted viscosity is lower than the exact value by 5.2%. The methodology is then applied to several other model systems including tetramers of variable conformation and linear strings of touching beads. An analysis is also carried out of the viscosity and translational diffusion of several dilute amino acids and diglycine in water. It is concluded that continuum hydrodynamic modeling with stick boundary conditions is unable to account for the experimental viscosity and diffusion data simultaneously. A model intermediate between "stick" and "slip" could possibly reconcile theory and experiment. PMID:19453112

  13. Detection of mitochondrial DNA with the compact bead array sensor system (cBASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shawn P.; Ibe, Carol N.; Caldwell, Jane M.; Levine, Jay F.; Whitman, Lloyd J.; Tamanaha, Cy R.

    2009-02-01

    Enteric pathogens are a significant contaminant in surface waters used for recreation, fish and shellfish harvesting, crop irrigation, and human consumption. The need for water monitoring becomes more pronounced when industrial, agricultural, and residential lands are found in close proximity. Fecal contamination is particularly problematic and identification of the pollution source essential to remediation efforts. Standard monitoring for fecal contamination relies on indicator organisms, but the technique is too broad to identify the source of contamination. Instead, real-time PCR of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an emerging method for identification of the contamination source. Presented herein, we evaluate an alternative technology, the compact Bead Array Sensor System (cBASS®) and its assay approach Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD), for the detection of mtDNA. Previously, we achieved multiplexed, attomolar detection of toxins and femtomolar detection of nucleic acids in minutes with FFD assays. More importantly, FFD assays are compatible with a variety of complex matrices and therefore potentially applicable for samples where the matrix would interfere with PCR amplification. We have designed a triplex assay for the NADH gene found in human, swine, and bovine mtDNA and demonstrated the specific detection of human mtDNA spiked into a waste water sample.

  14. Tunable nano bead arrays on film for controlling propogation of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharac, Nicholas; Sharma, Himanshu; Khine, Michelle; Ragan, Regina

    2013-09-01

    Periodic arrays of sub-wavelength structures have garnered significant interest for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF), and for anti-reflective coating properties. For SERS and MEF, coupling metal nanoparticles with nanometer scale spacing can induce strong local electromagnetic field enhancements at the plasmon resonance, significantly increasing the Raman signal or fluorescence of a molecule. Inspired by moth eyes, metal nanoparticle arrays can reduce the reflection of incident light, shown useful for improving the efficiency of solar cells. Here, we present fabrication of robust, tunable, inexpensive and quickly reproducible gold coated, nanopillar arrays for applications in enhancing Raman/fluorescence signals or antireflective surfaces for efficient solar cells. To create homogenous metallic nanostructures with controllable sizes and interparticle spacings, we have integrated conventional nanosphere lithography techniques with thermally responsive polyolefin (PO) films. Spin coating 500 nm PS beads onto PO substrates, followed by oxygen plasma etching, is used to vary the size and periodicity of the resulting PS nanopillar bead array. A 50 nm thick gold film can then be added using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Nanostructures were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. When heated from room temperature up to 115oC, structures on PO films undergo a reduction in feature size and interparticle spacing by up to 35 % in length and 50% in surface area.

  15. A micro-pillar array to trap magnetic beads in microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2012-12-01

    A micro-pillar array (MPA) is proposed in this paper to trap and separate magnetic beads (MBs) in microfluidic systems. MBs are used in many biomedical applications due to being compatible in dimension to biomolecules, the large surface area available to attach biomolecules, and the fact that they can be controlled by a magnetic field. Trapping and separating these labeled biomolecules is an important step toward achieving reliable and accurate quantification for disease diagnostics. Nickel Iron (Ni50Fe 50) micro-pillars were fabricated on a Silicon (Si) substrate by standard microfabrication techniques. Experimental results showed that MBs could be trapped on the MPA at the single bead level and separated from other non-target particles. This principle can easily be extended to trap and separate target biomolecules in heterogeneous biological samples. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Allergen Micro-Bead Array for IgE Detection: A Feasibility Study Using Allergenic Molecules Tested on a Flexible Multiplex Flow Cytometric Immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Debora Pomponi; Maria Livia Bernardi; Marina Liso; Paola Palazzo; Lisa Tuppo; Chiara Rafaiani; Mario Santoro; Alexis Labrada; Maria Antonietta Ciardiello; Adriano Mari; Enrico Scala

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergies represent the most prevalent non infective diseases worldwide. Approaching IgE-mediated sensitizations improved much by adopting allergenic molecules instead of extracts, and by using the micro-technology for multiplex testing. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To provide a proof-of-concept that a flow cytometric bead array is a feasible mean for the detection of specific IgE reactivity to allergenic molecules in a multiplex-like way. A flow cytometry Allergenic Molecule-based micr...

  17. Image Decoding of Photonic Crystal Beads Array in the Microfluidic Chip for Multiplex Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junjie; Zhao, Xiangwei; Wang, Xiaoxia; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-10-01

    Along with the miniaturization and intellectualization of biomedical instruments, the increasing demand of health monitoring at anywhere and anytime elevates the need for the development of point of care testing (POCT). Photonic crystal beads (PCBs) as one kind of good encoded microcarriers can be integrated with microfluidic chips in order to realize cost-effective and high sensitive multiplex bioassays. However, there are difficulties in analyzing them towards automated analysis due to the characters of the PCBs and the unique detection manner. In this paper, we propose a strategy to take advantage of automated image processing for the color decoding of the PCBs array in the microfluidic chip for multiplex assays. By processing and alignment of two modal images of epi-fluorescence and epi-white light, every intact bead in the image is accurately extracted and decoded by PC colors, which stand for the target species. This method, which shows high robustness and accuracy under various configurations, eliminates the high hardware requirement of spectroscopy analysis and user-interaction software, and provides adequate supports for the general automated analysis of POCT based on PCBs array.

  18. A flow cytometric assay technology based on quantum dots-encoded beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flow cytometric detecting technology based on quantum dots (QDs)-encoded beads has been described. Using this technology, several QDs-encoded beads with different code were identified effectively, and the target molecule (DNA sequence) in solution was also detected accurately by coupling to its complementary sequence probed on QDs-encoded beads through DNA hybridization assay. The resolution of this technology for encoded beads is resulted from two longer wavelength fluorescence identification signals (yellow and red fluorescent signals of QDs), and the third shorter wavelength fluorescence signal (green reporting signal of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)) for the determination of reaction between probe and target. In experiment, because of QDs' unique optical character, only one excitation light source was needed to excite the QDs and probe dye FITC synchronously comparing with other flow cytometric assay technology. The results show that this technology has present excellent repeatability and good accuracy. It will become a promising multiple assay platform in various application fields after further improvement

  19. Magnetic force-assisted self-locking metallic bead array for fabrication of diverse concave microwell geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-Hun; Park, Ye Eun; Cho, Minhaeng; Park, Hansoo; Park, Joong Yull

    2016-09-21

    Spheroid cell culture is very useful for further understanding cellular behavior including motility and biochemical reaction since it mimics three-dimensional (3D) in vivo organ tissue. Among previously proposed various methods for spheroid production, such as hanging drop and spinner flask, microwell is a recently developed method harnessing microtechnology to produce uniform-sized spheroids. Although soft-lithography has been popular for creating microwell arrays, a 3D spherical geometry has been regarded as difficult to fabricate using conventional methods, or often requires complex fabrication processes and expensive equipment. Here, we propose a new method for fabricating concave microwells for cell spheroid production and culture. To demonstrate this method, we fabricated a 30 × 30 microwell array in 3 × 3 cm plates, utilizing metal beads, a through-hole array, and an assembly of small magnets. The spherical metal beads were used as a mold for the microwell, naturally creating the desired 3D concave microwell geometry. One of the key ideas was to place and hold each metal bead in the designated through-hole using the small magnet array. We also performed computational simulation of the magnetostatic force to design and observe the magnetic force field in detail. In addition, to provide a practical demonstration of the proposed system in cell biology, we created and cultured adipose-derived stem cell spheroids for 14 days for chondrogenic differentiation. This method allows further variations in microwell geometry that will enhance the method's applicability as a helpful tool for various studies in cell biology, cancer research, and tissue engineering. PMID:27509885

  20. A user-friendly workflow for analysis of Illumina gene expression bead array data available at the arrayanalysis.org portal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goelela, V.S.; Kelder, T.; Adriaens, M.E.; Evelo, C.T.; Radonijc, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Illumina whole-genome expression bead arrays are a widely used platform for transcriptomics. Most of the tools available for the analysis of the resulting data are not easily applicable by less experienced users. ArrayAnalysis.org provides researchers with an easy-to-use and comprehensive

  1. Antibody-integrated and functionalized graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads, produced using ammonia gas plasma technology, for capturing Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Chou, Han; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella spp. is the single and most important causative agent of foodborne infections, especially involving foods such as eggs, milk and meat. To prevent infection, a reliable surveillance system is required that can quickly and sensitively detect Salmonella. Here, we describe the development of antibody-integrated magnetic beads that are functionalized by a novel strategy using ammonia gas plasma. Ammonia plasma, produced by a radio frequency (RF) power supply, was allowed to react with the surface of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads, resulting in the introduction of amino groups. An anti-Salmonella antibody was then anchored by sulfide groups present on the protein surface to the amino groups of the magnetic beads via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The potential usefulness of these magnetic beads for capturing Salmonella was examined as follows. The beads were incubated with Salmonella in liquid medium and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thorough washing, adsorption of Salmonella to the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction and a direct culture assay. Our findings indicate that the capture and concentration of Salmonella using the antibody-integrated magnetic beads was more efficient than commercial Dynabeads® anti-Salmonella, which are conventionally used for concentrating Salmonella from liquid cultures. We believe this novel bead technology will contribute to the enhanced detection of Salmonella. PMID:25660257

  2. Rotational Diffusion of Macromolecules and Nanoparticles Modeled as Non-Overlapping Bead Arrays in an Effective Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Twahir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the retarding influence of a gel on the rotational motion of a macromolecule is investigated within the framework of the Effective Medium (EM model. This is an extension of an earlier study that considered the effect of a gel on the translational motion of a macromolecule [Allison, S. et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 5858-5866]. The macromolecule is modeled as an array of non-overlapping spherical beads with no restriction placed on their size or configuration. Specific applications include the rotational motion of right circular cylinders and wormlike chains modeled as strings of identical touching beads. The procedure is then used to examine the electric birefringence decay of a 622 base pair DNA fragment in an agarose gel. At low gel concentration (M £ 0.010 gm/mL, good agreement between theory and experiment is achieved if the persistence length of DNA is taken to be 65 nm and the gel fiber radius of agarose is taken to be 2.5 nm. At higher gel concentrations, the EM model substantially underestimates the rotational relaxation time of DNA and this can be attributed to the onset of direct interactions that become significant when the effective particle size becomes comparable to the mean gel fiber spacing.

  3. Allergen micro-bead array for IgE detection: a feasibility study using allergenic molecules tested on a flexible multiplex flow cytometric immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Pomponi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergies represent the most prevalent non infective diseases worldwide. Approaching IgE-mediated sensitizations improved much by adopting allergenic molecules instead of extracts, and by using the micro-technology for multiplex testing. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To provide a proof-of-concept that a flow cytometric bead array is a feasible mean for the detection of specific IgE reactivity to allergenic molecules in a multiplex-like way. A flow cytometry Allergenic Molecule-based micro-bead Array system (ABA was set by coupling allergenic molecules with commercially available micro-beads. Allergen specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, as well as samples from 167 allergic patients, characterized by means of the ISAC microarray system, were used as means to show the feasibility of the ABA. Three hundred and thirty-six sera were tested for 1 or more of the 16 selected allergens, for a total number of 1,519 tests on each of the two systems. RESULTS: Successful coupling was initially verified by detecting the binding of rabbit polyclonal IgG, mouse monoclonal, and pooled human IgE toward three allergens, namely nDer s 1, nPen m 1, and nPru p 3. The ABA assay showed to detect IgE to nAct d 1, nAct d 11, rAln g 1, nAmb a 1, nArt v 3, rBet v 1, rCor a 1, nCup a 1, nDer p 1, nDer s 1, rHev b 5, nOle e 1, rPar j 2, nPen m 1, rPhl p 1, and nPru p 3. Results obtained by ABA IgE testing were highly correlated to ISAC testing (r = 0.87, p<0.0001. No unspecific binding was recorded because of high total IgE values. CONCLUSION: The ABA assay represents a useful and flexible method for multiplex IgE detection using allergenic molecules. As also shown by our initial experiments with monoclonals and polyclonals, ABA is suitable for detecting other human and non-human immunoglobulins.

  4. Capture and characterization of influenza A virus from primary samples using glycan bead arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miriam; Fisher, Christopher J; Huang, Mia L; Lindsay, LeAnn L; Plancarte, Magdalena; Boyce, Walter M; Godula, Kamil; Gagneux, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) utilize sialylated host glycans as ligands for binding and infection. The glycan-binding preference of IAV hemagglutinin (HA) is an important determinant of host specificity. Propagation of IAV in embryonated chicken eggs and cultured mammalian cells yields viruses with amino acid substitutions in the HA that can alter the binding specificity. Therefore, it is important to determine the binding specificity of IAV directly in primary samples since it reflects the actual tropism of virus in nature. We developed a novel platform for analysis of IAV binding specificity in samples that contain very low virus titers. This platform consists of a high-density flexible glycan display on magnetic beads, which promotes multivalent interactions with the viral HA. Glycan-bound virus is detected by quantifying the viral neuraminidase activity via a fluorogenic reporter, 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid. This method eliminates the need for labeling the virus and significantly enhances the sensitivity of detection. PMID:27031581

  5. Development of multiplexed bead arrays for the simultaneous detection of nucleic acid from multiple viruses in bat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Victoria; Smith, Ina; Crameri, Gary; Burroughs, Amy L; Durr, Peter A; White, John; Cowled, Christopher; Marsh, Glenn A; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-10-01

    Virus surveillance of wildlife populations is important for identifying, monitoring, and predicting the emergence of pathogens that pose a potential threat to animal and human health. Bats are identified as important wildlife hosts of many viruses capable of causing fatal human disease, including members of the henipaviruses, coronaviruses, rhabdoviruses and filoviruses. As global warming and habitat change are thought to impact upon pathogen transmission dynamics and increase the risk of spillover, virus surveillance in bat populations remains a significant component of efforts to improve the prediction and control of potential future disease outbreaks caused by bat-borne viruses. In this study we have developed two fluid bead array assays containing customized panels that target multiple bat-borne viruses. These assays detect up to 11 viral RNA's simultaneously in urine samples collected from wild bat populations in Australia and Bangladesh. The assays developed show high specificity for the target viruses and the analytical sensitivity compares favorably to qRT-PCR. These assays enhance the ability to monitor multi-pathogen dynamics and identify patterns of virus shedding from bat populations, thus informing key approaches to outbreak response and control. PMID:26190638

  6. Flow-orthogonal bead oscillation in a microfluidic chip with a magnetic anisotropic flux-guide array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Pelt, Stijn; Derks, Roy; Matteucci, Marco; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Dietzel, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A new concept for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads inside a microfluidic chip is presented in this paper. The concept allows for bead actuation orthogonal to the flow direction inside a microchannel. Basic manipulation functionalities were studied by means of finite element simulations...... polycarbonate and electroforming of nickel flux-guides. Bead velocities up to 450 μm/s were measured in a 75 μm wide channel. By prescribing the currents in the external quadrupole magnet, the shape of the bead trajectory could be controlled....

  7. Stretched Lens Array Photovoltaic Concentrator Technology Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    Solar arrays have been and continue to be the mainstay in providing power to nearly all commercial and government spacecraft. Light from the Sun is directly converted into electrical energy using solar cells. One way to reduce the cost of future space power systems is by minimizing the size and number of expensive solar cells by focusing the sunlight onto smaller cells using concentrator optics. The stretched lens array (SLA) is a unique concept that uses arched Fresnel lens concentrators to focus sunlight onto a line of high-efficiency solar cells located directly beneath. The SLA concept is based on the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) design that was used on NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 mission. The highly successful asteroid/comet rendezvous mission (1998 to 2001) demonstrated the performance and long-term durability of the SCARLET/SLA solar array design and set the foundation for further improvements to optimize its performance.

  8. Self-organizing magnetic beads for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Ozelt, Harald; Schrefl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In the field of biomedicine magnetic beads are used for drug delivery and to treat hyperthermia. Here we propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells using lab-on-chip technologies. Typically blood flows past microposts functionalized with antibodies for circulating tumor cells. Creating these microposts with interacting magnetic beads makes it possible to tune the geometry in size, position and shape. We developed a simulation tool that combines micromagnetics and discrete particle dynamics, in order to design micropost arrays made of interacting beads. The simulation takes into account the viscous drag of the blood flow, magnetostatic interactions between the magnetic beads and gradient forces from external aligned magnets. We developed a particle-particle particle-mesh method for effective computation of the magnetic force and torque acting on the particles.

  9. Aptamer-based microfluidic beads array sensor for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes employing multienzyme-linked nanoparticle amplification and quantum dots labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Hu, Xinjiang; Fu, Xin

    2014-07-15

    This study reports the development of an aptamer-mediated microfluidic beads-based sensor for multiple analytes detection and quantification using multienzyme-linked nanoparticle amplification and quantum dots labels. Adenosine and cocaine were selected as the model analytes to validate the assay design based on strand displacement induced by target-aptamer complex. Microbeads functionalized with the aptamers and modified electron rich proteins were arrayed within a microfluidic channel and were connected with the horseradish peroxidases (HRP) and capture DNA probe derivative gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via hybridization. The conformational transition of aptamer induced by target-aptamer complex contributes to the displacement of functionalized AuNPs and decreases the fluorescence signal of microbeads. In this approach, increased binding events of HRP on each nanosphere and enhanced mass transport capability inherent from microfluidics are integrated for enhancing the detection sensitivity of analytes. Based on the dual signal amplification strategy, the developed aptamer-based microfluidic bead array sensor could discriminate as low as 0.1 pM of adenosine and 0.5 pM cocaine, and showed a 500-fold increase in detection limit of adenosine compared to the off-chip test. The results proved the microfluidic-based method was a rapid and efficient system for aptamer-based targets assays (adenosine (0.1 pM) and cocaine (0.5 pM)), requiring only minimal (microliter) reagent use. This work demonstrated the successful application of aptamer-based microfluidic beads array sensor for detection of important molecules in biomedical fields. PMID:24534576

  10. A multiplex bead-based suspension array assay for interrogation of phylogenetically informative single nucleotide polymorphisms for Bacillus anthracis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thierry, Simon; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A.; Girault, Guillaume;

    2013-01-01

    reaction for signal amplification and labeling of ligation products carrying SNP targets. These innovations significantly reduce cross-reactivity observed when initial MOLigo probes were used and enhance hybridization efficiency onto the microsphere array, respectively. When evaluated on 73 representative...... need. By using the versatile Luminex® xTAG technology, we developed an efficient multiplexed SNP genotyping assay to score 13 phylogenetically informative SNPs within the genome of Bacillus anthracis. The Multiplex Oligonucleotide Ligation-PCR procedure (MOL-PCR) described by Deshpande et al., 2010 has...... been modified and adapted for simultaneous interrogation of 13 biallelic canonical SNPs in a 13-plex assay. Changes made to the originally published method include the design of allele-specific dual-priming-oligonucleotides (DPOs) as competing detection probes (MOLigo probes) and use of asymmetric PCR...

  11. Capture of dengue viruses using antibody-integrated graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads produced using gas plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Viswan, Anchu; Chou, Han; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-07-01

    Despite significant advances in medicine, global health is threatened by emerging infectious diseases caused by a number of viruses. Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito‑borne virus, which can be transmitted to humans via mosquito vectors. Previously, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan reported the country's first domestically acquired case of dengue fever for almost 70 years. To address this issue, it is important to develop novel technologies for the sensitive detection of DENV. The present study reported on the development of plasma-functionalized, graphite-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles (GrMNPs) conjugated with anti-DENV antibody for DENV capture. Radiofrequency wave‑excited inductively‑coupled Ar and ammonia gas plasmas were used to introduce amino groups onto the surface of the GrMNPs. The GrMNPs were then conjugated with an antibody against DENV, and the antibody‑integrated magnetic beads were assessed for their ability to capture DENV. Beads incubated in a cell culture medium of DENV‑infected mosquito cells were separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field and were then washed. The adsorption of DENV serotypes 1‑4 onto the beads was confirmed using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction, which detected the presence of DENV genomic RNA on the GrMNPs. The methodology described in the present study, which employed the plasma-functionalization of GrMNPs to enable antibody‑integration, represents a significant improvement in the detection of DENV. PMID:27221214

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPD-induced immune biomarkers measurable in vitro following BCG vaccination of UK adolescents by multiplex bead array and intracellular cytokine staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worth Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaccine efficacy reported following Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG administration to UK adolescents is 77% and defining the cellular immune response in this group can inform us as to the nature of effective immunity against tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to identify which cytokines and lymphocyte populations characterise the peripheral blood cellular immune response following BCG vaccination. Results Diluted blood from before and after vaccination was stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative for 6 days, after which soluble biomarkers in supernatants were assayed by multiplex bead array. Ten out of twenty biomarkers measured were significantly increased (p Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative stimulation of PBMC samples from the 12 month group revealed that IFNγ expression was detectable in CD4 and CD8 T-cells and natural killer cells. Polyfunctional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that cells expressing IFNγ alone formed the majority in each subpopulation of cells. Only in CD4 T-cells and NK cells were there a notable proportion of responding cells of a different phenotype and these were single positive, TNFα producers. No significant expression of the cytokines IL-2, IL-17 or IL-10 was seen in any population of cells. Conclusions The broad array of biomarker responses detected by multiplex bead array suggests that BCG vaccination is capable, in this setting, of inducing a complex immune phenotype. Although polyfunctional T-cells have been proposed to play a role in protective immunity, they were not present in vaccinated adolescents who, based on earlier epidemiological studies, should have developed protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. This may be due to the later sampling time point available for testing or on the kinetics of the assays used.

  13. STUDY ON THE SEPARATION AND UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGY OF MAGNETIC BEAD IN FLY ASH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边炳鑫; 李哲; 吕一波; 石宪奎; 韦鲁滨

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of study on physical and chemical properties of magnetic bead (MB) in fly ash (FA), the paper gives out the separation methods of MB and results of three separating process. The result of comparative test in size, density, stability, magnetic material content, specific magnetic susceptibility (SMS), medium recovery oxidation resistance and wear resistance between MB and magnetic fines currently used in dense medium separation leads to that using MB recovered from fly ash is used as medium solids in coal cleaning in stead of magnetic fines not only have no influence upon taryests of separation, but can bring good economic and social benefits.

  14. Self-organizing magnetic beads for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of biomedicine magnetic beads are used for drug delivery and to treat hyperthermia. Here we propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells using lab-on-chip technologies. Typically blood flows past microposts functionalized with antibodies for circulating tumor cells. Creating these microposts with interacting magnetic beads makes it possible to tune the geometry in size, position and shape. We developed a simulation tool that combines micromagnetics and discrete particle dynamics, in order to design micropost arrays made of interacting beads. The simulation takes into account the viscous drag of the blood flow, magnetostatic interactions between the magnetic beads and gradient forces from external aligned magnets. We developed a particle–particle particle–mesh method for effective computation of the magnetic force and torque acting on the particles. - Highlights: ► We propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells. ► Flexible ways are important to get a high probability of catching cancer cells. ► The beads make it possible to tune the geometry in size position and shape.

  15. Slot Coupled Patch Array Antenna Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is an antenna array whose beam is controlled digitally. The Phase 1 effort will assess the method needed to achieve the gain, bandwidth, and...

  16. picoArray Technology: The Tool's Story

    OpenAIRE

    Duller, Andrew; Towner, Daniel; Panesar, Gajinder; Gray, Alan; Robbins, Will

    2005-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the picoArray? architecture, and in particular the deterministic internal communication fabric. The methods that have been developed for debugging and verifying systems using devices from the picoArray family are explained. In order to maximize the computational ability of these devices, hardware debugging support has been kept to a minimum and the methods and tools developed to take this into account.

  17. CNPC makes major breakthrough in array lateral logging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On October 12, 2011, the array lateral logging tool independently developed by CNPC Well Logging Company was successfully put to use at two production wells at Changqing Oilfield, obtaining high quality logging information. CNPC becomes the second company after Schlumberger in the world to master the array lateral logging technology, which can effectively identify layers as thin as 0.3 meter.

  18. Glyco-centric lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA) - proteomics dataset of human serum samples from healthy, Barrett׳s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Alok K; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Choi, Eunju; Chen, David; Gautier, Benoît; Nancarrow, Derek; Whiteman, David C; Baker, Peter R; Clauser, Karl R; Chalkley, Robert J; Saunders, Nicholas A; Barbour, Andrew P; Joshi, Virendra; Hill, Michelle M

    2016-06-01

    This data article describes serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification datasets generated using lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA) - mass spectrometry techniques, "Serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification pipeline reveals novel diagnostic biomarker candidates for esophageal adenocarcinoma" [1]. Serum samples collected from healthy, metaplastic Barrett׳s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) individuals were profiled for glycoprotein subsets via differential lectin binding. The biomarker discovery proteomics dataset consisting of 20 individual lectin pull-downs for 29 serum samples with a spiked-in internal standard chicken ovalbumin protein has been deposited in the PRIDE partner repository of the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PRIDE: PXD002442. Annotated MS/MS spectra for the peptide identifications can be viewed using MS-Viewer (〈http://prospector2.ucsf.edu/prospector/cgi-bin/msform.cgi?form=msviewer〉) using search key "jn7qafftux". The qualification dataset contained 6-lectin pulldown-coupled multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) data for 41 protein candidates, from 60 serum samples. This dataset is available as a supplemental files with the original publication [1]. PMID:27408916

  19. Identification of copy number variations in three Chinese horse breeds using 70K single nucleotide polymorphism BeadChip array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Adiljan; Liu, Xuexue; Dong, Kunzhe; Song, Shen; Pan, Jianfei; Yang, Min; Chen, Xiaofei; He, Xiaohong; Jiang, Lin; Ma, Yuehui

    2016-10-01

    Copy number variation (CNV), an essential form of genetic variation, has been increasingly recognized as one promising genetic marker in the analysis of animal genomes. Here, we used the Equine 70K single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array for the genome-wide detection of CNVs in 96 horses from three diverse Chinese breeds: Debao pony (DB), Mongolian horse (MG) and Yili horse (YL). A total of 287 CNVs were determined and merged into 122 CNV regions (CNVRs) ranging from 199 bp to 2344 kb in size and distributed in a heterogeneous manner on chromosomes. These CNVRs were integrated with seven existing reports to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1558 equine CNVRs, revealing 69 (56.6%) novel CNVRs. The majority (69.7%) of the 122 CNVRs overlapped with 438 genes, whereas 30.3% were located in intergenic regions. Most of these genes were associated with common CNVRs, which were shared by divergent horse breeds. As many as 60, 42 and 91 genes overlapping with the breed-specific ss were identified in DB, MG and YL respectively. Among these genes, FGF11, SPEM1, PPARG, CIDEB, HIVEP1 and GALR may have potential relevance to breed-specific traits. These findings provide valuable information for understanding the equine genome and facilitating association studies of economically important traits with equine CNVRs in the future. PMID:27440410

  20. Jansky Very Large Array: technology advancing science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, the NRAO has completed on time, and on budget, a major reconstruction of the Very Large Array. Building on existing infrastructure to maximize efficiency, the entire VLA electronics system, including correlator, receivers, data transmission, and monitor and control, have been replaced with state of the art systems. This complete rebuild establishes the new Jansky VLA, operating between 75MHz and 50GHz, as the most powerful radio telescope in the world for the coming decade.I will review the technical improvements of the array, including:- Correlator: Increased bandwidth from 100MHz to 8GHz, with thousands of spectral channels.- Receivers: replaced the previous narrow bands with receivers covering the full frequency range from 1 GHz to 50GHz. New systems are also being tested to cover from 50MHz to 400MHz.- Data transmission: 8GHz over optical fiber out to 30km.I will then highlight some of the science enabled by these improvements, including:- Large cosmic volume searches for atomic and molecular gas, from the nearby Universe to the most distant galaxies, plus kpc-scale imaging of the cool gas in distant starburst galaxies.- High resolution studies of star and planet formation.- Innovative interferometric searches for transient phenomena.- The first radio continuum deep fields with sensitivities science publication. NRAO is developing calibration and imaging pipelines to provide science ready data products to the community.- Algorithmic development for ultra-deep, wide band, wide field polarimetric imaging.- Exploring the time domain with interferometers.

  1. Technological development of the OGRE focal plane array

    OpenAIRE

    Tutt, James; McEntaffer, Randall L.; DeRoo, Casey; Schultz, Ted; Rogers, Thomas; Murray, Neil; Holland, Andrew; Weatherill, Daniel; Holland, Karen; Colebrook, David; Farn, David

    2015-01-01

    The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE) is a high resolution soft X-ray spectrometer sub-orbital rocket payload designed as a technology development platform for three low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) components. The incident photons will be focused using a light-weight, high resolution, single-crystal silicon optic. They are then dispersed conically according to wavelength by an array of off-plane gratings before being detected in a focal plane camera comprised of four Electron Mu...

  2. HTS ion damage Josephson junction technology for SQUID arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson Junction (JJ) ion damage technology we are developing is well suited for making large SQUID arrays. We have studied arrays of similar SQUIDs together with large SQIFs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) with 2000 SQUIDs of different loop areas. Magnetic field sensitivity has been measured in both types of devices as a function of bias current and temperature. The effects of the barrier thickness (from 20 to 80 nm) and JJ length (2 or 5 μm) on characteristics have been investigated.

  3. A tunable cancer cell filter using magnetic beads: cellular and fluid dynamic simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Bance, Simon; Exl, Lukas; Reichel, Franz; Oezelt, Harald; Schrefl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In the field of biomedicine magnetic beads are used for drug delivery and to treat hyperthermia. Here we propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells using lab-on-chip technologies. Typically blood flows past microposts functionalized with antibodies for circulating tumor cells. Creating these microposts with interacting magnetic beads makes it possible to tune the geometry in size, position and shape. We develop a simulation tool that combines micromagnetics, discrete particle dynamics and fluid dynamics, in order to design micropost arrays made of interacting beads. For the simulation of blood flow we use the Lattice-Boltzmann method with immersed elastic blood cell models. Parallelization distributes large fluid and particle dynamic simulations over available resources to reduce overall calculation time.

  4. B cell depletion with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Multiplex bead array reveals the kinetics of IgG and IgA antibodies to citrullinated antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, Geraldine; Leandro, Maria J; Lahey, Lauren J; Fairhead, Thomas; Robinson, William H; Sokolove, Jeremy

    2016-06-01

    The serology of patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by persistently raised levels of autoantibodies: Rheumatoid Factors (RhF) against Fc of IgG, and to citrullinated (Cit) protein/peptide sequences: ACPA, recognizing multiple Cit-sequences. B cell depletion therapy based on rituximab delivers good clinical responses in RA patients, particularly in the seropositive group, with responses sometimes lasting beyond the phase of B cell reconstitution. In general, ACPA levels fall following rituximab, but fluctuations with respect to predicting relapse have proved disappointing. In order to identify possible immunodominant specificities within either IgG- or IgA-ACPA we used a Multiplex bead-based array consisting of 30 Cit-peptides/proteins and 22 corresponding native sequences. The kinetics of the serum ACPA response to individual specificities was measured at key points (Baseline, B cell depletion phase, Relapse) within an initial cycle of rituximab therapy in 16 consecutive patients with severe, active RA. All had achieved significant decreases in Disease Activity Scores-28 and maintained B cell depletion in the peripheral blood (<5 CD19+cells/μl) for at least 3 months. At Baseline, mean fluorescence intensity shown by individual IgG- and IgA-ACPA were strongly correlated (R(2) = 0.75; p < 0.0001) but IgA-ACPA were approximately 10-fold lower. Data were Z-normalised in order to compare serial results and antibody classes. At Baseline, a total of 68 IgG- and 51 IgA-ACPA had Z-scores ≥ 1 (above population mean) were identified, with at least one Cit-antigen identified in each serum. ACPA to individual specificities subsequently fluctuated with 3 different patterns. Most 51/68 (75%) IgG- and 48/51 IgA-ACPA (94%) fell between Baseline and Depletion, of which 57% IgG- and 65% IgA-ACPA rebounded pre-Relapse. Interestingly, 17/68 IgG-ACPA (25%) and some IgA-ACPA (3/51; 6%) transiently increased from Baseline, subsequently falling pre

  5. Polystyrene Core-Silica Shell Particles with Defined Nanoarchitectures as a Versatile Platform for Suspension Array Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Dominik; Gawlitza, Kornelia; Rurack, Knut

    2016-04-19

    The need for rapid and high-throughput screening in analytical laboratories has led to significant growth in interest in suspension array technologies (SATs), especially with regard to cytometric assays targeting a low to medium number of analytes. Such SAT or bead-based assays rely on spherical objects that constitute the analytical platform. Usually, functionalized polymer or silica (SiO2) microbeads are used which each have distinct advantages and drawbacks. In this paper, we present a straightforward synthetic route to highly monodisperse SiO2-coated polystyrene core-shell (CS) beads for SAT with controllable architectures from smooth to raspberry- and multilayer-like shells by varying the molecular weight of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which was used as the stabilizer of the cores. The combination of both organic polymer core and a structurally controlled inorganic SiO2 shell in one hybrid particle holds great promises for flexible next-generation design of the spherical platform. The particles were characterized by electron microscopy (SEM, T-SEM, and TEM), thermogravimetry, flow cytometry, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption, offering comprehensive information on the composition, size, structure, and surface area. All particles show ideal cytometric detection patterns and facile handling due to the hybrid structure. The beads are endowed with straightforward modification possibilities through the defined SiO2 shells. We successfully implemented the particles in fluorometric SAT model assays, illustrating the benefits of tailored surface area which is readily available for small-molecule anchoring. Very promising assay performance was shown for DNA hybridization assays with quantification limits down to 8 fmol. PMID:27018430

  6. Exploring PV on the Red Planet: Mars Array Technology Experiment and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Baraona, Cosmo; Brinker, David; Schelman, David

    2004-01-01

    The environment on the surface of Mars is different in several critical ways from the orbital environment in which space solar arrays normally operate. Some important differences are: 1) Low intensity, low temperature operation; 2) Spectrum modified by atmospheric dust, varies with time; 3) Indirect sunlight; 4) Possibility of dust atoms at some times of year; 5) Deposited dust; 6) Wind; 7) Peroxide-rich reactive soil. We are developing two experiments to test operation of solar arrays on the surface of Mars, to be flown on the 2001 Surveyor Lander mission. The Mars Array Technology Experiment (MATE) will test the operation of several types of solar cells under Mars conditions, and determine the direct and scattered solar spectrum at the surface. The Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiment will monitor the amount of dust deposition on a target solar cell, measure the characteristics of the dust, and test the feasibility of dust removal.

  7. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: Chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Nan; Su Pu [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China); Gao Zhixian [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)], E-mail: gaozhx@163.com; Zhu Maoxiang; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Fang Yanjun; Chao Fuhuan [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R{sup 2} was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, 50-7.81 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1} and 1 x 10{sup 3-}7.29 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  8. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: Chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R2 was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25 x 105 ng L-1, 50-7.81 x 105 ng L-1 and 1 x 103-7.29 x 105 ng L-1, respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L-1, respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost

  9. Technological developments of the OGRE focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutt, James H.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; DeRoo, Casey; Schultz, Ted; Rogers, Thomas; Murray, Neil; Holland, Andrew; Weatherill, Daniel; Holland, Karen; Colebrook, David; Farn, David

    2015-09-01

    The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE) is a high resolution soft X-ray spectrometer sub-orbital rocket payload designed as a technology development platform for three low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) components. The incident photons will be focused using a light-weight, high resolution, single-crystal silicon optic. They are then dispersed conically according to wavelength by an array of off-plane gratings before being detected in a focal plane camera comprised of four Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EM-CCDs). While CCDs have been extensively used in space applications; EM-CCDs are seldom used in this environment and even more rarely for X-ray photon counting applications, making them a potential technology risk for larger scale X-ray observatories. This paper will discuss the reasons behind choosing EM-CCDs for the focal plane detector and the developments that have been recently made in the prototype camera electronics and thermal control system.

  10. Identification of polymorphic and off-target probe binding sites on the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Daniel L; Walker, Rosie M; Morris, Stewart W; McIntosh, Andrew M; Porteous, David J; Evans, Kathryn L

    2016-09-01

    Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation has now become a relatively inexpensive technique thanks to array-based methylation profiling technologies. The recently developed Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip interrogates methylation at over 850,000 sites across the human genome, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. This array supersedes the widely used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, which has permitted insights into the relationship between DNA methylation and a wide range of conditions and traits. Previous research has identified issues with certain probes on both the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and its predecessor, the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, which were predicted to affect array performance. These issues concerned probe-binding specificity and the presence of polymorphisms at target sites. Using in silico methods, we have identified probes on the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip that are predicted to (i) measure methylation at polymorphic sites and (ii) hybridise to multiple genomic regions. We intend these resources to be used for quality control procedures when analysing data derived from this platform. PMID:27330998

  11. The Use of Biochip Array Technology for Rapid Multimycotoxin Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotan, Monika; Devlin, Raymond; Porter, Jonathan; Benchikh, M El Ouard; Rodríguez, María Luz; McConnell, R Ivan; FitzGerald, S Peter

    2016-07-01

    The main known groups of mycotoxins are aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, type A trichothecenes (T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol), and zearalenones. They are harmful to humans, domestic animals, and livestock. In Europe, maximum permitted limits for aflatoxin B1 are set, and guidance levels are recommended for the other mycotoxins. This study applied biochip array technology to semiquantitative multimycotoxin screening at different levels to facilitate the verification of the compliance of feed material with acceptable safety standards. This application was developed and validated based on European Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. After a single generic sample-preparation method, simultaneous competitive chemiluminescent immunoassays were used and applied to the Evidence Investigator analyzer. The r and within-laboratory R values showed low overall CVs (10.6 and 11.6%, respectively). Low matrix effect and, consequently, low decision limits and detection capabilities proved the high sensitivity of the technology. The overall average recovery was 104%. Samples (n = 16) investigated within the Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) program showed excellent correlation to assigned values. FAPAS proficiency-testing feed samples (n = 10) were within the schemes' z-score ±2 range. The authentic feed samples survey showed excellent correlation with LC-MS/MS. This application is, therefore, reliable and represents an innovative, cost-effective, and multianalytical tool for mycotoxin screening. PMID:27455929

  12. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  13. Photovoltaic cell and array technology development for future unique NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Curtis, H.; Piszczor, M.; Surampudi, R.; Hamilton, T.; Rapp, D.; Stella, P.; Mardesich, N.; Mondt, J.; Bunker, R.; Nesmith, B.; Gaddy, E.; Marvin, D.; Kazmerski, L.

    2002-01-01

    A technology review committee from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Air Force Research Lab, was formed to assess solar cell and array technologies required for future NASA science missions.

  14. A Magnetic Bead Actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, R.; Prins, M.W.J.; Wimberger-Friedl, R.

    2006-01-01

    Actuation principles of superparamagnetic beads applicable on biosensing (at single beads and chain orderning) are studied in this report. This research can be used to develop new techniques that are able to accelerate bio-assays. An experimental setup containing a sub-microliter fluid volume surrou

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY TO REMOTELY NAVIGATE VERTICAL PIPE ARRAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D.; Immel, D.; Vrettos, N.; Nance, T.; Marzolf, A.

    2011-07-01

    Situations exist around the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) complex where it is advantageous to remotely navigate vertical pipe arrays. Specific examples are waste tanks in the SRS Tank Farms, which contain horizontal cooling coils at the tank bottom, vertical cooling coils throughout and a limited number of access points or ''risers''. These factors limit accessibility to many parts of these tanks by conventional means. Pipe Traveler technology has been developed to address these issues. The Pipe Traveler addresses these issues by using the vertical cooling coils as its medium of travel. The unit operates by grabbing a pipe using dual grippers located on either side of the equipment. Once securely attached to the pipe a drive wheel is extended to come in contact with the pipe. Rotation of the drive wheel causes the unit to rotate around the pipe. This action is continued until the second set of grippers is aligned with the next pipe. Extension pistons are actuated to extend the second set of grippers in contact with a second pipe. The second set of grippers is then actuated to grasp the pipe. The first set of grippers releases the original pipe and the process is repeated until the unit reaches its desired location. Once at the tool deployment location the desired tool may be used. The current design has proven the concept of pipe-to-pipe navigation. Testing of the Pipe Traveler has proven its ability to transfer itself from one pipe to another.

  16. High-resolution medical ultrasound arrays using smart materials technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Keith; Caldwell, Paul J.; Kuhn, Phillip; Winzer, Stephen R.

    1996-05-01

    Current ultrasound images have relatively low contrast (high levels of clutter) and resolution. Image quality could be dramatically improved if 2D ultrasound transducer arrays were available to perform the scans. These improvements would come from reducing clutter by eliminating target echoes that the beam width of a 1D array causes to be superimposed on a scan plane, and enhancing resolution by enabling the use of algorithms which correct the wavefront distortion introduced by propagation through tissue. The advent of 2D arrays would also enable 3D images to be displayed--eventually in real time. The fabrication of 2D ultrasound arrays is, however, very difficult. This stems from the acoustic requirements of the array (aperture, pitch and element size) which combine together to dictate large numbers (> 1000) of very-low capacitance (capacitance and impedance mismatch. This paper will show how the development of composite smart materials involving the integration of electromechanical elements with electronics is being extended to the development of relatively-inexpensive high-sensitivity 2D ultrasound arrays.

  17. Integration of antibody by surface functionalization of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads using ammonia gas plasma technology for capturing influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Chou, Han; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    Antibody-integrated magnetic beads have been functionalized for influenza A virus capture. First, ammonia plasma produced by a radio frequency power source was reacted with the surface of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads to introduce amino groups. Anti-influenza A virus hemagglutinin antibody was then anchored by its surface sulfide groups to the amino groups on the beads via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate. After incubation with influenza A virus, adsorption of the virus to the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and inoculation of chicken embryonated eggs, indicating that virus infectivity is maintained and that the proposed method is useful for the enhanced detection and isolation of influenza A virus. PMID:25857943

  18. Development of impedance matching technologies for ICRF antenna arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All high power ICRF heating systems include devices for matching the input impedance of the antenna array to the generator output impedance. For most types of antennas used, the input impedance is strongly time-dependent on timescales as rapid as 10-4 s, while the rf generators used are capable of producing full power only into a stationary load impedance. Hence, the dynamic response of the matching method is of great practical importance. In this paper, world-wide developments in this field over the past decade are reviewed. These techniques may be divided into several classes. The edge plasma parameters that determine the antenna array's input impedance may be controlled to maintain a fixed load impedance. The frequency of the rf source can be feedback controlled to compensate for changes in the edge plasma conditions, or fast variable tuning elements in the transmission line between the generator output and the antenna input connections can provide the necessary time-varying impedance transformation. In lossy passive schemes, reflected power due to the time-varying impedance of the antenna array is diverted to a dummy load. Each of these techniques can be applied to a pre-existing antenna system. If a new antenna is to be designed, recent advances allow the antenna array to have the intrinsic property of presenting a constant load to the feeding transmission lines despite the varying load seen by each antenna in the array

  19. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  20. Noncontact Microembossing Technology for Fabricating Thermoplastic Optical Polymer Microlens Array Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic optical polymers have replaced traditional optical glass for many applications, due to their superior optical performance, mechanical characteristics, low cost, and efficient production process. This paper investigates noncontact microembossing technology used for producing microlens arrays made out of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate, PS (polyStyrene, and PC (polycarbonate from a quartz mold, with microhole arrays. An array of planoconvex microlenses are formed because of surface tension caused by applying pressure to the edge of a hole at a certain glass transition temperature. We studied the principle of noncontact microembossing techniques using finite element analysis, in addition to the thermal and mechanical properties of the three polymers. Then, the independently developed hot-embossing equipment was used to fabricate microlens arrays on PMMA, PS, and PC sheets. This is a promising technique for fabricating diverse thermoplastic optical polymer microlens array sheets, with a simple technological process and low production costs.

  1. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  2. Multi-electrode array technologies for neuroscience and cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Micha E.; Hai, Aviad

    2013-02-01

    At present, the prime methodology for studying neuronal circuit-connectivity, physiology and pathology under in vitro or in vivo conditions is by using substrate-integrated microelectrode arrays. Although this methodology permits simultaneous, cell-non-invasive, long-term recordings of extracellular field potentials generated by action potentials, it is 'blind' to subthreshold synaptic potentials generated by single cells. On the other hand, intracellular recordings of the full electrophysiological repertoire (subthreshold synaptic potentials, membrane oscillations and action potentials) are, at present, obtained only by sharp or patch microelectrodes. These, however, are limited to single cells at a time and for short durations. Recently a number of laboratories began to merge the advantages of extracellular microelectrode arrays and intracellular microelectrodes. This Review describes the novel approaches, identifying their strengths and limitations from the point of view of the end users -- with the intention to help steer the bioengineering efforts towards the needs of brain-circuit research.

  3. Research on silicon microchannel arrays oxide insulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-xin; Duanmu, Qingduo; Wang, Guozheng; Yang, Ji-kai; Kou, Yang-qiang

    2015-03-01

    Silicon microchannel plates (Si-MCP) is widely used in the photomultiplier, night vision, X- ray intensifier and other areas. In order to meet the requirements of high voltage electron multiplier, Si-MCP need to prepare a layer of silicon dioxide in the microchannel to improve the insulating properties. There are many methods for preparing SiO2 layer, such as thermal growth, magnetron sputtering method and chemical vapor deposition etc. The thermal oxidation method is often used for preparation of insulating layer that it grows film thickness uniformity, compact structure, simple process and so on. There will be bending deformation phenomenon of silicon microchannel arrays in high temperature oxidation process. The warpage of Si-MCP has brought great for difficulties of subsequent processing. Silicon crystals has the properties of plastic deformation at high temperature, this article take full advantage of this properties by which the already bending deformation of silicon microchannel arrays can be restored to flat.

  4. Advanced Technology MEMS-based Acoustic Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation proposes a technological advancement of current state-of-the-art acoustic energy harvester for harsh environment...

  5. FY 2000 Industrial science and technology research and development themes - cooperative project with academic circles. Report on the results of research and development for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads (Research and development for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads); 2000 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development of technologies for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads, including those for organic receptor analysis and refining. The program for development and research of fixation technology develops immobilizing reaction and latex particle having cleavable linker, and synthesize small molecules for the identification of target receptors. The program for development of organic receptor refining technology directly refines cisplatin-telomere binding proteins from crude nuclear extracts of HeLa, and analyzes them; analyzes the functions of Ref-1 purified from Jurkat cell nuclear extracts as the binding protein for drug E3330 which specifically controls the transcriptive factor NF-{kappa}B; and studies LK6A having an MLR inhibiting activity, promoters for production of Alendronate, Taxol and leptin, D91-6092 as a promising anti-cancer agent, and antirheumatic, antiallergic, antitumor agents and FK506 as immunosuppressant agent. (NEDO)

  6. Investigation of a new electrode array technology for a central auditory prosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Calixto

    Full Text Available Ongoing clinical studies on patients recently implanted with the auditory midbrain implant (AMI into the inferior colliculus (IC for hearing restoration have shown that these patients do not achieve performance levels comparable to cochlear implant patients. The AMI consists of a single-shank array (20 electrodes for stimulation along the tonotopic axis of the IC. Recent findings suggest that one major limitation in AMI performance is the inability to sufficiently activate neurons across the three-dimensional (3-D IC. Unfortunately, there are no currently available 3-D array technologies that can be used for clinical applications. More recently, there has been a new initiative by the European Commission to fund and develop 3-D chronic electrode arrays for science and clinical applications through the NeuroProbes project that can overcome the bulkiness and limited 3-D configurations of currently available array technologies. As part of the NeuroProbes initiative, we investigated whether their new array technology could be potentially used for future AMI patients. Since the NeuroProbes technology had not yet been tested for electrical stimulation in an in vivo animal preparation, we performed experiments in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs in which we inserted and stimulated a NeuroProbes array within the IC and recorded the corresponding neural activation within the auditory cortex. We used 2-D arrays for this initial feasibility study since they were already available and were sufficient to access the IC and also demonstrate effective activation of the central auditory system. Based on these encouraging results and the ability to develop customized 3-D arrays with the NeuroProbes technology, we can further investigate different stimulation patterns across the ICC to improve AMI performance.

  7. Flexible miniaturized nickel oxide thermistor arrays via inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Chih; Kao, Zhen-Kai; Liao, Ying-Chih

    2013-12-26

    In this study, an inkjet printing process was developed to produce thermistor arrays for temperature sensing applications. First, a formulation process was carefully performed to generate a stable nanoparticle ink for nickel oxide, a material with a large temperature coefficient of resistance. The thermistor was then fabricated by printing a square NiO thin film in between two parallel silver conductive tracks on either glass plates or polyimide films. The printed thermistor, which has an adjustable dimension with a sub-millimeter scale, can operate over a wide range from room temperature to 200 °C with great sensitivity (B values ~4300 K) without hysteretic effects. When printed on polyimide films, the thermistors can also be bent or attached to curved surfaces to provide accurate and reliable temperature measurements. Moreover, the thermistor responds quickly to small temperature changes and provides an effective tool for transient temperature measurements. Finally, a thermistor array was fabricated to show the flexibility of this inkjet printing process and to demonstrate the applicability of the printed devices for temperature sensing applications. PMID:24298996

  8. New Nanoparticles Dispersing Beads Mill with Ultra Small Beads and its Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the major problems related to nanoparticle dispersion with a conventional beads mill are re-agglomeration and damage to the crystalline structure of the particles. The Ultra Apex Mill was developed to solve these problems by enabling the use of ultra-small beads with a diameter of less than 0.1mm. The core of this breakthrough development is centrifugation technology which allows the use of beads as small as 0.015mm. When dispersing agglomerated nanoparticles the impulse of the small beads is very low which means there is little influence on the particles. The surface energy of the nanoparticles remains low so the properties are not likely to change. As a result, stable nanoparticle dispersions can be achieved without re-cohesion. The Ultra Apex Mill is superior to conventional beads mills that are limited to much larger bead sizes. The technology of the Ultra Apex Mill has pioneered practical applications for nanoparticles in various fields: composition materials for LCD screens, ink-jet printing, ceramic condensers and cosmetics.

  9. The impact of solar cell technology on planar solar array performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael W.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a study into the potential impact of advanced solar cell technologies on the characteristics (weight, cost, area) of typical planar solar arrays designed for low, medium and geosynchronous altitude earth orbits are discussed. The study considered planar solar array substrate designs of lightweight, rigid-panel graphite epoxy and ultra-lightweight Kapton. The study proposed to answer the following questions: Do improved cell characteristics translate into array-level weight, size and cost improvements; What is the relative importance of cell efficiency, weight and cost with respect to array-level performance; How does mission orbital environment affect array-level performance. Comparisons were made at the array level including all mechanisms, hinges, booms, and harnesses. Array designs were sized to provide 5kW of array power (not spacecraft bus power, which is system dependent but can be scaled from given values). The study used important grass roots issues such as use of the GaAs radiation damage coefficients as determined by Anspaugh. Detailed costing was prepared, including cell and cover costs, and manufacturing attrition rates for the various cell types.

  10. Technology for advanced focal plane arrays of HgCdTe and AIGaN

    CERN Document Server

    He, Li; Ni, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the basic framework of advanced focal plane technology based on the third-generation infrared focal plane concept. The essential concept, research advances, and future trends in advanced sensor arrays are comprehensively reviewed. Moreover, the book summarizes recent research advances in HgCdTe/AlGaN detectors for the infrared/ultraviolet waveband, with a particular focus on the numerical method of detector design, material epitaxial growth and processing, as well as Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor readout circuits. The book offers a unique resource for all graduate students and researchers interested in the technologies of focal plane arrays or electro-optical imaging sensors.

  11. Matrix phased array (MPA) imaging technology for resistance spot welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional MPA probe has been incorporated with a high speed phased array electronic board to visualize nugget images of resistance spot welds. The primary application area of this battery operated portable MPA ultrasonic imaging system is in the automotive industry which a conventional destructive testing process is commonly adopted to check the quality of resistance spot welds in auto bodies. Considering an average of five-thousand spot welds in a medium size passenger vehicle, the amount of time and effort given to popping the welds and measuring nugget size are immeasurable in addition to the millions of dollars' worth of scrap metals recycled per plant per year. This wasteful labor intensive destructive testing process has become less reliable as auto body sheet metal has transitioned from thick and heavy mild steels to thin and light high strength steels. Consequently, the necessity of developing a non-destructive inspection methodology has become inevitable. In this paper, the fundamental aspects of the current 3-D probe design, data acquisition algorithms, and weld nugget imaging process are discussed

  12. Investigating brain functional evolution and plasticity using microelectrode array technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate long and short-term plasticity responsible for memory formation in dissociated neuronal networks. In order to address this issue, a set of experiments was designed and implemented in which the microelectrode array electrode grid was divided into four quadrants, two of which were chronically stimulated, every two days for one hour with a stimulation paradigm that varied over time. Overall network and quadrant responses were then analyzed to quantify what level of plasticity took place in the network and how this was due to the stimulation interruption. The results demonstrate that there were no spatial differences in the stimulus-evoked activity within quadrants. Furthermore, the implemented stimulation protocol induced depression effects in the neuronal networks as demonstrated by the consistently lower network activity following stimulation sessions. Finally, the analysis demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of the stimulation decreased over time, thus suggesting a habituation phenomenon. These findings are sufficient to conclude that electrical stimulation is an important tool to interact with dissociated neuronal cultures, but localized stimuli are not enough to drive spatial synaptic potentiation or depression. On the contrary, the ability to modulate synaptic temporal plasticity was a feasible task to achieve by chronic network stimulation. PMID:26476356

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of technologies for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads (Energy use rationalization related technology practicalization); 1998 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsunado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika kankei gijutsu jitsuyoka kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In the effort to develop chemical substance/bioreceptor analysis technology using submicron beads, polystyrene core/polyglycidyl methacrilate beads are used in a study started about a detachable spacer using newly developed fixation technology. In the development of bioaffinity chemical substance refining technology, two kinds of sugars and several kinds of aromatic aldehydes serve as building blocks in the construction of a library, and studies are made of analyses using liquid chromatography and mass spectrography. In the development of novel substance creation technology based on information on the analysis of chemical substance/bioreceptor, in an effort at developing technologies for creating novel function provided chemical substances, heterocyclic compounds, alkaloids, and sugar compounds are selected and their syntheses in the liquid phase and solid phase are studied, which is again for the construction of a library. (NEDO)

  14. Analysis of mismatch and shading effects in a photovoltaic array using different technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of a photovoltaic array implemented in the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia which consists of modules of different technologies and power, connected in series, in order to quantify the energy losses due to mismatch and the effect of the shadows. To do this, the performance of the modules was measured in operation under ambient conditions with field measurement equipment (AMPROBE Solar Analyzer, Solar - 4000), which allows the extrapolation of measures to standard conditions STC. For the data validation, measures under controlled conditions were taken to some modules in the flash test laboratory of the Institute of Energy Technology ITE of Valencia in Spain. Subsequently the array curves measured were validated with a photovoltaic array model developed in MATLAB-Simulink for the same conditions and technologies. The results of this particular array are lost up to 20% of the energy supplied due to the modules mismatch. The study shows the curves and the energy loss due to shadows modules. This result opens scenarios for conceivable modifications to the PV field configurations today, chosen during the design stage and unchangeable during the operating stage; and gives greater importance to the energy loss by mismatch in the PV array

  15. Coated Aerogel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Turf-Type Tall Fescue Using Diversity Arrays Technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baird, J. H.; Kopecký, David; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Green, R. J.; Bartoš, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2012), s. 408-412. ISSN 0011-183X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Festuca arundinacea * Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) * Low genetic polymorphism Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.513, year: 2012

  17. Phased array ultrasonic technology contribution to engineering critical assessment (ECA) of economizer piping welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the application of phased array ultrasonic technology for engineering critical assessment of economizer piping welds. The objective is to detect and size fatigue cracks in the counter bore area of carbon steel boiler feedwater piping welds of a thermal station. A size accuracy of ± 1 mm for the outer ligament was required

  18. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for genotyping and mapping in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is one of the most important root vegetable crops grown worldwide on more than one million hectares. Its progenitor, wild Daucus carota, is a weed commonly occurring across continents in the temperate climatic zone. Diversity Array Technology (DArT) is a microarray-based molecular marker syst...

  19. Microfabrication technology for large LEKID arrays : from NIKA2 to future applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goupy, J; Benoit, A; Bourrion, O; Calvo, M; Catalano, A; Coiffard, G; Hoarau, C; Leclercq, S; Sueur, H Le; Macias-Perez, J; Monfardini, A; Peck, I; Schuster, K

    2016-01-01

    The Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKID)demonstrated full maturity in the NIKA (New IRAM KID Arrays)instrument. These results allow directly comparing LEKID performance with other competing technologies (TES, doped silicon) in the mm and sub-mm range. A continuing effort is ongoing to improve the microfabrication technologies and concepts in order to satisfy the requirements of new instruments. More precisely, future satellites dedicated to CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) studies will require the same focal plane technology to cover, at least, the frequency range of 60 to 600 GHz. Aluminium LEKID developed for NIKA have so far demonstrated, under real telescope conditions, performance approaching photon-noise limitation in the band 120-300 GHz. By implementing superconducting bi-layers we recently demonstrated LEKID arrays working in the range 80-120 GHz and with sensitivities approaching the goals for CMB missions. NIKA itself (350 pixels) is followed by a more ambitious project requiring se...

  20. An approach to comparing tiling array and high throughput sequencing technologies for genomic transcript mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozowsky Joel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two main technologies for transcriptome profiling, namely, tiling microarrays and high-throughput sequencing. Recently there has been a tremendous amount of excitement about the latter because of the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies and its promises. Consequently, the question of the moment is how these two technologies compare. Here we attempt to develop an approach to do a fair comparison of transcripts identified from tiling microarray and MPSS sequencing data. Findings This comparison is a challenging task because the sequencing data is discrete while the tiling array data is continuous. We use the published rice and Arabidopsis datasets which provide currently best matched sets of arrays and sequencing experiments using a slightly earlier generation of sequencing, the MPSS tag sequencing technology. After scoring the arrays consistently in both the organisms, a first pass comparison reveals a surprisingly small overlap in transcripts of 22% and 66% respectively, in rice and Arabidopsis. However, when we do the analysis in detail, we find that this is an underestimate. In particular, when we map the probe intensities onto the sequencing tags and then look at their intensity distribution, we see that they are very similar to exons. Furthermore, restricting our comparison to only protein-coding gene loci revealed a very good overlap between the two technologies. Conclusion Our approach to compare genome tiling microarray and MPSS sequencing data suggests that there is actually a reasonable overlap in transcripts identified by the two technologies. This overlap is distorted by the scoring and thresholding in the tiling array scoring procedure.

  1. Opportunities for bead-based multiplex assays in veterinary diagnostic laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bead based multiplex assays (BBMA) also referred to as Luminex, MultiAnalyte Profiling or cytometric bead array (CBA) assays, are applicable for high throughput, simultaneous detection of multiple analytes in solution (from several, up to 50-500 analytes within a single, small sample volume). Curren...

  2. Manufacturing Technology of Lead Zirconate Titanate Cylindrical Elements for Passive Transducer Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Gaware

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art technology has been developed for the fabrication of 33 mm hollow cylindrical elements from Lanthanum-dooed lead zirconate titanate-based material suitable for oassive surveillance arrays of SONAR systems. It covers properties of the material composition, isostatic pressing technique, precision machining, sintering to produce dielectrically sound distortion-free cylindrical elements, ceramic grinding, electroding, poling to achieve electromechanical properties, and evaluation of dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic properties of the cylinders.

  3. Lightweight solar array blanket tooling, laser welding and cover process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    A two phase technology investigation was performed to demonstrate effective methods for integrating 50 micrometer thin solar cells into ultralightweight module designs. During the first phase, innovative tooling was developed which allows lightweight blankets to be fabricated in a manufacturing environment with acceptable yields. During the second phase, the tooling was improved and the feasibility of laser processing of lightweight arrays was confirmed. The development of the cell/interconnect registration tool and interconnect bonding by laser welding is described.

  4. "On-chip magnetic bead microarray using hydrodynamic focusing in a passive magnetic separator"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Kjeldsen, B.; Reimers, R.L.;

    2005-01-01

    separator with arrays of soft magnetic elements. The soft magnetic elements placed on both sides of the channel are magnetized by a relatively weak applied external magnetic field ( 21 mT) and provide magnetic field gradients attracting magnetic beads. Flows with two differently functionalized magnetic...... beads and a separating barrier flow are introduced simultaneously at the two channel sides and the centre of the microfluidic channel, respectively. On-chip experiments with fluorescence labeled beads demonstrate that the two types of beads are captured at each of the channel sidewalls. On...

  5. Guided self-assembly of magnetic beads for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Fischbacher, Johann; Özelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Brandl, Martin; Schrefl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Micromagnetic beads are widely used in biomedical applications for cell separation, drug delivery, and hypothermia cancer treatment. Here we propose to use self-organized magnetic bead structures which accumulate on fixed magnetic seeding points to isolate circulating tumor cells. The analysis of circulating tumor cells is an emerging tool for cancer biology research and clinical cancer management including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Microfluidic chips for isolating circulating tumor cells use either affinity, size or density capturing methods. We combine multiphysics simulation techniques to understand the microscopic behavior of magnetic beads interacting with Nickel accumulation points used in lab-on-chip technologies. Our proposed chip technology offers the possibility to combine affinity and size capturing with special antibody-coated bead arrangements using a magnetic gradient field created by Neodymium Iron Boron permanent magnets. The multiscale simulation environment combines ...

  6. Design and Development of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John; Fatemi, Navid; Gamica, Robert; Sharma, Surya; Senft, Donna; Maybery, Clay

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Technology 5 (ST5) is designed to flight-test the concept of miniaturized 'small size" satellites and innovative technologies in Earth's magnetosphere. Three satellites will map the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields within the inner magnetosphere. Due to the small area available for the solar arrays, and to meet the mission power requirements, very high-efficiency multijunction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This was done in partnership with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) through the Dual-Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program. Emcore's InGaP/lnGaAs/Ge Advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 28.0% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the arrays. Each spacecraft employs 8 identical solar panels (total area of about 0.3 square meters), with 15 large-area solar cells per panel. The requirement for power is to support on-orbit average load of 13.5 W at 8.4 V, with plus or minus 5% off pointing. The details of the solar array design, development and qualification considerations, as well as ground electrical performance & shadowing analysis results are presented.

  7. Microfabricated Passive Magnetic Bead separators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Smistrup, Kristian;

    2006-01-01

    The use and manipulation of functionalized magnetic beads for bioanalysis in lab-on-a-chip systems is receiving growing interest. We have developed microfluidic systems with integrated magnetic structures for the capture and release of magnetic beads. The systems are fabricated in silicon by deep...

  8. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M

    2016-09-01

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy. PMID:27494561

  9. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M.

    2016-09-01

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  10. Microfabrication Technology for Large Lekid Arrays: From Nika2 to Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupy, J.; Adane, A.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Hoarau, C.; Leclercq, S.; Le Sueur, H.; Macias-Perez, J.; Monfardini, A.; Peck, I.; Schuster, K.

    2016-02-01

    The lumped element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKID) demonstrated full maturity in the New IRAM KID Arrays (NIKA) instrument. These results allow directly comparing LEKID performance with other competing technologies (TES, doped silicon) in the mm and sub-mm range. A continuing effort is ongoing to improve the microfabrication technologies and concepts in order to satisfy the requirements of new instruments. More precisely, future satellites dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) studies will require the same focal plane technology to cover, at least, the frequency range of 60-600 GHz. Aluminium LEKID developed for NIKA have so far demonstrated, under real telescope conditions, a performance approaching photon noise limitation in the band 120-300 GHz. By implementing superconducting bi-layers, we recently demonstrated LEKID arrays working in the range 80-120 GHz and with sensitivities approaching the goals for CMB missions. NIKA itself (350 pixels) is followed by a more ambitious project requiring several thousand (3000-5000) pixels. NIKA2 has been installed in October 2015 at the IRAM 30-m telescope. We will describe in detail the technological improvements that allowed a relatively harmless tenfold up-scaling in pixels count without degrading the initial sensitivity. In particular, we will briefly describe a solution to simplify the difficult fabrication step linked to the slot-line propagation mode in coplanar waveguide.

  11. Microfabrication Technology for Large Lekid Arrays: From Nika2 to Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupy, J.; Adane, A.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Hoarau, C.; Leclercq, S.; Le Sueur, H.; Macias-Perez, J.; Monfardini, A.; Peck, I.; Schuster, K.

    2016-08-01

    The lumped element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKID) demonstrated full maturity in the New IRAM KID Arrays (NIKA) instrument. These results allow directly comparing LEKID performance with other competing technologies (TES, doped silicon) in the mm and sub-mm range. A continuing effort is ongoing to improve the microfabrication technologies and concepts in order to satisfy the requirements of new instruments. More precisely, future satellites dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) studies will require the same focal plane technology to cover, at least, the frequency range of 60-600 GHz. Aluminium LEKID developed for NIKA have so far demonstrated, under real telescope conditions, a performance approaching photon noise limitation in the band 120-300 GHz. By implementing superconducting bi-layers, we recently demonstrated LEKID arrays working in the range 80-120 GHz and with sensitivities approaching the goals for CMB missions. NIKA itself (350 pixels) is followed by a more ambitious project requiring several thousand (3000-5000) pixels. NIKA2 has been installed in October 2015 at the IRAM 30-m telescope. We will describe in detail the technological improvements that allowed a relatively harmless tenfold up-scaling in pixels count without degrading the initial sensitivity. In particular, we will briefly describe a solution to simplify the difficult fabrication step linked to the slot-line propagation mode in coplanar waveguide.

  12. FUZZY REGRESSION MODEL TO PREDICT THE BEAD GEOMETRY IN THE ROBOTIC WELDING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.S. Sung; I.S. Kim; Y. Xue; H.H. Kim; Y.H. Cha

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there has been a rapid development in computer technology, which has in turn led todevelop the fully robotic welding system using artificial intelligence (AI) technology. However, therobotic welding system has not been achieved due to difficulties of the mathematical model andsensor technologies. The possibilities of the fuzzy regression method to predict the bead geometry,such as bead width, bead height, bead penetration and bead area in the robotic GMA (gas metalarc) welding process is presented. The approach, a well-known method to deal with the problemswith a high degree of fuzziness, is used to build the relationship between four process variablesand the four quality characteristics, respectively. Using these models, the proper prediction of theprocess variables for obtaining the optimal bead geometry can be determined.

  13. Status of the technologies for the production of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Pareschi, G; Baba, H; Bähr, J; Bonardi, A; Bonnoli, G; Brun, P; Canestrari, R; Chadwick, P; Chikawa, M; Carton, P -H; de Souza, V; Dipold, J; Doro, M; Durand, D; Dyrda, M; Förster, A; Garczarczyk, M; Giro, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Hrabovski, M; Jeanney, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Lessio, L; Mandat, D; Mariotti, M; Medina, C; Michałowski, J; Micolon, P; Nakajima, D; Niemiec, J; Nozato, A; Palatka, M; Pech, M; Peyaud, B; Pühlhofer, G; Rataj, M; Rodeghiero, G; Rojas, G; Rousselle, J; Sakonaka, R; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Schultz, C; Shu, S; Stinzing, F; Stodulski, M; Teshima, M; Travniczek, P; van Eldik, C; Vassiliev, V; Wiśniewski, Ł; Wörnlein, A; Yoshida, T

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation very high-energy gamma-ray observatory, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than current instruments. CTA will comprise several tens of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) operated in array-mode and divided into three size classes: large, medium and small telescopes. The total reflective surface could be up to 10,000 m2 requiring unprecedented technological efforts. The properties of the reflector directly influence the telescope performance and thus constitute a fundamental ingredient to improve and maintain the sensitivity. The R&D status of lightweight, reliable and cost-effective mirror facets for the CTA telescope reflectors for the different classes of telescopes is reviewed in this paper.

  14. Functional and dynamics testing of the flexible solar array for the communications technology satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T. D.; Buckingham, R.; Vigneron, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    The test objectives, test methods, thermal environmental simulations, and test results are described, for a series of combined dynamic, thermal, and vacuum environmental tests on a Deployable Solar Array for the Communications Technology Satellite. Six major resonant structural modes were observed over an excitation range of 0.1-1.0 Hz. Corresponding modal damping factors were found to be between 0.001 and 0.01. Variation of temperature environments between -125 C and 42 C did not significantly affect the characteristics of the fundamental modes, but did influence some of the higher modes. Superharmonic response behavior was observed. The tests also verified functional mechanical performance of the solar array under thermal and vacuum conditions.

  15. The status of lightweight photovoltaic space array technology based on amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Kaschmitter, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Ultralight, flexible photovoltaic (PV) array of amorphous silicon (a-Si) was identified as a potential low cost power source for small satellites. A survey was conducted of the status of the a-Si PV array technology with respect to present and future performance, availability, cost, and risks. For existing, experimental array blankets made of commercial cell material, utilizing metal foil substrates, the Beginning of Life (BOL) performance at Air Mass Zero (AM0) and 35 C includes total power up to 200 W, power per area of 64 W/sq m and power per weight of 258 W/kg. Doubling of power per weight occurs when polyimide substrates are used. Estimated End of Life (EOL) power output after 10 years in a nominal low earth orbit would be 80 pct. of BOL, the degradation being due to largely light induced effects (-10 to -15 pct.) and in part (-5 pct.) to space radiation. Predictions for the year 1995 for flexible PV arrays, made on the basis of published results for rigid a-Si modules, indicate EOL power output per area and per weight of 105 W/sq m and 400 W/kg, respectively, while predictions for the late 1990s based on existing U.S. national PV program goals indicate EOL values of 157 W/sq m and 600 W/kg. Cost estimates by vendors for 200 W ultralight arrays in volume of over 1000 units range from $100/watt to $125/watt. Identified risks include the lack of flexible, space compatible encapsulant, the lack of space qualification effort, recent partial or full acquisitions of US manufacturers of a-Si cells by foreign firms, and the absence of a national commitment for a long range development program toward developing of this important power source for space.

  16. Gastroretentive delivery systems: hollow beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, R; Fassihi, R

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a floatable multiparticulate system with potential for intragastric sustained drug delivery. Cross-linked beads were made by using calcium and low methoxylated pectin (LMP), which is an anionic polysaccharide, and calcium, LMP, and sodium alginate. Beads were dried separately in an air convection type oven at 40 degrees C for 6 hours and in a freeze dryer to evaluate the changes in bead characteristics due to process variability. Riboflavin (B-2), tetracycline (TCN), and Methotrexate (MTX) were used as model drugs for encapsulation. Ionic and nonionic excipients were added to study their effects on the release profiles of the beads. The presence of noncross linking agents in low amounts (less than 2%) did not significantly interfere with release kinetics. For an amphoteric drug like TCN, which has pH dependent solubility, three different pHs (1.5, 5.0, and 8.0) of cross-linking media were used to evaluate the effects of pH on the drug entrapment capacity of the beads. As anticipated, highest entrapment was possible when cross-linking media pH coincided with least drug solubility. Evaluation of the drying process demonstrated that the freeze-dried beads remained buoyant over 12 hours in United States Pharmacopeia (USP) hydrochloride buffer at pH 1.5, whereas the air-dried beads remained submerged throughout the release study. Confocal laser microscopy revealed the presence of air-filled hollow spaces inside the freeze dried beads, which was responsible for the flotation property of the beads. However, the release kinetics from freeze dried beads was independent of hydrodynamic conditions. Calcium-pectinate-alginate beads released their contents at much faster rates than did calcium-pectinate beads (100% in 10 hours vs. 50% in 10 hours). It appears that the nature of cross-linking, drying method, drug solubility, and production approach are all important and provide the opportunity and potential for development of a

  17. Photon counting pixel and array in amorphous silicon technology for large area digital medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdandoost, Mohammad Y.; Shin, Kyung W.; Safavian, Nader; Taghibakhsh, Farhad; Karim, Karim S.

    2010-04-01

    A single photon counting Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) based pixel architecture in amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology is reported for large area digital medical imaging. The VCO converts X-ray generated input charge into an output oscillating frequency signal. Experimental results for an in-house fabricated VCO circuit in a-Si technology are presented and external readout circuits to extract the image information from the VCO's frequency output are discussed. These readout circuits can be optimized to reduce the fixed pattern noise and fringing effects in an imaging array containing many such VCO pixels. Noise estimations, stability simulations and measurements for the fabricated VCO are presented. The reported architecture is particularly promising for large area photon counting applications (e.g. low dose fluoroscopy, dental computed tomography (CT)) due to its very low input referred electronic noise, high sensitivity and ease of fabrication in low cost a-Si technology.

  18. Towards hybrid swimming microrobots: bacteria assisted propulsion of polystyrene beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behkam, Bahareh; Sitti, Metin

    2006-01-01

    Compactness and efficiency of biomotors makes them superior to man-made actuators and a very attractive choice of actuation for micro/nanorobots. However, biomotors are difficult to work with due to complications associated with their isolation and reconstitution. To circumvent this problem, here we use flagellar motors inside the intact cell of S. marcescens bacteria. An array of bacteria is used as propeller for a 10 microm polystyrene (PS) bead. PS bead is tracked for several seconds and its displacements is compared with diffusion length of a 10 microm particle. It is shown that the bead moves with an average velocity of 17 microm/s. Orientation of adhesion of S. marcescens to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips and microscale PS fibers was also investigated. It is shown that for both substrates; only bacteria from farther behind the leading edge of the swarm adhere in end-on configuration. PMID:17946113

  19. MicroArray Facility: a laboratory information management system with extended support for Nylon based technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaudoing Emmanuel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High throughput gene expression profiling (GEP is becoming a routine technique in life science laboratories. With experimental designs that repeatedly span thousands of genes and hundreds of samples, relying on a dedicated database infrastructure is no longer an option. GEP technology is a fast moving target, with new approaches constantly broadening the field diversity. This technology heterogeneity, compounded by the informatics complexity of GEP databases, means that software developments have so far focused on mainstream techniques, leaving less typical yet established techniques such as Nylon microarrays at best partially supported. Results MAF (MicroArray Facility is the laboratory database system we have developed for managing the design, production and hybridization of spotted microarrays. Although it can support the widely used glass microarrays and oligo-chips, MAF was designed with the specific idiosyncrasies of Nylon based microarrays in mind. Notably single channel radioactive probes, microarray stripping and reuse, vector control hybridizations and spike-in controls are all natively supported by the software suite. MicroArray Facility is MIAME supportive and dynamically provides feedback on missing annotations to help users estimate effective MIAME compliance. Genomic data such as clone identifiers and gene symbols are also directly annotated by MAF software using standard public resources. The MAGE-ML data format is implemented for full data export. Journalized database operations (audit tracking, data anonymization, material traceability and user/project level confidentiality policies are also managed by MAF. Conclusion MicroArray Facility is a complete data management system for microarray producers and end-users. Particular care has been devoted to adequately model Nylon based microarrays. The MAF system, developed and implemented in both private and academic environments, has proved a robust solution for

  20. The first genetic map of pigeon pea based on diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shi Ying Yang; Rachit A. Saxena; Pawan L. Kulwal; Gavin J. Ash; Anuja Dubey; John D. I. Harper; Hari D. Upadhyaya; Ragini Gothalwal; Andrzej Kilian; Rajeev K. Varshney

    2011-04-01

    With an objective to develop a genetic map in pigeon pea (Cajanus spp.), a total of 554 diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers showed polymorphism in a pigeon pea F2 mapping population of 72 progenies derived from an interspecific cross of ICP 28 (Cajanus cajan) and ICPW 94 (Cajanus scarabaeoides). Approximately 13% of markers did not conform to expected segregation ratio. The total number of DArT marker loci segregating in Mendelian manner was 405 with 73.1% ($P \\gt 0.001$) of DArT markers having unique segregation patterns. Two groups of genetic maps were generated using DArT markers. While the maternal genetic linkage map had 122 unique DArT maternal marker loci, the paternal genetic linkage map has a total of 172 unique DArT paternal marker loci. The length of these two maps covered 270.0 cM and 451.6 cM, respectively. These are the first genetic linkage maps developed for pigeon pea, and this is the first report of genetic mapping in any grain legume using diversity arrays technology.

  1. Assessment of High-Voltage Photovoltaic Technologies for the Design of a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Schneider, T.; Carruth, M. R.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    A three-year program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster system (D2HET) begun in 2001 as part of the NASA Advanced Cross-Enterprise Technology Development initiative. The system, which is expected to reduce significantly the power processing, complexity, weight, and cost over conventional low-voltage systems, will employ solar arrays that operate at voltages higher than (or equal to) 300 V. The lessons learned from the development of the technology also promise to become a stepping-stone for the production of the next generation of power systems employing high voltage solar arrays. This paper summarizes the results from experiments conducted mainly at the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center with two main solar array technologies. The experiments focused on electron collection and arcing studies, when the solar cells operated at high voltages. The tests utilized small coupons representative of each solar array technology. A hollow cathode was used to emulate parts of the induced environment on the solar arrays, mostly the low-energy charge-exchange plasma (1012-1013 m-3 and 0.5-1 eV). Results and conclusions from modeling of electron collection are also summarized. The observations from the total effort are used to propose a preliminary, new solar array design for 2 kW and 30-40 kW class, deep space missions that may employ a single or a cluster of Hall- Effect thrusters.

  2. MicroRNA Expression Profiling by Bead Array Technology in Human Tumor Cell Lines Treated with Interferon-Alpha-2a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegrist Fredy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs are positive and negative regulators of eukaryotic gene expression that modulate transcript abundance by specific binding to sequence motifs located prevalently in the 3' untranslated regions of target messenger RNAs (mRNA. Interferon-alpha-2a (IFNα induces a large set of protein coding genes mediating antiproliferative and antiviral responses. Here we use a global microarray-based microRNA detection platform to identify genes that are induced by IFNα in hepatoma- or melanoma-derived human tumor cell lines. Despite the enormous differences in expression levels between these models, we were able to identify microRNAs that are upregulated by IFNα in both lines suggesting the possibility that interferon-regulated microRNAs are involved in the transcriptional repression of mRNA relevant to cytokine responses.

  3. Infrared focal plane array with a built-in stationary Fourier-transform spectrometer: recent technological advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrec, Yann; Guérineau, Nicolas; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Lefebvre, Sidonie; de la Barrière, Florence; Lasfargues, Gilles; Fendler, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    A concept of Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer integrated on a focal plane array (FTIR-FPA) has been developed for very fast acquisition of spectral signatures. The basic idea is to use the upper surface of the focal plane array as the first mirror of a two-wave interferometer, which creates interference fringes directly inside the active layer. Two technologies have been developed. In a "monolithic" version of our FTIR-FPA concept, the cavity is made by grinding the substrate to the shape of a wedge. In a "hybrid" version, the cavity is made by hybridizing a Silicon plate just above the focal plane array.

  4. Photovoltaic solar array technology required for three wide scale generating systems for terrestrial applications: rooftop, solar farm, and satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Three major options for wide-scale generation of photovoltaic energy for terrestrial use are considered: (1) rooftop array, (2) solar farm, and (3) satellite station. The rooftop array would use solar cell arrays on the roofs of residential or commercial buildings; the solar farm would consist of large ground-based arrays, probably in arid areas with high insolation; and the satellite station would consist of an orbiting solar array, many square kilometers in area. The technology advancement requirements necessary for each option are discussed, including cost reduction of solar cells and arrays, weight reduction, resistance to environmental factors, reliability, and fabrication capability, including the availability of raw materials. The majority of the technology advancement requirements are applicable to all three options, making possible a flexible basic approach regardless of the options that may eventually be chosen. No conclusions are drawn as to which option is most advantageous, since the feasibility of each option depends on the success achieved in the technology advancement requirements specified.

  5. Applying of the array transducers' technology for surface acoustic waves materials characterization in the transient regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document we present a theoretical and experimental study which has been led to design a surface acoustic wave device for local characterisation (relatively to the wavelength) of isotropic or anisotropic materials. The device is based on a phased-array transducer of conical shape we have specifically designed for this purpose. It operates in the impulsive mode, in the frequency range of 1-5 MHz. In order to deduce mechanical properties of the material, it is possible to measure the surface wave characteristics (velocity, attenuation,...). Different methods for measuring the wave velocity have been developed taking advantage of from the phased-array technology. The originality of theses methods relies on the fact that the measures are performed without moving the transducer. Consequently, the device requires no additional mechanical system and it is quite compact. In addition, this shortens the characterisation process duration comparatively to the usually available methods (e. g. the V(z) technique). In the theoretical section of this study, a versatile model allowing to simulate in the time harmonic regime as well as in the transient regime, the transmitted field, the field reflected on isotropic or anisotropic planar samples and the output voltage for transducers of arbitrary shapes has been developed. The model has been applied to the phased-array conical transducer as well as to more classical transducers such as planar (rectangular) or focusing (spherically or cylindrically shaped) transducers. It predicts not only the geometrical contributions of the reflected field and signal but also the leaky contributions related to the surface acoustic waves. (author)

  6. Advantages of Array-Based Technologies for Pre-Emptive Pharmacogenomics Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Al; Johnstone, Daniel M; Atkins, Joshua R; Sontag, Jean-Marie; Heidari, Moones; Daneshi, Nilofar; Freeman-Acquah, Elvis; Milward, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    As recognised by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), microarray technology currently provides a rapid, inexpensive means of identifying large numbers of known genomic variants or gene transcripts in experimental and clinical settings. However new generation sequencing techniques are now being introduced in many clinical genetic contexts, particularly where novel mutations are involved. While these methods can be valuable for screening a restricted set of genes for known or novel mutations, implementation of whole genome sequencing in clinical practice continues to present challenges. Even very accurate high-throughput methods with small error rates can generate large numbers of false negative or false positive errors due to the high numbers of simultaneous readings. Additional validation is likely to be required for safe use of any such methods in clinical settings. Custom-designed arrays can offer advantages for screening for common, known mutations and, in this context, may currently be better suited for accredited, quality-controlled clinical genetic screening services, as illustrated by their successful application in several large-scale pre-emptive pharmacogenomics programs now underway. Excessive, inappropriate use of next-generation sequencing may waste scarce research funds and other resources. Microarrays presently remain the technology of choice in applications that require fast, cost-effective genome-wide screening of variants of known importance, particularly for large sample sizes. This commentary considers some of the applications where microarrays continue to offer advantages over next-generation sequencing technologies. PMID:27600079

  7. Advances in three-dimensional integration technologies in support of infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, D. S.; Vick, E. P.; Malta, D.; Lueck, M. R.; Skokan, M. R.; Masterjohn, C. M.; Muzilla, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Staring infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) require pixel-level, three-dimensional (3D) integration with silicon readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that provide detector bias, integrate detector current, and may further process the signals. There is an increased interest in ROIC technology as a result of two trends in the evolution of infrared FPAs. The first trend involves decreasing the FPA pixel size, which leads to the increased information content within the same FPA die size. The second trend involves the desire to enhance signal processing capability at the FPA level, which opens the door to the detector behaving like a smart peripheral rather than a passive component—with complex signal processing functions being executed on, rather than off, the FPA chip. In this paper, we review recent advances in 3D integration process technologies that support these key trends in the development of infrared FPAs. Specifically, we discuss approaches in which the infrared sensor is integrated with 3D ROIC stacks composed of multiple layers of silicon circuitry interconnected using metal-filled through-silicon vias. We describe the continued development of the 3D integration technology and summarize key demonstrations that show its viability for pixels as small as 5 microns.

  8. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  9. Integration of field emitter array and thin-film transistor using polycrystalline silicon process technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the monolithic integration of a gated polycrystalline silicon field emitter array (poly-Si FEA) and a thin-film transistor(TFT) on an insulating substrate for active-matrix field emission displays (AMFEDs). The TFT was designed to have low off-state currents even at a high drain voltage. Amorphous silicon has been used as a starting material of the poly-Si FEA for improving surface smoothness and uniformity of the tips, and the gate holes have been formed by using an etch-back process. The integrated poly-Si TFT controlled electron emissions of the poly-Si FEA actively, resulting in great improvement in the emission reliability along with a low-voltage control, below 15 V, of field emission, The developed technology has potential applications in AMFEDs on glass substrates

  10. Integration of field emitter array and thin-film transistor using polycrystalline silicon process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Y H; Kang, S Y; Park Jeong Man; Cho, K I

    1998-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of a gated polycrystalline silicon field emitter array (poly-Si FEA) and a thin-film transistor(TFT) on an insulating substrate for active-matrix field emission displays (AMFEDs). The TFT was designed to have low off-state currents even at a high drain voltage. Amorphous silicon has been used as a starting material of the poly-Si FEA for improving surface smoothness and uniformity of the tips, and the gate holes have been formed by using an etch-back process. The integrated poly-Si TFT controlled electron emissions of the poly-Si FEA actively, resulting in great improvement in the emission reliability along with a low-voltage control, below 15 V, of field emission, The developed technology has potential applications in AMFEDs on glass substrates.

  11. Biochip array technology immunoassay performance and quantitative confirmation of designer piperazines for urine workplace drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Barnes, Allan J; Concheiro, Marta; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Designer piperazines are emerging novel psychoactive substances (NPS) with few high-throughput screening methods for their identification. We evaluated a biochip array technology (BAT) immunoassay for phenylpiperazines (PNP) and benzylpiperazines (BZP) and analyzed 20,017 randomly collected urine workplace specimens. Immunoassay performance at recommended cutoffs was evaluated for PNPI (5 μg/L), PNPII (7.5 μg/L), and BZP (5 μg/L) antibodies. Eight hundred forty positive and 206 randomly selected presumptive negative specimens were confirmed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Assay limits of detection for PNPI, PNPII, and BZP were 2.9, 6.3, and 2.1 μg/L, respectively. Calibration curves were linear (R (2) > 0.99) with upper limits of 42 μg/L for PNPI/PNII and 100 μg/L for BZP. Quality control samples demonstrated imprecision performance of the Randox BAT immunoassay to identify urinary piperazines and documented improved performance when antibody cutoffs were raised. In addition, in randomized workplace urine specimens, all but two positive specimens contained mCPP and/or trazodone, most likely from legitimate medical prescriptions. Graphical Abstract Biochip array technology (BAT) immunoassay for designer piperazines detection in urine. In chemiluminescent immunoassay, the labeled-drug (antigen) competes with the drug in the urine. In the absence of drug, the labeled-drug binds to the antibody releasing an enzyme (horseradish peroxidase) to react with the substrate and producing chemiluminescence. The higher the drug concentration in urine, the weaker the chemiluminescent signal is produced. All presumptive positive specimens and randomly selected presumptive negative specimens were analyzed and confirmed by a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry with limit of quantification of 2.5 or 5 μg/L. PMID:25903022

  12. Effects of Sample Delivery on Analyte Capture in Porous Bead Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Jie; Li, Luanyi E.; Kulla, Eliona; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; McDevitt, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Sample delivery is a crucial aspect of point-of-care applications where sample volumes need to be low and assay times need to be short, while providing high analytical and clinical sensitivity. In this paper, we explore the influence of the factors surrounding sample delivery on analyte capture in an immunoassay-based sensor array manifold of porous beads resting in individual wells. We model using computational fluid dynamics and a flow-through device containing beads sensitized specifically...

  13. On-chip magnetic bead microarray using hydrodynamic focusing in a passive magnetic separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smistrup, K; Kjeldsen, B G; Reimers, J L; Dufva, M; Petersen, J; Hansen, M F

    2005-11-01

    Implementing DNA and protein microarrays into lab-on-a-chip systems can be problematic since these are sensitive to heat and strong chemicals. Here, we describe the functionalization of a microchannel with two types of magnetic beads using hydrodynamic focusing combined with a passive magnetic separator with arrays of soft magnetic elements. The soft magnetic elements placed on both sides of the channel are magnetized by a relatively weak applied external magnetic field (21 mT) and provide magnetic field gradients attracting magnetic beads. Flows with two differently functionalized magnetic beads and a separating barrier flow are introduced simultaneously at the two channel sides and the centre of the microfluidic channel, respectively. On-chip experiments with fluorescence labeled beads demonstrate that the two types of beads are captured at each of the channel sidewalls. On-chip hybridization experiments show that the microfluidic systems can be functionalized with two sets of beads carrying different probes that selectively recognize a single base pair mismatch in target DNA. By switching the places of the two types of beads it is shown that the microsystem can be cleaned and functionalized repeatedly with different beads with no cross-talk between experiments. PMID:16234958

  14. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...

  15. 焊缝超标缺陷的返修处理技术%Repair Technology of Weld Bead Exceed the Standard Defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林彤

    2014-01-01

    通过过热器出口三通管座焊缝超标缺陷的返修实例分析,阐述了在用设备缺陷返修的失败原因与影响因素,总结了缺陷返修技术防范措施与方法步骤,通过应用提高了返修成功率。%In this paper,through the example of three way socket outlet superheater repairweld defect analysis, expounds the reasons for failure and the inlfuence factors in the use of equipment defect repair, summarizes the defect repair technology to prevent the steps and method, improves the success rate of repair through the application.

  16. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  17. Half-bead weld repairs for in-service applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful half- or temper-bead technique weld repairs performed to Section XI of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code guidelines were made to two Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program vessels and a qualification prolongation. Intermediate sized vessels, equivalent in thickness to nuclear pressure vessels, were repair welded and subsequently flawed and pressure tested to approximately 21/4 times design pressure before leakage occurred. Discussed are the standards and procedures used with half-bead repairs, resultant induced metallurgical and stress effects, flaw test criterion, pressure test details and results, and recommendations for further development work for a speedier application process

  18. High-throughput genotyping of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) utilising diversity arrays technology (DArT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E L; Whittock, S P; Jakše, J; Carling, J; Matthews, P D; Probasco, G; Henning, J A; Darby, P; Cerenak, A; Javornik, B; Kilian, A; Koutoulis, A

    2011-05-01

    Implementation of molecular methods in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) breeding is dependent on the availability of sizeable numbers of polymorphic markers and a comprehensive understanding of genetic variation. However, use of molecular marker technology is limited due to expense, time inefficiency, laborious methodology and dependence on DNA sequence information. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) is a high-throughput cost-effective method for the discovery of large numbers of quality polymorphic markers without reliance on DNA sequence information. This study is the first to utilise DArT for hop genotyping, identifying 730 polymorphic markers from 92 hop accessions. The marker quality was high and similar to the quality of DArT markers previously generated for other species; although percentage polymorphism and polymorphism information content (PIC) were lower than in previous studies deploying other marker systems in hop. Genetic relationships in hop illustrated by DArT in this study coincide with knowledge generated using alternate methods. Several statistical analyses separated the hop accessions into genetically differentiated North American and European groupings, with hybrids between the two groups clearly distinguishable. Levels of genetic diversity were similar in the North American and European groups, but higher in the hybrid group. The markers produced from this time and cost-efficient genotyping tool will be a valuable resource for numerous applications in hop breeding and genetics studies, such as mapping, marker-assisted selection, genetic identity testing, guidance in the maintenance of genetic diversity and the directed breeding of superior cultivars. PMID:21243330

  19. Technology and Engineering Advances Supporting EarthScope's Alaska Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, J.; Enders, M.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska and Canada is an ongoing deployment of 261 high quality broadband seismographs. The Alaska TA is the continuation of the rolling TA/USArray deployment of 400 broadband seismographs in the lower 48 contiguous states and builds on the success of the TA project there. The TA in Alaska and Canada is operated by the IRIS Consortium on behalf of the National Science Foundation as part of the EarthScope program. By Sept 2015, it is anticipated that the TA network in Alaska and Canada will be operating 105 stations. During the summer of 2015, TA field crews comprised of IRIS and HTSI station specialists, as well as representatives from our partner agencies the Alaska Earthquake Center and the Alaska Volcano Observatory and engineers from the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory will have completed a total of 36 new station installations. Additionally, we will have completed upgrades at 9 existing Alaska Earthquake Center stations with borehole seismometers and the adoption of an additional 35 existing stations. Continued development of battery systems using LiFePO4 chemistries, integration of BGAN, Iridium, Cellular and VSAT technologies for real time data transfer, and modifications to electronic systems are a driving force for year two of the Alaska Transportable Array. Station deployment utilizes custom heliportable drills for sensor emplacement in remote regions. The autonomous station design evolution include hardening the sites for Arctic, sub-Arctic and Alpine conditions as well as the integration of rechargeable Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries with traditional AGM batteries We will present new design aspects, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing deployments, as well as efforts to integrate TA stations with other existing networks in Alaska including the Plate Boundary Observatory and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

  20. Effects of sample delivery on analyte capture in porous bead sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jie; Li, Luanyi E; Kulla, Eliona; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; McDevitt, John T

    2012-12-21

    Sample delivery is a crucial aspect of point-of-care applications where sample volumes need to be low and assay times short, while providing high analytical and clinical sensitivity. In this paper, we explore the influence of the factors surrounding sample delivery on analyte capture in an immunoassay-based sensor array manifold of porous beads resting in individual wells. We model using computational fluid dynamics and a flow-through device containing beads sensitized specifically to C-reactive protein (CRP) to explore the effects of volume of sample, rate of sample delivery, and use of recirculation vs. unilateral delivery on the effectiveness of the capture of CRP on and within the porous bead sensor. Rate of sample delivery lends to the development of a time-dependent, shrinking depletion region around the bead exterior. Our findings reveal that at significantly high rates of delivery, unique to porous bead substrates, capture at the rim of the bead is reaction-limited, while capture in the interior of the bead is transport-limited. While the fluorescence signal results from the aggregate of captured material throughout the bead, multiple kinetic regimes exist within the bead. Further, under constant pressure conditions dictated by the array architecture, we reveal the existence of an optimal flow rate that generates the highest signal, under point-of-care constraints of limited-volume and limited-time. When high sensitivity is needed, recirculation can be implemented to overcome the analyte capture limitations due to volume and time constraints. Computational simulations agree with experimental results performed under similar conditions. PMID:23117481

  1. Breadboard linear array scan imager using LSI solid-state technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, R. A.; Brennan, J. A.; Frankel, D. G.; Noll, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of large scale integration photodiode arrays in a linear array scan (pushbroom) breadboard was evaluated for application to multispectral remote sensing of the earth's resources. The technical approach, implementation, and test results of the program are described. Several self scanned linear array visible photodetector focal plane arrays were fabricated and evaluated in an optical bench configuration. A 1728-detector array operating in four bands (0.5 - 1.1 micrometer) was evaluated for noise, spectral response, dynamic range, crosstalk, MTF, noise equivalent irradiance, linearity, and image quality. Other results include image artifact data, temporal characteristics, radiometric accuracy, calibration experience, chip alignment, and array fabrication experience. Special studies and experimentation were included in long array fabrication and real-time image processing for low-cost ground stations, including the use of computer image processing. High quality images were produced and all objectives of the program were attained.

  2. Developement of Spherical Polyurethane Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Maeda; H. Ohmori; H. Gyotoku

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion We established a new method to produce the spherical polyurethane beads which have narrower distribution of particle size. This narrower distribution was achieved by the polyurethane prepolymer which contains ketimine as a blocked chain-extending agent. Firstly, the prepolymer is dispersed into the aqueous solution containing surfactant. Secondaly, water comes into the inside of prepolymer as oil phase. Thirdly, ketimine is hydrolyzed to amine, and amine reacts with prepolymer immediately to be polyurethane.Our spherical polyurethane beads are very suitable for automotive interior parts especially for instrument panel cover sheet producing under the slush molding method, because of good process ability, excellent durability to the sunlight and mechanical properties at low temperature. See Fig. 1 ,Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 (Page 820).

  3. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    The application of draw beads in sheet metal stamping ensures controlled drawing-in of flange parts. Lubrication conditions in draw beads are severe due to sliding under simultaneous bending. Based on the original draw bead test design by Nine [1] comprehensive studies of friction in draw beads...... have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool...... and a freely rotating tool respectively, an approach, which inevitably implies large uncertainties due to scatter in the experimental conditions. In order to avoid this problem a new draw bead test is proposed by the authors measuring the friction force acting on the tool radius directly by a build...

  4. Dual-band technology on indium gallium arsenide focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter; Hess, Cory D.; Li, Chuan; Ettenberg, Martin; Trezza, John

    2011-06-01

    While InGaAs-based SWIR imaging technology has been improved dramatically over the past 10 years, the motivation remains to reduce Size Weight and Power (SWaP) for applications in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR). Goodrich ISR Systems, Princeton (Sensors Unlimited, Inc.) has continued to improve detector sensitivity. Additionally, SUI is working jointly with DRS-RSTA to develop innovative techniques for manufacturing dual-band focal planes to provide next generation technology for not only reducing SWaP for SWIR imagers, but also to combine imaging solutions for providing a single imager for Visible Near-SWIR (VNS) + LW imaging solutions. Such developments are targeted at reducing system SWaP, cost and complexity for imaging payloads on board UASs as well as soldier deployed systems like weapon sights. Our motivation is to demonstrate capability in providing superior image quality in fused LWIR and SWIR imaging systems, while reducing the total system SWaP and cost by enabling Short Wave and Thermal imaging in a single uncooled imager. Under DARPA MTO awarded programs, a LW bolometer (DRS-RSTA) is fabricated on a Short Wave (SW) InGaAs Vis-SWIR (SUI-Goodrich) Imager. The combined imager is a dual-band Sensor-Chip Assembly which is capable of imaging in VIS-SWIR + LW. Both DRS and Goodrich have developed materials and process enhancements to support these dual-band platform investigations. The two imagers are confocal and coaxial with respect to the incident image plane. Initial work has completed a single Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) capable of running both imagers. The team has hybridized InGaAs Focal planes to 6" full ROIC wafers to support bolometer fabrication onto the SW array.

  5. Developments of a new mirror technology for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high-energy gamma rays will consist of about a hundred of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) of different size with a total reflective area of about 10,000 m$^2$. Here we present a novel technology for the production of IACT mirrors that has been developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS in Krakow, Poland. The mirrors are made by cold-slumping of the front reflecting aluminium-coated panel and the rear panel interspaced with aluminium spacers. Each panel is built of two glass panels laminated with a layer of a fibreglass tissue in between for reinforcement of the structure against mechanical damage. The mirror structure is open and does not require a perfect sealing needed in closed-type designs. It prohibits water to be trapped inside and enables a proper ventilation of the mirror. Full-size hexagonal prototype mirrors produced for the medium-sized CTA telescopes will be presented together with the results of recent comprehensive ...

  6. Bead-based microarray immunoassay for lung cancer biomarkers using quantum dots as labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lifen; Wu, Simin; Jing, Fengxiang; Zhou, Hongbo; Jia, Chunping; Li, Gang; Cong, Hui; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we developed a multiplex immunoassay system that combines the suspension and planar microarray formats within a single layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft lithography technology. The suspension format was based on the target proteins forming a sandwich structure between the magnetic beads and the quantum dot (QD) probes through specific antibody-antigen interactions. The planar microarray format was produced by fabricating an array of micro-wells in PDMS. Each micro-well was designed to trap a single microbead and eventually generated a microbead array within the PDMS chamber. The resultant bead-based on-chip assay could be used for simultaneously detecting three lung cancer biomarkers-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), fragments of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-in 10 μl of human serum, with a wide linear dynamic range (1.03-111 ng/mL for CEA and CYFRA21-1; 9.26-1000 ng/ml for NSE) and a low detection limit (CEA: 0.19 ng/ml; CYFRA21-1: 0.97 ng/ml; NSE: 0.37 ng/ml; S/N=3). Our micro-well chip does not require complex e-beam lithography or the reactive ion etching process as with existing micro-well systems, which rely on expensive focused ion beam (FIB) milling or optical fiber bundles. Furthermore, the current approach is easy to operate without extra driving equipment such as pumps, and can make parallel detection for multiplexing with rapid binding kinetics, small reagent consumption and low cost. This work has demonstrated the importance of the successful application of on-chip multiplexing sandwich assays for the detection of biomarker proteins. PMID:26852198

  7. Improving GPR Surveys Productivity by Array Technology and Fully Automated Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Marco; Ercoli, Emanuele; Mazzucchelli, Paolo; Cottino, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    The realization of network infrastructures with lower environmental impact and the tendency to use digging technologies less invasive in terms of time and space of road occupation and restoration play a key-role in the development of communication networks. However, pre-existing buried utilities must be detected and located in the subsurface, to exploit the high productivity of modern digging apparatus. According to SUE quality level B+ both position and depth of subsurface utilities must be accurately estimated, demanding for 3D GPR surveys. In fact, the advantages of 3D GPR acquisitions (obtained either by multiple 2D recordings or by an antenna array) versus 2D acquisitions are well-known. Nonetheless, the amount of acquired data for such 3D acquisitions does not usually allow to complete processing and interpretation directly in field and in real-time, thus limiting the overall efficiency of the GPR acquisition. As an example, the "low impact mini-trench "technique (addressed in ITU - International Telecommunication Union - L.83 recommendation) requires that non-destructive mapping of buried services enhances its productivity to match the improvements of new digging equipment. Nowadays multi-antenna and multi-pass GPR acquisitions demand for new processing techniques that can obtain high quality subsurface images, taking full advantage of 3D data: the development of a fully automated and real-time 3D GPR processing system plays a key-role in overall optical network deployment profitability. Furthermore, currently available computing power suggests the feasibility of processing schemes that incorporate better focusing algorithms. A novel processing scheme, whose goal is the automated processing and detection of buried targets that can be applied in real-time to 3D GPR array systems, has been developed and fruitfully tested with two different GPR arrays (16 antennas, 900 MHz central frequency, and 34 antennas, 600 MHz central frequency). The proposed processing

  8. Fabrication of corner cube array retro-reflective structure with DLP-based 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the fabrication of a corner cube array retro-reflective structure is presented by using DLP-based 3D printing technology. In this additive manufacturing technology a pattern of a cube corner array is designed in a computer and sliced with specific software. The image of each slice is then projected from the bottom side of a reservoir, containing UV cure resin, utilizing a DLP video projector. The projected area is cured and attached to a base plate. This process is repeated until the entire part is made. The best orientation of the printing process and the effect of layer thicknesses on the surface finish of the cube has been investigated. The thermal reflow surface finishing and replication with soft molding has also been presented in this article.

  9. Fabrication of corner cube array retro-reflective structure with DLP-based 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Mohammadreza

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the fabrication of a corner cube array retro-reflective structure is presented by using DLP-based 3D printing technology. In this additive manufacturing technology a pattern of a cube corner array is designed in a computer and sliced with specific software. The image of each slice is then projected from the bottom side of a reservoir, containing UV cure resin, utilizing a DLP video projector. The projected area is cured and attached to a base plate. This process is repeated until the entire part is made. The best orientation of the printing process and the effect of layer thicknesses on the surface finish of the cube has been investigated. The thermal reflow surface finishing and replication with soft molding has also been presented in this article.

  10. Optical Polarization Properties of Metal Nanowire Array Film Synthesized by Electrodeposition Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁燕萍; 史启祯; 吴振森; 王尧宇; 高胜利

    2005-01-01

    Metal nanowire array films were prepared by electrodepositing Cu, Ag, Ni, Co and Cu-Ag on porous anodic alumina film. Optical transmittance of both the porous anodic alumina film and metal nanowire array film was measured in the wavelength range of 400---2600 nm under an obliquely incident light. The experimental results show that metal nanowire array films exhibit a prominent polarization function. It was found that optical polarization properties can be improved by choosing suitable kinds of electrodepositing metal, controlling the shape and length of nanowire, and changing the incident angle.

  11. Preparation and thermal properties of chitosan/bentonite composite beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofilović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their biodegradable and nontoxic nature, biopolymer composites are often used as remarkable adsorbents in treatment of wastewater. In this study chitosan/bentonite composite beads were obtained by addition of clay into the polymer using solution process. Before the composite preparation, bentonite was modified with surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB. The morphology of beads was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal properties of the composite beads were studied by simultaneous thermogravimetry coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (SDT and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. TG results showed that the complex decomposition mechanism of the composites depends on the preparation procedure. It was observed that the concentration of NaOH used for composites precipitation affects the final structure of beads. The influence of preparation procedure on the glass transition temperature Tg of chitosan/bentonite samples was not found (Tg values for all samples were about 144 °C. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45022 and ON172014 and Provincial Secretariat of Vojvodina for Science and Technological Development 114-451-2396/2011-01.

  12. A Low Cost, Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Antenna Technology for Aviation Hazard Detection and Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will investigate the feasibility of utilizing ThinKom's low cost electronically scanned array (ESA) antenna concepts to enable affordable...

  13. Three-dimensional Tip Electrode Array Technology for High Resolution Neuro-Electronic System used in Electrophysiological Experiments in-vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Joye, Neil; Lavagnino, Maurizio; Schmid, Alexandre; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional tip electrode array technology for in- vitro electrophysiological experiments is presented. Based on simulation results obtained with a finite element model of the neuron-electrode interface, it has been shown that the electrical coupling between the neural cells and the three-dimensional tip electrode array is improved compared to standard planar electrodes. Consequently, three dimensional microelectrode arrays (3D-MEAs) exhibiting a higher spatial resolution than ...

  14. Beads, beaded-fibres and fibres: Tailoring the morphology of poly(caprolactone) using pressurised gyration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xianze; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, Suntharavathanan

    2016-12-01

    This work focuses on forming bead on string poly(caprolactone) (PCL) by using gyration under pressure. The fibre morphology of bead on string is an interesting feature that falls between bead-free fibres and droplets, and it could be effectively controlled by the rheological properties of spinning dopes and the major processing parameters of the pressurised gyration system which are working pressure and rotating speed. Bead products were not always spherical in shape and tended to be more elliptical, therefore both their width and length were measured. The average bead width and length produced spanned a range 145-660μm and 140-1060μm, respectively. The average distance between two adjacent beads (i.e. inter-bead distance) and the bead size (width and length) are shown to be a function of processing parameters and polymer concentration. An interesting morphology i.e. beads with short fibre was observed when using a high polymer concentration. Bead on string structure agglomeration was promoted by a low polymer concentration. Formation of droplets or agglomerated bead on string is promoted below 5wt% polymer concentration, and beads with short fibre were present in the microstructure beyond a polymer concentration of 20wt%. PMID:27612839

  15. Research of improved sparse grid non-uniformity correction technologies for infrared resistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-jie; Zhao, Hong-ming; Gao, Yang; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Infrared resistor arrays perform a vital role in the hardware in the loop testing of infrared seekers. Infrared resistor arrays composed of large numbers of suspended resistor elements are commonly used to produce dynamic two-dimensional images of infrared radiation. Due to inconsistencies in the fabrication process of the resistor arrays, the temperature each resistor elements reaches for a given input voltage is variable and this leads to more significant radiance differences, these differences result in spatially-distributed radiance non-uniformity. Therefore, in order to obtain an available infrared image, non-uniformity correction (NUC) is necessary. In this paper, the non-uniformity characters of the infrared resistor arrays are analyzed base on measured data and then an improved sparse grid method for engineering are discussed and analyzed. First of all, the NUC camera has a strong influence on the effectiveness of the infrared resistor arrays NUC procedure. According to the actual fact and the laboratory condition, we presented an alternative method for collecting resistor arrays intended to reduce the influence causing by the NUC camera. Secondly, based on the measured non-uniformity data, we obtain the response characteristics of the infrared resistor arrays. In each gray level, we take two points or several points correction algorithm to calculate the gain data and the offset data, and then the linear look-up table is established. Finally, through MATLAB we develop the correction software, and we can obtain the driving output conveniently. The result shows that the image quality has a remarkable improvement after non-uniformity correction, the non-uniformity correction flow and algorithm preferably satisfies the requirement of the high confidence infrared imaging simulation.

  16. Non-destructive evaluation of adhesive layer using a planar array capacitive imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyan; Zhao, Limei; Wen, Yintang; Sun, Dongtao

    2016-04-01

    The thermal protection materials for aircraft are usually assembled on the substrate surface by means of adhesion agent. It is very necessary to evaluate the interface bonding quality which has great influence on heat preservation performance. At present, there is still no relatively satisfactory and reliable method for defect detection of cohesive coating. Planar array electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a suitable non-invasive imaging technique when there is only limited access to the targeted object. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of using planar array electrical capacitive tomography for bondline defect detection. In this paper, a planar array ECT system is developed consist of a planar array sensor of 12 electrodes, a capacitance acquisition system and image reconstruction software. The sensor development, simulation of sensitivity map, practical application and imaging reconstruction are discussed. A series of specimens of thermal protection material with man-made defects are tested by the proposed planar array ECT system. The experimental results show that the defect in cohesive coating can be effectively detected and the minimum size can be detected is 10mm×10mm.

  17. Porous bead packings for gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, G. E.; Woeller, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    Porous polyaromatic packing beads have low polarity, high efficiency, short retention time, and may be synthesized in size range of 50 to 150 micrometers (100 to 270 mesh). Mechanically strong beads may be produced using various materials depending on elements and compounds to be identified.

  18. Nanoprobe NAPPA Arrays for the Nanoconductimetric Analysis of Ultra-Low-Volume Protein Samples Using Piezoelectric Liquid Dispensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Pechkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the evolution and the advances of the nanobiotechnologies applied to the systematic study of proteins, namely proteomics, both structural and functional, and specifically the development of more sophisticated and largescale protein arrays, have enabled scientists to investigate protein interactions and functions with an unforeseeable precision and wealth of details. Here, we present a further advancement of our previously introduced and described Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA-based nanoconductometric sensor. We coupled Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation factor Monitoring (QCM_D with piezoelectric inkjet printing technology (namely, the newly developed ActivePipette, which enables to significantly reduce the volume of probe required for genes/proteins arrays. We performed a negative control (with master mix, or MM and a positive control (MM_p53 plus MDM2. We performed this experiment both in static and in flow, computing the apparent dissociation constant of p53-MDM2 complex (130 nM, in excellent agreement with the published literature. We compared the results obtained with the ActivePipette printing and dispensing technology vs. pin spotting. Without the ActivePipette, after MDM2 addition the shift in frequency (Δf was 7575 Hz and the corresponding adsorbed mass was 32.9 μg. With the ActivePipette technology, after MDM2 addition Δf was 7740 Hz and the corresponding adsorbed mass was 33.6 μg. With this experiment, we confirmed the sensing potential of our device, being able to discriminate each gene and protein as well as their interactions, showing for each one of them a unique conductance curve. Moreover, we obtained a better yield with the ActivePipette technology.

  19. Integration of lateral flow and micro array technologies for multiplex immunoassay: application to the determination of drugs of abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a lateral flow micro array that combines multi-spot immunochip technology and immunochromatography. It can serve as a tool for the simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. The test zone of the nitrocellulose support comprises a micro array spotted with up to 32 antigens that can capture labeled gold-antibodies after lateral flow. The detection limits and detectable concentration ranges of the assay were characterized. The method was applied to the determination of drugs of abuse (and their metabolites) in urine, specifically of morphine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and benzoylecgonine. The assay format is rapid (10 min), and has both a low relative standard deviation (-1 for drugs of abuse) are comparable to those of conventional single-analyte strip methods. (author)

  20. Research on Helicopter-borne MIMO Microwave Imaging Technology Based on Arc Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ping-ping

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO microwave imaging mode based on arc antenna array, which is mounted on the belly of platform. In this mode, an arc aperture is quickly synthesized using an MIMO. Consequently, high space and time resolution images of the illuminated scene around the platform are acquired. First, an imaging principle model based on arc antenna array is described, and its signal model is developed. Then, an imaging algorithm based on confocal projection is discussed and the performance of the mode is analyzed. Finally, the feasibility of the imaging mode and the validity of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated with a numerical simulation.

  1. 传声器阵列校准技术研究%Calibration technology of microphone array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元首; 陈宝; 张雪; 姜涛

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic noise is usually broadband noise. The designed array needs to satisfy the measurement require⁃ments of both high and low frequency signals. The corresponding array form is designed when the frequency range of array mea⁃surement is determined. The noise source localization technology based on microphone array is the core test technique in the wind tunnel aerodynamic noise test technology. The accuracy of noise source localization depends mainly on the microphone ar⁃ray calibration technique. After the microphone phase array is installed,different frequency response and sensitivity,preamplifier, cable laying,power supply,frequency response of signal conditioner and the installation of microphone array can cause the phase difference and amplitude difference among all measurement channels in the data acquisition system. Correction of phase difference and amplitude difference of microphones can make all the microphone frequency responses consistent and ensure the accuracy of test result.%气动噪声通常为宽频噪声,设计的阵列需要同时满足对高低频信号的测量需求,在确定了阵列测量频率范围的情况下,设计相应的阵列形式。在风洞气动噪声试验技术中,基于传声器阵列的噪声源定位技术是核心试验技术,噪声源定位的精准度主要取决于传声器阵列校准技术。传声器相位阵列安装之后,由于传声器频率响应和灵敏度不同,前置放大器、电缆的铺设、电源和信号调理器的频率响应以及传声器在阵列中的安装影响,会引起数据采集系统各测量通道间固有的相位差和幅值差。修正传声器的相位差和幅值差使得所有的传声器幅频响应一致,保证试验结果的准度。

  2. Adaptation of the Biolog Phenotype MicroArrayTM Technology to Profile the Obligate Anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyner, Dominique; Fortney, Julian; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry

    2010-05-17

    The Biolog OmniLog? Phenotype MicroArray (PM) plate technology was successfully adapted to generate a select phenotypic profile of the strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens (G.m.). The profile generated for G.m. provides insight into the chemical sensitivity of the organism as well as some of its metabolic capabilities when grown with a basal medium containing acetate and Fe(III). The PM technology was developed for aerobic organisms. The reduction of a tetrazolium dye by the test organism represents metabolic activity on the array which is detected and measured by the OmniLog(R) system. We have previously adapted the technology for the anaerobic sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. In this work, we have taken the technology a step further by adapting it for the iron reducing obligate anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens. In an osmotic stress microarray it was determined that the organism has higher sensitivity to impermeable solutes 3-6percent KCl and 2-5percent NaNO3 that result in osmotic stress by osmosis to the cell than to permeable non-ionic solutes represented by 5-20percent ethylene glycol and 2-3percent urea. The osmotic stress microarray also includes an array of osmoprotectants and precursor molecules that were screened to identify substrates that would provide osmotic protection to NaCl stress. None of the substrates tested conferred resistance to elevated concentrations of salt. Verification studies in which G.m. was grown in defined medium amended with 100mM NaCl (MIC) and the common osmoprotectants betaine, glycine and proline supported the PM findings. Further verification was done by analysis of transcriptomic profiles of G.m. grown under 100mM NaCl stress that revealed up-regulation of genes related to degradation rather than accumulation of the above-mentioned osmoprotectants. The phenotypic profile, supported by additional analysis indicates that the accumulation of these osmoprotectants as a response to salt stress does not

  3. Study of Spatio-Temporal Immunofluorescence on Bead Patterns in a Microfluidic Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Venkataragavalu; Yang, Hui; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2010-12-01

    We performed a direct immunoassay inside a microfluidic channel on patterned streptavidin-coated beads, which captured fluorescently-labeled biotin target molecules from a continuous flow. We arranged the beads in a dot array at the bottom of the channel and demonstrated their position- and flow rate-dependent fluorescence. As the target analyte gets gradually depleted from the flow when passing downstream the channel, the highest fluorescence intensity was observed on the most upstream positioned dot patterns. We propose a simple analytical convection model to explain this spatio-temporal fluorescence.

  4. Generic technological platform for microfabricating silicon nitride micro- and nanopipette arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Guenat, Olivier T.; Generelli, Silvia; Dadras, Mohammad-Mehdi; Berdondini, L.; De Rooij, Nicolaas F; Koudelka-Hep, Milena

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the design and the characterization of batch fabricated SixNy micropipette arrays with diameters ranging from 6 µm down to 250 nm are described. The process used to fabricate the micromachined pipettes includes a deep reactive ion etching step, followed by the deposition of two successive layers, a thermal oxide layer and a low stress, low pressure chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride layer, respectively. The diameter of the micropipettes could be modulated simply by choosi...

  5. Detergent screening of a GPCR using serial and array biosensor technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Rebecca L.; Miles, Adam R.; Gale, Bruce K.; Myszka, David G.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the benefits and limitations of two biosensor approaches for screening solubilization conditions for G-protein-coupled receptors. Assays designed for a serially processing instrument (Biacore 2000/3000/T100) and an array platform (Biacore Flexchip) were used to examine how effectively 96 different detergents solubilized the chemokine receptor CCR5 while maintaining its binding activity for a conformationally sensitive Fab (2D7). Using the serial-processing instrument, we were able...

  6. Theoretical analysis of a new, efficient microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on magnetic structures on multiple length scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Bu, Minqiang; Wolff, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of a new design for microfluidic magnetic bead separation. It combines an external array of mm-sized permanent magnets with magnetization directions alternating between up and down with mu m-sized soft magnetic structures integrated in the bottom of the separation...... channel. The concept is studied analytically for simple representative geometries and by numerical simulation of an experimentally realistic system geometry. The array of permanent magnets provides long-range magnetic forces that attract the beads to the channel bottom, while the soft magnetic elements...

  7. Single bead-based electrochemical biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, CHANGCHUN; Schrlau, Michael G.; Bau, Haim H.

    2009-01-01

    A simple, robust, single bead-based electrochemical biosensor was fabricated and characterized. The sensor’s working electrode consists of an electrochemically-etched platinum wire, with a nominal diameter of 25 μm, hermetically heat-fusion sealed in a pulled glass capillary (micropipette). The sealing process does not require any epoxy or glue. A commercially available, densely functionalized agarose bead was mounted on the tip of the etched platinum wire. The use of a pre-functionalized bea...

  8. Acupressure Bead in the Eustachian Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Yu; Kakigi, Akinobu

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we aim to enlighten practitioners and patients involved with acupressure beads and to contribute to their safer use by reporting a unique case of insidious intrusion of an acupressure bead into the eustachian tube. A metallic object was found in the eustachian tube of a patient while conducting a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The object was later confirmed to be an auricular acupressure bead, and was successfully removed by performing a tympanoplasty and a canal wall down mastoidectomy. The bead was assumed to have passed through an existing perforation of the tympanic membrane. According to previously published literature, tympanic membrane perforations exist in ∼1% of the population. Therefore, middle-ear foreign bodies are relatively common occurrences for otolaryngologists. However, metallic objects such as acupressure beads are especially important in the sense that they can cause severe burns during MRI. To avoid potential complications, acupressure-bead practitioners should be aware of the possibility that intrusions through the tympanic membrane could go unnoticed. PMID:26276456

  9. Research on pressure tactile sensing technology based on fiber Bragg grating array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinxue; Jiang, Qi; Huang, Yuanyang; Li, Yibin; Jia, Yuxi; Rong, Xuewen; Song, Rui; Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    A pressure tactile sensor based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array is introduced in this paper, and the numerical simulation of its elastic body was implemented by finite element software (ANSYS). On the basis of simulation, fiber Bragg grating strings were implanted in flexible silicone to realize the sensor fabrication process, and a testing system was built. A series of calibration tests were done via the high precision universal press machine. The tactile sensor array perceived external pressure, which is demodulated by the fiber grating demodulation instrument, and three-dimension pictures were programmed to display visually the position and size. At the same time, a dynamic contact experiment of the sensor was conducted for simulating robot encountering other objects in the unknown environment. The experimental results show that the sensor has good linearity, repeatability, and has the good effect of dynamic response, and its pressure sensitivity was 0.03 nm/N. In addition, the sensor also has advantages of anti-electromagnetic interference, good flexibility, simple structure, low cost and so on, which is expected to be used in the wearable artificial skin in the future.

  10. Experimental demonstration of a multi-wavelength distributed feedback semiconductor laser array with an equivalent chirped grating profile based on the equivalent chirp technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangzhe; Zhang, Xia; Yao, Jianping

    2013-08-26

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first realization of a multi-wavelength distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor laser array with an equivalent chirped grating profile based on equivalent chirp technology. All the lasers in the laser array have an identical grating period with an equivalent chirped grating structure, which are realized by nonuniform sampling of the gratings. Different wavelengths are achieved by changing the sampling functions. A multi-wavelength DFB semiconductor laser array is fabricated and the lasing performance is evaluated. The results show that the equivalent chirp technology is an effective solution for monolithic integration of a multi-wavelength laser array with potential for large volume fabrication. PMID:24105542

  11. A disposable bio-nano-chip using agarose beads for high performance immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Nan; Chou, Jie; Kulla, Eliona; Floriano, Pierre N; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; McDevitt, John T

    2011-10-15

    This article reports on the fabrication of a disposable bio-nano-chip (BNC), a microfluidic device composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and thiolene-based optical epoxy which is both cost-effective and suitable for high performance immunoassays. A novel room temperature (RT) bonding technique was utilized so as to achieve irreversible covalent bonding between PDMS and thiolene-based epoxy layers, while at the same time being compatible with the insertion of agarose bead sensors, selectively arranged in an array of pyramidal microcavities replicated in the thiolene thin film layer. In the sealed device, the bead-supporting epoxy film is sandwiched between two PDMS layers comprising of fluidic injection and drain channels. The agarose bead sensors used in the device are sensitized with anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibody, and a fluorescent sandwich-type immunoassay was run to characterize the performance of this device. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used based on the device specifications to model the bead penetration. Experimental data revealed analyte penetration of the immunocomplex to 100 μm into the 280 μm diameter agarose beads, which correlated well with the simulation. A dose-response curve was obtained and the linear dynamic range of the assay was established over 1 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL with a limit of detection less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:21852104

  12. Michrohole Arrays Drilled with Advanced Abrasive Slurry Jet Technology to Efficiently Exploit Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Kenneth [Impact Technologies, Tulsa, OK (United States); Finsterle, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Yingqi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobson, Parick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mohan, Ram [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Shoham, Ovadia [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Felber, Betty [Impact Technologies, Tulsa, OK (United States); Rychel, Dwight [Impact Technologies, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2014-03-12

    This project had two major areas of research for Engineered/ Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) development - 1) study the potential benefits from using microholes (i.e., bores with diameters less than 10.16 centimeters/ 4 inches) and 2) study FLASH ASJ to drill/ install those microbores between a well and a fracture system. This included the methods and benefits of drilling vertical microholes for exploring the EGS reservoir and for installing multiple (forming an array of) laterals/ directional microholes for creating the in-reservoir heat exchange flow paths. Significant benefit was found in utilizing small microbore sized connecting bores for EGS efficiency and project life. FLASH ASJ was deemed too complicated to optimally work in such deep reservoirs at this time.

  13. Bond quality control of aluminium stabilised superconductors with ultrasonic phased-array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel aluminium stabilised superconductors are currently being produced for the Large Hadron Collider detectors ATLAS and CMS. For a satisfying service of the conductor an intact bonding between the different constituents must be guaranteed. We have shown previously that ultrasonics is a powerful tool for checking the bond quality. However, up to now the full width of the bond could be inspected only on short samples with a mechanical scanner. The essence of this presentation is the introduction of the phased-array technique which allows a continuous analysis of the complete bond over km-long conductor units during their manufacture. For now, more than 50 km of conductor have been tested during co-extrusion. Disbondings are detected as regions with enhanced echo-amplitudes. We are about to set-up a second system for the control of an electron beam welding process which is used for the reinforcement of the CMS conductor. (orig.)

  14. Robust site security using smart seismic array technology and multi-sensor data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellickson, Dean; Richards, Paul; Reynolds, Zane; Keener, Joshua

    2010-04-01

    Traditional site security systems are susceptible to high individual sensor nuisance alarm rates that reduce the overall system effectiveness. Visual assessment of intrusions can be intensive and manually difficult as cameras are slewed by the system to non intrusion areas or as operators respond to nuisance alarms. Very little system intrusion performance data are available other than discrete sensor alarm indications that provide no real value. This paper discusses the system architecture, integration and display of a multi-sensor data fused system for wide area surveillance, local site intrusion detection and intrusion classification. The incorporation of a novel seismic array of smart sensors using FK Beamforming processing that greatly enhances the overall system detection and classification performance of the system is discussed. Recent test data demonstrates the performance of the seismic array within several different installations and its ability to classify and track moving targets at significant standoff distances with exceptional immunity to background clutter and noise. Multi-sensor data fusion is applied across a suite of complimentary sensors eliminating almost all nuisance alarms while integrating within a geographical information system to feed a visual-fusion display of the area being secured. Real-time sensor detection and intrusion classification data is presented within a visual-fusion display providing greatly enhanced situational awareness, system performance information and real-time assessment of intrusions and situations of interest with limited security operator involvement. This approach scales from a small local perimeter to very large geographical area and can be used across multiple sites controlled at a single command and control station.

  15. Self-assembled magnetic bead chains for sensitivity enhancement of microfluidic electrochemical biosensor platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrecht, L; Dincer, C; Kling, A; Horak, J; Kieninger, J; Urban, G

    2015-11-21

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to enhance the sensitivity of microfluidic biosensor platforms with self-assembled magnetic bead chains. An adjustable, more than 5-fold sensitivity enhancement is achieved by introducing a magnetic field gradient along a microfluidic channel by means of a soft-magnetic lattice with a 350 μm spacing. The alternating magnetic field induces the self-assembly of the magnetic beads in chains or clusters and thus improves the perfusion and active contact between the analyte and the beads. The soft-magnetic lattices can be applied independent of the channel geometry or chip material to any microfluidic biosensing platform. At the same time, the bead-based approach achieves chip reusability and shortened measurement times. The bead chain properties and the maximum flow velocity for bead retention were validated by optical microscopy in a glass capillary. The magnetic actuation system was successfully validated with a biotin-streptavidin model assay on a low-cost electrochemical microfluidic chip, fabricated by dry-film photoresist technology (DFR). Labelling with glucose oxidase (GOx) permits rapid electrochemical detection of enzymatically produced H2O2. PMID:26394820

  16. Design criteria for developing low-resource magnetic bead assays using surface tension valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nicholas M; Creecy, Amy E; Majors, Catherine E; Wariso, Bathsheba A; Short, Philip A; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R

    2013-01-01

    Many assays for biological sample processing and diagnostics are not suitable for use in settings that lack laboratory resources. We have recently described a simple, self-contained format based on magnetic beads for extracting infectious disease biomarkers from complex biological samples, which significantly reduces the time, expertise, and infrastructure required. This self-contained format has the potential to facilitate the application of other laboratory-based sample processing assays in low-resource settings. The technology is enabled by immiscible fluid barriers, or surface tension valves, which stably separate adjacent processing solutions within millimeter-diameter tubing and simultaneously permit the transit of magnetic beads across the interfaces. In this report, we identify the physical parameters of the materials that maximize fluid stability and bead transport and minimize solution carryover. We found that fluid stability is maximized with ≤0.8 mm i.d. tubing, valve fluids of similar density to the adjacent solutions, and tubing with ≤20 dyn/cm surface energy. Maximizing bead transport was achieved using ≥2.4 mm i.d. tubing, mineral oil valve fluid, and a mass of 1-3 mg beads. The amount of solution carryover across a surface tension valve was minimized using ≤0.2 mg of beads, tubing with ≤20 dyn/cm surface energy, and air separators. The most favorable parameter space for valve stability and bead transport was identified by combining our experimental results into a single plot using two dimensionless numbers. A strategy is presented for developing additional self-contained assays based on magnetic beads and surface tension valves for low-resource diagnostic applications. PMID:24403996

  17. Fabrication of micro nickel/diamond abrasive pellet array lapping tools using a LIGA-like technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Yih; Yu, Tsung-Han; Hu, Yuh-Chung

    2007-06-01

    A manufacturing process of micro nickel/diamond abrasive pellet array lapping tools using a LIGA-like technology is reported here. The thickness of JSR THB-151N resist coated on an aluminum alloy substrate for micro lithography can reach up to 110 µm. During the lithography, different geometrical photomasks were used to create specific design patterns of the resist mold on the substrate. Micro roots, made by electrolytic machining on the substrate with guidance of the resist mold, can improve the adhesion of micro nickel abrasive pellets electroplated on the substrate. During the composite electroforming, the desired hardness of the nickel matrix inside the micro diamond abrasive pellets can be obtained by the addition of leveling and stress reducing agents. At moderate blade agitation and ultrasonic oscillation, higher concentration and more uniform dispersion of diamond powders deposited in the nickel matrix can be achieved. With these optimal experiment conditions of this fabrication process, the production of micro nickel/diamond abrasive pellet array lapping tools is demonstrated.

  18. The Beads of Translation: Using Beads to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    During this activity, by making beaded bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (beads). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…

  19. Arraying prostate specific antigen PSA and Fab anti-PSA using light-assisted molecular immobilization technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parracino, Antonietta; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; di Gennaro, Ane Kold; Pettersson, Kim; Lövgren, Timo; Petersen, Steffen B

    2010-01-01

    We here report for the first time the creation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and Fab anti-PSA biosensor arrays using UV light-assisted molecular immobilization (LAMI), aiming at the detection and quantification of PSA, a cancer marker. The technology involves formation of free, reactive thiol groups upon UV excitation of protein aromatic residues located in spatial proximity of disulphide bridges, a conserved structural feature in both PSA and Fab molecules. The created thiol groups bind onto thiol reactive surfaces leading to oriented covalent protein immobilization. Protein activity was confirmed carrying out immunoassays: immobilized PSA was recognized by Fab anti-PSA in solution and immobilized Fab anti-PSA cross-reacted with PSA in solution. LAMI technology proved successful in immobilizing biomedically relevant molecules while preserving their activity, highlighting that insight into how light interacts with biomolecules may lead to new biophotonic technologies. Our work focused on the application of our new engineering principles to the design, analysis, construction, and manipulation of biological systems, and on the discovery and application of new engineering principles inspired by the properties of biological systems. PMID:20665692

  20. Demonstration of a micromachined planar distribution network in gap waveguide technology for a linear slot array antenna at 100 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiminejad, S.; Zaman, A. U.; Haasl, S.; Kildal, P.-S.; Enoksson, P.

    2016-07-01

    The need for high frequency antennas is rapidly increasing with the development of new wireless rate communication technology. Planar antennas have an attractive form factor, but they require a distribution network. Microstrip technology is most commonly used at low frequency but suffers from large dielectric and ohmic losses at higher frequencies and particularly above 100 GHz. Substrate-integrated waveguides also suffer from dielectric losses. In addition, standard rectangular waveguide interfaces are inconvenient due to the four flange screws that must be tightly fastened to the antenna to avoid leakage. The current paper presents a planar slot array antenna that does not suffer from any of these problems. The distribution network is realized by micromachining using low-loss gap waveguide technology, and it can be connected to a standard rectangular waveguide flange without using any screws or additional packaging. To realize the antenna at these frequencies, it was fabricated with micromachining, which offers the required high precision, and a low-cost fabrication method. The antenna was micromachined with DRIE in two parts, one silicon-on-insulator plate and one Si plate, which were both covered with Au to achieve conductivity. The input reflection coefficient was measured to be below 10 dB over a 15.5% bandwidth, and the antenna gain was measured to be 10.4 dBi, both of which are in agreement with simulations.

  1. Field application of smart SHM using field programmable gate array technology to monitor an RC bridge in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an innovative field application of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology and wireless communication is presented. The new SHM system was installed to monitor a reinforced concrete (RC) bridge on Interstate 40 (I-40) in Tucumcari, New Mexico. This newly installed system allows continuous remote monitoring of this bridge using solar power. Details of the SHM component design and installation are discussed. The integration of FPGA and solar power technologies make it possible to remotely monitor infrastructure with limited access to power. Furthermore, the use of FPGA technology enables smart monitoring where data communication takes place on-need (when damage warning signs are met) and on-demand for periodic monitoring of the bridge. Such a system enables a significant cut in communication cost and power demands which are two challenges during SHM operation. Finally, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the bridge was developed and calibrated using a static loading field test. This model is then used for simulating damage occurrence on the bridge. Using the proposed automation process for SHM will reduce human intervention significantly and can save millions of dollars currently spent on prescheduled inspection of critical infrastructure worldwide

  2. Development of a nano-technology based low-LET multi-microbeam array single cell irradiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel single cell irradiation system using carbon nano-tube (CNT) based field emission technology is proposed. The system can produce electron microbeam at a large range of pulsation frequencies and dose rates with energy between 20 and 60 keV. Different from any existing single beam microbeam device, the CNT-based system can have 10,000 microbeam pixels, each is ∼10 μm in size and individually controlled. Microscope imaging will be used for targeting cell(s) and the coordinate(s) identification. A single cell or large number of individually selected cells can be simultaneously irradiated under real time microscope observation. This poster reports our preliminary results in the initial stage of the CNT multi-pixel microbeam array development - prototype single pixel CNT microbeam device development. (authors)

  3. High-density fiber optic array technology and its applica- tions in functional genomic studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jianbing; CHE Diping; ZHAO Chanfeng; ZHOU Lixin; FENG Wenyi

    2003-01-01

    The development of DNA microarray technology[1] revolutionized our way of studying gene expression. Instead of examining gene expression by Northern blots or RT-PCR one by one, we can now routinely check the changes of hundreds and thousands of gene expression levels simultaneously.

  4. Beaded streams of Arctic permafrost landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Arp

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beaded streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a Circum-Arctic inventory of beaded streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with beaded morphology throughout the continuous permafrost zone of northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia and found the highest abundance associated with medium- to high-ice content permafrost in moderately sloping terrain. In the Fish Creek watershed, beaded streams accounted for half of the drainage density, occurring primarily as low-order channels initiating from lakes and drained lake basins. Beaded streams predictably transition to alluvial channels with increasing drainage area and decreasing channel slope, although this transition is modified by local controls on water and sediment delivery. Comparison of one beaded channel using repeat photography between 1948 and 2013 indicate relatively stable form and 14C dating of basal sediments suggest channel formation may be as early as the Pleistocene–Holocene transition. Contemporary processes, such as deep snow accumulation in stream gulches effectively insulates river ice and allows for perennial liquid water below most beaded stream pools. Because of this, mean annual temperatures in pool beds are greater than 2 °C, leading to the development of perennial thaw bulbs or taliks underlying these thermokarst features. In the summer, some pools stratify thermally, which reduces permafrost thaw and maintains coldwater habitats. Snowmelt generated peak-flows decrease rapidly by two or more orders of magnitude to summer low flows with slow reach-scale velocity distributions ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 m s−1, yet channel runs still move water

  5. [Research on the neas infrared focal plane array detector imaging technology used in the laser warning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Yan-Fei; Wang, Yao-Li; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan-Chao

    2014-04-01

    In order to achieve the incoming laser's accurate position, it is necessary to improve the detected laser's direction resolution. The InGaAs focal plane array detector with the type of FPA-320 x 256-C was selected as the core component of the diffraction grating laser warning device. The detection theory of laser wavelength and direction based on diffraction grating was introduced. The drive circuit was designed through the analysis of the detector's performance and parameters. Under the FPGA' s timing control, the detector's analog output was sampled by the high-speed AD. The data was cached to FPGA's extended SRAM, and then transferred to a PC through USB. Labview on a PC collects the raw data for processing and displaying. The imaging experiments were completed with the above method. With the wavelength of 1550 nm and 980 nm laser from different directions the diffraction images were detected. Through analysis the location of the zero order and one order can be determined. According to the grating diffraction theory, the wavelength and the direction of the two-dimensional angle can be calculated. It indicates that the wavelength error is less than 10 nm, and the angle error is less than 1 degrees. PMID:25007645

  6. Evaluation of Solar Array Peak Power Tracking Technologies for CubeSats

    OpenAIRE

    Erb, Daniel; Rawashdeh, Samir; Lumpp Jr., James

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity and capability of small satellite missions is placing more stringent requirements on spacecraft power systems. Higher power demands are usually met with deployable solar panels and platforms that require attitude determination and control systems which add mass, complexity, and risk to the mission. Finally, to make more efficient use of the solar panels under varying conditions, peak power tracking technologies are employed which electrically match the load and solar...

  7. Advantages of Array-Based Technologies for Pre-Emptive Pharmacogenomics Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Al Shahandeh; Johnstone, Daniel M.; Joshua R. Atkins; Jean-Marie Sontag; Moones Heidari; Nilofar Daneshi; Elvis Freeman-Acquah; Milward, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    As recognised by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), microarray technology currently provides a rapid, inexpensive means of identifying large numbers of known genomic variants or gene transcripts in experimental and clinical settings. However new generation sequencing techniques are now being introduced in many clinical genetic contexts, particularly where novel mutations are involved. While these methods can be valuable for screening a restricted set ...

  8. Development of Expanded Thermoplastic Polyurethane Bead Foams and Their Sintering Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossieny, Nemat

    Polymer bead foaming technology represents a breakthrough in the production of low density plastic foamed components that have a complex geometrical structure and has helped to expand the market for plastic foams by broadening their applications. In this research, the unique microstructure of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) consisting of phase-separated hard segment (HS) domains dispersed in the soft segment (SS) matrix has been utilized to develop expanded TPU (E-TPU) bead foam with microcellular morphologies and also to create inter-bead sintering into three dimensional products using steam-chest molding machine. The phase-separation and crystallization behavior of the HS chains in the TPU microstructure was systematically studied in the presence of dissolved gases and also by changing the microstructure of TPU by melt-processing and addition of nano-/micro-sized additives. It was observed that the presence of gas improved the phase separation (i.e. crystallization) of HSs and increased the overall crystallinity of the TPU. It was also shown that by utilizing the HS crystalline domains, the overall foaming behavior of TPU (i.e. cell nucleation and expansion ratio) can be significantly improved. Moreover, the HS crystalline domains can be effective for both sintering of the beads as well strengthening the individual beads to improve the property of the moulded part. It was also observed that unlike other polymer bead foaming technologies, the E-TPU bead foaming sintering does not require formation of double melting-peak. The original broad melting peak existing in the TPU microstructure due to the wide size distribution of HS crystallites can be effectively utilized for the purpose of sintering as well as maintenance of the overall dimensional stability of the moulded part.

  9. Commercialisation of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technology in Multi-Electrode Arrays for Neuroscience and Cell-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R. Bowen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented.

  10. Room temperature detector array technology for the terahertz to far-infrared.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Ryan; Shaw, Michael; Zhang, X.; Tao, Hu; Lentine, Anthony L.; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Averitt, Richard D.; Kadlec, Emil G; Rakich, Peter T.

    2011-10-01

    Thermal detection has made extensive progress in the last 40 years, however, the speed and detectivity can still be improved. The advancement of silicon photonic microring resonators has made them intriguing for detection devices due to their small size and high quality factors. Implementing silicon photonic microring or microdisk resonators as a means of a thermal detector gives rise to higher speed and detectivity, as well as lower noise compared to conventional devices with electrical readouts. This LDRD effort explored the design and measurements of silicon photonic microdisk resonators used for thermal detection. The characteristic values, consisting of the thermal time constant ({tau} {approx} 2 ms) and noise equivalent power were measured and found to surpass the performance of the best microbolometers. Furthermore the detectivity was found to be D{sub {lambda}} = 2.47 x 10{sup 8} cm {center_dot} {radical}Hz/W at 10.6 {mu}m which is comparable to commercial detectors. Subsequent design modifications should increase the detectivity by another order of magnitude. Thermal detection in the terahertz (THz) remains underdeveloped, opening a door for new innovative technologies such as metamaterial enhanced detectors. This project also explored the use of metamaterials in conjunction with a cantilever design for detection in the THz region and demonstrated the use of metamaterials as custom thin film absorbers for thermal detection. While much work remains to integrate these technologies into a unified platform, the early stages of research show promising futures for use in thermal detection.

  11. Lamination And Microstructuring Technology for a Bio-Cell Multiwell array

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, E; Neumann, A; Bottcher, L; Braun, T; Bauer, J; Reichl, H; Iafelice, B; Destro, F; Gambari, R

    2008-01-01

    Microtechnology becomes a versatile tool for biological and biomedical applications. Microwells have been established long but remained non-intelligent up to now. Merging new fabrication techniques and handling concepts with microelectronics enables to realize intelligent microwells suitable for future improved cancer treatment. The described technology depicts the basis for the fabrication of a elecronically enhanced microwell. Thin aluminium sheets are structured by laser micro machining and laminated successively to obtain registration tolerances of the respective layers of 5..10\\^A$\\mu$m. The microwells lasermachined into the laminate are with 50..80\\^A$\\mu$m diameter, allowing to hold individual cells within the well. The individual process steps are described and results on the microstructuring are given.

  12. Cutaneous sensory nerve as a substitute for auditory nerve in solving deaf-mutes’ hearing problem: an innovation in multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianwen; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Weifang; Ma, Xuezong

    2014-01-01

    The current use of hearing aids and artificial cochleas for deaf-mute individuals depends on their auditory nerve. Skin-hearing technology, a patented system developed by our group, uses a cutaneous sensory nerve to substitute for the auditory nerve to help deaf-mutes to hear sound. This paper introduces a new solution, multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology, to solve the problem of speech discrimination. Based on the filtering principle of hair cells, external voice signals at different...

  13. A Dual-Band Retrodirective Reflector Array on Paper Utilizing Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) and Inkjet Printing Technologies for Chipless RFID Tag and Sensor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sangkil; Tentzeris, Manos; Traille, Anya; Aubert, Hervé; Georgiadis, Apostolos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the dual-band retrodirective reflector array using Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) and inkjetprinted technologies on paper, for operability around 3.6 GHz and 5.8 GHz is proposed. It offers the versatility of multi-band retrodirective designs potentially covering numerous RFID interrogation, sensing and communication bands.

  14. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, however, genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to devel...

  15. Black holes as beads on cosmic strings

    OpenAIRE

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; B. Mann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We consider the possibility of formation of cosmic strings with black holes as beads. We focus on the simplest setup where two black holes are formed on a long cosmic string. It turns out the in absence of a background magnetic field and for observationally viable values for cosmic string tensions, $\\mu

  16. Metallic gold beads in hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Tran, Thao Phuong; Smidt, Kamille;

    2013-01-01

    exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study...... effects of hyaluronic acid....

  17. Study on the uptake of Americium using PC88A - impregnated macroporous polymeric beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime objective of radioactive waste treatment in nuclear industry is to minimize the waste volume by efficient process without generating secondary radioactive waste for its final disposal. Among the currently available technologies, for separation and recovery of metal ions, solvent extraction, ion-exchange, membrane based technologies and solid sorbent materials are more popular means. Though, all these technologies play major role in all the bulk separation processes, their marked limitations force the separation scientists to think of advance, more efficient and technically feasible alternatives. The extractant impregnated polymeric beads (EIMPBs), impregnated with metal-specific extractants, exhibit reliable separation performances under column operation, and hence bridge the gap between solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques. In the present work, PC88A impregnated PES beads are prepared and the sorption of Am (III) from aqueous waste solutions is investigated. The synthesized EIMPBs were characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM techniques. The physiochemical strength of the beads was found to be excellent. The sorption study of Am (III), using these beads, was carried out by batch equilibration method and the effect of various parameters, like pH, equilibration time, Am (III) concentration, etc., on the sorption process, was investigated. The synthesized polymeric beads presented fairly higher sorption capacity for Am (III) at pH 3. The kinetics of extraction is very fast. The saturation of sorption is achieved in about 60 minutes of equilibration. The sorption kinetics data fits well in the pseudo second-order model, indicating that the sorption is dominated by chemisorptions. The sorption of Am (III) is observed to follow Langmuir isotherm and the monolayer capacity was calculated as 2.498 mg/g. The quantitative stripping of the extracted Am (III) can be achieved by using 0.1M oxalic acid. The blank polymeric beads, without PC88A,have shown

  18. Analysis of surface properties of human cancer cells using derivatized beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurrum, Maria R; Weerasinghe, Gayani R; Soriano, Evelyn S; Riman, Rashad; Badali, Oliver; Gipson, Stephanie; Medina, Jessica; Alfaro, Juan; Navarro, Vanessa M; Harieg, Caroline B; Ngo, Lylla; Sakhakorn, Tharinee; Kirszenbaum, Lital; Khatibi, David; Abedi, Karolin; Barajas, Marcela; Zem, Gregory C; Kirszenbaum, Adit; Razi, Arash; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2002-01-01

    Standard histochemical analysis of cells and tissues generally involves procedures that utilize a relatively small number of probes such as dyes, and generally requires hours or days to process. Our laboratory has developed a novel method for histochemical surveys of cell surface properties that utilizes a large number of probes (derivatized agarose beads) and takes seconds or minutes to accomplish. In this study, 4 human cell lines (CCL-255 (LS123) human colon cancer cells that are non-tumorigenic in nude mice; CRL-1459 (CCD-18CO) human colon endothelial cells that are non-malignant; CCL-220 (COLO 320DM) human colon cancer cells that are tumorigenic in nude mice; and HTB-171 (NCI H446) human lung carcinoma cells) were tested for their ability to bind to agarose beads derivatized with 51 different molecules. There were statistically significant differences in binding of the 4 cell types to all of the 51 types of beads, but 15 types of beads showed dramatic differences in binding to one or more of the 4 cell types. For example, only HTB-171 (NCI H446) bound to p-aminophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside-derivatized beads and only CCL-220 (COLO 320DM) bound to L-tyrosine-derivatized beads. The specificity of cell-bead binding was examined by performing assays in the presence or absence of exogenously added compounds in hapten-type of inhibition experiments. This assay, that utilizes large numbers of novel probes, may help in the development of new libraries of surface properties of specific cell types, with differing degrees of malignancy, that at this time could not be developed by using other available technologies. PMID:12389735

  19. Motion of beads in an oscillatory rotating fluid: micro-bead-beating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadim, Ali; Sterling, James; Doebler, Robert

    2008-11-01

    One method for mechanical lysis of biological cells and spores is to mix them with a suspension of beads and vigorously ``shake'' the mixture. The precise mechanisms of lysis are not understood but lysis is thought to result from collisions between the beads and the cells and the associated stresses exerted on the cells. For instance, in the micro-bead-beater^TM instrument from Claremont BioSolutions LLC (Upland, CA), the ``shaking'' occurs when a small cartridge filled with a mixture of cells/spores and 100-micron beads is driven at high frequencies in a small arc trajectory. In this presentation, we describe our initial modeling effort aimed at understanding this system via analysis of the trajectories of beads within such an instrument. The equations governing the motion of non-neutrally-buoyant spherical beads in an oscillatory rotating flow are derived and analyzed numerically. The resulting trajectories are found to be quite complex and very different from those in a steadily rotating fluid. A catalog of possible trajectories at various values of the governing dimensionless parameters is presented.

  20. Small bowel obstruction due to ingested superabsorbent beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao D. Pham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Superabsorbent water beads have found many uses as household decorative items, crafts, and other industrial uses. We report a case of ingestion of several LiquiBlock Rainbow brand superabsorbent beads by a ten month old girl leading to small bowel obstruction requiring laparotomy and removal of the beads.

  1. Prospective gated chest tomosynthesis using CNT X-ray source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing; Burk, Laurel; Wu, Gongting; Lee, Yueh Z.; Heath, Michael D.; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2015-03-01

    Chest tomosynthesis is a low-dose 3-D imaging modality that has been shown to have comparable sensitivity as CT in detecting lung nodules and other lung pathologies. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of stationary chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) using a distributed CNT X-ray source array. The technology allows acquisition of tomographic projections without moving the X-ray source. The electronically controlled CNT x-ray source also enables physiologically gated imaging, which will minimize image blur due to the patient's respiration motion. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of prospective gated chest tomosynthesis using a bench-top s-DCT system with a CNT source array, a high- speed at panel detector and realistic patient respiratory signals captured using a pressure sensor. Tomosynthesis images of inflated pig lungs placed inside an anthropomorphic chest phantom were acquired at different respiration rate, with and without gating for image quality comparison. Metal beads of 2 mm diameter were placed on the pig lung for quantitative measure of the image quality. Without gating, the beads were blurred to 3:75 mm during a 3 s tomosynthesis acquisition. When gated to the end of the inhalation and exhalation phase the detected bead size reduced to 2:25 mm, much closer to the actual bead size. With gating the observed airway edges are sharper and there are more visible structural details in the lung. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of prospective gating in the s-DCT, which substantially reduces image blur associated with lung motion.

  2. Microfluidic sorting and multimodal typing of cancer cells in self-assembled magnetic arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Saias, Laure; Psychari, Eleni; Minc, Nicolas; Simon, Damien; Bidard, François-Clément; Mathiot, Claire; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Fraisier, Vincent; Salamero, Jean; Saada, Véronique; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    We propose a unique method for cell sorting, “Ephesia,” using columns of biofunctionalized superparamagnetic beads self-assembled in a microfluidic channel onto an array of magnetic traps prepared by microcontact printing. It combines the advantages of microfluidic cell sorting, notably the application of a well controlled, flow-activated interaction between cells and beads, and those of immunomagnetic sorting, notably the use of batch-prepared, well characterized antibody-bearing beads. On c...

  3. Diversity arrays technology (DArT for pan-genomic evolutionary studies of non-model organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E James

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-throughput tools for pan-genomic study, especially the DNA microarray platform, have sparked a remarkable increase in data production and enabled a shift in the scale at which biological investigation is possible. The use of microarrays to examine evolutionary relationships and processes, however, is predominantly restricted to model or near-model organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study explores the utility of Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT in evolutionary studies of non-model organisms. DArT is a hybridization-based genotyping method that uses microarray technology to identify and type DNA polymorphism. Theoretically applicable to any organism (even one for which no prior genetic data are available, DArT has not yet been explored in exclusively wild sample sets, nor extensively examined in a phylogenetic framework. DArT recovered 1349 markers of largely low copy-number loci in two lineages of seed-free land plants: the diploid fern Asplenium viride and the haploid moss Garovaglia elegans. Direct sequencing of 148 of these DArT markers identified 30 putative loci including four routinely sequenced for evolutionary studies in plants. Phylogenetic analyses of DArT genotypes reveal phylogeographic and substrate specificity patterns in A. viride, a lack of phylogeographic pattern in Australian G. elegans, and additive variation in hybrid or mixed samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results enable methodological recommendations including procedures for detecting and analysing DArT markers tailored specifically to evolutionary investigations and practical factors informing the decision to use DArT, and raise evolutionary hypotheses concerning substrate specificity and biogeographic patterns. Thus DArT is a demonstrably valuable addition to the set of existing molecular approaches used to infer biological phenomena such as adaptive radiations, population dynamics, hybridization, introgression, ecological

  4. Identification of fungal pathogens in a patient with acute myelogenic leukemia using a pathogen detection array technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sagarika; Peck, Kristen N; Feldman, Michael D; Schuster, Mindy G; Alwine, James C; Robertson, Erle S

    2016-04-01

    Invasive zygomycosis in immunocompromised patients results in a high mortality rate, and early identification is crucial to optimize therapy and to reduce morbidity. However, diagnosing specific species of zygomycetes fungi possess challenge in the clinical laboratories. A need for a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool for early recognition of a zygomycetes fungus in clinical samples to the species level will lead to prompt and accurate therapy and the PathoChip provides one such platform. We utilized a pathogen array technology referred to as PathoChip, comprised of oligonucleotide probes that can detect all the sequenced viruses as well as known pathogenic bacteria, fungi and parasites and family-specific conserved probes, thus providing a means for detecting previously uncharacterized members of a family. We rapidly identified a zygomycetous fungus, Rhizomucor pusillus, an otherwise challenge for the clinical laboratories, predominantly in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. This report highlights the value of PathoChip as a diagnostic tool to identify micro-organisms to the species level, especially for those difficult to identify in most clinical laboratories. It will also help clinicians to obtain a critical snapshot of the infection profile of a patient to plan treatment strategies. PMID:26619325

  5. Defect detection of the weld bead based on electromagnetic sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of flaws of weld bead is imperative for high-quality welding. Methods of weld bead inspection include radiographic, ultrasonic and vision inspection. However, such methods are costly and time consuming. The proposed sensor is light, low-cost and fast. This paper summarizes our work on weld bead monitoring and defect detection using an electromagnetic sensor. Measurements are acquired in the form of S-Parameters, specifically measuring changes in the reflected coefficient S11. The weld bead is scanned using the sensor and any form of weld bead defection such as undercutting and excessive penetration is detected and identified.

  6. Latest developments of 10μm pitch HgCdTe diode array from the legacy to the extrinsic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; Berthoz, Jocelyn; Taalat, Rachid; Rubaldo, Laurent; Kerlain, Alexandre; Carrère, Emmanuel; Dargent, Loïc.

    2016-05-01

    Sofradir recently presented Daphnis, its latest 10 μm pitch product family. Both Daphnis XGA and HD720 are 10μm pitch mid-wave infrared focal plane array. Development of small pixel pitch is opening the way to very compact products with a high spatial resolution. This new product is taking part in the HOT technology competition allowing reductions in size, weight and power of the overall package. This paper presents the recent developments achieved at Sofradir to make the 10μm pitch HgCdTe focal plane array based on the legacy technology. Electrical and electro-optical characterizations are presented to define the appropriate design of 10μm pitch diode array. The technological tradeoffs are explained to lower the dark current, to keep high quantum efficiency with a high operability above 110K, F/4. Also, Sofradir recently achieved outstanding Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) demonstration at this pixel pitch, which clearly demonstrates the benefit to users of adopting 10μm pixel pitch focal plane array based detectors. Furthermore, the HgCdTe technology has demonstrated an increase of the operating temperature, plus 40K, moving from the legacy to the P-on-n one at a 15μm pitch in mid-wave band. The first realizations using the extrinsic P-on-n technology and the characterizations of diodes with a 10μm pitch neighborhood will be presented in both mid-wave and long-wave bands.

  7. A novel adjuvant: polymerised serum albumin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an ongoing need to develop new vaccine formulations. To complement accumulating knowledge on the structure of antigens and their interaction with cells of the immune system, new vaccine vehicles to optimise the immunogenic potential of the antigen must be developed. Associated with this adjuvanticity, should be minimal adverse side effects. This study was initiated to develop a vaccine vehicle, consisting of covalently cross-linked serum albumin beads, themselves non-immunogenic, containing virus. Following inoculation, in vivo proteolysis of the beads would allow a gradual release of antigen for sustained immunostimulation. This system might have application in virus vaccine programmes to improve low immunogenic vaccines, to allow optimal delivery of the recently derived synthetic virus subunit peptides as well as for inactivated virus vaccine preparations. 35S-methionine labelled Blue Tongue Virus was used in this study

  8. Superparamagnetic bead interactions with functionalized surfaces characterized by an immunomicroarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Moresco, Jacob Lange;

    2010-01-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors capable of detecting superparamagnetic micro-/nano-sized beads are promising alternatives to standard diagnostic assays based on absorbance or fluorescence and streptavidin-functionalized beads are widely used as an integral part of these sensors. Here we have developed an...... SiO2 performed better than polyethylene glycol-modified surfaces Two beads, Masterbeads and M-280 beads, were found to give superior results compared with other bead types. Antibody/ antigen interactions, Illustrated by C-reactive protein, were best performed with Masterbeads The results provide...... important information concerning the surface binding properties of streptavidin-functionalized beads and the immunomicroarray can be used when optimizing the performance of bead-based biosensors....

  9. In-situ examination of turbine components (blade roots, rotor steeple grooves and disk-blade rim attachments) of low-pressure steam turbine, using phased array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorau, P.; Macgillivray, D.; Hazelton, T.; Gilham, L.; Taffs, B.; Huggins, J.; Fortin, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Specialized Inspection and Maintenance Dept., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A feasibility study test and 3 field trials were performed at Darlington NGS in 1996, 1999 and 2000 on ABB LP turbines. The scope of these trials was to commission in-situ automatic phased array systems capable to inspect blade roots and rotor steeples of L-0 and L-1 rows. GE disk-blade rim attachments were inspected at Bruce B nuclear station, in fall of 1999. The automated ultrasonic phased array technology is capable of high-speed rate and reliable detection and sizing. The capability demonstration was performed on mock-ups and reference blocks, using EDM notches. A custom built UT simulation software: Imagine 3D interfaces with SimScan to generates the spreadsheets/charts with target and probe coordinates and ultrasonic path and angles (refracted and skew) to hit the reference target. Examination of L-0 blade and rotor steeple grooves was performed with 2 phased array systems under networking. Data analysis was done in near-real time. Manual and automatic phased array were performed on L-1 blade roots (hook 1). Special linear array probes were designed by OPG and manufactured by lmasonic, to fit the specific geometry and to optimize the beam features for detection and sizing. Accuracy in sizing is {+-} 0.8 mm for height {+-} 1.8 mm for length. Location of indication is within {+-} 4 mm space envelope. Sizing based on Dynamic Depth Focusing (DDF) board is better for specular reflection of EDM notches on disk attachment. (author)

  10. In-situ examination of turbine components (blade roots, rotor steeple grooves and disk-blade rim attachments) of low-pressure steam turbine, using phased array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study test and 3 field trials were performed at Darlington NGS in 1996, 1999 and 2000 on ABB LP turbines. The scope of these trials was to commission in-situ automatic phased array systems capable to inspect blade roots and rotor steeples of L-0 and L-1 rows. GE disk-blade rim attachments were inspected at Bruce B nuclear station, in fall of 1999. The automated ultrasonic phased array technology is capable of high-speed rate and reliable detection and sizing. The capability demonstration was performed on mock-ups and reference blocks, using EDM notches. A custom built UT simulation software: Imagine 3D interfaces with SimScan to generates the spreadsheets/charts with target and probe coordinates and ultrasonic path and angles (refracted and skew) to hit the reference target. Examination of L-0 blade and rotor steeple grooves was performed with 2 phased array systems under networking. Data analysis was done in near-real time. Manual and automatic phased array were performed on L-1 blade roots (hook 1). Special linear array probes were designed by OPG and manufactured by lmasonic, to fit the specific geometry and to optimize the beam features for detection and sizing. Accuracy in sizing is ± 0.8 mm for height ± 1.8 mm for length. Location of indication is within ± 4 mm space envelope. Sizing based on Dynamic Depth Focusing (DDF) board is better for specular reflection of EDM notches on disk attachment. (author)

  11. Trivalent chromium sorption on alginate beads

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, M. Manuela; Teixeira, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The applicability of trivalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions using calcium alginate beads was studied. The equilibrium isotherms were plotted at two temperatures. The relationship between the chromium sorbed and the calcium released was determined as well as the effect of alginate amount and initial pH on the equilibrium results. Chromium sorption kinetics were evaluated as a function of chromium initial concentration and temperature. Transport properties of trival...

  12. RF Bead Pull Measurements of the DQW

    CERN Document Server

    Jaume, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    This report was written within the framework of the CERN Summer Student Program. It is focused on the Radio Frequency study of the Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity [1] considered for the crab-crossing scheme of the LHC Luminosity upgrade [2]. HFSS simulation [3] and Bead-Pull Measurements technique were used for the characterization of the higher-order terms of the main deflecting mode.

  13. Ultra-low dark current InGaAs technology for focal plane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat, Bora M.; Huang, Wei; Masaun, Navneet; Lange, Michael; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Dries, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    Under the DARPA Photon Counting Arrays (PCAR) program we have investigated technologies to reduce the overall noise level in InGaAs based imagers for identifying a man at 100m under low-light level imaging conditions. We report the results of our experiments comprising of 15 InGaAs wafers that were utilized to investigate lowering dark current in photodiode arrays. As a result of these experiments, we have achieved an ultra low dark current of 2nA/cm2 through technological advances in InGaAs detector design, epitaxial growth, and processing at a temperature of +12.3 degrees C. The InGaAs photodiode array was hybridized to a low noise readout integrated circuit, also developed under this program. The focal plane array (FPA) achieves very high sensitivity in the shortwave infrared bands in addition to the visible response added via substrate removal process post hybridization. Based on our current room-temperature stabilized SWIR camera platform, these imagers enable a full day-night imaging capability and are responsive to currently fielded covert laser designators, illuminators, and rangefinders. In addition, improved haze penetration in the SWIR compared to the visible provides enhanced clarity in the imagery of a scene. In this paper we show the results of our dark current studies as well as FPA characterization of the camera built under this program.

  14. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m3 (6,000 ft3) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  15. From understanding cellular function to novel drug discovery: the role of planar patch-clamp array chip technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe ePy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All excitable cell functions rely upon ion channels that are embedded in their plasma membrane. Perturbations of ion channel structure or function result in pathologies ranging from cardiac dysfunction to neurodegenerative disorders. Consequently, to understand the functions of excitable cells and to remedy their pathophysiology, it is important to understand the ion channel functions under various experimental conditions – including exposure to novel drug targets. Glass pipette patch-clamp is the state of the art technique to monitor the intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons. However, this technique is labor-intensive and has low data throughput. Planar patch-clamp chips, integrated into automated systems, offer high throughputs but are limited to isolated cells from suspensions, resulting in questionable models of true physiological function, and are unsuitable for studies involving neuronal communication. Multi-electrode arrays (MEA, in contrast, have the ability to monitor network activity by measuring local field potentials from multiple extracellular sites, but specific ion channel activity is challenging to extract from these multiplexed signals. Here we describe a novel planar patch-clamp chip technology that enables the simultaneous high resolution electrophysiological interrogation of individual neurons at multiple sites in synaptically connected neuronal networks, thereby combining the advantages of MEA and patch-clamp techniques. Each neuron can be probed through an aperture that connects to a dedicated subterranean microfluidic channel. Neurons growing in networks are aligned to the apertures by physisorbed or chemisorbed chemical cues. In this review, we describe the design and fabrication process of these chips, the approach to the chemical patterning for cell placement, and present physiological data from cultured neuronal cells.

  16. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Grzebelus, Dariusz; Iorizzo, Massimo; Senalik, Douglas; Ellison, Shelby; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Macko-Podgorni, Alicja; Heller-Uszynska, Kasia; Kilian, Andrzej; Nothnagel, Thomas; Allender, Charlotte; Simon, Philipp W; Baranski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, but genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to develop a saturated genetic linkage map of carrot. We analyzed a set of 900 DArT markers in a collection of plant materials comprising 94 cultivated and 65 wild carrot accessions. The accessions were attribu...

  17. Design, fabrication and test of a pneumatically controlled, renewable, microfluidic bead trapping device for sequential injection analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guocheng; Lu, Donglai; Fu, Zhifeng; Du, Dan; Ozanich, Richard M.; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a pneumatically controlled,renewable, microfluidic device for conducting bead-based assays in an automated sequential injection analysis system. The device used a “brick wall”-like pillar array (pillar size: 20 μm length X 50 μm width X 45 μm height) with 5 μm gaps between the pillars serving as the micro filter. The flow channel where bead trapping occurred is 500 μm wide X 75 μm deep. An elastomeric membrane and an air chamber were located underneath the flow channel. By applying pressure to the air chamber, the membrane is deformed and pushed upward against the filter structure. This effectively traps beads larger than 5 μm and creates a “bed” or micro column of beads that can be perfused and washed with liquid samples and reagents. Upon completion of the assay process, the pressure is released and the beads are flushed out from underneath the filter structure to renew the device. Mouse IgG was used as a model analyte to test the feasibility of using the proposed device for immunoassay applications. Resulting microbeads from an on-chip fluorescent immunoassay were individually examined using flow cytometry. The results show that the fluorescence signal intensity distribution is fairly narrow indicating high chemical reaction uniformity among the beads population. Electrochemical onchip assay was also conducted. A detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL1 ppb was achieved and good device reliability and repeatability were demonstrated. The novel microfluidic-based beadstrapping device thus opens up a new pathway to design micro-bead based biosensor immunoassays for clinical and othervarious applications.

  18. Experiment and Modeling of Spatially Indexed Microbead Arrays for High-Throughput Screening Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Thomas; Maldarelli, Charles; Couzis, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    The development of platforms for multiplexed, high throughput screening of the binding interactions of target biomolecules against a library of potential binding probes enables progress in many areas in medicine and biology. Formats in which probes are linked to microbeads arrayed in a microfluidic channel offer high sensitivity, reduced reagent consumption and are easily parallelized for multiplexed detection. This presentation describes a microfluidically assembled microbead array in which beads are streamed through a channel with an array of wells inscribed in the floor of the channel. The beads are captured in the wells via gravity. We demonstrate that an array of beads displaying different receptors can be assembled in this format, indexed by sequential depostion and used for a prototype assay. Solutions for a two dimensional mass transfer model of the conjugation of the probe to the receptor on the bead surface identify kinetically limited regimes which are used to measure the binding kinetics of the prototype assay.

  19. Investigation the parameters for torsion ductility of bead wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torsion testing is used to determine the quality of steel wire used for beads in pneumatic tires. However, strain aging (dynamic and static) caused by interstitial carbon and nitrogen atoms bound to mobile dislocations increases yield strength and decreases bead formability. Processing parameters of bead wire, such as line speed, lead bath temperature and wire diameter, were investigated, and theoretical calculations were made to estimate the effect of these parameters on strain aging. Nitrogen concentration was measured in bead wire samples with varying numbers of twists to failure during torsion testing. Surface morphologies of twisted bead wires were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Experimental data showed that torsional properties of bead wire were a function of stress relief temperature on and theoretical calculations showed that line speed and temperature have to be optimized for optimum torsion ductility.

  20. Detection of ''beading faults'' in welded tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the steel tube industry the word ''beading'' refers to a highly localised leak affecting the welded zone. During the pneumatic test its flow rate is generally very low no more than a few thousandths of a mm3/second. Detection of such a fault by this test is consequently slow, and those which are choked or at the limit of leakage may escape detection. For greater safety, the tube technician is now using non-destructive testing methods such as eddy-currents and ultrasonics

  1. Development of temper bead welding by under water laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiba has developed temper bead welding by under water laser welding as SCC counter measure for aged components in PWR and BWR nuclear power plants. Temper bead welding by under water laser welding technique recovers toughness of low alloy steel reactor vessel by employing proper the number of cladding layers and their welding conditions. In this report, some evaluation results of material characteristics of temper bead welded low alloy steel are presented. (author)

  2. Artemisia arborescens L essential oil loaded beads: Preparation and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Francesco; Loy, Giuseppe; Manconi, Maria; Manca, Maria Letizia; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to prepare sodium alginate beads as a device for the controlled release of essential oil for oral administration as an antiviral agent. Different formulations were prepared with sodium alginate as a natural polymer and calcium chloride or glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Loading capacities of between 86% and 100% were obtained in freshly prepared beads by changing exposure time to the cross-linking agent. Drying of the calcium alginate beads caused only a ...

  3. Development of ultrasonic testing technique for anchor bolts. Part 2. Development of nondestructive examination method for fatigue cracks by ultrasonic phased array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cracks may initiate in anchor bolts in nuclear power plants due to a severe earthquake. Moreover, number of fatigue cracks have been found in the anchor bolts in aged nuclear and thermal power plants. Ultrasonic phased array technology is effective to detect such cracks, and a method is proposed to determine crack depth by using refection echo at the vicinity of crack according to simulation results of wave propagation within bolts. However, detectability of crack and applicability of this method for crack sizing are not known though they are essential to evaluation of crack in bolts by ultrasonic phased array technology. In this report, we prepared M24 and M30 bolt specimens with various slits and fatigue cracks introduced. Three linear array probes with respective frequency of 2, 5 and 10 MHz are used to measure these specimens. The investigation of fracture surface is also performed after finishing all measurements. Measurement results show the following: (1) the frequency of 10 MHz is more appropriate than frequencies of 5 and 2 MHz for detecting crack in bolts; (2) it is easy to detect 1-mm-deep cracks; and (3) it is possible to determine crack depth for M30 bolts with the deviation of 2 mm from actual depth by proposed method, but difficult for M24 bolts. (author)

  4. Ormosil Beads for Insulation of Ground Cryogenic Storage Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Organically modified silica (Ormosil) aerogel beads developed at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. offer several advantages for retrofitting perlite insulation in NASA's ground...

  5. Fast Drug Release Using Rotational Motion of Magnetic Gel Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi Takimoto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated drug release has been achieved by means of the fast rotation of magnetic gel beads. The magnetic gel bead consists of sodium alginate crosslinked by calcium chlorides, which contains barium ferrite of ferrimagnetic particles, and ketoprofen as a drug. The bead underwent rotational motion in response to rotational magnetic fields. In the case of bead without rotation, the amount of drug release into a phosphate buffer solution obeyed non-Fickian diffusion. The spontaneous drug release reached a saturation value of 0.90 mg at 25 minutes, which corresponds to 92% of the perfect release. The drug release was accelerated with increasing the rotation speed. The shortest time achieving the perfect release was approximately 3 minutes, which corresponds to 1/8 of the case without rotation. Simultaneous with the fast release, the bead collapsed probably due to the strong water flow surrounding the bead. The beads with high elasticity were hard to collapse and the fast release was not observed. Hence, the fast release of ketoprofen is triggered by the collapse of beads. Photographs of the collapse of beads, time profiles of the drug release, and a pulsatile release modulated by magnetic fields were presented.

  6. Non-constrictive bead immobilization leading to decreased and uniform shear stress in microfluidic bead-based ELISA

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Chidambaram, Preethi; Maharry, Aaron P; Xu, Ronald X; Tweedle, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic biosensors have been utilized for sensing a wide range of antigens using numerous configurations. Bead based microfluidic sensors have been a popular modality due to the plug and play nature of analyte choice and the favorable geometry of spherical sensor scaffolds. While constriction of beads against fluid flow remains a popular method to immobilize the sensor, it results in poor fluidic regimes and shear conditions around sensor beads that can affect sensor performance. We present an alternative means of sensor bead immobilization using poly-carbonate membrane. This system results in several orders of magnitude lower variance of flow radially around the sensor bead. Shear stress experienced by our non-constrictive immobilized bead was three orders of magnitude lower. We demonstrate ability to quantitatively sense EpCAM protein, a marker for cancer stem cells and operation under both far-red and green wavelengths with no auto-fluorescence.

  7. Phased-array ultrasound technology enhances accuracy of dual frequency ultrasound measurements - towards improved ultrasound bone diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Hans; Malo, Markus K H; Liukkonen, Jukka; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Overlying soft tissues attenuate ultrasound backscattered from bone, complicating diagnostics of osteoporosis at the most important fracture sites. Dual-frequency ultrasound technique (DFUS) has been proposed to solve this problem through determination of thickness and composition of overlying soft tissue. This study applies DFUS technique for the first time with a phased-array transducer to investigate if the thickness of two interfering layers (oil and water) can be accurately determined in a variety of configurations. Results indicate that DFUS may be used with phased-array ultrasound systems, making them a suitable combination to consider in future development of clinical in vivo ultrasound methodologies. PMID:27187271

  8. Design Considerations for CMOS-Integrated Hall-effect Magnetic Bead Detectors for Biosensor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Skucha, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a design methodology for on-chip magnetic bead label detectors based on Hall-effect sensors to be used for biosensor applications. Signal errors caused by the label binding process and other factors that place constraints on the minimum detector area are quantified and adjusted to meet assay accuracy standards. The methodology is demonstrated by designing an 8,192 element Hall sensor array implemented in a commercial 0.18 um CMOS process with single mask post-proce...

  9. Magnetic bead purification of labeled DNA fragments for high-throughput capillary electrophoresis sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Elkin, Christopher; Kapur, Hitesh; Smith, Troy; Humphries, David; Pollard, Martin; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor

    2001-01-01

    We have developed an automated purification method for terminator sequencing products based on a magnetic bead technology. This 384-well protocol generates labeled DNA fragments that are essentially free of contaminates for less than $0.005 per reaction. In comparison to laborious ethanol precipitation protocols, this method increases the phred20 read length by forty bases with various DNA templates such as PCR fragments, Plasmids, Cosmids and RCA products. Our method eliminates centrifu...

  10. Viral RNA testing and automation on the bead-based CBNE detection microsystem.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Farrell, Cara M.; Rossito, Paul (University of California at Davis); McClain, Jaime L.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Cullor, James Sterling (University of California at Davis); Rahimian, Kamayar

    2008-09-01

    We developed prototype chemistry for nucleic acid hybridization on our bead-based diagnostics platform and we established an automatable bead handling protocol capable of 50 part-per-billion (ppb) sensitivity. We are working towards a platform capable of parallel, rapid (10 minute), raw sample testing for orthogonal (in this case nucleic acid and immunoassays) identification of biological (and other) threats in a single sensor microsystem. In this LDRD we developed the nucleic acid chemistry required for nucleic acid hybridization. Our goal is to place a non-cell associated RNA virus (Bovine Viral Diarrhea, BVD) on the beads for raw sample testing. This key pre-requisite to showing orthogonality (nucleic acid measurements can be performed in parallel with immunoassay measurements). Orthogonal detection dramatically reduces false positives. We chose BVD because our collaborators (UC-Davis) can supply samples from persistently infected animals; and because proof-of-concept field testing can be performed with modification of the current technology platform at the UC Davis research station. Since BVD is a cattle-prone disease this research dovetails with earlier immunoassay work on Botulinum toxin simulant testing in raw milk samples. Demonstration of BVD RNA detection expands the repertoire of biological macromolecules that can be adapted to our bead-based detection. The resources of this late start LDRD were adequate to partially demonstrate the conjugation of the beads to the nucleic acids. It was never expected to be adequate for a full live virus test but to motivate that additional investment. In addition, we were able to reduce the LOD (Limit of Detection) for the botulinum toxin stimulant to 50 ppb from the earlier LOD of 1 ppm. A low LOD combined with orthogonal detection provides both low false negatives and low false positives. The logical follow-on steps to this LDRD research are to perform live virus identification as well as concurrent nucleic acid and

  11. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels: advanced wafer-level process technologies for integration of focal plane arrays with readout electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Dorota S.; Vick, Erik P.; Lueck, Matthew R.; Malta, Dean; Skokan, Mark R.; Masterjohn, Christopher M.; Muzilla, Mark S.

    2014-05-01

    Over the past decade, the development of infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) has seen two trends: decreasing of the pixel size and increasing of signal-processing capability at the device level. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels can be achieved through the use of advanced wafer-level processes for the integration of FPAs with silicon (Si) readout integrated circuits (ROICs). In this paper, we review the development of these wafer-level integration technologies, highlighting approaches in which the infrared sensor is integrated with three-dimensional ROIC stacks composed of multiple layers of Si circuitry interconnected using metal-filled through-silicon vias.

  12. Bead Capture on Magnetic Sensors in a Microfluidic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Freitas, S. C.; Freitas, P. P.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    The accumulation of magnetic beads by gravitational sedimentation and magnetic capture on a planar Hall-effect sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel is studied systematically as a function of the bead concentration, the fluid flow rate, and the sensor bias current. It is demonstrated that t...

  13. Random glycopeptide bead libraries for seromic biomarker discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Cló, Emiliano; Clausen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    have developed a random glycopeptide bead library screening platform for detection of autoantibodies and other binding proteins. Libraries were build on biocompatible PEGA beads including a safety-catch C-terminal amide linker (SCAL) that allowed mild cleavage conditions (I(2)/NaBH(4) and TFA) for...

  14. Black holes as beads on cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the possibility of the formation of cosmic strings with black holes as beads. We focus on the simplest setup where two black holes are formed on a long cosmic string. It turns out that in the absence of a background magnetic field and for observationally viable values for cosmic string tensions, μ<2×10−7, the tension of the strut in between the black holes has to be less than the ones that run into infinity. This result does not change if a cosmological constant is present. However, if a background magnetic field is turned on, we can have stable setups where the tensions of all cosmic strings are equal. We derive the equilibrium conditions in each of these setups depending on whether the black holes are extremal or non-extremal. We obtain cosmologically acceptable solutions with solar mass black holes and an intragalactic-strength cosmic magnetic field. (paper)

  15. Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.

    2010-04-30

    Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic beads are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  16. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SYNTHESIZE CHITOSAN BEADS CROSSLINKED BY EPICHLOROHYDRIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongjian; BAI Shu; SUN Yan

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation describes a novel method for preparing spherical chitosan particles based on crosslinking with epichlorohydrin. Certain amount of pre-crosslinking agent was added to form chitosan gels by traditional inverse phase suspension polymerization. Then the gels were crosslinked by epichlorohydrin at basic condition to obtain chitosan beads. The effects of reaction conditions, such as crosslinking time, the amount of crosslinking agent and the NaOtt concentration,on the physical properties of the chitosan beads were investigated. The beads were found to have more amino groups in the polymer chains than the beads crosslinked by glutaraldehyde. The capacity for copper ions is as high as 40mg/g. The beads have good mechanical strength and can be reused.

  17. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SYNTHESIZE CHITOSAN BEADS CROSSLINKED BY EPICHLOROHYDRIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYongjina; BAIShu; 等

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation describes a novel method for preparing spherical chitosan particles based on crosslinking with epichlorohydrin.Certain amount of pre-crosslinking agent was added to form chitosan gels by traditional inverse phase suspension polymerization.Then the gels were crosslinked by epichlorohydrin at basic condition to obtain chitosan beads.The effects of reaction conditions,such as crosslinking time,the amount of crosslinking agent and the NaOH concentration,on the physical properties of the chitosan beads were investigated.The beads were found to have more amino groups in the polymer chains than the beads crosslinked by glutaraldehyde.The capacity for copper ions in as high as 40mg/g,The beads have good mechanical strength and can be reused.

  18. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  19. A High-Throughput SU-8Microfluidic Magnetic Bead Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Christensen, T. B.; Smistrup, Kristian;

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on SU-8 fabrication technique for high through-put applications. The experimental results show that magnetic beads can be captured at an efficiency of 91 % and 54 % at flow rates of 1 mL/min and 4 mL/min, respectively. Integration of s...... soft magnetic elements in the chip leads to a slightly higher capturing efficiency and a more uniform distribution of captured beads over the separation chamber than the system without soft magnetic elements.......We present a novel microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on SU-8 fabrication technique for high through-put applications. The experimental results show that magnetic beads can be captured at an efficiency of 91 % and 54 % at flow rates of 1 mL/min and 4 mL/min, respectively. Integration of...

  20. Inhibitive Effect of antibiotic-loaded beads to cure chronic osteomyelitis in developing country : Hand-made vs commercial beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasyid, Hcrmawan N.; Van Horn, Jim R.; Van der Mei, Henny C.; Soegijoko, Sooegijardjo; Busscher, Henk J.; Neut, Danielle; Ibrahim, F; Osman, NAA; Usman, J; Kadri, NA

    2007-01-01

    Local antibiotic-loaded beads have been approved for standard treatment of orthopaedic pathogens, especially chronic osteomyelitis. Septopal (R), the only commercial local antibiotic bead available on the market, is expensive and contains only gentamicin. This study aimed to compare the in vitro inh

  1. Preparation of Periodically Arrayed Silicon Microwires Using Simple Patterning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changheon; Lim, Sangwoo; Jeong, Chaehwan

    2015-11-01

    The silicon (Si) microwires were fabricated by microsphere lithography using polystyrene (PS) beads monolayer. The Si wafer tailored into 40 x 40 mm2 was used as a substrate. The monolayer of 2.0 μm-sized PS beads was formed on substrates through convective assembly method. PS beads on substrates were tailored into smaller sizes by O2 plasma treatment using reactive ion etching (RIE). This controllable re-sizing process gave an opportunity to prepare the wire-array with various radii of Si microwires fabricated by using inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-etching. The convective assembly process was monitored in real-time through an optical microscope with a CCD camera. PS beads and structures of Si microwires were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the optical property was measured by the UV-Vis spectroscopy. PMID:26726546

  2. Study of LWIR and VLWIR Focal Plane Array Developments: Comparison Between p-on- n and Different n-on- p Technologies on LPE HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravrand, O.; Mollard, L.; Largeron, C.; Baier, N.; Deborniol, E.; Chorier, Ph.

    2009-08-01

    The very long infrared wavelength (>14 μm) is a very challenging range for the design of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) large focal plane arrays (FPAs). The need (mainly expressed by the space industry) for very long wave FPAs appears very difficult to fulfil. High homogeneity, low defect rate, high quantum efficiency, low dark current, and low excess noise are required. Indeed, for such wavelength, the corresponding HgCdTe gap becomes smaller than 100 meV and each step from the metallurgy to the technology becomes critical. This paper aims at presenting a status of long and very long wave FPAs developments at DEFIR (LETI-LIR/Sofradir joint venture). This study will focus on results obtained in our laboratory for three different ion implanted technologies: n-on- p mercury vacancies doped technology, n-on- p extrinsic doped technology, and p-on- n arsenic on indium technology. Special focus is given to 15 μm cutoff n/ p FPA fabricated in our laboratory demonstrating high uniformity, diffusion and shot noise limited photodiodes at 50 K.

  3. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  4. Trapping and dynamic manipulation of polystyrene beads mimicking circulating tumor cells using targeted magnetic/photoacoustic contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen-Wei; Xia, Jinjun; Pelivanov, Ivan; Hu, Xiaoge; Gao, Xiaohu; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Results on magnetically trapping and manipulating micro-scale beads circulating in a flow field mimicking metastatic cancer cells in human peripheral vessels are presented. Composite contrast agents combining magneto-sensitive nanospheres and highly optical absorptive gold nanorods were conjugated to micro-scale polystyrene beads. To efficiently trap the targeted objects in a fast stream, a dual magnet system consisting of two flat magnets to magnetize (polarize) the contrast agent and an array of cone magnets producing a sharp gradient field to trap the magnetized contrast agent was designed and constructed. A water-ink solution with an optical absorption coefficient of 10 cm-1 was used to mimic the optical absorption of blood. Magnetomotive photoacoustic imaging helped visualize bead trapping, dynamic manipulation of trapped beads in a flow field, and the subtraction of stationary background signals insensitive to the magnetic field. The results show that trafficking micro-scale objects can be effectively trapped in a stream with a flow rate up to 12 ml/min and the background can be significantly (greater than 15 dB) suppressed. It makes the proposed method very promising for sensitive detection of rare circulating tumor cells within high flow vessels with a highly absorptive optical background.

  5. Two-dimensional parallel array technology as a new approach to automated combinatorial solid-phase organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan; Biddison; Frauendorf; Schwarcz; Keen; Ecker; Davis; Tinder; Swayze

    1998-01-01

    An automated, 96-well parallel array synthesizer for solid-phase organic synthesis has been designed and constructed. The instrument employs a unique reagent array delivery format, in which each reagent utilized has a dedicated plumbing system. An inert atmosphere is maintained during all phases of a synthesis, and temperature can be controlled via a thermal transfer plate which holds the injection molded reaction block. The reaction plate assembly slides in the X-axis direction, while eight nozzle blocks holding the reagent lines slide in the Y-axis direction, allowing for the extremely rapid delivery of any of 64 reagents to 96 wells. In addition, there are six banks of fixed nozzle blocks, which deliver the same reagent or solvent to eight wells at once, for a total of 72 possible reagents. The instrument is controlled by software which allows the straightforward programming of the synthesis of a larger number of compounds. This is accomplished by supplying a general synthetic procedure in the form of a command file, which calls upon certain reagents to be added to specific wells via lookup in a sequence file. The bottle position, flow rate, and concentration of each reagent is stored in a separate reagent table file. To demonstrate the utility of the parallel array synthesizer, a small combinatorial library of hydroxamic acids was prepared in high throughput mode for biological screening. Approximately 1300 compounds were prepared on a 10 μmole scale (3-5 mg) in a few weeks. The resulting crude compounds were generally >80% pure, and were utilized directly for high throughput screening in antibacterial assays. Several active wells were found, and the activity was verified by solution-phase synthesis of analytically pure material, indicating that the system described herein is an efficient means for the parallel synthesis of compounds for lead discovery. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099494

  6. Light-induced immobilisation of biomolecules as an attractive alternative to microdroplet dispensing-based arraying technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crookshanks, Meg; Skovsen, Esben; Petersen, Maria Teresa Neves;

    2007-01-01

    of reproducibility. This technology can be used to circumvent the need for often expensive nano/microdispensing technologies. The ultimate size of the immobilised spots is defined by the focal area of the UV beam, which for a diffraction-limited beam can be less than 1 mm in diameter. LIMI has the added benefit...

  7. Formulation of controlled release gellan gum macro beads of amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, R Jayachandra; Sathigari, Sateesh; Kumar, M Thilek; Pandit, J K

    2010-01-01

    Gellan gum has been reported to have wide pharmaceutical applications such as tablet binder, disintegrant, gelling agent and as a controlled release polymer. Multiparticulate delivery systems spread out more uniformly in the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the local irritation. The purpose of this study is to explore possible applicability of gellan macro beads as an oral controlled release system of a sparingly soluble drug, amoxicillin. Gellan gum beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation with calcium ions. The effect of drug loading, stirring time, polymer concentration, electrolyte (CaCl2) concentration, curing time etc. influencing the preparation of the gellan gum macro beads and the drug release from gellan gum beads were investigated in this study. Optimal preparation conditions allowed very high incorporation efficiency for amoxicillin (91%) The release kinetics of amoxicillin from gellan beads followed the diffusion model for an inert porous matrix in the order: 0.1 N HCl > phosphate buffer > distilled water. Change in curing time did not significantly affect the release rate constant, but drug concentration, polymer concentration and electrolyte concentration significantly affect the release rate of amoxicillin from the beads. The gellan macro beads may be suitable for gastro retentive controlled delivery of amoxicillin. PMID:19863487

  8. Photonic hydrogel beads for controlled release of risedronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Deepak K.; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2014-03-01

    pH-sensitive photonic composite hydrogel beads composed of sodium alginate and risedronate sodium (SA/RIS) was prepared crosslinked by Ca2+ owing to the ionic gelation of SA. The structure and surface morphology of the composite hydrogel beads were characterized by SEM. pH-sensitivity of these composite hydrogels beads and the release behaviors of drug from them were investigated. The results showed that the composite hydrogel beads had good pH-sensitivity. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 27.7% and 92% for RIS, respectively. The cumulative release ratios of RIS from the composite hydrogel beads were 2.47% in pH 2.1 solution and 83 % in pH 6.8 solutions within 24 h, respectively. However, the cumulative release ratio of RIS in pH 7.4 solution reached 91% within 7 h. It is proposed that the novel photonic SA/RIS composite hydrogel bead could possess the potential of an increased intestinal absorption and fewer adverse effects of RIS. The pH and salt response of photonic hydrogel bead, as well as the encapsulation of macromolecules, are promising for applications in biomedicine and biotechnology.

  9. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  10. Gun muzzle flash detection using a single photon avalanche diode array in 0.18µm CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savuskan, Vitali; Jakobson, Claudio; Merhav, Tomer; Shoham, Avi; Brouk, Igor; Nemirovsky, Yael

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) 2D array is used to record and sample muzzle flash events in the visible spectrum, from representative weapons. SPADs detect the emission peaks of alkali salts, potassium or sodium, with spectral emission lines around 769nm and 589nm, respectively. The alkali salts are included in the gunpowder to suppress secondary flashes ignited during the muzzle flash event. The SPADs possess two crucial properties for muzzle flash imaging: (i) very high photon detection sensitivity, (ii) a unique ability to convert the optical signal to a digital signal at the source pixel, thus practically eliminating readout noise. The sole noise sources are the ones prior to the readout circuitry (optical signal distribution, avalanche initiation distribution and nonphotonic generation). This enables high sampling frequencies in the kilohertz range without significant SNR degradation, in contrast to regular CMOS image sensors. This research will demonstrate the SPAD's ability to accurately sample and reconstruct the temporal behavior of the muzzle flash in the visible wavelength, in the presence of sunlight. The reconstructed signal is clearly distinguishable from background clutter, through exploitation of flash temporal characteristics and signal processing, which will be reported. The frame rate of ~16 KHz was chosen as an optimum between SNR degradation and temporal profile recognition accuracy. In contrast to a single SPAD, the 2D array allows for multiple events to be processed simultaneously. Moreover, a significant field of view is covered, enabling comprehensive surveillance and imaging.

  11. Towards a programmable magnetic bead microarray in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    A new hybrid magnetic bead separator that combines an external magnetic field with 175@mm thick current lines buried in the back side of a silicon wafer is presented. A microfluidic channel was etched into the front side of the wafer. The large cross-section of the current lines makes it possible...... to use larger currents and obtain forces of longer range than from thin current lines at a given power limit. Guiding of magnetic beads in the hybrid magnetic separator and the construction of a programmable microarray of magnetic beads in the microfluidic channel by hydrodynamic focusing is...

  12. A High-Throughput SU-8Microfluidic Magnetic Bead Separator

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Minqiang; Christensen, T. B.; Smistrup, Kristian; Wolff, Anders; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on SU-8 fabrication technique for high through-put applications. The experimental results show that magnetic beads can be captured at an efficiency of 91 % and 54 % at flow rates of 1 mL/min and 4 mL/min, respectively. Integration of soft magnetic elements in the chip leads to a slightly higher capturing efficiency and a more uniform distribution of captured beads over the separation chamber than the system without soft magnetic el...

  13. Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effort proposed is for detailed planning, configuration and hardware definition of a low-cost, but high technology payoff, ISS-based flight experiment that will...

  14. Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS proposes to systematically mature, mitigate risk for; and perform hardware-based ground validations / demonstrations of a low-cost, high technology payoff,...

  15. A two-channel detection method for autofluorescence correction and efficient on-bead screening of one-bead one-compound combinatorial libraries using the COPAS fluorescence activated bead sorting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-bead one-compound combinatorial library beads exhibit varying levels of autofluorescence after solid phase combinatorial synthesis. Very often this causes significant problems for automated on-bead screening using TentaGel beads and fluorescently labeled target proteins. Herein, we present a method to overcome this limitation when fluorescence activated bead sorting is used as the screening method. We have equipped the COPAS bead sorting instrument with a high-speed profiling unit and developed a spectral autofluorescence correction method. The correction method is based on a simple algebraic operation using the fluorescence data from two detection channels and is applied on-the-fly in order to reliably identify hit beads by COPAS bead sorting. Our method provides a practical tool for the fast and efficient isolation of hit beads from one-bead one-compound library screens using either fluorescently labeled target proteins or biotinylated target proteins. This method makes hit bead identification easier and more reliable. It reduces false positives and eliminates the need for time-consuming pre-sorting of library beads in order to remove autofluorescent beads. (technical note)

  16. Array-based technology and recommendations for utilization in medical genetics practice for detection of chromosomal abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Melanie; Hudgins, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory evaluation of patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability, congenital anomalies, and dysmorphic features has changed significantly in the last several years with the introduction of microarray technologies. Using these techniques, a patient’s genome can be examined for gains or losses of genetic material too small to be detected by standard G-banded chromosome studies. This increased resolution of microarray technology over conventional cytogenetic analysis allows for...

  17. Commercialisation of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technology in Multi-Electrode Arrays for Neuroscience and Cell-Based Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Chris R.; John Taylor; Anthony H. D. Graham; Jon Robbins

    2011-01-01

    The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC) technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanr...

  18. Investigation of the SIW technology for low cost 60 GHz radio over fiber based array antenna units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, D.; Tsiakas, P.; Voudouris, K.; Thakur, M. P.; Mikroulis, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) based photonic antenna suitable for RoF applications is presented. The millimeter-wave design is based on a diplexer, two Chebyshev bandpass filters, one for uplink (61,7GHz to 62,7 GHz) and one for downlink (59,3 GHz to 60,3 GHz) and one common 8x8 Slot array antenna, integrated on the same substrate. E/M simulations of a fully integrated planar RF Front End provide very good results, both in diplexer and filters and in antenna characteristics. Finally, a consideration regarding transition requirements for integration with a coplanar waveguide (CPW) photodiode is being presented.

  19. Bead-releasing agents used in the preparation of solid samples as beads for WD-XRF measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Gazulla Barreda, María Fernanda; Barba Juan, Antonio; Orduña, Mónica; Rodrigo, Marta

    2008-01-01

    A study has been undertaken of bead-releasing agents that are widely used in preparing solid samples as fused beads for wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF)spectrometry measurement. The following bead-releasing agents were studied: NaI, LiBr, NH4I, and LiI. Each was incorporated in different quantities, as a solid and/or in an aqueous solution, together with a flux, into samples of ceramic raw materials. Release agent interference in the WD-XRF measurement was analyse...

  20. Magnetic manipulation and sensing of beads for bioapplications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    . It was found that a symmetric geometry with equal stripe width and spacing was optimal, and that the stripe period should be thrice the bead radius. Magnetophoretic bead velocities of 300 μm/s were measured, and selective separation based on differences in magnetophoretic mobility was hypothesized. However......, the fabricated magnetophoresis systems had two major limitations. First, protein-coated magnetic beads had a tendency to stick to the surface, even though multiple surface blockings and modifications were tried. Second, as the systems are fabricated using a single UV lithography step, the stripe width has...... measurements and is optimized for detecting small amounts of surface bound beads. The next study analyzes the thermal properties of the chip and setup. General methods for measuring or calculating the effective heat conductivity are given, along with a discussion on how to optimize this to facilitate the use...

  1. Archaeological study of ostrich eggshell beads collected from SDG site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChunXue; ZHANG Yue; GAO Xing; ZHANG XiaoLing; WANG HuiMin

    2009-01-01

    Ostrich eggshell beads and fragments collected from SDG site reflect primordial art and a kind of symbolic behavior of modern humans.Based on stratigraphic data and OSL dating,these ostrich eggshell beads are probably in Early Holocene (<10 ka BP).Two different prehistoric manufacturing pathways are usually used in the manufacture of ostrich eggshell beads in Upper Paleolithic.According to statistic analysis of the characteristics of ostrich eggshell beads,Pathway 1 is identified from these collections.In pathway 1,blanks are drilled prior to being trimmed to rough discs.They exhibit great potential for the study of the origin of primordial art and the development of ancient cultures and provide important data for studying behavioral options adopted by hominids in SDG area.In addition,they bear important implications for the origin of modern humans in East Asia.

  2. An approach to implement virtual channels for flowing magnetic beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel microfluidic system with virtual channels formed by ‘walls’ of magnetic fields, including collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels. The channels are defined by the nickel patterns. With its own ferromagnetism, nickel can be magnetized using an external magnetic field; the nickel structures then generate magnetic fields that can either guide or trap magnetic beads. A glass substrate is sandwiched between the liquid containing magnetic beads and the chip with nickel structures, preventing the liquid from directly contacting the nickel. In this work, collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels are displayed sequentially. In the collecting channel portion, channels with different shapes are compared. Next, in the transporting channel portion we demonstrate I-, S- and Y-shaped channels can steer magnetic beads smoothly. Finally, in the function channel portion, a switchable trapping channel implemented with a bistable mechanism performs the passing and blocking of a magnetic bead. (paper)

  3. Polymer-Coated Graphene Aerogel Beads and Supercapacitor Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, An; Cao, Anyuan; Hu, Song; Li, Yanhui; Xu, Ruiqiao; Wei, Jinquan; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2016-05-01

    Graphene aerogels are highly porous materials with many energy and environmental applications; tailoring the structure and composition of pore walls within the aerogel is the key to those applications. Here, by freeze casting the graphene oxide sheets, we directly fabricated freestanding porous graphene beads containing radially oriented through channels from the sphere center to its surface. Furthermore, we introduced pseudopolymer to make reinforced, functional composite beads with a unique pore morphology. We showed that polymer layers can be coated smoothly on both sides of the pore walls, as well as on the junctions between adjacent pores, resulting in uniform polymer-graphene-polymer sandwiched structures (skeletons) throughout the bead. These composite beads significantly improved the electrochemical properties, with specific capacitances up to 669 F/g and good cyclic stability. Our results indicate that controlled fabrication of homogeneous hierarchical structures is a potential route toward high performance composite electrodes for various energy applications. PMID:27058391

  4. Simultaneous Immunofluorescent Detection of Coentrapped Cells in Gel Beads

    OpenAIRE

    Prioult, Guenolee; Lacroix, Christophe; Turcotte, Carl; Fliss, Ismaïl

    2000-01-01

    An immunofluorescent method involving double color labeling and confocal microscopy was reported to specifically detect lactic acid bacteria and probiotic cells coimmobilized in gels beads. The method described is rapid (4 h) and sensitive and may be useful for studying cell dynamics during mixed-culture starter production using immobilized cells in gel beads. Microscopic observations were perfectly correlated to cell counts obtained using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

  5. Configurational Statistics of Magnetic Bead Detection with Magnetoresistive Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Flyvbjerg, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect magnetic beads that, mediated by a target, have bound to a functionalized area. This area is often larger than the area of the sensor. Both the sign and magnitude of the average magnetic field experienced by the sensor from a magnetic bead depends on the location of the...... essential to sensor design. For illustration, we analyze three important published cases for which statistical fluctuations are dominant, significant, and insignificant, respectively....

  6. Preparation of alginate beads containing a prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; He, Weiling; Tsai, Tsuimin; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Yong; Jay, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A penta-ethyl ester prodrug of the radionuclide decorporation agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was encapsulated in alginate beads by the ionotropic gelation method. An optimal formulation was found by varying initial concentrations of DTPA pentaethyl ester, alginate polymer, Tween 80 surfactant and calcium chloride. All prepared alginate beads were ~1.6 mm in diameter, and the optimal formulation had loading and encapsulation efficiencies of 91....

  7. Preparation of Bio-beads and Their Atrazine Degradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Hai-tao; ZHANG Lan-ying; LIU Na; ZHU Bo-lin

    2011-01-01

    Screened atrazine-mineralizing bacterium-Pseudomonas W4 was embedded inside an improved PVAH3BO3 embedment matrix to make bio-beads to degrade atrazine. The atrazine degradation characteristics were studied. The preparation procedure of bio-beads was as follows: (1) preparing a mixture of 100, 12.5, 10, 1.5 and 1 g/L PVA, bentonite(Ca), activated carbon powder, sodium alginate and centrifuged Pseudomonas W4 bacterium, respectively; (2) the mixture was dropped into a gently stirred cross linker solution(pH=6.7) and cured at 10 ℃ for 24 h.The optimal atrazine degradation conditions by bio-beads were as follows: pH=7, the auxiliary carbon source was glucose, and the concentration of glucose was greater than 325 mg/L. The bio-beads demonstrated stronger tolerance ability than the free microorganism to the increase of PCBs, hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion. SEM images show the uniform distribution of the microorganism inside bio-beads and the porous cross-linked structure of bio-beads which provides excellent mass transfer capacity.

  8. Reversing adhesion with light: a general method for functionalized bead release from cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet-Hanssens, Alexis; Magdesian, Margaret H; Lopez-Ayon, G Monserratt; Grutter, Peter; Barrett, Christopher J

    2016-07-19

    Coated beads retain great importance in the study of cell adhesion and intracellular communication; we present a generally applicable method permitting spatiotemporal control of bead adhesion from cells. Herein we demonstrate in vitro release of a poly-d-lysine (PDL) layer from anionic polystyrene beads, allowing complete bead release from rat cortical neurons post-adhesion. PMID:27165466

  9. Ge1Sb2Te4 Based Chalcogenide Random Access Memory Array Fabricated by 0.18-μm CMOS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ting; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Gao-Ming; LIU Bo; WU Liang-Cai; FENG Song-Lin; CHEN Bomy

    2007-01-01

    Ge1Sb2Te4-based chalcogenide random access memory array, with a tungsten heating electrode of 260nm in diameter, is fabricated by 0.18-μm CMOS technology. Electrical performance of the device, as well as physical and electrical properties of Ge1Sb2Te4 thin film, is characterized. SET and RESET programming currents are 1.6 and 4.1 mA, respectively, when pulse width is 100ns. Both the values are larger than those of the Ge2Sb2 Te5-based ones with the same structure and contact size. Endurance up to 106 cycles with a resistance ratio of about 100 has been achieved.

  10. Bioethanol Production by Calcium Alginate-Immobilised St1 Yeast System: Effects of Size of Beads, Ratio and Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masniroszaime Md Zain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast-cell technology posses several advantages in bioethanol production due to its potential to increase the ethanol yield by eliminating unit process used. Thus, process expenses in cell recovery and reutilization can be minimised. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of three parameters (substrate concentrations, size of alginate beads and ratio of volume of beads to volume of medium on local isolated yeast (ST1 which immobilized using calcium alginate fermentation system. The most affected ethanol production by calcium alginate-immobilised ST1 yeast system were ratio of volume of the beads to the volume of substrate and concentration of LBS. Highest theoretical yield, 78% was obtained in ST1-alginate beads with the size of beads 0.5cm, ratio volume of beads to the volume of LBS media 0.4 and 150g/l concentration of LBS.ABSTRAK: Teknologi sel yis pegun memiliki beberapa kelebihan dalam penghasilan bioetanol kerana ia berpotensi meningkatkan pengeluaran etanol dengan menyingkirkan unit proses yang digunakan. Maka, proses pembiayaan dalam perolehan sel dan penggunaan semula boleh dikurangkan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji pengaruh tiga parameter (kepekatan substrat, saiz manik alginat dan nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu bahantara ke atas sel tempatan terasing (local isolated yeast (ST1 yang dipegun menggunakan sistem penapaian kalsium alginat. Penghasilan etanol yang paling berkesan dengan menggunakan sistem yis ST1 kalsium alginat-pegun adalah dengan kadar nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu substrat dan kepekatan LBS. Kadar hasil teori tertinggi iaitu 78% didapati menerusi manik alginat-ST1 dengan saiz manik 0.5cm, nisbah isipadu 0.4 terhadap perantara LBS dan kepekatan LBS sebanyak 150g/l. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  11. Development of simple immunoradiometric assays using avidin coupled to polystyrene beads as a common solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we describe the preparation and application of avidin coupled polystyrene beads as a common solid phase for use in immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs). The assay system is based on two matched commercial monoclonal antibodies, of which, the capture antibody is biotinylated using biotinamidocaproate N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and the detection antibody is radiolabeled with 125I by conventional Chloramine-T method. Avidin was immobilized on the polystyrene beads through a primary coat of bovine serum albumin using glutaraldhyde activation method. Various factors, such as concentration of reagents, incubation time, etc. were optimised to obtain a simple assay protocol consisting of only two pipetting steps, namely, that of a mixture of the two labelled antibodies (radiolabelled and biotinylated) and of the standard or sample. The advantage of the Avidin-Biotin system is the improved sensitivity, economy of antibody and the possibility to use a common solid phase in assays for different analytes. Using the polystyrene beads along with the novel decanting device, it has been possible to achieve the convenience of the 'coated-tube' technology without the expensive automation necessary for large scale preparation of antibody coated tubes. This protocol has been successfully applied to Prolactin, LH and FSH assays. The sensitivity of the Prolactin assay is 8μIU/mL (0.3 ng/mL), that of the FSH assay is 1mIU/mL and that of the LH assay is 0.9 mIU/mL. The intra-assay and inter-assay variations were <10%. Shelf life of the avidin coupled beads was found to be about 8 months and that of the biotin labelled antibodies up to 18 months. (author)

  12. 相控阵技术检测钢中缺陷%Detecting Defect of Steelw ith Phase Array Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴启霞; 栗雪

    2015-01-01

    我公司生产的轧材(规格为Ф100mm-Ф350mm),月产量在2万t左右,钢中缺陷种类较多,特别是单点夹杂以及其它有方向性的小裂纹,手工超声波检验时,因盲区、噪音等原因极易漏检,为满足生产检验质量及数量要求,我厂于2013年引进了一套加拿大Olympus NDT公司生产的国际领先的相控阵超声检测系统.%Company's rolled products (specifications are fromФ100mm-Ф350mm), and per month output is about 20 thousands tons.Defect types of steel are more, especially small crack of single part inclusion and other direction cracks.And due to the blind spot, noise and other reasons detecting could been easily missed by manual ultrasonic inspection.in 2013 the leading ultrasonic phased array testing system of a Canadian Olympus NDT company production was introduced to meet production in-spection of quality.

  13. Nanocrystalline diamond microelectrode arrays fabricated on sapphire technology for high-time resolution of quantal catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabelli, V; Gosso, S; Marcantoni, A; Xu, Y; Colombo, E; Gao, Z; Vittone, E; Kohn, E; Pasquarelli, A; Carbone, E

    2010-09-15

    The quantal release of oxidizable molecules can be successfully monitored by means of polarized carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) positioned in close proximity to the cell membrane. To partially overcome certain CFE limitations, mainly related to their low spatial resolution and lack of optical transparency, we developed a planar boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) prototype, grown on a transparent sapphire wafer. Responsiveness to applied catecholamines as well as the electrochemical and optical properties of the NCD-based device were first characterized by cyclic voltammetry and optical transmittance measurements. By stimulating chromaffin cells positioned on the device with external KCl, well-resolved quantal exocytotic events could be detected either from one NCD microelectrode, or simultaneously from an array of four microelectrodes, indicating that the chip is able to monitor secretory events (amperometric spikes) from a number of isolated chromaffin cells. Spikes detected by the planar NCD device had comparable amplitudes, kinetics and vesicle diameter distributions as those measured by conventional CFEs from the same chromaffin cell. PMID:20570501

  14. Bead Capture and Release on a Magnetic Sensor in a Microfluidic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Freitas, S.C.;

    Planar Hall effect magnetic sensors for detection of biological agents using surface treated magnetic beads are integrated with a fluid injection system. The response of the sensors is used to evaluate bead capture rates for different bead concentrations c and fluid flow rates Q, and to monitor...... capture of beads by the magnetic fields near the sensor. It is shown that beads can be washed off the sensor surface....

  15. The prevalence of azoospermia factor microdeletion on the Y chromosome of Chinese infertile men detected by multi-analyte suspension array technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Jian Zhu; Si-Yao Liu; Huan Wang; Ping Wei; Xian-Ping Ding

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To develop a high-throughput multiplex, fast and simple assay to scan azoospermia factor (AZF) region microdeletions on the Y chromosome and establish the prevalence of Y chromosomal microdeletions in Chinese infertile males with azoospermia or oligozoospermia. Methods: In total, 178 infertile patients with azoospemua (non-obstructed), 134 infertile patients with oligozoospermia as well as 40 fertile man controls were included in the present study. The samples were screened for AZF microdeletion using optimized multi-analyte suspension array (MASA) technology. Results: Of the 312 patients, 36 (11.5%) were found to have deletions in the AZF region. The microdeletion frequency was 14% (25/178) in the azoospermia group and 8.2% (11/134) in the oligospennia group. Among 36 patients with microdeletions, 19 had deletions in the AZFc region, seven had deletions in AZFa and six had deletions in AZFb. In addition, four patients had both AZFb and AZFc deletions. No deletion in the AZF region was found in the 40 fertile controls. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of Y chromosomal microdeletions in Chinese infertile males with azoospermia or oligozoospermia. The MASA technology, which has been established in the present study,provides a sensitive and high-throughput method for detecting the deletion of the Y chromosome. And the results suggest that genetic screening should be advised to infertile men before starting assisted reproductive treatments.

  16. Massively parallel haplotyping on microscopic beads for the high-throughput phase analysis of single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Jérôme; Muresan, Leila; Tiemann-Boege, Irene

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the many advances in haplotyping methods, it is still very difficult to characterize rare haplotypes in tissues and different environmental samples or to accurately assess the haplotype diversity in large mixtures. This would require a haplotyping method capable of analyzing the phase of single molecules with an unprecedented throughput. Here we describe such a haplotyping method capable of analyzing in parallel hundreds of thousands single molecules in one experiment. In this method, multiple PCR reactions amplify different polymorphic regions of a single DNA molecule on a magnetic bead compartmentalized in an emulsion drop. The allelic states of the amplified polymorphisms are identified with fluorescently labeled probes that are then decoded from images taken of the arrayed beads by a microscope. This method can evaluate the phase of up to 3 polymorphisms separated by up to 5 kilobases in hundreds of thousands single molecules. We tested the sensitivity of the method by measuring the number of mutant haplotypes synthesized by four different commercially available enzymes: Phusion, Platinum Taq, Titanium Taq, and Phire. The digital nature of the method makes it highly sensitive to detecting haplotype ratios of less than 1:10,000. We also accurately quantified chimera formation during the exponential phase of PCR by different DNA polymerases. PMID:22558329

  17. Technology of uncooled fast polycrystalline PbSe focal plane arrays in systems for muzzle flash detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastek, Mariusz; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Polakowski, Henryk; Barela, Jaroslaw; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Vergara, German; Linares, Rodrigo; Gutierrez, Raul; Fernandez, Carlos; Montojo Supervielle, Maria Teresa

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents some aspects of muzzle flash detection using low resolution polycrystalline PbSe 32×32 and 80×80 detectors FPA operating at room temperature (uncooled performance). These sensors, which detect in MWIR (3 - 5 microns region) and are manufactured using proprietary technology from New Infrared Technologies (VPD PbSe - Vapor Phase Deposition of polycrystalline PbSe), can be applied to muzzle flash detection. The system based in the uncooled 80×80 FPA monolithically integrated with the CMOS readout circuitry has allowed image recording with frame rates over 2000 Hz (true snapshot acquisition), whereas the lower density, uncooled 32×32 FPA is suitable for being used in low cost infrared imagers sensitive in the MWIR band with frame rates above 1000 Hz. The FPA detector, read-out electronics and processing electronics (allows the implementation of some algorithms for muzzle flash detection) of both systems are presented. The systems have been tested at field test ground. Results of detection range measurement with two types of optical systems (wide and narrow field of view) have been shown. The theoretical analysis of possibility detection of muzzle flash and initial results of testing of some algorithms for muzzle flash detection have been presented too.

  18. Use Array-basedCGH technology for fetal chromosomal anomalies syndrome diagnosis%运用Array-basedCGH技术进行胎儿染色体异常综合征的诊断研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易广才; 童华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To use high - resolution Array - basedCCH (aCCH) technology for chromosomes of the small mutation (missing or amplified) to cause fetal malformation syndrome, and its formation mechanism. Method:use of a Agilent4 × 44K CGH chip to detect the normal samples and specimens from the three malformation of Fetal DNA ( M1:normalfetal; M2:abdominal wall defect fetal; M3: single umbilical artery with congenital heart disease, double outlet right ventricle, Ventricular septal defect and mitral atresia pulmonary artery stenosis; M4: karyorype 47, +21, congenital heart disease, Ventricular septal defect, fetus side lateral ventricle broadening, the fetus is small) by the comparative genomic hybridization. Results: M2/MI; high copy (amplification) 560 of fragments of DNA (genes), low copy or missing 1504 of DNA (genes) of the fragment; M3/M1: high copy 511 fragments of DNA (genes) , low copy or missing 1142 articles DNA (genes) of the fragment; M4/M1: section 3034 high copy DNA (genes) of the fragment, low copy or missing section 3571 DNA (genes) fragment. Conclusion; the small mutation of chromosome fragments is one of the main causes which lead to fetal malformation syndrome, the high - resolution aCCH technology is able to be used for quickly and accurately on its testing and prenatal diagnosis.%目的,运用高分辨率的Array-basedCGH(aCGH)技术研究染色体的微小变异(缺失或扩增)引起的胎儿畸形综合征,及其形成机理.方法 采用Agilent4×44K CGH,芯片对一个正常标本和三个畸形胎儿标本DNA(MI 正常胎儿;M2腹壁缺损;M3单脐动脉合并先天性心脏病,右室双出口,空间隔缺损,肺动脉狭窄,二尖瓣闭锁;M4染色体核型47,+21,先天性心脏病,室间隔缺损,胎儿一侧脑室增宽,胎儿偏小)进行比较基因组杂交捡洲.结果 M2/Ml:高拷贝(扩增)560条DNA(基因)片段,低拷贝或缺失1504条DNA(基因)片断;M3/M1:高拷贝511条DNA(基因)片段,低拷贝或缺失1142

  19. Microfluidic bead-based assay for microRNAs using quantum dots as labels and enzymatic amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a microfluidic assay for microRNA using quantum dots as labels and capture probes immobilized in a bead array. Target microRNA flows along the microfluidic channel to hit the beads array where it hybridizes with the immobilized capture probes. Next, the hybrid is labeled by using the bound microRNAs as a primer for enzymatic elongation with biotin-labeled nucleotides. Due to the specificity of (a) the hybridization assay and (b) the enzymatic elongation step, this assay is quite selective and only the completely matched duplex can be labeled, in a final step, with streptavidin-labeled quantum dots. The method was applied to the specific detection of microRNAs that occur in the miRNA-29 family and display minute differences only in their nucleotide sequence. It does not require (a) a labeling step before hybridization and (b) no amplification. This on-chip assay for microRNA can detect concentrations as low as 0.1 pmol·L−1 (at an SNR of >3) when using synthetic microRNA. The 200-fold better sensitivity than that of an off-chip test is ascribed to the microfluidic-based signal enhancement. Other features include rapid binding kinetics, the advantages of a homogeneous assay in a suspended microbead array, the detection sensitivity resulting from the use of quantum dots, small reagent consumption, short assay time, and parallel detection. (author)

  20. Single bead detection with an NMR microcapillary probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Boss, Michael; Russek, Stephen E.; Moreland, John

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microcapillary probe for the detection of single magnetic microbeads. The geometry of the probe has been optimized so that the signal from the background water has a similar magnitude compared to the signal from the dephased water nearby a single magnetic bead within the probe detector coil. In addition, the RF field of the coil must be uniform within the effective range of the magnetic bead. Three different RF probes were tested in a 7 T (300 MHz) pulsed NMR spectrometer with sample volumes ranging from 5 nL down to 1 nL. The 1 nL probe had a single-shot signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for pure water of 27 and a volume resolution that exhibits a 600-fold improvement over a conventional (5 mm tube) NMR probe with a sample volume of 18 μL. This allowed for the detection of a 1 μm magnetite/polystyrene bead (m = 2 × 10-14 A m2) with an estimated experimental SNR of 30. Simulations of the NMR spectra for the different coil geometries and positions of the bead within the coil were developed that include the B0 shift near a single bead, the inhomogeneity of the coils, the local coil sensitivity, the skin effect of the coil conductor, and quantitated estimates of the proximity effect between coil windings.

  1. Artemisia arborescens L essential oil loaded beads: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francesco; Loy, Giuseppe; Manconi, Maria; Manca, Maria Letizia; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to prepare sodium alginate beads as a device for the controlled release of essential oil for oral administration as an antiviral agent. Different formulations were prepared with sodium alginate as a natural polymer and calcium chloride or glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Loading capacities of between 86% and 100% were obtained in freshly prepared beads by changing exposure time to the cross-linking agent. Drying of the calcium alginate beads caused only a slight decrease in the loading efficiency. The surface morphology of the different bead formulations were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stability studies over a 3-month period showed that glutaraldehyde reacted with some components of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil, changing its composition. Calcium alginate beads showed an in vitro controlled release of the essential oil for the investigated 24 hours, while the use of glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent was found not appropriate because of the interactions with azulene derivatives and the low degree of matrix cross-linkage. PMID:17915817

  2. Genetic mapping using the Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) : application and validation using the whole-genome sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana and the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittenberg, A.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) is a microarray-based DNA marker technique for genome-wide discovery and genotyping of genetic variation. DArT allows simultaneous scoring of hundreds- to thousands of restriction site based polymorphisms between genotypes and does not require DNA sequence informat

  3. Archaeometric study of glass beads from the 2nd century BC cemetery of Numantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Heras, Manuel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent archaeologícalf ieldwork undertaken in the Celtiberian cremation necropolis of Numantia (Soria, Spain has provided a group of glass beads from the 2nd century BC. Such glass beads were part, together with other metallic and ceramic items, of the offerings deposited with the dead. They are ring-shaped in typology and deep-blue, amber, or semitransparent white in colour. This paper reports results derived from the chemical and microstructural characterization carried out on a representative sample set of this group of beads. The main goal of the research was to find out about their production technology to explore their probable provenance. In addítion, corrosion mechanisms were also assessed to determine the influence of crematíon on the beads' structure. The resulting data suggest that these blue and amber beads were made using soda-lime silicate glass, whereas semi-transparent white ones were manufactured from alumino-silicate glass. It has also determined that some transition metal oxides were used as chromophores, as well as lead oxide for decoration.

    La reciente excavación de la necrópolis celtibérica de Numancia (Garray, Soria ha permitido recuperar un conjunto de cuentas de vidrio del siglo II a.C. Las cuentas, junto con otros objetos de metaly cerámica, formaban parte de las ofrendas depositadas con el difunto, siendo de tipología anular y coloreadas en azul oscuro, ambar y blanco semitransparente. Este trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos en la caracterización química y microestructural de una muestra representativa de este conjunto. El objetivo principal de la investigación consistió en recabar información sobre su tecnología de manufactura y evaluar su posible procedencia. Asimismo, también se investigaron sus mecanismos de corrosión para determinar si la cremación había inducido cambios en su estructura. Los resultados indican que las cuentas azules y ámbar se realizaron con vidrio de silicato s

  4. A magnetic bead-based method for concentrating DNA from human urine for downstream detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hali Bordelon

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ∼50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×10(3 to 5×10(8 copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×10(6, 14×10(6, and 8×10(6 copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR.

  5. Development of multifunctional chitosan beads for fluoride removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan beads (CB) which have negligible defluoridation capacity (DC) have been chemically modified by introducing multifunctional groups, viz., NH3+ and COOH groups by means of protonation and carboxylation in order to utilize both amine and hydroxyl groups for fluoride removal. The protonated cum carboxylated chitosan beads (PCCB) showed a maximum DC of 1800 mg F-/kg whereas raw chitosan beads displayed only 52 mg F-/kg. Sorption process was found to be independent of pH and slightly influenced in the presence of other common anions. The fluoride sorption on modified forms was reasonably explained by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The sorbents were characterised by FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The sorption process follows pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The suitability of PCCB has been tested with field sample collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area.

  6. Dual stimuli-responsive smart beads that allow "on-off" manipulation of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Fujii, Teruo; Matsunaga, Yukiko T

    2016-06-24

    Temperature- and electric field-responsive polymer-conjugated polystyrene beads, termed smart beads, are designed to isolate cancer cells. In smart beads, the reversible "on-off" antigen-antibody reaction and dielectrophoresis force on an electrode are accomplished to realize "on-off" remote manipulation of smart beads and cancer cells. Both the zeta-potential and the hydrodynamic diameter of the smart beads are sensitive to temperature, allowing "on-off" reversible capture and release of cancer cells. Cancer cell-captured smart beads are then localized on electrodes by applying an electrical signal. PMID:27146341

  7. Corrosion of ancient glass beads found in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass has been used as ornaments and decorations in Thailand for several hundred years. The archaeological resources suggested that the ancient glass beads excavated in southern Thailand were made more than 1300 years ago. Initial findings revealed that there were number of difference in shade between the glass beads of difference colors. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) system attached with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were firstly used to study the surface corrosion of the samples. SEM micrographs showed more corroded and flaked microstructure. These were contributed to the interaction of both the ground water and its dissolved chemical compounds.

  8. Rapid diagnosis of enterovirus infection by magnetic bead extraction and polymerase chain reaction detection of enterovirus RNA in clinical specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, P; Nicholson, F; Jhetam, M; Neogi, S; Banatvala, J E

    1993-01-01

    We describe a rapid method for extraction and detection of enterovirus RNA in clinical samples. By using magnetic bead technology, enterovirus RNA was efficiently and rapidly extracted from cerebrospinal fluid, stool, saliva, blood, pericardial fluid, urine, and cryopreserved or formalin-fixed solid tissue. Enterovirus RNA was then detected by reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers designed to allow detection of most enterovirus serotypes. For d...

  9. Interaction of peptide-bound beads with lipopolysaccharide and lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatsugu M; Matsumoto, Megumi; Omi, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tomomi; Nakamura, Akio; Kishi, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Sei; Takagi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported the generation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding peptides by phage display and chemical modification. Among them, a dodecapeptide designated Li5-025 (K'YSSSISSIRAC'; K' and C' denote d-lysine and d-cysteine, respectively) showed a high binding affinity for LPS and was resistant to protease digestion (Suzuki et al., 2010). In the current study, Li5-025-bound silica beads, hereafter referred to as P-beads, were generated and found to be devoid of LPS-neutralizing activity. Thus, LPS bound to the P-beads could be directly used in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. P-beads bound LPS dissolved in solutions of ethanol, pH4, pH10, and 0.5M NaCl and LPS bound to the P-beads was quantitatively assayed. The sensitivity of this assay was observed to be approximately 0.1pg/mL LPS. P-beads bound LPS dissolved in antithrombin III (AT III) solution which is a strong inhibitor of activated factors C and B as well as the clotting enzyme in the LAL assay; the inhibitory effect of AT III was completely reversed upon washing the P-beads with 25% acetonitrile. This was employed as the first step for the detection of free LPS in plasma using the LAL assay. LPS added to human plasma at 0°C followed by application to the P-beads and subsequent washing with 25% acetonitrile resulted in low LPS activity as detected by the LAL assay. However, further washing of the P-beads with 0.1% Triton X100 in 25% acetonitrile resulted in high LPS activity. This is the first instance of quantitative detection of free LPS in plasma using the LAL assay, and the sensitivity of this method was observed to be 1pg/mL of LPS. The proteins eluted in the 0.1% Triton X-100 wash were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two protein bands of 28kDa and 18kDa were predominantly observed. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the 28kDa and 18kDa bands corresponded to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), respectively. Apo

  10. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) Marker Platforms for Diversity Analysis and Linkage Mapping in a Complex Crop, the Octoploid Cultivated Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Horvath, Aniko; Botella, Miguel A; Gaston, Amèlia; Folta, Kevin; Kilian, Andrzej; Denoyes, Beatrice; Amaya, Iraida

    2015-01-01

    Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a genetically complex allo-octoploid crop with 28 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 8x = 56) for which a genome sequence is not yet available. The diploid Fragaria vesca is considered the donor species of one of the octoploid sub-genomes and its available genome sequence can be used as a reference for genomic studies. A wide number of strawberry cultivars are stored in ex situ germplasm collections world-wide but a number of previous studies have addressed the genetic diversity present within a limited number of these collections. Here, we report the development and application of two platforms based on the implementation of Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for high-throughput genotyping in strawberry. The first DArT microarray was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 62 strawberry cultivars that represent a wide range of variation based on phenotype, geographical and temporal origin and pedigrees. A total of 603 DArT markers were used to evaluate the diversity and structure of the population and their cluster analyses revealed that these markers were highly efficient in classifying the accessions in groups based on historical, geographical and pedigree-based cues. The second DArTseq platform took benefit of the complexity reduction method optimized for strawberry and the development of next generation sequencing technologies. The strawberry DArTseq was used to generate a total of 9,386 SNP markers in the previously developed '232' × '1392' mapping population, of which, 4,242 high quality markers were further selected to saturate this map after several filtering steps. The high-throughput platforms here developed for genotyping strawberry will facilitate genome-wide characterizations of large accessions sets and complement other available options. PMID:26675207

  11. Advanced cell culture technology for essential oil production and micro array studies leading to discovery of genes for fragrance compounds in Michelia alba (Cempaka Putih)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelia spp. is known to produce high value essential oil for perfumery industry. The essence of world's most expensive perfumes, such as JOY and Jadore, is based on the oil of Michelia spp. One major problem anticipated in this approach, based on our early experiments, is limited amount of fragrance produced in cell cultures. The appropriate strategy is to superimpose DNA micro array studies on top of the cell culture project. The study covers natural flower development phases that led to the identification of genes or sets of genes that regulate the production of the fragrance. Seven developmental stages of Michelia alba flower namely Stage 5 to 11 were investigated for their volatile constituents. The essential oil was isolated by Simultaneous Distillation Extraction technique and the oil obtained was subjected to GC-MS analysis. In total, seventy-seven compounds representing 93-98% of the overall volatiles compounds were identified on the basis of mass spectra and retention indices. Thirty-three of these compounds belonged to isoprenoids group which comprised 30-50% of the total volatile compounds whereas the remaining belonged to fatty acid derivatives, benzenoid, phenylpropanoid and other hydrocarbon compounds. Studies were conducted to optimize culture parameters for scaling-up the production of callus, suspension cell cultures and somatic and product accumulation of essential oils using bioreactor technology. (Author)

  12. Monosize magnetic hydrophobic beads for lysozyme purification under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monosize and magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-tryptophan) [mPGMATrp] beads (1.6 μm in diameter) were used for hydrophobic affinity capture of lysozyme from chicken egg-white. N-methacryloyl-(L)-tryptophan (MATrp), which gives hydrophobicity to the resulting polymer, was synthesized by reacting methacryloyl chloride and L-tryptophan methyl ester then characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). mPGMATrp beads were produced by dispersion polymerization in the presence of magnetite nano-powder. mPGMATrp beads were characterized by means of swelling studies, elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Lysozyme adsorption experiments were performed under different experimental conditions (i.e., lysozyme concentration, temperature, and ionic strength) in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed system, (MSFB). Maximum adsorption capacity was 263.9 mg/g. It was observed that mPGMATrp beads can be used without significant loss in lysozyme adsorption capacity after 25 adsorption-elution cycle.

  13. Laccase-functionalized magnetic beads for biotechnology applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rotková, J.; Šuláková, R.; Zdražilová, P.; Korecká, L.; Jandová, M.; Lenfeld, Jiří; Horák, Daniel; Bílková, Z.

    Vancouver : University of British Columbia, 2008. s. 107. [International Conference on Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers /7./. 20.05.2008-24.05.2008, Vancouver] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : enzyme laccase * magnetic beads * biotechnology applications Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  14. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE BEADS BY IONOTROPIC GELATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramteke K.H.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to incorporate Metformin hydrochloride into beads giving sustained release of metformin and optimize best cross linking agent amongst calcium and aluminium. Formulation was prepared by ionotropic external gelation technique using Ca+2 and Al+3 ions. The prepared beads were characterized for Entrapment efficiency, Scanning electron microscopy, Swelling kinetics, Release behavior of beads by Kinetics modeling. Ca+2 cross linked beads showed sustained release of drug for about 8 hr while Al+3 cross linked beads shown sustained release of drug about 10 hrs. The entrapment efficiency was also lesser in case of Ca+2 cross linked beads. The alginate beads swelled and eventually disintegrated in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8. The results revealed that aluminium is better cross linking agent than calcium indicating that valence affects cross linking. In nutshell, by proper choice of cross linking agent metformin hydrochloride can be incorporated into beads giving sustained release action.

  15. Manipulation of superparamagnetic beads using on-chip current lines placed on a ferrite magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. H.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.

    2006-04-01

    Manipulation of superparamagnetic beads in a static solution is demonstrated using on-chip current striplines placed on a ferrite magnet. The ferrite magnet fits the requirement to enhance the bead's magnetic moment while still keeping beads randomly dispersed in the liquid, so allowing easy and selective manipulation of single beads. By applying currents up to hundreds of milliampere, the tapered stripline first attracts the beads to its edge, then the magnetic force along the edge drives the trapped beads moving continuously towards the chip center. On arriving into the chip central area (a square zone which acts as a site to collect the arriving beads), fine manipulation of selected single beads is further performed by switching on/off and/or tuning the current passing through the nearby quadruple striplines. We suggest that the present system may provide a simple but effective platform for handling magnetic tags for biological and biomedical applications.

  16. Developing an Inflatable Solar Array

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Patrick; Crawford, Larry; Williams, Geoffrey,

    1993-01-01

    L'Garde is developing a light weight deployable solar array wing in the 200-1000 watt range, on the Inflatable Torus Solar Array Technology Demonstration (ITSAT Demo) Project. The power density goal is 90-100 W/Kg for a 200 W wing, including structure and deployment mechanisms. In Phase 1, a proof of concept torus and array was constructed and deployed in the laboratory. A revised Phase 2 Torus and Array are now being fabricated. Phase 3 will be a space flight test. The current design uses cr...

  17. Optical tweezers and manipulation of PMMA beads in various conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsifaki, D. G.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2009-07-01

    Laser optical trapping and micromanipulation of microparticles or cells and subcellular structures have gained remarkable interest in biomedical research and applications. Several laser sources are employed for the combination of a laser scalpel with an optical tweezers device, under microscopic control. However, although the principles and the mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation have been well described for macroscopic interventions, the microbeam operation, under microscopic guidance, necessitates further experiments and investigations. We present experimental results of controlled micro-ablation of PMMA beads of 3-8 μm diameters, trapped by laser tweezers in various media e.g. solutes of different index of refraction. An optical tweezers system, based on a continuous wave He-Ne laser emitting at 632.8 nm, was tested on beads and, despite the low power of the He-Ne laser, the optical trap was stable. Another optical system, based on a cw Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1.06 μm, was tested on microspheres too. Successful beads ablation was carried out by irradiation with multiple, or even a single nitrogen laser pulse of 7 ns pulse duration at a wavelength of 337 nm. The ablative perforation of the microspheres was estimated by controlling the laser fluence. Moreover, shape deformations of PMMA microspheres were observed. The experimentally obtained results are theoretically explained via the spatial intensity distribution based on Mie light scattering theory. Furthermore, the appearance of laser ablation holes in the back side of microspheres is explained by the ablation triggered shock waves propagation. The role of the stretching forces action is also discussed. Additionally, we report experimental results on measuring the optical trap force of PMMA beads. A powerful optical tweezers system based on a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser was used in order to estimate the trapping efficiency for several beads diameter.

  18. RADIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON ALPHA FETOPROTEIN RADIOIMMUNOASSAY SOLID PHASE COATED BEADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a marker for hepatocellular and germ cell carcinoma. There are many different techniques used for measuring AFP in blood where the most accurate one is the immunoassay technique. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, optimize and prepare anti-AFP solid phase coated beads and use it for the determination of AFP in serum. The anti-AFP polyclonal antibodies were prepared by immunization of five rats with a highly purified AFP antigen and the anti-sera obtained were used for coating polystyrene beads to obtain the solid phase coated beads. Also, the AFP antigen was labelled with 125 I using chloramin-T (Ch-T) as oxidizing agent and the tracer obtained was purified using sephadex G-25 (PD-10) chromatography. The assay was performed using a set of AFP standards prepared by diluting the cord blood. The suitable conditions for coating process were obtained which include pH 8, molarity of coating buffer 0.05 M, volume of coating buffer 100 ml and dilution of antibody 1:1000 for coating 1000 beads. Because the coated beads prepared using borate buffer is more suitable than prepared using carbonate or phosphate buffers, they were chosen to complete the optimization and validation study. The optimization and characterization of the assay were performed to evaluate the quality of the proposed system. The system prepared proved a low cost, simple, sensitive and accurate results. The prepared system can be used to evaluate AFP in the blood and this will be helpful in diagnosing some diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neural tube defects

  19. Novel chitosan goethite bionanocomposite beads for arsenic remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Gehin, Antoine; Silvester, Ewen; Charlet, Laurent

    2016-09-15

    We report on the synthesis and As adsorption properties of a novel chitosan - iron (oxyhydr)oxide composite material for the remediation of arsenic-contaminated water supplies. FE-SEM, Mössbauer spectroscopy, ICP-OES and synchrotron (Bulk XAS, μXRF) techniques were applied to determine the composition of the new material and investigate the As uptake efficiency and mechanism. The iron (oxyhydr)oxide phase has been identified as a nano-sized goethite, well dispersed in the chitosan matrix, leading to the name 'chitosan goethite bionanocomposite' (CGB). The CGB material is prepared in the form of beads of high density and excellent compression strength; the embedding of the goethite nanoparticles in the chitosan matrix allows for the high adsorption capacity of nanoparticles to be realized. CGB beads remove both As(III) and As(V) efficiently from water, over the pH range 5-9, negating the need for pre-oxidation of As(III). Kinetic studies and μXRF analysis of CGB bead sections show that diffusion-adsorption of As(V) into CGB beads is faster than for As(III). Using CGB beads, synthetic high-arsenic water (0.5 mg-As/L) could be purified to world drinking standard level (<0.01 mg-As/L) using only 1.4 g/L CGB. When considered in combination with the advantages of the low-cost of raw materials required, and facile (green) synthesis route, CGB is a promising material for arsenic remediation, particularly in developing countries, which suffer a diversity of socio-economical-traditional constraints for water purification and sanitation. PMID:27240296

  20. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE BEADS BY IONOTROPIC GELATION TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Ramteke K.H.; Vansola J.B.; Tailor D.J.; Parmar J. R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to incorporate Metformin hydrochloride into beads giving sustained release of metformin and optimize best cross linking agent amongst calcium and aluminium. Formulation was prepared by ionotropic external gelation technique using Ca+2 and Al+3 ions. The prepared beads were characterized for Entrapment efficiency, Scanning electron microscopy, Swelling kinetics, Release behavior of beads by Kinetics modeling. Ca+2 cross linked beads showed sustained...

  1. Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE), an innovative technology that will...

  2. Array tomography: imaging stained arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time-consuming and require some practice to perfect. In this protocol, tissue arrays are imaged using conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Images can be captured manually or, with the appropriate software and hardware, the process can be automated. PMID:21041399

  3. Array tomography: production of arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time consuming and require some practice to perfect. This protocol describes the sectioning of embedded tissues and the mounting of the serial arrays. The procedures require some familiarity with the techniques used for ultramicrotome sectioning for electron microscopy. PMID:21041397

  4. Cross-platform comparison of SYBR® Green real-time PCR with TaqMan PCR, microarrays and other gene expression measurement technologies evaluated in the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dial Stacey L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC project evaluated the inter- and intra-platform reproducibility of seven microarray platforms and three quantitative gene expression assays in profiling the expression of two commercially available Reference RNA samples (Nat Biotechnol 24:1115-22, 2006. The tested microarrays were the platforms from Affymetrix, Agilent Technologies, Applied Biosystems, GE Healthcare, Illumina, Eppendorf and the National Cancer Institute, and quantitative gene expression assays included TaqMan® Gene Expression PCR Assay, Standardized (Sta RT-PCR™ and QuantiGene®. The data showed great consistency in gene expression measurements across different microarray platforms, different technologies and test sites. However, SYBR® Green real-time PCR, another common technique utilized by half of all real-time PCR users for gene expression measurement, was not addressed in the MAQC study. In the present study, we compared the performance of SYBR Green PCR with TaqMan PCR, microarrays and other quantitative technologies using the same two Reference RNA samples as the MAQC project. We assessed SYBR Green real-time PCR using commercially available RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays from SuperArray, containing primer pairs that have been experimentally validated to ensure gene-specificity and high amplification efficiency. Results The SYBR Green PCR Arrays exhibit good reproducibility among different users, PCR instruments and test sites. In addition, the SYBR Green PCR Arrays have the highest concordance with TaqMan PCR, and a high level of concordance with other quantitative methods and microarrays that were evaluated in this study in terms of fold-change correlation and overlap of lists of differentially expressed genes. Conclusion These data demonstrate that SYBR Green real-time PCR delivers highly comparable results in gene expression measurement with TaqMan PCR and other high-density microarrays.

  5. A mathematical model for the formation of beaded fibers in electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beaded fibers are often observed in electrospinning. However, its formation mechanism is not well understood. A mathematical model for pulsation of the charged jets during spinning is proposed to reveal the phenomenon of beaded fibers, and the main factors for beaded fibers are elucidated.

  6. Adsorption of molybdate on molybdate-imprinted chitosan/triethanolamine gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Xue, Juanqin; Zhou, Xingwen; Fei, Xiang; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Yuanzhen; Zhong, Lvling; Han, Xuanli

    2014-12-19

    Mo (VI)-imprinted chitosan (CTS)/triethanolamine (TEA) gel beads (Mo (VI)-ICTGBs) (ICTGBs=imprinted chitosan triethanolamine gel beads) were prepared by using ion-imprinted technology, in which TEA and molybdate solution were used in coagulation bath. The spectrum of FT-IR implies that bonding are formed between TEA and the primary hydroxyl of CTS, and ion gel reaction happen between CTS and molybdate; XRD patterns also prove the change among CTS, TEA and molybdate. SEM images and N2 adsorption show that the surface area increases obviously after eluting Mo (VI) ions. The adsorption isotherm of Mo (VI)-ICTGBs imply that the adsorption process is according with Freundlich model. Adsorption kinetics suggests that the pseudo-second order adsorption mechanism is predominant for this adsorbent system of Mo (VI)-ICTGBs. The Mo (VI)-ICTGBs show high adsorption capacity and good selectivity for Mo (VI) anions in the coexistence system at pH=6.0. The Mo (VI)-ICTGBs have a good application prospect, because it is with a simple and rapid technique and good durance. PMID:25263921

  7. Chitosan beads as barriers to the transport of azo dye in soil column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Nikolaos K; Keenan, Helen

    2010-01-15

    The development of chitosan-based materials as useful adsorbent polymeric matrices is an expanding field in the area of adsorption science. Although chitosan has been successfully used for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions, no consideration is given to the removal of dyes from contaminated soils. Therefore this study focuses on the potential use of chitosan as an in situ remediation technology. The chitosan beads were used as barriers to the transport of a reactive dye (Reactive Black 5, RB5) in soil column experiments. Batch sorption experiments, kinetic and equilibrium, were performed to estimate the sorption behavior of both chitosan and soil. The chitosan beads were prepared in accordance with published literature and a synthetic soil was prepared by mixing quantities of sand, silt and clay. The synthetic soil was classified according to British Standards. Calcium chloride was used as tracer to define transport rates and other physical experimental parameters. Dye transport reaction parameters were determined by fitting dye breakthrough curves (BTCs) to the HYDRUS-1D version 4.xx software. Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to reveal the sorption mechanism. The study showed that chitosan exhibited a high sorption capacity (S(max)=238 mg/g) and pseudo-first sorption rate (k(1)=1.02 h(-1)) coupled with low swelling and increased retardation for the azo dye tested. Thus it has potential as a Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) for containment and remediation of contaminated sites. PMID:19740603

  8. Leakage analysis of crossbar memristor arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2014-07-01

    Crossbar memristor arrays provide a promising high density alternative for the current memory and storage technologies. These arrays suffer from parasitic current components that significantly increase the power consumption, and could ruin the readout operation. In this work we study the trade-off between the crossbar array density and the power consumption required for its readout. Our analysis is based on simulating full memristor arrays on a SPICE platform.

  9. CAPweb: a bioinformatics CGH array Analysis Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Liva, Stéphane; Hupé, Philippe; Neuvial, Pierre; Brito, Isabel; Viara, Eric; La Rosa, Philippe; Barillot, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Assessing variations in DNA copy number is crucial for understanding constitutional or somatic diseases, particularly cancers. The recently developed array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) technology allows this to be investigated at the genomic level. We report the availability of a web tool for analysing array-CGH data. CAPweb (CGH array Analysis Platform on the Web) is intended as a user-friendly tool enabling biologists to completely analyse CGH arrays from the raw data to the visu...

  10. Methodological Study of Cell Separation with Domestic Immunomagnetic Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To establish the method of cell separation with domestic immuomagnetic beads, three methods were investigated. Direct method, SPA method and Biotin-Avidin method were applied to separate cell strain Hut-78 and CD4 positive cells. Separation rate of strain Hut-78 was more than 90 % in direct method. Detachment rate with papain was over 95 %. Cell activity was well retained. SPA method and Biotin-Avidin methods were also effective, but the direct method was superior to the other two techniques. Before separated by the direct method, CD4 positive cells constituted 46.4 %±6.4 % of mononuclear cells (MNC), but in eliminated suspension there was only 6.2 %±2.3 % CD4 positive cells left. In the separated part, 80.6 %±7.2 % of the cells combined with the beads. It is concluded that the direct method in separating cells had high sensitivity and specificity.

  11. On the chemical variability of Middelburg glass beads and rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-three glass samples from a late 16th-early 17th century, glass beadmaking house in Middelburg, the Netherlands, were selected for maximum colouring variability, including plain and multi-coloured varieties. The glass chemistries were quite diverse, within each colour grouping. For each single colour of glass, anticipated colouring elements (copper for turquoise blue, cobalt for dark blue, manganese for rose, and tin for white) were used, with the exception of two beads that were opacified wih antimony rather than with tin. Multi-coloured glass glasses (chevron beads) produced chemistries that match the mixing of the different coloured glasses. In some cases, low relative amounts of some inter-mixed glasses were not detectable against the composition of the major glass component. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  12. A planar conducting microstructure to guide and confine magnetic beads to a sensing zone

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2011-08-01

    A novel planar conducting microstructure is proposed to transport and confine magnetic micro/nano beads to a sensing zone. Manipulation and concentration of magnetic beads are achieved by employing square-shaped conducting micro-loops, with a few hundred nano-meters in thickness, arranged in a unique fashion. These microstructures are designed to produce high magnetic field gradients which are directly proportional to the force applied to manipulate the magnetic beads. Furthermore, the size of the microstructures allows greater maneuverability and control of magnetic beads than what could be achieved by permanent magnets. The aim of the microstructures is to guide magnetic beads from a large area and confine them to a smaller area where for example quantification would take place. Experiments were performed with different concentrations of 2 μm diameter magnetic beads. Experimental results showed that magnetic beads could be successfully guided and confined to the sensing zone. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved Recovery of Exfoliated Colonocytes from Feces Using Newly Developed Immunomagnetic Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikatsu Koga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the feasibility of a new methodology for isolating colonocytes from feces. To reduce costs and improve the recovery rate of colonocytes from feces, we attempted to develop new immunomagnetic beads. Several sizes of magnetic beads were prepared and tagged with a monoclonal antibody against EpCAM. We made several new monoclonal antibodies against EpCAM, and each monoclonal antibody was tagged to the magnetic beads. In the simulation, the most efficient recovery of HT-29 cells was obtained using the smallest size of beads. Also, beads tagged with a monoclonal antibody with a higher affinity against EpCAM had a higher recovery rate. Similar results were obtained when the smallest size of beads with the highest-affinity monoclonal antibody was applied to clinical samples. The newly developed immunomagnetic beads may be useful for isolating colorectal cancer cells from feces, enabling the cytological or molecular biological diagnosis of CRC.

  14. Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a magnetic microchip (MMC) is presented, to first trap and then selectively manipulate individual, superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) to another trapping site. Trapping sites are realized through soft magnetic micro disks made of Ni80Fe20, and SPB motion is controlled by current-carrying, tapered, conducting lines made of Au. The MMC was realized using standard microfabrication techniques and provides a cheap and versatile platform for microfluidic systems for cell manipulation. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Diffusivity of Cu2+ in calcium alginate gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, L K

    1994-01-20

    The diffusivity of Cu(2+) in calcium alginate beads calculated by the shrinking core model (SCM) was reevaluated in this work. The results obtained in this work were significantly different than those by the original authors. There were excellent agreements between the results obtained by the SCM in this work and those by the more rigorous linear absorption model (LAM) by the original authors. PMID:18615613

  16. Diffusivity of Cu2+ in calcium alginate gel beads: recalculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Z; Roe, F

    1994-01-20

    Calculations of the diffusivity of Cu(2+) in calcium alginate gel beads using the shrinking core model were checked by us. Corrected results are reported here. Diffusivity was still found to increase with increasing alginate concentration, but at a lower rate than reported in the cited paper. The diffusivity increased by a factor of 2 over the range of alginate concentrations studied rather than 10. The original data is included with sample calculations. PMID:18615614

  17. THE PROBLEM OF CORRECT CHOICE OF FERRITE BEADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Gurevich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A ferrite bead is a passive electrical element used to suppress high-frequency noise in electric circuits. This is one of the simplest and the cheapest type of filters. Thus, such filters are widely used in electric and electronic apparatus for both domestic and industrial purposes. It would seem that such a wide application of these elements suggests that methods for their correct selection and use are well-defined. However, this is not quite true.

  18. Elution of Metronidazole and Gentamicin from Polymethylmethacrylate Beads

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Jose Rafaelix

    2003-01-01

    Ten polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads containing metronidazole (3 concentrations); gentamicin sulfate; or metronidazole and gentamicin sulfate were immersed in 5 ml of phosphate buffered saline in triplicate. Eluent was replaced at specified time intervals for 1 day (1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours), daily, or weekly for 21 days. Antibiotic concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Changes in antibiotic bioactivity attributable to polymerization or co-polymerizatio...

  19. Chitosan and chemically modified chitosan beads for acid dyes sorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AZLAN Kamari; WAN SAIME Wan Ngah; LAI KEN Liew

    2009-01-01

    The capabilities of chitosan and chitosan-EGDE (ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) beads for removing Acid Red 37 (AR 37) and Acid Blue 25 (AB 25) from aqueous solution were examined. Chitosan beads were cross-linked with EGDE to enhance its chemical resistance and mechanical strength. Experiments were performed as a function of pH, agitation period and concentration of AR 37 and AB 25. It was shown that the adsorption capacities of chitosan were comparatively higher than chitosan-EGDE for both acid dyes. This is mainly because cross-linking using EGDE reduces the major adsorption sites -NH3+ on chitosan. Langmuir isotherm model showed best conformity compared to Freundlich and BET. The kinetic experimental data agreed very well to the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The desorption study revealed that after three cycles of adsorption and desorption by NaOH and HCl, both adsorbents retained their promising adsorption abilities. FT-IR analysis proved that the adsorption of acid dyes onto chitosan-based adsorbents was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that chitosan and chitosan-EGDE beads were favourable adsorbers and could be employed as low-cost alternatives for the removal of acid dyes in wastewater treatment.

  20. HOM identification by bead pulling in the Brookhaven ERL cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H., E-mail: hahnh@bnl.gov [Collider–Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Calaga, R. [Collider–Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Jain, Puneet; Johnson, Elliott C. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 117943 (United States); Xu, Wencan [Collider–Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2014-01-11

    Exploratory measurements of the Brookhaven Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) cavity at superconducting temperature produced a long list of high order modes (HOMs). The niobium 5-cell cavity is terminated at each end with HOM ferrite dampers that successfully reduce the Q-factors to levels required to avoid beam break up (BBU) instabilities. However, a number of un-damped resonances with Q≥10{sup 6} were found at 4 K and their mode identification forms the focus of this paper. The approach taken here consists of bead pulling on a copper (Cu) replica of the ERL cavity with dampers involving various network analyzer measurements. Several different S{sub 21} transmission measurements are used, including those taken from the fundamental input coupler to the pick-up probe across the cavity, others between beam-position monitor probes in the beam tubes, and also between probes placed into the cells. The bead pull technique suitable for HOM identification with a metallic needle or dielectric bead is detailed. This paper presents the results for HOMs in the first two dipole bands, the un-damped modes in the first quadrupole band, and the identification of several high-Q modes beyond.

  1. Diffusivity of Cu(2+) in calcium alginate gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Lewandowski, Z; Roe, F; Surapaneni, P

    1993-03-25

    A linear absorption model (LAM) is used to describe the process of metal binding to spherically shaped biopolymers particles. The LAM was solved using a numerical algorithm which calculates diffusivities of metal ion in biopolymer gels. It assumes attainment of rapid metal-biopolymer binding equilibrium accompanied by rate limiting diffusion of the metal ions through the gel. The model was tested using batch experiments in which copper (Cu(2+)) binding with calcium alginate beads was investigated. Biopolymer density in the beads was varied between 2% and 5%. The diffusion coefficient of Cu(2+) calculated from the LAM ranged from 1.19 x 10(-9) to 1.48 x 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) (average 1.31 +/- 0.21 x 10(-9) m(2) s(-1)), independent of biopolymer density. The LAM has theoretical advantages over the shrinking core model (shell progressive model). The latter calculated an unreasonable exponential increase in the diffusion coefficient as density of alginate polymer in the bead increased. PMID:18609618

  2. HOM identification by bead pulling in the Brookhaven ERL cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, H; Jain, Puneet; Johnson, Elliott C; Xu, Wencan

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory measurements of the Brookhaven Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) cavity at superconducting temperature produced a long list of high order modes (HOMs). The niobium 5-cell cavity is terminated at each end with HOM ferrite dampers that successfully reduce the Q-factors to levels required to avoid beam break up (BBU) instabilities. However, a number of un-damped resonances with Q≥106 were found at 4 K and their mode identification forms the focus of this paper. The approach taken here consists of bead pulling on a copper (Cu) replica of the ERL cavity with dampers involving various network analyzer measurements. Several different S21 transmission measurements are used, including those taken from the fundamental input coupler to the pick-up probe across the cavity, others between beam-position monitor probes in the beam tubes, and also between probes placed into the cells. The bead pull technique suitable for HOM identification with a metallic needle or dielectric bead is detailed. This paper presents the...

  3. Structure and superparamagnetic behaviour of magnetite nanoparticles in cellulose beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles were obtained starting from a mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) solutions in a preset total iron concentration from 0.04 to 0.8 mol l-1 with ammonia at 25 and 70 oC. The regeneration of cellulose from viscose produces micrometrical spherical cellulose beads in which synthetic magnetite were embedded. The characterization of cellulose-magnetite beads by X-ray diffraction, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy and magnetic measurement is reported. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the higher is the total iron concentration and temperature the higher is the crystal size of the magnetite obtained. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies of cellulose-magnetite beads revealed the distribution of magnetite nanoparticles inside pores of hundred nanometers. Magnetite as well as the cellulose-magnetite composites exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics. Field cooling and zero field cooling magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the superparamagnetic behaviour and the blocking temperature for the magnetite with a mean size of 12.5 nm, which is 200 K.

  4. Sorting white blood cells in microfabricated arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelino, Judith Andrea Rose

    Fractionating white cells in microfabricated arrays presents the potential for detecting cells with abnormal adhesive or deformation properties. A possible application is separating nucleated fetal red blood cells from maternal blood. Since fetal cells are nucleated, it is possible to extract genetic information about the fetus from them. Separating fetal cells from maternal blood would provide a low cost noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic defects, which is not currently available. We present results showing that fetal cells penetrate further into our microfabricated arrays than adult cells, and that it is possible to enrich the fetal cell fraction using the arrays. We discuss modifications to the array which would result in further enrichment. Fetal cells are less adhesive and more deformable than adult white cells. To determine which properties limit penetration, we compared the penetration of granulocytes and lymphocytes in arrays with different etch depths, constriction size, constriction frequency, and with different amounts of metabolic activity. The penetration of lymphocytes and granulocytes into constrained and unconstrained arrays differed qualitatively. In constrained arrays, the cells were activated by repeated shearing, and the number of cells stuck as a function of distance fell superexponentially. In unconstrained arrays the number of cells stuck fell slower than an exponential. We attribute this result to different subpopulations of cells with different sticking parameters. We determined that penetration in unconstrained arrays was limited by metabolic processes, and that when metabolic activity was reduced penetration was limited by deformability. Fetal cells also contain a different form of hemoglobin with a higher oxygen affinity than adult hemoglobin. Deoxygenated cells are paramagnetic and are attracted to high magnetic field gradients. We describe a device which can separate cells using 10 μm magnetic wires to deflect the paramagnetic

  5. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2001-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on active array antennas, giving examples of modern practical systems. There are many valuable lessons presented for designers of future high standard multifunction radar systems for military and civil applications. The book will appeal to graduate level engineers, researchers, and managers in the field of radar, aviation and space technology.

  6. A transient finite element simulation of the temperature and bead profiles of T-joint laser welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser welding is a high power density welding technology, which has the capability of focusing the beam power to a very small spot diameter. Its characteristics such as high precision and low and concentrated heat input, helps in minimizing the micro-structural modifications, residual stresses and distortions on the welded specimens. In this study, finite element method (FEM) is adopted for predicting the bead geometry in laser welding of 1.6 mm thick AISI304 stainless steel sheets. A three-dimensional finite element model is used to analyze the temperature distribution in a T-joint weld produced by the laser welding process. Temperature-dependent thermal properties of AISI304 stainless steel, effect of latent heat of fusion, and the convective and radiative boundary conditions are included in the model. The heat input to the model is assumed to be a 3D conical Gaussian heat source. The finite element code SYSWELD, along with a few FORTRAN subroutines, is employed to obtain the numerical results. The T-joint welds are made using a Nd:YAG laser having a maximum power of 2 kW in the continuous wave mode. The effect of laser beam power, welding speed and beam incident angle on the weld bead geometry (i.e. depth of penetration and bead width) are investigated. Finally, the shapes of the molten pool predicted by the numerical analysis are compared with the results obtained through the experimentation. The comparison shows that they are in good agreement.

  7. Combined elemental analysis of ancient glass beads by means of ion beam, portable XRF, and EPMA techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokaras, D; Karydas, A G; Oikonomou, A; Zacharias, N; Beltsios, K; Kantarelou, V

    2009-12-01

    Ion beam analysis (IBA)- and X-ray fluorescence (XRF)-based techniques have been well adopted in cultural-heritage-related analytical studies covering a wide range of diagnostic role, i.e., from screening purposes up to full quantitative characterization. In this work, a systematic research was carried out towards the identification and evaluation of the advantages and the limitations of laboratory-based (IBA, electron probe microanalyzer) and portable (milli-XRF and micro-XRF) techniques. The study focused on the analysis of an Archaic glass bead collection recently excavated from the city of Thebes (mainland, Greece), in order to suggest an optimized and synergistic analytical methodology for similar studies and to assess the reliability of the quantification procedure of analyses conducted in particular by portable XRF spectrometers. All the employed analytical techniques and methodologies proved efficient to provide in a consistent way characterization of the glass bead composition, with analytical range and sensitivity depending on the particular technique. The obtained compositional data suggest a solid basis for the understanding of the main technological features related to the raw major and minor materials utilized for the manufacture of the Thebian ancient glass bead collection. PMID:19821114

  8. Development and potential applications of microarrays based on fluorescent nanocrystal-encoded beads for multiplexed cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnik, Kristina; Grinevich, Regina; Efimov, Anton E.; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    2014-05-01

    Advanced multiplexed assays have recently become an indispensable tool for clinical diagnostics. These techniques provide simultaneous quantitative determination of multiple biomolecules in a single sample quickly and accurately. The development of multiplex suspension arrays is currently of particular interest for clinical applications. Optical encoding of microparticles is the most available and easy-to-use technique. This technology uses fluorophores incorporated into microbeads to obtain individual optical codes. Fluorophore-encoded beads can be rapidly analyzed using classical flow cytometry or microfluidic techniques. We have developed a new generation of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic systems for detection of cancer antigens in human serum samples based on microbeads encoded with fluorescent quantum dots (QDs). The designed suspension microarray system was validated for quantitative detection of (1) free and total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the serum of patients with prostate cancer and (2) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the serum of patients with breast cancer. The serum samples from healthy donors were used as a control. The antigen detection is based on the formation of an immune complex of a specific capture antibody (Ab), a target antigen (Ag), and a detector Ab on the surface of the encoded particles. The capture Ab is bound to the polymer shell of microbeads via an adapter molecule, for example, protein A. Protein A binds a monoclonal Ab in a highly oriented manner due to specific interaction with the Fc-region of the Ab molecule. Each antigen can be recognized and detected due to a specific microbead population carrying the unique fluorescent code. 100 and 231 serum samples from patients with different stages of prostate cancer and breast cancer, respectively, and those from healthy donors were examined using the designed suspension system. The data were validated by comparing with the results of

  9. Preparation of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked Chitosan Beads Under Microwave Irradiation and Properties of Urease Immobilized onto the Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zupei; FENG Yaqing; MENG Shuxian; ZHANG Weihong

    2005-01-01

    The glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan beads were prepared under microwave irradiation and urease was immobilized onto the beads. The activity and the yield of enzyme activity of the immobilized urease were 10.83 U/g carrier and 47.7%, respectively. The optimum conditions of immobilization were 1% of glutaraldehyde volume fraction, 10 mg/g of urease/beads weight ratio, 24 h of the processing time and pH 6.5 of the reaction medium for immobilization. The properties of the immobilized urease were investigated and compared with those of the free enzyme. The optimum pH values were 6.5 and 7.0 for the immobilized and free urease, respectively. The optimum temperature was 60 ℃ for the free urease, while it shifted to 65 ℃ for the immobilized enzyme. The Michaelis constant K m was 9.1 mmol/L for the immobilized and 12.5 mmol/L for the free urease. The immobilized urease retained 40% of its initial enzyme activity even after 10 repeated uses. The immobilized urease stored at 4 ℃ retained 46% of its initial activity even after 35 d.

  10. LUNASKA experiments using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos and develop technology for the lunar Cherenkov technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the design, performance, sensitivity and results of our recent experiments using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) for lunar Cherenkov observations with a very wide (600 MHz) bandwidth and nanosecond timing, including a limit on an isotropic neutrino flux. We also make a first estimate of the effects of small-scale surface roughness on the effective experimental aperture, finding that contrary to expectations, such roughness will act to increase the detectability of near-surface events over the neutrino energy-range at which our experiment is most sensitive (though distortions to the time-domain pulse profile may make identification more difficult). The aim of our 'Lunar UHE Neutrino Astrophysics using the Square Kilometre Array' (LUNASKA) project is to develop the lunar Cherenkov technique of using terrestrial radio telescope arrays for ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic ray (CR) and neutrino detection, and, in particular, to prepare for using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its path-finders such as the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for lunar Cherenkov experiments.

  11. Magnetic bead purification of labeled DNA fragments forhigh-throughput capillary electrophoresis sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkin, Christopher; Kapur, Hitesh; Smith, Troy; Humphries, David; Pollard, Martin; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor

    2001-09-15

    We have developed an automated purification method for terminator sequencing products based on a magnetic bead technology. This 384-well protocol generates labeled DNA fragments that are essentially free of contaminates for less than $0.005 per reaction. In comparison to laborious ethanol precipitation protocols, this method increases the phred20 read length by forty bases with various DNA templates such as PCR fragments, Plasmids, Cosmids and RCA products. Our method eliminates centrifugation and is compatible with both the MegaBACE 1000 and ABIPrism 3700 capillary instruments. As of September 2001, this method has produced over 1.6 million samples with 93 percent averaging 620 phred20 bases as part of Joint Genome Institutes Production Process.

  12. Adsorption of Cu and Mn on covalently cross-linked alginate gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Takeshi; Matsushima, Keiei; Kikuchi, Ken-Ichi

    2004-04-01

    The covalently cross-linked alginate gel beads were prepared by the reactions of Ca(2+)-doped alginate gel beads, which were formed by spraying a viscous alginate solution into a calcium chloride solution, with cyanogen bromide and following 1,6-diaminohexane. The cross-linking of alginate matrix decreased the mean bead diameter by about 30% and made the beads durable in some extent under alkaline conditions. The adsorption of metal ions on the covalently cross-linked alginate gel beads was rapid and reached at equilibrium within 30 min at 25 degrees C. Adsorption isotherms of Cu(II), Mn(II), and Ca2+ on the beads possessed a stepwise shape, which was firstly determined by Rorrer et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 32 (1993) 2170] for cross-linked chitosan gel beads and explained by a pore-blockage mechanism. Higher selectivity was determined against Cu(II) over Mn(II) and Ca2+, especially at a low concentration region. These metal adsorption profiles for the covalently cross-linked alginate gel beads was almost the same as those for the un-cross-linked beads, indicating that the cross-linking reactions were performed without interfering the adsorption characteristics of alginate gel beads. PMID:14720547

  13. Entrapment of cross-linked cellulase colloids in alginate beads for hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Le Truc; Lau, Yun Song; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Entrapment of enzymes in calcium alginate beads is a popular enzyme immobilization method. However, leaching of immobilized enzymes from the alginate beads is a common problem because enzyme molecules are much smaller than the pore size of alginate beads (∼200nm). To address this issue, we employ a millifluidic reactor to prepare cross-linked cellulase aggregate (XCA) colloids with a uniform size (∼300nm). Subsequently, these colloids are immobilized in calcium alginate beads as biocatalysts to hydrolyze cellulose substrates. By using fluorescent microscopy, we conclude that the immobilized XCA colloids distribute uniformly inside the beads and do not leach out from the beads after long-term incubation. Meanwhile, the pore size of the alginate beads is big enough for the cellulose substrates and fibers to diffuse into the beads for hydrolysis. For example, palm oil fiber and microcrystalline cellulose can be hydrolyzed within 48h and release reducing sugar concentrations up to 2.48±0.08g/l and 4.99±0.09g/l, respectively. Moreover, after 10 cycles of hydrolysis, 96.4% of the XCA colloids remain inside the alginate beads and retain 67% of the original activity. In contrast, free cellulase immobilized in the alginate beads loses its activity completely after 10 cycles. The strategy can also be used to prepare other types of cross-linked enzyme aggregates with high uniformity. PMID:27318817

  14. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/cashew gum beads loaded with Lippia sidoides essential oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beads based on chitosan (CH) and cashew gum (CG), were prepared and loaded with an essential oil with larvicide activity (Lippia sidoides - Ls). CH and CH-CG beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared and UV-VIS spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as, regarding their larvicide loading, swelling, in vitro and in vivo release kinetics. The oil encapsulation was evidenced by FTIR analysis and LS loading ranges from 2.4% to 4.4%. CH beads duly showed swelling degree (Q) values from 4.0 to 6.7, reaching equilibrium after 30 min, whereas crosslinked CH-CG beads showed lower swelling values, from 0.4 to 3.8, exhibiting a longer equilibrium time. Liquid transport parameters have revealed diffusion coefficient for CH-CG beads, as low as 2 x 10-15 m2/s. TGA and DSC revealed that CH:CG crosslinked beads are more thermally stable than CH beads. In vitro release follows a non-Fickian diffusion profile for both bead types, however, and a prolonged release being achieved only after beads crosslinking. In vivo release showed that both CH and CH-CG presented a prolonged larvicide effect. These aforesaid results, indicate that CH-CG beads loaded with LS are efficient for A. aegypti larval control.

  15. Dose-response curve of a microfluidic magnetic bead-based surface coverage sandwich assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Matteo; Trouillon, Raphaël; Tekin, H Cumhur; Lehnert, Thomas; Gijs, Martin A M

    2015-09-25

    Magnetic micro- and nanoparticles ('magnetic beads') have been used to advantage in many microfluidic devices for sensitive antigen (Ag) detection. Today, assays that use as read-out of the signal the number count of immobilized beads on a surface for quantification of a sample's analyte concentration have been among the most sensitive and have allowed protein detection lower than the fgmL(-1) concentration range. Recently, we have proposed in this category a magnetic bead surface coverage assay (Tekin et al., 2013 [1]), in which 'large' (2.8μm) antibody (Ab)-functionalized magnetic beads captured their Ag from a serum and these Ag-carrying beads were subsequently exposed to a surface pattern of fixed 'small' (1.0μm) Ab-coated magnetic beads. When the system was exposed to a magnetic induction field, the magnet dipole attractive interactions between the two bead types were used as a handle to approach both bead surfaces and assist with Ag-Ab immunocomplex formation, while unspecific binding (in absence of an Ag) of a large bead was reduced by exploiting viscous drag flow. The dose-response curve of this type of assay had two remarkable features: (i) its ability to detect an output signal (i.e. bead number count) for very low Ag concentrations, and (ii) an output signal of the assay that was non-linear with respect to Ag concentration. We explain here the observed dose-response curves and show that the type of interactions and the concept of our assay are in favour of detecting the lowest analyte concentrations (where typically either zero or one Ag is carried per large bead), while higher concentrations are less efficiently detected. We propose a random walk process for the Ag-carrying bead over the magnetic landscape of small beads and this model description explains the enhanced overall capture probability of this assay and its particular non-linear dose response curves. PMID:25817550

  16. Double-peaked edge-bead in drying film of solvent-resin mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Suguru; Kubokawa, Toru

    2015-10-01

    A thick ridge of a film arising along the periphery of a substrate, which is the so-called edge-bead, is investigated experimentally and numerically for the case where the bead becomes double-peaked shape in direction away from the periphery of the substrate. It is clarified, by the optical measurement of thickness variations, that the double-peaked bead is separated from a single bead during the drying process, and after the separation, the inner bead moves inward. This motion of the bead is modeled by a lubrication-approximated flow equation, where the Laplace pressure and the solutocapillary effect are taken into account, coupled with the convective and diffusive mass transfer. The numerically simulated motion of the bead shows a good agreement with that obtained by the experiment, and it is revealed that the mechanism how the double-peaked edge-bead is formed. At the early stage of the drying process, a single bead is formed by the Laplace pressure due to the curvature along the substrate periphery. Along this single bead, the concentration gradient is caused by both the spatial distribution of the evaporation rate and the thickness effect on the change rate of the concentration, due to the fact that the resin concentration increases at a faster rate in the thin region. Consequently, the concentration distribution has a local minimum in the middle of the single bead, which drives oppositely directed solutocapillary flows and separates the bead. After the separation, the inner bead moves inward by a kind of a feed-forward mechanism, until the viscosity of the film becomes large enough to suppress the flow.

  17. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  18. Cyclotron-Resonance-Maser Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyclotron-resonance-maser (CRM) array [1] is a radiation source which consists of CRM elements coupled together under a common magnetic field. Each CRM-element employs a low-energy electron-beam which performs a cyclotron interaction with the local electromagnetic wave. These waves can be coupled together among the CRM elements, hence the interaction is coherently synchronized in the entire array. The implementation of the CRM-array approach may alleviate several technological difficulties which impede the development of single-beam gyro-devices. Furthermore, it proposes new features, such as the phased-array antenna incorporated in the CRM-array itself. The CRM-array studies may lead to the development of compact, high-power radiation sources operating at low-voltages. This paper introduces new conceptual schemes of CRM-arrays, and presents the progress in related theoretical and experimental studies in our laboratory. These include a multi-mode analysis of a CRM-array, and a first operation of this device with five carbon-fiber cathodes

  19. Synthesis and activation of Immobilized beads by natural dye extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization technique is used for preservation of enzymes. Here we are using different colors of natural dye in this technique. Our major emphasis would be to create beads of different colors which will act as different carriers for essential enzymes. The need for using colorful dye is because when we need to preserve more than one enzyme then it is helpful in identification of that which enzyme is to be preserved and in which color. Here we used natural dye because most of the chemical dyes are carcinogenic in nature and may alter the nature of preserved enzyme. For this different plant products like mint leaf, rose petal, beat root and Carrot are used for the extraction of dye. In our research studies, we have identified, extracted, characterized, optimized and standardized the natural dyes from plant and microbial sources and we did a comparative study between natural dyes and artificial dyes with respect to different solvent systems like petroleum ether, diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform, ethanol and water systems. The extraction methodologies, characterization, MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration, and solubility studies will be discussed. These immobilization studies will help us to use this application in a variety of fields like in wine stabilization, in modifying the shelf life of food and other natural products which degrade quickly and are difficult to preserve under natural conditions. Here sodium Alginate beads are being used so that there is good number of beads formation and that will help for the proper entrapment of the essential enzymes required for an important reaction in Bio-systems.

  20. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting: a new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kotschy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Kotschy1, Sascha Virnik2, Doris Christ3, Alexander Gaggl21Private Practice, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Central Hospital, Klagenfurt, Austria; 3Klagenfurt, AustriaObjective: The aim of periodontal therapy is the healing of periodontal inflammation; the protection of the attachment and the alveolar bone; and the regeneration of the periodontal structures. In the therapy of periodontitis, supra- and subgingival scaling and root planing plays a main role. The procedure described combines perfect root cleaning without scaling and root planing and minimal invasive periodontal surgery without a scalpel.Material and methods: Glass beads of 90 µm were used with the kinetic preparation unit PrepStart® under a pressure of 0.5–5 bar. This technique was practised only under visual control using the OPMI® PRO Magis microscope. Seven examinations were carried out at baseline after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months.Results: Time shows a statistically significant influence on all of the considered target variables (P < 0.0001 for all. As the according estimate is negative, probing depth decreases over time. The major decrease seems to be during the first 6 months. Considering probing depth, plaque on the main effect root shows significant influence (again, P < 0.0001 for all. Observations with high probing depth at the beginning were faster than those with low probing depth. The same characteristic appears by attachment level. Patients with more loss of attachment show more gain.Conclusions: Using microscope-controlled glass bead blasting results in a perfectly clean root surface using visual control (magnification 20×. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting is therefore a good alternative to periodontal surgery.Keywords: periodontal therapy, microscope, periodontitis

  1. Butyl acetate synthesis using immobilized lipase in calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The esterification reaction of acetic acid and n-butanol using immobilized lipase encapsulated in calcium alginate beads (Lipase - CAB) and in chitosan coated calcium alginate beads (Lipase-CCAB) in n-hexane under mild reaction conditions were studied. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration (acetic acid and n-butanol) using Lipase - CAB, Lipase - CCAB and free lipase on the esterification reaction and their thermal stability towards esterification reaction were investigated. Results of temperature studies showed that the butyl acetate conversion increased with increase of temperature and reached the highest yield of about 70% around 50 degree Celsius for both immobilized systems but the yield of product catalyzed by free enzyme decreased as temperature was increased. Thermal stabilities studies showed that the Lipase-CCAB and Lipase-CAB were stable throughout the temperature range of 30-60 degree Celsius. However, free lipase became less stable at temperatures higher than 50 degree Celsius. The substrates, n-butanol and acetic acid exerted different effects on the esterification reaction and the reaction was favoured by higher acetic acid concentration than butanol. Kinetics parameters, Km and Vmax values for both substrates and the specific activities of the three enzyme system were also determined. The beads morphology was examined using SEM. Batch-wise operational stability studies for both immobilized systems demonstrated that the immobilized lipase performed better in the batch wise reactor system than the continuous bioreactor system and that the immobilized lipase remained active for at least 5 cycles of batch wise esterification reactions. (author)

  2. Development and Trend of Space Solar Array Technology%空间太阳电池阵的发展现状及趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志全; 杨淑利; 濮海玲

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the development of space solar arrays from four aspects respective ly, including the development of array configuration of body-mounted, solar-paddle, one-panel and multi-panel deployable, and flexible, modular and multidimensional deployable array; the development of material and performdnce of space solar cells such as Si, GaAs, thin-film solar cell; the development and application of rigid, half-rigid and flexible substrate structure, and the cha- racteristic and space application of the five types of deployable mechanism. The factors restricting the development of space solar array are discussed. A flexible solar array with concentrator is proposed as the future trend for development of space solar array. The purpose of this paper is promoting the development of space solar array with larger size, higher power, modularization, lower cost and lighter weight, which will meet to the requirements of high power spacecraft.%从四方面分析了空间太阳电池阵的发展现状,包括体装式、带桨展开式、单板展开式、多板展开式、柔性多模块多维展开式等总体构型的发展历程,常用太阳电池片如硅电池片、砷化镓电池片、柔性薄膜电池片的材料与性能的发展现状,刚性基板结构、半刚性基板结构、柔性基板结构的发展与应用及五种展开机构的特点与空间应用分析,论述了空间太阳电池阵发展的制约因素,指出了聚光型柔性太阳电池阵是未来空间太阳电池阵发展的趋势,旨在促进空间太阳电池阵向着大尺寸、大功率、模块化、低成本和轻质量的方向发展,以适应大功率航天器的发展需求。

  3. Optimization of weld bead geometry for stainless steel cladding deposited by GMAW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P, Sreeraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cladded components quality always depends on clad bead geometry and coefficient of shape of welds and dilution. In order to obtain better quality, good corrosion resistant properties and to reduce manufacturing costs the bead parameters must be optimized. The above objectives can be achieved by developing mathematical equations to predict bead geometry. This paper presents central composite rotatable design with full replication technique was used to obtain four critical dimensions of bead geometry. Thedeveloped models have been checked for adequacy and significance. The experiments were conducted by depositing Type ER-308L stainless steel wire on to IS-2062 structural steel plates. The results of confirmation experiments showed that the developed models can be able to predict bead geometry with reasonable accuracy. This study proved that both direct and interaction effect plays a major role in determining bead dimensions and dilution. The process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM.

  4. Non-destructive analysis of European cobalt blue glass trade beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analyses were made of royal blue glass trade beads from two early 17th century, archaeological sites in southern Ontario, Canada and from a glass beadmaking house in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The results confirm that these beads were all mixed alkali - lime - silica glasses, coloured with Co and with opaque varients opacificed with Sn. The groupings by chemistry tend to segregate by bead shapes, so that oval beads group together and circular shaped beads group together. Although the 2 Canadian sites are about 190 km apart, they produced 2 different sets of oval beads of similar chemistry, possibly helping confirm the contemporaneity of the people at both sites. An As/Co atomic ratio of about two may fit with the possible source of Co as a cobalt-arsenide ore (of common name smaltite) from the Hartz Mountains of eastern Germany, a source not far from either Amsterdam or Venice, both well known glass beadmaking centres of the period. (author)

  5. Separation and recovery of palladium from acidic waste using dithiodiglycol-amide encapsulated polymeric beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladium selective ligand, N,N,N',N'-tetra-(2-ethylhexyl)-dithiodiglycolamide (DTDGA), was encapsulated in polymeric composite beads under simple laboratory conditions. The composite beads were evaluated for separation and recovery of palladium from acidic aqueous waste. The beads showed maximum uptake of Pd at 3.0 M HCl. Pd sorption kinetics was found to be fast and, the kinetics data fits well in to the pseudo second-order equation model for the sorption of palladium ions onto the composite beads. Different sorption isotherm models were applied to the experimental data. Equilibrium data are represented well by the Langmuir isotherm equation, with a monolayer sorption capacity of 1.56 mg/g for the swollen beads. Batch extraction studies showed negligible uptake of Fe, Cr, Ni, and Pt, thus showing very high selectivity and extractability of the composite beads for palladium. (author)

  6. Magnetic measurements of suspended functionalised ferromagnetic beads under DC applied fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a simple technique to obtain the hysteresis loops of magnetic beads (Spherotech Inc.) in liquid suspension is presented. The magnetic measurements were taken in a DC Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS-SQUID sensor). Samples were based on ferromagnetic beads (surface-functionalized NH2, mean diameter 4.32 μm) prepared in three conditions: dry, suspended in sucrose solution and in suspension after functionalization with fluorophore. Special small containers (1.3 cm long) made of non magnetic plastic were designed to hold the beads in liquid. The results indicate that the bead's remnant magnetization is half of the value at maximum applied field in all cases. However, due to the additional degrees of rotational freedom, beads suspended in a liquid do not present coercivity. The use of ferromagnetic beads and magnetic elements of different architectures for applications in bioassays is also discussed.

  7. Magnetic measurements of suspended functionalised ferromagnetic beads under DC applied fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Los Santos V, Luis [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: luisitodv@yahoo.es; Llandro, Justin; Lee, Dongwook; Mitrelias, Thanos; Palfreyman, Justin J.; Hayward, Thomas J.; Cooper, Jos; Bland, J.A.C.; Barnes, Crispin H.W. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Arroyo C, Juan L. [Facultad de Quimica e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Avenue Venezuela S/N, Lima 1 (Peru); Lees, Martin [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    In this work, a simple technique to obtain the hysteresis loops of magnetic beads (Spherotech Inc.) in liquid suspension is presented. The magnetic measurements were taken in a DC Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS-SQUID sensor). Samples were based on ferromagnetic beads (surface-functionalized NH{sub 2}, mean diameter 4.32 {mu}m) prepared in three conditions: dry, suspended in sucrose solution and in suspension after functionalization with fluorophore. Special small containers (1.3 cm long) made of non magnetic plastic were designed to hold the beads in liquid. The results indicate that the bead's remnant magnetization is half of the value at maximum applied field in all cases. However, due to the additional degrees of rotational freedom, beads suspended in a liquid do not present coercivity. The use of ferromagnetic beads and magnetic elements of different architectures for applications in bioassays is also discussed.

  8. Spontaneous Liver Rupture After Treatment With Drug-Eluting Beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a rare and life-threatening complication. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet fully known; it is suggested that rupture is preceded by reactive tissue edema and intratumerous bleeding, leading to a rapid expansion of tumour mass with risk of extrahepatic bleeding in the case of subcapsular localisation. This case report discusses a sudden, unexpected lethal complication in a 74 year-old male patient treated with TACE using DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (DEBDOX) in a progressive multifocal HCC.

  9. Interrogating DNA-protein interactions with magnetic beads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojta, Miroslav; Pivoňková, Hana; Němcová, Kateřina; Šebest, Peter; Havran, Luděk; Pečinka, Petr; Brázdová Jagelská, Eva; Brázdová, Marie; Brázda, Václav

    Linz, 2009. s. 98. [Regional Biophysics Conference 2009. 10.02.2009-14.02.2009, Linz] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500040701; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581; GA ČR(CZ) GP204/07/P476; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : magnetic beads * DNA-protein interaction * p53 -family proteins Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  10. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    OpenAIRE

    Piyas Palit; Souvik Das; Jitendra Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The f...

  11. Synthesis and activation of Immobilized beads by natural dye extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Sanjay; Amod Kumar; SUNEETHA V; Bishwambhar Mishra; Gopinath R; Sharad Yadav; Bhaskar Mitra

    2012-01-01

    Immobilization technique is used for preservation of enzymes. Here we are using different colors of natural dye in this technique. Our major emphasis would be to create beads of different colors which will act as different carriers for essential enzymes. The need for using colorful dye is because when we need to preserve more than one enzyme then it is helpful in identification of that which enzyme is to be preserved and in which color. Here we used natural dye because most of the chemical dy...

  12. Acoustic array systems theory, implementation, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mingsian R; Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Presents a unified framework of far-field and near-field array techniques for noise source identification and sound field visualization, from theory to application. Acoustic Array Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Application provides an overview of microphone array technology with applications in noise source identification and sound field visualization. In the comprehensive treatment of microphone arrays, the topics covered include an introduction to the theory, far-field and near-field array signal processing algorithms, practical implementations, and common applic

  13. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder: System Architecture and Specifications of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array

    OpenAIRE

    Hotan, A. W.; Bunton, J. D.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Humphreys, B.; Jeffs, B. D.; Shimwell, T.; Tuthill, J.; Voronkov, M.; G. Allen; Amy, S.; Ardern, K.; Axtens, P.; Ball, L; Bannister, K.; Barker, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope - the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, which is a prototype of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a 6-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least 9 dual-pola...

  14. Design and Evaluation of Stomach-Specific Drug Delivery of Domperidone using Floating Pectin Beads

    OpenAIRE

    K.Varun Kumar; P. Srikanth Choudary; Ajaykumar. B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of present study was to develop floating beads of Domperidone (DOM) in order to increase its residence time in the stomach without contact with the mucosa, improve patient compliance and obtain improved therapeutic efficacy. They are prepared by extrusion congealing technique with pectin as a polymer. Floating beads were characterized by polymer compatibility by using FT-IR. The prepared beads were evaluated for particle size, surface morphology, buoyancy, actual drug content, e...

  15. Microfluidic immunomagnetic multi-target sorting--a model for controlling deflection of paramagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Scott S H; Griffiths, Ian M; Stone, Howard A

    2011-08-01

    We describe a microfluidic system that uses a magnetic field to sort paramagnetic beads by deflecting them in the direction normal to the flow. In the experiments we systematically study the dependence of the beads' deflection on bead size and susceptibility, magnet strength, fluid speed and viscosity, and device geometry. We also develop a design parameter that can aid in the design of microfluidic devices for immunomagnetic multi-target sorting. PMID:21677937

  16. Distribution and biophysical processes of beaded streams in Arctic permafrost landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Arp, C. D.; Whitman, M.S.; Jones, B M; G. Grosse; B. V. Gaglioti; Heim, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Beaded streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a circum-Arctic survey of beaded streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with beaded morph...

  17. AcGFP and mCherry Calibration Beads for Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierra, M.; Garachtchenko, T.; Gupta, V.; Schmid, I.; Hawley, T.; Cimbro, R.; Farmer, A.; Haugwitz, M.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of cells via flow cytometry requires calibration of the instrument with the fluorophore used to label the cells of interest. Commercially-available calibration beads are an indispensable tool when preparing flow cytometers for experiments using fluorescent dyes (e.g. FITC); however, due to the different spectral characteristics of fluorescent proteins versus fluorescent dyes, existing fluorescent dye beads are not suitable for instrument calibration if the cells being analyzed express fluorescent proteins. Therefore, we developed calibration beads labeled with either the red fluorescent protein mCherry or the green fluorescent protein AcGFP, which has spectral properties almost identical to EGFP. Beads with a very low size deviation (CV 2.5–3%) were used to create distinct fluorescent bead populations by covalently linking specific amounts of the respective fluorescent proteins. The low size deviation of the beads, in conjunction with a very controlled labeling method, allowed us to create six bead populations with distinct fluorescent intensities for each of the two fluorescent proteins. Here, we show that the fluorescent protein Flow Cytometer Calibration Beads are easy to use and that they perform equally well on a variety of flow cytometer platforms. We also present data showing that the mean fluorescence intensity of the beads and the calculated number of fluorescent proteins on each respective bead population are distinct from each other and in a linear correlation. We also provide supporting data showing the signal stability of the calibration beads under different buffer and fixative conditions, as well as at different flow rates. The data show that these calibration beads are a very useful tool, enabling fast and reliable calibration of flow cytometers prior to analysis of cells expressing the corresponding fluorescent protein.

  18. Highly Sensitive Bacteria Quantification Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Electrochemical Detection of Guanine-Labeled Secondary Beads

    OpenAIRE

    Harikrishnan Jayamohan; Gale, Bruce K.; Bj Minson; Lambert, Christopher J.; Neil Gordon; Himanshu J. Sant

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the ultra-sensitive indirect electrochemical detection of E. coli O157:H7 using antibody functionalized primary (magnetic) beads for capture and polyguanine (polyG) oligonucleotide functionalized secondary (polystyrene) beads as an electrochemical tag. Vacuum filtration in combination with E. coli O157:H7 specific antibody modified magnetic beads were used for extraction of E. coli O157:H7 from 100 mL samples. The magnetic bead conjugated E. coli O157:H7 cells were th...

  19. Motion Analysis Of An Object Onto Fine Plastic Beads Using High-Speed Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Minoru

    2010-07-01

    Fine spherical polystyrene beads (NaRiKa, D20-1406-01, industrial materials of styrene form) are useful for frictionless demonstrations of dynamics and kinematics. Sawamoto et al. have developed the method of demonstrations using the plastic beads onto a glass board. These fine beads (the average of the diameter is 280 μm and the standard deviation of the diameter is 56 μm) function as ball bearings to reduce the friction between a moving object, glass Petri dish, and the surface of the glass board. The beads that are charged stick onto the glass board by static electricity, and arrange themselves at intervals. The movement characteristic of a Petri dish that moves on the fine polystyrene beads that adhere onto the glass board is shown by video analysis using a USB camera and a high-speed camera (CASIO, EX-F1). The movement of the Petri dish on the fine polystyrene beads onto the glass board is good linearity, but the friction of the beads is not too small. The high-speed video showed that only a small number of beads behind the bottom of the Petri dish supported the Petri dish. The number of the beads that supported the Petri dish that caused the friction is about 0.14.

  20. Preparation of uniform-sized agarose beads by microporous membrane emulsification technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing-Zhu; Wang, Lian-Yan; Ma, Guang-Hui; Su, Zhi-Guo

    2007-07-01

    Uniform-sized agarose beads were prepared by membrane emulsification technique in this study. Agarose was dissolved in boiling water (containing 0.9% sodium chloride) and used as water phase. A mixture of liquid paraffin and petroleum ether containing 4 wt% of hexaglycerin penta ester (PO-500) emulsifier was used as oil phase. At 55 degrees C, the water phase permeated through uniform pores of microporous membrane into the oil phase by a pressure of nitrogen gas to form uniform W/O emulsion. Then the emulsion was cooled down to room temperature under gentle agitation to form gel beads. The effect of oil phase, emulsifier, especially temperature on the uniformity of the beads were investigated and interpreted from interfacial tension between water phase and oil phase. Under optimized condition, the coefficient variation (C.V.) showing the size distribution of the beads was under 15%. This was the first report to prepare uniform agarose beads by membrane emulsification, and to investigate the effect of temperature on the size distribution of the droplets and beads. The beads with different size can be prepared by using membranes with different pore size, and the result showed that there was a linear relationship between the average diameter of beads and pore size of the membranes; beads with diameter from 15 to 60 microm were able to obtain in this study. PMID:17362974

  1. Alginate-konjac glucomannan-chitosan beads as controlled release matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; He, Zhimin

    2002-09-01

    Controlled release beads were prepared by using alginate (ALG), konjac glucomannan (KGM) and chitosan (CHI). Bovine serum albumin and insulin were used as model proteins for in vitro assessments. It was observed that KGM could be contained within beads, and faintness hydrogen binding and electrostatic interaction exist between ALG and KGM by infrared spectra. Clear dents were found on the surface of beads using KGM by scanning electron microscopy. Use of KGM could help increase the payload of drug. After beads were treated by 0.1 N HCl for 4 h and put into pH 7.4 buffers, protein was released from ALG-CHI beads within 1 h, while it was lost from ALG-KGM-CHI beads for 3 h. However, the leaking of protein from ALG-KGM-CHI beads was also increased in 0.1 N HCl solution. Concentration of gelling ion had great effect on release rate and gel structure. Studies of water of hydration had shown that swelling of ALG-KGM-CHI beads was higher than that of ALG-CHI beads in acidic solution, but the opposite result was obtained in alkali solution. The result indicated that the diffusion of protein was related to the viscosity and swelling properties of KGM. PMID:12204571

  2. Study of synthesis and characterization of curcumin-polyacrylonitrile composite beads for extraction of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcumin is a yellow coloured compound present in turmeric and accounts for only about 3 to 5 % of its total constituents. Curcumin is an important molecule known for its medicinal and several other usages. It also forms complex with uranyl ions. Curcumin-loaded microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) beads were synthesized for extraction of uranium from aqueous waste. PAN was synthesized by radiation induced polymerization of acrylonitrile monomer in aqueous medium. The synthesized PAN was used to make the microporous PAN-Curcumin composite beads. The synthesized beads were evaluated, for their ability to extract uranium from aqueous solution at different temperatures and pH values. The kinetics measurement showed that about 100 minutes of equilibration time was enough to extract saturation amount of uranium from aqueous solution. The polymeric beads exhibited optimum extraction at room temperature and at neutral or near neutral pH conditions. The uranyl ion uptake capacity of the polymeric beads was found to be significant, and it depends upon the loading of curcumin in the beads. The loaded uranium could also be leached out from the beads, by treating with dilute acids. Further, the presence of uranium in the loaded beads was ascertained by FT-IR spectroscopy, while surface morphology of the beads was characterized by SEM technique. (author)

  3. Modulating insulin-release profile from pH/thermosensitive polymeric beads through polymer molecular weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon-Ganorkar, C; Liu, F; Baudys, M; Kim, S W

    1999-06-01

    Stimuli-sensitive statistical terpolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) (temperature-sensitive), butyl methacrylate (BMA) and acrylic acid (AA) (pH-sensitive) of various molecular weight (MW) with NIPAAm/BMA/AA feed mol ratio of 85/5/10 were used to modulate release of insulin, a model protein drug, from pH/thermosensitive polymeric beads. Protein drug loading from an aqueous medium into the beads was achieved by preparing a 7 or 10% (w/v) polymer solution with 0.2% (w/v) insulin at low pH and below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the polymer (pH 2.0 and 4 degrees C), and then dropping the solution into an oil bath above the LCST of the solution (35 degrees C). This loading procedure maintained protein stability while achieving high loading efficiency, between 90 and 95% in the beads. Insulin-release studies from beads prepared from terpolymers of the same composition but increasing MW were performed at pH 2.0 and 7.4, at 37 degrees C. It was observed that there was negligible loss of insulin at pH 2.0 from the beads, indicating no burst effect. At pH 7.4, insulin release was seen from all the beads and the release rate was a function of the MW of the polymer. The low MW polymeric beads eroded, dissolved and released most of the insulin within 2 h at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, the intermediate MW polymeric beads swelled slightly, dissolved and released most of the insulin within 4 h, whereas the high MW polymeric beads swelled slowly and gradually released the loaded insulin over a period of 8 h. Thus, the release of protein from the low MW polymeric beads is controlled by the rate of dissolution of the polymer, whereas the release from the high MW polymeric beads is controlled by swelling of the beads and drug diffusion. Studies using fluorescein-labeled insulin revealed that insulin was uniformly distributed in the beads regardless of polymer MW. The loaded and released insulin were fully bioactive. Based on the described results, the low MW

  4. A low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistor micro-manipulation array with indium tin oxide micro-coils and real-time detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposes an array for a bio-handling system consisting of microcoils on top of photodetectors fabricated by low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistor (LTPS-TFT) technology on a glass substrate. Using magnetic beads as the medium, the proposed system can simultaneously monitor and manipulate micrometer-sized bio-samples. In a manipulation system based on magnetic force, photo-detecting is a reliable method, immune to the interference caused by electromagnetic fields. Under 480 lux ambient white light, the sensor can detect a microbead as small as 23 µm in diameter with detectable output difference. It provides a new, easier way for handling samples on a small chip

  5. Microscopic Examination of Chitosan Polyphosphate Beads with Entrapped Spores of the Biocontrol Agent, Streptomyces melanosporofaciens EF-76

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, Guy; Grondin, Gilles; Couture, Geneviève; Beaulieu, Carole

    2005-04-01

    Spores of the biocontrol agent, Streptomyces melanosporofaciens EF-76, were entrapped by complex coacervation in beads composed of a macromolecular complex (MC) of chitosan and polyphosphate. A proportion of spores entrapped in beads survived the entrapment procedure as shown by treating spores from chitosan beads with a dye allowing the differentiation of live and dead cells. The spore-loaded chitosan beads could be digested by a chitosanase, suggesting that, once introduced in soil, the beads would be degraded to release the biocontrol agent. Spore-loaded beads were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy because the release of the biological agent depends on the spore distribution in the chitosan beads. The microscopic examination revealed that the beads had a porous surface and contained a network of inner microfibrils. Spores were entrapped in both the chitosan microfibrils and the bead lacuna.

  6. A Porous Simulation Experiment of Protozoa Movement with Glass Bead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-ming; ZHAO Xiao-rong; LI Gui-tong; LIN Qi-mei

    2003-01-01

    Protozoa can move due to their flagella, cilia or pseudopodia, and play an important role in the transformation and cycling of matter and energy in ecosystems. In this study, the glass beads with the diameters of 1.0, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 mm were used to simulate soil pores of 0. 292 - 0. 258, 0. 155 - 0.116, 0. 056- 0. 040 and 0. 028 - 0.020 mm respectively. Three typical soil protozoa of Bodo edax, Colpoda cucullus and Amoeba proteus were examined for the relation of their movement to pores. It was found that the smallest protozoan of Bodo edax could be leached through all the pores. However, no more than 26% of the added protozoan was leached out of the column. The leached protozoa were decreased with the pore sizes and leaching duration. The bigger one of Colpoda cucullus was moved out from the column filled with the glass beads of >0.5 mm in diameter. Less than about 15 % of the added protozoa were leached out of the column. The biggest one of Amoeba proteus could not leached out from any of the pores. It is evident that most of the protozoa remained in the column due to their occupation of the pores.

  7. Simulation of Enzyme Catalysis in Calcium Alginate Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameel M. R. Al-Mayah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A general mathematical model for a fixed bed immobilized enzyme reactor was developed to simulate the process of diffusion and reaction inside the biocatalyst particle. The modeling and simulation of starch hydrolysis using immobilized α-amylase were used as a model for this study. Corn starch hydrolysis was carried out at a constant pH of 5.5 and temperature of . The substrate flow rate was ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 mL/min, substrate initial concentrations 1 to 100 g/L. α-amylase was immobilized on to calcium alginate hydrogel beads of 2 mm average diameter. In this work Michaelis-Menten kinetics have been considered. The effect of substrate flow rate (i.e., residence time and initial concentration on intraparticle diffusion have been taken into consideration. The performance of the system is found to be affected by the substrate flow rate and initial concentrations. The reaction is controlled by the reaction rate. The model equation was a nonlinear second order differential equation simulated based on the experimental data for steady state condition. The simulation was achieved numerically using FINITE ELEMENTS in MATLAB software package. The simulated results give satisfactory results for substrate and product concentration profiles within the biocatalyst bead.

  8. Development of polysulfonic composite beads for extraction and separation of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvent extraction technology has been extensively applied to the practical separation of rare earth metals. Among the extractants commonly employed at present, di(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (D2EHPA) and 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexylphosphonate (PC-88A) are known to have advantages of high separation efficiency for rate earth metals and of low solubility in water. However, separation via solvent extraction requires multistage cycles of extraction and back extraction in order to attain favorable separation. Novel adsorbents such as solvent impregnated resins (SIRS), metal-imprinted polymers and microcapsules containing extractants might have wide applicability due to their characteristics having respective advantages of solvent extraction and the ion-exchange technique. In the present work, polymeric composite material impregnating extractants such as D2EHPA, PC88A and DNPPA were prepared and tested for rare earths recovery from chloride medium. Exploratory tests were conducted with Yttrium (taking as representative of rare earths) to evaluate the suitability of the composite beads having D2EHPA, PC88A and DNPPA. Preparation of beads comprises of following steps. Initially, a polymer solutions containing suitable amount of polymer (5 to 15% with 1% water soluble additive) in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) was prepared. The above prepared solutions were then mixed with organophosphorus type of extractant namely D2EHPA, PC88A and di nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA). This polymer solution was gradually dropped drop wise into the water bath through a syringe needle. In the preparation, the temperature of the water was kept constant using a thermostatic unit. As as polymeric drop comes in contact with water due to phase inversion, polysulfonic microcapsules impregnated with the extractant were obtained, these microcapsules were immersed and stabilized in the water bath for 24 h

  9. SiC Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aymont Technology, Inc. (Aymont) will demonstrate the feasibility of SiC p-i-n avalanche photodiodes (APD) arrays. Aymont will demonstrate 4 x 4 arrays of 2 mm2...

  10. Highly Sensitive Bacteria Quantification Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Electrochemical Detection of Guanine-Labeled Secondary Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikrishnan Jayamohan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the ultra-sensitive indirect electrochemical detection of E. coli O157:H7 using antibody functionalized primary (magnetic beads for capture and polyguanine (polyG oligonucleotide functionalized secondary (polystyrene beads as an electrochemical tag. Vacuum filtration in combination with E. coli O157:H7 specific antibody modified magnetic beads were used for extraction of E. coli O157:H7 from 100 mL samples. The magnetic bead conjugated E. coli O157:H7 cells were then attached to polyG functionalized secondary beads to form a sandwich complex (magnetic bead/E. coli secondary bead. While the use of magnetic beads for immuno-based capture is well characterized, the use of oligonucleotide functionalized secondary beads helps combine amplification and potential multiplexing into the system. The antibody functionalized secondary beads can be easily modified with a different antibody to detect other pathogens from the same sample and enable potential multiplexing. The polyGs on the secondary beads enable signal amplification up to 10\\(^{8}\\ guanine tags per secondary bead (\\(7.5\\times10^{6}\\ biotin-FITC per secondary bead, 20 guanines per oligonucleotide bound to the target (E. coli. A single-stranded DNA probe functionalized reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode was used to bind the polyGs on the secondary beads. Fluorescent imaging was performed to confirm the hybridization of the complex to the electrode surface. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV was used to quantify the amount of polyG involved in the hybridization event with tris(2,2'-bipyridineruthenium(II (Ru(bpy\\(_{3}^{2+}\\ as the mediator. The amount of polyG signal can be correlated to the amount of E. coli O157:H7 in the sample. The method was able to detect concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 down to 3 CFU/100 mL, which is 67 times lower than the most sensitive technique reported in literature. The signal to noise ratio for this work was 3

  11. Linear Microbolometric Array Based on VOx Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-Qu

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a linear microbolometric array based on VOx thin film is proposed. The linear microbolometric array is fabricated by using micromachining technology, and its thermo-sensitive VOx thin film has excellent infrared response spectrum and TCR characteristics. Integrated with CMOS circuit, an experimentally prototypical monolithic linear microbolometric array is designed and fabricated. The testing results of the experimental linear array show that the responsivity of linear array can approach 18KV/W and is potential for infrared image systems.

  12. Hot embossed polyethylene through-hole chips for bead-based microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jie; Du, Nan; Ou, Tina; Floriano, Pierre N.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; McDevitt, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a growth of interest in the translation of microfluidic systems into real-world clinical practice, especially for use in point-of-care or near patient settings. While initial fabrication advances in microfluidics involved mainly the etching of silicon and glass, the economics of scaling of these materials is not amendable for point-of-care usage where single-test applications forces cost considerations to be kept low and throughput high. As such, a materials base more consistent with point-of-care needs is required. In this manuscript, the fabrication of a hot embossed, through-hole low-density polyethylene ensembles derived from an anisotropically etched silicon wafer is discussed. This semi-opaque polymer that can be easily sterilized and recycled provides low background noise for fluorescence measurements and yields more affordable cost than other thermoplastics commonly used for microfluidic applications such as cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). To fabrication through-hole microchips from this alternative material for microfluidics, a fabrication technique that uses a high-temperature, high-pressure resistant mold is described. This aluminum-based epoxy mold, serving as the positive master mold for embossing, is casted over etched arrays of pyramidal pits in a silicon wafer. Methods of surface treatment of the wafer prior to casting and PDMS casting of the epoxy are discussed to preserve the silicon wafer for future use. Changes in the thickness of polyethylene are observed for varying embossing temperatures. The methodology described herein can quickly fabricate 20 disposable, single use chips in less than 30 minutes with the ability to scale up 4x by using multiple molds simultaneously. When coupled as a platform supporting porous bead sensors, as in the recently developed Programmable Bio-Nano-Chip, this bead chip system can achieve limits of detection, for the cardiac biomarker C-reactive protein, of 0.3 ng/mL, thereby

  13. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  14. Conscientisation in Castalia: A Freirean Reading of Hermann Hesse's "The Glass Bead Game"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers Hermann Hesse's novel, "The Glass Bead Game," in the light of Paulo Freire's educational philosophy. "The Glass Bead Game" is set in Castalia, a "pedagogical province" of the 23rd century. It is argued that the central character in the book, Joseph Knecht, undergoes a complex process of conscientisation. Knecht develops an…

  15. Biomaterial-associated infection of gentamicin-loaded PMMA beads in orthopaedic revision surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neut, D; van de Belt, H; Stokroos, [No Value; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2001-01-01

    In two-stage orthopaedic revision surgery, high local levels of antibiotics are achieved after removal of an infected prosthesis through temporary implantation of gentamicin-loaded beads. However, despite their antibiotic release, these beads act as a biomaterial surface to which bacteria preferenti

  16. An adaptive algorithm for tracking 3D bead displacements: application in biological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a feature-vector-based relaxation method (FVRM) to track bead displacements within a three-dimensional (3D) volume. The FVRM merges the feature vector method, a technique used in tracking bead displacements in biological gels, with the relaxation method, an algorithm employed successfully in tracking bead pairs in fluids. More specifically, the FVRM evaluates the probability of a bead pairing event based on the quasi-rigidity condition between the feature vectors of a bead and its candidate positions within a searching domain. Computational efficiency is improved via the introduction of an adaptive searching domain size and mismatches are reduced via a two-directional matching strategy. The algorithm is validated using simulated 3D bead displacements caused by a force dipole within a linear elastic gel. Results demonstrate a consistently high recovery ratio (above 98%) and low mismatch ratio (below 0.1%) for tracking parameter (mean bead distance/maximum bead displacement) greater than 0.73. (paper)

  17. On-chip measurement of the Brownian relaxation frequency of magnetic beads using magnetic tunneling junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, M.; Sogne, E.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the detection of the Brownian relaxation frequency of 250 nm diameter magnetic beads using a lab-on-chip platform based on current lines for exciting the beads with alternating magnetic fields and highly sensitive magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors with a superparamagnetic free...... for biomolecular recognition. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3554374]...

  18. Preparation and in vitro characterization of gentamycin-impregnated biodegradable beads suitable for treatment of osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J D; Falk, R F; Kelly, R M; Shively, J E; Withrow, S J; Dernell, W S; Kroll, D J; Randolph, T W; Manning, M C

    1998-09-01

    A new method for preparing poly(L-lactide) (PLA) biodegradable beads impregnated with an ionic aminoglycoside, gentamycin, is described. The process employs hydrophobic ion pairing to solubilize gentamycin in a solvent compatible with PLA, followed by precipitation with a compressed antisolvent (supercritical carbon dioxide). The resulting precipitate is a homogeneous dispersion of the ion-paired drug in PLA microspheres. The microspheres are approximately 1 microm in diameter and can be compressed into beads (3-6 mm in diameter) strung on surgical sutures for implantation. The bead strings exhibit no significant change in release kinetics upon sterilization with a hydrogen peroxide plasma (Ster-Rad). The kinetics of gentamycin release from the PLA beads are consistent with a matrix-controlled diffusion mechanism. While nonbiodegradable poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads initially release gentamycin in a similar manner, the drug release from PMMA ceases after 8 or 9 weeks, while the PLA beads continue to release drug for over 4 months. Moreover, only 10% of the gentamycin is released from the PMMA beads, while PLA beads release more than 60% of their load, if serum is present in the release medium. The PLA system displays improved release kinetics relative to PMMA, is biodegradable, is unaltered by gas sterilization, can be used for a range of antibiotics, and can be manipulated without disintegration. These are all desirable properties for an implantable drug delivery system for the prevention or treatment of osteomyelitis. PMID:9724569

  19. Glycopolymeric gel stabilized N-succinyl chitosan beads for controlled doxorubicin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajish, Juby K; Ajish Kumar, K S; Chattopadhyay, S; Kumar, Manmohan

    2016-06-25

    Here we report the synthesis and study of N-succinyl chitosan based hydrogel beads, stabilized with glycopolymeric network (NSC/Glc-gel) for application in anticancer drug delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). The bio-recognition of lectins by NSC/Glc-gel bead was also studied by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The beads were characterized using FT-IR, SEM and Thermogravimetric analysis. The extent of DOX loading was proportional to the degree of succinylation and the swelling kinetics of the beads showed pH dependency. The beads exhibited sustained release of DOX over a period of more than 15 days in an acidic pH, mimicking the microenvironment of tumor cells, and even lesser release at physiological pH. Release exponent 'n' derived from Korsmeyer-Peppas model implied that NSC88/Glc-gel (88% succinylation of chitosan) beads followed fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism whereas NSC75/Glc-gel (75% succinylation of chitosan) beads follow zero order release profile. The synthesized beads also displayed specificity to lectin Concanavalin A. PMID:27083798

  20. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF DRAW-BEAD RESTRAINING FORCE IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H. Yang; J. Chen; D.N. He; X. Y. Ruan

    2003-01-01

    Due to complexities of draw-bead restraining force calculated according to theory anddepending on sheet metal forming properties experiment testing system, a simplifiedmethod to calculate draw-bead restraining force is put forward by experimental methodin cup-shaped drawing process. The experimental results were compared with numer-ical results and proved agreement. It shows the method is effective.

  1. Capture of DNA in microfluidic channel using magnetic beads: increasing capture efficiency with integrated microfluidic mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Dufva, Hans Martin; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the hybridization of target DNA in solution with probe DNA on magnetic beads immobilized on the channel sidewalls in a magnetic bead separator. The hybridization is carried out under a liquid flow and is diffusion limited. Two systems are compared: one with a straight microfluidic...... place on the surface in a microfluidic system....

  2. OBT analysis method using polyethylene beads for limited quantities of animal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products for cases where the amount of water recovered by combustion is limited by sample size or quantity. In the method, the amount of water recovered after combustion is enhanced by adding tritium-free polyethylene beads to the sample prior to combustion in an oxygen bomb. The method reduces process time by allowing the combustion water to be easily collected with a pipette. Sufficient water recovery was achieved using the polyethylene beads method when 2 g of dry animal tissue or animal product were combusted with 2 g of polyethylene beads. Correction factors, which account for the dilution due to the combustion water of the beads, are provided for beef, chicken, pork, fish and clams, as well as egg, milk and cheese. The method was tested by comparing its OBT results with those of the conventional method using animal samples collected on the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. The results determined that the polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used. - Highlights: • Polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products were determined. • The method reduces process time. • The polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used

  3. Preliminary Application of Phased Array Technology in Weather Radar%相控阵技术在天气雷达中的初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强; 刘黎平

    2011-01-01

    由中国气象科学研究院国家灾害天气重点实验室与中国电子科技集团南京第14研究所联合研制的S波段相控阵天气雷达采用宽波束发射多波束接收,从而很大程度上缩短了雷达扫描周期,但是由于相控阵天气雷达其波束宽度与增益不是定值,而是随着仰角发生变化,同时相控阵天气雷达采用了脉冲压缩技术,因此需要对Probert-Jones提出的经典雷达气象方程中的波束宽度和增益参量进行订正,才能运用到对相控阵天气雷达反射率因子的估算中。本文通过对相控阵天气雷达波束宽度与增益特性的分析,在经典雷达气象方程的基础上给出了有关相控阵天气雷达%The State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather of CAMS and Nanjing Research Institute of Electronics Technologyhas developed the first S-band phased array weather of China.In order to reduce the radar scan cycle,the S-band phased array weather uses a transmitted wider beam in pitch and narrower in azimuth,and multi received beams to overlap transmitted beam.However,for using this scanning method and pulse compression,beam width and gain is changed with elevation,so the Probert-Jones weather radar equation should be corrected.The characteristicsof beam width and gain are analyzed.Based on the Probert-Jones weather radar equation,it givesthe weather radar equation of this phased array weather radar and the estimation parameters of reflectivity in different regions.It provides a theoretical foundationfor the calibrationand measurement of the phased array weather radar.

  4. A Universal Approach for Selective Trace Metal Determinations via Sequential Injection-Bead Injection-Lab-on-Valve (SI-BI-LOV) Using Renewable Reagent-loaded Hydrophobic Beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    A new sample pretreatment approach is presented for selective and sensitive determination of trace metals via electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) based on the principle of bead injection (BI) with renewable reagent-loaded hydrophobic beads in a Sequential Injection...

  5. Biosorption of uranium (VI) by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption of uranium (VI) ions by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads was investigated in a batch system. The influences of solution pH, biosorbent dose, U (VI) concentration, and contact time on U (VI) biosorption were studied. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity was strongly affected by the solution pH, the biosorbent dose and initial U (VI) concentration. Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 5.0, biosrobent dose (w/v) 2.5%, initial U (VI) concentration 60 mg L-1. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 120 min. The adsorption process conformed to the Freunlich and Temkin isothermal adsorption models. The dynamic adsorption model conformed to pseudo-second order model.

  6. Skyrmions confined as beads on a vortex ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Nitta, Muneto

    2016-07-01

    A very simple, quadratic potential is used to construct vortex strings in a generalized Skyrme model and an additional quadratic potential is used to embed sine-Gordon-type halfkinks onto the string worldline, yielding half-Skyrmions on a string. The strings are furthermore compactified onto a circle and the halfkinks are forced to appear in pairs; in particular 2 B halfkinks (half-Skyrmions) will appear as beads on a ring with B being the number of times the host vortex is twisted and also the baryon number (Skyrmion number) from the bulk point of view. Finally, we construct an effective field theory on the torus, describing the kinks living on the vortex rings.

  7. Skyrmions confined as beads on a vortex ring

    CERN Document Server

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    A very simple, quadratic potential is used to construct vortex strings in a generalized Skyrme model and an additional quadratic potential is used to embed sine-Gordon-type halfkinks onto the string worldline, yielding half-Skyrmions on a string. The strings are furthermore compactified onto a circle and the halfkinks are forced to appear in pairs; in particular 2B halfkinks (half-Skyrmions) will appear as beads on a ring with B being the number of times the host vortex is twisted and also the baryon number (Skyrmion number) from the bulk point of view. Finally, we construct an effective field theory on the torus, describing the kinks living on the vortex rings.

  8. Solar Limb Darkening Function from Baily's Beads Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Raponi, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a method to measure with high resolution the solar diameter from the ground, through the eclipse observations by reconsidering the definition of the solar edge. The outer part of the Limb Darkening Function (LDF) is recovered using the luminosity evolution of a Baily's Bead and the profile of the lunar limb available from the Kaguya satellite. The method proposed is applied for the videos of the eclipse in January, 15, 2010 recorded by Richard Nugent in Uganda and Andreas Tegtmeier in India. The result shows light from solar limb detected at least 0.65 arcsec beyond the LDF inflection point, and this fact may suggest to reconsider the evaluations of the historical eclipses made with naked eye.

  9. Development and Evaluation of Dual Cross-Linked Pulsatile Beads for Chronotherapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abanesh kumar Bansal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, pulsatile release beads were prepared by ionic gelation technique. Lornoxicam dual cross-linked beads were prepared by dropping dispersed phase of lornoxicam, pectin, and sodium alginate into the dispersion phase of different concentrations of calcium chloride solution followed by aluminium chloride solution. The formulated beads were further coated by Eudragit L & S 100 in the ratio 1 : 2 w/w in order to achieve desired lag time. In vitro release study showed lag time of 5–8 h before release of lornoxicam from the formulated beads. Thus, formulated dual cross-linked beads when administered at bed time may release lornoxicam when needed most for chronotherapeutics of early morning rheumatoid arthritis attacks in chronic patients.

  10. Preparation and characterization of crosslinked alginate-CMC beads for controlled release of nitrate salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/sodium alginate (SA) hydrogel beads were successfully prepared by Ca2+ ions crosslinking followed by gamma irradiation. The factors affecting beads formation are the composition of SA in the blend and concentration of calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent. The results indicated that the addition of CMC to SA increases the swelling (%) upto (1:3) (CMC:SA) ratio. The effect of different irradiation doses (2.5, 5, and 10 kGy) on swelling (%) was studied. At low doses, swelling (%) decreases upto 5 kGy then starts to increase at 10 kGy. The degree of the swelling (%) and release (%) of ammonium nitrate salt from beads were investigated under different pH (1.2, 5 and 7). The beads were characterized by FTIR, SEM and TGA to investigate molecular structure, morphology and thermal stability of beads. (author)

  11. The Use of Index-Matched Beads in Optical Particle Counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhishang; Ripple, Dean C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of 2-pyridinemethanol (2P) aqueous solutions as a refractive index matching liquid. The high refractive index and low viscosity of 2P-water mixtures enables refractive index matching of beads that cannot be index matched with glycerol-water or sucrose-water solutions, such as silica beads that have the refractive index of bulk fused silica or of polymethylmethacrylate beads. Suspensions of beads in a nearly index-matching liquid are a useful tool to understand the response of particle counting instruments to particles of low optical contrast, such as aggregated protein particles. Data from flow imaging and light obscuration instruments are presented for bead diameters ranging from 6 µm to 69 µm, in a matrix liquid spanning the point of matched refractive index. PMID:26601049

  12. Polymerized serum albumin beads for use as slow-release adjuvants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental vaccines have been made by covalently bonding virus particles into polymerized rabbit serum albumin beads. Using Nodamura virus as a model antigen, these model vaccines induced specific humoral antibody production, comparable with that achieved using Freund's adjuvants. Virus specific antibodies were also induced when Nodamura virus was covalently attached to the bead surface using different crosslinkers. However, when poliovirus type 2 (Sabin strain) was polymerized into beads, the levels of neutralizing antibodies were insignificant compared with control aqueous vaccines. The synthetic immunostimulator, muramyl dipeptide, was included with bead vaccines in an attempt to potentiate the immune response. Immunostimulation is achieved by a slow release of antigen coinciding with the gradual breakdown of bead structure. Methods used include radio-iodination and radioimmunoassay. 65 figs., 6 tabs., 173 refs

  13. A 60-GHz-band 2 x 4 planar dipole array antenna module fabricated by 3-D SiP technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Noriharu; Suzuki, Yuya; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Shoichi; Kameda, Suguru; Takagi, Tadashi; Tsubouchi, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    A 2 × 4 phased array antenna module has been developed for 60-GHz-band short- range high-speed wireless communication terminals. To realize the required vertical distance between the antenna elements, the module is made of five sheets of multi-layered organic substrates vertically stacked with Cu balls, and the 1 x 4 dipole array antenna is placed on both the top and bottom organic substrates. To reduce the mutual coupling between the element antennas, a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) is flip-chip mounted on the feed line of each element antenna. The Au-stud bump flip-chip mounting technique helps achieve a lower return loss in the transition section at the MMIC than the Au-wire bonded. The placement accuracy of each antenna element in the vertical direction, 60-GHz signal vertical interconnection between the substrates with Cu balls, and flip-chip mounting of the MMIC are confirmed by 3-D computed tomography (CT) scans.

  14. Echicetin coated polystyrene beads: a novel tool to investigate GPIb-specific platelet activation and aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Navdaev

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways.

  15. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  16. Low Cost Phased Array Antenna System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A program is proposed to research the applicability of a unique phased array technology, dubbed FlexScan, to S-band and Ku-band communications links between...

  17. Monolithic Time Delay Integrated APD Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the proposed program by Epitaxial Technologies is to develop monolithic time delay integrated avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays with sensitivity...

  18. Droplet-based magnetic bead immunoassay using microchannel-connected multiwell plates (μCHAMPs) for the detection of amyloid beta oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Cheol; Kim, Moojong; Lim, Gun Taek; Kang, Sung Min; An, Seong Soo A; Kim, Tae Song; Kang, Ji Yoon

    2016-06-21

    Multiwell plates are regularly used in analytical research and clinical diagnosis but often require laborious washing steps and large sample or reagent volumes (typically, 100 μL per well). To overcome such drawbacks in the conventional multiwell plate, we present a novel microchannel-connected multiwell plate (μCHAMP) that can be used for automated disease biomarker detection in a small sample volume by performing droplet-based magnetic bead immunoassay inside the plate. In this μCHAMP-based immunoassay platform, small volumes (30-50 μL) of aqueous-phase working droplets are stably confined within each well by the simple microchannel structure (200-300 μm in height and 0.5-1 mm in width), and magnetic beads are exclusively transported into an adjacent droplet through the oil-filled microchannels assisted by a magnet array aligned beneath and controlled by a XY-motorized stage. Using this μCHAMP-based platform, we were able to perform parallel detection of synthetic amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers as a model analyte for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This platform easily simplified the laborious and consumptive immunoassay procedure by achieving automated parallel immunoassay (32 assays per operation in 3-well connected 96-well plate) within 1 hour and at low sample consumption (less than 10 μL per assay) with no cumbersome manual washing step. Moreover, it could detect synthetic Aβ oligomers even below 10 pg mL(-1) concentration with a calculated detection limit of ∼3 pg mL(-1). Therefore, the μCHAMP and droplet-based magnetic bead immunoassay, with the combination of XY-motorized magnet array, would be a useful platform in the diagnosis of human disease, including AD, which requires low consumption of the patient's body fluid sample and automation of the entire immunoassay procedure for high processing capacity. PMID:27185215

  19. Synthesis and characterization of monosize magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evrim; Banu; Alt1nta

    2007-01-01

    [1]Akg(o)l,S.,& Denizli,A.(2004).Novel metal-chelate affinity sorbents for reversible use in catalase adsorption.Journal of Molecular Catalysis B,28(1),7-14.[2]Altintas,E.B.,& Denizli,A.(2006a).Efficient removal of albumin from human serum by monosize dye-affinity beads.Journal of Chromatography B,832(2),216-223.[3]Altintas,E.B.,& Denizli,A.(2006b).Monosize poly(glycidyl methacrylate)beads for dye-affinity purification of lysozyme.International Journal of Biological Macromolecules,38(2),99-106.[4]Arica,M.Y.,Yavuz,H.,Patir,S.,& Denizli,A.(2000).Immobilization of glucoamylase onto spacer-arm attached magnetic poly(methylmethacrylate)microspheres:Characterization and application to a continuous flow reactor.Journal of Molecular Catalysis B,11(2-3),127-138.[5]Bahar,T.,& Celebi,S.S.(1998).Characterization of glucoamylase immobilized on magnetic poly(styrene) particles.Enzyme and Microbial Technology,23(5),301-304.[6]Bilkova,Z.,Slovakova,M.,Lycka,A.,Horak,D.,Lenfeld,J.,Turkova,J.,et al.(2002).Oriented immobilization of galactose oxidase to bead and magnetic bead cellulose and poly(HEMA-co-EDMA) and magnetic poly(HEMA-coEDMA) microspheres.Journal of Chromatography B,770(1-2),25-34.[7]Bohm,D.,& Pittermann,B.(2000).Magnetically stabilized fluidized beds in biochemical engineering-Investigations in hydrodynamics.Chemical Engineering and Technology,23,309-312.[8]Burns,M.A.,Kvesitadze,G.I.,& Graves,D.J.(1985).Dried calcium alginate/magnetite spheres:A new support for chromatographic separations and enzyme immobilization.Biotechnology and Bioengineering,27(2),137-145.[9]Cherty,A.S.,Gabis,D.H.,& Burns,M.A.(1991).Overcoming support limitations in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed separators.Powder Technology,64(1-2),165-174.[10]Cocker,T.M.,Fee,C.J.,& Evans,R.A.(1997).Preparation of magnetically susceptible polyacrylamide/magnetite beads for use in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed chromatography.Biotechnology and Bioengineering,53(1),79-87.[11]Denizli

  20. Reduction of the number of defect signals in pressure vessel welds by a phased array ultrasonic test technology qualified beforehand in a blind test according to PDI specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In German-language countries, ultrasonic testing of reactor pressure vessel welds in the context of recurrent inspection is based on the KTA rules. This test philosophy is based on the recording of all data of a test section and repeated comparison of these data at regular intervals. Each and every change during operation is displayed. There are many components in which no changes are observed over longer periods of time. Optimisation of the test procedure and test periods requires accurate knowledge of the component condition. This necessitates accurate data of available defects. However, current techniques only provide data for comparative analysis on the basis of reflectivity. Data on the length and depth of a relevant defect can only be obtained by qualified sizing techniques. The PDI programme provides exact rules for qualification of techniques for a given application. Using a PDI qualification with personal blind tests for all data evaluators, one obtains a basis for accurate defect dimensioning and thus for optimisation. In cooperation with KKL, IntelligeNDT AREVA in 2006 successfully underwent the PDI qualification process for phased array testing of longitudinal and circumferential welds in reactor pressure vessels. In addition to this qualification, a comparison was made with the results of the conventionally applied, KTA-oriented test procedure. One of the key elements of qualification is the characterisation of defects, i.e. the distinction between relevant and non-relevant data, which will help to reduce the displayed data. The contribution presents the results and experience of the qualification as well as a comparison of standard testing with a tandem function with the results of phased array testing. (orig.)

  1. Enhanced reflection from inverse tapered nanocone arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Dai, Qing, E-mail: daiq@nanoctr.cn [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yetisen, Ali K.; Cruz Vasconcellos, Fernando da [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QT (United Kingdom); Kangwanwatana, Chuan; Montelongo, Yunuen; Qasim, Malik M.; Wilkinson, Timothy D. [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-04

    We computationally and experimentally demonstrate enhanced reflection effects displayed by silicon-based inverted nanocone arrays. A 3D finite element model is used to characterize the optical properties of the nanocone arrays with respect to the change in polarization and incident angles. The nanocone arrays are fabricated by e-beam lithography in hexagonal and triangular geometries with a lattice constant of 300 nm. The fabricated devices show a two-fold increase in reflection compared with bare silicon surface, as well as a strong diffraction within the visible and near-infrared spectra. The nanocone arrays may find a variety of applications from optical devices to energy conservation technologies.

  2. Applying of the array transducers' technology for surface acoustic waves materials characterization in the transient regime; Application de la technologie multi-elements a la caracterisation des materiaux par ondes acoustiques de surface en regime impulsionnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenet, D

    2000-07-01

    In this document we present a theoretical and experimental study which has been led to design a surface acoustic wave device for local characterisation (relatively to the wavelength) of isotropic or anisotropic materials. The device is based on a phased-array transducer of conical shape we have specifically designed for this purpose. It operates in the impulsive mode, in the frequency range of 1-5 MHz. In order to deduce mechanical properties of the material, it is possible to measure the surface wave characteristics (velocity, attenuation,...). Different methods for measuring the wave velocity have been developed taking advantage of from the phased-array technology. The originality of theses methods relies on the fact that the measures are performed without moving the transducer. Consequently, the device requires no additional mechanical system and it is quite compact. In addition, this shortens the characterisation process duration comparatively to the usually available methods (e. g. the V(z) technique). In the theoretical section of this study, a versatile model allowing to simulate in the time harmonic regime as well as in the transient regime, the transmitted field, the field reflected on isotropic or anisotropic planar samples and the output voltage for transducers of arbitrary shapes has been developed. The model has been applied to the phased-array conical transducer as well as to more classical transducers such as planar (rectangular) or focusing (spherically or cylindrically shaped) transducers. It predicts not only the geometrical contributions of the reflected field and signal but also the leaky contributions related to the surface acoustic waves. (author)

  3. Technology, Utopia and Scholarly Life: Ideals and Realities in the Work of Hermann Hesse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between technology, utopia and scholarly life in Hermann Hesse's novel, "The Glass Bead Game." In the first part of Hesse's book, the Glass Bead Game and the society of which it is a part, Castalia, are portrayed in idealistic terms. The second part of the novel chronicles the educational life of Joseph…

  4. Nanoparticle flotation collectors: mechanisms behind a new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Songtao; Pelton, Robert; Raegen, Adam; Montgomery, Miles; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2011-09-01

    This is the first report describing a new technology where hydrophobic nanoparticles adsorb onto much larger, hydrophilic mineral particle surfaces to facilitate attachment to air bubbles in flotation. The adsorption of 46 nm cationic polystyrene nanoparticles onto 43 μm diameter glass beads, a mineral model, facilitates virtually complete removal of the beads by flotation. As little as 5% coverage of the bead surfaces with nanoparticles promotes high flotation efficiencies. The maximum force required to pull a glass bead from an air bubble interface into the aqueous phase was measured by micromechanics. The pull-off force was 1.9 μN for glass beads coated with nanoparticles, compared to 0.0086 μN for clean beads. The pull-off forces were modeled using Scheludko's classical expression. We propose that the bubble/bead contact area may not be dry (completely dewetted). Instead, for hydrophobic nanoparticles sitting on a hydrophilic surface, it is possible that only the nanoparticles penetrate the air/water interface to form a three-phase contact line. We present a new model for pull-off forces for such a wet contact patch between the bead and the air bubble. Contact angle measurements of both nanoparticle coated glass and smooth films from dissolved nanoparticles were performed to support the modeling. PMID:21790133

  5. Optimization of GMAW process of AA 6063-T5 aluminum alloy butt joints based on the response surface methodology and on the bead geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geometry of the weld beads is characterized by the overhead, the width and the penetration. These values are indices of the behavior of the welded joint and therefore, they can be considered as factors that control the process. This work is performed to optimize the GMAW process of the aluminum alloy AA 6063-T5 by means of the response surface methodology (RSM). The variables herein considered are the arc voltage, the welding speed, the wire feed speed and the separation between surfaces in butt joints. The response functions that are herein studied are the overhead, the width, the penetration and the angle of the bead. The obtained results by RSM show high grade of agreement with the experimental values. The procedure is experimentally validated by welding for the theoretically obtained optimized technological conditions and a wide agreement between theoretical and experimental values is found. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. Substrate integrated antennas and arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Yu Jian

    2015-01-01

    Substrate Integrated Antennas and Arrays provides a single source for cutting-edge information on substrate integrated circuits (SICs), substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) feeding networks, SIW slot array antennas, SIC traveling-wave antennas, SIW feeding antennas, SIW monopulse antennas, and SIW multibeam antennas. Inspired by the author's extensive research, this comprehensive book:Describes a revolutionary SIC-based antenna technique with the potential to replace existing antenna technologiesExamines theoretical and experimental results connected to electrical and mechanical performanceExp

  7. A bacteria-based bead for possible self-healing marine concrete applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, D.; Wiktor, V.; Jonkers, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a bacteria-based bead for potential self-healing concrete applications in low-temperature marine environments. The bead consisting of calcium alginate encapsulated bacterial spores and mineral precursor compounds was assessed for: oxygen consumption, swelling, and its ability to form a biocomposite in a simulative marine concrete crack solution (SMCCS) at 8 °C. After six days immersion in the SMCCS the bacteria-based beads formed a calcite crust on their surface and calcite inclusions in their network, resulting in a calcite–alginate biocomposite. Beads swelled by 300% to a maximum diameter of 3 mm, while theoretical calculations estimate that 0.112 g of the beads were able to produce ∼1 mm3 of calcite after 14 days immersion; providing the bead with considerable crack healing potential. The bacteria-based bead shows great potential for the development of self-healing concrete in low-temperature marine environments, while the formation of a biocomposite healing material represents an exciting avenue for self-healing concrete research.

  8. REVIEW: CHITOSAN BASED HYDROGEL POLYMERIC BEADS – AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Rani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin is a non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable natural polymer. Chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads have been extensively studied as micro- or nano-particulate carriers in the pharmaceutical and medical fields, where they have shown promise for drug delivery as a result of their controlled and sustained release properties, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. To introduce desired properties and enlarge the scope of the potential applications of chitosan, graft copolymerization with natural or synthetic polymers on it has been carried out, and also, various chitosan derivatives have been utilized to form beads. The desired kinetics, duration, and rate of drug release up to therapeutical level from polymeric beads are limited by specific conditions such as beads material and their composition, bead preparation method, amount of drug loading, drug solubility, and drug polymer interaction. The present review summarizes most of the available reports about compositional and structural effects of chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads on swelling, drug loading, and releasing properties. From the studies reviewed it is concluded that chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads are promising drug delivery systems.

  9. Molecularly imprinted porous beads for the selective removal of copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, M Rizwan; Bajwa, Sadia Z; Lieberzeit, Peter A; Khan, Waheed S; Mujahid, Adnan; Ihsan, Ayesha; Rehman, Asma

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, novel molecularly imprinted polymer porous beads for the selective separation of copper ions have been synthesized by combining two material-structuring techniques, namely, molecular imprinting and oil-in-water-in-oil emulsion polymerization. This method produces monodisperse spherical beads with an average diameter of ∼2-3 mm, in contrast to adsorbents produced in the traditional way of grinding and sieving. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicates that the beads are porous in nature with interconnected pores of about 25-50 μm. Brunner-Emmett-Teller analysis shows that the ion-imprinted beads possess a high surface area (8.05 m(2) /g), and the total pore volume is determined to be 0.00823 cm(3) /g. As a result of the highly porous nature and ion-imprinting, the beads exhibit a superior adsorption capacity (84 mg/g) towards copper than the non-imprinted material (22 mg/g). Furthermore, selectivity studies indicate that imprinted beads show splendid recognizing ability, that is, nearly fourfold greater selective binding for Cu(2+) in comparison to the other bivalent ions such as Mn(2+) , Ni(2+) , Co(2+) , and Ca(2+) . The imprinted composite beads prepared in this study possess uniform porous morphology and may open up new possibilities for the selective removal of copper ions from waste water/contaminated matrices. PMID:26632078

  10. Mesoporous zirconium titanium oxides. Part 2: Synthesis, porosity, and adsorption properties of beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizgek, G Devlet; Sizgek, Erden; Griffith, Christopher S; Luca, Vittorio

    2008-11-01

    Mesoporous zirconium titanium mixed-oxide beads having disordered wormhole textures and mole fractions of Zr (x) ranging from x=0.25 to 0.67 have been prepared. The bead preparation method combined the forced hydrolysis of mixtures of zirconium-titanium alkoxides in the presence of long-chain carboxylates with external gelation. Uniformly sized beads could be produced in the size range 0.5-1.1 mm by varying the droplet size and viscosity of the mixed-oxide sol, thus making them suitable for large-scale column chromatographic applications. The beads exhibited narrow pore size distributions with similar mean pore diameters of around 3.7 nm. The specific surface areas of the beads were linked to the Zr mole fraction in the precursor solution and were generally greater than 350 m2/g for x=0.5. A combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicated that the pore walls of the beads were composed of atomically dispersed Zr and Ti to form a continuous network of Zr-O-Ti bonds. Mass transport in the beads was evaluated by monitoring the kinetics of vanadate and vanadyl adsorption at pH 10.5 and 0.87, respectively. PMID:18828618

  11. Formulation and drying of alginate beads for controlled release and stabilization of invertase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagapita, Patricio R; Mazzobre, M Florencia; Buera, M Pilar

    2011-09-12

    Several alternatives to the conventional alginate beads formulation were studied for encapsulation of invertase. Pectin was added to the alginate/enzyme solution while trehalose and β-cyclodextrin were added to the calcium gelation media. The effect of composition changes, freezing, drying methods (freeze, vacuum, or air drying), and thermal treatment were evaluated on invertase stability and its release kinetics from beads. The enzyme release mechanism from wet beads depended on pH. The addition of trehalose, pectin, and β-cyclodextrin modified the bead structure, leading in some cases to a release mechanism that included the relaxation of the polymer chains, besides Fickian diffusion. Enzyme release from vacuum-dried beads was much faster than from freeze-dried beads, probably due to their higher pore size. The inclusion of β-cyclodextrin and especially of pectin prevented enzyme activity losses during bead generation, and trehalose addition was fundamental for achieving adequate invertase protection during freezing, drying, and thermal treatment. Present results showed that several alternatives such as drying method, composition, as well as pH of the relese medium can be managed to control enzyme release. PMID:21809830

  12. Pharmaceutical acrylic beads obtained by suspension polymerization containing cellulose nanowhiskers as excipient for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, J C O; Ayres, E; Carvalho, S M; Patrício, P S; Pereira, F V; Oréfice, R L

    2011-03-18

    Direct compression is one of the most popular techniques to prepare tablets but only a few commercial excipients are well adapted for this process into controlled release formulations. In the last years, the introduction of new materials for drug delivery matrix tablets has become more important. This paper evaluated the physicochemical and flow properties of new polymeric excipient of ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and butyl metacrylate, synthesized by suspension polymerization using cellulose nanowhiskers as co-stabilizer, to be used as direct compression for modified release tablets. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the success of the copolymerization reaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that excipient was obtained how spherical beads. Thermal properties of the beads were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Particle size analysis of the beads with cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWB) indicated that the presence of the nanowhiskers led to a reduction of particle size and to a narrower size distribution. In vitro test showed that the nanowhiskers and beads produced are nontoxic. Parameters such as Hausner ratio, Carr's index and cotangent of angle α were employed to characterize the flow properties of CNWB beads. Furthermore, the beads are used to produce tablets by direct compression contained propranolol hydrochloride as model drug. Dissolution tests performed suggested that beads could be used as excipient in matrix tablets with a potential use in drug controlled release. PMID:21241802

  13. Preparation of Silk Sericin/Lignin Blend Beads for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyo Won; Shin, Munju; Yun, Haesung; Lee, Ki Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel adsorbents having high adsorption capability and reusability were prepared using agricultural by-products: silk sericin and lignin. Silk sericin and lignin blend beads were successfully prepared using simple coagulation methods for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solution. A 1 M lithium chloride (LiCl)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system successfully dissolved both sericin and lignin and had sufficient viscosity for bead preparation. Compared to the conventional sericin bead adsorbent, sericin/lignin blend beads showed higher Cr(VI) adsorption capacity. The amount of lignin added to the adsorbent greatly affected the adsorption capacity of the beads, and a 50:50 sericin/lignin blend ratio was optimal. Adsorption behavior followed the Freundlich isotherm, which means the adsorption of Cr(VI) occurred on the heterogeneous surface. Cr(VI) adsorption capability increased with temperature because of thermodynamic-kinetic effects. In addition, over 90% of Cr(VI) ions were recovered from the Cr(VI) adsorbed sericin/lignin beads in a 1 M NaOH solution. The adsorption-desorption recycling process was stable for more than seven cycles, and the recycling efficiency was 82%. It is expected that the sericin/lignin beads could be successfully applied in wastewater remediation especially for hazardous Cr(VI) ions in industrial wastewater. PMID:27598142

  14. Biological deterioration of alginate beads containing immobilized microalgae and bacteria during tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ivonne; Bashan, Yoav; Hernàndez-Carmona, Gustavo; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2013-11-01

    Secondary treatment of municipal wastewater affects the mechanical stability of polymer Ca-alginate beads containing the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris that are jointly immobilized with Azospirillum brasilense as treating agents whose presence do not affect bead stability. Nine strains of potential alginate-degrading bacteria were isolated from wastewater and identified, based on their nearly complete 16S rDNA sequence. Still, their population was relatively low. Attempts to enhance the strength of the beads, using different concentrations of alginate and CaCl2 or addition of either of three polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethylcellulose), CaCO3, or SrCl2, failed. Beads lost their mechanical strength after 24 h of incubation but not the integrity of their shape for at least 96 h, a fact that sustained successful tertiary wastewater treatment for 48 h. In small bioreactors, removal of phosphorus was low under sterile conditions but high in unsterile wastewater. Alginate beads did not absorb PO4 (-3) in sterile wastewater, but in natural wastewater, they contained PO4 (-3). Consequently, PO4 (-3) content declined in the wastewater. A supplement of 10 % beads (w/v) was significantly more efficient in removing nutrients than 4 %, especially in a jointly immobilized treatment where >90 % of PO4 (-3) and >50 % ammonium were removed. Tertiary wastewater treatment in 25-L triangular, airlift, autotrophic bioreactors showed, as in small bioreactors, very similar nutrient removal patterns, decline in bead strength phenomena, and increase in total bacteria during the wastewater treatment only in the presence of the immobilized treatment agents. This study demonstrates that partial biological degradation of alginate beads occurred during tertiary wastewater treatment, but the beads survive long enough to permit efficient nutrient removal. PMID:23354446

  15. Cadmium removal out of human plasma using ion-imprinted beads in a magnetic column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candan, Nilguen; Tuezmen, Nalan [Department of Chemistry, Dokuzeyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Andac, Muge [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Andac, Cenk A. [Department of Chemistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey); Say, Ridvan [Department of Chemistry, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to utilize ion-imprinted magnetic beads in the selective removal of Cd{sup 2+} ions out of human plasma overdosed with Cd{sup 2+} ions. The Cd{sup 2+} imprinted magnetic poly(HEMA-MAC) (mPHEMAC-Cd{sup 2+}) beads were produced by suspension polymerization in the presence of magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in a nano-powder form. The template Cd{sup 2+} ions could be reversibly detached from the matrix to form mPHEMAC-Cd{sup 2+} beads using 0.1 M thiourea solution. The specific surface area of the mPHEMAC-Cd{sup 2+} beads was found to be 24.7 m{sup 2}/g. The MAC and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} contents of the mPHEMAC-Cd{sup 2+} beads were found to be 41.8 {mu}mol/g polymer and 8.2% on the average. The Cd{sup 2+} adsorption capacity of mPHEMAC-Cd{sup 2+} columns decreased drastically from 48.8 {mu}mol/g to 20.0 {mu}mol/g as the flow rate is increased from 0.50 ml/min to 3.0 ml/min. The maximum adsorption capacity of the mPHEMAC-Cd{sup 2+} beads was determined to be 48.8 {mu}mol Cd{sup 2+}/g on the average. The relative selectivity coefficients of the mPHEMAC beads for Cd{sup 2+}/Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} were 22.6 and 160.7 times greater than those of the non-imprinted magnetic PHEMAC (mPHEMAC) beads, respectively. The mPHEMAC-Cd{sup 2+} beads are reusable for many times with no significant decrease in their adsorption capacities.

  16. Cadmium removal out of human plasma using ion-imprinted beads in a magnetic column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to utilize ion-imprinted magnetic beads in the selective removal of Cd2+ ions out of human plasma overdosed with Cd2+ ions. The Cd2+ imprinted magnetic poly(HEMA-MAC) (mPHEMAC-Cd2+) beads were produced by suspension polymerization in the presence of magnetite Fe3O4 in a nano-powder form. The template Cd2+ ions could be reversibly detached from the matrix to form mPHEMAC-Cd2+ beads using 0.1 M thiourea solution. The specific surface area of the mPHEMAC-Cd2+ beads was found to be 24.7 m2/g. The MAC and Fe3O4 contents of the mPHEMAC-Cd2+ beads were found to be 41.8 μmol/g polymer and 8.2% on the average. The Cd2+ adsorption capacity of mPHEMAC-Cd2+ columns decreased drastically from 48.8 μmol/g to 20.0 μmol/g as the flow rate is increased from 0.50 ml/min to 3.0 ml/min. The maximum adsorption capacity of the mPHEMAC-Cd2+ beads was determined to be 48.8 μmol Cd2+/g on the average. The relative selectivity coefficients of the mPHEMAC beads for Cd2+/Pb2+ and Cd2+/Zn2+ were 22.6 and 160.7 times greater than those of the non-imprinted magnetic PHEMAC (mPHEMAC) beads, respectively. The mPHEMAC-Cd2+ beads are reusable for many times with no significant decrease in their adsorption capacities

  17. Release of angiogenic growth factors from cells encapsulated in alginate beads with bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshaw, Hussila; Forbes, Alastair; Day, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Attempts to stimulate therapeutic angiogenesis using gene therapy or delivery of recombinant growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have failed to demonstrate unequivocal efficacy in human trials. Bioactive glass stimulates fibroblasts to secrete significantly increased amounts of angiogenic growth factors and therefore has a number of potential applications in therapeutic angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess whether it is possible to encapsulate specific quantities of bioactive glass and fibroblasts into alginate beads, which will secrete growth factors capable of stimulating angiogenesis. Human fibroblasts (CCD-18Co) were encapsulated in alginate beads with specific quantities of 45S5 bioactive glass and incubated in culture medium (0-17 days). The conditioned medium was collected and assayed for VEGF or used to assess its ability to stimulate angiogenesis by measuring the proliferation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. At 17 days the beads were lysed and the amount of VEGF retained by the beads measured. Fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate beads containing 0.01% and 0.1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass particles secreted increased quantities of VEGF compared with cells encapsulated with 0% or 1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass particles. Lysed alginate beads containing 0.01% and 0.1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass contained significantly more VEGF (p<0.01) compared with beads containing no glass particles. Endothelial cell proliferation was significantly increased (p<0.01) by conditioned medium collected from alginate beads containing 0.1% (w/v) 45S5 bioactive glass particles. The results of this study demonstrate that bioactive glass and fibroblasts can be successfully incorporated into alginate beads for use in delivering angiogenic growth factors. With further optimization, this technique offers a novel delivery device for stimulating therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:15664644

  18. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. ► New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. ► Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2–8). Around 98–100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87–98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  19. 基于传声器阵列技术的定置汽车噪声源识别%Noise Source Identification of Customized Vehicles based on Microphone Array Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春民; 田金鑫; 王二保

    2012-01-01

    随着人们对汽车噪声的日益关注和汽车噪声限制标准的日渐严格,控制汽车噪声已经成为汽车工业发展中一项重要而又紧迫的任务。文章基于均匀圆形传声器阵列技术,采用MUSIC空间谱估计算法,对某型轿车定置状态时不同转速下分别进行噪声源识别,找出其主要噪声源和声场分布特性,为进一步控制汽车噪声提供依据。试验结果表明:传声器阵列技术能够快速有效地进行汽车噪声源识别和定位。%With people's increasing concern on vehicle noise and strict control of vehicle noise limits standard, decreasing vehicle noise has become an important and urgent task in automotive industry development. Based on uniform circular microphone array technology and using MUSIC spatial spectrum estimation algorithm, noise source is identified according to different speed with customized state so as to find main noise source and distribution characteristics of acoustic field. It provides reference for further control of vehicle noise. The test results showed that the microphone array technology can identify and position the noise source quickly and efficiently.

  20. Bead-on-plate weldability of Al 5052 alloy using a disk laser

    OpenAIRE

    J.-K. Kim; H.-S. Lim; J.-H. Cho; C.-H. Kim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents the effect of the laser welding parameters of the laser focal position and beam angle on the weldability of an Al 5052 thick plate using a 4kW disk laser.Design/methodology/approach: Bead-on-plate welding was conducted on a 10mm-thick Al 5052 plate. Aspects of the bead, including the bead surface and cross sections, were evaluated with various laser welding parameters. The porosity formation was also examined in an X-ray transmission tests.Findings: Altho...

  1. Wax-incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads of Calcium Pectinate for Intragastric Floating Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin–olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pect...

  2. Morphology and buoyancy of oil-entrapped calcium pectinate gel beads

    OpenAIRE

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Thirawong, Nartaya; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2004-01-01

    A new emulsion-gelation method to prepare oil-entrapped calcium pectinate gel (CaPG) beads capable of floating in the gastric condition was designed and tested. The gel beads containing edible oil were prepared by either being gently mixed or homogenized an oil phase and a water phase containing pectin, and then extruded into calcium chloride solution with gentle agitation at room temperature. The gel beads formed were then separated, washed with distilled water, and dried at 37°C for 12 hour...

  3. Effect of welding current and speed on occurrence of humping bead in high-speed GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ji; Wu Chuansong

    2009-01-01

    The developed mathematical model of humping formation mechanism in high-speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is used to analyze the effects of welding current and welding speed on the occurrence of humping bead. It considers both the momentum and heat content of backward flowing molten jet inside weld pool. Three-dimensional geometry of weld pool, the spacing between two adjacent humps and hump height along humping weld bead are calculated under different levels of welding current and welding speed. It shows that wire feeding rate, power intensity and the moment of backward flowing molten jet are the major factors on humping bead formation.

  4. Clinical test on circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of lung cancer patients, based on novel immunomagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Daoyun; Guo, Hongyin; Zhang, Lianbin; Zhou, Wenpeng

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims to establish a novel and highly sensitive method to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of patients with lung cancer. This therefore enables the discovery of invisible micrometastasis in the early stage of lung cancer, leading to better prognostic assessments of lung cancer and detection of the post-operative tumor recurrence and metastasis, treatment options, and evaluation of curative effects. In this research study, various lung cancer cells were mixed with adult blood samples to simulate blood samples of tumor patients. With novel test methods, CTCs in peripheral blood of lung cancer patients were calculated, after the reaction between the cells obtained from the mix and EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) antibodies which were marked by immunomagnetic beads. The results showed that 18 out of 42 (42.9%) lung cancer patients had a positive CTCs, which increased with tumor enlargement or metastasis. CTCs were not detected in a total of 20 blood samples from healthy volunteers. This indicated that the technology of novel immunomagnetic bead-enrichment could effectively separate and identify CTCs in peripheral blood of lung cancer patients, which is of great clinical value for prognostic assessments and treatment guidance of lung cancer. PMID:25682839

  5. Pulsed laser manipulation of an optically trapped bead: Averaging thermal noise and measuring the pulsed force amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindballe, Thue Bjerring; Kristensen, Martin V. G.; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine;

    2013-01-01

    An experimental strategy for post-eliminating thermal noise on position measurements of optically trapped particles is presented. Using a nanosecond pulsed laser, synchronized to the detection system, to exert a periodic driving force on an optically trapped 10 polystyrene bead, the laser pulse......-bead interaction is repeated hundreds of times. Traces with the bead position following the prompt displacement from equilibrium, induced by each laser pulse, are averaged and reveal the underlying deterministic motion of the bead, which is not visible in a single trace due to thermal noise. The motion of the bead...

  6. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder: Performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, D.; Allison, J. R.; Bannister, K.; Bell, M. E.; Bignall, H. E.; Chippendale, A. P.; Edwards, P. G.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Hegarty, S.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Indermuehle, B. T.; Lenc, E.; Marvil, J.; Popping, A.; Raja, W.; Reynolds, J. E.; Sault, R. J.; Serra, P.; Voronkov, M. A.; Whiting, M.; Amy, S. W.; Axtens, P.; Ball, L.; Bateman, T. J.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bolton, R.; Brodrick, D.; Brothers, M.; Brown, A. J.; Bunton, J. D.; Cheng, W.; Cornwell, T.; DeBoer, D.; Feain, I.; Gough, R.; Gupta, N.; Guzman, J. C.; Hampson, G. A.; Hay, S.; Hayman, D. B.; Hoyle, S.; Humphreys, B.; Jacka, C.; Jackson, C. A.; Jackson, S.; Jeganathan, K.; Joseph, J.; Koribalski, B. S.; Leach, M.; Lensson, E. S.; MacLeod, A.; Mackay, S.; Marquarding, M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Mirtschin, P.; Mitchell, D.; Neuhold, S.; Ng, A.; Norris, R.; Pearce, S.; Qiao, R. Y.; Schinckel, A. E. T.; Shields, M.; Shimwell, T. W.; Storey, M.; Troup, E.; Turner, B.; Tuthill, J.; Tzioumis, A.; Wark, R. M.; Westmeier, T.; Wilson, C.; Wilson, T.

    2016-09-01

    We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array's performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.

  7. Phased array ultrasonic technology (PAUT) contribution to detection and sizing of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of service water systems and shutdown coolers heat exchangers in OPG CANDU stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three PAUT techniques [linear scan - longitudinal waves, sector scan -longitudinal waves and sector scan-transverse waves] were developed and validated to assess the MIC attack in service water systems (SWS) and shutdown coolers heat-exchangers (SDC-HX) of Darlington and Pickering CANDU stations. PAUT employs linear array probes with a frequency between 4-12 MHz, depending on surface conditions, component geometry and MIC size/category to be detected. Examples from lab validation and field trials are presented. Based on field trials results, the techniques were optimized and new cal blocks were manufactured. It was demonstrated for mid-length pipes and for SDC-HX, the PAUT is the best technique compared with D-meter conventional UT and with guided waves. The expected field accuracy is about 0.5 mm (0.020) for large MIC attack. The ligament evaluation is technically achievable for colonies / pin holes located 2 mm under the outer surface. Improvements were identified and implemented for the next outages. (author)

  8. Phased array ultrasonic technology (PAUT) contribution to detection and sizing of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of service water systems and shutdown coolers heat exchangers in OPG CANDU stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorau, P.; Pullia, L.; Hazelton, T., E-mail: peter.ciorau@opg.com, E-mail: lou.pullia@opg.com, E-mail: trek.hazelton@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Daks, W. [CAD WIRE, Markham, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Three PAUT techniques [linear scan - longitudinal waves, sector scan -longitudinal waves and sector scan-transverse waves] were developed and validated to assess the MIC attack in service water systems (SWS) and shutdown coolers heat-exchangers (SDC-HX) of Darlington and Pickering CANDU stations. PAUT employs linear array probes with a frequency between 4-12 MHz, depending on surface conditions, component geometry and MIC size/category to be detected. Examples from lab validation and field trials are presented. Based on field trials results, the techniques were optimized and new cal blocks were manufactured. It was demonstrated for mid-length pipes and for SDC-HX, the PAUT is the best technique compared with D-meter conventional UT and with guided waves. The expected field accuracy is about 0.5 mm (0.020{sup )} for large MIC attack. The ligament evaluation is technically achievable for colonies / pin holes located 2 mm under the outer surface. Improvements were identified and implemented for the next outages. (author)

  9. First improvements in the detection and quantification of label-free nucleic acids by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application to the deoxyribonucleic acid micro-array technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate quantification of nucleic acids is essential in many fields of modern biology and industry, and in some cases requires the use of fluorescence labeling. Yet, in addition to standardization problems and quantification reproducibility, labeling can modify the physicochemical properties of molecules or affect their stability. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel method to detect and quantify label-free nucleic acids. This method is based on stoichiometric proportioning of phosphorus in the nucleic acid skeleton, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and a specific statistical analysis, which indicates the error probability for each measurement. The results obtained appear to be quantitative, with a limit of detection of 105 nucleotides/μm2 (i.e. 2 x 1013 phosphorus atoms/cm2). Initial micro-array analysis has given very encouraging results, which point to new ways of quantifying hybridized nucleic acids. This is essential when comparing molecules of different sequences, which is presently very difficult with fluorescence labeling

  10. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder: Performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, D.; J. R. Allison; Bannister, K.; Bell, M. E.; Bignall, H. E.; Chippendale, A. P.; Edwards, P. G.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Hegarty, S; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Indermuehle, B. T.; Lenc, E.; Marvil, J.; Popping, A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array (BETA), the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope ASKAP. BETA is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarization beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in o...

  11. Coherent magnetic semiconductor nanodot arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Faxian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In searching appropriate candidates of magnetic semiconductors compatible with mainstream Si technology for future spintronic devices, extensive attention has been focused on Mn-doped Ge magnetic semiconductors. Up to now, lack of reliable methods to obtain high-quality MnGe nanostructures with a desired shape and a good controllability has been a barrier to make these materials practically applicable for spintronic devices. Here, we report, for the first time, an innovative growth approach to produce self-assembled and coherent magnetic MnGe nanodot arrays with an excellent reproducibility. Magnetotransport experiments reveal that the nanodot arrays possess giant magneto-resistance associated with geometrical effects. The discovery of the MnGe nanodot arrays paves the way towards next-generation high-density magnetic memories and spintronic devices with low-power dissipation.

  12. Magnetic bead detection using domain wall-based nanosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the effect of a single magnetic bead (MB) on the domain wall (DW) pinning/depinning fields of a DW trapped at the corner of an L-shaped magnetic nanodevice. DW propagation across the device is investigated using magnetoresistance measurements. DW pinning/depinning fields are characterized in as-prepared devices and after placement of a 1 μm-sized MB (Dynabeads® MyOne™) at the corner. The effect of the MB on the DW dynamics is seen as an increase in the depinning field for specific orientations of the device with respect to the external magnetic field. The shift of the depinning field, ΔBdep = 4.5–27.0 mT, is highly stable and reproducible, being significantly above the stochastic deviation which is about 0.5 mT. The shift in the deppinning field is inversely proportional to the device width and larger for small negative angles between the device and the external magnetic field. Thus, we demonstrate that DW-based devices can be successfully used for detection of single micron size MB

  13. Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on modified chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; Ayad, D M; Wei, Y; Sarhan, A A

    2010-04-01

    A method has been developed to immobilize horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on modified chitosan beads by means of graft copolymerization of polyethylacrylate in presence of potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator. The activity of free and immobilized HRP was studied. FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize HRP immobilization. The efficiency of the immobilization was investigated by examining the relative enzymatic activity of free enzyme before and after the HRP immobilization. The obtained values were found to reach 98.4%. The results show that the optimum temperature of immobilized HRP was 45 degrees C, which was identical to that of free enzyme, and the immobilized HRP exhibited a higher relative activity than that of free HRP over 45 degrees C. The optimal pH for immobilized HRP was 10, which was higher than that of the free HRP (pH 9.0), and the immobilization resulted in stabilization of enzyme over a broader pH range. The apparent kinetic constant value (K(m)) of immobilized HRP was 3.784 mmol ml(-1), which was higher than that of free HRP. On the other hand, the activity of immobilized HRP decreased slowly against time when compared to that of the free HRP, and could retain 65.8% residual activity after 6 consecutive cycles. PMID:20060854

  14. HOM identification by bead pulling in the Brookhaven ERL cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn H.; Calaga, R.; Jain, P.; Johnson, E.C.; Xu, W.

    2012-06-25

    Several past measurements of the Brookhaven ERL at superconducting temperature produced a long list of higher order modes (HOMs). The Niobium 5-cell cavity is terminated with HOM ferrite dampers that successfully reduce the Q-factors to tolerable levels. However, a number of undamped resonances with Q {ge} 10{sup 6} were found at 4 K and their mode identification remained as a goal for this paper. The approach taken here consists in taking different S{sub 21} measurements on a copper cavity replica of the ERL which can be compared with the actual data and also with Microwave Studio computer simulations. Several different S{sub 21} transmission measurements are used, including those taken from the fundamental input coupler to the pick-up probe across the cavity, between probes in a single cell, and between beam-position monitor probes in the beam tubes. Mode identification is supported by bead pulling with a metallic needle or a dielectric sphere that are calibrated in the fundamental mode. This paper presents results for HOMs in the first two dipole bands with the prototypical 958 MHz trapped mode, the lowest beam tube resonances, and high-Q modes in the first quadrupole band and beyond.

  15. Insights into the beaded filament of the eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filensin (BFSP1) and CP49 (BFSP2) represent two members of the IF protein superfamily that are thus far exclusively expressed in the eye lens. Mutations in both proteins cause lens cataract and careful consideration of the detail of these cataract phenotypes alerts us to several interesting features concerning the function of filensin (BFSP1) and CP49 (BFSP2) in the lens. With the first filensin (BFSP1) mutation now having been reported to cause a recessive cataract phenotype, there is the suggestion that the mutation could predispose heterozygote carriers to the early onset of age-related nuclear cataract. In the case of CP49 (BFSP2), there are now three unrelated families who have been identified with a common E233Δ mutation. Very interestingly this is linked to myopia in one family. Despite the apparent phenotypic differences of the filensin (BFSP1) and CP49 (BFSP2) mutations, the data are still consistent with the beaded filament proteins being essential for lens function and specifically contributing to the optical properties of the lens. The fact that none of the mutations thus far reported affect either the conserved LNDR or TYRKLLEGE motifs that flank the central rod domain supports the view that this pair of IF proteins have unusual structural features and a distinctive assembly mechanism. The multiple sequence divergences suggest these proteins have been adapted to the specific functional requirements of lens fibre cells, a function that can be traced from squid to man

  16. DNA entropic elasticity for short molecules attached to beads

    CERN Document Server

    Li, J; Nelson, P C; Li, Jinyu; Nelson, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    Single-molecule experiments in which force is applied to DNA or RNA molecules have enabled important discoveries of nucleic acid properties and nucleic acid-enzyme interactions. These experiments rely on a model of the polymer force-extension behavior to calibrate the experiments; typically the experiments use the worm-like chain (WLC) theory for double-stranded DNA and RNA. This theory agrees well with experiments for long molecules. Recent single-molecule experiments have used shorter molecules, with contour lengths in the range of 1-10 persistence lengths. Most WLC theory calculations to date have assumed infinite molecule lengths, and do not agree well with experiments on shorter chains. Key physical effects that become important when shorter molecules are used include (i) boundary conditions which constrain the allowed fluctuations at the ends of the molecule and (ii) rotational fluctuations of the bead to which the polymer is attached, which change the apparent extension of the molecule. We describe the...

  17. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  18. Universal approach for selective trace metal determinations via sequential injection-bead injection-lab-on-valve using renewable hydrophobic bead surfaces as reagent carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is presented for selective and sensitive determination of trace metals via electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) based on the principle of bead injection (BI) with renewable reversed-phase surfaces in a sequential injection-lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) mode. The methodology...... involves the use of poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) beads containing pendant octadecyl moieties (C18-PS/DVB), which are preimpregnated with a selective organic metal chelating agent prior to the automatic manipulation of the beads in the microbore conduits of the LOV unit. By adapting this approach, the...... immobilization of the most suitable chelating agent can be effected irrespective of the kinetics involved, optimal reaction conditions can be used for implementing the chelating reaction of the target metal analyte with the immobilized reagent, and an added degree of freedom is offered in selecting the most...

  19. Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by ion-imprinted tetraethylenepentamine modified chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingjie; Chen, Wei; Peng, Xiaoning; Cao, Qiqi; Wang, Qianrui; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Yu, Guangli

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the bio-based ion-imprinted tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) modified chitosan beads using Pb(II) as imprinted ions (Pb-ITMCB) were chemically synthesized, characterized and applied to selectively adsorb Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions containing other metal ions, which has the same concentration as that of Pb(II) ions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the adsorption conditions, selectivity and reusability. FTIR, SEM and TEM technologies were used to elucidate the mechanism of Pb-ITMCB adsorbing Pb(II) ions. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of Pb-ITMCB for Pb(II) ions reached 259.68mg/g at pH 6, 40°C. The adsorption data could be fitted well with pseudo-second order kinetics model and Langmuir isotherm model. Compared with other metal cations, Pb(II) ions showed an overall affinity of being adsorbed by Pb-ITMCB. With the participation of active groups including NH2, NH and OH, the adsorption reaction took place both inside and on the surface of Pb-ITMCB. It indicated that Pb-ITMCB is a comparatively promising biosorbent for selective removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. PMID:26836613

  20. Encapsulation of lactase (β-galactosidase) into κ-carrageenan-based hydrogel beads: Impact of environmental conditions on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zipei; Zhang, Ruojie; Chen, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes in hydrogel beads may improve their utilization and activity in foods. In this study, the potential of carrageenan hydrogel beads for encapsulating β-galactosidase was investigated. Hydrogel beads were fabricated by injecting an aqueous solution, containing β-galactosidase (26 U) and carrageenan (1 wt%), into a hardening solution (5% potassium chloride). Around 63% of the β-galactosidase was initially encapsulated in the hydrogel beads. Encapsulated β-galactosidase had a higher activity than that of the free enzyme over a range of pH and thermal conditions, which was attributed to the stabilization of the enzyme structure by K(+) ions within the carrageenan beads. Release of the enzyme from the beads was observed during storage in aqueous solutions, which was attributed to the relatively large pore size of the hydrogel matrix. Our results suggest that carrageenan hydrogel beads may be useful encapsulation systems, but further work is needed to inhibit enzyme leakage. PMID:26830562

  1. Degradation and destruction of historical blue-green glass beads: a study using microspectroscopy of light transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue-green historical beads are sometimes described as unstable because of their degradability. At present, it is not known what causes the deterioration of these beads. We explore the internal microstucture of degrading blue-green historical beads and its evolution in the process of bead deterioration. Investigating the transmittance and scattering spectra of visible and near infrared light we observe the formation of microscopic internal inhomogeneities of sizes less than 150 nm in the glass bulk, and growth of their density with an increase in the degree of bead degradation. By means of laser scanning microscopy we also observe numerous microinclusions and microcracks on the cleavage surface of a partially degraded bead. We discuss possible physical factors resulting in the destruction of the blue-green beads

  2. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters from 10 nm to 250 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of planar Hall effect magnetoresistive sensors for AC susceptibility measurements of magnetic beads with frequencies ranging from DC to 1 MHz. This wide frequency range allows for measuring Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 250 nm. B...... sedimentation, magnetic trapping, and signal per bead. Among the investigated beads, we conclude that the beads with a nominal diameter of 80 nm are best suited for future on-chip volume-based biosensing experiments using planar Hall effect sensors.......We demonstrate the use of planar Hall effect magnetoresistive sensors for AC susceptibility measurements of magnetic beads with frequencies ranging from DC to 1 MHz. This wide frequency range allows for measuring Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 250 nm...

  3. Extraction of strontium ions using crown ether functionalized polyacrylamide gel beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple set-up has been developed for the synthesis of polyacrylamide (PAAm) gel beads functionalized with 4-acrylamido benzo 18-crown-6(CE) using sedimentation polymerization method. We report here the synthesis of CE functionalized PAAm beads. These beads have been used for the extraction of Sr2+ ions in water and in 4N HNO3 media. With the aid of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), the concentration of Sr2+ ions in aqueous phase before and after extraction was measured. Preliminary experiments have shown that the extraction efficiency is around 98% in deionized water and no extraction in 4N HNO3. The elution of Sr2+ ions from the CE functionalized PAAm gel beads was done in 4N HNO3 and found to be about 72%. (author)

  4. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary

    2014-06-10

    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  5. Antibody-Conjugated Paramagnetic Nanobeads: Kinetics of Bead-Cell Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Waseem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Specific labelling of target cell surfaces using antibody-conjugated paramagnetic nanobeads is essential for efficient magnetic cell separation. However, studies examining parameters determining the kinetics of bead-cell binding are scarce. The present study determines the binding rates for specific and unspecific binding of 150 nm paramagnetic nanobeads to highly purified target and non-target cells. Beads bound to cells were enumerated spectrophotometrically. Results show that the initial bead-cell binding rate and saturation levels depend on initial bead concentration and fit curves of the form A(1 − exp(−kt. Unspecific binding within conventional experimental time-spans (up to 60 min was not detectable photometrically. For CD3-positive cells, the probability of specific binding was found to be around 80 times larger than that of unspecific binding.

  6. Sorption of uranium from aqueous solution using chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan tripoyiphosphate (CH-TPP) beads were prepared using in-liquid curing method and used for adsorption of uranium from aqueous solution. Beads having with higher cross linking density is found to have better adsorption capacity for uranium. pH 5 is found to be the optimum solution conditions for the sorption of uranium using the higher crosslinked CH-TPP beads. Adsorption is found to be a slow process extending to 3-4 days. Experimental data is found to not fitting with either Langmuir or Freundlich isotherm probably due to poor diffusion of bulky uranium species into dense and glassy chitosan beads. Kinetics of sorption is found to be governed by the intraparticular diffusion which can be described by Fickian law. (author)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads for removal of uranium from aquatic stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to study the feasibility of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads (Cal-Alg-Chi) to sorb the excess uranium from the aquatic stream. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked D glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). The optimal composition of calcium alginate chitosan beads is 4 % (wt/vol) alginate gel having 5% loading of chitosan. The nature and morphology of pure and uranium sorbed calcium alginate chitosan beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATRFTIR). The results of batch sorption experiments suggest that Cal-Alg-Chi beads are very effective for removal of uranium in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 and sorption is more than 80 % in the concentration range of 1-100 mgL-1

  8. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by barium ion cross-linked alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzaşçı Sesil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Barium ion cross-linked alginate beads have shown great affinity to toxic hexavalent chromium ions in aqueous solution, contrary to the traditional calcium alginate beads. The adsorption experiments were carried out by the batch contact method. The optimal pH for removal was found to be pH 4. The equilibrium was established in 4 h and the removal efficiency of chromium (VI was found as 95%. The adsorption data fit well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum chromium (VI adsorption capacity determined from Langmuir isotherm was 36.5 mg/g dry alginate beads. Our study suggests that barium alginate beads can be used as cost-effective and efficient adsorbents for the removal of chromium (VI from contaminated waters.

  9. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl;

    2014-01-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the...... differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface....... The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature...

  10. STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURE OF MACRORETICULAR BEAD PAN/PVC IPN RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanfeng; ZHUO Renxi

    1993-01-01

    Macroreticular bead PAN/PVC IPN reans with cyano and chloro groups were synthesized by interpenetrating polymerization of acrylonitrile, or acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene into a macroporous polyvinyl chloride bead. The composition and structure of the bead IPN resins have been investigated by means of FT-IR, NMR, SEM, mercury porosimetry and elemental analysis. During the process of interpenetrating polymerization, the chain propagation obeys Bernoullian statistical law, and no grafting polymerization has been observed. The content of cyano group in the resulting IPN resins can be adjusted by the amount of acrylonitrile added. The morphology of the IPN resins basically resembles that of the polyvinyl chloride bead,whereas the pore structures vary to a certain degree

  11. A control system for uniform bead in fillet arc welding on tack welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positioning a workpiece accurately and preventing weld distortion, tack welding is often adopted before main welding in the construction of welded structures. However, this tack weld deteriorates the final weld bead profile, so that the grinding process is usually performed for a uniform weld bead profile. In this study, a control system for uniform weld bead is proposed for the fillet arc welding on tack welds. The system consists of GMA welding machine, torch manipulator, laser vision sensor for measuring the tack weld size and the database for optimal welding conditions. Experiments have been performed for constructing the database and for evaluating the control capability of the system. It has been shown that the system has the capability to smooth the bead at the high level of quality

  12. Solid-state array cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strull, G; List, W F; Irwin, E L; Farnsworth, D L

    1972-05-01

    Over the past few years there has been growing interest shown in the rapidly maturing technology of totally solid-state imaging. This paper presents a synopsis of developments made in this field at the Westinghouse ATL facilities with emphasis on row-column organized monolithic arrays of diffused junction phototransistors. The complete processing sequence applicable to the fabrication of modern highdensity arrays is described from wafer ingot preparation to final sensor testing. Special steps found necessary for high yield processing, such as surface etching prior to both sawing and lapping, are discussed along with the rationale behind their adoption. Camera systems built around matrix array photosensors are presented in a historical time-wise progression beginning with the first 50 x 50 element converter developed in 1965 and running through the most recent 400 x 500 element system delivered in 1972. The freedom of mechanical architecture made available to system designers by solid-state array cameras is noted from the description of a bare-chip packaged cubic inch camera. Hybrid scan systems employing one-dimensional line arrays are cited, and the basic tradeoffs to their use are listed. PMID:20119094

  13. Computational Methods for the Analysis of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Chari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH is a technique for assaying the copy number status of cancer genomes. The widespread use of this technology has lead to a rapid accumulation of high throughput data, which in turn has prompted the development of computational strategies for the analysis of array CGH data. Here we explain the principles behind array image processing, data visualization and genomic profile analysis, review currently available software packages, and raise considerations for future software development.

  14. Design and Evaluation of Stomach-Specific Drug Delivery of Domperidone using Floating Pectin Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Varun Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to develop floating beads of Domperidone (DOM in order to increase its residence time in the stomach without contact with the mucosa, improve patient compliance and obtain improved therapeutic efficacy. They are prepared by extrusion congealing technique with pectin as a polymer. Floating beads were characterized by polymer compatibility by using FT-IR. The prepared beads were evaluated for particle size, surface morphology, buoyancy, actual drug content, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Nine formulations of DOM floating beads were formulated by using different percentage of both gas forming agent and pectin. Density of the formulated beads was found to be ranging between 0.101 and 0.182 g/cm3. The particle size was distributed between 0.6 to 1.6 mm. Buoyancy percentage was 71-87% and Drug entrapment efficiency was 54.4-64.48%. The micrometric properties were found to be good and scanning electron microscopy (SEM confirmed their hollow structure with smooth surface. The content of drug release was done by UV spectrophotometer at 284 nm. In vitro drug release of DOM, for F2 is 81.10% and for F6 is 82.6%. And the beads formulated using 0.3w/w (F2 and 0.4% w/w (F6 of pectin was more uniform in shape and exhibited maximum buoyancy. The drug content of the formulated beads was found to be satisfactory by this method. It remains in the gastric region for several hours and hence prolongs the gastric residence time of drug. From the study it was concluded that the gastro retentive drug delivery system designed as floating beads could be suitable drug delivery system for DOM.

  15. Removal of diethyl phthalate from aqueous phase using magnetic poly(EGDMA-VP) beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuemay Oezer, Elif [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Osman, Bilgen, E-mail: bilgeno@uludag.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Kara, Ali; Besirli, Necati; Guecer, Seref [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Soezeri, Hueseyin [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, PO Box 54 TR-41470, Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic beads were prepared for removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total capacity of the beads was determined as 98.9 mg DEP per gram polymer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic beads were regenerated easily and reused for DEP adsorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics were elucidated. - Abstract: The barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) containing magnetic poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-vinyl pyridine), (mag-poly(EGDMA-VP)) beads (average diameter = 53-212 {mu}m) were synthesized and characterized. Their use as an adsorbent in the removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP) from an aqueous solution was investigated. The mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads were prepared by copolymerizing of 4-vinyl pyridine (VP) with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and swelling studies. At a fixed solid/solution ratio, the various factors affecting the adsorption of DEP from aqueous solutions such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature were analyzed. The maximum DEP adsorption capacity of the mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads was determined as 98.9 mg/g at pH 3.0, 25 Degree-Sign C. All the isotherm data can be fitted with both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The pseudo first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritch-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the adsorption kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters obtained indicated the exothermic nature of the adsorption. The DEP adsorption capacity did not change after 10 batch successive reactions, demonstrating the usefulness of the magnetic beads in applications.

  16. Removal of diethyl phthalate from aqueous phase using magnetic poly(EGDMA–VP) beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Magnetic beads were prepared for removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP). ► Total capacity of the beads was determined as 98.9 mg DEP per gram polymer. ► Magnetic beads were regenerated easily and reused for DEP adsorption. ► Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics were elucidated. - Abstract: The barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) containing magnetic poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate–vinyl pyridine), (mag-poly(EGDMA–VP)) beads (average diameter = 53–212 μm) were synthesized and characterized. Their use as an adsorbent in the removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP) from an aqueous solution was investigated. The mag-poly(EGDMA–VP) beads were prepared by copolymerizing of 4-vinyl pyridine (VP) with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The mag-poly(EGDMA–VP) beads were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and swelling studies. At a fixed solid/solution ratio, the various factors affecting the adsorption of DEP from aqueous solutions such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature were analyzed. The maximum DEP adsorption capacity of the mag-poly(EGDMA–VP) beads was determined as 98.9 mg/g at pH 3.0, 25 °C. All the isotherm data can be fitted with both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The pseudo first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritch-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the adsorption kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters obtained indicated the exothermic nature of the adsorption. The DEP adsorption capacity did not change after 10 batch successive reactions, demonstrating the usefulness of the magnetic beads in applications.

  17. Poly(GMA/MA/MBAA) Copolymer Beads: a Highly Efficient Support Immobilizing Penicillin G Acylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping XUE; Guan Zhong LU; Wan Yi LIU

    2006-01-01

    The hydrophilic, macroporous and beaded ternary copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)/methacrylamide(MA)/N,N'-methylene-bis(acrylamide)(MBAA)was synthesized using the industrial agents by inverse suspension polymerization. The apparent activity of the immobilized penicillin G acylase reached 1096 IU/g for hydrolysis penicillin G on the beads with diameter of 0.11-0.13 mm, and it changed hardly after 50 cycles. It can be expected to be a good potential in industrial application.

  18. Injection of porous polycaprolactone beads containing autologous myoblasts in a dog model of fecal incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Hye Seung; Lim, Jae-Young; Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Sang Joon; Hong, Sa-Min; Jang, Je-Ho; Cho, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sung-Min; Lee, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined whether bioengineering can improve fecal incontinence. This study designed to determine whether injection of porous polycaprolactone beads containing autologous myoblasts improves sphincter function in a dog model of fecal incontinence. Methods The anal sphincter of dogs was injured and the dogs were observed without and with (n = 5) the injection of porous polycaprolactone beads containing autologous myoblasts into the site of injury. Autologous myoblasts pu...

  19. Phos-tag beads as an immunoblotting enhancer for selective detection of phosphoproteins in cell lysates

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    The low specificity of anti-phosphoprotein antibodies is often a problem in immunoblotting analyses. We introduce a simple pretreatment procedure for cell lysates to give more-specific detection of phosphoproteins in immunoblotting. Cellular phosphoproteins were preferentially trapped on Phos-tag agarose phosphate-affinity beads in a homemade spin-centrifuge microtube unit, and nonphosphorylated proteins were excluded in the filtrate. The phosphoprotein-bound beads suspended in a sample-loadi...

  20. On-chip magnetic separation of superparamagnetic beads for integrated molecular analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Florescu, Octavian; Wang, Kevan; Au, Patrick; Tang, Jimmy; Harris, Eva; Beatty, P. Robert; Boser, Bernhard E.

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated a postprocessed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) capable of on-chip magnetic separation, i.e., removing via magnetic forces the nonspecifically bound magnetic beads from the detection area on the surface of the chip. Initially, 4.5 μm wide superparamagnetic beads sedimenting out of solution due to gravity were attracted to the detection area by a magnetic concentration force generated by flowing current through a conductor embedded in...

  1. Arsenate removal by layered double hydroxides embedded into spherical polymer beads: Batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhat Ha, Ho Nguyen; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Boi An, Tran; Mai Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ngoc Thang, Tran; Quang Minh, Bui; Van Du, Cao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of poly(layered double hydroxides) [poly(LDHs)] beads as an adsorbent for arsenate removal from aqueous solution was investigated. The poly(LDHs) beads were prepared by immobilizing LDHs into spherical alginate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-glutaraldehyde beads (spherical polymer beads). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to assess the effect of contact time, solution pH, initial arsenate concentrations and co-existing anions on arsenate removal performance. The potential reuse of these poly(LDHs) beads was also investigated. Approximately 79.1 to 91.2% of arsenic was removed from an arsenate solution (50 mg As L(-1)) by poly(LDHs). The adsorption data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model, and the adsorption capacities of these poly(LDHs) beads at pH 8 were from 1.64 to 1.73 mg As g(-1), as calculated from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption ability of the poly(LDHs) beads decreased by approximately 5-6% after 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. Phosphates markedly decreased arsenate removal. The effect of co-existing anions on the adsorption capacity declined in the following order: HPO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-) > SO4 (2-) > Cl(-). A fixed-bed column study was conducted with real-life arsenic-containing water. The breakthrough time was found to be from 7 to 10 h. Under optimized conditions, the poly(LDHs) removed more than 82% of total arsenic. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further extending the adsorbents to the field scale or for designing pilot plants in future studies. From the viewpoint of environmental friendliness, the poly(LDHs) beads are a potential cost-effective adsorbent for arsenate removal in water treatment. PMID:26818806

  2. Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Moe; Morten Devor; Øyvind Stigen; Jæger, Gry T.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Traditional acupuncture uses needles inserted at certain acupuncture points. Gold bead implantation at acupuncture points is used in acupuncture intended to relieve pain in certain diseases. The method of gold implantation is not well described in the literature. We describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the joints of dogs with degenerative joint disease due to chronic hip dysplasia. The method is safe and fairly easy to perform under anesthesia. It has...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of monosize magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evrim Banu Alt1nta(s); Lokman Uzun; Adil Denizli

    2007-01-01

    Monosize, 1.6 μm, magnetic beads of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) [M-poly(GMA)], were prepared by dispersion polymerization in the presence of Fe3O4 nano-powder. Monosize M-poly(GMA) beads were characterized by swelling tests, density measurements, electron spin resonance (ESR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristic functional groups of M-poly(GMA)beads were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The M-poly(GMA) beads are highly uniform in size and have a spherical shape and non-porous structure. Polydispersity index (PDI) of M-poly(GMA) beads was calculated to be around 1.008. The hydrated density of the M-poly(GMA) beads measured at 25 ℃ was 1.14 g/cm3. The content of oxirane groups on the surface of the M-poly(GMA) sample was found to be 3.46 mmol/g by using perchloric acid titration. The specific surface area of the M-poly(GMA) beads was determined to be 3.2 m2/g.The equilibrium swelling ratio was 52%. The volume fraction of magnetite nanopowder in the M-poly(GMA) beads was found to be 4.5%. The g factor, that can be considered as a quantity characteristic of the molecules in which the unpaired electrons are located, was found to be 2.28for M-poly(GMA). The external magnetic field at resonance was calculated to be 2055 Gs which was found sufficient to excite all of the dipole moments present in 1.0 g of M-poly(GMA) sample.

  4. Microfluidic immunomagnetic multi-target sorting – a model for controlling deflection of paramagnetic beads

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, S S H; Griffiths, I. M.; Stone, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a microfluidic system that uses a magnetic field to sort paramagnetic beads by deflecting them in the direction normal to the flow. Our experiments systematically study the dependence of the beads’ deflection on: bead size and susceptibility, magnet strength, fluid speed and viscosity, and device geometry. We also develop a design parameter that can aid in the design of microfluidic devices for immunomagnetic multi-target sorting.

  5. Adsorption of doxorubicin on poly (methyl methacrylate) -chitosan-heparin coated activated carbon beads

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Jianjun; Zhang, Fuming; Takieddin, Majde; Mousa, Shaker; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal filter cartridges, filled with activated carbon bead (ACB) adsorbent, have been used for removal of overdosed cancer drugs from the blood. Coatings on adsorbent matrices, poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/activated carbon bead and PMMA/chitosan/heparin/ACB composites, were tested to improve their biocompatibility and blood compatibility. PMMA coating on ACBs was accomplished in a straightforward manner using a PMMA solution in ethyl acetate. One-step hybrid coating of ACBs with...

  6. Effect of welding parameters of Gas Metal Arc welding on weld bead geometry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Kumar Baghel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Weld quality comprises bead geometry and its microstructure, which influence the mechanical properties of the weld. This brief review illustrates the effect of pulse parameters on weld quality. The responsefactors, namely bead penetration, weld width, reinforcement height, weld penetration shape factor and weld reinforcement form factor as affected by arc voltage, wire feed rate, welding speed, gas flow rate and nozzle-toplate distance has also been analysed

  7. Archaeometric study of glass beads from the 2nd century BC cemetery of Numantia

    OpenAIRE

    García Heras, Manuel; Rincoón López, Jesús M.; Alfredo JIMENO MARTÍNEZ; Villegas Broncano, María Angeles

    2003-01-01

    Recent archaeologícalf ieldwork undertaken in the Celtiberian cremation necropolis of Numantia (Soria, Spain) has provided a group of glass beads from the 2nd century BC. Such glass beads were part, together with other metallic and ceramic items, of the offerings deposited with the dead. They are ring-shaped in typology and deep-blue, amber, or semitransparent white in colour. This paper reports results derived from the chemical and microstructural characterization carried out on a representa...

  8. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF DRAW—BEAD RESTRAINING FORCE IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H.Yang; J.Chen; 等

    2003-01-01

    Due to complexities of draw-bead restraining force calculated according to theory and depending on sheet metal forming properties experiment testing system,a simplified method to calculate draw-bead restraining force is put forward by experimental method in cup-shaped drawing process.The experimental results were compared with numer-ical results and proved agreement.It shows the method is effective.

  9. Evolution of enzyme catalysts caged in biomimetic gel-shell beads

    OpenAIRE

    Fischlechner, Martin; Schaerli, Yolanda; Mohamed, Mark F.; Patil, Santosh; Abell, Chris; Hollfelder, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Natural evolution relies on the improvement of biological entities by rounds of diversification and selection. In the laboratory, directed evolution has emerged as a powerful tool for the development of new and improved biomolecules, but it is limited by the enormous workload and cost of screening sufficiently large combinatorial libraries. Here we describe the production of gel-shell beads (GSBs) with the help of a microfluidic device. These hydrogel beads are surrounded with a polyelectroly...

  10. The effect of pharmaceutical excipients on isoniazid release from chitosan beads / Deon van Rensburg

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rensburg, Andries Gideon

    2007-01-01

    In controlled release applications a drug is molecularly dispersed in a polymer phase. In the presence of a thermodynamically compatible solvent, swelling occurs and the polymer releases its content to the surrounding medium. The rate of the drug release can be controlled by interfering with the swelling rate of the beads or by influencing diffusion through the viscosity of the polymer. Beads that contain chitosan were prepared through the ionotropic gelation method where tr...

  11. Immobilization of Lipase from Candida rugosa on Chitosan Beads for Transesterification Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nasratun; H. A. Said; Noraziah, A.; A. N.A. Alla

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Further study is recommended to improve the immobilization technique and the immobilized lipases performance as catalysis in transesterification reaction. Approach: To investigate the ability of immobilized lipase on chitosan beads to catalyze the transesterification of cooking oil to an ester. The porous bead of chitosan was used for immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa by physical adsorption. Parameters like reaction time and oil to methanol molar ratios were stud...

  12. Heme Iron Release from Alginate Beads at In Vitro Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carolina; Hernández, Valesca; Morales, María Sol; Pizarro, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Heme iron (Fe) release from alginate beads at in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions for potential use as oral heme Fe supplement was studied. Five beads at different ratios of sodium alginate (SA)-to-spray-dried bovine blood cells (SDBC) with weight ratios of 1:1.25, 1:2.5, 1:5, 1:10, and 1:15 (w/w) were prepared. Release characteristics of these beads were investigated at in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Release media pH strongly influenced the controlled Fe release from the beads. The heme Fe-beads in simulated gastric fluid (pH 2) remained in a shrinkage state and Fe release was low: 25.8, 21.1, 11.6, 12.1, and 12.0 % for 1:1.25, 1:2.5, 1:5, 1:10, and 1:15 ratios, respectively. Proportion and amount of Fe released by 1:1.25 and 1:2.5 ratios was higher than the other ratios. The heme Fe-beads swelled and dissociated in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6), releasing three-fourths of the Fe in 200 min. The morphology studies showed that Fe release followed formation of pores in the alginate matrix, generating erosion of the beads and complete disintegration after 75 and 200 min of gastric and intestinal incubation, respectively. These results indicate that heme Fe-beads may be useful for oral delivery of heme Fe supplement. PMID:26610684

  13. Effect of porous polycaprolactone beads on bone regeneration: preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, June-Ho; Lee, Han A Reum; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Jin Ho; Oh, Se Heang

    2014-01-01

    Background For the effective bone regeneration with appropriate pathological/physiological properties, a variety of bone fillers have been adapted as a therapeutic treatment. However, the development of ideal bone fillers is still remained as a big challenge in clinical practice. The main aims of this study are i) fabrication of a highly porous PCL beads; and ii) the estimation of the potential use of the porous PCL beads as a bone filler through preliminary animal study. Results The porous P...

  14. Identification of Landing Gear Aeroacoustic Noise Sources with the Synthetic Array Technique Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this program, Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC), LLC and collaborators propose to advance "synthetic phased array" technology to improve...

  15. A bead-based fluorescence immunosensing technique enabled by the integration of Förster resonance energy transfer and optoelectrokinetic concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jhih-Cheng; Ku, Hu-Yao; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Chuang, Han-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Bead-based immunosensing has been growing as a promising technology in the point-of-care diagnostics due to great flexibility. For dilute samples, functionalized particles can be used to collect dispersed analytes and act as carriers for particle manipulation. To realize rapid and visual immunosensing, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used herein to ensure only the diabetic biomarker, lipocalin 1, to be detected. The measurement was made in an aqueous droplet sandwiched between two parallel plate electrodes. With an electric field and a focused laser beam applying on the microchip simultaneously, the immunocomplexes in the droplet were further concentrated to enhance the FRET fluorescent signal. The optoelectrokinetic technique, termed rapid electrokinetic patterning (REP), has been proven to be excellent in dynamic and programmable particle manipulation. Therefore, the detection can be complete within several tens of seconds. The lower detection limit of the REP-enabled bead-based diagnosis reached nearly 5 nM. The combinative use of FRET and the optoelectrokinetic technique for the bead-based immunosensing enables a rapid measure to diagnose early stage diseases and dilute analytes. PMID:26865906

  16. Adsorption of ochratoxin A from grape juice by yeast cells immobilised in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbo, Maria Grazia; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Fiori, Stefano; Marceddu, Salvatore; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2016-01-18

    Grape juice can be easily contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health significance. Among the different approaches to decontaminate juice from this mycotoxin, microbiological methods proved efficient, inexpensive and safe, particularly the use of yeast or yeast products. To ascertain whether immobilisation of the yeast biomass would lead to successful decontamination, alginate beads encapsulating Candida intermedia yeast cells were used in our experiments to evaluate their OTA-biosorption efficacy. Magnetic calcium alginate beads were also prepared by adding magnetite in the formulation to allow fast removal from the aqueous solution with a magnet. Calcium alginate beads were added to commercial grape juice spiked with 20 μg/kg OTA and after 48 h of incubation a significant reduction (>80%), of the total OTA content was achieved, while in the subsequent phases (72-120 h) OTA was slowly released into the grape juice by alginate beads. Biosorption properties of alginate-yeast beads were tested in a prototype bioreactor consisting in a glass chromatography column packed with beads, where juice amended with OTA was slowly flowed downstream. The adoption of an interconnected scaled-up bioreactor as an efficient and safe tool to remove traces of OTA from liquid matrices is discussed. PMID:26485316

  17. Chemical surface modification of glass beads for the treatment of paper machine process waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jradi, Khalil, E-mail: khalil.jradi@uqtr.c [Centre de Recherche en Pates et Papiers, Universite du Quebec a Trois Rivieres, 3351 boul. des forges, C.P. 500, Trois Rivieres, QC, G9A-5H7 (Canada); Daneault, Claude [Canada Research Chair in Value-Added Paper Manufacturing (Canada); Chabot, Bruno [Centre de Recherche en Pates et Papiers, Universite du Quebec a Trois Rivieres, 3351 boul. des forges, C.P. 500, Trois Rivieres, QC, G9A-5H7 (Canada)

    2011-04-29

    Adsorption of detrimental contaminants on a solid sorbent is proposed to remove these contaminants from process waters to increase water recycling and reduce effluent loads in the papermaking industry. A self-assembly process of attaching (covalent grafting) cationic aminosilane molecules to glass beads was investigated. The existence and the hydrolytic stability of self-assembled monolayers and multilayers were confirmed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Effects of reaction time and curing on aminosilane layer structures are also discussed. The curing step after silanization seems to be crucial in the hydrophobization of the quaternary ammonium silane coated onto glass beads, and curing could affect the final chemical structure of the ammonium groups of grafted organosilane. Results indicated that modified glass beads have a strong hydrophobicity, which is attributed to the hydrophobic property of the longest carbon chain grafted onto the glass surface. Adsorption of a model contaminant (stearic acid) onto chemically modified glass beads was determined using colloidal titration. Hydrophobic interactions could be the main driving force involved between the long carbon chains of stearic acid and the carbon chains of the aminosilane layers on glass bead surfaces. Finally, self-assembly processes applied onto glass beads may have two promising applications for papermaking and self-cleaning systems.

  18. Chemical surface modification of glass beads for the treatment of paper machine process waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption of detrimental contaminants on a solid sorbent is proposed to remove these contaminants from process waters to increase water recycling and reduce effluent loads in the papermaking industry. A self-assembly process of attaching (covalent grafting) cationic aminosilane molecules to glass beads was investigated. The existence and the hydrolytic stability of self-assembled monolayers and multilayers were confirmed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Effects of reaction time and curing on aminosilane layer structures are also discussed. The curing step after silanization seems to be crucial in the hydrophobization of the quaternary ammonium silane coated onto glass beads, and curing could affect the final chemical structure of the ammonium groups of grafted organosilane. Results indicated that modified glass beads have a strong hydrophobicity, which is attributed to the hydrophobic property of the longest carbon chain grafted onto the glass surface. Adsorption of a model contaminant (stearic acid) onto chemically modified glass beads was determined using colloidal titration. Hydrophobic interactions could be the main driving force involved between the long carbon chains of stearic acid and the carbon chains of the aminosilane layers on glass bead surfaces. Finally, self-assembly processes applied onto glass beads may have two promising applications for papermaking and self-cleaning systems.

  19. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-02-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation.

  20. "Nanofiltration" Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation. PMID:26876979

  1. The influence of the degree of cross-linking on the adsorption properties of chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osifo, Peter O; Webster, Athena; van der Merwe, Hein; Neomagus, Hein W J P; van der Gun, Marius A; Grant, David M

    2008-10-01

    The influence of the degree of cross-linking (DCL) on chitosan beads was studied. Chitosan was prepared from the exoskeleton of Cape rock-lobsters, collected from the surroundings of Cape Town, South Africa. The chitosan beads were characterized; the beads water contents and pKa varied in the range of 90-96% and 4.3-6.0, respectively, and were found to decrease with increasing DCL (0.0-34.0%). A pH-model, which described the reversibility of the metal adsorbed onto the beads, was used to predict the equilibrium properties of copper adsorption onto the cross-linked beads. The model accounts for the effect of pH and the important model parameters, the equilibrium adsorption constant (Kads) and to a lesser extent the adsorbent adsorption capacity (qmax) showed to decrease with the DCL. The adsorbent capacity and the adsorption constant were determined as 3.8-5.0mmol/g chitosan and (9-90)x10(-4), respectively. The adsorption kinetics could be described using a shrinking core model and the effective diffusion coefficient (Deff) was determined as (8.0-25.8)x10(-11)m2/s. It was found that Deff decreases with the DCL mainly due to the decreased in water content of the beads at high DCL. PMID:18342504

  2. Radiation synthesis of chitosan beads grafted with acrylic acid for metal ions sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamer, S., E-mail: benamers@yahoo.fr [Division of Nuclear Applications, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, BP-399 Alger-Gare (Algeria); Mahlous, M.; Tahtat, D.; Nacer-Khodja, A.; Arabi, M. [Division of Nuclear Applications, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, BP-399 Alger-Gare (Algeria); Lounici, H.; Mameri, N. [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique d' El-Harrach Alger (Algeria)

    2011-12-15

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan beads was performed in solution at a dose rate of 20.6 Gy/min of cobalt-60 gamma rays. The effect of absorbed dose on grafting yield was investigated. The characterization of the grafted material was performed by FTIR spectroscopy and the swelling measurements at different pHs. The grafting yield increased with the increase in dose, it reached 80% at 40 kGy irradiation dose. The removal of Pb and Cd ions from aqueous solutions was investigated with both ungrafted and grafted chitosan beads. The sorption behavior of the sorbents was examined through pH, kinetics and equilibrium measurements. Grafted chitosan beads presented higher sorption capacity for both metal ions than unmodified chitosan beads. - Highlights: > Pb and Cd ions are removed from aqueous solution by adsorption on chitosan beads. > Crosslinking process improves chemical stability of chitosan beads. > Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan improves its metal adsorption capacity. > Increase in grafting degree enhances the adsorption capacity of the material. > Gamma radiation is a powerful tool for an accurate control of the grafting yield.

  3. Radiation synthesis of chitosan beads grafted with acrylic acid for metal ions sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan beads was performed in solution at a dose rate of 20.6 Gy/min of cobalt-60 gamma rays. The effect of absorbed dose on grafting yield was investigated. The characterization of the grafted material was performed by FTIR spectroscopy and the swelling measurements at different pHs. The grafting yield increased with the increase in dose, it reached 80% at 40 kGy irradiation dose. The removal of Pb and Cd ions from aqueous solutions was investigated with both ungrafted and grafted chitosan beads. The sorption behavior of the sorbents was examined through pH, kinetics and equilibrium measurements. Grafted chitosan beads presented higher sorption capacity for both metal ions than unmodified chitosan beads. - Highlights: → Pb and Cd ions are removed from aqueous solution by adsorption on chitosan beads. → Crosslinking process improves chemical stability of chitosan beads. → Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan improves its metal adsorption capacity. → Increase in grafting degree enhances the adsorption capacity of the material. → Gamma radiation is a powerful tool for an accurate control of the grafting yield.

  4. Floating mucoadhesive alginate beads of amoxicillin trihydrate: A facile approach for H. pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanjoy Kumar; De, Pintu Kumar; De, Arnab; Ojha, Souvik; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Samanta, Amalesh

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the design of sunflower oil entrapped floating and mucoadhesive beads of amoxicillin trihydrate using sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as matrix polymers and chitosan as coating polymer to localize the antibiotic at the stomach site against Helicobacter pylori. Beads prepared by ionotropic gellation technique were evaluated for different physicochemical, in-vitro and in-vivo properties. Beads of all batches were floated for >24h with a maximum lag time of 46.3±3.2s. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the beads were spherical in shape with few oil filled channels distributed throughout the surfaces and small pocket structures inside the matrix confirming oil entrapment. Prepared beads showed good mucoadhesiveness of 75.7±3.0% to 85.0±5.5%. The drug release profile was best fitted to Higuchi model with non fickian driven mechanism. The optimized batch showed 100% Helicobacter pylori growth inhibition in 15h in in-vitro culture. Furthermore, X-ray study in rabbit stomach confirmed the gastric retention of optimized formulation. The results exhibited that formulated beads may be preferred to localize the antibiotic in the gastric region to allow more availability of antibiotic at gastric mucus layer acting on Helicobacter pylori, thereby improving the therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27177460

  5. Surface modification of glass beads with glutaraldehyde: Characterization and their adsorption property for metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a new material that adsorbs the metal ions was prepared by modification of the glass beads surfaces with glutaraldehyde. First, the glass beads were etched with 4 M NaOH solution. Then, they were reacted with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Finally, silanized glass beads were treated with 25% of glutaraldehyde solution. The characterization studies by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), elemental analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) indicated that modification of the glass bead surfaces was successfully performed. The adsorption studies exhibited that the modified glass beads could be efficiently used for the removal of the metal cations and anion (chromate ion) from aqueous solutions via chelation and ion-exchange mechanisms. For both Pb(II) and Cr(VI), selected as model ions, the adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 60 min and adsorption of both ions followed the second-order kinetic model. It was found that the sorption data was better represented by the Freundlich isotherm in comparison to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II) and Cr(VI) were 9.947 and 11.571 mg/g, respectively. The regeneration studies also showed that modified glass beads could be re-used for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions over three cycles.

  6. Ispaghula mucilage-gellan mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl: development by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-07-17

    Response surface methodology based on 3(2) factorial design was used to develop ispaghula (Plantago ovata F.) husk mucilage (IHM)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through Ca(2+)-ion cross-linked ionotropic-gelation technique for the use in oral drug delivery. GG to IHM ratio and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration were investigated as independent variables. Drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release after 10h (R10h, %) were analyzed as dependent variables. The optimized mucoadhesive beads (F-O) showed DEE of 94.24 ± 4.18%, R10h of 59.13 ± 2.27%. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The in vitro drug release from these beads showed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism over 10h. The optimized beads showed pH-dependent swelling and good mucoadhesivity with the goat intestinal mucosa. The optimized IHM-GG mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl exhibited significant antidiabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over 10h. PMID:24702916

  7. Nanohole 3D-size tailoring through polystyrene bead combustion during thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel approach is presented for nanohole 3D-size tailoring. The process starts with a monolayer of polystyrene (PS) beads spun coat on silicon wafer as a template. The holes can be directly prepared through combustion of PS beads by oxygen plasma during metal or oxide thin film deposition. The incoming particles are prevented from adhering on PS beads by H2O and CO2 generated from the combustion of the PS beads. The hole depth generally depends on the film thickness. The hole diameter can be tailored by the PS bead size, film deposition rate, and also the combustion speed of the PS beads. In this work, a series of holes with depth of 4-24 nm and diameter of 10-36 nm has been successfully prepared. The hole wall materials can be selected from metals such as Au or Pt and oxides such as SiO2 or Al2O3. These templates could be suitable for the preparation and characterization of novel nanodevices based on single quantum dots or single molecules, and could be extended to the studies of a wide range of coating materials and substrates with controlled hole depth and diameters.

  8. Impact of gelation period on modified locust bean-alginate interpenetrating beads for oral glipizide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Paramita; Sa, Biswanath; Maiti, Sabyasachi

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the effect of hydrogelation period in the design of glipizide-loaded biopolymer-based interpenetrating network (IPN) beads was investigated. Carboxymethyl locust bean gum and sodium alginate IPN beads were prepared by ionic crosslinking method using aqueous aluminium chloride salt solution as gelation medium. The longer exposure of the IPN beads in the gelation medium caused a considerable loss of the drug (∼ 8%), and also affected their surface morphology and drug release performance. Spherical shape of the IPN beads was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The diameter of IPN beads increased with increasing gelation time. The IPNs cured for 0.5h exhibited slower drug release kinetics in HCl (pH 1.2) and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) solution than those incubated for 1-2h. The drug release occurred at a faster rate in phosphate buffer solution and continued for a minimum period of 8h. The IPNs cured for the lowest period obeyed polymer chain-relaxation phenomenon as dominating mechanism for drug release. However, all the IPNs followed anomalous mechanism of drug transport. The drug release corroborated well with pH-dependent swelling behaviors of the IPNs. Thus, IPN beads cured for 0.5h were found most suitable for controlled delivery of BCS class II anti-diabetic drug glipizide. PMID:25745842

  9. 圆阵列MUSIC算法快速测向技术%Fast Direction Finding Technology Based on MUSIC Algorithm with Circular Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴良; 阮怀林; 王树亮

    2011-01-01

    大量的乘法运算和三角函数求值是MUSIC算法实时处理能力不足的主要原因.对MUSIC算法复数乘法进行分解并构造两个实值向量,利用Hermite矩阵的性质去掉冗余乘法运算.在此基础上,提出两种查表法代替三角函数求值:直接查表法,完全避免三角函数求值运算;间接查表法,即对方位角信息和俯仰角信息分别查表,具有较好的信号频率适应性.利用圆阵列结构特征和三角函数对称性减少查表法的数据量,直接查表法仍需较大的存储空间,而间接查表法只需要很小的存储空间.仿真实验结果表明查表法大幅提高了MUSIC算法的计算速率.%The MUSIC algorithm is abundant in the multiplication and the evaluation of trigonometric functions. It is the main reason why it is weak in real-time processing. The complex multiplication of MUSIC algorithm is decomposed and two real vectors are constructed.The redundant multiplication is removed by the properties of Hermite matrix. Based on this,two look-up-table methods are proposed to replace the evaluations of trigonometric functions.One is the direct method, in which all the evaluations of trigonometric functions are avoided.The other is the indirect method, in which the information of azimuth angle and the information of elevation angle are looked up respectively. The latter method has the better adaptability of signal frequency. Using the structural features of circular array and the symmetry properties of trigonometric functions, the data quantity of look-up-table is reduced. The direct method needs much more memory space than the indirect one. Simulation results show that these methods raise the rate of MUSIC algorithm dramatically.

  10. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...

  11. Magnetic Bead Based Immunoassay for Autonomous Detection of Toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Y; Hara, C A; Knize, M G; Hwang, M H; Venkatesteswaran, K S; Wheeler, E K; Bell, P M; Renzi, R F; Fruetel, J A; Bailey, C G

    2008-05-01

    As a step towards toward the development of a rapid, reliable analyzer for bioagents in the environment, we are developing an automated system for the simultaneous detection of a group of select agents and toxins. To detect toxins, we modified and automated an antibody-based approach previously developed for manual medical diagnostics that uses fluorescent eTag{trademark} reporter molecules and is suitable for highly multiplexed assays. Detection is based on two antibodies binding simultaneously to a single antigen, one of which is labeled with biotin while the other is conjugated to a fluorescent eTag{trademark} through a cleavable linkage. Aqueous samples are incubated with the mixture of antibodies along with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads coupled to a photo-activatable porphyrin complex. In the presence of antigen, a molecular complex is formed where the cleavable linkage is held in proximity to the photoactivable group. Upon excitation at 680 nm, free radicals are generated, which diffuse and cleave the linkage, releasing the eTags{trademark}. Released eTags{trademark} are analyzed using capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Limits of detection for ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid individually were 4 ng/mL (or 80 pg) and 16 ng/mL (or 320 pg), respectively, using the manual assay. In addition, we demonstrated the use of pairs of antibodies from different sources in a single assay to decrease the rate of false positives. Automation of the assay was demonstrated on a flow-through format with higher LODs of 125 ng/mL (or 2.5 ng) each of a mixture of ovalbumin and botulinum toxoid. This versatile assay can be easily modified with the appropriate antibodies to detect a wide range of toxins and other proteins.

  12. Array of planar waveguide lasers with 50 GHz frequency spacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Laurent-Lund, Christian; Sckerl, Mads W.

    1999-01-01

    Waveguide laser arrays are demonstrated using planar silica-on-silicon technology. Excellent control over frequency separation is obtained with a single phase mask.......Waveguide laser arrays are demonstrated using planar silica-on-silicon technology. Excellent control over frequency separation is obtained with a single phase mask....

  13. Radiometric stability of Phase 3 WISP arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David S.; Marlow, Steven A.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Murrer, Robert Lee

    2000-07-01

    Phase 3 WISP arrays and BRITE arrays are currently being used extensively in many projection systems in many different facilities. These arrays have not been annealed at the factory, and previous tests with the arrays have revealed instabilities in the radiometric output when the arrays are driven at higher voltages. In some applications, the instabilities can be avoided by operating the arrays at lower voltages. In many KHILS applications, it is desirable to drive the arrays with the highest possible voltages to simulate hot missile targets. In one KHILS application (the KHILS VAcuum Cold Chamber, KVACC), the arrays are cooled to near cryogenic temperatures and then driven to high voltages. At lower substrate temperatures, the characteristic responses of the emitters change. Thus, it is important that the response and the stability of the radiometric output of the arrays be well understood for various substrate temperatures, and that the arrays either be annealed or operated below the voltage where the emitters begin to anneal. KHILS has investigated annealing procedures in the past, but there was concern that the annealing procedures themselves -- driving the arrays at high voltages for long times -- would damage the arrays. In order to understand the performance of the arrays better, and to reduce risks associated with driving the arrays at high voltages and operating the arrays at low substrate temperatures, a systematic measurement program was initiated. The radiometric output of new Phase 3 WISP arrays was accurately measured as a function of voltage and time. Arrays designated for testing were driven to the higher voltages and the radiometric output was measured for as long as two hours. Curves indicative of the annealing were observed, and it was determined that the maximum stable output without annealing was about 500 K (MWIR apparent temperature). Blocks of emitters were annealed and tested again. It was determined that stable output of as much as 680 K

  14. Universal approach for selective trace metal determinations via sequential injection-bead injection-lab-on-valve using renewable hydrophobic bead surfaces as reagent carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is presented for selective and sensitive determination of trace metals via electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) based on the principle of bead injection (BI) with renewable reversed-phase surfaces in a sequential injection-lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) mode. The methodology...

  15. Microfluidic bead-based multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification for detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood using quantum dots labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Fu, Xin; Hu, Jiayi; Zhu, Zhenjun

    2013-05-24

    This study reports the development of a microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells in blood samples using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dot labels. In this method, the microbeads functionalized with the capture probes and modified electron rich proteins were arrayed within a microfluidic channel as sensing elements, and the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with the horseradish peroxidases (HRP) and DNA probes were used as labels. Hence, two signal amplification approaches are integrated for enhancing the detection sensitivity of circulating tumor cells. First, the large surface area of Au nanoparticle carrier allows several binding events of HRP on each nanosphere. Second, enhanced mass transport capability inherent from microfluidics leads to higher capture efficiency of targets because continuous flow within micro-channel delivers fresh analyte solution to the reaction site which maintains a high concentration gradient differential to enhance mass transport. Based on the dual signal amplification strategy, the developed microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor could discriminate as low as 5 fM (signal-to-noise (S/N)3) of synthesized carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene fragments and showed a 1000-fold increase in detection limit compared to the off-chip test. In addition, using spiked colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) in the blood as a model system, the detection limit of this chip-based approach was found to be as low as 1 HT29 in 1 mL blood sample. This microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor is a promising platform for disease-related nucleic acid molecules at the lowest level at their earliest incidence. PMID:23663673

  16. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U3O8) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na2CO3 solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  17. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  18. Elemental analysis of bead samples using a laser-induced plasma at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, Tjung Jie [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)]. E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id; Kurniawan, Davy P. [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Graduate Program in Opto Electrotechniques and Laser Applications, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Indonesia, 4 Salemba Raya, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia); Khumaeni, Ali [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Natiq, Shouny A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23116 (Indonesia); Lee, Yong Inn [Physics Department, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756, South Korea (Korea); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Idris, Nasrullah [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Tjia, May On [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2006-01-15

    An Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 8 ns, 30 mJ) was focused on various types of fresh, fossilized white coral and giant shell samples, including samples of imitation shell and marble. Such samples are extremely important as material for preparing prayer beads that are extensively used in the Buddhist faith. The aim of this research was to develop a non-destructive method to distinguish original beads from their imitations by means of spectral measurements of the carbon, hydrogen, sodium and magnesium emission intensities and by measuring the hardness of the sample using the ratio between Ca (II) 396.8 nm and Ca (I) 422.6 nm. Based on these measurements, original fresh coral beads can be distinguished from any imitation made from hard wood. The same technique was also effective in distinguishing beads made of shell from its imitation. A spectral analysis of bead was also performed on a fossilized white coral sample and the result can be used to distinguish to some extent the fossilized white coral beads from any imitation made from marble. It was also found that the plasma plume should be generated at low ambient pressure to significantly improve the hydrogen and carbon emission intensity and also to avoid energy loss inside the crater during laser irradiation at atmospheric pressure. The results of this study confirm that operating the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy at reduced ambient pressure offers distinct advantage for bead analysis over the conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique operated at atmospheric pressure.

  19. Elemental analysis of bead samples using a laser-induced plasma at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 8 ns, 30 mJ) was focused on various types of fresh, fossilized white coral and giant shell samples, including samples of imitation shell and marble. Such samples are extremely important as material for preparing prayer beads that are extensively used in the Buddhist faith. The aim of this research was to develop a non-destructive method to distinguish original beads from their imitations by means of spectral measurements of the carbon, hydrogen, sodium and magnesium emission intensities and by measuring the hardness of the sample using the ratio between Ca (II) 396.8 nm and Ca (I) 422.6 nm. Based on these measurements, original fresh coral beads can be distinguished from any imitation made from hard wood. The same technique was also effective in distinguishing beads made of shell from its imitation. A spectral analysis of bead was also performed on a fossilized white coral sample and the result can be used to distinguish to some extent the fossilized white coral beads from any imitation made from marble. It was also found that the plasma plume should be generated at low ambient pressure to significantly improve the hydrogen and carbon emission intensity and also to avoid energy loss inside the crater during laser irradiation at atmospheric pressure. The results of this study confirm that operating the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy at reduced ambient pressure offers distinct advantage for bead analysis over the conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique operated at atmospheric pressure

  20. Between-array normalization for 450K data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Alexander Heiss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip is frequently used in epigenetic research. Besides quantile normalization there is currently no standard method to normalize the data between arrays. We describe some properties of the data generated by this platform and present a normalization method based on local regression. We compare the performance of this method with other commonly used approaches in three benchmarks (correlation between 21 pairs of technical replicates, detection of differential methylation and correlation of methylation levels for smoking-associated CpG sites with smoking behavior of 655 participants of an epidemiological study. Results indicate that the proposed method improves reproducibility, whereas some commonly used methods can have adverse effects.R code is provided online, datasets are available from ArrayExpress under Accession E-MTAB-3072

  1. Encapsulated thermopile detector array for IR microspectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    H. Wu; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R F

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as possible pitch, which is limited by processing constraints. The large aspect ratio of the TE elements implies a large cross-sectional area between adjacent elements within the array and results in a rela...

  2. Slotted Polyimide-Aerogel-Filled-Waveguide Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Solis, Rafael A.; Pacheco, Hector L.; Miranda, Felix A.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation discussed the potential advantages of developing Slotted Waveguide Arrays using polyimide aerogels. Polyimide (PI) aerogels offer great promise as an enabling technology for lightweight aerospace antenna systems. PI aerogels are highly porous solids possessing low density and low dielectric permittivity combined with good mechanical properties. For slotted waveguide array applications, there are significant advantages in mass that more than compensate for the slightly higher loss of the aerogel filled waveguide when compared to state of practice commercial waveguide.

  3. Uptake of fluorescent nano beads into BY2-cells involves clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandmann, Vera; Müller, Jasmin Daniela; Köhler, Tim; Homann, Ulrike

    2012-10-19

    To follow endocytosis in BY-2 cells we made use of fluorescent nano beads. Beads with 20nm in diameter were internalised rapidly and accumulated partially in compartments also labelled by the endocytic marker FM4-64. Studies in BY-2 cells and protoplasts revealed that larger beads (100nm) were excluded from uptake into turgescent and plasmolysed cells while protoplasts were able to internalise beads with a diameter of up to 1000nm. Endocytosis of beads was only partially inhibited by the clathrin-specific inhibitor Ikarugamycin and strongly blocked by wortmannin. These results imply that uptake of beads involves clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytic mechanisms and supports the hypothesis that clathrin-independent endocytosis plays a general role in plants. PMID:23046971

  4. A SIW Antipodal Vivaldi Array Antenna Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Suo; Wei Li; Jianzhong Chen

    2016-01-01

    A kind of compact SIW (substrate integrated waveguide) Vivaldi array antenna is proposed and analyzed. The antenna consisted of 4 Vivaldi structure radiation elements fed by an equal power divider with SIW technology. The radiation element is composed of antipodal index gradient microstrip lines on both sides of the substrate. The measured reflection coefficient of the array antenna is less than −10 dB from 8.88 GHz to 10.02 GHz. The measured gain of the array antenna is 13.3 dB on 9.5 GHz....

  5. Future sensor system needs for staring arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John Lester

    2011-05-01

    This is a systems application paper regarding how sensor systems may use future technology FPAs. A historical perspective is discussed along with lessons learned from previous technologies. Future system requirements for strained super-lattice (SLS), quantum dots (QDOT) and traditional quantum well infrared photo-diodes (QWIP) arrays will be presented from both a commercial and military perspective. New potential markets will open up in the future if certain FPA technologies can reduce cost and provide higher sensitivities at higher operating temperatures.

  6. Advanced MOSFET variability and reliability characterization array

    OpenAIRE

    Simicic, Marko; Putcha, Vamsi; Parvais, Bertrand; Weckx, Pieter; Kaczer, Ben; Groeseneken, Guido; Gielen, Georges; Linten, Dimitri; Thean, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Time-zero variability, bias temperature instability (BTI) and random telegraph noise (RTN) are issues that both analog and digital designers using scaled CMOS technologies have to face. In order to address them at design time, access to a sufficiently large number of individual devices is required for statistical technology characterization and modeling. In this paper we present a large MOSFET array designed and fabricated in an advanced 28nm technology, containing both nMOS and pMOS devices ...

  7. Diagnostic model of saliva peptide finger print analysis of primary Sjögren's syndrome patients by using weak cation exchange magnetic beads

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Saliva diagnostics has become an attractive field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular technologies for pSS (primary Sjögren's syndrome). However, no specific methods have been established. To refine the diagnostic power of the saliva peptide finger print for the early detection of pSS, we screened the expression spectrum of salivary peptides in pSS patients by using mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS) combined with magnetic bead. T...

  8. Immobilization of Aspergillus niger F7-02 Lipase in Polysaccharide Hydrogel Beads of Irvingia gabonensis Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Safaradeen Olateju Kareem; Olayinka Quadri Adio; Michael Bamitale Osho

    2014-01-01

    The potential of polysaccharide Irvingia gabonensis matrix as enzyme immobilization support was investigated. Lipase of Aspergillus niger F7-02 was immobilized by entrapment using glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent and stabilized in ethanolic-formaldehyde solution. The pH and temperature stability and activity yield of the immobilized enzyme were determined. Such parameters as enzyme load, bead size, number of beads, and bead reusability were also optimized. Adequate gel strength to fo...

  9. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin; Wiboonluk Pungrasmi; Sorawit Powtongsook

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage) and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only) and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads), were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter) were fi...

  10. Distribution and biophysical processes of beaded streams in Arctic permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Heim, Kurt C.

    2015-01-01

    Beaded streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a Circum-Arctic survey of beaded streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with beaded morphology throughout the continuous permafrost zone of northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia and found the highest abundance associated with medium- to high- ground ice content permafrost in moderately sloping terrain. In the Fish Creek watershed, beaded streams accounted for half of the drainage density, occurring primarily as low-order channels initiating from lakes and drained lake basins. Beaded streams predictably transition to alluvial channels with increasing drainage area and decreasing channel slope, although this transition is modified by local controls on water and sediment delivery. Comparison of one beaded channel using repeat photography between 1948 and 2013 indicate a relatively stable landform and 14C dating of basal sediments suggest channel formation may be as early as the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Contemporary processes, such as deep snow accumulation in riparian zones effectively insulates channel ice and allows for perennial liquid water below most beaded stream pools. Because of this, mean annual temperatures in pool beds are greater than 2°C, leading to the development of perennial thaw bulbs or taliks underlying these thermokarst features. In the summer, some pools thermally stratify, which reduces permafrost thaw and maintains coldwater habitats. Snowmelt generated peak-flows decrease rapidly by two or more orders of magnitude to summer low flows with slow reach-scale velocity distributions ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 m/s, yet channel runs still move water rapidly

  11. Poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-n-vinyl imidazole) beads for heavy metal removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-n-vinyl imidazole) [poly(EGDMA-VIM)] hydrogel (average diameter 150-200 μm) was prepared by copolymerizing ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) with n-vinyl imidazole (VIM). The copolymer hydrogel bead composition was characterized by elemental analysis and found to contain 5 EGDMA monomer units each VIM monomer unit. Poly(EGDMA-VIM) beads had a specific surface area of 59.8 m2/g. Poly(EGDMA-VIM) beads were characterized by swelling studies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These poly(EGDMA-VIM) beads with a swelling ratio of 78% were used for the heavy metal removal studies. Chelation capacity of the beads for the selected metal ions, i.e., Cd(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) were investigated in aqueous media containing different amounts of these ions (10-750 mg/l) and at different pH values (3.0-7.0). Chelation rate was very fast. The maximum chelation capacities of the poly(EGDMA-VIM) beads were 69.4 mg/g for Cd(II), 114.8 mg/g for Pb(II) and 163.5 mg/g for Hg(II). The affinity order on molar basis was observed as follows: Hg(II)>Cd(II)>Pb(II). Chelation behavior of heavy metal ions could be modelled using both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. pH significantly affected the chelation capacity of VIM incorporated beads. Chelation of heavy metal ions from synthetic wastewater was also studied. The chelation capacities are 45.6 mg/g for Cd(II), 74.2 mg/g for Hg(II) and 92.5 mg/g for Pb(II) at 0.5 mmol/l initial metal concentration. Regeneration of the chelating-beads was easily performed with 0.1 M HNO3. These features make poly(EGDMA-VIM) beads potential candidate adsorbent for heavy metal removal

  12. Super phase array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, W H; Pendry, J B [Condensed Matter Theory Group Department of Physics Imperial College London London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.wee07@imperial.ac.uk

    2010-03-15

    For a long time phase arrays have been used in a variety of wave transmission applications because of their simplicity and versatility. Conventionally there is a trade-off between the compactness of a phase array and its directivity. In this paper we demonstrate how by embedding a normal phase array within a superlens (made of negative refractive index material) we can overcome this constraint and create compact phase arrays with a virtual extent much larger than the physical size of the array. In this paper we also briefly discuss the apparent unphysical field divergences in superlenses and how to resolve this issue.

  13. Super phase array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long time phase arrays have been used in a variety of wave transmission applications because of their simplicity and versatility. Conventionally there is a trade-off between the compactness of a phase array and its directivity. In this paper we demonstrate how by embedding a normal phase array within a superlens (made of negative refractive index material) we can overcome this constraint and create compact phase arrays with a virtual extent much larger than the physical size of the array. In this paper we also briefly discuss the apparent unphysical field divergences in superlenses and how to resolve this issue.

  14. Formulation of nano-zinc oxide into biocomposite beads for dye decolorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, M. F.; Hassan, H. Shokry; El-Shazly, A. H.

    2015-03-01

    Zinc oxide nano-powder was prepared using sol-gel technique to be encapsulated onto polymeric blend composed from alginate and polyvinyl alcohol to fabricate novel bio-composite beads of nano-zinc oxide. The XRD patterns of both zinc oxide nano-powder and its polymeric hybrid were crystalline in their nature. The FTIR analysis of the fabricated ZnO polymeric hybrid confirms the binding between zinc oxide and the polymeric matrix. The BET analysis demonstrated that the calculated specific surface area of the formulated ZnO beads that equal to 22.8 m2/g is comparatively less than that of the free ZnO nano-powdered that equivalent to 64.9 m2/g. The thermal stability of ZnO nano-powdered dramatically decreased with its immobilization into the polymeric alginate and PVA matrix. The formulated beads had very strong mechanical strength and they are difficult to be broken up to 1500rpm. Moreover, this hybrid beads are chemically stable at the acidic media. The formulated ZnO hybrid beads verified to be good adsorbent material for C.I basic blue 41 (CB41).

  15. Am/Cm TTR testing - 3/8-inch glass beads evaluation in CIM5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To facilitate the procurement and handling of the glass former for Am/Cm vitrification in the F-Canyon MPPF, 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch diameter glass beads were purchased from Corning for evaluation in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Prior to evaluating the beads in the CIM5, tests were conducted in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) with 1/4 inch beads, 3/8 inch beads, and a 50/50 mixture to identify any process concerns. Results of the DTTS tests are summarized in Attachment 1. A somewhat larger volume expansion was experienced in all three DTTS runs as compared to a standard run using cullet. Further testing of the use of glass beads in the CIM5 was requested by the Design Authority as Task 1.02 of Technical Task Request 99-MNSS/SE-006. Since the Technical Task Plan was not yet approved, the completion of this task was conducted under an authorization request approved by the SRTC Laboratory Director, S. Wood. This request is included as Attachment 2

  16. Appropriate welding conditions of temper bead weld repair for SQV2A pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temper bead welding technique is one of the most important repair welding methods for large structures for which it is difficult to perform the specified post weld heat treatment. In this study, appropriate temper bead welding conditions to improve the characteristics of heat affected zone (HAZ) are studied using pressure vessel steel SQV2A corresponding to ASTM A533 Type B Class 1. Thermal/mechanical simulator is employed to give specimens welding thermal cycles from single to quadruple cycle. Charpy absorbed energy and hardness of simulated CGHAZ by first cycle were degraded as compared with base metal. Improvability of these degradations by subsequent cycles is discussed and appropriate temper bead thermal cycles are clarified. When the peak temperature lower than Ac1 and near Ac1 in the second thermal cycle is applied to CGAHZ by first thermal cycle, the characteristics of CGHAZ improve enough. When the other peak temperatures (that is, higher than Ac1) in the second thermal cycle are applied to the CGHAZ, third or more thermal cycle temper bead process should be applied to improve the properties. Appropriate weld condition ranges are selected based on the above results. The validity of the selected ranges is verified by the temper bead welding test. (orig.)

  17. Chitosan derivatives/reduced graphene oxide/alginate beads for small-molecule drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaihang; Ling, Yunzhi; Cao, Cong; Li, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoying

    2016-12-01

    This work reported chitosan derivatives (CSD)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) blending with alginate to prepare hydrogel beads for small-molecule drug delivery for the first time. At the beginning, graphene oxide (GO) was successfully reduced using diverse CSD as reducing and stabilizing agents via facile heating. Then the obtained CSD/rGO was blended with alginate and crosslinked into hydrogel beads in CaCl2 solution. Finally, the beads were systematically evaluated as novel vehicles for pH-responsive small-molecule drug delivery. The optimal CSD/rGO/alginate beads showed a high drug-loading efficiency of 82.8% on small-molecule fluorescein sodium (FL), outstanding sustainable release of 71.6% upon 150h at a physiological pH and quick-release of 82.4% drug content at 20h in an acidic medium. Additionally, the cytotoxicity assay result suggested that the CSD/rGO/alginate beads showed negligible cytotoxicity to hepatic stellate cell lines, opening up possibilities for safe and efficient drug delivery. PMID:27612820

  18. Radiation grafting of ionically crosslinked alginate/chitosan beads with acrylic acid for lead sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto alginate/chitosan beads was performed in solution at a dose rate of 20.6 Gy/min of Co-60 gamma rays. The effect of absorbed dose on grafting yield was investigated. The characterization of the grafted and un-grafted beads was performed by FTIR spectroscopy and the swelling measurements at different pHs was studied. It is found that as the pH value increases the swelling degree increases up to pH 6 but with further increase in pH value the swelling decreases. Also, it is noticed that the grafting yield increased with increase the irradiation dose. Both un-grafted and grafted alginate/chitosan beads were examined as sorbents for the removal of Pb ions from aqueous solutions. The sorption behavior of the sorbents was examined through pH, and equilibrium measurements. Grafted alginate/chitosan beads presented higher sorption capacity for Pb ions than un-grafted beads. (author)

  19. Formulation, Evaluation and Optimization of Pectin- Bora Rice Beads for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Hemraj Ramteke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research was to established new polysaccharide for the colon targeted drug delivery system, its formulation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Methods: Microspheres containing pectin and bora rice were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique using zinc acetate as cross linking agent and model drug used was glipizide. A 32 full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, polymer to drug ratio (A, and concentration of cross linking agent (B on dependent variables, particle size, swelling index, drug entrapment efficiency and percentage drug release. Results: Results of trial batches indicated that polymer to drug ratio and concentration of cross linking agent affects characteristics of beads. Beads were discrete, spherical and free flowing. Beads exhibited small particle size and showed higher percentage of drug entrapment efficiency. The optimized batch P2 exhibited satisfactory drug entrapment efficiency 68% and drug release was also controlled for more than 24 hours. The polymer to drug ratio had a more significant effect on the dependent variables. In vivo gamma scintigraphy study of optimized pectin-bora rice beads demonstrated degradation of beads whenever they reached to the colon. Conclusion: Bora rice is potential polysaccharide for colon targeted drug delivery system.

  20. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CINNARIZINE FLOATING OIL ENTRAPPED CALCIUM ALGINATE BEADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mowafaq M. Ghareeb et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroretentive delivery systems can be retained in the stomach and assist in improving absorption and consequently the bioavailability of drug that has a narrow absorption window in a particular region of gastrointestinal tract. A floatable multiparticulate system with potential for intragastric sustained delivery is one of the approaches to get the gastroretention. Cinnarizine(CNZ, an antihistaminic drug used in vertigo caused by meniere’s disease was taken as a model drug for floating beads prepared by non effervescent method. Floating CNZ olive oil-entrapped emulsion gel beads were prepared by the emulsion–gelation method. Different concentrations of sodium alginate (1%, 2%, and 3% w/v, oil (5%, 10%, and 15% v/v, and calcium chloride (0.02, 0.1, and 0.5M were used and their influence on beads uniformity, buoyancy, and in vitro drug release was studied. The results indicated that retardation of drug release was achieved by the oil hydrophobic diffusion barrier, especially in the presence of the compact network of alginate beads. The selected formula of calcium alginate beads using 3% w/v sodium alginate, 15% v/v oil and 0.1 M calcium chloride, showed a higher similarity factor (f2 =70.1 of CNZ release in comparison to release from standard gastroretentive sustained release floating cinnarizine tablet with good floating over duration of more than 12 hours.