WorldWideScience

Sample records for beaches

  1. Human Health at the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Beaches » LEARN: Human Health at the Beach LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. ...

  2. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  3. Valuing Great Lakes Beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Feng; Lupi, Frank; Kaplowitz, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the recreational use values of Great Lakes beaches using a two-level nested logit Random Utility Model. The choice set contains all 594 public Great Lakes beaches in Michigan. Beach sites located in the same Great Lakes water body are arranged into a nest. The trip data were obtained from a 2006 online survey using a web-panel of Michigan adults accessed through Survey Sampling International (SSI). The variables that affect the amount of utility derived from a part...

  4. Beach Ball Coronagraph Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Beach Ball” Coronagraph will be the first steps to simplify and revolutionize the next generation solar coronagraph design.  The solar corona...

  5. National List of Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the...

  6. Summary of Annual Beach Notifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA gathers state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories. Between 1999 and...

  7. Erosion Negril Beach

    OpenAIRE

    Ten Ham, D.; Henrotte, J.; Kraaijeveld, R.; Milosevic, M.; Smit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing erosion of the Negril Beach has become worse the past decade. In most places along the coast line, the beach will be gone in approximately 10 years. This will result in a major decrease of incomes that are made by the local tourist sector. To prevent the erosion this study has been performed to find a feasible and affordable solution. An important part of the study is the literature research since several other parties had investigated different aspects of the erosion problem rece...

  8. Sandy beaches at the brink

    OpenAIRE

    T. SCHLACHER; Dugan, J; Schoeman, D.; Lastra, M.; Jones, A.;; F. Scapini; McLachlan, A; Defeo, O.

    2007-01-01

    Sandy beaches line most of the world’s oceans and are highly valued by society: more people use sandy beaches than any other type of shore. While the economic and social values of beaches are generally regarded as paramount, sandy shores also have special ecological features and contain a distinctive biodiversity that is generally not recognized. These unique ecosystems are facing escalating anthropogenic pressures, chiefly from rapacious coastal development, direct human uses ...

  9. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms and...... this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales....... Data collection took place at five different field sites that exhibit a wide range of wave conditions and sediment characteristics. Data analysis shows that both suspended sediment load and cross-shore sediment transport scale with the grain-related mobility number which ranged up to ψ ≈ 1000 in the...

  10. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  11. Horry County Beach Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Horry County has coordinated with DHEC OCRM to fully inventory, analyze, and documenteach of the ten required elements for an approvable local comprehensive beach...

  12. 1933 Long Beach, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 5 kilometers southwest of Newport Beach. Seriously affected area: 1,200 square kilometers. Damage: $40 million. Schools were among the buildings most severely...

  13. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  14. Lake Beach Monitoring Locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...

  15. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Beaches 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...

  16. Amchitka beach surveys, 1978-1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of 16 beaches on Amchitka Island began 28 October 1978 as part of Alaska Beached Bird Survey. The purpose of the surveys is to provide baseline data on...

  17. Beneficiation of beach magnetite sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münevver TEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, beneficiation of beach magnetite sand was investigated by applying high intensity dry magnetic separator. The effect of feed particle size, feed rate, roll rotation speed, induced magnetic field intensity, and separator knife angle on Fe grade and recovery of the magnetite concentrate were investigated. As a result of dry magnetic separation at about 750 Gauss magnetic field conducted with -0.212+0.106 mm size fraction under optimum conditions, a magnetite concentrate assaying 54.41% Fe was obtained with 63.46% recovery where the beach sand sample contained %48.41 Fe.

  18. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  19. Bali beach conservation project and issues related to beach maintenance after completion of project

    OpenAIRE

    Onaka, S.; Endo, S; Uda, T.

    2013-01-01

    Bali Island in Indonesia is a world-famous resort area, and the beaches composed of coral sand are one of the most important resources for tourism. However, serious beach erosion has occurred since the 1970s owing to the tourism development along the coastal areas. To recover previous natural sandy beaches, Bali Beach Conservation Project was undertaken by the Indonesian Government as the ODA project financed by Japan. Three seriously eroded beaches (Sanur, Nusa Dua and Kuta) with a total len...

  20. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  1. Improving Oasis Beach: Creating a sustainable and attractive beach around hotel Oasis in Varadero Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Vrolijk, E.F.; Poelhekke, L.; Schlepers, M.H.; De Boer, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the North of Cuba, the Oasis beach area is situated. The beach suffers from structural erosion and earlier measures to deal with this have not succeeded. In this project, a solution is offered to reach two goals: foremost, a beach improvement to the Oasis beach sector and second, a halt to the structural erosion in the sector in order to maintain the beach improvement. These goals are strongly linked to one another and contain several research questions to be able to find suitable solution...

  2. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    A need exists for frequent and prompt updating of shoreline positions, rates of shoreline movement, and volumetric nearshore changes. To effectively monitor and predict these beach changes, accurate measurements of beach morphology incorporating both shore-parallel and shore-normal transects are required. Although it is possible to monitor beach dynamics using land-based surveying methods, it is generally not practical to collect data of sufficient density and resolution to satisfy a three-dimensional beach-change model of long segments of the coast. The challenge to coastal scientists is to devise new beach monitoring methods that address these needs and are rapid, reliable, relatively inexpensive, and maintain or improve measurement accuracy.

  3. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  4. Implications of the cementation of beach sediments for the recreational use of the beach

    OpenAIRE

    Vousdoukas, Michalis; Velegrakis, Adonis F.; Kontogianni, Areti; Makrykosta, Efstratia-natalia

    2009-01-01

    Beach sediment cementation (beachrock formation) is a sedimentary process that can transform significant sections of beaches into rock outcrops. This contribution reports the results of two questionnaire surveys (one focusing on foreign tourists and the other on local people) carried out in coastal resorts of the island of Lesbos (Greece), on the perceptions of beach users regarding the impacts of beachrocks on their recreational activities. The survey focusing on foreign tourists showed that...

  5. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach san...

  6. Chenang Beach and its Crowding Capacity: A Malaysian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Diana; Marzuki Azizan

    2014-01-01

    This working paper focuses in enjoyment factors, specifically: number of beach users, perceived maximum number of beach users accepted, perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the tourism experience and perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the beach quality. At a deeper extent, the evaluation is categorized by number of visitation, visitation motivations, and Chenang Island’s push and pull factors. Relationships between variables were assessed using a two-phase ev...

  7. Natural Radioactivity Concentrations in Beach Sands from Some Tourists Resorts

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lawluvi; E.O. Darko; C. Schandorf; A. Fannu; A.R. Awudu; D.O. Kpeglo

    2011-01-01

    Beaches along the coastlines in Ghana are important holiday destinations for tourists from many countries around the world. The radiological quality of sand from these beaches is very important to assess exposure of the public who use the beaches for recreational purposes and other activities. This study investigates the levels and hazards associated with the U-Th series and 40 K in beach sands from some renowned tourist resorts in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Samples of beach sand from...

  8. Influence of infragravity waves on the hydrodynamics of beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Montaño Muñoz, Jennifer Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: infragravity waves behavior on three natural beaches were studied. Swash Oscillations were analyzed trough camera systems on an intermediate beach of Sylt, Germany, and a dissipative beach of Cartagena, Colombia. On the intermediate beach, under calm conditions swash spectra was dominated by Sea-Swell energy, by contrast, under storm conditions, swash spectra was dominated by infragravity energy. A different behavior was observed on the dissipative beach, where under calm conditions...

  9. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  10. Folds--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  11. Faults--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  12. Beach Nourishment History (1920s to 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...

  13. Plastics and beaches: A degrading relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth

  14. Contours--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of Offshore Refugio Beach, California (vector data file is included in...

  15. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  16. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  17. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach,...

  18. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  19. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where

  20. Numerical study on the response of shoreline change to the tidal channel after a beach nourishment project on an embayed beach

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Y.; Kuang, C.P.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, J. B.; Qiu, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a severe problem worldwide and beach nourishment is widely regarded today as an environmentally acceptable method to protect and enlarge beaches. In many beach nourishment projects on headland-bay beaches, artificial headlands were constructed on the natural headlands to form an embayed beach in static equilibrium to protect the beach more effectively. However, the construction of artificial headland would weaken the water exchange in the bay and make the water quality easy t...

  1. Beach Management & Analysis of Visitors’ Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Paksoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available User perceptions can become vital especially at beach preferences as cleanliness, safety and amenities are some of the apparent factors that will affect. With the awareness of probable adaptation of beach users’ demands into policy recommendations, a case study has been carried out at Black Sea Coast of İstanbul at Şile beaches. Şile has been chosen in this study purposefully as it is a touristic district of İstanbul which has aimed to earn Blue Flag award previously. Secondly, it receives high amount of visitors especially during the peak periods in weekends; as it has a very close location to the city, people are choosing here most of the time just for the day. In this research with factors about human use of beach and impacts like cleanliness and sufficiency of amenities (showers, toilets, changing cubicles, parks etc. and the number of lifeguards are studied. Regarding the findings, the researchers consequently highlight recommendations for Şile beach management which could enhance the visitor experience.

  2. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  3. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches PRAWN Attribute Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  4. Evaluation of Subterranean Subsidence at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of subsurface subsidence at Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach (NWSSB) areas which include Seal Beach National...

  5. Climate induced changes in beach morphology and sediment dynamics, Machilipatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    The wave climate, littoral current patterns, monthly and seasonal longshore drift rates, beach profile changes, and sediment budget of the beach sediments were determined along Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India) for the NE, SW monsoons...

  6. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  7. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  8. Beach nourishment: an ecologically sound coastal defence alternative? A review

    OpenAIRE

    Speybroeck, J.; Bonte, D.; Courtens, W; Gheskiere, T.; Grootaert, P; Maelfait, J.-P.; Mathys, M; Provoost, S.; Sabbe, K.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Van Lancker, V. R. M; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2006-01-01

    1. Even though beach nourishment is generally considered as an environment-friendly option for coastal protection and beach restoration, sizeable impacts on several beach ecosystem components (microphytobenthos, vascular plants, terrestrial arthropods, marine zoobenthos and avifauna) are described in the literature, as reviewed in this paper. 2. Negative, ecosystem-component specific effects of beach nourishment dominate in the short to medium term, with the size of the impact being determine...

  9. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  10. Tar ball Monitoring Along the Kenyan Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Nguta, M.

    1993-01-01

    Observations and measurements of petroleum tar balls on a number of Kenyan beaches were carried out between 1979 and 1982. A large variation in the size and amount of tar deposit at the beaches was recorded. These values ranged from very small pebbles to large lumps of 30 cm in diameter, weighing up to 1.5 kg. The average tar loading during the sampling period ranged from 0-18 g/m2. Between 25-50% by weight of the tar lumps were shell fragments, sand and other nonpetroleum debris. The chemica...

  11. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  12. Fine particle deposition at Vainguinim tourist beach, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Jayakumar, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Ilangovan, D.

    . The beach sediments consist primarily shell fragments and quartz, with heavy mineral composed of ilmenits, magnetite and manganese. The black stain of the fine-grained heavy minerals deposited on the beach face reduces the aesthetics of the beach. This paper...

  13. 75 FR 1373 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... of the 2010 BEACH Act grants (73 FR 47154). Because EPA developed the supplemental formula with... public health at our nation's beaches through improved water quality standards and beach monitoring and... was published in the Federal Register (67 FR 47540, July 19, 2002). This document can be found on...

  14. 75 FR 82382 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... FR 15446, 15449 (March 31, 2003)). For the 2011 beach season, the deadline for states to submit... public health at our nation's beaches through improved water quality standards and beach monitoring and... formula introduced with the fiscal year 2010 grants (see 75 FR 1373, January 11, 2010). How does...

  15. Coastal erosion project, Diani beach, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballot, J.; Hoyng, C.; Kateman, I.; Smits, M.; De Winter, R.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. Since the seventies, the establishment of hotels and other facilities has increased the pressure on the Kenyan coast. During the last decade, hotel managers and residents in Diani Beach have been experiencing problems with erosion. The only measures taken to address the proble

  16. Alongshore variability of nourished and natural beaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Schipper, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Alongshore variability in topography (i.e. height differences in bed level along the coast) can exist on both natural and nourished beaches. An important question prior to implementation of a nourishment project is how alongshore variability is going to evolve and, related to this variability, the e

  17. Mesoscale Morphological Change, Beach Rotation and Storm Climate Influences along a Macrotidal Embayed Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shore profiles and environmental forcing were used to analyse morphological change of a headland bay beach: Tenby, West Wales (51.66 N; −4.71 W over a mesoscale timeframe (1996–2013. Beach profile variations were attuned with longer term shoreline change identified by previous research showing southern erosion and northern accretion within the subaerial zone and were statistically significant in both sectors although centrally there was little or no significance. Conversely a statistically significant volume loss was shown at all profile locations within the intertidal zone. There were negative phase relationships between volume changes at the beach extremities, indicative of beach rotation and results were statistically significant (p < 0.01 within both subaerial (R2 = 0.59 and intertidal (R2 = 0.70 zones. This was confirmed qualitatively by time-series analysis and further cross correlation analysis showed trend reversal time-lagged associations between sediment exchanges at either end of the beach. Wave height and storm events displayed summer/winter trends which explained longer term one directional rotation at this location. In line with previous regional research, environmental forcing suggests that imposed changes are influenced by variations in southwesterly wind regimes. Winter storms are generated by Atlantic southwesterly winds and cause a south toward north sediment exchange, while southeasterly conditions that cause a trend reversal are generally limited to the summer period when waves are less energetic. Natural and man-made embayed beaches are a common coastal feature and many experience shoreline changes, jeopardising protective and recreational beach functions. In order to facilitate effective and sustainable coastal zone management strategies, an understanding of the morphological variability of these systems is needed. Therefore, this macrotidal research dealing with rotational processes across the entire intertidal

  18. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  19. Heterotopic erotic oases - the public nude beach experience

    OpenAIRE

    Andriotis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of beaches for a broad spectrum of recreational activities, very little is known about the multitude of beach use in marginalized spaces offering a range of opportunities for transgressive behaviour. To explore the ways that the principles of Foucault’s heterotopia are articulated by users of a gay nude beach, functioning as an erotic oasis, this study adopted a covert ethnographic approach which involved non-participant observation. The results of the study offer a uni...

  20. The nude beach as a liminal homoerotic place

    OpenAIRE

    Monterrubio, J. Carlos

    2013-01-01

    As a socially, culturally and sexually constructed space, the nude beach has been the focus of academic research. Some studies have analysed the nude beach as a place where erotic relations and meanings among men are performed, constructed, negotiated and transformed. These studies however have seldom acknowledged the multiple dimensions of sexualised practices and subjectivities taking place at the nude beach among men. By adopting a homoerotic framework, this study analyses a number of sexu...

  1. Beach soccer injuries during the Japanese National Championships

    OpenAIRE

    Shimakawa, Tomoyuki; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Kawasoe, Yoko; Yoshimura, Kouji; Chinen, Yuma; Eimon, Kazuya; Chibana, Wataru; Shirota, Shinichi; Kadekawa, Kei; Bahr, Roald; Uezato, Tomomi; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The frequency and severity of injury in beach soccer are unknown. Purpose: To estimate the incidence rates, characteristics, and risk factors for injuries associated with beach soccer. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The same sports physician examined and recorded injuries incurred during the Japanese National Beach Soccer Championships in 2013 and 2014. Posttournament follow-up was made for all injuries. Match exposure for each player ...

  2. A holistic evaluation of a typical beach nourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    primary method used by the Danish Coastal Authority for coastal protection and represents a management tool which serves a dual purpose. Beach Nourishment is protecting coastal lands as well as backshore properties (infrastructures, buildings etc.) and preserving natural heritages. Nevertheless, more and...... more attention is being paid to the recreational values of the beaches, i.e. tourism so that an additional purpose of Beach Nourishment is to increase the recreational space along the shore. Families using the beaches prefer small grain sizes and gentle slopes. Seen from a coastal protection point of...

  3. Hyperspectral image classifier based on beach spectral feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seashore, especially coral bank, is sensitive to human activities and environmental changes. A multispectral image, with coarse spectral resolution, is inadaptable for identify subtle spectral distinctions between various beaches. To the contrary, hyperspectral image with narrow and consecutive channels increases our capability to retrieve minor spectral features which is suit for identification and classification of surface materials on the shore. Herein, this paper used airborne hyperspectral data, in addition to ground spectral data to study the beaches in Qingdao. The image data first went through image pretreatment to deal with the disturbance of noise, radiation inconsistence and distortion. In succession, the reflection spectrum, the derivative spectrum and the spectral absorption features of the beach surface were inspected in search of diagnostic features. Hence, spectra indices specific for the unique environment of seashore were developed. According to expert decisions based on image spectrums, the beaches are ultimately classified into sand beach, rock beach, vegetation beach, mud beach, bare land and water. In situ surveying reflection spectrum from GER1500 field spectrometer validated the classification production. In conclusion, the classification approach under expert decision based on feature spectrum is proved to be feasible for beaches

  4. Chenang Beach and its Crowding Capacity: A Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This working paper focuses in enjoyment factors, specifically: number of beach users, perceived maximum number of beach users accepted, perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the tourism experience and perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the beach quality. At a deeper extent, the evaluation is categorized by number of visitation, visitation motivations, and Chenang Island’s push and pull factors. Relationships between variables were assessed using a two-phase evaluation framework where interestingly, only one demographic factor works with all the studied independent variables. It is also learned that the density of an area number of people seen is considered as a n accepted crowding factor, as opposed to this working paper scope experienced crowding . A unique relationship was observed for crowding level, and visitation satisfaction level and overall evaluation of Chenang beach quality. This working paper further supports the previous literature on the significance of beach carrying capacity management and it is learned that the idea of crowding standard is interlinks with ‘gender, ‘time spend’ and ‘number of boaters’. From findings, this working paper envisages the preferences polar exchange where this should be of interest to tourism-related personnel. It is within this working paper interest to highlight the pressing need in brandishing the image of Chenang Beach. This is to ensure that Chenang Beach, as a field, is maintaining its importance and popularity.

  5. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. PMID:27065444

  6. The Issue of Coastal Zone Management in Croatia – Beach Managing

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Kovaèiæ; Sreæko Favro; Mate Perišiæ

    2010-01-01

    Croatia is well known for its sun, clear sea, many islets and peninsulas; these are the key elements in its tourism development. Beaches in Croatia are specific among its touristic resources, in particularly because natural beaches are scarce. In coastal areas, beaches are mostly rocky or artificial; this makes natural beaches even more important. This paper analyzes beach management in Croatia, and gives beach definition by content and classification. The aim of paper is emphasizing the nece...

  7. Geography: 5th and 6th class - Organising a Beach Clean and Beach Clean Survey template

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    The children will conduct a beach clean to show the benefits of caring for their local environment and ocean, as well as becoming environmentally aware and active. The children will have developed a sense of place and space knowing learning about their local seashore.

  8. The recreational value of beaches in the Nelson Mandela Bay area, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Du Preez; Deborah Ellen Lee; Stephen Gerald Hosking

    2011-01-01

    Using beach visitation data collected via the administration of a questionnaire to 226 respondents, this paper estimates a random utility model of beach recreation. The relative value of selected attributes of beaches is estimated, and the recreational values of lost access to four Blue Flag beaches in the Nelson Mandela Bay area, namely Kings beach, Humewood beach, Hobie beach and Wells Estate beach, respectively are calculated to be R44.73, R24.61, R37.85 and R2.68 per person, per trip.

  9. Analyzing the Impact of Beach Closures, Intersite Substitution and Intertemporal Substitution Via a Model of Attendance at Five Orange County Beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Christopher B.; Hanemann, W. Michael

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the impact on beach attendance of beach closures and the intersite and intertemporal substitution that may follow beach closures. A model of beach attendance is developed that builds on a model constructed by Paul Ruud to support the State of California's claim to damages after the American Trader oil spill off the coast of Orange County, southern California. Newly gathered data on beach closures is combined with data on daily attendance from 1985-1993. Variables are const...

  10. Biotic interactions within sandy beach ecosystems, with implications for an ecologically-sound beach nourishment = Biotische interacties in zandstrandecosystemen, met zijn implicaties voor ecologisch onderbouwde strandopspuitingen

    OpenAIRE

    Van Tomme, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sandy beaches are the largest coastal ecosystem on earth, covering 70% of all continental margins. As more people interact directly with beaches than with any other type of shoreline worldwide, beaches are of huge social and cultural importance. Sandy beaches have a multitude of ecological but also economic functions: they are important nursery areas for a variety of marine species and function as natural coastal defence. Beaches are also highly valuable as socio-economic areas since they are...

  11. Alongshore variability in beach planform, grain-size distribution and foredune height of an embayed beach: Shoalwater Bay, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Giardino, R.

    2012-12-01

    Headland-bay beaches (HBB) are common beach-types found throughout the coastlines of the world. Morphodynamics of these structurally-controlled beaches are primarily governed by geological inheritance, wave climate, tidal range and grain-size distribution, which ultimately influence sediment transport across the beach-dune system. For embayed beaches, the degree of curvature (i.e., indentation ratio) has significant implications for littoral cell circulation, which mediates both cross-shore and alongshore sediment transport. This study investigated the morphodynamic controls on longshore and cross-shore sediment transport for a macro-tidal, embayed beach in central Queensland, Australia. Freshwater Beach is a 10 km long embayed beach located in the Shoalwater Bay Training Area, ~50 km north of Yeppoon. Freshwater Beach exhibits an asymmetrical planform which is characterized by a curved "shadow zone" (adjacent to the headland), transitioning to a straight tangential segment extending to the north. The beach is subjected to a mean tidal range of 6 m and prevailing onshore-directed winds and swell from the southeast. A total of 12 topographic profiles at ~1 km spacing were taken along the entire length of the beach to characterize variation in beach slope and foredune height. Sediment samples were collected across each transect for detailed grain-size and geochemical (XRD/XRF and SEM) analysis. Additionally, ground-based LiDAR surveys were conducted along the topographic profiles and for comparison with aerial-based LiDAR surveys. Preliminary results from topographic profiles show that the largest foredunes are located in the central portion of the beach, contrary to most embayed beaches where the largest dunes are typically located downdrift of the headland. Along the exposed section, the foredunes become large (~15 m high) and are hypothesized to be supplied by onshore welded bars that act as a sediment source for the foredunes to grow. Presently the alongshore and

  12. Stability of the beaches in Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Angusamy, N.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    Beach profiles were carried out in Dec.2003, 2004 and Jan,.2005. Annual profiles of Dec. 2003 and 2004 show a normal trend of beach dynamics. At Poompuhar 63 M sup(3) M sup(1) of sediments are found to be deposited. However, a total change...

  13. Sand transport in urbanized beaches - models and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective is to quantify the wind transport of sand in the urbanized beaches. The specific objectives include testing and calibration of the wind velocity as well as the classification of the beaches according to the magnitude and the direction of sand transport

  14. 1981 beached animal and plastic litter surveys report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 119.63 km of beach were walked in 41 surveys (Appendix 1.). Birds and mammals were found on 16 of these surveys. There were 0.03 birds/km beach walked,...

  15. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  16. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  17. A study on the reconstruction of Los Acantilados Beach, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algera, A.; Burger, B.; Hartog, W.M.; De Rijke, Q.C.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Mar del Plata is situated some 400 km South of Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina. The city has two main incomes, namely industry and tourism. In summer, beaches of this Atlantic Ocean faced destination are packed with typical Argentine beach tents, which can be rented, and people fr

  18. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  19. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  20. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  1. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  2. Ilmenite Mineral's Recovery from Beach Sand Tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.

  3. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  4. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  5. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  6. Towards a new integrated beach management system: the ecosystem-based management system for beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda Borroy, Rafael; Valls, Josep Francesc; Pintó, Josep; Ariza, Eduard; Lozoya, Juan Pablo; Fraguell, Rosa Maria; Martí, Carolina; Rucabado, Josep; Ramis, Juan; Jiménez Quintana, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Massive use of beaches has forced traditional management of these systems to focus on the service offer to users. Consequently, human activity and behavior prevailed over other biological and physical processes and functions. Mirroring this tendency, the use of Performance Awards (Blue Flag) and Environmental/Quality Management Systems (ISO 14001, EMAS, and Q of Quality) were popularized as standards of environmental quality. In parallel to this process, recent international coastal and marin...

  7. Test of self-organization in beach cusp formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Giovanni; Burnet, T. K.; Werner, B. T.; Elgar, Steve

    2003-03-01

    Field observations of swash flow patterns and morphology change are consistent with the hypothesis that beach cusps form by self-organization, wherein positive feedback between swash flow and developing morphology causes initial development of the pattern and negative feedback owing to circulation of flow within beach cusp bays causes pattern stabilization. The self-organization hypothesis is tested using measurements from three experiments on a barrier island beach in North Carolina. Beach cusps developed after the beach was smoothed by a storm and after existing beach cusps were smoothed by a bulldozer. Swash front motions were recorded on video during daylight hours, and morphology was measured by surveying at 3-4 hour intervals. Three signatures of self-organization were observed in all experiments. First, time lags between swash front motions in beach cusp bays and horns increase with increasing relief, representing the effect of morphology on flow. Second, differential erosion between bays and horns initially increases with increasing time lag, representing the effect of flow on morphology change because positive feedback causes growth of beach cusps. Third, after initial growth, differential erosion decreases with increasing time lag, representing the onset of negative feedback that stabilizes beach cusps. A numerical model based on self-organization, initialized with measured morphology and alongshore-uniform distributions of initial velocities and positions of the swash front at the beginning of a swash cycle, reproduces the measurements, except for parts of one experiment, where limited surveys and a significant low-frequency component to swash motions might have caused errors in model initialization.

  8. Beach cleaning in Belgium: a social and biological study

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Tejo, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    A study on beach cleaning in Belgium was conducted from a social and biological perspective, to confront the lack of information regarding the two methods used: manual and mechanical beach cleaning. Through direct participation in the pilot project on manual beach cleaning of the municipality of Koksijde, during summer 2004, around 42 kg of man-made waste/km/month were estimated during July and September, and 87 kg during August. An average 1.5h/km was needed for two persons to manually clean...

  9. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Jing Yi; Narayanan Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled h...

  10. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  11. Measuring the Economic Effects of Sea Level Rise on Beach Recreation

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Whitehead; Ben Poulter; Dumas, Christopher F.; Okmyung Bin

    2009-01-01

    We develop estimates of the economic effects of climate change-induced sea level rise on recreation at seventeen southern North Carolina beaches. We estimate the relationship between recreation behavior and beach width and simulate the effects of sea level rise on recreation site choice and trip frequency. We find that reductions in beach width due to increased erosion from sea-level rise negatively affect the number and value of beach recreation trips. For beach goers who only take day trips...

  12. Beach Sand Supply and Transport at Kunduchi in Tanzania and Bamburi in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaghude, Y.W.; Mburu, J.W.; Uku, J.; Ochiewo, J.; Nyandwi, N.; Onganda, H. (collab.); Magori, C.; Sanga, I.; Arthurton, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Beach-head erosion of sandy beach plains in eastern Africa threatens tourism-related infrastructure and the livelihoods of beach users. The nature and drivers of physical shoreline change at Kunduchi, Dar es Salaam, and Bamburi, Mombasa, are described with analyses of beach sand transport through the annual monsoon cycle and the provenance and sustainability of the beach sand supply. Time-series records of wind-vectors at Dar es Salaam and Mombasa show similar averaged patte...

  13. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Brown; Sarah Hughes; Gregory T. Kleinheinz; McDermott, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impa...

  14. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  15. Real-Time Dry Beach Length Monitoring for Tailings Dams Based on Visual Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Hu; Shan Hu; Fei Kang; Jianhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The length of dry beach is an important factor that influences the safety of tailings dams. However, there still is no accurate and reliable method that can conveniently measure the length of dry beach. In this paper, the authors focus on developing a novel method for dry beach length determination. The proposed method can effectively measure the dry beach length through an ordinary camera and four marking rods placed on the dry beach. Experimental results show that the proposed method can co...

  16. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory T. Kleinheinz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife, can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impact of rainfall on E. coli concentrations in beach water. Water samples were collected from beach water and storm water discharge pipes during rainfall events of 5 mm in the previous 24 hours. Six of the eight beaches showed a significant association between rainfall and elevated beach water E. coli concentrations. The duration of the impact of rainfall on beach water E. coli concentrations was variable (immediate to 12 hours. Amount of rainfall in the days previous to the sampling did not have significant impact on the E. coli concentrations measured in beach water. Presence of storm water conveyance pipes adjacent to the beach did not have a uniform impact on beach water E. coli concentrations. This study suggests that each beach needs to be examined on its own with regard to rain impacts on E coli concentrations in beach water.

  17. Virginia Beach Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Beach, Virginia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  18. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is included in...

  19. Park, Beach, Open Space, or Coastline Access 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the percent of residents within ½ mile of a park, beach, open space, or coastline, for California, its regions, counties, cities/towns,...

  20. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A; Rokade, M.A

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  1. Artificial Beach Lighting Survey of St. George Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — St. George Island SGI is a significant sea turtle nesting beach for loggerhead and occasionally leatherback sea turtles in the Florida panhandle Lewis et al 1996 ....

  2. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  3. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  4. Daytona Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Daytona Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  5. Backscatter--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach map area, California. The raster data...

  6. Park, Beach, Open Space, or Coastline Access 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the percent of residents within ½ mile of a park, beach, open space, or coastline, for California, its regions, counties, cities/towns,...

  7. Lido Beach National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lido Beach Wildlife Management Area. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  8. Pollution of some recreation beaches of Mumbai, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Kadam, A.N.

    by polluted land based discharges. The deterioration was marked at Dadar where influence of highly polluted discharges through Mahim Creek could be responsible. The beach quality shows marked deviations as compared to the quality of seawater sampled 5 km off...

  9. Seafloor character--Offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7) offshore of Refugio Beach, California (raster data file is included in...

  10. Natural Radioactivity Concentrations in Beach Sands from Some Tourists Resorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lawluvi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Beaches along the coastlines in Ghana are important holiday destinations for tourists from many countries around the world. The radiological quality of sand from these beaches is very important to assess exposure of the public who use the beaches for recreational purposes and other activities. This study investigates the levels and hazards associated with the U-Th series and 40 K in beach sands from some renowned tourist resorts in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Samples of beach sand from eleven beaches were analyzed using direct gamma-ray spectrometry. The total absorbed dose rate and the annual effective doses were calculated. The radiation hazards and risks associated with the use of the beach sand as construction material were also determined. The results show specific activities in the range 11.0-31.8 Bq/kg for 238U, 0.5-1.5 Bq/kg for 235U, 10.9-103.7 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 16.8-231.2 Bq/kg for 232Th and 68.3-183.9 Bq/kg for 40K. Mean values of the absorbed dose rate, annual external effective dose, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices and the radiation level index are; 54.08 nGy/h, 0.066 mSv/y, 101.0 Bq/kg, 0.27, 0.36 and 0.71, respectively. The 235U/238U activity ratios calculated for the beaches is in the range of 0.032-0.053 with an average of 0.045±0.007 and that of the other radionuclides are close to unity, indicating only natural radionuclides were detected in the samples investigated. The results are within the values found in literature and show that the natural radionuclides in samples of the beach sand do not pose any significant risk to tourists and other holiday makers. Sand from the beaches is also safe for use as construction material, indicating the relevance in terms of the radiological quality of the beaches from both human and environmental health view points.

  11. Health effects of beach water pollution in Hong Kong.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, W. H.; Chang, K C; Hung, R. P.; Kleevens, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies of beach water pollution were conducted in Hong Kong in the summers of 1986 and 1987. For the main study in 1987, a total of 18741 usable responses were obtained from beachgoers on nine beaches at weekends. The study indicated the overall perceived symptom rates for gastrointestinal, ear, eye, skin, respiratory, fever and total illness were significantly higher for swimmers than non-swimmers; and the swimming-associated symptom rates for gastrointestinal, s...

  12. Miramar (Goa) Beach Management Project: An Oceanographic Evaluation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Ingole, B.S.

    , seating arrangements, enclosed landscaped sand dunes with greenery, thatched resting places, rescue and bay watch services, water sports and floating amenities, cycling and jogging tracks, viewpoints and towers, sky walks and pay parking. Several... to restrictions on the access and do not support landscaping and water sports on the beach; (2) the privatization policy is not clear to the public. However, they support manual cleaning of the beach; (3) there is no support for single service provider...

  13. Geographic variation in sandy beach macrofauna community and functional traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, I. F.; Compton, T. J.; Lastra, M.

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beaches are a common ocean-dominated ecosystem along the north coast of Spain. We conducted field surveys at 39 beaches distributed between 1° and 9°W, ca. 2000 km along this geographic region to document broad patterns of macrobenthic communities, and to describe their association with variables characterising both the beach environment and the characteristics of the adjacent ocean waters. Macrofaunal functional traits are considered to be an informative measure that can be useful for many ecosystem-level questions, as they are based on what organisms do (i.e., their ecological function) rather than on their identification alone. Boosted regression-trees analysis showed that the occurrence of the main taxonomic groups and feeding guilds were differentially associated with the prevailing beach features along this coastline. The occurrence (presence/absence) of molluscs was best explained by the concentration of chlorophyll-a and wave exposure whereas those of crustaceans and polychaetes were best explained by an ensemble of variables including beach slope, sea surface temperature and grain size. A comparison of the feeding guilds demonstrated that the occurrence of suspension feeders was best explained by chlorophyll-a and wave exposure, whereas the occurrence of deposit feeders was best explained by beach slope, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of predators and scavengers was best explained by sea surface temperature and beach slope. Based on the patterns presented here, we confirm that the upwelling events that occur regularly on this coastline are a structuring agent for beach communities. Future work needs to examine the role of the oceanographic conditions of the region for they might represent the driving forces behind large-scale shifts in macrofauna communities.

  14. Equilibrium Beach profile measurement and sediment analysis : Mustang Island, Texas.

    OpenAIRE

    Knezek, Erick B.

    1997-01-01

    CIVINS This engineering report describes the measurement techniques and results of an equilibrium beach profile survey and sediment analysis. The main objective of the project was to obtain an accurate equilibrium beach profile at a location on Mustang Island, and to compare the actual profile to a predicted profile. The predicted profile is based on the median grain size diameter of sediment samples taken from the dune crest to approximately 4000 ft offshore. The survey was accomplished u...

  15. Models for predicting recreational water quality at Lake Erie beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected from four Lake Erie beaches during the recreational seasons of 2004-05 and from one Lake Erie beach during 2000-2005 were used to develop predictive models for recreational water quality by means of multiple linear regression. The best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables including turbidity, rainfall, wave height, water temperature, day of the year, wind direction, and lake level. Two types of outputs were produced from the models: the predicted Escherichia coli concentration and the probability that the bathing-water standard will be exceeded. The model for one of beaches, Huntington Reservation (Huntington), was validated in 2005. For 2005, the Huntington model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedance of the standard than did current methods for assessing recreational water quality, which are based on the previous day's E. coli concentration. Predictions based on the Huntington model have been available to the public through an Internet-based 'nowcasting' system since May 30, 2006. The other beach models are being validated for the first time in 2006. The methods used in this study to develop and test predictive models can be applied at other similar coastal beaches.

  16. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  17. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems.

  18. Post-monsoon equilibrium beach profiles and longshore sediment transport rates at Candolim, Miramar and Keri beaches of Goa, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Yadhunath, E.M.; Jishad, M.; Gowthaman, R.; Rajasekaran, C.; Pednekar, P.S.

    Equilibrium profile is one of the concepts in coastal geomorphology which is a result of the balance of destructive versus constructive forces. Two equilibrium beach profile models, viz . Bruun/Dean’s two thirds power model and modified Bodge...

  19. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples wer...

  20. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-beach developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy beaches that do not have back-beach armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-beach barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict beaches from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the beach. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long Beach to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which California’s beaches are restricted in the back beach, to describe the effects of back-beach barriers on sandy beach morphology, and to predict how these different beaches might behave with future sea-level rise. Beach morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select beaches with back-beach barriers and unrestricted beaches using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically

  1. Users' Perception as a Tool to Improve Urban Beach Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Omar; Espejel, Ileana; Arellano, Evarista; Delhumeau, Sheila

    2008-08-01

    Four beaches that share physiographic characteristics (sandy, wide, and long) but differ in socioeconomic and cultural terms (three are located in northwestern Mexico and one in California, USA) were evaluated by beach users. Surveys (565) composed of 36 questions were handed out to beach users on weekends and holidays in 2005. The 25 questions that revealed the most information were selected by factor analysis and classified by cluster analysis. Beach users’ preferences were assigned a value by comparing the present survey results with the characteristics of an “ideal” recreational urban beach. Cluster analysis separated three groups of questions: (a) services and infrastructure, (b) recreational activities, and (c) beach conditions. Cluster linkage distance ( r = 0.82, r = 0.78, r = 0.67) was used as a weight and multiplied by the value of beach descriptive factors. Mazatlán and Oceanside obtained the highest values because there are enough infrastructure and services; on the contrary, Ensenada and Rosarito were rated medium and low because infrastructure and services are lacking. The presently proposed method can contribute to improving current beach evaluations because the final score represents the beach users’ evaluation of the quality of the beach. The weight considered in the present study marks the beach users’ preferences among the studied beaches. Adding this weight to beach evaluation will contribute to more specific beach planning in which users’ perception is considered.

  2. Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Real-Time Dry Beach Length Monitoring for Tailings Dams Based on Visual Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of dry beach is an important factor that influences the safety of tailings dams. However, there still is no accurate and reliable method that can conveniently measure the length of dry beach. In this paper, the authors focus on developing a novel method for dry beach length determination. The proposed method can effectively measure the dry beach length through an ordinary camera and four marking rods placed on the dry beach. Experimental results show that the proposed method can conveniently measure the dry beach length with high accuracy, and therefore it can be adopted as an effective method in tailings dam real-time health monitoring.

  4. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  5. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the

  6. Pore water transport of enterococci out of beach sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Ten percent of total bacteria within sand columns were released in flow experiments. → Majority of the bacteria were released within the first pore water volume. → Positive linear correlation seen with bacteria removed and hydraulic conductivity. → We hypothesize that results were dependent on amount of biofilms in sand. → Results significantly higher in cores collected after a significant rain event. - Abstract: Enterococci are used to evaluate the safety of beach waters and studies have identified beach sands as a source of these bacteria. In order to study and quantify the release of microbes from beach sediments, flow column systems were built to evaluate flow of pore water out of beach sediments. Results show a peak in enterococci (average of 10% of the total microbes in core) released from the sand core within one pore water volume followed by a marked decline to below detection. These results indicate that few enterococci are easily removed and that factors other than simple pore water flow control the release of the majority of enterococci within beach sediments. A significantly larger quantity and release of enterococci were observed in cores collected after a significant rain event suggesting the influx of fresh water can alter the release pattern as compared to cores with no antecedent rainfall.

  7. Predicting 'very poor' beach water quality gradings using classification tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoe, Wai; Choi, King Wah; Lee, Joseph Hun-wei

    2016-02-01

    A beach water quality prediction system has been developed in Hong Kong using multiple linear regression (MLR) models. However, linear models are found to be weak at capturing the infrequent 'very poor' water quality occasions when Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL. This study uses a classification tree to increase the accuracy in predicting the 'very poor' water quality events at three Hong Kong beaches affected either by non-point source or point source pollution. Binary-output classification trees (to predict whether E. coli concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL) are developed over the periods before and after the implementation of the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme, when systematic changes in water quality were observed. Results show that classification trees can capture more 'very poor' events in both periods when compared to the corresponding linear models, with an increase in correct positives by an average of 20%. Classification trees are also developed at two beaches to predict the four-category Beach Water Quality Indices. They perform worse than the binary tree and give excessive false alarms of 'very poor' events. Finally, a combined modelling approach using both MLR model and classification tree is proposed to enhance the beach water quality prediction system for Hong Kong. PMID:26837834

  8. Compaction of upstream construction tailings dam beaches using dozers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, S.; Lappin, T. [Klohn-Crippen Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Godwaldt, R. [Albian Sands Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The compacted shell and beaches of non-liquefiable sands are used to contain upstream construction tailings in the oil sands industry. Dozers are used to compact and densify the sands by trafficking repeatedly across the sand surface. The downward drainage of construction waters also contributes to the further compaction of the sands. This paper provided details of a study conducted on a loose beach deposit located at a Muskeg River mine site in Alberta. The trial was conducted to assess the level of effort required to densify the sands using CAT D7 dozers. The vertical extent of the resulting compaction was also measured. Cone penetration tests and surveys of surface settlement were used to assess the effectiveness of the densification. The beach was greater than 100 m, and trial area elevations were greater than the pond in order to allow for post track-packing subsidence. Testing was conducted prior to dozer track-packing in order to quantify the initial state of the testing area as well as after track-packing in order measure changes in cone resistance and density. Results of the trial indicated that the dozers are capable of densifying the sands to a depth of 4 m to 5 m below the beach surface. It was concluded that the systematic densification of upstream construction tailings beaches will allow oil sands mine operators to improve dyke stability while also increasing storage volumes within impoundments. 4 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  9. Textural studies of beach sediments from Sadashivagad and Karwar, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Antao, F.B.

    . Frequency distribution curves for both the beach sediments differ in their modal class showing unimodal to weakly bimodal trend for the Sadashivagad and strongly bimodal to unimodal trend for the Karwar beach sediments. The plots of mean grain size vs...

  10. A simple model to estimate the impact of sea-level rise on platform beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica Afonso

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of future beach evolution in response to sea-level rise are needed to assess coastal vulnerability. A research gap is identified in providing adequate predictive methods to use for platform beaches. This work describes a simple model to evaluate the effects of sea-level rise on platform beaches that relies on the conservation of beach sand volume and assumes an invariant beach profile shape. In closed systems, when compared with the Inundation Model, results show larger retreats; the differences are higher for beaches with wide berms and when the shore platform develops at shallow depths. The application of the proposed model to Cascais (Portugal) beaches, using 21st century sea-level rise scenarios, shows that there will be a significant reduction in beach width.

  11. Prospect of Oil/Gas Exploration in Beach Area of Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gansheng; Dou Lirong; Yuan Lingling; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Located in beach zone along Bohai Bay, the beach area of Bohai Bay basin is restricted between coastline and water depth of 5 m, stretching from Bayuquan to Huludao, Liaoning Province and Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province to Weihekou, Shandong Province.

  12. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. PMID:26892203

  13. Dose rates of beach sands along the Enshu-nada coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the mechanism of beach-to-beach variations in dose rates, measurements at 35 sand beaches were carried out along the Enshu-nada coast (a total of 140km). The sand samples were collected at 10 beaches to obtain the concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium by means of Ge(Li) spectroscopy. Factors affecting the variation in dose rates were discussed, incorporating these data with data of coastal sea-bottom sediments taken by the Geological Survey of Japan. Two-dimensional measurements were performed at 50 locations each in two beaches near the Tenryu river mouth to know within-beach variations in detail. Contour maps of the data revealed a considerable regularity. It was found from simple analyses of the data collected in this work that the dose rate levels at beaches are affected by the distance from the river mouth, erosion or sedimentation of beach, and depth distribution of seawater. (author)

  14. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

    2015-02-01

    Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. PMID:25460060

  15. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers. PMID:27363010

  16. Radioactive minerals in the Yakataga beach placers, southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Radioactivity of nine samples of beach placer deposits in the Yakataga area, southern Alaska, was studied in 1948. The samples were given to the Geological Survey by prospectors operating in the area operating in the area. The heavy-mineral fractions from the concentrates average 0.044 percent equivalent uranium. Three minerals, all members of the zircon group, contain the radioactive material in the sample; one mineral is uranium-bearing, the other two are thorium-bearing. Unless the concentration of radioactive minerals in the beach deposits is considerably higher than the present qualitative data indicate, the placers at Yakataga beach do not constitute a feasible source of supply of radioactive materials.

  17. Sediment Transport Study in Haeundae Beach using Radioisotope Labelled Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer

  18. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health

    OpenAIRE

    Sabino, Raquel; Rodrigues, R; Costa, I.; Carneiro, C.; Cunha, M; Duarte, A; Faria, N; Ferreira, F. C.; Gargaté, M. J.; Júlio, C; Martins, M. de L.; Nevers, M. B.; Oleastro, M.; Solo-Gabriele, H.; Veríssimo, C.

    2014-01-01

    Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Curren...

  20. La Jolla Children's Pool Beach Management and Water Quality Improvement Project

    OpenAIRE

    Elwany, Hany; Flick, Reinhard; Nichols, Jean; Lindquist, Anne-Lise

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the proposed La Jolla Children's Pool Beach Management and Water Quality Improvement Project. Approximately 3,000 cubic yards of sand will be removed from the Children's Pool beach. Removing the sand decreases the beach width and restores the sheltered water pool area to its 1940s configuration. Reducing the width of the beach will make the pool safer for swimming by isolating swimmers from open-ocean wave activity. It should also improve water circulation and quality.

  1. Relationship between Enterococcal Levels and Sediment Biofilms at Recreational Beaches in South Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Johnson, Sara; Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci, recommended at the U.S. federal level for monitoring water quality at marine recreational beaches, have been found to reside and grow within beach sands. However, the environmental and ecological factors affecting enterococcal persistence remain poorly understood, making it difficult to determine levels of fecal pollution and assess human health risks. Here we document the presence of enterococci associated with beach sediment biofilms at eight south Florida recreational beaches....

  2. Impact of erosion and accretion on the distribution of enterococci in beach sands

    OpenAIRE

    Gast, Rebecca J.; Gorrell, Levi; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens in coastal sediments may pose a health risk to users of beaches. Although recent work shows that beach sands harbor both indicator bacteria and potential pathogens, it is not known how deep within beach sands the organisms may persist nor if they may be exposed during natural physical processes. In this study, sand cores of approximately 1 m depth were collected at three sites across the beach face in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina before, during and after large waves from an ...

  3. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF LONGSHORE CURRENTS OVER PLANE AND BARRED BEACHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-wei; ZOU Zhi-li

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the vertical profile of the longshore currents over plane and barred beaches.The logarithmic law is applied to fit the data for the region below the wave trough and an adjusted logarithmic profile without the mass transport velocity is applied to the region above the wave trough.The results indicate that the logarithmic law fits the data well for both plane and barred beaches.The friction velocity and the relative roughness obtained by the data fitting are compared with relevant calculated results.

  4. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    OpenAIRE

    Künzell Stefan; Schweikart Florian; Köhn Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% o...

  5. Analytical model of beach erosion and overwash during storms

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Magnus; Donnelly, Chantal; Jimenez, Jose; Hanson, Hans

    2009-01-01

    During severe storms high waves and water levels may greatly impact the sub-aerial portion of the beach inducing significant morphological change at elevations that the waves can not reach under normal conditions. Morphological formations such as dunes and barrier islands may suffer from direct wave impact and erode. Overwash occurs if the wave run-up and/or the mean water level are sufficiently high allowing for water and sediment to pass over the beach crest, which in turn causes flooding a...

  6. Morphodynamic characterization of the Spanish beaches of the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente, J.; Gracia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Anfuso, G.; Rodriguez-Ramirez, A.

    2015-07-01

    During the1980s several attempts were made to classify beaches according to their morphodynamic behav- iour. Published papers proposed classifications based mainly on wave incident energy and beach character- istics, such as foreshore slopes and sediment settling velocities. In the 1990s more complex classifications appeared, where the effect of tides on wave action was included, highlighting their relevance to the determi- nation of the morphodynamic state of the beach. In this paper we present a beach monitoring programme, in which more than 30 beaches located along the Spanish shores of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Strait of Gibraltar were surveyed for four years (2000-2004). The long study period allowed the monitoring of beach morphologies related both to fair weather (summer) and storm (winter) conditions. The coastal setting in the study area provided the opportunity for covering a wide range of tidal conditions, from high mesotidal (MSTR ca. 4 m) to microtidal (MSTR around 1 m). Furthermore, the dimensions of the study area permitted the mon- itoring of beaches linked to different boundary conditions, thus including both attached and detached beach- es located at varying distances from main sediment sources, and influenced by different wave regimes. The analysis of the beach morphologies related to such contrasting conditions allowed the identification of the real significance of the tidal effect on beach profile morphology and hence on beach morphodynamics. Finally, we conclude that the effect of tides on wave action is the main factor determining beach morphody- namic behaviour. (Author)

  7. 77 FR 38005 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Kings Beach Independence Day Fireworks display from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. on July 3... Beach Independence Day Fireworks display in 33 CFR 165.1191. This safety zone will be in effect from 7...

  8. RIP current zones along beaches in Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jena, B.K.

    Goa has a 125-km-long coastline of which two-thirds consists of beautiful sandy beaches. There are mainly 17 beaches having significant importance of tourism. Sporadically, surf drownings have been reported at a few stretches of the beach. Longshore...

  9. Morphodynamic characterization of the Spanish beaches of the Gulf of Cadiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the1980s several attempts were made to classify beaches according to their morphodynamic behav- iour. Published papers proposed classifications based mainly on wave incident energy and beach character- istics, such as foreshore slopes and sediment settling velocities. In the 1990s more complex classifications appeared, where the effect of tides on wave action was included, highlighting their relevance to the determi- nation of the morphodynamic state of the beach. In this paper we present a beach monitoring programme, in which more than 30 beaches located along the Spanish shores of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Strait of Gibraltar were surveyed for four years (2000-2004). The long study period allowed the monitoring of beach morphologies related both to fair weather (summer) and storm (winter) conditions. The coastal setting in the study area provided the opportunity for covering a wide range of tidal conditions, from high mesotidal (MSTR ca. 4 m) to microtidal (MSTR around 1 m). Furthermore, the dimensions of the study area permitted the mon- itoring of beaches linked to different boundary conditions, thus including both attached and detached beach- es located at varying distances from main sediment sources, and influenced by different wave regimes. The analysis of the beach morphologies related to such contrasting conditions allowed the identification of the real significance of the tidal effect on beach profile morphology and hence on beach morphodynamics. Finally, we conclude that the effect of tides on wave action is the main factor determining beach morphody- namic behaviour. (Author)

  10. North beach (Nazaré) sand tracer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João; Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica; Cascalho, João; Silva, Ana; Bosnic, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    The littoral in the vicinity of Nazaré (West Portuguese coast) is characterized by two distinct coastal stretches separated by Nazaré headland: a northern sector (Norte beach) characterized by a high energetic continuous sandy beach and a southern sector (Nazaré bay beach) that corresponds to an embayed beach, sheltered by the Nazaré headland. The bay is a geomorphological expression of the Nazaré canyon head, which acts as powerful sediment sink, capturing the large longshore net southward transport at Norte beach generated by the north Atlantic high energetic swell. The northern side of the canyon head is carved on highly resistant Cretaceous limestone sustaining an underwater vertical relief that emerges on the Nazaré headland, creating a unusual nearshore wave pattern. This wave pattern not only concentrates high energy levels at the Norte beach but also contributes to local complex longshore drift gradients capable of inducing beach seasonal cross-shore variations of more than 200 m. The main factors that influence local sediment budget are: (1) canyon head capturing and (2) headland sediment bypassing. To obtain a direct measure of the net longshore drift at Norte beach (upstream boundary of the system) a large scale fluorescent tracer experiment was performed. The data will be used to validate longshore transport formulas in a high energetic environment and to access Nazaré canyon head sediment loss. Considering the anticipation of high transport rates, approximately 10 tonnes of native sand where coated with orange fluorescent ink using a set of concrete mixers. The experiment took place on the 9th to 15th September 2013 period and followed the continuous injection method (CIM). The CIM approach was justified by the expected high energy levels that inhibits sediment sampling across the surf zone. During the tracer injection procedure (approx. 5 hours), sediment sampling was performed at 13 sites along a rectilinear coastal stretch extended through

  11. A Comprehensive Study on Coastline Process and Sedimentary Dynamics, Sardinera Beach, Mona Island, P.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Delga, A. M.; Ramirez, W. R.

    2008-12-01

    Sardinera beach in Mona Island, Puerto Rico, has a great recreational and ecological value and is an important research place to gather information on shoreline processes in an area far from the main land and with only scarce man made influences. Beach rock exposures present along the shoreline in Sardinera Beach have increased considerably during the last decade. A new management plan is being developed for Mona Island and the Department of Natural Resources (DNRA) of Puerto Rico wants to better understand the beach sand dynamics on this and other Mona Island beaches. This research includes field and laboratory work that characterize coastal sedimentary processes and helps to better understand the shoreline changes as well as seasonal variations in sand movement and composition. This work also establish the logistics and methodology basis for further studies that will expand to other Mona Island beaches. Benchmarks, GPS coordinates, and landmarks were used to establish ten permanent beach profiles along Sardinera Beach. Beach profiles were (and will be) measured monthly. Sardinera Beach sands are composed mostly of carbonate (CaCO3) components, products of the combination of biological, chemical and diagenetic processes, high grade of micritization, and of lithic limestone fragments. Sand composition differences between Sardinera Beach, the Mona Shelf and adjacent beach, reef crest and reef lagoon systems suggest Sardinera sands are not replenished by the modern marine components produced in these environments. The input of "fresh bioclasts" in this beach seems to be limited by natural (beach rock) and mane made (dock) barriers along the shore and by alteration in the current patterns produced by the man made aperture of the reef. Sardinera's micritized and recrystalized sand deposits seem to have been re-transported between the reefal lagoon and the beach. Sand volume analysis indicates a total sand loss of 1,322 m3 between the months of September to April

  12. Bathymetry--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps (see sheets 1, 2, SIM 3319) of the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area, California. The...

  13. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  14. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.J.; James, I.; Jennings, P.J.; Keoyers, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of rad

  15. Plastics Distribution and Degradation on Lake Huron Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbyszewski, M.; Corcoran, P.

    2009-05-01

    The resistivity of plastic debris to chemical and mechanical weathering processes poses a serious threat to the environment. Numerous marine beaches are littered with plastic fragments that entangle and become ingested by organisms including birds, turtles and plankton. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the amount and effects of plastics pollution on marine organisms, relatively little is known about the distribution and quantity of polymer types along lacustrine beaches. Plastic particles sampled from selected beaches on Lake Huron were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine polymer composition. The majority of the plastic fragments are industrial pellets composed of polypropylene and polyethylene. Varying degrees of oxidation are indicated by multiple irregular peaks in the lower wavenumber region on the FTIR spectra. The oxidized pellets also represent the plastic particles with the most pronounced surface textures, as identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crazes and flakey, fibrous, or granular textures are consistent with chemical weathering processes, whereas gauges and pits occur through abrasion during mechanical weathering. Further textural and compositional analysis will indicate which polymer types are more resistant to weathering processes. Additional investigation of the distribution of plastic debris along the beaches of Lake Huron will indicate the amount and primary transport directions of resistant plastic debris polluting one of Ontario's Great Lakes.

  16. Submarine Groundwater and Its Influence on Beach Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Alexandria; Payton, Adina

    2007-01-01

    Scientists believe that beach closures due to high indicator bacteria counts are linked to groundwater flowing a few feet beneath the sand. Groundwater discharging to the coast may be as important a source of coastal pollution as the more often implicated urban runoff.

  17. Golden opportunities: A horizon scan to expand sandy beach ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Weston, Michael A.; Schoeman, David S.; Olds, Andrew D.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-05-01

    Robust ecological paradigms and theories should, ideally, hold across several ecosystems. Yet, limited testing of generalities has occurred in some habitats despite these habitats offering unique features to make them good model systems for experiments. We contend this is the case for the ocean-exposed sandy beaches. Beaches have several distinctive traits, including extreme malleability of habitats, strong environmental control of biota, intense cross-boundary exchanges, and food webs highly reliant on imported subsidies. Here we sketch broad topical themes and theoretical concepts of general ecology that are particularly well-suited for ecological studies on sandy shores. These span a broad range: the historical legacies and species traits that determine community assemblages; food-web architectures; novel ecosystems; landscape and spatial ecology and animal movements; invasive species dynamics; ecology of disturbances; ecological thresholds and ecosystem resilience; and habitat restoration and recovery. Collectively, these concepts have the potential to shape the outlook for beach ecology and they should also encourage marine ecologists to embrace, via cross-disciplinary ecological research, exposed sandy beach systems that link the oceans with the land.

  18. HEART RATE AND MOTION ANALYSIS BY GPS IN BEACH SOCCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julen Castellano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate and physical (motion analysis responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 ± 0.5 years; height 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight 78.2 ± 5.6 kg. were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax, with 59.3% of the time participating (TP corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 km·h-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods

  19. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players' experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27-42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual's inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players' self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community. PMID:26331135

  20. Surfin’ California with Whitman and The Beach Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    American literary Romanticism, whereas The Beach Boys became the sixties’ most well-known pop icon of surf music and surf culture. Nevertheless, their common interest in California as a particular topographic image of the American West invites comparison and further study. This paper aims to make an...

  1. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  2. Surf zone diffusivity on a rip-channeled beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; MacMahan, J.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Thornton, E.

    2009-01-01

    Absolute and relative diffusivity are measured on a rip-channeled beach using 30 position-tracking drifters released in clusters (4–12 drifters) deployed on 7 days with different wave forcing and tidal elevations at Sand City, Monterey Bay, California. Diffusivity and dispersion were found to be lar

  3. Information note on natural radioactivity of some beaches of Camargue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The taking and measures realised showed that the increase of radioactivity of beaches sands of Camargue came from minerals bearers of uranium and thorium and the activity of deposits did not need measures of protection. The natural origin has been established without the source was clearly identified. (N.C.)

  4. Textural and compositional variations in beach sands along Karachi coast

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, N. (Nicolás); Muhammad, M.J.; Zaidi, S.M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The texture of clastic sediments is a fairly reliable index of the erosional history and energy conditions of the depositional environment, while its mineralogy reflects the composition of the source rocks. The beach sands of Clifton, Sandspit, Hawkesbay and Paradise Point were studied to determine their erosional history, depositional environment and their source

  5. Modeling the Movement of Beach Alluvia in the Alongshore Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Bondareva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have worked out a design model for the dynamics of a mixed-composition beach in the vicinity of transverse structures. The model uses a modified formula for calculating alluvia, which is based on modified energy dependencies. The authors provide an algorithm for performing these calculations.

  6. Carbonate Beaches: A Balance Between Biological and Physical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, R.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    Carbonate beaches are a unique example of the interaction between biological processes, creating the sediments, and physical processes, moving and often removing the sediments. On the sediment supply side, carbonate sediments are born, not made. They exist in dynamic equilibrium between production and destruction. Following the creation of carbonate sediment in coral reef and lagoon environments, the sediments are moved shoreward to the beach, transport along the shore and sometimes, eventually lost offshore, often as the result of tropical storms. Comprehensive studies of the balance between the supply and loss of carbonate sediments and beach dynamics have been completed for the islands of Mauritius and Barbados. Field studies and remote sensing (Compact Airborne Spectrometry Imaging) have been applied to develop carbonate sediment production rates for a range of reef and lagoon conditions. Using GIS, these production rates have been integrated to determine sediment supply rates for different segments of the coastline. 1-D and 2-D models of waves, hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphodynamics were set-up and tested against observed beach response to storm events or a sequence of storm events. These complex deterministic models are not suitable for application over periods of decades. However, it was possible to characterize storm events by the extent of sand loss, and relate this to key descriptive factors for groups of storm events, thereby encapsulating the erosion response. A long-term predictive tool for evaluating beach erosion and accretion response, over a period of several decades, was developed by combining the supply rates for carbonate sediment and the encapsulated representation of the loss rates through physical processes. The ability of this predictive tool was successfully tested against observed long term beach evolution along sections of the coast in Barbados and Mauritius using air photo analysis in GIS for shoreline change over periods

  7. Morphological developments after a beach and shoreface nourishment at Vlugtenburg beach, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schipper, M. A.; de Vries, S.; Ranasinghe, R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Stive, M. J. F.

    2012-04-01

    For the last decades Dutch coastal policy requires sand nourishments to mitigate the effects of coastal erosion. Over time, the nourishment strategy has evolved from direct protection approach to a feeder approach; instead of placing the sand on the beach or dune where it directly benefits safety, sand is placed on the shoreface or alongshore concentrated. Subsequently natural processes redistribute the sand over the profile and alongshore. With the shift in nourishment approach, a study was started to investigate in detail how nourished sand is redistributed in space and time. Here we present results from a high resolution bathymetric survey campaign conducted at Vlugtenburg beach at the south west coast of the Netherlands. At this site a beach and shoreface nourishment of 5.4 million m3 was installed in spring 2009, moving the shoreline approximately 250 m forward. Since the completion of the project, a total of 22 profiles were measured monthly extending from the dunefoot to 9 m below mean sea level. These surveys are executed using walking GPS surveys for the subaerial part and jetski surveys for the subaqueous part. Observations show that the morphodynamic evolution can be characterized by two stages; first a period of rapid changes followed by a period of more stable topography. In the first period, 12 to 15 months after construction, a large cross shore (offshore) movement of the nourished sand is found. The cross shore movement results from a rapid adaptation of the construction profile (characterized by a steep foreshore slope from -2 to -4 m) to a more natural profile with a large subtidal bar. A sediment budget analysis over all 28 surveys up to present shows a gradual loss of volume. As topographic changes below the -8 m and above +3 m are small, it is most likely that the majority of the sediment deficit can be contributed to alongshore losses. Furthermore, the domain itself is subdivided in various coastal sections, revealing that the cross shore

  8. Determination of 40K in Beach Sand and Seawater Samples at Sarımsaklı Beach of Aegean Sea (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Hacıyakupoğlu, Sevilay; Tezsezer, Seyda; Orucoglu, Esra

    2011-01-01

    This study dealt with analyzing of naturally occurring 40K radioisotope in beach sand and seawater samples of Sarımsaklı beach at Aegean coastal region of Turkey and its contribution to natural radioactivity. By using gamma spectroscopy the mean radioactivity concentration was found as 1093.00 ± 115.07 Bq kg-1 for the beach sand and as 14.08 ± 3.50 Bq kg-1 for the seawater. The average external effective dose rate of beach sand was determined in air at 1 m above the ground as 45...

  9. Low-energy Beach ridge sedimentation in the Mississippi River delta plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, R.G.; Penland, S.

    1985-01-01

    Regressive beach ridge plains, such as Cheniere Caminada, Cheniere Caillou, and Cheniere Ronquille, are common depositional features within the Mississippi River delta plain in southeastern Louisiana. Vibracored sequences indicate beach ridge formation is a 3 stage process: Stage 1: Distributary Progradation, followed by Stage 2: Longshore Transport Interception, and completed by Stage 3: Beach Ridge Progradation. Cheniere Caminada is the largest beach ridge plain and is associated with the Late Lafourche delta. Radiocarbon dates indicate beach ridge building began approximately 720 years BP, when the Bayou Lafourche distributaries built seaward of the older, retreating Bayou Blue shoreline and intercepted westward longshore sediment transport, resulting in the progradation of Cheniere Caminada. Near the fan apex, beach ridges are 7-8 m thick and thin westward 2-3 m thick against the levees of Bayou Moreau. A typical beach ridge vertical sequence coarsens upward, with shoreface silty sands overlain by a thin cap of beach, washover, and aeolian sands. Beach ridge progradation in this area ceased approximately 300 years BP with the abandonment of Bayou Lafourche. The documentation of multiple regressive beach ridge plains suggest these deposits are stratigraphically more significant in the Mississippi River delta plain than recognized previously. The regressive beach ridge sequence documented in this study both stratigraphically and genetically contrasts with the classic transgressive chenier ridges of southwestern Louisiana.

  10. Beach Soccer Injuries During the Japanese National Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Tomoyuki; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Kawasoe, Yoko; Yoshimura, Kouji; Chinen, Yuma; Eimon, Kazuya; Chibana, Wataru; Shirota, Shinichi; Kadekawa, Kei; Bahr, Roald; Uezato, Tomomi; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The frequency and severity of injury in beach soccer are unknown. Purpose: To estimate the incidence rates, characteristics, and risk factors for injuries associated with beach soccer. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The same sports physician examined and recorded injuries incurred during the Japanese National Beach Soccer Championships in 2013 and 2014. Posttournament follow-up was made for all injuries. Match exposure for each player was recorded through video review to examine individual risk factors. Results: A total of 58 injuries were recorded during 54 matches. The overall injury rate was 179.0 (95% CI, 138.4-231.6), and the time-loss injury rate was 28.2 (95% CI, 14.7-54.1) per 1000 player-hours. The foot/toe (34.9%) was the most frequently injured area, followed by the lower leg (22.2%) and thigh (11.1%). There was only 1 ankle injury (1.6%). The most frequent injury type was contusions (60.3%), followed by lacerations/abrasions (14.3%) and sprains/ligament injuries (6.3%). Only 4 injuries resulted in ≥30 days of time-loss (7.4%). After adjusting for age, a previous history of severe injury and longer experience of beach soccer were significantly associated with injury risk. Conclusion: The time-loss injury rate in this study was comparable to the rates reported during the matches of soccer or futsal tournaments. However, a greater incidence of foot/toe injury and lacerations/abrasions as well as a lower incidence of ankle injury distinguished beach soccer from soccer and futsal, possibly related to the specific playing conditions of being barefoot on a sand surface. PMID:26862537

  11. Beach Profile Behaviour in Tidal Environments: A Morphological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, A. M.; Medina, R.; Vidal, C.

    2004-05-01

    Tourism is an important economical activity in Spain that represents 10% of its GDP and provides a million jobs. Spain is the world's second more visited country, receiving 7% of world tourists. Eighty per cent of these visitors choose their destination somewhere along the 2500 km of beaches. Consequently, many efforts are currently addressed to their maintenance and conservation. However, the coastal management policies must be sustained by the deep knowledge of the beach behaviour and the physical processes implied. A morphological model, with certain predictive capacities, to describe the beach profile behaviour is proposed, integrating the wave and tide influence. It is based on the concept of the two-section (surf and shoaling) equilibrium beach profile, and has been validated with field and laboratory data. The model is described by means of two parameters: the modal tidal range and the dimensionless fall velocity (Ω ). Tide is considered a local variable whose principal effect is the lengthening of the intertidal or surf profile. The greater the tidal range, the wider the intertidal profile. The dimensionless fall velocity defines the transition from dissipative to reflective situations in beaches of any given tidal range. The morphological changes predicted by the proposed model in the surf and shoaling sections occur in the opposite direction. Whilst in the surf profile the slope close to the high tidal level becomes steeper and the concavity of whole section increases; in the shoaling profile, the upper part flattens resulting in a less concave section related to the decrease of Ω . In this transition, the slope break between surf and shoaling profiles becomes smoother and difficult to identify. This work was funded by projects REN2003-02822 MAR, REN2003-03233 MAR, VEM2003-20093-C03-03 of the Spanish MCYT and PGDIT03RMA30101PR of the Galician Government (XUGA). Contribution No 304 of XM2 group.

  12. Responses of ghost crabs to habitat modification of urban sandy beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelling-Wood, Talia P; Clark, Graeme F; Poore, Alistair G B

    2016-05-01

    Sandy beaches in highly urbanised areas are subject to a wide range of human impacts. Ghost crabs are a commonly used ecological indicator on sandy beaches, as they are key consumers in these systems and counting burrow openings allows for rapid assessment of population size. This study assessed the pressures of urbanisation on sandy beaches in the highly urbanised estuary of Sydney Harbour. Across 38 beaches, we examined which physical beach properties, management practices and human induced habitat modification best predicted ghost crab distributions. Of all variables measured, the frequency of mechanical beach cleaning was the most important predictor of crab abundance, with low burrow densities at the highest cleaning frequency and the highest densities at beaches cleaned at the intermediate frequency (≤3 times per week). These results indicate that ghost crab populations in Sydney Harbour are more robust to the impacts of urbanisation than previously thought. PMID:26970686

  13. Present status of effect of microorganisms from sand beach on public health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Velonakis; Dimitra Dimitriadi; Emmanuel Papadogiannakis; Alkiviades Vatopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are significant components of beach sand. According to the research, all kind of microorganisms have been isolated from beach sand; certain genera and species are potential pathogens for humans and animals. In resort areas, especially during the summer, certain infections (e.g. gastroenteritis and dermatitis) are usually related to polluted bathing water. Lately, the interest of scientists is also focused on the potential association of some of the above diseases with the beach sand. Relatively, recent epidemiological studies in the USA revealed positive correlation between time spent at the beach and gastroenteritis. New parameters such as wind blowing and beach users’ density are also introduced for discussion in association with the sand microbial load. Regarding the preventative measures, the microbiological quality of beach sand can be improved by raising the general level of hygiene, as well as by using simple methods, such as sweeping and aeration of the sand, together with constant beach supervision.

  14. Present status of effect of microorganisms from sand beach on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Velonakis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are significant components of beach sand. According to the research, all kind of microorganisms have been isolated from beach sand; certain genera and species are potential pathogens for humans and animals. In resort areas, especially during the summer, certain infections (e.g. gastroenteritis and dermatitis are usually related to polluted bathing water. Lately, the interest of scientists is also focused on the potential association of some of the above diseases with the beach sand. Relatively, recent epidemiological studies in the USA revealed positive correlation between time spent at the beach and gastroenteritis. New parameters such as wind blowing and beach users’ density are also introduced for discussion in association with the sand microbial load. Regarding the preventative measures, the microbiological quality of beach sand can be improved by raising the general level of hygiene, as well as by using simple methods, such as sweeping and aeration of the sand, together with constant beach supervision.

  15. Survival trends of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Clostridium perfringens in a sandy South Florida beach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for alternative indicators of disease-risk from non-enteric pathogens at the beach revealed high densities of targeted bacteria. To explain the high numbers of potential non-enteric pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in beach sand, we investigated factors affecting their survival and distribution, as well as those of a potential fecal indicator, Clostridium perfringens. Results indicated greater S. aureus and P. aeruginosa survival and proliferation in sterile beach sand, than seawater, with diminished numbers upon exposure to natural micro-predators. C. perfringens remained relatively consistent with initial numbers. Intermediate sand particles (850 μm–2 mm) constituted the major micro-niche; creating implications for beach classification programs. Colonization of sterile sand boxes at the beach by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa confirmed the filtering action (>100×) of beach sand. The use of these potential pathogens in periodic sanitary evaluation of beach sand quality is indicated, regardless of the factors influencing their abundance.

  16. 75 FR 77010 - Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Draft Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... increase in the amount of waste heat discharged into Lake Michigan. According to a modeling study performed... Beach area is generally considered good, with an exception occurring for a designated ozone... Region (AQCR). With the exception of the 8-hour standard for ozone, the Lake Michigan AQCR is...

  17. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule...; and a buffer zone around the race area, where all persons and vessels, except those enforcing...

  18. Water Quality, Weather and Environmental Factors Associated with Fecal Indicator Organism Density in Beach Sand at Two Recreational Marine Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers wit sand contact have important public health implicatons because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact act...

  19. Stability of a very coarse-grained beach at Carmel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingler, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Monastery Beach at Carmel, California, is a pocket beach composed of very coarse to granular sediment. In profile, the beach has a well-defined berm crest; a steep foreshore; and a gently sloping, barless offshore covered by large, long-crested oscillation ripples. Carmel Submarine Canyon heads a few hundred meters offshore of the beach, and San Jose Creek, a small ephemeral steam, ponds onshore of the central part of the berm. Wave conditions vary greatly during a year because the beach lies open to the Pacific Ocean for azimuths between 270??-322??N whence come a variety of wave types. Even with a variable wave climate, Monastery Beach has maintained a swell profile for almost three years. Aperiodic beach surveys show that the beach responds little to seasonal changes in wave climate. Four survey lines maintained the same swell profile throughout the study period. The fifth line maintained a stable profile only across the foreshore; the berm was twice artificially breached during storms to prevent upstream flooding along San Jose Creek. In comparison, Carmel Beach, a nearby beach composed of medium sand, commonly alternates between swell and storm profiles. The increased stability of Monastery Beach relative to Carmel Beach is attributed to two factors: grain size differences and location within Carmel Bay. Rebuilding proceeded very slowly along the breached part of the berm at Monastery Beach. The probable cause of such a low recovery rate is that oscillation ripples trapped the sand that was carried offshore when San Jose Creek eroded the beach. The ripples, which are active under high-energy conditions, approach dormancy under low-energy conditions. Each ripple, therefore, acts like a reservoir, retaining sand during most swell conditions. ?? 1981.

  20. Family on the beach : Representations of romantic and bourgeois family values by realistic genre painting of nineteenth-century Scheveningen beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, JJH

    2003-01-01

    Around 1800, the desire to go to the beach developed in Europe, and Scheveningen became one of the first beach places. In the same time, poets and painters romanticized the Scheveningen fishing culture and the fishers' moral behavior A group of nineteenth-century painters rediscovered Scheveningen-a

  1. On the profile evolution of three artificial pebble beaches at Marina di Pisa, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the profiles of three artificial coarse-grained beaches located at Marina di Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) were monitored from April 2008 to May 2009 in order to define the response of the beaches to major storms that occurred during the study. Two beaches are similar, the third differs in length and in the level of protection, being less than half the length of the others and devoid of an offshore submerged breakwater. The work was achieved by means of accurate topographic surveys intended to reconstruct the beach profile from the backshore up to the foreshore-upper shoreface transition (step). The surveys were performed with an RTK-GPS instrument, which provided extremely precise recording of the beach. The most significant features of the beaches were tracked during each survey; in particular, the landward foot of the storm berm, the crest of the storm berm, the coastline, and the step crest were monitored. Five cross-shore transects were traced on each beach. Along these transects, any meaningful slope change was recorded to obtain accurate sections of the beach. The field datasets were processed with AutoCAD software to compare the beach profile evolution during the year-long research. The results showed a comparable evolution of the twin beaches: the resulting storm berm retreat of about 15 to 19 m is a remarkable feature considering the coarse grain size and the offshore protection. Due to the absence of the breakwater, the third beach was characterized by even higher values of recession (over 20 m), and showed hints of wave reflection-related processes after the huge, steep storm berm had been formed and grown after the high energy events. These processes were not as evident on the twin beaches. These results underline the different response of three similar protection schemes, and the importance that frequent monitoring of the beach morphology holds when it comes to coastal management issues.

  2. Development of a numerical 2-dimensional beach evolution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykal, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    to compute the nearshore depth-averaged wave-induced current velocities and mean water level changes, a sediment transport model to compute the local total sediment transport rates occurring under the action of wind waves, and a bottom evolution model to compute the bed level changes in time based on......This paper presents the description of a 2-dimensional numerical model constructed for the simulation of beach evolution under the action of wind waves only over the arbitrary land and sea topographies around existing coastal structures and formations. The developed beach evolution numerical model...... is composed of 4 submodels: a nearshore spectral wave transformation model based on an energy balance equation including random wave breaking and diffraction terms to compute the nearshore wave characteristics, a nearshore wave-induced circulation model based on the nonlinear shallow water equations...

  3. Bryophytes of beach forests in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiangphak Sukkharak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of bryophyte diversity of three beach forests including Had Tung Prong, Had Tein Talay, and the beach forest in Thai Island and Sea Natural History Museum in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, was carried out. From 137 enumerated specimens, 16 species (6 mosses, 10 liverworts in 12 genera (5 mosses, 7 liverworts and eight families (5 mosses, 3 liverworts were found. Among those the most common families of mosses are Fissidentaceae (2 species and the most common families of liverwort are Lejeuneaceae (8 species. A comparison of species richness among the three areas revealed that the highest species richness of bryophytes was found in Had Tung Prong. Moreover, of all bryophyte species found, Weissia edentula Mitt. was the most common one.

  4. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  5. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  6. Trans-species urban politics : Stories from a beach

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Tora

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the emergence and continuation of a spatial conflict, concerning a "dog beach" in Santa Cruz, California, that led to the creation of local interest organizations and came to involve city and state authorities and regulations, local news and social media, and not least, park visitors (both humans and dogs). Through the debate, positions for and against dogs being off leash were consolidated—however, not necessarily positions for and against dogs. Several themes emerge...

  7. Analysis of beach volleyball action sequences of female top athletes

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sequences of typical beach volleyball actions to determine action patterns and anticipate athlete’s behaviour. Videos from 18 games including 1645 action sequences consisting of 10918 actions from female World Tour athletes were analyzed. Single actions were recorded in a data base and probabilities of serve-reception, set-attacking, and reception-attacking action sequences were determined by means of database queries. Chi-square tests were applied ...

  8. Spectral and Geological Characterization of Beach Components in Northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo Álvarez, I. O.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how changes in beach components may reflect beach processes is essential since variations along beach profiles can shed light on river and ocean processes influencing beach sedimentation and beachrock formation. It is likely these influences are related to beach proximity within the Río Grande de Manatí river mouth. Therefore, this study focuses on characterizing beach components at two sites in Manatí, Puerto Rico. Playa Machuca and Playa Tombolo, which are separated by eolianites, differ greatly in sediment size, mineralogy, and beachrock morphology. Several approaches were taken to geologically and spectrally characterize main beach components at each site. These approaches included field and microscopic laboratory identification, granulometry, and a comparison between remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) obtained with a field spectroradiometer and pre-existing spectral library signatures. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between each method. This study may help explore the possibility of using only Rrs to characterize beach and shallow submarine components for detailed image analysis and management of coastal features.This study focuses on characterizing beach components at two sites in Manatí, Puerto Rico. Playa Machuca and Playa Tombolo, two beaches that are separated by eolianites, differ greatly in sediment size and mineralogy, as well as in beachrock morphology. Understanding how changes in beach components may reflect beach processes is essential, since it is likely that differences are mostly related to each beaches' proximity to the Río Grande de Manatí river mouth. Hence, changes in components along beach profiles can shed light on the river's and the ocean's influence on beach sedimentation and beachrock formation. Several approaches were taken to properly geologically and spectrally characterize the main beach components at each site. These approaches included field and microscopic laboratory identification

  9. Mapping of environmental radioactivity in sandy beaches of Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In determining reference levels of environmental radioactivity in ten beaches of Ilha Grande-R J, one used the measurement of gamma dose rates in situ (n Gy h-1) and the conversion of activity concentration of natural radionuclides 238Th, 232U and 40K (344/Kg) in samples from 0-10 cm sand profile, into gamma dose rate. Besides, the activity concentrations of studied radionuclides in the 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm sand profiles were determined, in order to analyse their process of vertical migration. Among the studied beaches, Preta Beach and Dois Rios Beach were selected to carry out a study of the gamma dose rates variation, during a period of twelve months. The annual absorbed dose rate at 1 m above ground level in the sand area was determined through the measurements of gamma dose rate carried out in situ on the beaches. The mean values of gamma dose rate in situ (n Gy h-1) in the analysed beaches ranged of 62 +- 7 in Dois Rios Beach to 126 +- 24 in Preta Beach. The primordial radionuclide 40K was the first contributor for the local gamma dose rate in eight studied beaches. None of studied beaches were considered a radiological risk. Sand features, such as porosity and density contribute to modulate the local environmental radiation levels. The comparison of gamma dose rate values from ten studied beaches, obtained through the two different techniques, showed high similarity between the results (R = 0.85). During the period of study in both analysed beaches, Preta and Dois Rios beaches, there was no variation statistically significant in the terrestrial gamma dose rate measured in situ. The higher annual absorbed dose rates were found in Preta Beach and in Caxadaco Beach, with 0.15 +- 0.03 mSv y-1 and 0.10 +- 0.02 mSv-1 respectively; while in the others beaches the mean value of gamma dose rate was 0.08 mSv y-1. The values of annual absorbed dose rate shown in this work are below that the values found in some beach areas of the world. (author)

  10. Modeling the Economics of Beach Nourishment Decisions in Response to Coastal Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, M.; Ashton, A. D.; Hoagland, P.; Jin, D.; Kite-Powell, H.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.

    2012-12-01

    Beaches are constantly moving and changing. The dynamic transformations of beaches are mostly the result of the erosion of sand, which can occur through movements alongshore caused by waves, movements off-shore due to storms, or submersion due to sea-level rise. Predicted climate change impacts include potential changes in storminess and accelerated sea-level rise, which will lead to increased coastal erosion. At the same time, the number of people residing in coastal communities is increasing. The risks from eroding beaches (increased coastal flooding, damage to infrastructure, and displaced residents) are therefore increasing in number and scale; and coastal residents are taking actions to protect their homes. One such action is beach nourishment, where sand is added to a resident's property in order to widen the beach. We have developed an economic model of beach nourishment decision-making to investigate the relationship between the optimal volume and timing of beach nourishment and factors such as property value, erosion rate, and initial beach width. In this model, waterfront property owners nourish a beach when the losses in net rental income exceed the costs incurred from nourishing the beach. (Rental income is a function of property value, which in turn depends upon the width of the beach.) It is assumed that erosion and sea-level rise are related. We examine different nourishment scenarios, including one-time nourishment in the first year; constant annual nourishment; and a myopic decision process in which the homeowner nourishes the beach if property losses from erosion over the next five years are expected to exceed the cost of nourishment. One-time nourishment delays property flooding for both constant and accelerating sea level rise; however, this delay is more substantial under constant sea level rise. With continual nourishment, the beach can be maintained under constant sea-level rise, provided that the erosion rate is comparable to the additional

  11. Up from the beach: medical waste disposal rules!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, C J

    1989-07-01

    The recent incidents of floating debris, garbage, wood, and medical waste on our nation's beaches have focused public attention on waste management problems. The handling and disposal of solid waste remains a major unresolved national dilemma. Increased use of disposables by all consumers, including the medical profession, and the increasing costs of solid waste disposal options have aggravated the solid waste situation. Medical waste found on beaches in the summer of 1988 could have been generated by a number of sources, including illegal dumping; sewer overflow; storm water runoff; illegal drug users; and inadequate handling of solid waste at landfills and coastal transfer facilities, which receive waste from doctors' offices, laboratories, and even legitimate home users of syringes. As officials from New Jersey have determined, the beach garbage is no mystery. It's coming from you and me. In response to the perceived medical waste disposal problem, various state and federal agencies have adopted rules to regulate and control the disposal of medical waste. This article outlines the more significant rules that apply to medical waste. PMID:2756492

  12. Intraspecific diet shift in Talitrus saltator inhabiting exposed sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Celia; Incera, Mónica; Garrido, Josefina; Rodil, Iván F.; Rossi, Francesca

    2009-09-01

    Talitrid amphipods are the most abundant herbivores on exposed sandy beaches. Despite their important role as trophic intermediates between macrophytes and higher levels (i.e. insect and bird) of beach food webs, very little information is available on their feeding patterns. The main aim of this study was to investigate intraspecific differences in the feeding behaviour of Talitrus saltator. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) adult females and males showed different isotope signatures and therefore relied on different sources of food; and (2) patterns of variation of isotope signatures of juveniles differed from those of adult specimens, evidencing a diet shift during the development. We used stable isotope signatures and tested for differences upon the level on the shore, times of the year and beaches experiencing similar morpho-dynamic and environmental conditions. Finally, we investigated the trophic significance of macrophyte detritus in the diet of males, females and juveniles. Results showed that adult males had a more variable diet than females and juveniles (inferred from δ 13C and δ 15N values). Dual-isotope graphs suggested that Sargassum muticum and Cystoseira baccata wrack could be among the main food sources for both juvenile and adult stage.

  13. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji

    2016-05-01

    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth’s environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with other more laborious methods. Our results revealed that LIDAR should be used for the classification of marine debris into plastic, paper, cloth and metal. Additionally, we reconstructed a 3-dimensional model of different types of debris on a beach with a high validity of debris revivification using LIDAR-based individual separation. These findings demonstrate that the availability of this new technique enables detailed observations to be made of debris on a large beach that was previously not possible. It is strongly suggested that LIDAR could be implemented as an appropriate monitoring tool for marine debris by global researchers and governments.

  14. Beach Recovery Rates Derived From Airborne LIDAR Following Hurricane Ivan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W.; Zhang, K.; Whitman, D.; Leatherman, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    Hurricanes are a major source for erosion and damage along the southeastern US coastline. This study uses airborne LIDAR data to quantify shoreline change due to Hurricane Ivan. Hurricane Ivan made landfall on the Alabama gulf coast in September, 2004 with maximum sustained winds of 58 m/s. Five separate LIDAR data sets of barrier beaches situated in the front right quadrant of the hurricane were collected during a six month period before and after landfall allowing an excellent timeline for analyzing change in shoreline position. Shorelines were extracted and incremental shoreline position differences were quantified for a 30 km portion of Panama City Beach, Florida. Preliminary results show alternating trends in shoreline change. The hurricane caused an initial average shoreline retreat of more than 16 m relative to pre-storm positions. Within three weeks this shoreline position recovered or moved seaward by 10 m. However, during the 2 month interval between October and December, 2004, the shoreline again retreated 5 m. This 5 m of shoreline retreat in the two months following the initial recovery could be attributed to the beach profile transition from summer to winter, and will have to be researched further.

  15. Assessment of Enterococcus Levels in Recreational Beach Sand Along the Rhode Island Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Eugenie; Parris, Amie L; Wyman, Al; Latowsky, Gretchen

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that coastal beach sand as well as coastal ocean water can be contaminated with fecal indicator Enterococcus bacteria (ENT). A study of sand ENT concentrations over a four-week period at 12 Rhode Island beaches was conducted during the summer of 2009. While average contamination was low relative to water quality standards, every beach had at least one day with very high sand ENT readings. On 10 of the 12 beaches, a statistically significant gradient occurred in geometric mean ENT concentrations among tidal zones, with dry (supratidal, or above high tide mark) sand having the highest level, followed by wet (intratidal, or below high tide mark) and underwater sand. Beaches with higher wave action had significantly lower ENT levels in wet and underwater sand compared to beaches with lower wave action. PMID:27188067

  16. Cardiovascular consequence of reclining vs. sitting beach-chair body position for induction of anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Soren L.; Lyngeraa, Tobias S.; Maschmann, Christian P.; Van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Pott, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    The sitting beach-chair position is regularly used for shoulder surgery and anesthesia may be induced in that position. We tested the hypothesis that the cardiovascular challenge induced by induction of anesthesia is attenuated if the patient is placed in a reclining beach-chair position....... Anesthesia was induced with propofol in the sitting beach-chair (n = 15) or with the beach-chair tilted backwards to a reclining beach-chair position (n = 15). The last group was stepwise tilted to the sitting beach-chair position prior to surgery. Hypotension was treated with ephedrine. Continuous...... ± 12 vs. 45 ± 15 % reduction from baseline, p = 0.04) and ScO2 (7 ± 6 vs. 1 ± 8% increase from baseline, p = 0.02) and received less ephedrine (mean: 4 vs. 13 mg, p = 0.048). The higher blood pressure and lower need of vasopressor following induction of anesthesia in the reclining compared to the...

  17. Bacteriological monitoring and sustainable management of beach water quality in Malaysia: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun

    2012-05-01

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia. PMID:22980239

  18. From Sand to Rock: a teaching activity to introduce beach dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Teresita

    2015-04-01

    The Italian coastline is about 7,500 km long; approximately 53% of the coastlines are low or deltaic coastlines, while 3,240 km were mainly composed of sand or gravel beaches. Most of the Italian coastal environment suffers from intense and growing urbanization, tourism and industry pressure, which could partly explain that 42% of Italian beaches experience erosion. Terracina is situated Lazio (Central Italy), a region strongly impacted by coastal erosion, and for this reason we organized a teaching activity, carried out with fourth year high school classes, in order to help students to understand sand beach dynamics, acquisition of geology issues and land conservation and preservation skills. We decided to focus our activity on the mineralogical composition of beach sand in order to relate beach formations with the geological evolution of the territory. Sand beach minerals were used as tracers in order to support students to understand dynamics that influence beach formations. In addition to mineral characteristic recognition, this activity allows us to introduce the beach balance concept and the phenomena that regulate sediment balance, in order to allow students to consider beaches as a resource which needs to be preserved. Sand mineralogical composition data is treated in a worksheet to elaborate simple statistical analysis in order to recognize the mineral composition of Terracina beach sand's rock sources. This exercise allows students to find relationships between regional geology and beach sand's composition. Finally, statistical evidence could be compared with geological maps of the area in order to find the probable provenance of sand's rock source and rocks recognition thanks to related morphologies. Our main purpose was to help students to understand that beaches are dynamic systems subject to anthropogenic pressure and for this reason they needed to be preserved. Proposed teaching activities involve topics related to students' living territory and to

  19. Morphdynamics of Beaches in the Tróia-Sines Littoral Ribbon (SW Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Cristina; Andrade, César; Taborda, Rui; Freitas, Conceição

    2006-01-01

    In the Tróia-Sines littoral ribbon five beaches were monitored in order to evaluate morphological and textural changes. The textural analysis reveals a southward coarsening trend that reflects an increase in the wave energy. The morphodynamic data indicate that the modal stages are intermediate to reflective, and that the available beach volume increases southwards. During storm periods the volumetric changes reach 15% to 82% of the beach envelope corresponding to magnitudes of 6x10 3 to 2x10...

  20. A comparison of two methods for surveying mortality of beached birds in British Columbia.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, C; Burger, A E

    1994-01-01

    Systematic surveys of beached birds are often limited in their ability to classify the causes of death of the carcasses recovered. Two methods of determining the cause of death of seabirds encountered during surveys of beaches of southwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, are compared. Birds were either subjected to external visual examinations by volunteer beach surveyors or submitted for gross postmortem examination by a veterinarian. The reliance on external examination of birds on b...

  1. Understanding, Assessing, and Resolving Light-Pollution Problems on Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Witherington, Blair E.; Martin, R. Erik

    2000-01-01

    Making the public aware of light-pollution problems on sea turtle nesting beaches is a fundamental step towards darkening beaches for sea turtles. Many of those responsible for errant lighting are unaware of its detrimental effects and are generally willing to correct the problem voluntarily once they become aware. Nonetheless, legislation requiring light management is often needed, and on many nesting beaches, it may be the only means to completely resolve light-pollu...

  2. Comparison or damage caused by beach seining vs. corallivory on coral transplants in Mombasa, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Cros, Annick

    2001-01-01

    Two coral species were transplanted into three distinct management areas adjacent to the Mombasa Marine National Park, Kenya: a no fishing MPA a gear restricted reserve with no beach seining, and a reserve with beach seining. Corallivory from fish or breakage from beach seining were measured by percentage mortality of transplants. The branching species, Porites cylindrica was more susceptible to disturbances than the massive species Porites lutea which showed no difference in mortality rate b...

  3. Are strandline meiofaunal assemblages affected by a once-only mechanical beach cleaning? Experimental findings

    OpenAIRE

    Gheskiere, T; Vincx, M.; Pison, G.; Degraer, S.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing usage of sandy beaches as recreational resources has forced regional authorities of many tourist countries to remove all litter of fabricated origin and natural wrack from the beach. Consequently, a variety of heavy equipment has been developed during the last decades and is now used almost daily at many beaches. A field experiment, following a ‘before-after-control-impact’ (BACI) design, was conducted at the strandline of De Panne (Belgium) to investigate the impacts of mechan...

  4. Regime Shift in Sandy Beach Microbial Communities following Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Remediation Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A.

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand was...

  5. Bacteria in beach sands: an emerging challenge in protecting coastal water quality and bather health

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday, Elizabeth; Gast, Rebecca J.

    2010-01-01

    To protect bather health at recreational beaches, fecal indicator bacterial standards are used to monitor water quality, and waters exceeding the standards are subsequently closed to bathers. However beachgoers are also in contact with beach sands, the sanitary quality of which is not included within beach monitoring programs. In fact, sands and sediments provide habitat where fecal bacterial populations may persist, and in some cases grow, in the coastal zone. Specific pathogens are less wel...

  6. Numerical Model of Beach Topography Evolution due to Waves and Currents: Special Emphasis on Coastal Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thanh Nam

    2010-01-01

    The beach topography change in the nearshore zone may be induced by natural phenomena such as wind, wave, storm, tsunami, and sea level rise. However, it can also be caused by man-made structures and activities, for example, groins, detached breakwaters, seawalls, dredging, and beach nourishment. Therefore, understanding the beach topography evolution in this zone is necessary and important for coastal engineering projects, e.g., constructing harbors, maintaining navigation channels, and prot...

  7. Estimation of Enterococci Input from Bathers and Animals on A Recreational Beach Using Camera Images

    OpenAIRE

    D, Wang John; M, Solo-Gabriele Helena; M, Abdelzaher Amir; E, Fleming Lora

    2010-01-01

    Enterococci, are used nationwide as a water quality indicator of marine recreational beaches. Prior research has demonstrated that enterococci inputs to the study beach site (located in Miami, FL) are dominated by non-point sources (including humans and animals). We have estimated their respective source functions by developing a counting methodology for individuals to better understand their non-point source load impacts. The method utilizes camera images of the beach taken at regular time i...

  8. Evaluation of coastal squeeze and beach reduction and its consequences for the Caribbean island Martinique

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Schleupner

    2005-01-01

    Based on a spatial model, the Martinique beaches and coastal wetlands are examined to identify the risks of coastal squeeze. In many cases coastal development prevents coasts from adapting by shifting landward. Also tourism infrastructure augments the vulnerability of beach reduction and mangrove squeeze. More than 70% of all Martinique beaches and 29% of mangrove forests are highly endangered by coastal squeeze if sea level rises. The majority of coastal constructions and especially tourist ...

  9. Growth of Enterococci in Unaltered, Unseeded Beach Sands Subjected to Tidal Wetting

    OpenAIRE

    Yamahara, Kevan M.; Walters, Sarah P.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2009-01-01

    Enterococci are indicator bacteria used to assess the risk of acquiring enteric disease from swimming in marine waters. Previous work identified beach sands as reservoirs of enterococci which can be transported from the sand to the sea, where they may instigate beach advisories. The present study establishes that naturally occurring enterococci can replicate in beach sands under environmentally relevant conditions. In unseeded, nonsterile microcosm experiments, it was shown that intermittent ...

  10. Radioactivity of sand from several renowned public beaches and assessment of the corresponding environmental risks

    OpenAIRE

    MIRJANA B. RADENKOVIĆ; SAEED MASAUD ALSHIKH; VELIBOR B. ANDRIĆ; ŠĆEPAN S. MILJANIĆ

    2009-01-01

    The radiological risk due to the presence of natural and man-made radionuclides in beach sands from several renowned seaside and riverbank public beaches was estimated in this study. The exposure levels to terrestrial radiation of the beaches were determined, as well as hazards due to human use of the analyzed sands in industry and in building constructions. Specific radionuclides concentrations in the sand samples were determined by standard gamma-spectrometry. The corresponding radiation ha...

  11. Meiofauna as descriptor of tourism-induced changes at sandy beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Gheskiere, T.; Vincx, M.; Weslawski, J.M.; F. Scapini; Degraer, S.

    2005-01-01

    Tourism has long been considered as a ‘clean industry’ with almost no negative effects on the environment. This study demonstrated, in two different coastal systems (Mediterranean and Baltic), that tourism related activities are particularly affecting the sandy beach meio- and nematofauna in the upper beach zone, the specific ecotone in which many meiofauna species from both the marine and the terrestrial environment congregate. Tourist upper beaches are characterized by a lower % total organ...

  12. Seasonal variability of beach characteristics between Candoliam and Colva coast, Goa, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wilson, J.S.J.; Sujitha, S.B.; Shruti, V.C.; Shaeema, Z.A.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    requires basic knowledge of the coastal landforms and its influences. Studies on beach profiles give a spatio-temporal variation of the backshore/foreshore environment. The coastal regions are generally influenced by land-sea interaction thus forming... unique landforms and ecosystems. These include landforms like coastal plains, river deltas, wetlands, beaches and dunes, reefs, mangrove forest, and lagoons. Regional beach profile study has been carried by various researchers around...

  13. Sunny with a chance of gastroenteritis: predicting swimmer risk at California beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

    2015-01-01

    Traditional beach management that uses concentrations of cultivatable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) may lead to delayed notification of unsafe swimming conditions. Predictive, nowcast models of beach water quality may help reduce beach management errors and enhance protection of public health. This study compares performances of five different types of statistical, data-driven predictive models: multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least-squares regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, in predicting advisories due to FIB contamination at 25 beaches along the California coastline. Classification tree and the binary logistic regression model with threshold tuning are consistently the best performing model types for California beaches. Beaches with good performing models usually have a rainfall/flow related dominating factor affecting beach water quality, while beaches having a deteriorating water quality trend or low FIB exceedance rates are less likely to have a good performing model. This study identifies circumstances when predictive models are the most effective, and suggests that using predictive models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions may improve public health protection at California beaches relative to current practices. PMID:25489920

  14. Nematode community structure and diversity pattern in sandy beaches of Qingdao, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Er; Mu, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhinan; Yang, Shichao; Zhang, Ting; Li, Jia

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the diversity and structure of free-living marine nematode communities at three sandy beaches representing typical intertidal environments of a temperate zone in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. Average nematode abundance ranged from 1006 to 2170 ind. 10 cm-2, and a total of 34 nematode genera were recorded, of which only 8 were common in all the studied beaches. Pielou's evenness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were the lowest at the second beach where nematode abundance was the highest. The highest species diversity index coincided with the lowest nematode abundance at Shilaoren beach. Sediment median grain size, sorting coefficient, and chlorophyll-a content were essential for differentiation in nematode abundance and species diversity, whereas taxonomic diversity of nematode was homogeneous across the three beaches. In 0-20 cm sediment profile, nematode abundance declined abruptly with depth, whereas nematode diversity changed gently with obvious difference in 16-20 cm layer. Sediment granulometry and chlorophyll- a content were the two foremost factors which influenced the vertical distribution pattern of nematode generic diversity. Non-selective deposit feeders constituted the most dominant trophic group, followed by epistratum feeders. Bathylaimus (family: Tripyloididae) dominated at the second and Yangkou beach, while Theristus (family: Xyalidae) prevailed at Shilaoren beach. Omnivores and predators became important at Shilaoren beach because of the high proportion of Enoplolaimus. Even though, nematode community of the studied beaches did not differ significantly from each other.

  15. Response to storm conditions of two different beaches at the Mediterranean coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mrini, Aldelmounim; Anfuso, Giorgio; Nachite, Driss; Taaouati, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades the increased demand for the recreational use of beaches has resulted in the uptake of studies on the morphodynamic processes which are acting on beaches. This knowledge is fundamental for appropriate coastal erosion management, suitable tourist use of littoral and for the design and shape of human construction. The Mediterranean sectors of Moroccan littoral investigated in this study, Ksar Rimal and Cabo Negro beaches, are respectively located north and south of Cabo Negro promontory and, over recent years, have been subject to increasing tourist activity. This has consisted mainly of the construction of two tourist ports (Marina Smir and Kabila), residential developments, hotels and a motorway which runs parallel to the coast, affecting the dune ridges and two lagoons which are of great ecological interest. In detail, the dunes located in the backshore at Ksar Rimal beach, are nowadays occupied by summer houses threaten by coastal retreat. A wide, partially urbanized, backshore is observed at Cabo Negro beach. With the intention of characterize the morphodynamic and seasonal behavior and the response of the studied beaches to storm impact, a beach monitoring program was carried out in the period 2006-2008, with special attention to the February-March 2008 stormy period. On analyzing the information obtained, it was possible to characterize the morphology and sedimentology of the studied beaches, and to calculate beach volumetric variations. Ksar Rimal is an open, exposed beach characterized by an intermediate slope (tan β = 0.10) with medium-coarse sands. The beach showed a reflective beach state characterized by plunging breakers. Small morphological seasonal changes were observed, most important morphological and volumetric variations (about 20 m3/m) taking place after winter storms which usually gave rise to a more dissipative beach profile (tan β = 0.05) characterized by spilling breakers. Beach recovery was quite rapid, usually lasting 2

  16. The Magilligan beach ridge plain (Northern Ireland, UK): A detailed sedimentary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Tanja; Surmann, Kirstin; Cooper, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Beach ridges are a common geological feature on prograded sandy coasts . Beach ridges and their subsurface deposits record past coastal processes and are indicators of previous shoreline position, shape and sea level. This work presents preliminary results and provides new information about the late Holocene development of the Magilligan Foreland in Northern Ireland (UK). The triangular beach-ridge plain of Magilligan was formed in the early and mid-Holocene as a consequence of land and sea level change and sediment abundance. The focus of the investigations is a detailed grain size analysis of beach ridge deposits using the settling tube method. The main aim is to distinguish the beach ridge deposits from the aeolian dune sand cover and to draw conclusions about the development and sedimentary formation of the beach ridges. A semi-continuous outcrop of the upper units of the beachridge plain is preserved along the coastline. The geological descriptions in the field show significant differences between adjacent outcrops and grain size analysis was undertaken to distinguish aeolian and swash-lain sediemnts. Buried soil layers and unconformities helped to define the palaeotopography which consist of a sequence of beach ridge crests and inter-ridge depressions. The beach ridges of the subsurface are independent of the modern dune topography. There are more beach ridges than previously thought.

  17. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Mendonça Cavalcante Davino; Milena Bandeira de Melo; Roberto Augusto Caffaro Filho

    2015-01-01

    Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources o...

  18. Ghost crab populations respond to changing morphodynamic and habitat properties on sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucrezi, Serena

    2015-01-01

    The morphodynamic state and habitat properties of microtidal sandy beaches largely account for variations in macrofauna structure. In ecological theory, the habitat harshness hypothesis and the habitat safety hypothesis explain variations in macrofauna populations of the intertidal and supratidal zones of sandy beaches. The former hypothesis states that intertidal macrofauna should increase from reflective to dissipative beaches. The latter hypothesis supports the idea that supratidal species are more successful on reflective beaches, given their relative independence from the swash. However, trends in abundance of supratidal species, particularly crustaceans, have been unclear and further investigation is therefore needed. This study tested the two hypotheses on the largest invertebrate intertidal-to-supratidal crustacean on sandy beaches, namely the ghost crab (genus Ocypode). Variations in ghost crab burrow density, abundance, size and across-shore distribution were measured on four warm-temperate microtidal sandy beaches in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Burrow numbers increased with beach morphodynamic state, while average burrow size decreased. The steepest, narrowest and most inundation-prone beach represented the least hospitable environment for the ghost crabs. The results that are reported here tend to support the habitat harshness hypothesis. However, the relevance of i) individual physical variables, ii) tidal action, and iii) the ecology of various species, in shaping ghost crab population dynamics, is also discussed. The results contribute to the knowledge regarding population dynamics of intertidal and supratidal crustaceans across beach types.

  19. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai. PMID:23430068

  20. Effects of Fishing and Fishing Closures on Beach Clams: Experimental Evaluation across Commercially Fished and Non-Fished Beaches before and during Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Management responses to reconcile declining fisheries typically include closed areas and times to fishing. This study evaluated this strategy for a beach clam fishery by testing the hypothesis that changes in the densities and size compositions of clams from before to during harvesting would differ between commercially fished and non-fished beaches. Sampling was spatially stratified across the swash and dry sand habitats on each of two commercially fished and two non-fished beaches, and temporally stratified across three six-week blocks: before, early and late harvesting. Small-scale spatio-temporal variability in the densities and sizes of clams was prevalent across both habitats and the components of variation were generally greatest at the lowest levels examined. Despite this, differences in the densities and sizes of clams among individual beaches were evident, but there were few significant differences across the commercially fished versus non-fished beaches from before to during harvesting. There was no evidence of reduced densities or truncated size compositions of clams on fished compared to non-fished beaches, contrasting reports of some other organisms in protected areas. This was probably due to a combination of factors, including the current levels of commercial harvests, the movements and other local-scale responses of clams to ecological processes acting independently across individual beaches. The results identify the difficulties in detecting fishing-related impacts against inherent levels of variability in clam populations. Nevertheless, continued experimental studies that test alternate management arrangements may help refine and determine the most suitable strategies for the sustainable harvesting of beach clams, ultimately enhancing the management of sandy beaches. PMID:26731102

  1. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1995-07-29 to 1995-12-18 (NODC Accession 0037167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  2. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 2003-08-03 to 2004-05-23 (NODC Accession 0071431)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  3. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jing Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled high upto 41% of the total debris. Compared to the ocean conservancy�s 2013 report of marine debris in Malaysian beaches, which was 27,005 items with in 6.44 km, the current count is slightly low. However, Malaysia was ranked 14th place among the top 20 countries in International Marine Debris Watch program. Nelayan Beach is the dirtiest beach in Port Dickson. Around 50% of the total plastic items collected are found on those beaches. The marine debris items indicated that they arrived there by land-based and ocean-based activities. High energy conditions such as wind and waves in the beaches correlated well with less debris deposition on the beaches. With debris equivalent of 4193 items/km, Malaysia harvests less solid wastes compared to Croatia, USA, Singapore and Turkey. However, a nation wide survey is needed to assess the seriousness of marine debris problem in Malaysia.

  4. Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Raquel; Rodrigues, R.; Costa, I.; Carneiro, Carlos; Cunha, M.; Duarte, A.; Faria, N.; Ferriera, F.C.; Gargate, M.J.; Julio, C.; Martins, M.L.; Nevers, Meredith; Oleastro, M.; Solo-Gabriele, H.; Verissimo, C.; Viegas, C.; Whitman, Richard L.; Brandao, J.

    2014-01-01

    Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the “Microareias 2012” workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications.

  5. Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, R; Rodrigues, R; Costa, I; Carneiro, C; Cunha, M; Duarte, A; Faria, N; Ferreira, F C; Gargaté, M J; Júlio, C; Martins, M L; Nevers, M B; Oleastro, M; Solo-Gabriele, H; Veríssimo, C; Viegas, C; Whitman, R L; Brandão, J

    2014-02-15

    Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the "Microareias 2012" workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications. PMID:24355396

  6. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  7. Interaction of edge waves with swell on a beach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation of edge waves on a beach by incoming swell is considered on the basis of shallow-water model. Subharmonic resonance mechanism of interaction is analyzed by multi-scaled expansion asymptotic techniques. The generation of edge waves between wave breakers is found to have a dynamic threshold. It is defined by intensity and frequency of incoming swell, geometry of a shore zone. Nonlinear no stationary wave solutions for the envelope of interacting edge waves are described by generalized Sine-Gordon model. An infinite set of exact solutions are received by the Lamb method for the phase synchronism regime of wave's interaction

  8. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    -an overview. Bulletin Deccan College Research Institute, Pune 44:153-163 Kumar S, Rao GV (1982) Geographical and Quaternary history of the west coast of Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra. First National Seminar Quaternary Environmental Papers. Marh 58 (ed) Hin... dustan Publication Company, Delhi, pp 311-318 Pascoe EH (1964) A Manual of the geology of India and Bunna. Goverment of India Press, New Delhi, 1906-1907, P Russel RJ, McIntire WG (1965) Southern hemisphere beach rock. 115 Indian Ocean Studies Technical...

  9. Sinopec offers HK$10m to clean up affected beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Sinopec has established a HK$10 million fund to assist green groups in cleaning up the millions of plastic pellets from a container ship that have been washed ashore on local beaches and fish farms. The 150 tons of polypropylene pellets were being shipped on board a freighter Yong Xin .lie 1 from Nansha Port to Shantou when signal l0 typhoon Vicente struck on ,luly 23. The pellets, in six containers, were blown into the sea. The pellets then washed onto the outlying islands of Hong Kong, stirring concerns over environmental damage to the ocean itself, as well as to marine life.

  10. The pressure of tourism on the Mediterranean coastline and beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-01-01

    Mediterranean tourism is usually defined as “3S tourism” – the three S’s standing for sea, sand, and sun. The term highlights the central importance of these three physical factors in the attraction exerted by the shores of Mare Nostrum. In this paper we set out to quantify the impact of the first two of the S’s – sea and sand. In our analysis, sandy beaches emerge as the basic production factor sustaining the tourism business, followed by the coast and the view of the sea. So great is the im...

  11. Research on the Sea Turtle Population of Belek Beach

    OpenAIRE

    Sak, Serdar; BARAN, İbrahim

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the status of the sea turtle population of Belek Beach, which is within the boundaries of Antalya province, was investigated during the 1996 and 1997 breeding seasons. 153 nests were recorded, 134 of which hatched (87.6%) and from these nests 6295 hatchlings were able to reach the sea in 1996. 168 nests were recorded in 1997, 136 of which hatched (80.9%) and from these nests 7082 hatchlings were able to reach the sea. The nest density was recorded as 9.1 nests/kilometer in 1996...

  12. 75 FR 34636 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display... temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks... has a substantial direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt State law...

  13. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Championship, a high speed power boat race. The Palm Beach World Championship is scheduled to take place on... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World...

  14. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco...,000 feet in approximate position 39 13'55'' N, 120 01'42'' W (NAD 83) for the Independence...

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  16. The occurrence of high concentration of natural radionuclides in black sands of Malaysian beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to measure the concentration of natural radionuclides in black sands of Pasir Hitam (Langkawi Island) and Batu Feringhi (Penang Island) beaches of Malaysia. Black sand was found to be more concentrated in the beach of Pasir Hitam as compared to Batu Feringhi where it occurred only in patches. Sample analysis was conducted using a gamma spectrometer. This study showed that most of black sands of Pasir Hitam beach and some of Batu Feringhi beach contain high concentrations of natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series. The mean concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 in black sand of Pasir Hitam beach were 1150 ± 800 Bq/kg and 500 ± 300 Bq/kg respectively. This is much higher than the normal beach sands with activity levels of 13 ± 7 Bq/kg Ra-226 and 11 ±6 Bq/kg Ra-228. The mean concentrations of 1350 ± 1300 Bq/kg Ra-226 and 805 ± 757 Bq/kg Ra-228 of two black sans samples of Batu Feringhi beach were similar to those of the Pasir Hitam. However, some black sand mixtures of Batu Feringhi contain normal level of natural radionuclides. In general, the activity levels of natural radionuclides in black sand of Malaysian beaches vary very significantly. (Author)

  17. Morphology, grain-size and faunistic composition of the macrotidal beaches of Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.I. Isla

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphodynamic models have been applied to macrotidal beaches. They are based on unimodal grain sizes and average dynamic parameters as the wave height and period at the breaker zone. Bimodal gravel beaches do not fit to these models because a grain size is subject to spatial segregations (gravel and granules at the upper beach zones and fine sand at the lower-tide terrace, and b wave dynamics vary temporarily during the tidal cycle: the beach has a reflective behaviour during high tide and dissipative during low tide. Superimposed to these morphodynamical constraints, along the Atlantic coast of Tierra del Fuego inherited factors control the coastal morphology. In low-lying coasts (South-American Plate portion, the Holocene sea-level fluctuation permitted the construction of beach ridge plains. On high-relief coasts (Scotia Microplate, the same fluctuation have little enough sediment available, and therefore pocket beaches developed between capes and sand accumulations at river outlets. Two areas were found of interest by their heavy mineral content: the Rio Chico beach-ridge plain, and the coastline between Ewan and Ladrillero estuaries. With regard to the molluscan beach composition, rocky bottom specimens dominate at the capes.

  18. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  19. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    .... FAA-2012-0099, Airspace Docket No. 12- ASO-11, published on April 11, 2012 (77 FR 21662), amends Class... Beach, FL, as published in the Federal Register of April 11, 2012 (77 FR 21662) (FR Doc. 2012-8558) is... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL...

  20. 76 FR 28130 - Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida, (OTS No. 15445) on May 6, 2011. Dated: May...

  1. Benthic life on the tropical sandy shore: Miramar beach a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    Sandy beaches are a dynamic environment in equilibrium, where sand, water and air are in motion, absorbing the energy of the waves and constituting one of the most important aspects of the coastline. Though sandy beaches have been studied for ages...

  2. 78 FR 68858 - Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge, Orange County, CA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ..., updates to constituents, and a Federal Register notice (76 FR 16634; March 24, 2011). The draft CCP/EA... Fish and Wildlife Service Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge, Orange County, CA; Final Comprehensive...) for the Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). In the CCP, we describe how we will manage...

  3. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange... establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach... Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October 6, 2011 through October 9, 2011. This...

  4. Testing and assessment of large BGO detector for beach monitoring of radioactive particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, E.R.; Rigollet, C.; Maleka, P.P.; Jones, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Beach Monitoring Steering Group (BMSG) was set up by UKAEA to explore whether improved systems for beach monitoring of radioactive particles are available. The BMSG commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI/N

  5. Contact with beach sand, concentrations of fecal indicators, and enteric illness risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies ofbeach sand fecal contamination have triggered interest among scientists and in the media. Although evidence shows that beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms as well as fecal pathogens, illness risk associated with beach sand contact and fecal indicators...

  6. DOES CONTACT WITH SAND AT BEACHES INCREASE THE RISK OF ILLNESS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies found high levels ofE. coli in sand, causing concern and media reports about risks of illness from contact with sand during beach recreation. We summarized associations between beach sand exposure and gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, eye, ear, cut and urinary tr...

  7. Seagulls and Beaches as Reservoirs for Multidrug-ResistantEscherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Roméo Rocha; Poirel , Laurent; da Costa, Paulo Martins; Nordmann, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    A variety of extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli isolates, with a high rate of cefotaximase-15 resistance, were identified in seagull feces from Porto, Portugal, beaches. Beaches may therefore present a risk to public health because of the potential pathogen-spreading capacity of migratory birds.

  8. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beach-goers

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. METHODS: In 2007, visitors at 2 recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days...

  9. Impacts of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne on Two Nourished Beaches along the Southeast Florida Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedet, L.; Campbell, T.; Finkl, C.W.; Stive, M.J.F.; Spadoni, R.

    2005-01-01

    Site inspections and beacli profile surveys of nourislied beaclies in the city of Boca Raton, and Town of Palm Beach, Florida show that the nourished beaches protected the shore from hurricane impacts in 2004. Striking the southeast coast of Florida within 20 days of each other. Hurricane Frances (S

  10. Quartz OSL dating of late Holocene beach ridges from the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remillard, A.M.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    Quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has been applied to sandy beach ridge systems from the Magdalen Islands in the center of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Quebec, Canada) to provide the first chronological framework for these features. Nineteen beach ridges (22 samples) from four di...

  11. A Conceptual Model for Spatial Grain Size Variability on the Surface of and within Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Gallagher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Grain size on the surface of natural beaches has been observed to vary spatially and temporally with morphology and wave energy. The stratigraphy of the beach at Duck, North Carolina, USA was examined using 36 vibracores (~1–1.5 m long collected along a cross-shore beach profile. Cores show that beach sediments are finer (~0.3 mm and more uniform high up on the beach. Lower on the beach, with more swash and wave action, the sand is reworked, segregated by size, and deposited in layers and patches. At the deepest measurement sites in the swash (~−1.4 to −1.6 m NAVD88, which are constantly being reworked by the energetic shore break, there is a thick layer (60–80 cm of very coarse sediment (~2 mm. Examination of two large trenches showed that continuous layers of coarse and fine sands comprise beach stratigraphy. Thicker coarse layers in the trenches (above mean sea level are likely owing to storm erosion and storm surge elevating the shore break and swash, which act to sort the sediment. Those layers are buried as water level retreats, accretion occurs and the beach recovers from the storm. Thinner coarse layers likely represent similar processes acting on smaller temporal scales.

  12. Beach monitoring using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: results of a multi-temporal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Marco; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Vacchi, Matteo; Firpo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing. In this study, we show how we applied small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the study of topographic changes of a beach in Italy, NW Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed the same stretch of coastline three times in 5 months, obtaining ortophotos and digital elevation models of the beach using a structure from motion approach. We then calculated the difference in beach topography between each time step, and we related topography changes to both human and natural modifications of the beach morphology that can be inferred from aerial photos or wave data. We conclude that small drones have the potential to open new possibilities for beach monitoring studies, and can be successfully employed for multi-temporal monitoring studies at relatively low cost.

  13. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events. PMID:26561445

  14. Quantitative analysis of plastic debris on recreational beaches in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-12-15

    Plastic litter was quantified on four sandy beaches in Mumbai. The mean abundance of 7.49 g and 68.83 items per square metre was recorded. The abundance of plastics significantly varied among the beaches showing an increasing trend in the southern part. The abundance of plastics by weight in Dadar was significantly higher than that in Aksa. The size fractionation of plastics proved that small particles (1-20 mm) are predominant with 41.85% microplastics (1-5 mm) which emphasizes the high risk to marine organisms due to possible ingestion. The highest quantity of microplastics was seen in Juhu beach (55.33%) followed by Versova, Aksa and Dadar. The major contributing factors for the abundance are beach usage for different activities such as recreational, religious and fishing which suggest that the land-based sources provide major inputs to plastic pollution in these beaches. PMID:24210947

  15. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  16. The impact of seasonality on service quality in beach hotels: the case of the Palm Beach Hotel and Bungalows

    OpenAIRE

    Moussoulides, Aris

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest issues that any business is facing nowadays is offering the highest quality of service possible to its clients. Having acknowledged the imminent importance of offering high quality of service in the Cypriot hotel industry, this report went on to investigate the impact that seasonality has on the quality of service in beach hotel. In order to do so in a feasible way and taking into consideration the limitation of the study, this report selected the case study method and used...

  17. MODELING OF FLOW THROUGH A VERTICAL PERFORATED PIPE IN THE BEACH, AND THE MORPHODYNAMIC INTERPRETATION: THE PRESSURE EQUALIZATION MODULE SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that vertical perforated tubes placed below the beach surface will increase the drainage of the beach, and hence increase the deposition of sand on the beach. The system is called the PEM-system, Pressure Equalization System, and the Danish company SIC (www.shore.dk) is doing...

  18. Levels of Viable Enterococci Fecal Indicator Bacteria at a Marine Subtropical Beach: Assessing Temporal and Spatial Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach water quality monitoring is an important tool to inform the public of health risks from recreational beach use, as well as to assess the impacts of land-based sources of pollution on coastal ecosystems. Many beach monitoring programs in the US currently utilize a strategy o...

  19. Beach response to a sequence of extreme storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Giovanni; Senechal, N.; Rejas, A.; Bryan, K. R.; Capo, S.; Parisot, J. P.; Brown, J. A.; MacMahan, J. H. M.

    2014-01-01

    A sequence of daily beach surveys acquired over one month covering an area larger than 100,000 m2, was analyzed to study morphological changes resulting from a cluster of storms. The beach response was highly variable in both the cross- and alongshore. A cumulative storm effect was not observed, despite one storm being characterized by a 10-year return period that had significant wave height (Hs) of 8.1 m and a peak wave period (Tp) of 17 s. Instead, storms that can potentially cause significant erosion in terms of Hs had a limited effect on the morphology because the large wave height was coupled to either neap tides, normally-incident short-waves (f > 0.04 Hz), or low levels of infragravity (0.004 height and direction), tidal range or by infragravity energy in the inner surf zone (assessed using pressure and velocity measurements). The results indicate that it is not possible to scale-up single-storm erosion studies into predictions of cluster-storm erosion.

  20. The Balloon-Borne Exoplanet Experiment (EchoBeach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, E.

    2013-09-01

    The Balloon-Borne Exoplanet Experiment (EchoBeach) is a proposed sub-orbital spectroscopic instrument. Its primary scientific goal is to detect and characterize the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets in the Mid-IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 4 to 20 μm using a 1.6m diameter telescope. It is in this wavelength range where the contrast between the star and planet emission grows exponentially, and this spectral region is key to answering important questions about the existence and composition of exp-atmospheres. Due to the Earth atmospheric absorption and emission, bservations at these wavelength are impossible from the ground or even at aircraft altitudes, but become available to balloon-born instrumentation flying in the upper stratosphere. At present we have high fidelity Mid-IR spectra of just two exoplanets of any type. EchoBeach can greatly improve on this by observing a multitude of transiting exoplanets, well in advance of any planned space-mission.

  1. Mortality of discards from southeastern Australian beach seines and gillnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B; Brand, Craig P; Uhlmann, Sebastian S

    2008-06-19

    Two experiments were done in an Australian estuary to quantify the mortalities and contributing factors for key species discarded during 8 and 9 deployments of commercial beach (or shore) seines and gillnets, respectively. In both experiments, bycatches (2347 individuals comprising 16 species) were handled according to conventional practices and assessed for immediate mortalities before live samples of selected species were discarded into replicate cages along with appropriate controls, and monitored for short-term mortalities (surf bream Acanthopagrus australis (n = 290) were dead after 5 d, with most mortalities occurring between the second and fifth day. In the gillnet experiment, 42 and 11% of gilled-and-discarded A. australis (n = 161) and lesser salmon catfish Neoarius graeffei (n = 67), respectively, died during a 10 d monitoring period, mostly within the first 5 d. There were no deaths in any controls for these fish. Mixed-effects logistic models revealed that the mortality of A. australis discarded from both gears was significantly (p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with their total length, while N. graeffei had a significantly (p < 0.05) greater (5-fold) probability of dying when jellyfish Catostylus sp. were present in the gillnet. Simple modifications to the operations of beach seines and gillnets and/or post-capture handling procedures, such as close regulation of size selectivity for the target species, careful removal of fish from meshes, and abstention from setting during high abundances of jellyfish will maximise the survival of discarded bycatch. PMID:18714684

  2. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  3. Natural radiation monitoring and control treatment in the Hantepe beach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been carried out to monitor and decrease the natural radiation exposure at the Hantepe beach (Canakkale (Turkey)). A 0.25- to 0.30-m-thick layer of sand was scraped, removed and deposited in a safe place in order to decrease people's exposure to radiation and to relieve relevant radio-phobia. The original mean value of dose rate on the beach was 1.38 μGy h-1 at the contact and 1.0 μGy h-1 at 1 m above the ground. After the scraping process, the mean value of dose rate decreased to 0.98 μGy h-1 at the contact and to 0.78 μGy h-1 at 1 m above the ground. One year later, these values decreased to 0.70 μGy h-1 at the contact and to 0.56 μGy h-1 at 1 m above the ground. The effective original dose rate of 1.2 mSv y-1 decreased to 0.95 mSv y-1 after the surface treatment and to 0.69 mSv y-1 one year later. (authors)

  4. A system for beach video-monitoring: Beachkeeper plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignone, Massimo; Schiaffino, Chiara F.; Isla, Federico I.; Ferrari, Marco

    2012-12-01

    A suitable knowledge of coastal systems, of their morphodynamic characteristics and their response to storm events and man-made structures is essential for littoral conservation and management. Nowadays webcams represent a useful device to obtain information from beaches. Video-monitoring techniques are generally site specific and softwares working with any image acquisition system are rare. Therefore, this work aims at submitting theory and applications of an experimental video monitoring software: Beachkeeper plus, a freeware non-profit software, can be employed and redistributed without modifications. A license file is provided inside software package and in the user guide. Beachkeeper plus is based on Matlab® and it can be used for the analysis of images and photos coming from any kind of acquisition system (webcams, digital cameras or images downloaded from internet), without any a-priori information or laboratory study of the acquisition system itself. Therefore, it could become a useful tool for beach planning. Through a simple guided interface, images can be analyzed by performing georeferentiation, rectification, averaging and variance. This software was initially operated in Pietra Ligure (Italy), using images from a tourist webcam, and in Mar del Plata (Argentina) using images from a digital camera. In both cases the reliability in different geomorphologic and morphodynamic conditions was confirmed by the good quality of obtained images after georeferentiation, rectification and averaging.

  5. Measuring the effects of morphological changes to sea turtle nesting beaches over time with LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kristina H.; Anderson, Sharolyn J.; Sutton, Paul C.

    2015-10-01

    Sea turtle nesting beaches in southeastern Florida were evaluated for changes from 1999 to 2005 using LiDAR datasets. Changes to beach volume were correlated with changes in several elevation-derived characteristics, such as elevation and slope. In addition, these changes to beach geomorphology were correlated to changes in nest success, illustrating that beach alterations may affect sea turtle nesting behavior. The ability to use LiDAR datasets to quickly and efficiently conduct beach comparisons for habitat use represents another benefit to this high spatial resolution data.

  6. Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal erosion, storms, sea-level rise, and tsunamis all lead to inundation that puts people and communities at risk. Adapting to these coastal hazards has gained increasing attention with climate change. Instead of promoting one particular strategy such as seawalls or defending against one type of hazard, scholars and practitioners encourage a combination of existing methods and strategies to promote synergistic effects. The recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on climate extremes reflects this trend in the integration of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. This paper focuses on the roles, compatibilities, and synergies of three coastal adaptation options - engineering, vegetation, and policy - in the case of Ocean Beach in San Francisco. Traditionally engineering approach and ecosystem conservation often have stood in opposition as hard shoreline structures destroy coastal habitats, worsen coastal erosion, divert ocean currents, and prevent the natural migration of shores. A natural migration of shores without structure translates into the abandonment of properties in the coastal zone, and is at odds with property rights and development. For example, policies of relocation, retreat, and insurance may not be popular given the concerns of infrastructure and coastal access. As such, engineering, natural defense, and policy can be more conflictual than complementary. Nonetheless, all these responses are used in combination in many locations. Complementarities and compatibilities, therefore, must be assessed when considering the necessity of engineering responses, natural defense capabilities, and policy options. In this light, the question is how to resolve the problem of mixed responses and short- and long-term interests and values, identify compatibilities, and generate synergies. In the case of Ocean Beach, recent erosions that endangered San Francisco's wastewater treatment system acted as major

  7. The recovery of rare earth elements (REE) from beach sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study describes a metallurgical process that will extract, recover and produce REE oxides from beach sands obtained from Ombo, San Vicente, northern Palawan. The beach sands contain REE minerals of allanite and small amounts of monazite. Allanite is a sorosilicate mineral containing rare earths, thorium and uranium. Monazite is the anhydrous phosphate of cerium and the lanthanum group of rare earths with thorium commonly present in replacement for cerium and lanthanum. Collected beach sand were first pan-concentrated in-situ to produce heavy mineral concentrates. Screening using a 32 mesh (0.500 mm) sieve was done at the Nuclear Materials Research Laboratory to remove oversize sand particles. The -32 mesh fraction was treated with bromoform (sp. gr. 2.89) to separate the heavy minerals from siliceous gangue. Grinding to -325 mesh size (0.044mm) followed to liberate the minerals prior to leaching. Two acids leachants were used - concentrated HCl for the first trial and a mixture of concentrated HCl and HNO3 (10:1 volume ratio) for the second trial. Both leaching trials were carried out at 180oC for 7 hours or until dry. The resulting leached residues were re-dissolved in concentrated HCl and filtered. IonquestR 801, an organophosphorous extractant, was added to the filtrate to separate the radioactive thorium from REE. Sodium hydroxide was added to the aqueous phase to precipitate the REE. After filtering the precipitate, it was dissolved in HCl. The acid solution was repeatedly extracted three (3) times with IonquestR 801 to remove iron and other contaminants. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the final solution to precipitate the REE, which was then dried in the oven. The precipitate was calcined/roasted in the furnace at two different temperatures for different periods of time to burn off the organic matter and to form oxides. Results of the XRD analysis showed peaks of the calcined precipitate matching with the peaks of lanthanum oxide standard

  8. Improving water quality through California's Clean Beach Initiative: an assessment of 17 projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John H

    2010-07-01

    California's Clean Beach Initiative (CBI) funds projects to reduce loads of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) impacting beaches, thus providing an opportunity to judge the effectiveness of various CBI water pollution control strategies. Seventeen initial projects were selected for assessment to determine their effectiveness on reducing FIB in the receiving waters along beaches nearest to the projects. Control strategies included low-flow diversions, sterilization facilities, sewer improvements, pier best management practices (BMPs), vegetative swales, and enclosed beach BMPs. Assessments were based on statistical changes in pre- and postproject mean densities of FIB at shoreline monitoring stations targeted by the projects. Most low-flow diversions and the wetland swale project were effective in removing all contaminated runoff from beaches. UV sterilization was effective when coupled with pretreatment filtration and where effluent was released within a few hundred meters of the beach to avoid FIB regrowth. Other BMPs were less effective because they treated only a portion of contaminant sources impacting their target beach. These findings should be useful to other coastal states and agencies faced with similar pollution control problems. PMID:19496001

  9. Tools for beach health data management, data processing, and predictive model implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet describes utilities created for management of recreational waters to provide efficient data management, data aggregation, and predictive modeling as well as a prototype geographic information system (GIS)-based tool for data visualization and summary. All of these utilities were developed to assist beach managers in making decisions to protect public health. The Environmental Data Discovery and Transformation (EnDDaT) Web service identifies, compiles, and sorts environmental data from a variety of sources that help to define climatic, hydrologic, and hydrodynamic characteristics including multiple data sources within the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Great Lakes Beach Health Database (GLBH-DB) and Web application was designed to provide a flexible input, export, and storage platform for beach water quality and sanitary survey monitoring data to compliment beach monitoring programs within the Great Lakes. A real-time predictive modeling strategy was implemented by combining the capabilities of EnDDaT and the GLBH-DB for timely, automated prediction of beach water quality. The GIS-based tool was developed to map beaches based on their physical and biological characteristics, which was shared with multiple partners to provide concepts and information for future Web-accessible beach data outlets.

  10. Applying Uav and Photogrammetry to Monitor the Morphological Changes Along the Beach in Penghu Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Hao

    2016-06-01

    Penghu islands, in the southern Taiwan Strait, is a remnant of a middle-late Miocene basaltic shield volcano. We present a procedure to use UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) to perform photogrammetry survey and monitoring analysis in beach evolution scenarios. The aim of this study is to understand spatial-temporal change along the sandy beach in Penghu islands, especially as for the effects of typhoon and coastal structures. According to the study result, this example of application is provided to show the results and the potential of this methodology in real beach changes. In addition, we found the typhoon and coastal structures play important roles to shape the beach morphology and its evolution. The result of beach monitoring reveals that the reduction and change of sand volume in Shanshui beach resulted from the placement of detached breakwater complexes. This coastal structure likely resulted in the development of tombolo and therefor make the beach unstable and subject to conduct rip current and more erosion.

  11. Beach morphology monitoring in the Columbia River Littoral Cell: 1997-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Peter; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Kingsley, Etienne; Thompson, David M.; Voigt, Brian; Kaminsky, George M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This report describes methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1997 to 2005. A collaborative group primarily consisting of the US Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology performed this work. Beach Monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). Sediment size distribution data was also collected as part of this effort. The monitoring program was designed to: 1) quantify the short- to medium-term (seasonal to interannual) beach change rates and morphological variability along the CRLC and assess the processes responsible for these changes; 2) collect beach state data (i.e., grain size, beach slope, and dune/sandbar height/position) to enhance the conceptual understanding of CRLC functioning and refine predictions of future coastal change and hazards; 3) compare and contrast the scales of environmental forcing and beach morphodynamics in the CRLC to other coastlines of the world; and 4) provide beach change data in a useful format to land use managers.

  12. Bioavailable metals in tourist beaches of Richards Bay, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrimurugan, E; Jonathan, M P; Roy, Priyadarsi D; Shruti, V C; Ndwandwe, O M

    2016-04-15

    Acid Leachable Trace Metal (ALTMs) concentrations in tourist beaches of Richards Bay, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa were assessed. 53 surface sediment samples were collected from five different beaches (Kwambonambi Long Beach; Nhlabane Beach; Five Mile Beach; Alkanstrand Beach and Port Durnford Beach). The results of ALTMs (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd, Zn, As, Hg) suggest that they are enriched naturally and with some local industrial sources for (avg. in μgg(-1)) Fe (3530-7219), Mn (46-107.11), Cd (0.43-1.00) and Zn (48-103.98). Statistical results indicate that metal concentrations were from natural origin attributed to leaching, weathering process and industrial sources. Comparative studies of metal concentrations with sediment quality guidelines and ecotoxicological values indicate that there is no adverse biological effect. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation indices results indicate moderate enhancement of Fe (Igeo class 1 in FMB), Cd (EF>50; Igeo classes 2-4) and Zn (Igeo classes 1 & 2). PMID:26853593

  13. Quality of Tourist Beaches in Huatulco, SW of Mexico: Multiproxy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retama, I.; Jonathan, M. P.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    40 beach water and sediment samples were collected from the inter-tidal zones of tourist beaches of Huatulco in the State of Oaxaca, South Western part of Mexico. The samples were collected in an aim to know the concentration pattern of metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, As, Hg) in sediments and microplastics. Physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solids, salinity and redox potential. Collection of samples was done during the peak season in April 2013. Our results from water samples indicate that the physico-chemical conditions of the beach water have been altered due to human activities in large numbers. The bioavailable metal concentrations indicate that enrichment of Pb, Cd, Cr and As and it is also supported by the higher values observed from the calculation of enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index. The higher values in the sediments is either due to natural sources like chemical weathering of rocks and external sources, which points to high tourism, agricultural activities in the region. Identification of micro-plastics was done through SEM photographs, indicating the type of plastic wastes deposited into the beach regions which can indicate the density, durability and the persistence level in the sediments. Eventhough the enrichment of metals and modification of beach water quality is observed, care need to be taken to avoid further damage to the coastal ecosystem. Keywords: Tourism, Beach sediments, Beach water, Micro plastics, Trace metals, Contamination indices, Huatulco, Mexico.

  14. Using probabilities of enterococci exceedance and logistic regression to evaluate long term weekly beach monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Diana; Lopez, Jose V; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Fleisher, Jay M

    2016-02-01

    Recreational water quality surveillance involves comparing bacterial levels to set threshold values to determine beach closure. Bacterial levels can be predicted through models which are traditionally based upon multiple linear regression. The objective of this study was to evaluate exceedance probabilities, as opposed to bacterial levels, as an alternate method to express beach risk. Data were incorporated into a logistic regression for the purpose of identifying environmental parameters most closely correlated with exceedance probabilities. The analysis was based on 7,422 historical sample data points from the years 2000-2010 for 15 South Florida beach sample sites. Probability analyses showed which beaches in the dataset were most susceptible to exceedances. No yearly trends were observed nor were any relationships apparent with monthly rainfall or hurricanes. Results from logistic regression analyses found that among the environmental parameters evaluated, tide was most closely associated with exceedances, with exceedances 2.475 times more likely to occur at high tide compared to low tide. The logistic regression methodology proved useful for predicting future exceedances at a beach location in terms of probability and modeling water quality environmental parameters with dependence on a binary response. This methodology can be used by beach managers for allocating resources when sampling more than one beach. PMID:26837832

  15. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  16. Assessing sandy beach macrofaunal patterns along large-scale environmental gradients: A Fuzzy Naïve Bayes approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzeda, Fabio; Zangrilli, Maria Paola; Defeo, Omar

    2016-06-01

    A Fuzzy Naïve Bayes (FNB) classifier was developed to assess large-scale variations in abundance, species richness and diversity of the macrofauna inhabiting fifteen Uruguayan sandy beaches affected by the effects of beach morphodynamics and the estuarine gradient generated by Rio de la Plata. Information from six beaches was used to estimate FNB parameters, while abiotic data of the remaining nine beaches were used to forecast abundance, species richness and diversity. FNB simulations reproduced the general increasing trend of target variables from inner estuarine reflective beaches to marine dissipative ones. The FNB model also identified a threshold value of salinity range beyond which diversity markedly increased towards marine beaches. Salinity range is suggested as an ecological master factor governing distributional patterns in sandy beach macrofauna. However, the model: 1) underestimated abundance and species richness at the innermost estuarine beach, with the lowest salinity, and 2) overestimated species richness in marine beaches with a reflective morphodynamic state, which is strongly linked to low abundance, species richness and diversity. Therefore, future modeling efforts should be refined by giving a dissimilar weigh to the gradients defined by estuarine (estuarine beaches) and morphodynamic (marine beaches) variables, which could improve predictions of target variables. Our modeling approach could be applied to a wide spectrum of issues, ranging from basic ecology to social-ecological systems. This approach seems relevant, given the current challenge to develop predictive methodologies to assess the simultaneous and nonlinear effects of anthropogenic and natural impacts in coastal ecosystems.

  17. Environmental radioecological study of beaches of Las Tunas and Holguin provinces, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey of radioactivity levels in beaches of Las Tunas and Holguin was undertaken as a programme aimed at studying the environmental radioactivity in Cuba. Concentrations of radionuclides were determined by In Situ gamma ray spectrometry. The average concentrations of Ra226 , Th 232 and K40 in the surveyed soils of Las Tunas beaches (Covarrubia, Real de Covarrubia and Corella) were 3, < 1 and 14.3 Bq.Kg 1 - , respectively. In surveyed soils of Holguin beaches (Guardalavaca, Pesquero and Don Lino) were 6.0, < 1 and 25.0 Bq.Kg 1 - , respectively. Radiological measurements carried out with a portable scintillometer revealed an average outdoor absorbed dose rate in air of 34.2 n Gy.h 1 - for Las Tunas beaches and 37.3 n Gy.h 1 - for Holguin one. For assessing the ionizing component of cosmic rays, measurements were performed on board a wood and plastic boat in the middle of two deep artificial basins and in two bays. The readings averaged 33.5 n Gy.h 1 - . Measurements of gross beta activity in outdoor air revealed 0.3 and 0.5 Bq.m 3 - for Las Tunas and Holguin beaches, respectively, and indoor values averaged 3.5 and 4.3 Bq.m 3 - , respectively. Taking into account the results of measurements was possible to assess effective doses due to external and internal exposure. For the first one were estimated 230 Sv.year 1 - for Las Tunas beaches and 250 Sv.year 1 - for Holguin beaches. The assessing of internal component of exposure revealed 236 and 292 Sv.year 1 - for Las Tunas and Holguin beaches, respectively, due to exposure to radon daughter. The results of our survey show that studied beaches are characterized by low environmental radioactive background

  18. Integrated solid waste management of Palm Beach County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the Palm Beach County, Florida integrated municipal solid waste management system (IMSWMS), the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWMS.

  19. Some indicators for impacts monitoring on coastal beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coastline is an environmental place with assets as recreational and productive value. Monitoring of State is necessary for management of reactions to human action, extreme storms or climate change needs indicators as instruments for measuring evolution. Indicators need to be simple, easy to gauge and to make public, so as to be used in Agendas 21 or human development sustain ability.geologic couches associated to storm high energy and rocks visible s in beaches can be used as indicators. Playa Ramirez, near the center city, shows a high energy couch e mostly linked to a great storm in August 2005 and gneiss rocks from Montevideo formation more o less covered with sand responding to storms and currents transport balance. Both can be indicators integrating storms and currents effects useful for monitoring specific systems, which are to be identified in each part of the coast. (author)

  20. Composite modelling of interactions between beaches and structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerritsen, Herman; Sutherland, James; Deigaard, Rolf;

    2011-01-01

    An overview of Composite Modelling (CM) is presented, as elaborated in the EU/HYDRALAB joint research project Composite Modelling of the Interactions Between Beaches and Structures. An introduction and a review of the main literature on CM in the hydraulic community are given. In Section 3, the...... case studies of CM of the seven partners participating in this project are discussed. The focus is on the methodologies used and their impact on the modelling approach, rather than the results of the experiments per se. A further section presents reflections on key elements in CM, as they emerged in...... the various case studies. The related subject of Good Modelling Practice is summarized in Section 5. Then guidelines are given on how to decide if CM may be beneficial, and how to set up a CM experiment. It is concluded that CM in the hydraulic community is still in its infancy but involves...

  1. Infragravity Waves Produced by Wave Groups on Beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志利; 常梅

    2003-01-01

    The generation of low frequency waves by a single or double wave groups incident upon two plane beaches with the slope of 1/40 and 1/100 is investigated experimentally and numerically. A new type of wave maker signal is used to generate the groups, allowing the bound long wave (set-down) to be included in the group. The experiments show that the low frequency wave is generated during breaking and propagation to the shoreline of the wave group. This process of generation and propagation of low frequency waves is simulated numerically by solving the short-wave averaged mass and momentum conservation equations. The computed and measured results are in good agreement. The mechanism of generation of low frequency waves in the surf zone is examined and discussed.

  2. Radiation exposure management for the Point Beach steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Replacement of the steam generators at the Point Beach Unit 1 Nuclear Plant was a turnkey project undertaken for Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO) by Westinghouse. Westinghouse had full responsibility for the program from project management and all steam generator removal/installation activities to health physics implementation. The replacement method associated with the replacement was a pipe cut approach as opposed to the channel head cut method. The replacement work began in early October 1983 and was completed on January 25, 1984 - 31 days ahead of schedule and with a record-low collective radiation exposure of 590 man-rem. The success of the operation, from a radiation exposure management point of view, is attributed primarily to extensive planning and implementation of innovative replacement techniques

  3. PRA [probabilistic risk assessment] application to Point Beach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a best-estimate probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the fire contribution to Decay Heat Removal (DHR) risk at the Point Beach nuclear power plant are presented. This analysis yields an approximately two-order-of-magnitude lower contribution to core damage frequency (CDF) than indicated by an earlier study conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The principal reasons for the differing CDF estimates are explored by means of a comparative evaluation of the two studies. Chief among these differences is the estimate of Halon fire suppression reliability. The scaling approaches used to apportion generic fire frequency data to individual fire zones within the plant also contribute notably. The results of this analysis suggest that traditional fire analysis methods systematically overstate the risk due to fires at all nuclear power plants. 13 refs

  4. Method of littoral sediment transport estimation in sand beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Torres Hugues

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, beaches are in a critical situation due to erosion. These places are very significant for the economy and tourism. For this reason is important to know the rate of sediment transport and the behavior of it. This work proposes   a methodology based in used international models to estimate magnitude and direction of the littoral sediment transport. The method that expose propose to use Longuet-Higgins's velocity formula in Bijker's method to obtain cross shore distribution of alongshore sediment transport. Even, values in surf zone are required for this, it can solve through methodology shown in Coastal Engineering (2000 of Technical University of  Delft. Calibration is make for two study.

  5. Alongshore variations of beach configuration along the Tróia-Sines embayed coast (Southwest Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Cristina; Albareiro, Luís; Baptista, Paulo; Marques da Silva, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Aerial photography of 1996 and 2001 coupled with DSAS extension for ArcGIS 9.x.The field data obtained by DGPS monitoring prototype system in 2009 were also to study the alongshore variations of beach configuration along 65km of the Tróia-Sines embayed coast (TSEC, SW Portugal). The results obtained show that the TSEC is characterized by the southward increase of the beach width, inner backshore height and seaward vegetation limit. The TSEC shows a southward increase of the beach width, inner...

  6. Basic study on the estimating the value of sand beach using amenities replace

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, B-S; Kim, K-H

    2013-01-01

    The sand beach along the east coast of Korea offers beautiful scenery with high-quality sand for leisure, and is also famous for white-sand and pine-trees both of which are important scenic resources. Furthermore, the sand beach helps to maintain natural environment of the coastal area and has the function of a disaster prevention system against high waves. There are two major value evaluation methods, Travel Cost Method and Contingent Valuation Method, to assess the value of sand beach. Cont...

  7. Biodegradation of MC252 oil in oil:sand aggregates in a coastal headland beach environment

    OpenAIRE

    JohnHPardue

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation potential of MC252 in oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), was examined using multiple lines of evidence on a heavily-impacted coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. SRBs were sampled over a 16-month period on the supratidal beach environment where reasonable control existed on the residence time of the aggregates on the beach surface. PAH and alkane concentration ratios were measured including PAH/C30-hopane, C2/C3 phenanthrenes, C2/C3 dibenzothiophenes...

  8. Coupling alongshore variations in wave energy to beach morphologic change using the SWAN wave model at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Jodi L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Coastal managers have faced increasing pressure to manage their resources wisely over the last century as a result of heightened development and changing environmental forcing. It is crucial to understand seasonal changes in beach volume and shape in order to identify areas vulnerable to accelerated erosion. Shepard (1950) was among the first to quantify seasonal beach cycles. Sonu and Van Beek (1971) and Wright et al. (1985) described commonly occurring beach states. Most studies utilize widest spaced 2-D cross shore profiles or shorelines extracted from aerial photographs (e.g. Winant et al. 1975; Aubrey, 1979, Aubrey and Ross, 1985; Larson and Kraus, 1994; Jimenez et al., 1977; Lacey and Peck, 1998; Guillen et al., 1999; Norcorss et al., 2002) to analyzed systematic changes in beach evolution. But with the exception of established field stations, such as Duck, NC (Birkemeier and Mason, 1984), ans Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station (HORS) in Japan (Katoh, 1997), there are very few beach change data sets with high temporal and spatial resolutions (e.g. Dail et al., 2000; Ruggiero et al., 2005; Yates et al., in press). Comprehensive sets of nearshore morphological data and local in situ measurements outside of these field stations are very rare and virtually non-existent high-energy coasts. Studied that have attempted to relate wave statistics to beach morphology change require some knowledge of the nearshore wave climate, and have had limited success using offshore measurement (Sonu and Van Beek, 1971; Dail et al., 2000). The primary objective of this study is to qualitatively compare spatially variable nearshore wave predictions to beach change measurements in order to understand the processes responsible for a persistent erosion 'hotspot' at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA. Local wave measurements are used to calibrate and validate a wave model that provides nearshore wave prediction along the beach. The model is run for thousands of binned offshore wave

  9. Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge: Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan/Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on Seal Beach NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  10. Final Critical Habitat for the Alabama Beach Mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Alabama Beach Mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) occur.

  11. Distribution of beach litter along the coastline of Cádiz, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan Thomas; Randerson, Peter; Di Giacomo, Carlo; Anfuso, Giorgio; Macias, Ana; Perales, José Antonio

    2016-06-15

    A total of 59 categories of litter items were found at 20 beaches (13 mechanically cleaned, 7 non-cleaned) in the Cádiz tourist environment, Spain. Cluster Analysis and Principal Components Analysis were used to highlight similarities and contrasts between sites and/or associations between litter categories. Multivariate analyses separated beaches according to the total numbers of litter items present. Non-cleaned sites showed a variety of litter category abundance with distinct origins and abundant, ubiquitous items (plastic and glass fragments). Of the 7 non-cleaned beaches (49 litter categories) river-mouth sites were distinct due with high numbers of litter items. The sheltered inner part of Cádiz Bay beaches had a wide range of litter type. Many sites were associated with locally deposited recreational litter categories; while industrial/commercial/fishing categories were abundant only at a few sites, indicating items transported onto the shore from the Guadalete river. PMID:27117354

  12. FL_NOURISH - Spatial Extents of Beach Nourishment Along the Florida Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Attempts to stabilize the shore can greatly influence rates of shoreline change. Beach nourishment in particular will bias rates of observed shoreline change toward...

  13. September 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  14. Echinodermata das praias de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil The Echinoderms of Salvador beaches (Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orane Falcão de Souza Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 28 species of Echinoderms collected on 5 beaches of Salvador (12º54' to 13º01' S and 38º26' to 38º33' W, Brazil, which are distributed in 19 families. Ophiuroidea represented 53,6% of the collected species, followed by Echinoidea (28,6%, Asteroidea (7,1%, Holothuroidea (7,1%, and Crinoidea (3,6%. Ophiuroidea and Echinoidea were the most frequent groups, occurring at all the studied beaches while Crinoidea occurred only on 20% of them. Most of the species are characterized as belonging to the tropical warm waters, some to the shallow coastal areas and some having a broad bathymetric distribution. The richness of species values on beaches ranged from 7 to 24, at Itapua Beach, and from 2 to 14 among different kinds of habitats, where protected ones showed higher values.

  15. Public and Wildlife Use on Beaches of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes beach use data from 1977. Data includes weekly shore bird, ghost crab cavities, and public use counts. These counts were done on both Pea...

  16. Physical actions and work-rest time in men's beach volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Palao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the ball contacts, jumps, hits, work time, and rest ratio in male beach volleyball players in relation to their tactical roles. The sample of this study included 6970 rallies played by 91 beach volleyball players, which corresponded to 179 sets of the 2008 Men's Beach Volleyball World Tour (FIVB. We analyzed: ball contacts, jumps, hits, work time, rest time, set (first, second or third, and player's tactical role (e.g., defense specialist, blocker, or no specialization. A significantly higher number of jumps were executed by blockers. No differences were found in the third set for any of the physical variables studied. This paper provides references about the physical demands (e.g., contacts, jumps, and hits for blockers and defense specialists and temporal patterns of the beach volleyball game (i.e., work and rest time for two-set matches and three-set matches.

  17. April 2005 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude/longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  18. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2011 Digital Orthophotos - Palm Beach County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — True color 3-band 24-bit orthophotos at a map scale of 1"=100' with 6-inch ground pixel resolution were produced for Palm Beach County, FL. Orthophotography for...

  19. March 2006 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  20. October 2005 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Long Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (UTM, Zone 11) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Long...

  1. Hair Removal for A Beach-Ready Body? Do It Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_159506.html Hair Removal for a Beach-Ready Body? Do It Safely Dermatologist explains healthiest ... to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For ...

  2. October 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Newport Beach to US/Mexican Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  3. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2009 Digital Orthophotos - Palm Beach County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This MrSID-compressed true color dataset is one component of the digital orthophoto coverage (DOI) over Palm Beach County, FL. This dataset is comprised of 3-band...

  4. Palm Beach County FL 2007 Seagrass GIS Maps and Trends Analysis (NODC Accession 0061752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage of Palm Beach County seagrasses, mangrove habitat, oyster reef, and spartina. The mapped area is the Lake Worth Lagoon...

  5. Short-term observation of beach dynamics using cross-shore profiles and foreshore sediment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Philip, C.S.; Vinayaraj, P.

    characteristics. Present study emphasizes the need to observe the beach changes over inter-annual seasons before planning coastal protection measures. The results of the study will be helpful for formulating an effective coastal zone management plan at Devbag...

  6. Public Beaches, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Beaches dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. Data by this publisher are...

  7. Impact of sewage disposal on a nematode community of a tropical sandy beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    Free-living marine nematodes from an intertidal sandy beach from Goa near the Panjim city, central west coast of India was investigated along a gradient of sewage pollution. High nematode diversity (11 species) and abundance was observed near...

  8. Environmental analysis of the sediments in the beaches of the Gulf of Palermo (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    The gulf of Palermo is long about 30 km and the coast is closed between two headlands, Monte Gallo Cape (western side) and Zafferano Cape (east side). The continental shelf is linked with the abyssal plan by an high slope and the depth is included between 50 m and 1500 m. The shape of the Palermo gulf is the answer of both the natural forces and human activity. Nevertheless the coastal morphologies reproduce the geological setting of this area. The coast is divided in two morphotypes, low and rocky coast and beaches. Respectively composed by compact limestone and calcareous incoherent sediment with common sandy granulometry. The beaches, compressively long 11,46 km, are different in lengths, amplitude and lithological types (30% sandy and 70 % sandy-pebbly). In order to study the coastal evolution it is important to define all the coastal dynamics. The coastal evolution is actually the result of complex and intertwined action of both natural and/or anthropic processes. Nowday in the gulf of Palermo these processes exist and in some case they already triggered erosive phenomena. The westernmost beaches is the famous Mondello beach, it is made of pale sand and with sloping very low. This section of coast as other similar beaches (Arenella, Romagnolo and Acqua dei Corsari) has gone through remarkable dynamic phenomena. More precisely between 1976 and 1992 the beach (known as Arenella beach), beyond the Palermo harbor, advanced its shoreline position. Going further west along the coast one can find a landfill, partially collapsed and eroded by the impact of sea storms, that contributes to the coastal advancement from West towards East. At Romagnolo coast zone the beach has advanced because of the debris coming from local landfills, instead the Acqua dei Corsari beach (pebbles and sand) has been going through various fluctuations with a general trend towards advancement due to the longitudinal sediment transport. The study analyze the nature of sediments that made the

  9. Is Sandy Beach Macrofauna Only Physically Controlled? Role of Substrate and Competition in Isopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, O.; Brazeiro, A.; de Alava, A.; Riestra, G.

    1997-10-01

    Exposed sandy beaches have been defined as physically stressful environments, so that benthic populations living there are thought to be regulated mainly by physical factors, biological interactions being minimal. However, recent long-term studies indicate that potential intra- and interspecific interactions should also play a role in structuring populations and communities. This paper evaluates the role of sediment characteristics and potential interactions in determining the abundance and distribution patterns of the cirolanid isopods Excirolana armataand Excirolana braziliensisin sandy beaches of Uruguay. Results from concurrent field sampling and laboratory experiments showed that: (1) at a macroscale (between beaches), E. armataoccurred only in beaches with fine sands, whereas E. braziliensiswas observed in both fine and coarse sand beaches, reaching its highest density in the latter; (2) at a mesoscale (within beaches) and in sympatry (fine sands), both cirolanids showed maximum densities at different tidal heights, with E. braziliensisrestricted to the upper beach levels; (3) both isopods showed a clear preference for fine sands, when tested in isolation or combined; (4) survivorship of E. armatawas higher when tested in the preferred sediment under co-occurrence with E. braziliensis, which in turn presented higher survivorship in coarse sand, either in isolation or combined with E. armata; and (5) individual mean length of both species was consistently higher in allopatry, and similar body lengths were observed in sympatric populations. A geographical analysis of the abundance of E. braziliensisalong Pan-American beaches showed that this isopod is most abundant in fine sands; this overall pattern supports conclusions derived from sediment preference experiments, implicating a greater niche breadth than that observed in Uruguayan beaches. It was concluded that E. armatacould be defined as a high substrate-specific species in which intraspecific interactions

  10. Coastal erosion vulnerability and risk assessment focusing in tourism beach use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the global market for tourism services is a key source of economic growth. Especially among Mediterranean countries, the tourism sector is one of the principal sectors driving national economies. With the majority of the mass tourism activities concentrated around coastal areas, coastal erosion, inter alia, poses a significant threat to coastal economies that depend heavily on revenues from tourism. The economic implications of beach erosion were mainly focused in the cost of coastal protection measures, instead of the revenue losses from tourism. For this, the vulnerability of the coast to sea level rise and associated erosion, in terms of expected land loss and economic activity need to be identified. To achieve this, a joint environmental and economic evaluation approach of the problem can provide a managerial tool to mitigate the impact of beach erosion in tourism, through realistic cost-benefit scenarios for planning alternative protection measures. Such a multipurpose tool needs to consider social, economic and environmental factors, which relationships can be better understood when distributed and analyzed along the geographical space. The risk assessment is implemented through the estimation of the vulnerability and exposure variables of the coast in two scales. The larger scale estimates the vulnerability in a regional level, with the use environmental factors with the use of CVI. The exposure variable is estimated by the use of socioeconomic factors. Subsequently, a smaller scale focuses on highly vulnerable beaches with high social and economic value. The assessment of the natural processes to the environmental characteristics of the beach is estimated with the use of the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI) method. As exposure variable, the value of beach width that is capitalized in revenues is implemented through a hedonic pricing model. In this econometric modelling, Beach Value is related with economic and environmental

  11. Plastic debris in the coastal environment: The invincible threat? Abundance of buried plastic debris on Malaysian beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Liyana, I A; Agamuthu, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies on marine debris have gained worldwide attention since many types of debris have found their way into the food chain of higher organisms. Thus, it is crucial that more focus is given to this area in order to curb contaminations in sea food. This study was conducted to quantify plastic debris buried in sand at selected beaches in Malaysia. Marine debris was identified according to size range and distribution, and this information was related to preventive actions to improve marine waste issues. For the purpose of this study, comparison of plastic waste abundance between a recreational beach and fish-landing beaches was also carried out, since the different beach types represent different activities that produce debris. Six beaches along the Malaysian coastline were selected for this study. The plastic types in this study were related to the functions of the beach. While recreational beaches have abundant quantities of plastic film, foamed plastic including polystyrene, and plastic fragment, fish-landing beaches accumulated line and foamed plastic. A total of 2542 pieces (265.30 g m(-2)) of small plastic debris were collected from all six beaches, with the highest number from Kuala Terengganu, at 879 items m(-2) on Seberang Takir Beach, followed by Batu Burok Beach with 780 items m(-2). Findings from studies of Malaysian beaches have provided a clearer understanding of the distribution of plastic debris. This demonstrates that commitments and actions, such as practices of the 'reduce, reuse, recycle' (3R) approach, supporting public awareness programmes and beach clean-up activities, are essential in order to reduce and prevent plastic debris pollution. PMID:26092255

  12. Nowcast modeling of Escherichia coli concentrations at multiple urban beaches of southern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Predictive modeling for Escherichia coli concentrations at effluent-dominated beaches may be a favorable alternative to current, routinely criticized monitoring standards. The ability to model numerous beaches simultaneously and provide real-time data decreases cost and effort associated with beach monitoring. In 2004, five Lake Michigan beaches and the nearby Little Calumet River outfall were monitored for E. coli 7 days a week; on nine occasions, samples were analyzed for coliphage to indicate a sewage source. Ambient lake, river, and weather conditions were measured or obtained from independent monitoring sources. Positive tests for coliphage analysis indicated sewage was present in the river and on bathing beaches following heavy rainfall. Models were developed separately for days with prevailing onshore and offshore winds due to the strong influence of wind direction in determining the river's impact on the beaches. Using regression modeling, it was determined that during onshore winds, E. coli   could be adequately predicted using wave height, lake chlorophyll and turbidity, and river turbidity (R2=0.635, N=94); model performance decreased for offshore winds using wave height, wave period, and precipitation (R2=0.320, N=124). Variation was better explained at individual beaches. Overall, the models only failed to predict E. coli levels above the EPA closure limit (235 CFU/100 ml) on five of eleven occasions, indicating that the model is a more reliable alternative to the monitoring approach employed at most recreational beaches.

  13. The Virginia Beach response to implementing the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area Ordinance

    OpenAIRE

    Butts, Jeffery Hornor

    2010-01-01

    The City of Virginia Beach adopted the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area Ordinance in November 1990, effective January 1, 1991. This ordinance incorporated the mandated development performance standards written in the Chesapeake Bay Act. The Act required the implementation of these regulations by localities. The Virginia Beach response to implementing these regulations has been satisfactory to meet the requirements of these regulations, and the City is in compliance with these regulations. The...

  14. Petroleum-influenced beach sediments of the campeche bank, Mexico: Diversity and bacterial community structure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mexican, either spilled or seeped out petroleum impacts nearly 300 km of the beach between Dos Bocas (Tabasco State) to Champoton town (Campeche State), where between 9 to exceptionally 9 to exceptionally 300 tonnes of oil as tar balls have been measured. This study was focused to explore, for the first time, the bacterial diversity and community structure (α-diversity)- in a kilometric scale on petroleum influenced sediments of 100 km of sandy beach. (Author)

  15. Petroleum-influenced beach sediments of the campeche bank, Mexico: Diversity and bacterial community structure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosano-Hernandez, M. C.; Ramirez-Saad, H.; Fernandez-Linares, L.; Xoconostle, B.

    2009-07-01

    In Mexican, either spilled or seeped out petroleum impacts nearly 300 km of the beach between Dos Bocas (Tabasco State) to Champoton town (Campeche State), where between 9 to exceptionally 9 to exceptionally 300 tonnes of oil as tar balls have been measured. This study was focused to explore, for the first time, the bacterial diversity and community structure ({alpha}-diversity)- in a kilometric scale on petroleum influenced sediments of 100 km of sandy beach. (Author)

  16. Multi-risk assessment and users' perception: a futher step towards ecosystem-based beach management

    OpenAIRE

    Lozoya Azcárate, Juan Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the need to move towards a holistic, truly integrated and ecosystem-based beach management that allows a sustainable use of these systems within the socio-ecological paradigm. However, the scarcity of frameworks for such management has been identified as a major constraint. The goal of this thesis was to apply and develop a set of methodologies based on the introduction of the Ecosystem Approach principles to beach management. These tools would be part of the Ecosystem ...

  17. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis of Beach Water Quality Indicator Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Ann Michelle; Coughlin, Kelly; Shine, James P.; Coull, Brent A.; Rex, Andrea C.

    2003-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is a simple and effective means to compare the accuracies of indicator variables of bacterial beach water quality. The indicator variables examined in this study were previous day's Enterococcus density and antecedent rainfall at 24, 48, and 96 h. Daily Enterococcus densities and 15-min rainfall values were collected during a 5-year (1996 to 2000) study of four Boston Harbor beaches. The indicator variables were assessed for their ability...

  18. Monsoonal effects on beach and offshore sediments from kalbadevi bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra state, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Farnnades, D.

    . KEY WORDS: Beach, Environment, Offshore, Ratnagiri, Season, Sand, Sediment, INTRODUCTION Placer deposits from the coastal and offshore areas of Maharashtra are well known and many workers (Roy, 1958; Siddiquie et al., 1979, 1982, 1984; Gujar, 1985... in Ratnagiri to carry out `Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies for placer mining` under the ‘Capacity Building for Sand Mining, Network Program’ of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi. The beach sediment samples from...

  19. A numerical model of coastline deformation for sandy beach at downstream of a jetty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Linyun; PAN Junning; XING Fu; LIU Jiaju

    2004-01-01

    A reformed numerical model based on the "one-line theory" for beach deformation is presented. In this model, thechange of beach slope during coastline procession is eonsidered. A wave numerical model combined with wave re-fraction, diffraction and reflection is used to simulate wave climate to increase numerical accuracy. The results showthat the numerical model has a good precision based on the adequate field data. The results can be applied to practical engineering.

  20. The Impact of Water Quality on Southern California Beach Recreation: A Finite Mixture Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hilger, James R.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation uses a finite mixture logit (FML) model to investigate the heterogeneity of preferences of beach users for water quality at beaches in Southern California. The results are compared with conventional approaches based conditional logit (CL) and random parameters logit (RPL). The FML approach captures variation in preferences by modeling individual recreator choices using a mixture of several distinct preference groups, where group membership is a function of individual charact...

  1. Heterogeneous Preferences for Water Quality: A Finite Mixture Model of Beach Recreation in Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Hilger, James; Hanemann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses a finite mixture logit (FML) model to investigate the heterogeneity of preferences of beach users for water quality at beaches in Southern California. The results are compared with conventional approaches based conditional logit (CL) and random parameters logit (RPL). The FML approach captures variation in preferences by modeling individual recreator preferences as a mixture of several distinct preference groups, where group membership is a function of individual characteristi...

  2. Effects of Full-Scale Beach Renovation on Fecal Indicator Levels in Shoreline Sand and Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Rafael J.; Hernandez, Yasiel; Jimenez, Nasly H.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    Recolonization of enterococci, at a non-point source beach known to contain high background levels of bacteria, was studied after a full-scale beach renovation project. The renovation involved importation of new exogenous sand, in addition to infrastructure improvements. The study's objectives were to document changes in sand and water quality and to evaluate the relative contribution of different renovation activities towards these changes. These objectives were addressed: by measuring enter...

  3. An Alternative Approach to Water Regulations for Public Health Protection at Bathing Beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Phillips, Matthew C.; Elmir, Samir M.; Fleming, Lora E

    2013-01-01

    New approaches should be considered as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) moves rapidly to develop new beach monitoring guidelines by the end of 2012, as these guidelines serve as the basis by which states and territories with coasts along the oceans and Great Lakes can then develop and implement monitoring programs for recreational waters. We describe and illustrate one possible approach to beach regulation termed as the “Comprehensive Toolbox within an Approval Process (CTBAP).” T...

  4. Seasonal variations in the risk of gastrointestinal illness on a tropical recreational beach

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero, Lyzbeth; Norat, Jose; Mattei, Hernando; Nazario, Cruz

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the seasonal changes in the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness of beachgoers in the tropics, to compare the association between GI illness and water quality using various indicator organisms, and to study other beach health hazards. A prospective cohort study during two seasonal periods (summer and autumn) was conducted in a beach surrounded by intensive residential development. Analyses demonstrated that although densities of indicators were we...

  5. The impact of water quality on southern california beach recreation : A Finite Mixture Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hilger, James; Hanemann, W. Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a finite mixture logit (FML) model to investigate the heterogeneity of preferences of beach users for water quality at beaches in Southern California. The results are compared with conventional approaches based conditional logit (CL) and random parameters logit (RPL). The FML approach captures variation in preferences by modeling individual recreator choices using a mixture of several distinct preference groups, where group membership is a function of individual characteristic...

  6. Bacteriological Monitoring and Sustainable Management of Beach Water Quality in Malaysia: Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although sign...

  7. Present status of effect of microorganisms from sand beach on public health

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Velonakis; Dimitra Dimitriadi; Emmanuel Papadogiannakis; Alkiviades Vatopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are significant components of beach sand. According to the research, all kind of microorganisms have been isolated from beach sand; certain genera and species are potential pathogens for humans and animals. In resort areas, especially during the summer, certain infections (e.g. gastroenteritis and dermatitis) are usually related to polluted bathing water. Lately, the interest of scientists is also focused on the potential association of some of the above disease...

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Indicator Microbe Sampling is Influential in Beach Management Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Enns, Amber A.; Vogel, Laura J.; Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Gabriele, Helena M. Solo; Plano, Lisa R. W.; Gidley, Maribeth L.; Phillips, Matthew C.; Klaus, James S.; Piggot, Alan M.; Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Adrianus J.H.M.; Haus, Brian K.; Elmir, Samir M.; Zhang, Yifan; Jimenez, Nasly H.

    2012-01-01

    Fecal indicator microbes such as enterococci are often used to assess potential health risks caused by pathogens at recreational beaches. Microbe levels often vary based on collection time and sampling location. The primary goal of this study was to assess how spatial and temporal variations in sample collection which are driven by environmental parameters impact enterococci measurements and beach management decisions. A secondary goal was to assess whether enterococci levels can be predictiv...

  9. A methodological framework for multi-hazard risk assessment in beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Lozoya, J. P.; Sardá, Rafael; J. A. Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Beach management has traditionally concentrated on recreational uses and geomorphologic processes, overlooking environmental values. Traditional risk analysis also overlooks environmental services focusing on socio-economic damages and only accounting for a part of the total risk. To overcome this situation, a systemic approach dealing with ecological and social dimensions is required. This paper proposes a risk analysis framework in which coastal hazards and beach ecosystem services are join...

  10. Long-term changes in oil pollution off the Belgian coast: evidence from beached bird monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Seys, J.; Offringa, H; P. Meire; Van Waeyenberge, J.; Kuijken, E.

    2002-01-01

    Trends in oil pollution in the southernmost (Belgian) part of the North Sea were analysed using a dataset of 37 years (1962-99) of annual national beached bird surveys conducted in February each year. The most abundant seabird groups represented in the beached birds were auks (31 %), gulls (28%), scoters (17%) and Kittiwake (9%). Oil rates of most bird species/taxa indicate a decline in oil pollution, though only Larus-gulls, Common Guillemot and Razorbill show significant reductions. The slo...

  11. Drones as tools for monitoring beach topography changes in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Pedroncini, Andrea; Stark, Colin P.; Casella, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate topographic changes along a stretch of coastline in the Municipality of Borghetto Santo Spirito (Region of Liguria, Italy, north-western Mediterranean) by means of a remotely piloted aircraft system coupled with structure from motion and multi-view stereo techniques. This sector was surveyed three times over 5 months in the fall-winter of 2013-2014 (1 November 2013, 4 December 2013, 17 March 2014) to obtain digital elevation models and orthophotos of the beach. Changes in beach topography associated with storm action and human activities were assessed in terms of gain/loss of sediments and shifting of the wet-dry boundary defining the shoreline. Between the first and second surveys, the study area was hit by two storms (10-11 November 2013 and 21-22 November 2013) with waves approaching from the E-NNE, causing a shoreline retreat which, in some sectors, reached 7 m. Between the second and third surveys, by contrast, four storms (25-27 December 2013, 5-6 January 2014, 17-18 January 2014 and 6-10 February 2014) with waves propagating from the SE produced a general advancement of the shoreline (up to ~5 m) by deposition of sediments along some parts of the beach. The data also reflect changes in beach topography due to human activity during the 2013 fall season, when private beach managers quarried ~178 m3 of sediments on the emerged beach near the shoreline to accumulate them landwards. The results show that drones can be used for regular beach monitoring activities, and that they can provide new insights into the processes related to natural and/or human-related topographic beach changes.

  12. Biodegradation of MC252 oil in oil:sand aggregates in a coastal headland beach environment

    OpenAIRE

    Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Urbano, Marilany; Lemelle, Kendall R.; Pardue, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Unique oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), were formed on coastal headland beaches along the northern Gulf of Mexico as emulsified MC252 crude oil mixed with sand following the Deepwater Horizon spill event. The objective of this study is to assess the biodegradation potential of crude oil components in these aggregates using multiple lines of evidence on a heavily-impacted coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. SRBs were sampled over a 19-month period on the supratid...

  13. Hydrodynamic factors affecting the persistence of the Exxon Valdez oil in a shallow bedrock beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuqiang; Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Sharifi, Youness

    2010-10-01

    We report a field study and numerical modeling of multicomponent flow in a tidal gravel beach in Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska, where oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill persisted. Field measurements of water table, salinity, and tracer (lithium) concentration were obtained for around a week during the summer of 2008. The numerical model MARUN was used to simulate the field observations. On the basis of field experiments and numerical simulations, the beach was identified to have a two-layered hydraulic structure: a high-permeability surface layer underlain by a low-permeability lower layer. The hydraulic conductivity was found to be 5 × 10-2 m s-1 for the surface layer and 7 × 10-6 m s-1 for the lower layer. The simulations reproduced the observed water table, salinity, and lithium concentrations accurately. The small flow entering the beach from the land side resulted in a beach water table dropping below the interface of the two layers. This seems to be the major reason for the presence of oil in the lower layer. The exchange flow between the beach and the sea due to tidal influence was ˜2.12 m3 d-1 m-1. The patterns of inflow and outflow rates showed that the maximum seawater-groundwater exchange occurred in the middle to high intertidal zone, which explains the persistence of oil in the lower intertidal zone. To explore bioremediation of the beach with nutrient amendment, a numerical simulation of nutrient application on the beach surface was conducted, where the applied nutrient concentration was 5,000 mg L-1. The results showed that the nutrient concentration remaining in oiled areas after a week was larger than 50 mg L-1, which is larger than that needed for maximum microbial growth (2-10 mg L-1). This implies that the bioremediation via nutrient application on the beach surface could be adopted if nutrients were the only limiting factor.

  14. Efficacy of monitoring and empirical predictive modeling at improving public health protection at Chicago beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to improve public health protection in recreational swimming waters have focused on obtaining real-time estimates of water quality. Current monitoring techniques rely on the time-intensive culturing of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) from water samples, but rapidly changing FIB concentrations result in management errors that lead to the public being exposed to high FIB concentrations (type II error) or beaches being closed despite acceptable water quality (type I error). Empirical predictive models may provide a rapid solution, but their effectiveness at improving health protection has not been adequately assessed. We sought to determine if emerging monitoring approaches could effectively reduce risk of illness exposure by minimizing management errors. We examined four monitoring approaches (inactive, current protocol, a single predictive model for all beaches, and individual models for each beach) with increasing refinement at 14 Chicago beaches using historical monitoring and hydrometeorological data and compared management outcomes using different standards for decision-making. Predictability (R2) of FIB concentration improved with model refinement at all beaches but one. Predictive models did not always reduce the number of management errors and therefore the overall illness burden. Use of a Chicago-specific single-sample standard-rather than the default 235 E. coli CFU/100 ml widely used-together with predictive modeling resulted in the greatest number of open beach days without any increase in public health risk. These results emphasize that emerging monitoring approaches such as empirical models are not equally applicable at all beaches, and combining monitoring approaches may expand beach access.

  15. Application of chemically modified beach sand as low cost efficient adsorbent for dye removal

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Ansari; Ali Mohammad-khah; Mansoureh Nazmi

    2013-01-01

    In the current work, beach sand (BS) and beach sand coated with polyaniline (BS/Pani) were used as an efficient green adsorbent for dye removal from aqueous solutions. Methylene blue (MB) was chosen as a test probe for the evaluation of the selected adsorbents for dye removal efficiency. The adsorption experiments were carried out in batch system and the effect of some important empirical parameters affecting adsorption processes were then investigated. The experimental data were also analyze...

  16. Meiofauna as descriptor of tourism-induced changes at sandy beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheskiere, Tom; Vincx, Magda; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Scapini, Felicita; Degraer, Steven

    2005-08-01

    Tourism has long been considered as a 'clean industry' with almost no negative effects on the environment. This study demonstrated, in two different coastal systems (Mediterranean and Baltic), that tourism related activities are particularly affecting the sandy beach meio- and nematofauna in the upper beach zone, the specific ecotone in which many meiofauna species from both the marine and the terrestrial environment congregate. Tourist upper beaches are characterized by a lower % total organic matter (%TOM), lower densities, lower diversities (absence of Insecta, Harpacticoida, Oligochaeta, terrestrial nematodes and marine Ironidae nematodes) and higher community stress compared to nearby non-tourist locations. The %TOM was found to be the single most important factor for the observed differences in meiofauna assemblage structure at tourist versus non-tourist beaches in both the Mediterranean and the Baltic region. The free-living nematode assemblages from tourist upper zones depart significantly from expectations based on random selections from the regional nematode species pool. Furthermore upper zone assemblages are characterised by a low species diversity consisting of taxonomically closely related nematode species with r-strategist features. Generally, faunal differences between tourist and non-tourist beaches are decreasing towards the lower beach zones. PMID:15757751

  17. Mycological assessment of sediments in Ligurian beaches in the Northwestern Mediterranean: pathogens and opportunistic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Vanessa-Sarah; Fabiano, Mauro

    2007-05-01

    Sediments of five Ligurian beaches in compliance with European Union bathing water regulations were studied based on the characteristics of the fungal assemblage during the tourism season. Among the 179 taxa of filamentous fungi isolated, 120 were opportunistic pathogens, such as Acremonium sp., and the genus Penicillium was also present as the pathogenic species P. citrinum. Furthermore, 5% of the total filamentous fungi belonged to the dermatophyte genus Microsporum, whose species can cause mycoses. Beach sediments showed elevated densities of opportunistic pathogens, of pathogenic filamentous fungi, and of yeasts during the tourism season. Although monitoring of beach sediments for microbiological contamination is not mandatory, and disease transmission from sediments has not yet been demonstrated, our study suggests that beach sediments may act as a reservoir of potential pathogens, including fungi. In addition, the mycoflora displayed high sensitivity to critical environmental situations in the beaches studied. Therefore, the fungal community can be a useful tool for assessing the quality of sandy beaches in terms of sanitary and environmental quality. PMID:16854516

  18. Natural radioactivity level in beach sand along the coast of Xiamen Island, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Natural radioactivity in beach sand from southeast coast of China was determined. • The radiological hazards of beach sand were evaluated. • The level of public exposures is insignificant in the investigated area. - Abstract: The activity concentration of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra was determined in beach sand samples collected from Xiamen Island, China using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in the beach sand range from 197.4 to 487.6, 6.5 to 41.4 and 7.9 to 25.7 Bq kg−1 with the mean of 401.0, 11.3 and 14.1 Bq kg−1, respectively, which are lower than the averages of Chinese soil and world soil. The radium equivalent activity values in all beach sand samples are lower than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg−1. The external hazard index values are less than unity. The outdoor air absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose rate of beach sand investigated are lower than the worldwide average

  19. Transport of enterococci and F+ coliphage through the saturated zone of the beach aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sieyes, Nicholas R; Russell, Todd L; Brown, Kendra I; Mohanty, Sanjay K; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2016-02-01

    Coastal groundwater has been implicated as a source of microbial pollution to recreational beaches. However, there is little work investigating the transport of fecal microbes through beach aquifers where waters of variable salinity are present. In this study, the potential for fecal indicator organisms enterococci (ENT) and F+ coliphage to be transported through marine beach aquifers was investigated. Native sediment and groundwaters were collected from the fresh and saline sections of the subterranean estuary at three beaches along the California coast where coastal communities utilize septic systems for wastewater treatment. Groundwaters were seeded with sewage and removal of F+ coliphage and ENT by the sediments during saturated flow was tested in laboratory column experiments. Removal varied significantly between beach and organism. F+ coliphage was removed to a greater extent than ENT, and removal was greater in saline sediments and groundwater than fresh. At one of the three beaches, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the attenuation of F+ coliphage and ENT down gradient of a septic leach field. ENT were detected up to 24 m from the leach field. The column study and field observations together suggest ENT can be mobile within native aquifer sediments and groundwater under certain conditions. PMID:26837827

  20. Groundwater flow due to a nonlinear wave set-up on a permeable beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Przyborska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water flow through the beach body plays an important role in the biological status of the organisms inhabiting the beach sand. For tideless seas, the groundwater flow in shallow water is governed entirely by the surface wave dynamics on the beach. As waves propagate towards the shore, they become steeper owing to the decreasing water depth and at some depth, the waves lose their stability and start to break. When waves break, their energy is dissipated and the spatial changes of the radiation stress give rise to changes in the mean sea level, known as the set-up. The mean shore pressure gradient due to the wave set-up drives the groundwater circulation within the beach zone. This paper discusses the circulation of groundwater resulting from a nonlinear set-up. The circulation of flow is compared with the classic Longuet-Higgins (1983 solution and the time series of the set-up is considered for a 24 h storm. Water infiltrates into the coastal aquifer on the upper part of the beach near the maximum run-up and exfiltration occurs on the lower part of the beach face near the breaking point.

  1. Optimal nutrient application strategy for bioremediation of oil-polluted beaches. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offshore oil spills in coastal areas generally occur in the intertidal zone of beaches and affect the top 25 cm of soil, known as the bioremediation zone. Biostimulation by nutrient application such as nitrogen and phosphorus is a viable technology for restoring oil-contaminated beaches. The key for achieving a rapid cost-effective cleanup is to ensure maximum nutrient residence time. This study proposed a strategy that consisted of injecting nutrients through a perforated pipe at the high tide line. Beach hydraulics were numerically simulated to estimate the optimal injection flow rate of nutrient solution. It was shown that the optimal application should begin following high tide just as it drops and should last for half a tidal cycle. The flow rate ensures that the saturated wet-front of the nutrient solution on the beach surface moves seaward with the same speed of the falling tide keeping a constant distance with the tide line. The numerical results were generalized to a broad range of hydraulic and tidal properties of beaches using an innovative dimensionless formulation for water flow and solute transport in porous media. Nomographs were presented to provide the flow rate based on 4 parameters, notably the beach slope, permeability, tidal amplitude and tidal period. 29 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  2. Building of tropical beach ridges, northeastern Queensland, Australia: Cyclone inundation and aeolian decoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toru; Nicholas, William; Brooke, Brendan; Oliver, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Processes associated with tropical cyclones are thought responsible for building coarse sand beach ridges along the northeastern Queensland coast, Australia. While these ridges are expected to be geological records of the past cyclone, they question the general consensus of the aeolian genesis of sandy beach ridges. To explore the ridge-forming process, we carried out the GPR survey, auger drilling, pit excavation, grain-size analysis, and OSL dating for coarse sand beach ridges at the Cowley Beach, northeastern Queensland. The Cowley Beach is a mesotidal beach characterized by a low-tide terrace and steep beach face. Ten beach ridges are recognized along the survey transect that extends 700 m inland from the shore. 37 OSL ages are younger seawards, indicating the seaward accretion of the ridge sequence over the last 2700 years. The highest ridge is +5.1 m high above AHD (Australian Height Datum). Two GPR units are bounded by a groundwater surface at c. +1.5 m AHD. The upper unit is characterized by horizontal to hummocky reflectors punctuated by seaward dipping truncation surfaces. These reflectors in places form dome-like structure that appears to be the nucleus of a beach ridge. The shape and level (+2.5 m AHD) of the dome are similar to those of the present swash berm. The lower unit shows a sequence of reflectors that dip at an angle of present beach face. The sequence is dissected by truncation surfaces, some of which are continuous to those in the upper unit. Coarse sand mainly forms beach ridge deposits below +4.0 m AHD, while a few higher ridges have an upward fining layer composed of medium sand above +4.0 m, which is finer than aeolian ripples found on the backshore during the survey. In addition, pumice gravel horizons underlie the examined ridge crests. The sequence of seaward dipping reflectors indicates that the Cowley Beach, like other many sandy beaches, has prograded during onshore sand accretion by fairweather waves and has been eroded by storms

  3. Developing and implementing the use of predictive models for estimating water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Corsi, Steven R.; Fuller, Lori M.; Harrison, John H.; Hayhurst, Brett A.; Lant, Jeremiah; Nevers, Meredith B.; Terrio, Paul J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    Predictive models have been used at beaches to improve the timeliness and accuracy of recreational water-quality assessments over the most common current approach to water-quality monitoring, which relies on culturing fecal-indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli.). Beach-specific predictive models use environmental and water-quality variables that are easily and quickly measured as surrogates to estimate concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria or to provide the probability that a State recreational water-quality standard will be exceeded. When predictive models are used for beach closure or advisory decisions, they are referred to as “nowcasts.” During the recreational seasons of 2010-12, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with 23 local and State agencies, worked to improve existing nowcasts at 4 beaches, validate predictive models at another 38 beaches, and collect data for predictive-model development at 7 beaches throughout the Great Lakes. This report summarizes efforts to collect data and develop predictive models by multiple agencies and to compile existing information on the beaches and beach-monitoring programs into one comprehensive report. Local agencies measured E. coli concentrations and variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations such as wave height, turbidity, water temperature, and numbers of birds at the time of sampling. In addition to these field measurements, equipment was installed by the USGS or local agencies at or near several beaches to collect water-quality and metrological measurements in near real time, including nearshore buoys, weather stations, and tributary staff gages and monitors. The USGS worked with local agencies to retrieve data from existing sources either manually or by use of tools designed specifically to compile and process data for predictive-model development. Predictive models were developed by use of linear regression and (or) partial least squares techniques for 42 beaches

  4. Beach morphologies induced by breakwaters with different orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nancy L.; Harley, Mitchell D.; Armaroli, Clara; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2015-06-01

    A desired outcome in the construction of a detached emerged breakwater is the formation of an accretionary salient in its lee to augment the beach, improve beach amenity and provide an additional buffer from storm waves. The extent to which this salient forms and its morphology are strongly controlled by the breakwater geometry with respect to the original shoreline, sediment availability, and local wave climate. The purpose of this paper is to identify how breakwater geometry and orientation of gaps between individual breakwaters alter the direction of waves entering the gaps and change the asymmetry of the salients. Four distinct breakwater sites along the Emilia-Romagna coastline in Northern Italy were chosen for a detailed field and desktop study comprising three-dimensional topographic and bathymetric surveys, sediment sampling, LiDAR flights and historical shoreline mapping. The orientations of the shorelines at these four sites range over 43°, resulting in different exposures to the dominant waves. The oblique orientations of the gaps between individual breakwater segments at three of the four sites effectively create a "gap window" between breakwaters favoring the exposure of short-period waves from the north and diminishing the effect of longer waves from the dominant east. Salients can be symmetrical despite an acute angle of approach of the dominant deep water waves where refraction is enhanced by offshore topography and breakwaters are parallel to the shore. Waves approaching normal to the gap window undergo less diffraction due to their shorter length relative to the gap window width and undergo less attenuation by breaking and bottom friction if they are locally generated and have short periods. Greater breaking-wave energy on the gap-facing slope of the salient can create shoreline and morphological asymmetry. The implication is that breakwater orientations can be designed or altered to selectively dampen or facilitate wave energy to enhance

  5. Origin of the Herman-Norcross-Tintah sequence of Lake Agassiz beaches in Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kyle; Teller, James T.

    2012-05-01

    The giant glacial Lake Agassiz basin is fringed by many strandlines, which have long been used to trace the paleogeography of the former lake over its 5000 year history. The oldest and highest of these strandlines were placed into three groups by Warren Upham in the 1890 s - the Herman, Norcross, and Tintah - and form a staircase of small landforms. The formation of these old strandlines began as early as ~13.9 cal (12.0 14C) kyr BP and ended ~12.8 cal (10.8 14C) kyr BP, based on OSL dates and the history of lake level in the Agassiz basin. New mapping and augering of beach ridges in southern Manitoba, Canada, associated with the earliest phase of the lake, indicate that there are a series of up to 28 small discontinuous beach ridges that are generally only a few metres high and a few tens of metres wide. These beaches mainly consist of weakly defined beds of poorly sorted sediments; in many cases a central sandy diamicton unit lies stratigraphically between overlying beach sediments and clay diamicton (till) below. Spatially, ridges are separated by silty or sandy units or gravel lags; inter-beach lagoonal organics were not found. We discuss the possible origin of these Lake Agassiz beaches, concluding that they were deposited over a few centuries by episodic storm events, as lake level slowly declined. We base this conclusion on the nature of the sediments in the beach ridges and the regional geomorphology, as well theoretical considerations about sedimentation along a regressing shoreline of a large lake. Other origins are rejected, although some other factors may have contributed to formation of some of the beaches, such as temporary increases in sediment supply, variable rate of outlet erosion, and short increases in lake-level that reworked sediment upslope into ridges. Using the time frame of 13.9 to 12.8 cal kyr BP for the formation of the beaches, the average interval between formation of each beach is ~39 years.

  6. Eligibility Comparison of Beach Tourism and Non-Beach Tourism Health Centers in Bali Province (Secundery Analysis of Rifaskes 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharmiati Suharmiati

    2015-03-01

    Province of Bali service tourists. It should be the responsibility of the government. On the other hand the feasibility of health centers (HC based on the availability of coastal tourism facilities and infrastructure, including human resources available to the health service is not clear. This study compared the feasibility of health centers shore excursions and non touristic beach health centers in Bali Province. Methods:Secondary data Healthcare Research Facility (Rifaskes 2011 all health centers in the Province of Bali. The number of samples are 114 health centers. Variabels consisted of facilities, infrastructure, human resources and health programs. The analysis is done by giving the value (weight of each variabel, then performed the scoring of each variabel both in Beach Tourist and Non Tourist Health Centers. Distribution of of the multiplication of the value with a score used to determine the feasibility of each variabel by calculating the mean (x and standart deviation (SD. Comparison of eligibility of Health Centers by differentiating the mean (x of each health center using different test (t test. Result: There is no difference in viability between Tourist and Non Tourist Beach the shore excursions based on the availability of facilities, infrastructure, human resources and health services (p > 0.05. Recomendation: Suggested health centers increase the completeness and appropriate management to be a Health Centers for Tourist, and cooperation with private clinics, the has to monitor the services and the due to cases HC responsibility.Key words: feasibility, Tourist Health Centers, Health Centers Non Tourist, Bali Province

  7. Temporal variation of sandy beach macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental conditions on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Sá Rodrigues da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variations of the macrofauna of sandy beaches have been related to variations in the beach morphodynamics and also to the population dynamics of dominant species. The aim of this article is to describe the temporal variation of the intertidal macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental condition on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil. At each site three transect lines 50 m apart were defined perpendicular to the shore line, from which samples were collected monthly in triplicate at 4 intertidal levels (10 m apart from June 2004 to May 2005. During winter a generally low density was observed, due to the absence of recruitments and to the mud deposition, which occurred just before sampling (in April 2004, and to low intensity stranding events. Spring witnessed a population explosion of Scolelepis gaucha, a migration of Mesodesma mactroides adults from the subtidal zone, and a strong stranding event. In the summer, recruitment of M. mactroides, Donax hanleyanus and Emerita brasiliensis was observed. Fall was characterized by low densities, except for D. hanleyanus recruitment. The macrofauna at both sites showed a striking seasonal variation in density and diversity, perhaps attributable to the recruitment of numerically dominant species and physical disturbances (stranding and mud deposition.Variações sazonais da macrofauna bentônica de praias arenosas têm sido relacionadas com variações da morfodinâmica da praia e também aos recrutamentos das espécies dominantes. Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a variabilidade temporal da macrofauna da zona entremarés de dois locais com distintas características ambientais na praia do Cassino, extremo sul do Brasil. Em cada local foram demarcadas três transversais (separadas por 50m perpendiculares à linha de água, nas quais amostras foram coletadas em triplicata em 4 níveis entremarés (separados por 10 m, entre junho/2004 e maio/2005. Durante o inverno ocorreram baixas

  8. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations. PMID:26198261

  9. Removing mineral oil residues from beaches with vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments conducted in artificial sand columns with Brent Crude Oil have demonstrated the loss of short-chain volatile n-alkanes from the surface and the chromatographic separation of the remaining compounds down core. The weathering index ranged from ∼ 4 in the crude oil to ∼ 0.3 after 14 days. Biodiesel derived from rapeseed oil was able to dissolve the remaining heavy fractions and these were carried into the sediments. Periodic washing with clean seawater was also able to lift more of the crude oil from the sediment than untreated sands. The effectiveness of the biodiesel in increasing the mobility of the residual crude oil fractions was dependent upon the time of addition after a spill; the shorter the delay, the more effective the system. Previous experiments have demonstrated the rapidity in which crude oil residuals can be removed if effectively agitated in relatively small volumes of biodiesel. These results indicate that if biodiesel is left on sediments contaminated with crude oil, there is a continuing effect leading to the removal of surface oil to either the water column through tidal washing or deeper into the sediments. Due to the rapid degradability of biodiesel, leaving biodiesel in the sediment should improve beach remediation. (author)

  10. Chromosome aberrations in workers of beach sand mineral industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach Sand Mining (BSM) is a profitable industry earning a sizable income for the country by way of foreign exchange. The Indian coast is rich in rare earths such as ilmenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, garnet and sillimanite, and is invariably associated with radioactive monazite. Due to the nature of the separation processes involved and the manual handling, workers in these factories are continuously being exposed to suspended particles containing naturally occurring radioactive materials. An attempt was made to estimate DNA damage using a chromosome aberration assay to monitor radiation effects in workers of BSM industries in India. The study group comprised 27 BSM workers and 20 controls. Percentage yields of dicentrics, acentric fragments and chromatid breaks observed in the control group were 0.058 ± 0.017, 0.073 ± 0.03 and 0.22 ± 0.112, respectively. Percentage yields of dicentrics + centric rings, acentric fragments and chromatid breaks observed in the BSM group were 0.029 ± 0.01 (P value 0.19), 0.24 ± 0.06 (P value 0.006) and 0.455 ± 0.06 (P value 0.0004), respectively. Elevated levels of fragments and chromatid aberrations are suggestive of low-dose radiation effects and also chemically-induced DNA damage. (authors)

  11. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  12. Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Mandell, W.A. [Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Wrobel, J. [Dept. of Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

  13. Simulation of the interstitial system of exposed sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Anton; Dye, Arthur; Harty, Beryl

    1981-03-01

    A sand column system with tidal rather than continuous seawater inputs was developed for laboratory simulation of interstitial conditions on exposed sandy beaches. Adjustment of flow volume and rate and permanent water table depth allow simulation of various parts of the intertidal zone by 50 cm sand columns. As oxygen consumption by the interstitial fauna is directly proportional to flow rate, it is critical to obtain the correct flow rates to simulate field conditions. A 4-month experiment with five columns was conducted. During the latter 2 months high amino acid levels were added to the columns. Rates of oxygen consumption, oxidation of organic nitrogen and nitrate production by the columns are described. On average about one-third of the organic nitrogen was oxidized and 2 μmol NO 3-N1 -1 generated by the columns without amino acid addition. This activity could only account for 60% of the oxygen uptake. Meiofauna, protozoans and bacteria segregated vertically in the columns and meiofauna numbers dropped, but protozoan and bacterial numbers increased, especially after amino acid addition. Calculated interstitial respiration, based on individual rates in the literature, was too high and indicates experimental overestimation. It is concluded that much refinement is still needed to improve our under-standing of interstitial metabolism.

  14. Further assessment of survey results from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated material continues to be found on the beaches, estuaries and salt marshes. An initial apparent fall in the frequency of discovery of highly contaminated samples has not been sustained. In the last week of surveys reported here, a change was noted in the type of contaminated material found. Results averaged on the entire period from 19 November 1983 to 13 February 1984 suggest that about 2 items every kilometre might be found giving a reading in excess of 1 mR/L βγ and 1 item every few kilometres giving a reading in excess of 10 mR/h βγ, with actual contact dose rates possible of about a hundred times higher than apparent instrument readings. A member of the public could pick up an item contaminated in excess of the 10 mR/h βγ or 1000 cps criterion and hold it for sufficiently long to sustain an appreciable dose to the skin surface. These and laboratory studies of contaminated materials confirmed the Board's views that the only situations of concern are those of prolonged handling of debris and contamination of the skin, rather than intake by ingestion or inhalation. (U.K.)

  15. Optimal temporal placement of the call in beach volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Künzell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The call is a tactical component in beach volleyball attacks. Through the call, the setter indicates to his or her teammate an open spot in the opponent’s court. In two experimental conditions, we investigated the interval between the call and the ball-hand contact (“call shot interval”, CSI of top-level athletes. We show that the probability that a given call is followed is dependent on the duration of the CSI and the number of call options. Longer CSIs result in an increased probability that the given call will be followed, whilst increasing the call options results in a decrease in probability. On average, there is a 50% probability that the call will be followed if the call precedes the shot by 460 ms and if a single call option (“line” is expected. If the attacker has to choose between three call options (“line”, “cut”, “no-one” a 50% probability that the call will be followed is observed at an CSI of 542 ms. It did not appear that gender influenced the ability to follow a call. We recommend that in practice and in competition, players and coaches should consider the proper duration of the CSI for effective calling.

  16. Evaluation of a sunscreen during a typical beach period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rego

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Amongst the radiations reaching the Earth′s surface, the ultraviolet rays are the ones receiving most attention from the scientists, given their damaging potential for humans exposed to them. To minimize the harm caused by such exposure, human beings are strongly recommended to use sunscreens, which are pharmaceutical preparations containing filters that confer protection against radiation. As this protection is strongly dependent on the properties of these filters, it is very important to ensure their stability even when under aggressive conditions, such as the typical high temperatures of summer in South Europe. In this study, a commercial sunscreen emulsion was tested in vitro for a period of time intended to simulate a beach period of 15 days, with regard to the maintenance of its sun protection factor (SPF. Moreover, the organoleptic characteristics were also monitored by macroscopic analysis. Materials and Methods : To perform this study, temperature conditions similar to those observed from June to August in Faro (Portugal were simulated in vitro. The SPF was determined by spectrophotometry, with subsequent application of the Mansur equation. Results and Conclusion : No significant alterations were observed during the considered period under the specific conditions of this study.

  17. Heterosexual anal intercourse among men in Long Beach, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kristen L; Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G

    2014-01-01

    Anal intercourse poses a greater risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than vaginal intercourse, and in recent years there has been a growing understanding that heterosexual anal intercourse (HAI) is not uncommon. However, the majority of the anal intercourse literature has focused on men who have sex with men. The little research on HAI has mostly looked at women, with limited work among men. This analysis examined the association between HAI and high-risk behaviors (N = 1,622) and sexual sensation seeking (N = 239) in a sample of men recruited from 2001 to 2012 in Long Beach, California. Almost half of the sample was non-Hispanic Black. The median age was 42 years, 42% were homeless, and 20% reported recent HAI. Men who reported HAI were likely to be Hispanic, were likely to be homeless, had a male partner, engaged in sex exchange, and used cocaine or amphetamines during sex. Men who reported HAI scored higher on the Sexual Sensation Seeking scale. This research supports other work showing the relationship between HAI and high-risk behaviors. More important, it contributes new knowledge by demonstrating the association between HAI and sexual sensation seeking. This research highlights the importance of personality traits when trying to understand sexual behavior and when developing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24024565

  18. Small drains, big problems: The impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Rippy, MA; Stein, R.; Sanders, BF; Davis, K.; McLaughlin, K.; Skinner, JF; Kappeler, J; Grant, SB

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dr...

  19. Short-term evolution of a reflective beach sector in front of a coastal lagoon (Southwest).Portuguese coast)

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Cristina; Albardeiro, Luís; Jacob, José; Pinheiro, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The subaerial beache act as detritical barriers in the opening and closing of lagoons located in sandy coastal ares. The study of beach morphodynamics, considering the evolution of the beachface and the berm, in these cases is critical to coastal management. The studied area located in an embayed sandy coastline at the Portuguese Southwest Atlantic Coast, is a 308m long subaerial, coarse to very coarse, sandy beach adjacent to the Melides lagoon entrance. In order to characterize the morphody...

  20. Estimating a Payment Vehicle for Financing Nourishment of Residential Beaches using a Spatial-lag Hedonic Property Price Model

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ashton Morgan; Stuart E. Hamilton

    2009-01-01

    Beach nourishment projects are common methods for coastal states to protect beaches and property from the natural erosive process. However, while the beneficiaries of beach nourishment tend to be local property owners and recreators, projects are typically funded at the state level. Based on the benefit principle, as local residents receive more of the erosion protection benefits of the nourishment projects, we estimate a value capture tax, designed to levy the financing burden in a manner th...

  1. Variations in microbial indicator densities in beach waters and health-related assessment of bathing water quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, W. H.; Chang, K C; Hung, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    Daily and hourly variations in microbial indicators densities in the beach-waters of Hong Kong have been described. The levels of Escherichia coli at a number of beaches was observed to be influenced by tide, and for staphylococci, by bather numbers. The tidal influence was most obvious during spring tides; and for the effect of bathers, during neap tides. Both organisms are present in high densities in external sources of faecal pollution of bathing beaches, with the average staphylococci to...

  2. Development of predictive models for determining enterococci levels at Gulf Coast beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaihong; Deng, Zhiqiang; Rusch, Kelly A

    2012-02-01

    The US EPA BEACH Act requires beach managers to issue swimming advisories when water quality standards are exceeded. While a number of methods/models have been proposed to meet the BEACH Act requirement, no systematic comparisons of different methods against the same data series are available in terms of relative performance of existing methods. This study presents and compares three models for nowcasting and forecasting enterococci levels at Gulf Coast beaches in Louisiana, USA. One was developed using the artificial neural network (ANN) in MATLAB Toolbox and the other two were based on the US EPA Virtual Beach (VB) Program. A total of 944 sets of environmental and bacteriological data were utilized. The data were collected and analyzed weekly during the swimming season (May-October) at six sites of the Holly Beach by Louisiana Beach Monitoring Program in the six year period of May 2005-October 2010. The ANN model includes 15 readily available environmental variables such as salinity, water temperature, wind speed and direction, tide level and type, weather type, and various combinations of antecedent rainfalls. The ANN model was trained, validated, and tested using 308, 103, and 103 data sets (collected in 2007, 2008, and 2009) with an average linear correlation coefficient (LCC) of 0.857 and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.336. The two VB models, including a linear transformation-based model and a nonlinear transformation-based model, were constructed using the same data sets. The linear VB model with 6 input variables achieved an LCC of 0.230 and an RMSE of 1.302 while the nonlinear VB model with 5 input variables produced an LCC of 0.337 and an RMSE of 1.205. In order to assess the predictive performance of the ANN and VB models, hindcasting was conducted using a total of 430 sets of independent environmental and bacteriological data collected at six Holly Beach sites in 2005, 2006, and 2010. The hindcasting results show that the ANN model is capable of

  3. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition – central Tamil Nadu coast, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Joevivek; N Chandrasekar

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  4. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition - central Tamil Nadu coast, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  5. Experimental Investigations of Effect of Sulphur on Beach Sand–Fly Ash–Asphalt (S-F-A) Paving Mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Satyakumar, M.; Satheeshchandran, R.

    2013-01-01

    The main components of the flexible pavements are asphalt and aggregates. But in most of the places in India there is shortage of the good quality aggregates (especially coarse aggregates), at the same time beach sand is available in plenty in many regions. Due to relative abundance of beach sand, the studies on the utilities of the beach sand in paving mixes are worth taking up. But beach Sand-Asphalt mix alone is not suitable for pavement construction, because of its low stability and high ...

  6. The Sediment and Hydrographic Characteristics of Three Horseshoe Crab Nursery Beaches in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen M.C. Chiu; Brian Morton

    2003-01-01

    Horseshoe crab juveniles have been recorded from sand and sandy-mud nursery beaches at Pak Nai (western New Territories ), San Tau and Shui Hau (Lantau Island), Hong Kong. In order to provide a better understanding of these beaches and to identify those plausible factors which have made them preferred by spawning horseshoe crabs, environmental parameters, including temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen content of the water, and particle size distribution and organic matter content of the sediments at the three sites, were determined and compared. The hydrographic and sediment data obtained for the three study sites have revealed some common environmental features. The three nursery beaches are relatively remote, and far (in Hong Kong terms) from urbanized and densely populated areas. The beaches are generally well sheltered from strong wave action and inundated regularly by estuarine waters. Horseshoe crab adults tend to select these beaches for spawning as their protected features ensures the laid eggs are less likely to be washed out of the sand, and hatched juveniles can feed on the meiofauna and grow. Sediments of the three beaches largely comprise medium-sized sand particles and are moderately sorted, suggesting medium porosity and good water permeability. Such a sand type, with the generally high oxygen levels in incursing waters, may help create a well-oxygenated micro-environment for the normal development of horseshoe crab eggs, larvae and juveniles. Lantau Island beaches at San Tau and Shui Hau are relatively free from organic pollution, as reflected in generally high dissolved oxygen level, and low BOD5 and ammonia nitrogen values. Pak Nai is, however, more polluted.

  7. Simulation of oil bioremediation in a tidally influenced beach: Spatiotemporal evolution of nutrient and dissolved oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Pan, Zhong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Ozgokmen, Tamay; Lee, Kenneth; Zhao, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Numerical experiments of oil bioremediation of tidally influenced beach were simulated using the model BIOMARUN. Nutrient and dissolved oxygen were assumed present in a solution applied on the exposed beach face, and the concentration of these amendments was tracked throughout the beach for up to 6 months. It was found that, in comparison to natural attenuation, bioremediation increased the removal efficiency by 76% and 65% for alkanes and aromatics, respectively. Increasing the nutrient concentration in the applied solution did not always enhance biodegradation as oxygen became limiting even when the beach was originally oxygen-rich. Therefore, replenishment of oxygen to oil-contaminated zone was also essential. Stimulation of oil biodegradation was more evident in the upper and midintertidal zone of the beach, and less in the lower intertidal zone. This was due to reduced nutrient and oxygen replenishment, as very little of the amendment solution reached that zone. It was found that under continual application, most of the oil biodegraded within 2 months, while it persisted for 6 months under natural conditions. While the difference in duration suggests minimal long-term effects, there are situations where the beach would need to be cleaned for major ecological functions, such as temporary nesting or feeding for migratory birds. Biochemical retention time map (BRTM) showed that the duration of solution application was dependent upon the stimulated oil biodegradation rate. By contrast, the application rate of the amendment solution was dependent upon the subsurface extent of the oil-contaminated zone. Delivery of nutrient and oxygen into coastal beach involved complex interaction among amendment solution, groundwater, and seawater. Therefore, approaches that ignore the hydrodynamics due to tide are unlikely to provide the optimal solutions for shoreline bioremediation.

  8. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality

  9. Abandoned Beach Ridges in the Mejillones Peninsula, Northern Chile: Implications for Paleoseismology of Great Subduction Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, I. A.; Gonzalez, G.; Antinao, J. L.; McDonald, E.; González-Carrasco, J. F.; Shrivastava, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Mejillones Peninsula, in northern Chile, shows a well-preserved set of beach ridges parallel to the present coast. These beach ridges can be observed up to 20 km inland and at 200 m above sea level. Previous dating performed in fossils extracted from the oldest beach ridges yielded ages of 400 ka (Victor et al., 2011). However, numerical ages for younger beach ridges have not been determined, therefore a complete time record is not available. InSar data show that the Mejillones Peninsula was uplifted several centimeters during the last two subduction earthquakes (Antofagasta Mw 8.1, 1995 earthquake and the Mw 7.7, 2007 Tocopilla earthquake) occurred in the area (Loveless et al., 2010). A permanent GPS station deployed by CALTECH (http://web.gps.caltech.edu/~jeff/andes/) in this peninsula has measured a coseismic uplift during the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake. This data suggest that the beach ridges were abandoned as a consequence of coseismic uplift during great subduction earthquakes and therefore they represent the long-term record of past earthquakes. In order to prove this hypothesis we excavated five trenches across the beach ridges. Our idea is to look for stratigraphic evidence of the abandonment mechanism and to collect samples for dating the beach ridges using the method of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The ages will be used to estimate long-term uplift rate and temporal variation of this rate. By confronting short-term uplift rate provided by GPS data with long-term rate we hope to know what it is the amount of the coseismic slip that remain in the geological record.

  10. Marine oil pollution and beached bird surveys: the development of a sensitive monitoring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most obvious adverse effects of (chronic) pollution of the world's oceans and seas with mineral oil is the mortality of seabirds. Systematic surveys of beachcast corpses of birds ('beached bird surveys') have been used in many parts of the world to document the effect of oil pollution, but particularly so in Western Europe and in parts of North America. In this paper, the history, current schemes, methods and possible (future) use of beached bird surveys are described and discussed, because the value of beached bird surveys has been hotly disputed. Oil pollution is known since the late 19th century, while the first beached bird surveys were conducted in the 1920s. Due to the amount of man-power needed for these surveys, most beached bird survey programs thrived only through the work of a large number of volunteers. However, most programs have resulted in substantial amounts of high quality data, often covering many consecutive years. One of the main shortcomings of many beached bird survey programs was the emphasis on stranded bird numbers rather than on relative measures, such as oil rates (percentage of corpses oiled of all corpses found). Sources of pollution, particularly so in chronically polluted regions such as the North Sea, the Baltic, the Mediterranean and the waters around Newfoundland, are insufficiently known, but could be studied through a sampling program connected to beached bird surveys. Suggestions for standardization of methods are presented, which could lead to a global and highly sensitive monitoring instrument of marine oil pollution. (Author)

  11. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mendonça Cavalcante Davino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall. We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated.

  12. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will

  13. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Summers Engel

    Full Text Available Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales. Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales. These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment

  14. Technical Note: Medium-term morphodynamics in an unprotected sandy beach of the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postacchini, M.; Soldini, L.; Lorenzoni, C.; Mancinelli, A.

    2015-08-01

    In the recent years attention has been paid to the beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscapes and around 70 % of the Marche-Region coasts (central Adriatic), is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the Region includes the beach of Senigallia, characterized by a multiple barred beach, frequently monitored during the last decades. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show a good adaptation of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short-/medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. This suggests a slight influence of wave forcing on the long-term profiles, which seems to only depend on the sediment size. Further, the medium-term dynamics of the submerged bars and their geometric features have been related to the wave climate collected by a wave buoy located 40 km off Senigallia during the analyzed temporal windows. An overall interpretation of the complete dynamics, i.e. hydrodynamics (buoy data), sediment characteristics (equilibrium-profile A parameter) and morphodynamics (bathymetric surveys), suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term: waves coming from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and induce seaward/shoreward bar migration, as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile suggests a decrease of the sediment size in the submerged beach, this probably due to the presence of both harbor jetty and river mouth North of the investigated area.

  15. Investigation of Stinson Beach Park storm damage and evaluation of alternative shore protection measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1984-07-01

    An investigation was made of storm damage during the winter of 1982-83 to the National Park Service's Stinson Beach Park. The investigation included an assessment of the storm damage, evaluation of physical processes contributing to the damage, subsequent beach recovery, and the feasibility of implementing shoreline protection measure to reduce future risk. During the winter of 1982-83, the beach was almost completely denuded of sand, wave overwash damaged the foredune, vegetation on the foredune was destroyed, and backshore flooding occurred. Two structures and a parking lot were endangered as the shoreline receded. Subsequent recovery of the park beach was rapid. By January 1982 sand had moved back onshore and a beach berm was beginning to reform. The foredune and dune vegetation received the only permanent damage. Four shoreline protection alternatives were evaluated. These include no action, dune development/enhancement, construction of a rock riprap revetment, and offshore installation of artificial seaweed. The first costs (estimated costs, excluding maintenance) range from about $90,000 to $475,000. The least-cost protection measure is riprap revetment, which protects the two structures and parking lot endangered during the 1982-83 winter storms. Construction of a foredune along the entire park beach is the highest cost protection measure. If no shore protection action measures are implemented, wave overwash of the foredune can be expected to occur on the average of every 2 to 3 years, and beach degradation, similar to that during the 1982-83 winter, can be expected to occur on the average of every 10 to 12 years. 12 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  16. Lessons from a Disturbance Experiment in the Intertidal Zone of an Exposed Sandy Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, D. S.; Mclachlan, A.; Dugan, J. E.

    2000-06-01

    Exposed sandy beaches are important, sensitive and widespread coastal habitats. Although they have been studied for more than 50 years, investigators have been reluctant to attempt manipulative experiments due to the dynamic nature of these environments. Consequently, the ecology of exposed sandy beaches remains relatively poorly understood. We conducted a community-level, manipulative experiment involving a simulated anthropogenic disturbance on an exposed microtidal sandy beach in the Eastern Cape, South Africa; the first of its kind and scale. This study comprised pre- and post-impact sampling at an experimental site and two control sites. The impact involved excavating and removing a 200 m2quadrat of sand from the mid-intertidal of the experimental site to a depth of 0·3 m. The intention was to address the prediction that anthropogenic disturbances would be detectable if appropriate spatial and temporal scales were investigated. The following variables were monitored: transect gradient; species richness; macrofaunal abundance; and both the abundance and biomass of the dominant infaunal species, the beach clam Donax serra Röding. Analyses revealed significant differences in temporal patterns of all response variables amongst sites. Some evidence linked these changes to the experimental disturbance, although impacts appear temporary, being ameliorated within, at most, one semi-lunar cycle. This confirms that it is possible to successfully conduct manipulative experiments on exposed sandy beaches. However, the uncontrollable, natural dynamics of the beach face, as expressed by intertidal gradient, contributed significantly to the description of spatio-temporal variation in biotic response variables. It is concluded that to isolate treatment effects from those of natural variation, two advances are necessary on the current research approach. First, experimental designs must take cognizance of the fact that exposed, microtidal sandy beaches have little in common

  17. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Sílvia [Laboratório Regional de Veterinária e Segurança Alimentar, Caminho das Quebradas de Baixo n° 79, 9000-254 Funchal (Portugal); Calado, Graça [Laboratório de Saúde Pública, IASaúde, Rua das Pretas n° 1, 9004-515 Funchal (Portugal); Brandão, João [Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Prada, Susana, E-mail: susana@uma.pt [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos Geológicos, Universidade dos Açores, Rua da Mãe de Deus, Edifício do Complexo Científico, 3° Andar — Ala Sul, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2013-09-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality.

  18. Selection of nutrients to enhance biodegradation for the remediation of oil spilled on beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the fate of fertilizers proposed for application to the Alaska shoreline in support of the Alaskan Oil Spill EPA Bioremediation Project. Fertilizer application is theorized to provide indigenous organisms with nutrients that appear to be limited on ocean beaches. The experiments were developed strictly to test the durability, release rates, and application procedures of a variety of fertilizer types. The effects of tidal movement on a beach was simulated by two separate conditions, static and dynamic. The static condition represented periods when the beach material was under water and turbulence was at a minimum. This condition was simulated in the laboratory by submerging the nutrient in a beaker of simulated sea water (with or without beach material depending on the nutrients). These experiments ran continuously over a 3-month period with water exchanges in accordance with a planned schedule. Nutrient concentrations were measured in the exchanged water. Dynamic conditions represented the forces on beach material as the water moved from the low to high tide and then back to the low tide. In the laboratory, the condition was simulated by applying the nutrients to beach material, which was piled in one end of a long narrow trayplaced on a rocker table. When the rocker table was operating and sufficient quantities of sea water had been added to cover the beach material, a gentle sloshing of the water over the materials resulted. These experiments generally lasted 1 to 2 hours during which time liquid samples were collected for nutrient analyses. Durability of the fertilizers was measured by visual observation and freeze/thaw determinations. The experimental setup was economical and performed well

  19. Close-range airborne Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry for high-resolution beach morphometric surveys: Examples from an embayed rotating beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Fleury, Jules; Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Dussouillez, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The field of photogrammetry has seen significant new developments essentially related to the emergence of new computer-based applications that have fostered the growth of the workflow technique called Structure-from-Motion (SfM). Low-cost, user-friendly SfM photogrammetry offers interesting new perspectives in coastal and other fields of geomorphology requiring high-resolution topographic data. The technique enables the construction of topographic products such as digital surface models (DSMs) and orthophotographs, and combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS surveys and the high density and accuracy of airborne LiDAR, but at very advantageous cost compared to the latter. Three SfM-based photogrammetric experiments were conducted on the embayed beach of Montjoly in Cayenne, French Guiana, between October 2013 and 2014, in order to map morphological changes and quantify sediment budgets. The beach is affected by a process of rotation induced by the alongshore migration of mud banks from the mouths of the Amazon River that generate spatial and temporal changes in wave refraction and incident wave angles, thus generating the reversals in longshore drift that characterise this process. Sub-vertical aerial photographs of the beach were acquired from a microlight aircraft that flew alongshore at low elevation (275 m). The flight plan included several parallel flight axes with an overlap of 85% between pictures in the lengthwise direction and 50% between paths. Targets of 40 × 40 cm, georeferenced by RTK-DGPS, were placed on the beach, spaced 100 m apart. These targets served in optimizing the model and in producing georeferenced 3D products. RTK-GPS measurements of random points and cross-shore profiles were used to validate the photogrammetry results and assess their accuracy. We produced dense point clouds with 150 to 200 points/m², from which we generated DSMs and orthophotos with respective resolutions of 10 cm and 5 cm. Compared to the GPS control

  20. Holocene raised beach stratigraphy and sea-level history of Kizahasi Beach, Skarvsnes, Luetzow-Holm Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve radiocarbon (14C) dates of in situ fossil shells of Laternula elliptica from deltaic sediments from the raised Kizahasi Beach with well-marked stepped topography allow us to define Holocene relative sea-level change at Skarvsnes, Luetzow-Holm Bay region. The upper edge of a step usually corresponds to the upper end of a topset bed of deltaic sediments. The sedimentary structures and topography from near to the present high-tide line to shallow marine depths are similar to the deltaic sedimentary structures preserved in the stepped topography. Considering this similarity, the elevation of the upper end of topset beds, and the relationship to foreset or bottomset beds, indicates the elevation of a former high-tide level at the time the shell was alive. This relationship can be applied to the estimation of the elevation of former shorelines and the reconstruction of Holocene relative sea-level change. Stable sea levels are identified at 17-13 m a.s.l. during 7200-5500 14C yr BP, at 11-9 m during 5000-4500 14C yr BP, and at 14C yr BP. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Variability of grain sizes in a beach nourishment programme for the Danish West Caost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    naturally shaped beaches while at the same time the risk for erosion is reduced. For this reason beach nourishment is used widely along the Danish North Sea coast (called West Coast) and this method is preferred in preference to put up solid constructions. Beach nourishment is the primary method used by the...... shaped. The aim of the present investigation was to examine how to extract sand samples of an actual beach nourishment to obtain a satisfactory description of the sedimentary composition. In specific the goal was a description of the variation of the sand characteristics in space. The reason for this is...... that the compositions of sand affect the erosion and the shaping of the beach. The results show that by collecting 13-15 sand samples it is possible to obtain a description of d50 with a precision of 0.1 mm within a confidence interval of 95-99 %. If a precision of 0.05 mm is wanted, it is necessary to...

  2. Manmade vulnerability of the Cancun Beach system: the case of hurricane Wilma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Rodolfo Silva; Baldwin, Edgar Mendoza [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Martinez, Gabriel Ruiz; Marino-Tapia, Ismael [Laboratorio de Procesos Costeros, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Merida (Mexico); Vanegas, Gregorio Posada [Instituto EPOMEX, Universidad Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico); Mancera, Edgar Escalante [Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Unidad Academica Puerto Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    Climate change and resultant coastal erosion and flooding have been the focus of many recent analyses. Often these studies overlook the effects of manmade modifications to the coastline which have reduced its resilience to storm events. In this investigation, we integrate previous reports, historical photo analysis, field work, and the application of numerical models to better understand the effects of Wilma, the most destructive hurricane to affect Cancun, Mexico. Huge waves (of significant height, >12 m), long mean wave periods (>12 s), devastating winds (>250 km/h), and powerful currents (>2 m/s) removed >7 million cubic meters of sand from the Cancun beach system, leaving 68% of the sub-aerial beach as bedrock, and the rest considerably eroded. Numerical simulations show that the modifications to the barrier island imposed by tourist infrastructure have considerably increased the rigidity of the system, increasing the potential erosion of the beach under extreme conditions. If there were no structural barriers, a series of breaches could occur along the beach, allowing exchange of water and alleviating storm surge on other sections of the beach. If the effects caused by anthropogenic changes to Cancun are ignored, the analysis is inaccurate and misleading. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. A comparison of two methods for surveying mortality of beached birds in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, C; Burger, A E

    1994-10-01

    Systematic surveys of beached birds are often limited in their ability to classify the causes of death of the carcasses recovered. Two methods of determining the cause of death of seabirds encountered during surveys of beaches of southwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, are compared. Birds were either subjected to external visual examinations by volunteer beach surveyors or submitted for gross postmortem examination by a veterinarian. The reliance on external examination of birds on beaches often prevented the accurate classification of the reproductive status and cause of death of the birds collected, but was valuable for describing the species, locations, and numbers of birds affected. The use of gross postmortem examinations of carcasses allowed for a more refined classification of the cause of death, as well as providing reliable descriptions of the bodily condition and sex of the birds examined. However, almost one half of the carcasses encountered were unsuitable for necropsy because of scavenging and decomposition. It is concluded that a combination of field and necropsy observations provides a useful method with which to monitor the pattern of mortality of beached seabirds. PMID:7994705

  4. Use of polyethylene membrane devices for monitoring diesel oil contamination on and within beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spring of 2002, routine monitoring in Port Chalmers in Prince William Sound Alaska, detected a small unreported diesel fuel spill that resulted from commercial fishing activity. A series of 12 polyethylene membrane devices (PEMDs) had been initially placed on the beach to assess any remaining hydrocarbons from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. During the course of the routine monitoring study, these PEMDs detected an increase in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) several thousand-fold from a few hundred ng per device in the winter deployment. The beaches of the affected area have semi-diurnal tides with a maximum vertical range of 6 metres. The beach at one monitoring station is exposed to high-energy waves and the other is more sheltered. This study compared and reported the results of the surface and subsurface impacts of this small diesel spill. PAH in sediments and in interstitial water in the beach were measured after the diesel spill. A comparative evaluation revealed that PEMDs can be a low cost and and effective method for monitoring interstitial water flow within porous beaches because they accumulate organic pollutants from intermittent exposures. Results for the PEMDs, sediments and interstitial water samples from the mid-tide elevations at the sheltered station demonstrate the high sensitivity of PEMDs as environmental hydrocarbon monitors. 8 refs., 4 figs

  5. Marine debris surveys on four beaches in Rizhao City of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared with USA, UK, Brazil, Indonesia, Australia, etc., marine debris research in China has received less attention and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this paper, the abundance, composition and source of beached marine debris, and debris collection system and frequency as well as dustbins’ conditionwere investigated in Duodaohai, Wanpingkou, Shanhaitian and National Forest Park beaches of Rizhao City from June 1 to 10, 2013. Based on these surveys, following conclusions were obtained: In four coastal beaches surveyed, the mean number and weight densities were 25.91 items/100m2 and 341.39 g/100m2, respectively. Most of the BMD in the aforementioned beaches originated directly from land sources. There were two kinds of debris collection systems in these beaches at present; dustbins sometimes were not enough to be used in the swimming period.We hope that our study will be helpful to raise the level of environmental consciousness among people and to expand their anti-debris activities.

  6. Survey of viral populations within Lake Michigan nearshore waters at four Chicago area beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sible

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to the oceans, freshwater environments represent a more diverse community of microorganisms, exhibiting comparatively high levels of variability both temporally and spatially Maranger and Bird, Microb. Ecol. 31 (1996 141–151. This level of variability is likely to extend to the world of viruses as well, in particular bacteria-infecting viruses (bacteriophages. Phages are known to influence bacterial diversity, and therefore key processes, in environmental niches across the globe Clokie et al., Bacteriophage 1 (2011 31–45; Jacquet et al., Adv. Ocean Limn. 1 (2010 97–141; Wilhelm and Suttle, Bioscience 49 (1999 781–788; Bratback et al., Microb. Ecol. 28 (1994 209–221. Despite their prevalence and likely critical role in freshwater environments, very few viral species have been characterized. Metagenomic approaches, however, have allowed for a glimpse into phage diversity. We collected surface water samples from four Chicago area beaches – Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach – every two weeks from May 13 through August 5, 2014. Sampling was conducted with four biological replicates for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. DNA isolated from each of the individual samples for a given collection date/location was pooled together, with one exception – Calumet Beach on August 5, 2014 – in which each biological replicate was sequenced individually. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI’s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA248239.

  7. Performance Assessment of Lokoja Confluence Beach as a Tourist Site in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Oluwaseyi Olorunfemi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beach tourism is a global phenomenon mainly in coastal areas of countries with unique and favorable shorelines. However, certain inland waterways serve same purpose of beach tourism. This research (as its objectives exposes the condition of amenities, identifies associated socio-economic benefits and reveals problems confronting the Lokoja Confluence Beach in Kogi State, Nigeria. A survey design (with the aid of questionnaires and interview guide was employed to obtain data from tourists, managers of the Confluence Beach and government officials at the State Tourism Board. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select respondent tourists. Univariate analysis was employed to obtain relevant information from collated data. The research findings revealed the existence of a few functional amenities and some uncompleted facility projects; diverse economic benefits to residents; problems of petty crime, diversion of funds and poor sensitization. Recommendations include provision of supplementary funds by the three tiers of government, development of strategic policy on marketing/sensitization and provision of amenities for indoor games close to the beach front.

  8. Influence of waste management policy on the characteristics of beach litter in Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First study to compare beach litter survey with waste management on land. • First beach litter survey performed by academic researchers in Taiwan. • Certain marine litter can be greatly reduced if better managed on land. • Policy implication for management was explored with beach litter survey results. -- Abstract: Marine debris is a ubiquitous problem that poses a serious threat to the global oceans; it has motivated public participation in clean-up campaigns, as well as governmental involvement in developing mitigation strategies. While it is known that the problem of marine litter may be affected by waste management practices on land, beach survey results have seldom been compared with them. In this study, marine litter surveys on four beaches of Cijin Island were conducted to explore the effects of waste management and policy implications. Indirect evidence shows that chances for land-based litter, such as plastic bags and bottles, entering the marine environment can be greatly decreased if they can be properly reduced, reused and recycled. We suggest that mitigation measures should focus on source reduction, waste recycling and management, utilizing effective economic instruments, and pursuing a long-term public education campaign to raise the public awareness of this problem

  9. The Assesement of Rip Current at Kerachut Beach Using Hydrodynamic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhary, W. A. H. W.; Awang, N. A.; Hamid, M. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    KerachutBeach is a beautiful beach in Penang National Park (PNP). However this beach is categorisedas one of dangerous beach for swimming activities in Malaysia due to the drowning incidents reported almost every year. The steep beach slope and rip current were among the factors that lead to this incident. Using bathymetry profile, current, tidal and sediment data collected at site incorporated with UKMO wave data analysis,the hydrodynamic pattern was simulated using Mike 21 modelling software. Result from the model showed the evidence of rip current existence along the coastline. It showed that this rip current eventsoccurred during spring tide phase when the flow change from Flood to Ebb. During this period, the current tend to move parallel to the shoreline with maximum speed of 0.3m/s which is capable to swipe away a swimmer. The bathymetry profile at Kerachutis very steep and dangerous to swimmers since there is a 4 meter sudden plunge just meters away from the shoreline.

  10. Wave run-up on a high-energy dissipative beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, P.; Holman, R.A.; Beach, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Because of highly dissipative conditions and strong alongshore gradients in foreshore beach morphology, wave run-up data collected along the central Oregon coast during February 1996 stand in contrast to run-up data currently available in the literature. During a single data run lasting approximately 90 min, the significant vertical run-up elevation varied by a factor of 2 along the 1.6 km study site, ranging from 26 to 61% of the offshore significant wave height, and was found to be linearly dependent on the local foreshore beach slope that varied by a factor of 5. Run-up motions on this high-energy dissipative beach were dominated by infragravity (low frequency) energy with peak periods of approximately 230 s. Incident band energy levels were 2.5 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than the low-frequency spectral peaks and typically 96% of the run-up variance was in the infragravity band. A broad region of the run-up spectra exhibited an f-4 roll off, typical of saturation, extending to frequencies lower than observed in previous studies. The run-up spectra were dependent on beach slope with spectra for steeper foreshore slopes shifted toward higher frequencies than spectra for shallower foreshore slopes. At infragravity frequencies, run-up motions were coherent over alongshore length scales in excess of 1 km, significantly greater than decorrelation length scales on moderate to reflective beaches. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Potential of the microbial community present in an unimpacted beach sediment to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C Marisa R; Reis, Izabela; Couto, M Nazaré; Bordalo, Adriano A; Mucha, Ana P

    2013-05-01

    The potential of the microbial communities present in the intertidal zone of an unimpacted beach (a beach that did not suffer any significant oil spill) to degrade hydrocarbons was investigated. For that, laboratory-based microcosms (50-ml flasks) were set up with sandy beach sediment spiked with crude oil and incubated with local seawater for 15 days in the dark. Three bioremediation treatments were tested (biostimulation (BS), autochthonous bioaugmentation (AB), and combined treatment of biostimulation + bioaugmentation (BS + AB)) and the results were compared with natural attenuation (NA). Visual inspection showed clearly an oil solubility increase (confirmed by a higher hydrocarbons concentration in supernatant solutions) for all tested treatments when compared to NA. Significant degradation of the oil, shown by different profiles of petroleum hydrocarbons, was also observed for the different treatments particularly for BS + AB. Therefore, the microbial community of this unimpacted beach sediment could respond to an oil spill, degrading hydrocarbons. But to increase the natural attenuation pace, obtained results indicated that BS + AB is an appropriate approach for the bioremediation of beaches recently impacted by an oil spill. The autochthonous microbial cultures can be obtained "before" or "after" the contamination of the target site, being inoculated into the site right after it contamination. PMID:23054799

  12. Formation of Equilibrium Beach Profile of the Abandoned Yellow River Delta Coast in North Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏; 陆培东; 雷智益

    2001-01-01

    The abandoned Yellow River Delta coast is a typical erodible silty and muddy coast in China. The paper analyses the marine dynamic characteristics and the mechanism of beach erosion of this area. Analysis and calculation show that in this sea area wave and tidal current action should be considered. Based on the above analysis, an equilibrium beach profile calculation model is developed, in which the wave-current interaction is considered while sediment supply and sediment re-deposition are neglected. The model consists of four parts: (1) calculation of wave parameters, (2) calculation of velocity due to wave-current interaction at different water depth, (3) calculation of friction velocity and shear stress at different water depths, and (4) calculation of the amount of sediment erosion, erosion intensity and variation of beach profile. Calculated results are in good agreement with observed data. Finally, the evolution tendency is discussed and the equilibrium beach profile of this coast is calculated. Based on prediction, the slope of equilibrium beach profile is about 1/85.

  13. Health status of recreational beaches in Iskandar development region, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to evaluate the health status of recreational beaches in Wilayah Iskandar development area Johor. The nematode/copepod ratio may be used as useful tool for assessing the environmental quality of the beaches. The meiobenthos samples were collected using a PVC corer at three stations at inter tidal zone along beaches in Wilayah Iskandar. Four sampling sessions were conducted in March, April, May and June 2009 during low tide. Physico-chemical parameters including salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured in situ at each station using YSI multi probe MPS 556 and sediment samples were collected for chlorophyll a analysis. The chlorophyll-a concentrations were determined based on the spectrophotometric method using 665 nm wavelength. The ratio showed a wide variability between stations with highest values recorded at Station 3 (2.25 to 131.1) and lowest at Station 2 (0.99 to 15.53). The overall ratio of nematode/copepod could be related to the increase of potentially polluted area along the beaches such as at Station 3. The presence of pre-diapause copepod which is able to survive in the environment condition stress becomes a good indicator for the health status of beaches in Wilayah Iskandar development area. (author)

  14. [Survey of cnidarian accident records in some beaches of the coast of Pernambuco (Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ricardo F; Amaral, Fernanda D; Steiner, Andrea Q

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians are among the most venomous organisms known to man. They are characterized by stinging cells called cnidocytes, and several species, such as the Portuguese-man-of-war and the jellyfish, can cause harm to human beings. Despite not attracting () much attention on the Brazilian coast, the studies that have been carried out to date show that the occurrence of this kind of accident is significant. The aim of this study was to survey cnidarian related accidents with beach goers on some beaches of the state of Pernambuco, as well as to investigate the knowledge of relevant professions on this theme. () Archives of hospitals and life guard posts were visited for the survey, and 17 professionals were interviewed. During the visits, records were obtained for a total of 35 accidents at Boa Viagem Beach (Recife) over a two-year period, as well as informal records of an average of four to five cases a week at Piedade Beach and an average of two to three cases a week for Pontas de Pedras Beach. As to the knowledge of the professionals interviewed, most answers agree, in general, with the literature available, despite a certain level of inadequate or insufficient information on the theme. PMID:17680074

  15. Fisheries as a source of marine debris on beaches in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Antonia; Harrison, Nancy

    2016-06-15

    Marine debris from ships has persisted and remains a concern despite international agreements such as MARPOL. We report on an analysis of beach litter based on a data set established by the Marine Conservation Society (MSC) Beachwatch weekends. Debris collected around the UK was divided into three main types of debris: (1) plastic, (2) fishing, and (3) fishing related plastic and rubber. Correspondence analysis (CA) was used to examine patterns in the occurrence of debris types on a total of 1023 beaches and debris attributable to fishing was identified on clusters of beaches mainly located on the coasts of Scotland and along the English Channel. General Linear model (GLM) identified fishing as the highest explanatory factor when testing for relationships between litter and proximity to fishing ports and grounds. The results add to the growing body of evidence that the fishing industry is largely responsible for marine debris. PMID:27156038

  16. Radioactivity of sand from several renowned public beaches and assessment of the corresponding environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRJANA B. RADENKOVIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiological risk due to the presence of natural and man-made radionuclides in beach sands from several renowned seaside and riverbank public beaches was estimated in this study. The exposure levels to terrestrial radiation of the beaches were determined, as well as hazards due to human use of the analyzed sands in industry and in building constructions. Specific radionuclides concentrations in the sand samples were determined by standard gamma-spectrometry. The corresponding radiation hazards arising due to the use of sand as a building material were estimated by three different radiological hazard indices. The total absorbed gamma dose rate in the air was determined and the corresponding annual effective dose outdoors was estimated. The obtained data are relevant both from human health and environmental monitoring aspects.

  17. Detection and risk assessment of diarrheagenic E. coli in recreational beaches of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vanessa F V; Rivera, Irma N G; Lim, Keah-Ying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-08-15

    Marine beaches are important recreational and economic resources in Brazil, but the beaches' water quality is negatively impacted by the discharge of domestic sewage effluent. The occurrence of diarrheagenic Escherichiacoli among the E. coli isolated from three Brazilian marine beaches was investigated. Multiplex and single step PCR were used to screen 99 E. coli isolates for ten target toxin genes. Six toxin genes, stx1, eae, estp, esth, astA, and bfpA, were identified in 1% to 35% of the isolates. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of human exposure to diarrheagenic E. coli during marine recreation was carried out. The results indicated that the diarrheagenic E. coli risk is well below the U.S. EPA's recommended daily recreational risk benchmark. However, the overall recreational health risk due to all pathogens in the water could be much higher and exceeded the U.S. EPA's benchmark. PMID:27301685

  18. Detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from recreational beach using the mecA gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aisya; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Water samples were collected in triplicates from three different locations choosen from the recreational beach of Teluk Kemang, Port Dickson as sampling station including main area of recreation activity for the public. Bacteria were isolated from the water and cultured. Out of 286 presumptive Staphylococcus aureus enumerated by using culture method, only 4 (1.4 %) confirmed as Meticillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on PCR detection of mecA gene. Interestingly, all of MRSA detections were found at the main area of recreational activity. Our results suggested that public beaches may be reservoir for transmission of MRSA to beach visitors and PCR using the mecA gene is the fastest way to detect this pathogenic bacteria.

  19. Beach debris in the Azores (NE Atlantic): Faial Island as a first case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Catharina; Ventura, Maria A; Martins, Ana; Cunha, Regina T

    2015-12-30

    Marine debris is widely recognised as a global environmental problem. This study assesses density, type, and temporal trends of marine debris in two sandy beaches of Faial Island (Azores, NE-Atlantic). During seven months (six days per month) the beaches were surveyed by performing 10 random transects at each site. Recorded items within the range 2-30 cm were organised into seven categories. Densities of total debris varied from 0 to 1.940 items m(-2), with plastics dominating both areas. Both beaches, presented the highest debris abundance in February, most probably related to prevailing winds and swell. Location and/or time of year also seemed to influence the type of debris present. These findings provide new insights into debris accumulation rates in the Azores, where no previous studies were made. It also confirms the global trend of increased plastics accumulation on shorelines, highlighting the need for further research in remote islands. PMID:26515994

  20. Sampling of Total Mercury in Sand on Sydney Beaches and Assessment of Risk of Exposure to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, D.; Tang, C.; Edwards, G. C.; Gan, T.; Tran, S.; Geremia, S.; Campbell, J.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial waste, sewage outfall and storm water run-off are potential anthropogenic sources of mercury to Sydney beaches. Children playing on these beaches are possibly at risk of exposure to mercury in beach sand through the ingestion pathway. As part of an investigation into this risk samples were collected from various locations along 7 of Sydney's beaches where children typically would be exposed. Samples were dried and the sand fraction (i.e. >63 µm and children and Health Canada's guideline of 105 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1 exposure threshold. For the beaches sampled concentrations of total mercury in beach sand ranged from 0.6 to 58 ppb. The maximum concentrations of total mercury in beach sand were observed on Beach 6, in the vicinity of five storm water runoff sources. Daily mercury intake values were determined for two commonly used published values for daily ingestion of soil by children of 0.2 g soil d-1 and 1.75 g soil d-1. Results to date show the maximum daily intake calculated using an average child weight of 13 kg to be 7.8 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1, well below the currently accepted daily intake threshold of 105 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1.

  1. 76 FR 32147 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the St. Lucie South Beach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... would deliver the sand by hydraulic pumping onto the project beach. The applicant has stated the project... for the St. Lucie South Beach and Dune Restoration Project Located in St. Lucie County, Florida AGENCY... INFORMATION: The project is being reviewed under Department of the Army permit application number...

  2. The erosion of the beaches on the coast of Alicante: Study of the mechanisms of weathering by accelerated laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, I; López, M; Aragonés, L; García-Barba, J; López, M P; Sánchez, I

    2016-10-01

    One of the main problems that coasts around the world present, is the regression and erosion of beaches. However, the factors involved in these processes are unclear. In this study, the influence of sediment erosion on beach regression has been analysed. In order to do that, a three-step investigation has been carried out. Firstly, coastline variations of four Spanish beaches have been analysed. Secondly, a study on sediment position along the beach profile has been developed. Finally, the process that beach sediments undergo along the surf zone when they are hit by the incident waves has been simulated by an accelerated particle weathering test. Samples of sand and shells were subjected to this accelerated particle weathering test. Results were supplemented with those from carbonate content test, XRD, SEM and granulometric analysis. Results shows a cross-shore classification of sediments along the beach profile in which finer particles move beyond offshore limit. Besides, it was observed that sediment erosion process is divided into three sages: i) particles wear due to crashes ii) dissolution of the carbonate fraction, and iii) breakage and separation of mineral and carbonate parts of particles. All these processes lead to a reduction of particle size. The mechanism responsible of beach erosion would consist of multiples and continuous particle location exchanges along the beach profile as a consequence of grain-size decrease due to erosion. PMID:27220096

  3. Behaviour of mobile macrofauna is a key factor in beach ecology as response to rapid environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapini, Felicita

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beach animals show behavioural adaptations that are expressed as contingencies during the life history of individuals to face periodic and episodic environmental changes. Such adaptations include activity rhythms, orientation, zonation, burrowing, escape responses and feeding strategies, the first two being common adaptations to all mobile animals. The complex conditions of a particular beach environment may be integrated in a learning process enhancing the adaptation and survival of individuals and eventually of populations. Evidence exists of genetic determination of some behavioural features that are adaptive in the long term (throughout generations) by increasing individual survival and reproductive potential. The environmental features integrated with the life history of beach animals shape the individual behaviour through ontogenetic processes, as well as population behaviour through evolutionary processes. Thus, behavioural differences among individuals may reflect environmental variation at the local and small/medium temporal scales of beach processes, whereas within-population behavioural coherence and differences among populations may reflect variation at the geographic scale. The different foci stressed by different authors and the variety of evidence dependent upon local geographical and ecological conditions have often resulted in compartmentalised explanations, making generalizations and the repeatability of behavioural studies of beach ecology challenging. There was a need to developing a more synthetic paradigm for beach animal behaviour. This paper gives a brief overview of the theoretical background and keystone studies, which have contributed to our understanding of animal behaviour in sandy beach ecology, and proposes testable hypotheses to be integrated in the beach ecology paradigm.

  4. Implementing a Remote Laboratory Experience into a Joint Engineering Degree Program: Aerodynamic Levitation of a Beach Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, S. R.; Fahmy, Y.; Buckner, G. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details a successful and inexpensive implementation of a remote laboratory into a distance control systems course using readily available hardware and software. The physical experiment consists of a beach ball and a dc blower; the control objective is to make the height of the aerodynamically levitated beach ball track a reference…

  5. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Atlantic Ocean beach, Virginia to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, R.M.; Johnson, R.W.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying maps show the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Atlantic Ocean beach from Cape Henry, Virginia to Cape Fear, North Carolina and from Savannah Bach Georgia to Miami Beach, Florida. The survey was made March 23-24, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude, parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the normal 500 foot flight altitude varies with the areal extent radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone would be as much as 1,400 feet. The location of the flight lines is shown on the index map below. No abnormal radioactivity was detected along the northern flight line between Cape Henry, Virginia and Cape Fear, North Carolina. Along the southern flight line fourteen areas of abnormal radioactivity were detected between Savannah Beach, Georgia and Anastasia Island, Florida as shown on the map on the left. The abnormal radioactivity is apparently due to radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits with occur locally along the beach in this region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity sue to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given on the accompanying map indicates only those localities of greater-than-average radioactivity and, therefore suggest areas in which uranium and thorium deposits are more

  6. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  7. Biodegradation of MC252 oil in oil:sand aggregates in a coastal headland beach environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaikrishnah eElango

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation potential of MC252 in oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs, was examined using multiple lines of evidence on a heavily-impacted coastal headland beach in Louisiana, USA. SRBs were sampled over a 16-month period on the supratidal beach environment where reasonable control existed on the residence time of the aggregates on the beach surface. PAH and alkane concentration ratios were measured including PAH/C30-hopane, C2/C3 phenanthrenes, C2/C3 dibenzothiophenes and alkane/C30-hopane and demonstrated unequivocally that biodegradation was occurring in SRBs in the supratidal. These biodegradation reactions occurred over time frames relevant to the coastal processes moving SRBs off the beach. In contrast, submerged oil mat (SOM samples did not demonstrate chemical changes consistent with biodegradation. Review and analysis of additional biogeochemical parameters suggested the existence of a moisture and N-limited biodegradation regime on the supratidal beach environment. At this location, SRBs possess moisture contents < 2% and molar C:N ratios from 131-323, well outside of optimal values for biodegradation in the literature. Despite these limitations, biodegradation of PAHs and alkanes proceeded at relevant rates (2-8 year-1 due in part to the presence of degrading populations, i.e., Mycobacterium sp., adapted to these conditions. For SOM samples in the intertidal, an oxygen and salinity-impacted regime is proposed that severely limits biodegradation of alkanes and PAHs in this environment. These results support the hypothesis that SRBs deposited at different locations on the beach have different biogeochemical characteristics (e.g., moisture; salinity; terminal electron acceptors; nutrient; and oil composition due, in part, to their location on the landscape.

  8. Behavioural adaptations of two sympatric sandhoppers living on a mesotidal European Atlantic sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Filipa; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2014-06-01

    Behavioural adaptations of supralittoral species on sandy beaches are expressed as responses to environmental changes and constitute a key factor in their survival and evolution. Two sympatric talitrid amphipods (Talitrus saltator and Britorchestia brito) from a mesotidal exposed sandy beach on the European Atlantic coast (Portugal) were compared as regards orientation and littoral zonation patterns under natural conditions. Orientation experiments were carried out during spring and summer 2011 and 2012 at Quiaios beach, a highly dynamic exposed sandy beach. Multiple regression models were fitted to the angular data and the environmental effects on orientation were investigated for each species. Both talitrids were shown to be well orientated towards the shoreline and finely adapted to the mesotidal environment but a different use of local cues and climatic features between the two species was apparent. T. saltator showed a lower precision in the orientation performance (with a bimodal distribution sea- and land-wards), with less dependence on the sun cues and higher dependence on climatic features. In addition, the zonation of T. saltator was across the land-sea axis during both seasons. For B. brito the landscape vision, sun visibility and the tidal range enhanced the orientation to the shoreline. On this mesotidal Atlantic beach, T. saltator appeared to have a more flexible orientation with respect to B. brito, which appeared to be more dependent on the conditions offered by the intertidal zone, a behaviour confirmed by its restricted zonation below the high tide mark. Consequently, T. saltator showed a more flexible behaviour that may be considered an important evolutionary adaptation to dynamic and mesotidal sandy beaches.

  9. GPR studies over the tsunami affected Karaikal beach, Tamil Nadu, south India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Barnwal, R.P.; Khare, R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    in identifying and tracing various buried struc- tures and facies in the beaches (Neal and Roberts 2000), dunes, bars, spits (Jol et al. 2002; Shukla et al. 2008) as well as in sand barriers (Meyers et al. 1994; Jol et al. 1996; Costas et al. 2006). Also, the GPR... that there is good correlation with field data on the sets of lamination and beds (Neal et al. 2003). Storm dominated sediments in the barrier at the Castle Neck beach, USA have been mapped using 120 MHz antenna where garnet lay- ers were recorded at above 1 m depth...

  10. Impacts of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne on Two Nourished Beaches along the Southeast Florida Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Benedet, L.; Campbell, T.; Finkl, C.W.; Stive, M.J.F.; Spadoni, R.

    2005-01-01

    Site inspections and beacli profile surveys of nourislied beaclies in the city of Boca Raton, and Town of Palm Beach, Florida show that the nourished beaches protected the shore from hurricane impacts in 2004. Striking the southeast coast of Florida within 20 days of each other. Hurricane Frances (Sept. 5, 2004) and Hurricane Jeanne (Sept. 25, 2004) had hurricane-force winds extending more than 120 miles from the center. The eye of Frances made landfall as a Category 2 storm and Jeanne made l...

  11. Optimal index related to the shoreline dynamics during a storm: the case of Jesolo beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Renata; Paci, Agnese; Carniel, Sandro; Bonaldo, Davide

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents an application of shoreline monitoring aimed at understanding the response of a beach to single storms and at identifying its typical behaviour, in order to be able to predict shoreline changes and to properly plan the defence of the shore zone. On the study area, in Jesolo beach (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy), a video monitoring station and an acoustic wave and current profiler were installed in spring 2013, recording, respectively, images and hydrodynamic data. The site lacks previous detailed hydrodynamic and morphodynamic data. Variations in the shoreline were quantified in combination with available near-shore wave conditions, making it possible to analyse the relationship between the shoreline displacement and the wave features. Results denote characteristic patterns of beach response to storm events, and highlight the importance of improving beach protection in this zone, notwithstanding the many interventions experimented in the last decades. A total of 31 independent storm events were selected during the period October 2013-October 2014, and for each of them synthetic indexes based on storm duration, energy and maximum wave height were developed and estimated. It was found that the net shoreline displacements during a storm are well correlated with the total wave energy associated to the considered storm by an empirical power law equation. A sub-selection of storms in the presence of an artificial dune protecting the beach (in the winter season) was examined in detail, allowing to conclude that the adoption of this coastal defence strategy in the study area can reduce shoreline retreat during a storm. This type of intervention can sometimes contribute to prolonging overall stability not only in the replenished zone but also in downdrift areas. The implemented methodology, which confirms to be economically attractive if compared to more traditional monitoring systems, proves to be a valuable system to monitor beach erosive processes and

  12. Mangrove coservation in coastal areas Samas beach lagoon for controlling sea water abrasion

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhayati, A.P.; Siwi, B.R.F. Raka; Muzoffar, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lagoon is a puddle of water (like a lake/pond) near the beach that was once a part of the (united with) the sea, but because of geological events, apart from the sea and coastal wetland ecosystems forming new ones. Samas beach lagoon is one of the lagoons are located in Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. From the perspective of the Environment, lagoon is a unique ecosystem that consists of a body of water (lagoon) is brackish, mangrove forests and land affected low tide. Ecosyste...

  13. Prototypic automated continuous recreational water quality monitoring of nine Chicago beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Dawn A; Nevers, Meredith B; Breitenbach, Cathy; Phanikumar, Mantha S; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Spoljaric, Ashley M; Whitman, Richard L

    2016-01-15

    Predictive empirical modeling is used in many locations worldwide as a rapid, alternative recreational water quality management tool to eliminate delayed notifications associated with traditional fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) culturing (referred to as the persistence model, PM) and to prevent errors in releasing swimming advisories. The goal of this study was to develop a fully automated water quality management system for multiple beaches using predictive empirical models (EM) and state-of-the-art technology. Many recent EMs rely on samples or data collected manually, which adds to analysis time and increases the burden to the beach manager. In this study, data from water quality buoys and weather stations were transmitted through cellular telemetry to a web hosting service. An executable program simultaneously retrieved and aggregated data for regression equations and calculated EM results each morning at 9:30 AM; results were transferred through RSS feed to a website, mapped to each beach, and received by the lifeguards to be posted at the beach. Models were initially developed for five beaches, but by the third year, 21 beaches were managed using refined and validated modeling systems. The adjusted R(2) of the regressions relating Escherichia coli to hydrometeorological variables for the EMs were greater than those for the PMs, and ranged from 0.220 to 0.390 (2011) and 0.103 to 0.381 (2012). Validation results in 2013 revealed reduced predictive capabilities; however, three of the originally modeled beaches showed improvement in 2013 compared to 2012. The EMs generally showed higher accuracy and specificity than those of the PMs, and sensitivity was low for both approaches. In 2012 EM accuracy was 70-97%; specificity, 71-100%; and sensitivity, 0-64% and in 2013 accuracy was 68-97%; specificity, 73-100%; and sensitivity 0-36%. Factors that may have affected model capabilities include instrument malfunction, non-point source inputs, and sparse calibration data

  14. Zonation of macrofauna across sandy beaches and surf zones along the Dutch coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Janssen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available On nine beaches and two transects in the surf zone along the Dutch coast the presence of benthic macrofauna was studied in relation to basic abiotic characteristics. According to Short's classification system, Dutch beaches are mesotidal and dissipative (Ω = 8.6, and the RTR is low (1.52-1.27, which means that they are not tide-dominated. BSI ranged from 1.4 to 1.1 for the northern and western Dutch coasts respectively and had an overall value of 1.2. The rates of exposure of the beaches varied between 8 and 12, and are therefore regarded as sheltered to moderately exposed. The Dutch beaches display a geographical trend in beach types. Those of the Wadden Sea islands in the northern part of the Netherlands are dissipative, flat, fine-grained, and host high densities of many species of benthic macrofauna. The beaches along the western Dutch coast are less dissipative, steeper, with a higher mean grain size; the species diversity and abundance there are lower. Species diversity and abundance on the beaches increase from the high- to the low-water line. The maximum number of species was found between 0 and -1 m relative to the mean tidal level. The abundance peaks just above the mean tidal level, while the biomass reaches a maximum at the mean tidal level.     Species diversity and abundance are low in the surf zone, but increase towards deeper water. Species numbers are high and the abundance is very high in the trough between the two bars.     The relation between the diversity and abundance of macrobenthic species on the one hand, and the sediment composition, water column depth, and position between the bars on the other show a clear pattern of zonation for the beach, surf zone and near-shore: (1 a supralittoral zone with insects and air-breathing crustaceans, (2 a midshore zone, with intertidal species, (3 a lower shore zone, whose species extend into the shallow surf zone, and (4 a zone of sublittoral fauna in the trough between the

  15. Natural radioactivity in sand beaches of Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, Brazil: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Pereira, Claubia; Oliveira, Arno H.; Santos, Talita O.; Reis, Patricia L., E-mail: danilo@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MH (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using gamma ray spectrometry, the activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K was determined in sand beaches samples from different areas in Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, from Brazil. The absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were calculated and the results are compared with the internationally accepted values as well as others high background radiation areas (HBRAs).The activity concentration of the {sup 232}Th in Areia Preta as well as the absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were higher than the others regions compared. The results show that Areia Preta in Guarapari has higher background found in beaches in world. (author)

  16. Occupation and factors associated with exposure to the sun among beach workers

    OpenAIRE

    Eudes Euler de Souza Lucena; Danielle Clarisse Barbosa Costa; Éricka Janine Dantas da Silveira; Kenio Costa Lima

    2014-01-01

    Subjects were selected from five urban beaches to characterize the type of work conducted on urban beaches in the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and determine potential associated factors among workers exposed to the sun. Data collection was based on a validated questionnaire. Results were obtained for 362 workers. Individuals were predominantly male (72.6%) who worked under direct exposure to the sun (87.8%). Almost 95% had no more than 6 years of schooling and 87.91% e...

  17. Seasonal distribution of metals in vertical and horizontal profiles of sheltered and exposed beaches on Polish coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigus, Katarzyna; Astel, Aleksander; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2016-05-15

    The distribution of alkali and heavy metals in coastal sediments of three Polish beaches was assessed. In all locations there are sandy beaches of different characteristics according to the anthropogenic impact and degree of sheltering. Core sediments collected in Czołpino and Ustka were characterized by the highest concentration of Cd, Ag, Ba, and Al, Cu, Cr, Bi, Na, respectively. Among the alkaline metals core sediments were the most abundant with Ca, Bi, Mg and Na, presenting almost stable decreasing order in all beaches. The majority of dredge material collected can be classified as light or trace contaminated by Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Hg. An abundance of mineralogical components in core sediments in Ustka increases in Summer and Autumn, while in Puck is stable throughout the year. The content of studied metals in core sediments collected in three Polish beaches changes both in the vertical and horizontal profiles of the beach. PMID:26975611

  18. INFLUENCE OF TIDE AND WAVES ON WASHOUT OF DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS FROM THE BIOREMEDIATION ZONE OF A COARSE-SAND BEACH: APPLICATION IN OIL-SPILL BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful bioremediation of oil-contaminated beaches requires maintenance of a sufficient quantity of growth-limiting nutrients in contact with the oiled beach materials. A conservative tracer study was conducted on a moderate-energy, sandy beach on Delaware Bay to estimate the...

  19. Physical processes and landforms on beaches in short fetch environments in estuaries, small lakes and reservoirs: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2012-02-01

    This review is intended to identify differences between beaches in short-fetch environments and beaches on exposed coasts, while also distinguishing between the different subcategories of fetch-limited beaches. Subcategories are discussed largely in terms of estuaries, lakes and reservoirs. The term fetch-limited refers to basins that are small enough that distance rather than wind duration is always a limitation to wave generation. Attention is focused on basins where fetch distances are basins provide a limit on the energy potential of the waves, causing geologic and biologic controls to be more significant and wind-induced currents, tidal currents and ice to be relatively more effective than on exposed beaches. Shoreline orientations differ greatly over short distances, causing great differences in exposure to dominant winds and isolating beach segments. Limited longshore sediment exchanges result in beach sediments that closely resemble local source materials. The absence of high-energy waves causes beaches and bar forms to be smaller, and the absence of swell waves following storms and the relatively calm conditions reduces the speed of recovery of post-storm profiles and the cyclic nature of beach response. The beaches are often fronted by flat shallow platforms that undergo little morphologic change and help dissipate waves at low water levels. The narrow beaches are poor sources of sediment for wind-blown sand and dunes are small or frequently absent. The narrow beaches and reduced wave energies allow upland vegetation and algae and seagrass to grow close to the active foreshore. This vegetation, the wrack deposited on the beach, and driftwood logs are better able to resist the low-energy waves and are more effective in resisting beach change. Erosion rates of 2-3 m yr- 1 are common in some estuaries and can be > 7 m yr- 1. Rates of up to 1.5 m yr- 1 can occur in small lakes and reservoirs. Shore parallel protection structures are common and have greater

  20. Parameterization of wave run-up on beaches in Yucatan, Mexico: a numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, J.A.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Mendoza, E.T.; Salles, P.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Run-up parameterization is an important tool for conducting vulnerability studies on flooding and erosion in coastal areas. This study makes use of a coupling between the SWAN and SWASH models, to investigate the influence of beach morphology and tidal water level on run-up statistics. Furthermore t

  1. 77 FR 18857 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for Alabama Beach Mouse General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... species. On August 9, 2011, we published a notice of availability for a draft EIS (76 FR 48879) for a 90... Mouse General Conservation Plan for Incidental Take on the Fort Morgan Peninsula, Baldwin County, AL... Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates). For record of decision (ROD) availability,...

  2. A New Record of Penicillium pimiteouiense from Beach Soil in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Li Yee; Latiffah, Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Three isolates of Penicillium pimiteouiense were recovered from sandy beach soil samples in Penang Island, Peninsular Malaysia. All the isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions and β-tubulin gene. This is a first record of P. pimiteouiense in Malaysia.

  3. Spatial variation in meiofaunal abundance of some coralline beaches of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    the sampling sites and were poorly correlated with sediment granulometry. Contribution of meiofauna to the secondary production was high. Based on the present study Mauritius beaches can be classified as moderate in terms of the benthic biomass (159-1479 mg m...

  4. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazards to fishing, navigation... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may present a serious obstacle to fishing or navigation may be dumped only at disposal sites and...

  5. Isotopic studies of beach rock carbonates from Konkan, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, B.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    .7% (PDB) and delta sup(18)O signatures lie in a narrow range of +27.5 to +28.6% (SMOW), respectively. Isotopic data obtained in this study show that cementation of beach rock carbonates might have taken place in a shallow vadose zone. The large variations...

  6. A Day at the Beach: A Multidisciplinary Business Law Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymsza, Leonard; Saunders, Kurt; Baum, Paul; Tontz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This case study, written for use in a multidisciplinary course, exposes students to concepts in business law, economics, and statistics. The case is based upon a hypothetical scenario involving a young woman who, having spent a relaxing day at the beach, heads for home. On the drive home, a flip-flop she is wearing becomes lodged under the gas…

  7. A phase resolving cross-shore sediment transport model for beach profile evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakha, Karim A.; Deigaard, Rolf; Brøker, Ida

    in all parts of the surf zone, even for eroding beaches, suggesting that other contributions should not be neglected. The present model also showed that for the same offshore wave energy the time series of the oscillatory motion is important and that the effect of wave groups cannot be disregarded...

  8. Pore water chemistry in the beach sands of central Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandrasekar, N.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Moscow, S.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Sudha, V.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.

    As the pore water chemistry- has been considered as one of the prominent base parameters to infer the impact of coastal mining in introducing environmental deterioration, a study in pore water chemistry is planned here along the beaches for a length...

  9. Man's Impact on the Environment: The Barrier Beach as an Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevard County School Board, Cocoa, FL.

    This environmental education program deals with man's impact on the barrier beach. The program contained in the guide is developed around the following nine questions: (1) What is a definition of the ecosystem being investigated?; (2) What are some of the biotic and abiotic features of the ecosystem and how do these features interrelate?; (3)…

  10. An integrated approach to beach management in Lido di Dante, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Alberto; Zanuttigh, Barbara

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to present an integrated approach to coastal zone management and the benefits derived from the synergy of different monitoring methodologies. Lido di Dante, Italy, was selected for this purpose because it suffers from great erosion and is well documented under engineering, socio-economic and ecological aspects (it was one of DELOS Project case studies). The paper presents the relation among the most relevant results obtained in the site. First, effects of shore protection works and wave climate on beach morphology are examined by analysing field measurements of waves and currents together with hydrodynamic simulations and bathymetry surveys in the area. Then, socio-economic impact of coastal defence is documented by the statistics derived from face-to-face interviews that provided beach valuation and user preferences. Finally, abundance and type of organisms on the rocky structures, based on results from ecological surveys, are related to the intensity distribution of wave and current flows around and over the structure. The complex interaction among the beach, the structures, the hydrodynamics, the eco-system and the society is discussed and the necessity of multi-disciplinary guidelines for constructing beach defences is enhanced.

  11. Spatio-temporal variation of ichthyoplankton in estuarine beaches at the Babitonga bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Duarte de Paula Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, estuarine beaches are poorly studied with regard to ichthyoplankton. In this context, from August 2005 to July 2006, monthly collections were conducted, using conical plankton net with 200μm mesh size and 40cm mouth diameter, at seven estuarine beaches in the polyhaline sector of Babitonga bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil. At each beach, data regarding temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, and zooplankton volume were obtained. A total of 54,384 fish eggs and 10,576 fish larvae were collected, with a general mean abundance of 3,114 eggs.100m-3 and 607 larvae.100m-3. Higher abundance of eggs occurred from October to March and higher abundance of larvae occurred from October to December and between February and April. Among the beaches, higher abundance of eggs was recorded at the intermediate ones and higher abundance of larvae was recorded at the outermost ones (those closest to the estuary mouth. There was a predominance of larvae from the families Haemulidae, Engraulidae, Gobiidae, Sciaenidae, Blenniidae, Carangidae, and Sparidae, most of them found in the warmest period of the year. Analysis on the water column variables, chlorophyll-a, zooplankton volume and ichthyoplankton showed low correlations in the shallow habitats under study.

  12. Learning about World War II at the D-Day Beaches of Normandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lynne M.

    2013-01-01

    In the winter of 2011, this author was working late in her classroom at Central Bucks High School West in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, when she opened an email offering a summer institute where 15 teachers would walk the D-Day beaches in Normandy, France. The catch--each teacher had to bring one high school student. The Albert Small Student/Teacher…

  13. Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a subtropical recreational marine beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of Staphylococcus aureus detected in marine environments have occurred since the early 1990’s. This investigation sought to isolate and characterize S. aureus from marine waters and sand at a subtropical recreational beach, with and without bathers present, in order to investigate possible s...

  14. A GIS approach to model sediment reduction susceptibility of mixed sand and gravel beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikaas, Hans S; Hemmingsen, Maree A

    2006-06-01

    The morphological form of mixed sand and gravel beaches is distinct, and the process/response system and complex dynamics of these beaches are not well understood. Process response models developed for pure sand or gravel beaches cannot be directly applied to these beaches. The Canterbury Bight coastline is apparently abundantly supplied with sediments from large rivers and coastal alluvial cliffs, but a large part of this coastline is experiencing long-term erosion. Sediment budget models provide little evidence to suggest sediments are stored within this system. Current sediment budget models inadequately quantify and account for the processes responsible for the patterns of erosion and accretion of this coastline. We outline a new method to extrapolate from laboratory experiments to the field using a geographical information system approach to model sediment reduction susceptibility for the Canterbury Bight. Sediment samples from ten representative sites were tumbled in a concrete mixer for an equivalent distance of 40 km. From the textural mixture and weight loss over 40 km tumbling, we applied regression techniques to generate a predictive equation for Sediment Reduction Susceptibility (SRS). We used Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) to extrapolate the results from fifty-five sites with data on textural sediment composition to field locations with no data along the Canterbury Bight, creating a continuous sediment reductions susceptibility surface. Isolines of regular SRS intervals were then derived from the continuous surface to create a contour map of sediment reductions susceptibility for the Canterbury Bight. Results highlighted the variability in SRS along this coastline. PMID:16538418

  15. Severe cerebral desaturation during shoulder arthroscopy in the beach-chair position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dippmann, Christian; Winge, Søren; Nielsen, Henning Bay

    During shoulder arthroscopy in the beach-chair position, cerebral ischemia may be a serious complication because prolonged hypotension may affect regional cerebral oxygen supply. We present the cases of 2 patients in whom a reduction in mean arterial pressure after anesthesia provoked a decrease ...

  16. 77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL...

  17. 76 FR 16634 - Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge, Orange County, CA; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Federal Register notice of intent published on April 16, 2007 (72 FR 190160), two scoping meetings, two... Fish and Wildlife Service Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge, Orange County, CA; Draft Comprehensive... availability of a draft comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for the...

  18. Emergent behavior in a coupled economic and coastline model for beach nourishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Lazarus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed coastal areas often exhibit a strong systemic coupling between shoreline dynamics and economic dynamics. "Beach nourishment", a common erosion-control practice, involves mechanically depositing sediment from outside the local littoral system onto an actively eroding shoreline to alter shoreline morphology. Natural sediment-transport processes quickly rework the newly engineered beach, causing further changes to the shoreline that in turn affect subsequent beach-nourishment decisions. To the limited extent that this landscape/economic coupling has been considered, evidence suggests that towns tend to employ spatially myopic economic strategies under which individual towns make isolated decisions that do not account for their neighbors. What happens when an optimization strategy that explicitly ignores spatial interactions is incorporated into a physical model that is spatially dynamic? The long-term attractor that develops for the coupled system (the state and behavior to which the system evolves over time is unclear. We link an economic model, in which town-manager agents choose economically optimal beach-nourishment intervals according to past observations of their immediate shoreline, to a simplified coastal-dynamics model that includes alongshore sediment transport and background erosion (e.g. from sea-level rise. Simulations suggest that feedbacks between these human and natural coastal processes can generate emergent behaviors. When alongshore sediment transport and spatially myopic nourishment decisions are coupled, increases in the rate of sea-level rise can destabilize economically optimal nourishment practices into a regime characterized by the emergence of chaotic shoreline evolution.

  19. Palm Beach Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Palm Beach's Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  20. Palm Beach County's Prime Time Initiative: Improving the Quality of After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Julie; Lockaby, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    This report covers the third year of Chapin Hall's process evaluation of the Prime Time Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida, a system-building effort to strengthen the quality of after-school programs in the county. During the past two decades, the after-school field has expanded enormously, partly in response to increasing concern about…

  1. Linked Hydrologic-Hydrodynamic Model Framework to Forecast Impacts of Rivers on Beach Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. J.; Fry, L. M.; Kramer, E.; Ritzenthaler, A.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of NOAA's beach quality forecasting program is to use a multi-faceted approach to aid in detection and prediction of bacteria in recreational waters. In particular, our focus has been on the connection between tributary loads and bacteria concentrations at nearby beaches. While there is a clear link between stormwater runoff and beach water quality, quantifying the contribution of river loadings to nearshore bacterial concentrations is complicated due to multiple processes that drive bacterial concentrations in rivers as well as those processes affecting the fate and transport of bacteria upon exiting the rivers. In order to forecast potential impacts of rivers on beach water quality, we developed a linked hydrologic-hydrodynamic water quality framework that simulates accumulation and washoff of bacteria from the landscape, and then predicts the fate and transport of washed off bacteria from the watershed to the coastal zone. The framework includes a watershed model (IHACRES) to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) loadings to the coastal environment (accumulation, wash-off, die-off) as a function of effective rainfall. These loadings are input into a coastal hydrodynamic model (FVCOM), including a bacteria transport model (Lagrangian particle), to simulate 3D bacteria transport within the coastal environment. This modeling system provides predictive tools to assist local managers in decision-making to reduce human health threats.

  2. Extreme precipitation and beach closures in the great lakes region: evaluating risk among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Kathleen F; Fossani, Cheryl L; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Gronlund, Carina J; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-02-01

    As a result of climate change, extreme precipitation events are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. Runoff from these extreme events poses threats to water quality and human health. We investigated the impact of extreme precipitation and beach closings on the risk of gastrointestinal illness (GI)-related hospital admissions among individuals 65 and older in 12 Great Lakes cities from 2000 to 2006. Poisson regression models were fit in each city, controlling for temperature and long-term time trends. City-specific estimates were combined to form an overall regional risk estimate. Approximately 40,000 GI-related hospital admissions and over 100 beach closure days were recorded from May through September during the study period. Extreme precipitation (≥90th percentile) occurring the previous day (lag 1) is significantly associated with beach closures in 8 of the 12 cities (p beach closures and GI-related hospital admissions. These results support previous work linking extreme precipitation to compromised recreational water quality. PMID:24534768

  3. Predicting pathogen risks to aid beach management: the real value of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been an ongoing dilemma for agencies who set criteria for safe recreational waters in how to provide for a seasonal assessment of a beach site versus guidance for day-to-day management. Typically an overall 'safe' criterion level is derived from epidemiologic studies o...

  4. QMRA as a compliment to epidemiologic studies estimating bather risk at recreational beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA and WHO have set recreational water quality standards based on epidemiologic studies to protect human health at beaches. These studies have largely been limited to sewage-impacted sites and resources are unlikely to be available to assess the myriad of other impacted ...

  5. 33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Falmouth, Mass. All the waters of the harbor northward of the inner end of the entrance channel....

  6. Mobilization and transport of naturally occurring enterococci in beach sands subject to transient infiltration of seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Todd L; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the transport of enterococci (ENT) from naturally contaminated beach sands to the groundwater table via infiltrating seawater using field, laboratory, and modeling experiments. ENT were readily mobilized and transported through the unsaturated zone during infiltration events in both the field and laboratory column experiments. Detachment mechanisms were investigated using a modified version of HYDRUS-1D. Three models for detachment kinetics were tested. Detachment kinetics that are first order with respect to the rate of change in the water content and attached surface bacterial concentrations were found to provide a best fit between predicted and observed data. From these experimental and model results we conclude that detachment mechanisms associated with the rapid increases in pore water content such as air-water interface scouring and thin film expansion are likely drivers of ENT mobilization in the investigated system. These findings suggest that through-beach transport of ENT may be an important pathway through which ENT from beach sands are transported to beach groundwater where they may be discharged to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:22533299

  7. Impact of seaweed beachings on dynamics of δ15N isotopic signatures in marine macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two coastal sites (COU, GM) in the Bay of Seine affected by summer seaweed beachings. • The same temporal dynamics of the algal δ15N at the two sites. • N and P concentrations in seawater of the two sites dominated by riverine sources. • A coupling between seaweed beachings and N sources of intertidal macroalgae. - Abstract: A fine-scale survey of δ15N, δ13C, tissue-N in seaweeds was conducted using samples from 17 sampling points at two sites (Grandcamp-Maisy (GM), Courseulles/Mer (COU)) along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013. Partial triadic analysis was performed on the parameter data sets and revealed the functioning of three areas: one estuary (EstA) and two rocky areas (GM∗, COU∗). In contrast to oceanic and anthropogenic reference points similar temporal dynamics characterized δ15N signatures and N contents at GM∗ and COU∗. Nutrient dynamics were similar: the N-concentrations in seawater originated from the River Seine and local coastal rivers while P-concentrations mainly from these local rivers. δ15N at GM∗ were linked to turbidity suggesting inputs of autochthonous organic matter from large-scale summer seaweed beachings made up of a mixture of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta species. This study highlights the coupling between seaweed beachings and nitrogen sources of intertidal macroalgae

  8. TSUNAMI DEPOSITS AT QUEEN’S BEACH, OAHU, HAWAII – INITIALRESULTS AND WAVE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Barbara Keating

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Photographs taken immediately after the 1946 Aleutian Tsunami inundated Queen’s Beach, southeastern Oahu, show the major highway around the island was inundated and the road bed was destroyed. That road bed remains visible today, in an undeveloped coastline that shows like change in sedimentary deposits between 1946 and today (based on photographic evidence. Tsunami catalog records however indicate that the beach was repeatedly inundated by tsunami in 1946, 1952, 1957, and 1960. Tsunami runup was reported to have reached between 3 and 11 m elevation. Eyewitness accounts however indicate inundations of up to 20 m in Kealakipapa Valley (Makapu’u Lookout during 1946 and photographic evidence indicated inundation reached 9 m in 1957. The inundation of Kealakipapa Valley has been successfully modeled using a 10-m tsunami wave model.A comparison of the modern beach deposits to those near the remains of the destroyed highway demonstrate that the sedimentary deposits within the two areas have very different rock characteristics. We conclude the modern beach is dominated by the rounding of rocks (mostly coral by wave activity. However, in the area that has experienced prior tsunami inundations, the rocks are characterized by fracturing and a high component of basaltic material. We conclude the area near the destroyed highway reflects past tsunami inundations combined with inevitable anthropogenic alteration.

  9. Sand bypass and updrift beach evolution after jetty construction at an ebb-tidal delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, E.; Sousa, C.; Ferreira, Ó.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of an ebb-tidal delta (Guadiana, South Portugal) and its updrift beach after jetty construction (in 1972-1974) is analysed based on 24 ortho-rectified aerial photographs (1940-2012) and 13 bathymetric maps (1969-2014). The objectives are to evaluate the re-establishment of the sand bypassing process and if the disruption of the historical delta may affect the updrift beach evolution. Post-jetty progradation of the updrift beach resulted from two large accretion events. The second (largest) event (110 m progradation in 1985-1994) was due to beach attachment of a shoal produced by the erosion of a broad shallow area relict of the historical delta. The reworking of sand from this relict area also enables the individualisation of a lateral updrift bar simultaneously with the new ebb shoal proper formation. Both morphological features were close to (volume) equilibrium in 1995, indicating that most of the sand was transported towards the downdrift side of the inlet at that time. This study shows that erosion of the historical delta may enhance significantly the updrift shoreline progradation and may promote the re-establishment of sand bypassing after jetty construction.

  10. OCCURRENCE AND ORIENTATION OF PARALICHTHID FLOUNDERS (BOTHIDAE: PARALICHTYS) ON AN INTERTIDAL BEACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Douglas P. and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. 2003. Occurrence and Orientation of Flounders (Bothidae: Paralichthys) on an Intertidal Beach. J. North Carol. Acad. Sci. 119(4):157-171. (ERL,GB 1172). The intertidal movement and burying pattern of paralichthid flounders...

  11. Emergent behavior in a coupled economic and coastline model for beach nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E. D.; McNamara, D. E.; Smith, M. D.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Murray, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    Developed coastal areas often exhibit a strong systemic coupling between shoreline dynamics and economic dynamics. "Beach nourishment", a common erosion-control practice, involves mechanically depositing sediment from outside the local littoral system onto an actively eroding shoreline to alter shoreline morphology. Natural sediment-transport processes quickly rework the newly engineered beach, causing further changes to the shoreline that in turn affect subsequent beach-nourishment decisions. To the limited extent that this landscape/economic coupling has been considered, evidence suggests that towns tend to employ spatially myopic economic strategies under which individual towns make isolated decisions that do not account for their neighbors. What happens when an optimization strategy that explicitly ignores spatial interactions is incorporated into a physical model that is spatially dynamic? The long-term attractor that develops for the coupled system (the state and behavior to which the system evolves over time) is unclear. We link an economic model, in which town-manager agents choose economically optimal beach-nourishment intervals according to past observations of their immediate shoreline, to a simplified coastal-dynamics model that includes alongshore sediment transport and background erosion (e.g. from sea-level rise). Simulations suggest that feedbacks between these human and natural coastal processes can generate emergent behaviors. When alongshore sediment transport and spatially myopic nourishment decisions are coupled, increases in the rate of sea-level rise can destabilize economically optimal nourishment practices into a regime characterized by the emergence of chaotic shoreline evolution.

  12. 33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.930 Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval...

  13. Florida red tide and human health: a pilot beach conditions reporting system to minimize human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Currier, Robert; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Stumpf, Richard; Fleming, Lora; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2008-08-25

    With over 50% of the US population living in coastal counties, the ocean and coastal environments have substantial impacts on coastal communities. While many of the impacts are positive, such as tourism and recreation opportunities, there are also negative impacts, such as exposure to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and water borne pathogens. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and weather prediction may allow us to forecast these potential adverse effects and thus mitigate the negative impact from coastal environmental threats. One example of the need to mitigate adverse environmental impacts occurs on Florida's west coast, which experiences annual blooms, or periods of exuberant growth, of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins. Wind and wave action can break up the cells, releasing toxin that can then become part of the marine aerosol or sea spray. Brevetoxins in the aerosol cause respiratory irritation in people who inhale it. In addition, asthmatics who inhale the toxins report increase upper and lower airway symptoms and experience measurable changes in pulmonary function. Real-time reporting of the presence or absence of these toxic aerosols will allow asthmatics and local coastal residents to make informed decisions about their personal exposures, thus adding to their quality of life. A system to protect public health that combines information collected by an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has been designed and implemented in Sarasota and Manatee Counties, Florida. This system is based on real-time reports from lifeguards at the eight public beaches. The lifeguards provide periodic subjective reports of the amount of dead fish on the beach, apparent level of respiratory irritation among beach-goers, water color, wind direction, surf condition, and the beach warning flag they are flying. A key component in the design of the observing system was an easy reporting pathway for

  14. Statistical analyses of the results of 25 years of beach litter surveys on the south-eastern North Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marcus; Clemens, Thomas; Förster, Harald; Harder, Thorsten; Fleet, David; Gaus, Silvia; Grave, Christel; Flegel, Imme; Schrey, Eckart; Hartwig, Eike

    2015-08-01

    In the North Sea, the amount of litter present in the marine environment represents a severe environmental problem. In order to assess the magnitude of the problem and measure changes in abundance, the results of two beach litter monitoring programmes were compared and analysed for long-term trends applying multivariate techniques. Total beach litter pollution was persistently high. Spatial differences in litter abundance made it difficult to identify long-term trends: Partly more than 8000 litter items year(-1) were recorded on a 100 m long survey site on the island of Scharhörn, while the survey site on the beach on the island of Amrum revealed abundances lower by two orders of magnitude. Beach litter was dominated by plastic with mean proportions of 52%-91% of total beach litter. Non-parametric time series analyses detected many significant trends, which, however, did not show any systematic spatial patterns. Cluster analyses partly led to groupings of beaches according to their expositions to sources of litter, wind and currents. Surveys in short intervals of one to two weeks were found to give higher annual sums of beach litter than the quarterly surveys of the OSPAR method. Surveys at regular intervals of four weeks to five months would make monitoring results more reliable. PMID:26026589

  15. Sedimentological, Geochemical and Magnetic Properties of Colima Beach Sands, Mexico - Influence of Climate and Coastal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Guillen, L.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of sediments on beaches contribute to understanding of sedimentological processes and source, transport and dynamics of sandy coastlines. Results of a geological and geophysical study of sandy beaches on the coast of Colima, Mexico employing sedimentological, geochemical and magnetic methods are presented and used to investigate on climate and coastal processes. Colima is part of the active subduction margin in southern Mexico. We studied thirteen different beaches distributed along the coast. The coastal transect investigated crosses three river drainage basins of the Cihuatlan, Armeria and Coahuayana rivers. Along the coastline there are abundant medium to fine sands moderately sorted to well-sorted. Towards the southeast, sediments are fine-grained, darker colors and better classified compared with sediments at the northwest sector. Towards the southeast there is greater abundance of heavy minerals of volcanic origin with high-rank, higher values of natural remnant magnetization and high magnetic susceptibilities associated with the abundance of iron and titanium oxides. The magnetic hysteresis loops are characterized by saturation in low fields, suggesting titanomagnetites and magnetite as major minerals. In the plot of hysteresis ratio parameters, samples plot in the pseudo-single domain field, suggesting mixtures of single and multiple domain states. Silica is the main constituent and shows a trend to decrease towards the southeast. Results show that sediments are primarly derived from the volcanic and plutonic rocks in the margin. There is an attenuation of one order of magnitude in magnetic susceptibility in magnetic concentrates. It is inferred that there is more wave action on sands of beaches at the southeastern sector generated primarily by waves, wind and tides in volcanic rocks that outcrop in the region. Backshore area in Santiago Bay is identified as an area of protected beach off the coast where the processes of weathering of the sands seem

  16. Human threats to sandy beaches: A meta-analysis of ghost crabs illustrates global anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lucrezi, Serena; Connolly, Rod M.; Peterson, Charles H.; Gilby, Ben L.; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D.; Walker, Simon J.; Leon, Javier X.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Weston, Michael A.; Turra, Alexander; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Holt, Rebecca A.; Schoeman, David S.

    2016-02-01

    Beach and coastal dune systems are increasingly subjected to a broad range of anthropogenic pressures that on many shorelines require significant conservation and mitigation interventions. But these interventions require reliable data on the severity and frequency of adverse ecological impacts. Such evidence is often obtained by measuring the response of 'indicator species'. Ghost crabs are the largest invertebrates inhabiting tropical and subtropical sandy shores and are frequently used to assess human impacts on ocean beaches. Here we present the first global meta-analysis of these impacts, and analyse the design properties and metrics of studies using ghost-crabs in their assessment. This was complemented by a gap analysis to identify thematic areas of anthropogenic pressures on sandy beach ecosystems that are under-represented in the published literature. Our meta-analysis demonstrates a broad geographic reach, encompassing studies on shores of the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, as well as the South China Sea. It also reveals what are, arguably, two major limitations: i) the near-universal use of proxies (i.e. burrow counts to estimate abundance) at the cost of directly measuring biological traits and bio-markers in the organism itself; and ii) descriptive or correlative study designs that rarely extend beyond a simple 'compare and contrast approach', and hence fail to identify the mechanistic cause(s) of observed contrasts. Evidence for a historically narrow range of assessed pressures (i.e., chiefly urbanisation, vehicles, beach nourishment, and recreation) is juxtaposed with rich opportunities for the broader integration of ghost crabs as a model taxon in studies of disturbance and impact assessments on ocean beaches. Tangible advances will most likely occur where ghost crabs provide foci for experiments that test specific hypotheses associated with effects of chemical, light and acoustic pollution, as well as the consequences of climate change (e

  17. Disentangling the effects of solar radiation, wrack macroalgae and beach macrofauna on associated bacterial assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F; Fernandes, Joana P; Mucha, Ana P

    2015-12-01

    Wrack detritus plays a significant role in shaping community dynamics and food-webs on sandy beaches. Macroalgae is the most abundant beach wrack, and it is broken down by the combination of environmental processes, macrofauna grazing, and microbial degradation before returning to the sea as nutrients. The role of solar radiation, algal species and beach macrofauna as ecological drivers for bacterial assemblages associated to wrack was investigated by experimental manipulation of Laminaria ochroleuca and Sargassum muticum. We examined the effects of changes in solar radiation on wrack-associated bacterial assemblages by using cut-off filters: PAR + UVA + UVB (280-700 nm; PAB), PAR + UVA (320-700 nm; PA), PAR (400-700 nm; P), and a control with no filter (C). Results showed that moderate changes in UVR are capable to promote substantial differences on bacterial assemblages so that wrack patches exposed to full sunlight treatments (C and PAB) showed more similar assemblages among them than compared to patches exposed to treatments that blocked part of the solar radiation (P and PA). Our findings also suggested that specific algal nutrient quality-related variables (i.e. nitrogen, C:N ratio and phlorotannins) are main determinants of bacterial dynamics on wrack deposits. We showed a positive relationship between beach macrofauna, especially the most abundant and active wrack-users, the amphipod Talitrus saltator and the coleopteran Phaleria cadaverina, and both bacterial abundance and richness. Moderate variations in natural solar radiation and shifts in the algal species entering beach ecosystems can modify the role of wrack in the energy-flow of nearshore environments with unknown ecological implications for coastal ecosystems. PMID:26498844

  18. The influence of fluvial dynamics and North Atlantic swells on the beach habitat of leatherback turtles at Grande Riviere Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsan, Junior; Jehu, Adam; Asmath, Hamish; Singh, Asha; Wilson, Matthew

    2016-09-15

    Grande Riviere beach, located on the north coast of Trinidad, West Indies, is internationally recognised as a critical habitat/nesting ground for the endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Episodic extreme flooding of the Grande Riviere River led to the shifting of the river mouth and resulted in backshore beach erosion, with the most recent recorded event occurring in 2012. Following this event, the construction of a sand dam to arrest further erosion which threatened coastal infrastructure, precipitated a host of new problems ranging from beach instability to public health threats. In January 2013, high energy swell waves naturally in-filled the erosion channel, and the beach recovery continued over the successive months, thereby rendering the intervention in the previous year questionable. This paper presents a geomorphological analysis of beach dynamics for Grande Riviere, within the context of this erosion event. Data on beach profiles, sediment and coastal processes were collected using standard geomorphological techniques. Beach topographic analysis and water quality tests on impounded water in the erosion channel were conducted. Results indicate that the event created an erosion channel of 4843.42 m(3) over a contiguous area of 2794.25 m(2). While swell waves were able to naturally infill the channel, they also eroded 17,762 m(3) of sand overall across the beach. Water quality tests revealed that the impounded water was classified as a pollutant, and created challenges for remediation. Hydrologic and coastal geomorphologic interplay is responsible for the existence and sustainability of this coastal system. It is also evident that the beach system is able to recover naturally following extreme events. Our results demonstrate that effective and integrated management of such critical habitats remains dependent upon continuous monitoring data which should be used to inform policy and decision making. PMID:27213864

  19. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, fall 1992. (Wide Beach section of Brant, New York)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide-spread contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) threatened the Wide Beach section of Brant, New York, a popular vacation resort. EPA's Superfund program effectively completed a permanent cleanup of Wide Beach in the span of one year. Other highlights included: a new and innovative technology to remove PCB contamination; reduction of PCBs to one-fifth of acceptable levels; temporary relocation of residents who were concerned for their health while cleanup activities took place; newly paved roads and driveways, re-landscaped yards, and a new storm sewer system; and restoration of ecologically sensitive wetlands. EPA's achievements significantly reduced PCB risks at Wide Beach, and left a satisfied community in Brant

  20. Spatial effect on grain size parameters and variations along pure gravel beaches: A case study from the Gulf of Antalya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Koray; Koşun, Erdal; Demirtaş, Ferdi

    2015-04-01

    The Gulf of Antalya is located in the Turkey's southern coast with the Mediterranean Sea. There are many famous beaches along the Gulf of Antalya, but their sedimentological features are not well known. However, these beaches represent importance to understanding the hydrodynamic processes on the coastal regions of the Mediterranean Sea and sedimentary response to these processes. In this study, we have chosed two famous beaches located to the northwest and northeast flanks of the Gulf of Antalya, the Konyaalti and Lara, respectively. Although both the Konyaalti and Lara beaches similar terrestrial conditions, i.e. climate and river energy, their grain size parameters represent dissimilarities. The Konyaalti beach consists of almost completely gravel. In the other hand, the Lara beach is a mixed sand and gravel beach. To investigate the reasons of the disparities we have collected 100 samples from the backshore deposits. Their basic grain size characteristics within mean grain size, sorting, skewness and kurtosis calculations have been examined. According to the results while the mean grain size in the Konyaalti beach vary from -3,71 φ to 0,82 φ, in the Lara beach it ranges between -0,43 φ and 1,81 φ. There is increasing in the grain size depend on eastward transportation in the Konyaalti beach, however similar changes have not observed in the Lara beach. Sorting parameters that determined in the Konyaalti and Lara beaches represent well sorted and mostly poorly sorted, respectively. It is considered that differences between two beaches caused by backshore lithology and topography, and sea waves coming angle and shelf structure. Key words: Gulf of Antalya, pure gravel beach, grain size parameter, Turkey

  1. Physical processes and landforms on beaches in short fetch environments in estuaries, small lakes and reservoirs: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2012-02-01

    This review is intended to identify differences between beaches in short-fetch environments and beaches on exposed coasts, while also distinguishing between the different subcategories of fetch-limited beaches. Subcategories are discussed largely in terms of estuaries, lakes and reservoirs. The term fetch-limited refers to basins that are small enough that distance rather than wind duration is always a limitation to wave generation. Attention is focused on basins where fetch distances are exchanges result in beach sediments that closely resemble local source materials. The absence of high-energy waves causes beaches and bar forms to be smaller, and the absence of swell waves following storms and the relatively calm conditions reduces the speed of recovery of post-storm profiles and the cyclic nature of beach response. The beaches are often fronted by flat shallow platforms that undergo little morphologic change and help dissipate waves at low water levels. The narrow beaches are poor sources of sediment for wind-blown sand and dunes are small or frequently absent. The narrow beaches and reduced wave energies allow upland vegetation and algae and seagrass to grow close to the active foreshore. This vegetation, the wrack deposited on the beach, and driftwood logs are better able to resist the low-energy waves and are more effective in resisting beach change. Erosion rates of 2-3 m yr- 1 are common in some estuaries and can be > 7 m yr- 1. Rates of up to 1.5 m yr- 1 can occur in small lakes and reservoirs. Shore parallel protection structures are common and have greater survivability in low-energy environments than high-energy environments; they are cheaper to build; and they have been implemented more frequently to control erosion. Their effect has been to reduce the extent of beach in small water bodies. Beach nourishment projects have been fewer than on exposed shores and the quantities smaller. Many nourishment projects have been implemented for amenity value and

  2. Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration Project: Beach and Nearshore Morphological Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Stevens, A. W.; Ruggiero, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Shoreline change along the southwest Washington and northwest Oregon coast responds to both natural and anthropogenic drivers at a range of temporal and spatial scales. Within the last century, human interventions, primarily the construction of large jetties at the entrance to the Columbia River, have been the dominant driver of nearshore morphology and shoreline change in this area. These jetties caused the inlet to narrow and deepen, the ebb-tidal delta to migrate offshore into deeper water, and adjacent shorelines to first accrete then erode over distances of tens of kilometers and time scales of decades. Shoreline change modeling suggests that reduced local sediment supply owing to these morphological changes is causing a deficit of sand feeding the shoreline, especially in the region of Benson Beach, just north of the mouth of the Columbia River. One of the goals of the Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration (SW LDR) project is to assess the long-term viability of placing dredged material from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) directly on Benson Beach to supplement the littoral sediment budget. The SW LDR will be one of the largest beach nourishment projects in the Pacific Northwest, with approximately 200,000 - 400,000 m3 of dredged material being placed on Benson Beach during the summer of 2010. Extensive monitoring and modeling efforts are underway to evaluate the effectiveness of the project and to develop morphodynamic modeling tools to inform future Regional Sediment Management decisions. Overall project components include Argus beach monitoring, measurements of nearshore waves and currents, deployment of a sand tracer, morphodynamic modeling, and a morphological monitoring program. The primary purpose of the morphological monitoring program, and the focus for this presentation, is to track the response of beach and nearshore areas during and after the sand placement. Bathymetric data, collected using Personal Watercraft (PWCs) equipped with

  3. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Pinnacle Gulch (segment 1-07), California from 1995-05-29 to 1997-10-22 (NODC Accession 0071477)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  4. Close-range airborne photogrammetry: an effective tool for high-resolution sandy beach morphometric surveys. Examples from embayed beaches in French Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Fleury, Jules; Anthony, Edward; Gardel, Antoine; Dussouillez, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Photogrammetric techniques are at a turning point in their history with the development of new algorithms, such as SIFT (Lowe, 1999) for automatic camera alignment and point cloud densification (Furukawa, 2010) integrated in user-friendly end-products. These innovations facilitate the utilization of this technique to study objects with low to mild morphological contrasts at low cost and by non-specialists. It is now possible to produce high-resolution 3D morphometric models, and derived products such as Digital Surface Models (DSM) and Orthophotographs. We conducted three photogrammetric experiments on the embayed beach of Montjoly (4 km long, 100-200 m wide) in Cayenne, French Guyana, in order to quantify morphological changes. The beach is affected by rotation induced by westward migration of mud banks from the Amazon that generate spatio-temporal changes in wave refraction and incident wave angles. The current rotation involves massive erosion of the northern part of the beach (50 m retreat between October 2013 and March 2014) and deposition in the southern sector (50 m advance). We acquired subvertical aerial photographs from a microlight aircraft using a full frame DSLR sensor with a 50 mm lens synchronized with an onboard DGPS, and flew alongshore at low elevation (900 ft). The flight plan included several parallel flight axes with a 50 m interband distance. Meanwhile on the ground, we placed around 30 square targets of 40 cm width georeferenced by RTK-DGPS with centimetre accuracy. These targets served in producing the georeferenced output 3D model. Third, we measured the topography of random points and cross-shore profiles to validate our results and assess the process accuracy. We produced the model and its derived products with user-friendly Agisoft Photoscan© software. We obtained three morphometric models realized in October 2013, March 2014 and October 2014 covering the entire beach. These models were produced at a resolution of 10 cm per pixel and

  5. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY STATE OF SAND IN THE MUNICIPAL BATHING BEACH IN SZCZECIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Zatoń

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial beaches, i.e. places in the public sphere, are usually intended for recreation, located at water reservoirs, rivers, and their surface is naturally occurring or applied sand. The urban bathing beach located in Szczecin by the Deep lake has sand purchased and distributed on the beach by the Municipal Services Office in Szczecin (a few hundred ton. The beach is divided into sectors, a volleyball court is in one part, in the next section catering and sanitary facilities are located, and the remaining area is a place intended for sunbathing and playing games. The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of different ways of using the beach on changes of microbiological properties of the sand. The tests were taken from the beach sand in May 2013 (first term examinations, and in September, after several months of use (the second term of examinations. The sand was collected near catering and sanitary sector (the first object and from the area of the volleyball court (the second object, as well as the playground for children (the third object. The facilities were distanced from the shoreline of the lake by approx. 8 metres. The comparison included the number of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and the detected presence of coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, bacteria of the genus Salmonella and eggs of intestinal parasites. In any of the objects, or the periods of time, eggs of intestinal parasites and bacteria of the genus Salmonella were detected. The presence of coliform bacteria including E. coli was found in the sand collected from a catering-sanitary zone, there was also the biggest number of bacteria and fungi. The number of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi was similar in samples of sand taken from the volleyball court and from the playground, in this sand there was no bacteria belonging to the E. coli species, although in several samples from the playground other bacteria belonging to the coliform genus were detected. To

  6. Como pensar o voleibol de praia sociologicamente How to think beach volleyball sociologicaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Francisco Afonso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma análise sociológica da história do Voleibol de Praia. Aqui procuramos responder: por que o desenvolvimento internacional da modalidade ocorreu no Brasil e não nos EUA? Como hipótese apresentamos que a estrutura do campo Voleibol de Praia vem sendo determinada pela disputa de duas instituições, a Federação Internacional de Voleibol (FIVB e a Association of Volleyball Professionals (AVP. Os objetivos foram investigar por que o Brasil foi o local onde o Voleibol de Praia se transformou em show business internacional e analisar as configurações entre os agentes/estruturas que compõem o campo. O recorte compreendeu o intervalo de 1985 a 2004. Como referencial teórico metodológico de análise, buscamos na teoria dos campos de Pierre Bourdieu o instrumental capaz de explicitar as relações que se estabelecem no contexto socioeconômico contemporâneo, aplicando-o na leitura do desenvolvimento do Voleibol de Praia. Constatamos que a FIVB assumiu o controle do campo e o Brasil passou a ser uma estrutura estruturante da modalidade.This study carried out a sociological analysis of the history of Beach Volleyball. The problem was: why has the development of Beach Volleyball as an international sport occurred in Brazil rather than in the USA? The hypothesis proposed that the framework of the field of Beach Volleyball has been defined by the dispute between two institutions, the Fèdèration Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB and the Association of Volleyball Professionals (AVP. The outlined goals were to investigate why Brazil came to be where Beach Volleyball was transformed into International Show Business and analyze the structure of the interdependent relationships among the sub components that make up the field. The proposed period included the years 1985 to 2004. The instrument capable of expounding the relationships that are established in the contemporary socioeconomic context was found in the 'theory of fields

  7. Adiposity and response to an obesity prevention intervention in Pakistani and Bangladeshi primary school boys and girls: a secondary analysis using the BEACHeS feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezard, Geneviève; Bansal, Narinder; Bhopal, Raj; Pallan, Miranda; Gill, Paramjit; Barrett, Timothy; Adab, Peymane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives As a secondary analysis of the BEACHeS study, we hypothesised there would be sex differences in Pakistani and Bangladeshi school children when examining adiposity and their response to an obesity intervention. Design The Birmingham healthy Eating and Active lifestyle for CHildren Study (BEACHeS) was designed as a Phase II feasibility study of a complex intervention. Setting 8 primary schools with predominantly South Asian children in Birmingham, UK Participants 1090 pupils (aged 5–7 years old) from school year 1 and 2 were allocated at school level to receive an intervention. A total of 574 were enrolled in the study with consent. We focused on the 466 children of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin (50.6% boys). Intervention Delivered between 2007 and 2009, the 1-year obesity prevention intervention targeted school and family-based dietary and physical activities. Primary and secondary outcome measures and analysis Adiposity measures including skinfold thickness were compared by sex at baseline and follow-up. Gains in adiposity measures were compared between control and intervention arms in boys and in girls. Measures were compared using two-sample t tests and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum tests according to normality distribution. Results At baseline, girls had larger skinfold measures at all sites compared to boys although body mass index (BMI) was similar (eg, median subscapular skinfold 6.6 mm vs 5.7 mm; p<0.001). At follow-up, girls in the intervention group gained less weight and adiposity compared to respective controls (p<0.05 for weight, BMI, waist circumference, central and thigh skinfold) with a median total skinfold gain of 7.0 mm in the control group compared to 0.3 mm in the intervention group. Conclusions Our secondary analysis suggests differences in adiposity in Pakistani and Bangladeshi girls and boys and in the effect of the intervention reducing adiposity in girls. These preliminary findings indicate that including sex

  8. Temporal development of vegetation and geomorphology in a man-made beach-dune system by natural processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-four yrs of primary succession in a man-made beach-dune system at the Baltic coast of Denmark, built of calcareous, marine sand and the dune planted with Ammophila arenaria, was studied by qualitative observations, quantitative records in permanent plots, levelling and soil analysis within a...... rather fast. In the stabilized dune, a sand-pararendzina with a thin A-horizon developed. The beach expanded by accretion of less calcareous, marine sand. On the beach new dunes, 3 m high, successively developed. The number of species in the study area increased from 16 to 55, accompanied by species and...... groups represent the vegetation of sandy beaches with annual dicotyledon species, and mobile dunes dominated by rhizomatous geophytes, especially A. arenaria. The two other groups represent stabilized, calcareous dune, dominated by hemicryptophytes, specially Festuca rubra, and less stabilized dune with...

  9. A decadal prediction of the quantity of plastic marine debris littered on beaches of the East Asian marginal seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2014-04-15

    Large quantities of plastic litter are expected to wash ashore along the beaches of the East Asian marginal seas in the coming decade. Litter quantities were predicted using three techniques: a particle tracking model (PTM) used in conjunction with two-way PTM experiments designed to reveal litter sources, an inverse method used to compute litter outflows at each source, and a sequential monitoring system designed to monitor existing beach litter using webcams. Modeled year-to-year variation in litter quantities indicated that the amount of litter would continue to increase in the East Asian marginal seas if the level of outflow remains constant in the coming decade. The study confirms that about 3% of all East Asian beaches may potentially experience a 250-fold increase in the amount of plastic beach litter washed ashore in the next 10 years. PMID:24559735

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of carbonate content in the beach and nearshore environments off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.

    Sediment samples collected from dunes, beaches (Calangute, Baina and Colva) and nearshore environments along the coast of Goa, have been analysed for their carbonate content. The results show the presence of very high carbonate content (60...

  11. Role of environmental heterogeneity in structuring the macrobenthic community in a tropical sandy beach, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Ganesan, P.; Sautya, S.; Nanajkar, M.

    In most ecosystems, community structure emerges as a result of the complex interaction between biotic and environmental variables. Sandy beaches connected to adjacent ecosystem like estuaries/creeks provide an opportunity to understand the role...

  12. Environmental geochemistry: radiometry and radiology of the monazitic sand in the Areia Preta Beach, Guarapari - Espirito Santo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Areia Preta Beach, in Guarapari, is famous for its natural radiation and important for the tourism of this region. Thousands of people visit this area in order to be cured from illnesses like arthritis, rheumatism, and cancer by exposing themselves to the radiation. This work presents the gamma radiation dose rate values measured in the sand of this beach since April 1996. These values punctually exceed nearly 800 times the maximum values compared with the national and international legislation concerning artificial ionizing radiation. The data collected during seven field campaigns of monitoring shows seasonal variations of exposure rates. The minimum values were obtained in winter, and the maximum values in summer, which is the high season for tourism. The results indicates that this beach represents a serious health hazard for those that visit the beach intensively. (author)

  13. Seasonal changes of the sediment size distribution and stability along the beaches of Kerala, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Chandramohan, P.; Nampoodiripad, K.S.N.

    Mean grain size distribution under different environmental conditions along the coast of Kerala showed considerable spatial variation (0.14-0.96 mm). Standard deviation values indicated a very well sorted class along all the beaches with a lowest...

  14. Delineation of high water line and seasonal beach profiling at Kalbadevi Bay, Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    collected by using highly sophisticated instruments like Laser Trak, DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) and Automatic level (Carl Zeiss Make) following the standard survey techniques. Beach profiles at three sites in Kalbadevi bay has clearly...

  15. Environmental assessment proposed restriction of motorized vehicle use on the beaches of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal recommends the closure of approximately 13 miles of Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge beach to unauthorized motorized vehicle use from May 15 through...

  16. Fecal indicator bacteria in tropical beach sand: Baseline findings from Port Dickson coastline, Strait of Malacca (Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Shamira, Siti Shafiqa; Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2016-09-15

    This pilot study aims to assess Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination and its perceived health risks among beachgoers in ten tropical beach sands along Port Dickson coastline (Malaysia). This study also aims to determine the relationship between perceived health symptoms and tropical beach sand exposure behavior. The concentration of E. coli in tropical beach sand ranged from 60cfu/100g to 4113cfu/100g. E. coli contamination was the highest at Tanjung Gemuk (4113±30cfu/100g) and the lowest at Tanjung Tuan (60±15cfu/100g); the high level of contamination could be due to the location of the former at the sewage outlet of nearby hotels. Skin symptoms were the most predominant among the health symptoms indicated by beachgoers. Exposure duration was significantly correlated with the perceived health symptoms among beachgoers in the beaches studied. PMID:27289286

  17. Proceedings of the national conference on emerging technologies for processing and utilization of beach sand minerals: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symposium emphasizes the unprecedented opportunities for simultaneously improving processing technologies and developing new applications for beach sand minerals and materials produced from them while at the same time recognizing the special challenges faced in achieving these objectives - both from a human design perspective and in terms of technical and cost challenges. This conference aims at providing a forum for scientists, students and managers to discuss the recent developments in the emerging technologies for processing and utilization of beach sand minerals. This event will also help younger scientists to get exposure to the emerging areas of research and development in the field of beach sand minerals. We, in the organizing committee are sure that the conference will help all the participants to acquire advance knowledge in the area of beach sand mineral research. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Complex, dynamic combination of physical, chemical and nutritional variables controls spatio-temporal variation of sandy beach community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ortega Cisneros

    Full Text Available Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C∶N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean

  19. A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the impact of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on the coastal ecosystem of Goa. The factors responsible for degrading the marine ecosystem of the Goan coastline are analyzed. Uncontrolled activities were found to degrade the marine and coastal biodiversity, in turn polluting all beaches. This had a direct impact on the Goan economy through a decline in tourism. The government must adopt the necessary control measures to restore Goan beaches and the surrounding coastal areas. PMID:26323861

  20. The ecological impact of beach nourishment and the restrained habitat of key species: experimental insights and field data

    OpenAIRE

    Speybroeck, J.; Hendrickx, F.; Degraer, S.; Vincx, M.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, beach nourishment is widely considered as a better alternative than the construction of hard structures to protect a coast against detrimental erosive effects, both from an ecological as from an engineering perspective. Most studies conducted on the ecological impact of beach nourishment are short-term, post hoc monitoring investigations of the benthic macrofauna. Little is known of the ruling biological processes during and after nourishment. To allow recolonisation after nourishme...

  1. Quantifying nearshore morphological recovery time scales using argus video imaging: Palm Beach, Sydney and Duck, North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Holman, R.; De Schipper, M.A.; Lippmann, T.; Wehof, J.; Duong, T.M.; Roelvink, D.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Time scales of post-storm nearshore morphological recovery and physical processes governing these time scales are poorly understood at present. The ability to predict nearshore morphological recovery time scales based on pre-, during- or post-resetting storm conditions is an essential requirement for building and validating scale aggregated models that operate at macro- and higher spatio-temporal scales. In this study, quality controlled ARGUS video derived beach states at Palm Beach, Sydney ...

  2. Arcobacter in Lake Erie Beach Waters: an Emerging Gastrointestinal Pathogen Linked with Human-Associated Fecal Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Agidi, Senyo; Marion, Jason W.; Lee, Jiyoung

    2012-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. To better characterize the health risk posed by this emerging waterborne pathogen, we investigated the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in Lake Erie beach waters. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 35 times from the Euclid, Villa Angela, and Headlands (East and West) beaches, located along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. After sample concentration, Arcobacter was quantified by ...

  3. Variability of spatial and temporal distribution of zooplankton communities at Matrouh beaches, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sawsan M. Aboul Ezz; Ahmed M.M. Heneash; Gharib, Samiha M.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to determine the main environmental drivers of zooplankton variability in water of Matrouh beach, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea and to evaluate the differences in zooplankton abundance and population structure in relation to chemical and biological parameters. Samples were collected seasonally from summer 2009 to summer 2010 at 10 sampling beaches. The zooplankton community was characterized by its high variability, and lower diversity. Zooplankton variabilit...

  4. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Half Moon Bay, Frances Beach (segment 4-05), California from 1999-11-25 to 2003-02-03 (NODC Accession 0071979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  5. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Half Moon Bay, Frances Beach (segment 4-05), California from 1997-10-30 to 1999-10-25 (NODC Accession 0071977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  6. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Half Moon Bay, Frances Beach (segment 4-05), California from 2003-03-09 to 2003-10-12 (NODC Accession 0071980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  7. The impact of storms in the morphodynamic evolution of a human-impacted semi-sheltered beach (Agadir Bay, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouiche, I.; Daoudi, L.; Anthony, E. J.; Sedrati, M.; Harti, A.; Ziane, E.

    2016-03-01

    This study discusses the morphological changes and evolution of Agadir Bay beach (Morocco) in response to eight storms between January 2014 and March 2014. A comparison is carried out of the evolution and variability of the beach in a sector of the bay protected by the commercial harbour of Agadir relative to a sector down drift of the harbour that is more exposed to waves, and changes affecting the beach following these storms are examined. Wave influence is evaluated using numerical simulations. The results show that despite being of relatively low intensity, the two first storm events, and especially storm 1, are responsible for major beach morphological changes. Three zones were identified as a function of the beach sediment dynamics: (i) a northern zone, representing the sector of the beach protected by Agadir harbour, with a net loss of about 21% of the total sediment, (ii) a southern zone, corresponding to the exposed sector with a net loss reaching74% of the total sediment, and (iii) a sector of residual dune that recorded no significant change during the storms.

  8. Self-reported symptoms and risk factors for digital ischaemia among international world-class beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Pol, Daan; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms is remarkably high among elite indoor volleyball players. Since the exposure to sport-specific demands may be higher in beach volleyball compared to indoor volleyball, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms and associated risk factors among world-class beach volleyball players. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was performed among beach volleyball players active during the 2013 Grand Slam Beach Volleyball in the Netherlands. In total, 60 of the 128 beach volleyball players (47%) participated: 26 males and 34 females from 17 countries. The self-reported prevalence of cold or blue or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition was 38% (n = 23). Two risk factors were independently associated with symptoms of blue or pale digits: more than 14 years playing volleyball (odds ratio (OR) 4.42, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 1.30-15.07) and sex (female) (OR 4.62, 90% CI 1.15-18.57). In conclusion, the prevalence of symptoms associated with digital ischaemia is high among international world-class beach volleyball players. Female sex and the length of the volleyball career were independently associated with an increased risk of ischaemia-related symptoms. The high prevalence of these seemingly innocuous symptoms and possible associated risk factors warrant regular monitoring since early detection can potentially prevent thromboembolic complications and irreversible tissue damage. PMID:26436960

  9. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  10. The use of decision trees in the classification of beach forms/patterns on IKONOS-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, A. C.; Ferreira, D.; Gonçalves, H.

    2013-10-01

    Evaluation of beach hydromorphological behaviour and its classification is highly complex. The available beach morphologic and classification models are mainly based on wave, tidal and sediment parameters. Since these parameters are usually unavailable for some regions - such as in the Portuguese coastal zone - a morphologic analysis using remotely sensed data seems to be a valid alternative. Data mining for spatial pattern recognition is the process of discovering useful information, such as patterns/forms, changes and significant structures from large amounts of data. This study focuses on the application of data mining techniques, particularly Decision Trees (DT), to an IKONOS-2 image in order to classify beach features/patterns, in a stretch of the northwest coast of Portugal. Based on the knowledge of the coastal features, five classes were defined: Sea, Suspended-Sediments, Breaking-Zone, Beachface and Beach. The dataset was randomly divided into training and validation subsets. Based on the analysis of several DT algorithms, the CART algorithm was found to be the most adequate and was thus applied. The performance of the DT algorithm was evaluated by the confusion matrix, overall accuracy, and Kappa coefficient. In the classification of beach features/patterns, the algorithm presented an overall accuracy of 98.2% and a kappa coefficient of 0.97. The DTs were compared with a neural network algorithm, and the results were in agreement. The methodology presented in this paper provides promising results and should be considered in further applications of beach forms/patterns classification.

  11. The role of wrack deposits for supralittoral arthropods: An example using Atlantic sandy beaches of Brazil and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Delgado, Mª Carmen; Vieira, Jenyffer Vierheller; Veloso, Valéria Gomes; Reyes-Martínez, Mª José; Sallorenzo, Ilana Azevedo; Borzone, Carlos Alberto; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García García, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Wrack deposits, as accumulated detritus, are a common feature on beaches worldwide and significantly contribute to the shaping of supralittoral arthropod communities. The composition and relative age of upper-shore deposits influence the structure and taxonomic composition of invertebrate assemblages. Moreover, these influences may vary geographically, depending on the locally prevailing climatic and hydrodynamic conditions. The amount and composition of wrack deposits as well as community attributes (total density, species richness and diversity) were determined on sandy beaches in three distinct geographical regions: South (Paraná) and Southeast (Rio de Janeiro) of Brazil and SW Spain. These parameters were compared between upper and lower wrack bands on each beach and between beaches in each region. Wrack deposits were composed of mangrove propagules in the Paraná region, by macrophytes, dead invertebrates and macroalgae in Rio de Janeiro region and by seagrass and macroalgae in the SW Spain region. In all regions, the total amount of stranded wrack differed between beaches, but the amount accumulated between bands (i.e upper and lower band) was similar between beaches. Wrack bands shaped the density of common taxa (Talitridae, Tenebrionidae, and Staphylinidae), with consequences for community structures. This result could be due to their preference for specific microhabitats and food sources, which might differ according to the relative age of the wrack deposits. The results suggest that, independent of wrack composition, the distribution of wrack deposits in bands and their relative ages seems to play a role on the structure of supralittoral arthropod assemblages.

  12. Release of Escherichia coli from Foreshore Sand and Pore Water during Intensified Wave Conditions at a Recreational Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Laura J; O'Carroll, Denis M; Edge, Thomas A; Robinson, Clare E

    2016-06-01

    Foreshore beach sands and pore water may act as a reservoir and nonpoint source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to surface waters. This paper presents data collected at a fine sand beach on Lake Huron, Canada over three field events. The data show that foreshore sand erosion as wave height increases results in elevated Escherichia coli concentrations in surface water, as well as depletion of E. coli from the foreshore sand and pore water. E. coli initially attached to foreshore sand rather than initially residing in the pore water was found to be the main contributor to elevated surface water concentrations. Surface water E. coli concentrations were a function of not only wave height (and associated sand erosion) but also the time elapsed since a preceding period of high wave intensity. This finding is important for statistical regression models used to predict beach advisories. While calculations suggest that foreshore sand erosion may be the dominant mechanism for releasing E. coli to surface water during intensified wave conditions at a fine sand beach, comparative characterization of the E. coli distribution at a coarse sand-cobble beach suggests that interstitial pore water flow and discharge may be more important for coarser sand beaches. PMID:27120087

  13. Effects of demolition and beach clean-up operations on birds on a coastal mudflat in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    1988-07-01

    Coastal lands are increasingly exposed to disturbances from demolition, beach clean-up, and construction for development. Although data exist concerning the effects of investigators on breeding populations, little information is available for migrant populations. I investigated the effects of demolition and beach clean-up on resident and migrant birds on a coastal mudflat in New Jersey. A year's censusing before work initiation was used to determine when demolition and clean-up would affect the least number of birds. Work activity on and along the beach was from 15 October to 15 November 1985. The overall population size was lower in 1985 compared to the same period in 1984, although the drop in numbers was not due solely to human disturbance. Human work activity influenced avian distribution along the mudflat: birds moved farther along the beach and out onto the mudflat when activity began, and moved back onto the mudflat when activity ceased. For gulls, foraging efficiency was lowered when work began and did not return to previous levels until 60-90 min after work began. Gulls that moved farther out on the mudflat had significantly lower foraging efficiencies than did those that remained close to the beach. Efforts to mitigate the adverse effects on birds by restricting human activity to a 100 m stretch of beach at any one time succeeded in significantly reducing adverse effects and in allowing birds some space to rest and feed.

  14. Beach Ridge and Lagoon Systems as Indicator of Sea-Level Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse

    This thesis investigates the possibilities of reconstructing Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) developments from coastal lagoon systems and beach ridges in a periglacial soft-sediment setting. The focus of this study lies on the sedimentological analysis, morphological description, and absolute....... This highstand period ended abruptly around 3.5 kyr BP with a marked RSL fall of approx. 1.3 m. In the lagoonal environments, facies transitions from organic-rich marine mud to marine sand are interpreted as winnowing lags resulting from a lowering of the wave-base. In a fossil lagoon system, the sand...... dating of Holocene marine deposits on the island of Samsø, southern Kattegat Sea, Denmark. Coastal lagoons and beach ridges are common features of the coastal landscape and are found distributed along and across gradients of isostatic uplift. Their widespread occurrence gives these systems certain...

  15. Reference levels of background radioactivity for beach sands and soils in İnebolu/Kastamonu-Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnaz, Aslı; Türkdoǧan, Savaş; Hançerlioǧulları, Aybaba; ćetiner, M. Atıf

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the measurement results of environmental radioactivity levels for İnebolu district (tourist area), Kastamonu-Turkey. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and the fission product 137Cs in soil samples collected from 13 region surroundings of study area and in 12 beach sand samples collected from along the coast of İnebolu were determined. To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose and the annual effective dose were evaluated separately, and found to be 112.90 nGy h-1 and 138.46 µSv y-1 for soil samples and 75.19 nGy h-1 and 92.22 µSv y-1 for beach sand samples, respectively. The results show that İnebolu does not have high background.

  16. A PRACTICAL MODEL FOR THE DECAY OF RANDOM WAVES ON MUDDY BEACHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Xiao-jing; YU Xi-ping

    2008-01-01

    A practical model has been developed for the propagation and decay of random waves on muddy beaches. In the model, an irregular wave train is characterized by its root-mean-squared wave height, mean wave frequency and mean wave direction. It is also assumed that the wave spectrum is narrow-banded in terms of both frequency and direction. Transformation of root-mean-squared wave height is derived from the conservation of energy flux for individual wave components. Energy dissipation is considered due to both wave breaking and the dynamics response of muddy seabed. The model is applied to waves on the muddy beach at Hangzhou Bay, and the numerical results obtained are shown to be acceptably accurate as comparing with available field data.

  17. Organic micropollutants in marine plastics debris from the open ocean and remote and urban beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hisashi; Takada, Hideshige; Ogata, Yuko; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Saha, Mahua; Kwan, Charita; Moore, Charles; Gray, Holly; Laursen, Duane; Zettler, Erik R; Farrington, John W; Reddy, Christopher M; Peacock, Emily E; Ward, Marc W

    2011-08-01

    To understand the spatial variation in concentrations and compositions of organic micropollutants in marine plastic debris and their sources, we analyzed plastic fragments (∼10 mm) from the open ocean and from remote and urban beaches. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alkylphenols and bisphenol A were detected in the fragments at concentrations from 1 to 10,000 ng/g. Concentrations showed large piece-to-piece variability. Hydrophobic organic compounds such as PCBs and PAHs were sorbed from seawater to the plastic fragments. PCBs are most probably derived from legacy pollution. PAHs showed a petrogenic signature, suggesting the sorption of PAHs from oil slicks. Nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and PBDEs came mainly from additives and were detected at high concentrations in some fragments both from remote and urban beaches and the open ocean. PMID:21719036

  18. Stakeholder Involvement in Tourism Destination Development: A Case of Dunga Beach and Wetland, Kisumu County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Otieno Wanga

    2014-09-01

    In Kenya, Tourism is the second largest source of foreign exchange revenue following agriculture; it however, faces numerous challenges sustainability due the complex nature of tourism destinations. Tourism destinations are complex and dynamic systems that involve various stakeholders each with different understanding of same tourism system. These different perceptions can be tapped to develop a common tourism model that helps achieve the overall sustainable tourism development objective of a given destination. This paper describes participatory systems approach to develop a shared understanding amongst stakeholders of the tourism system in Dunga Beach and Wetland, in Kisumu County, Kenya. The process includes the development of a systems model that represents a holistic understanding of the interconnectedness and relationships between the various components that impact on sustainable development of tourism in Dunga. The model is intended for use as a framework for enhancing ecotourism experiences by stakeholders who are ecotourism experience providers in Dunga for the satisfaction of tourists in Dunga beach and wetland.

  19. Testing and assessment of a large BGO detector for beach monitoring of radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beach Monitoring Steering Group (BMSG) was set up by UKAEA to explore whether improved systems for beach monitoring of radioactive particles are available. The BMSG commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI/NGD), and other companies, to test their most sensitive system. This paper presents the results of trials in a specially created test facility at UKAEA Harwell with a large BGO detector. The detector's size and weight mean that it would be suitable for vehicle deployment but would be too large and heavy to carry in areas that could not be accessed by a vehicle. However, it would be possible to use the same methodology that is described here with a smaller detector capable of being carried in a backpack, albeit with reduced sensitivity for particle detection. The approach that we present is also applicable, with modifications, to the detection of offshore particles using a towed seabed detector

  20. Beached bird surveys indicate decline in chronic oil pollution in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandings of oiled seabirds have been a signal of the ongoing problem of chronic oil pollution in the North Sea since the beginning of the twentieth century. Overall numbers of beached birds are subject to enormous fluctuations, being the result, for example, of changes in the amount of oil spilled in the marine environment, currents, the frequency of onshore winds and variations in the numbers of seabirds in a given region. In contrast, oil rates, being the fraction of oiled birds of the total stranded, appeared to be relatively constant while specific for different species and regions. A power analysis of the results of beached bird surveys demonstrated the sensitivity of these data as a tool to monitor trends in oil rates of stranded birds. Rather subtle changes in oil rates could be demonstrated, indicating positive results of attempts to protect certain sea areas (e.g. the Wadden Sea) and a decline in oil rates over time. (author)