WorldWideScience

Sample records for beach transit two-year

  1. A Strategic Enrollment Management Approach to Studying High School Student Transition to a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ye, Feifei; Pilarzyk, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This study used a strategic enrollment management (SEM) approach to studying high school students' transition to a two-year college and their initial college success. Path analyses suggested two important findings: (a) clear career choices among students, family influence, academic preparedness, and college recruitment efforts predicted earlier…

  2. A Strategic Enrollment Management Approach to Studying High School Student Transition to a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ye, Feifei; Pilarzyk, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This study used a strategic enrollment management (SEM) approach to studying high school students' transition to a two-year college and their initial college success. Path analyses suggested two important findings: (a) clear career choices among students, family influence, academic preparedness, and college recruitment efforts predicted…

  3. A Dynamic Process Model for the Beach-Inlet Transition Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    A0-A87 096 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA DEPT OF GEOLOGY F/S 8/3 A DYNAMIC PROCESS MODEL FOR THE REACH-INLET TRANSITION ZONE. UI N MAY 80 R A...cz80 7 A DYNAMIC PROCESS MODEL FOR THE BEACH-INLET TRANSITION ZONE by Richard A. Davis, Jr., University of South Florida and William T. Fox, Williams...during the study period have permitted construction of a dynami, process model for the beach-inlet transition zone during the tidal cycle. This model

  4. Wave-dominated, mesotidal headland-bay beach morphody-namic classsfications of the Shuidong Bay in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jitao; DING Yuanting; CHENG Huangxin; CAI Lailiang; CHEN Zishen

    2016-01-01

    Beach morphodynamic classifications have achieved extensive acceptance in foreign coastal geomorphological studies. Three beaches located in different zones of a headland-bay coast are classified according to a dimensionless fall parameter, a relative tide range parameter and a dimensionless embayment scaling parameter. Synchronous data, including wave, tide, sediment and beach morphology, are respectively collected from the tangential beach, the transitional beach and the shadow beach of the Shuidong Bay during each spring tide for 16 successive months. The research results indicate that (1) the beach in the tangential zone falls between two major categories which are low tide terrace beaches with rips and barred beaches; the beach in the transitional zone exhibits two main types which are low tide bar/rip beaches and barred dissipative beaches; and the beach in the shadow zone mainly mirrors dissipative states with presence or absence of bars; and (2) the sequential changes and differences of beach states in different coastal zones reflect spatial and temporal variabilities of the headland-bay coast, totally meeting the actual measured beach morphology changes, showing that studies on wave-dominated, meso-macrotidal beaches need to consider the influences of the tides. Meanwhile, the research mainly provides a framework about beach state studies, due to different beach states with different erosion patterns, which requires the need to strengthen the researches in this respect, in order to further enrich theoretical basis for a beach topography evolution, beach morphodynamic processes and beach erosion prevention in China.

  5. 78 FR 49600 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Virginia Beach Transit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... efficient transportation option independent of traffic congestion; Supports a dynamic local and regional... traffic and congestion on existing roadways serving the study area. Daily and commute trips by motorists... Administration (FTA) and Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) are planning to prepare an Environmental Impact...

  6. Depth-Dependent Earthquake Properties Beneath Long-Beach, CA: Implications for the Rheology at the Brittle-Ductile Transition Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbal, A.; Clayton, R. W.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Except for a few localities, seismicity along faults in southern California is generally confined to depths shallower than 15 km. Among faults hosting deep seismicity, the Newport-Inglewood Fault (NIF), which traverses the Los-Angeles basin, has an exceptionally mild surface expression and low deformation rates. Moreover, the NIF structure is not as well resolved as other, less well instrumented faults because of poor signal-to-noise ratio. Here we use data from three temporary dense seismic arrays, which were deployed for exploration purposes and contain up to several thousands of vertical geophones, to investigate the properties of deep seismicity beneath Long-Beach (LB), Compton and Santa-Fe Springs (SFS). The latter is located 15 km northeast of the NIF, presumably above a major detachment fault underthrusting the basin.Event detection is carried out using a new approach for microseismic multi-channel picking, in which downward-continued data are back-projected onto the volume beneath the arrays, and locations are derived from statistical analysis of back-projection images. Our technique reveals numerous, previously undetected events along the NIF, and confirms the presence of an active shallow structure gently dipping to the north beneath SFS. Seismicity characteristics vary along the NIF strike and dip. While LB seismicity is uncorrelated with the mapped trace of the NIF, Compton seismicity illuminates a sub-vertical fault that extends down to about 20 km. This result, along with the reported high flux of mantle Helium along the NIF (Boles et al., 2015), suggests that the NIF is deeply rooted and acts as a major conduit for mantle fluids. We find that the LB size distribution obeys the typical power-law at shallow depths, but falls off exponentially for events occurring below 20 km. Because deep seismicity occurs uniformly beneath LB, this transition is attributed to a reduction in seismic asperity density with increasing depth, consistent with a transition

  7. Trichotillomania Below Two Year Of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brar Balwinder Kaur

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichotillomania is the compulsive habit that induces an individual to pluck hair repeatedly. Psychotherapy or psychoanalysis offers the best long-term prognosis for trichotillomania. We report two cases of trichotillomania in children less than two years of age because of its rarity.

  8. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  9. Two years of ALMA bibliography - lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Meakins, Silvia; Bishop, Marsha J; Stoehr, Felix; Tatematsu, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Telescope bibliographies are integral parts of observing facilities. They are used to associate the published literature with archived observational data, to measure an observatory's scientific output through publication and citation statistics, and to define guidelines for future observing strategies. The ESO and NRAO librarians as well as NAOJ jointly maintain the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) bibliography, a database of refereed papers that use ALMA data. In this paper, we illustrate how relevant articles are identified, which procedures are used to tag entries in the database and link them to the correct observations, and how results are communicated to ALMA stakeholders and the wider community. Efforts made to streamline the process will be explained and evaluated, and a first analysis of ALMA papers published after two years of observations will be given.

  10. Two years of ALMA bibliography: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meankins, Silvia; Grothkopf, Uta; Bishop, Marsha J.; Stoehr, Felix; Tatematsu, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Telescope bibliographies are integral parts of observing facilities. They are used to associate the published literature with archived observational data, to measure an observatory's scientific output through publication and citation statistics, and to define guidelines for future observing strategies. The ESO and NRAO librarians as well as NAOJ jointly maintain the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) bibliography, a database of refereed papers that use ALMA data. In this paper, we illustrate how relevant articles are identified, which procedures are used to tag entries in the database and link them to the correct observations, and how results are communicated to ALMA stakeholders and the wider community. Efforts made to streamline the process will be explained and evaluated, and a first analysis of ALMA papers published after two years of observations will be given.

  11. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where

  12. Erosion Negril Beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Ham, D.; Henrotte, J.; Kraaijeveld, R.; Milosevic, M.; Smit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing erosion of the Negril Beach has become worse the past decade. In most places along the coast line, the beach will be gone in approximately 10 years. This will result in a major decrease of incomes that are made by the local tourist sector. To prevent the erosion this study has been perfo

  13. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  14. Beach Ball Coronagraph Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Beach Ball” Coronagraph will be the first steps to simplify and revolutionize the next generation solar coronagraph design.  The solar corona...

  15. National List of Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the...

  16. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  17. Summary of Annual Beach Notifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA gathers state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories. Between 1999 and...

  18. 45 CFR 1801.13 - Two-year institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two-year institutions. 1801.13 Section 1801.13... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Nominations § 1801.13 Two-year institutions. If an institution does not offer education beyond the sophomore level, the institution may nominate only students who...

  19. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  20. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events.

  1. Psychological distress two years after diagnosis of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleiker, E M; Pouwer, F; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2000-01-01

    The present prospective study aimed at (1) investigating the frequency of high levels of psychological distress in women with early-stage breast cancer almost two years after diagnosis and (2) identifying characteristics associated with long-term distress. One hundred and seventy women participated...... of surgery). At the second measurement, subjective distress was assessed for a second time by means of the Impact of Events Scale (IES). Almost two years after diagnosis, 16% of the women reported a high level of psychological distress as measured by the Intrusion scale (IES). Best predictors of a high level...

  2. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report.

  3. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  4. Assessment of Chemistry Anxiety in a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Wanda C.; Widanski, Bozena Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry anxiety encompasses apprehension regarding learning chemistry, evaluation in chemistry courses, and fears about handling chemicals. Our goal was to ascertain the prevalence of these three types of anxiety in college students enrolled in a two-year college. In our sample, chemistry-evaluation provoked the most chemistry anxiety followed…

  5. Characteristics of Millennial Students at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Susanne Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the degree to which Millennial students who attend two-year colleges exhibit the characteristics of the seven Millennial generation characteristics. Howe and Strauss (2007) purport that the Millennials exhibit seven key characteristics in their behavior: Special, Sheltered, Confident, Team-oriented,…

  6. Amid Tight Budgets, Two-Year Colleges Play Growing Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Faced with a multibillion-dollar budget deficit, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger and state higher education officials are trying to relieve the burden on the state by redirecting several thousand high school seniors from California's public four-year universities to community colleges for their first two years of school. The California effort emerges…

  7. Retrenchment at Two-Year Colleges and Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Data on current retrenchment policies and practices of two-year colleges and institutes are reported and analyzed, including information on the existence of a retrenchment policy, retrenchment between 1974-75 and 1977-78, the retrenchment process, and the impact of retrenchment on affirmative action and employment rights and benefits. (MLW)

  8. Periprosthetic femoral fracture within two years after total hip replacement:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thien, T. M.; Chatziagorou, G.; Garellick, G.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We used the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association database to evaluate whether age, sex, preoperative diagnosis, fixation, and implant design influence the risk of revision arthroplasty due to periprosthetic fracture within two years from operation of a primary total hip replacemen...

  9. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…

  10. Can persuasive and demonstrative messages to visitors reduce littering in river beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Ana M; Barberá, Iván; Renison, Daniel; Barri, Fernando R

    2016-12-01

    Littering of public areas is a significant problem worldwide. Here we evaluate the success of persuasive and demonstrative messages at reducing littering in highly visited river beaches in Argentina. We made an intervention at the beaches which consisted of a personalized verbal request asking visitors to take their litter to the waste cans (persuasive message) while they were exposed to the example of picking up the litter already left on the beach (demonstrative message). We conducted 102 observations distributed over 29 dates, two years and four beaches. Each observation consisted of three or four rounds: before the presence of visitors we cleaned the beaches, during the stay of visitors we made the intervention (once or twice) in two out of the four beaches, and early next morning we estimated the amount of litter left per beach. Litter weight ranged from 0 to 53gvisitor(-1)day(-1). Littering per visitor was reduced an average of 35% due to the intervention (p=0.049). We also found differences among beaches (p=0.001), and an increase in littering with crowding (p=0.005). We show for the first time that the personalized request combined with the example of picking up litter is effective in reducing littering in a Latin American country.

  11. Can bilingual two-year-olds code-switch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, E

    1992-10-01

    Sociolinguists have investigated language mixing as code-switching in the speech of bilingual children three years old and older. Language mixing by bilingual two-year-olds, however, has generally been interpreted in the child language literature as a sign of the child's lack of language differentiation. The present study applies perspectives from sociolinguistics to investigate the language mixing of a bilingual two-year-old acquiring Norwegian and English simultaneously in Norway. Monthly recordings of the child's spontaneous speech in interactions with her parents were made from the age of 2;0 to 2;7. An investigation into the formal aspects of the child's mixing and the context of the mixing reveals that she does differentiate her language use in contextually sensitive ways, hence that she can code-switch. This investigation stresses the need to examine more carefully the roles of dominance and context in the language mixing of young bilingual children.

  12. [Analysis of two year heroin seizures in the Liege area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denooz, R; Dubois, N; Charlier, C

    2005-09-01

    The results of heroin analysis from seizures in the Liege area during the last two years are presented in this article. Between January 2003 and January 2005, 50 samples were analysed in the Laboratory of Clinical Toxicology and Forensic Toxicology of the University of Liege. Mean heroin concentration was 14,7%. Noscapine and papaverine, other opium alcaloïds, were simultaneously present with heroin. As diluents, we only identified caffein and acetaminophen.

  13. MICROWAVE SENSOR DEVELOPMENT IN RECENT TWO YEARS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The development of microwave sensors in recent two years in China are in troduced with an emphasis on spaceborne sensors without the applications in cluded. The microwave sensors as the main payloads to be boarded on the future operational satellites, such as FY-3 meteorological satellites and HY-2 marine satellite are introduced with much in detail. Besides these, four new sensors are outlined, i.e. the imaging radar altimeter,synthetic aperture radiometer, and polarimetric radiometer. Two recently conducted flight experiment campaigns are also introduced with results shown.

  14. Beach ridges and prograded beach deposits as palaeoenvironment records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toru

    2012-09-01

    Beach ridges are landforms commonly developed on prograded coasts with beach shorelines. A sequence of beach ridges, coupled with their subsurface deposits, can be regarded as a time series of coastal evolution. Methodological advances in field surveying and chronology applicable to beach ridges have led to detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions to be derived from such sequences. This paper reconsiders the basic aspects of beach ridges and deposits, which need to be properly understood for their comprehensive interpretation in a palaeo-environmental context. It also reviews case studies in which beach-ridge sequences have been used to unveil past sea-level history, catastrophic events, and climate changes. Proposed formative processes of beach ridges include: 1) progradation of sandy beach and berm formations in relation to fairweather waves, coupled with aeolian foredune accumulation; 2) building of gravel ridges by storm waves; 3) welding of longshore bars. Beach-ridge formation through sea-level oscillation is thought to be questionable and caution is suggested for this process when undertaking palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Beach deposit stratification is known to dip either landwards or seawards, but landward dips are uncommon. Seaward dipping stratification is formed in relation to beachface progradation, and is usually dissected in places by erosion surfaces resulting from episodic beach retreat. The boundary between the foreshore and the underlying shoreface is well defined only in the case that longshore bars lead to complex bedding structure relative to that of the foreshore. Reliable chronology of beach ridges can be determined by radiocarbon and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Radiocarbon dating of articulated shells, which are considered not to be extensively reworked, provides robust results, but OSL dating is more useful as it enables direct dating of sediment grains. It is noted that there are restrictions in chronological

  15. BEACH VOLUME CHANGE USING UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY SONGJUNG BEACH, KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D and beach profile (vertical 2D on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  16. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  17. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  18. Chemical properties of two-year-old deciduous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, P.; Rolfe, G.L.; Lee, C.S.; White, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Contents of ash, hot-water extractives, 1% sodium hydroxide extractives, alcohol-benzene extractive, lignin, holocellulose, alpha-cellulose, and pentosan were determined on two-year-old, short-rotation trees of autumn olive, black alder, black locust, eastern cottonwood, royal paulownia, silver maple, and sycamore. These plantations were established in 1978 on marginal agricultural land that was not suitable for food production in Illinois. Six comparable species of commercial lumber were also analyzed. Test results indicated that all chemical properties did vary with species, above-ground tree portions, and ages of species. The two-year-old juvenile trees had higher average extractives, holocellulose, pentosan, and ash content than did the lumber of matured wood. Black locust possessed the highest values of holocellulose and alpha-cellulose, while the eastern cottonwood had the highest extractive contents. Silver maple had the highest lignin content. Both bark and branches which consisted of about 32% of the mass weight of young trees, had a higher average lignin, extractive and ash content than those of the stemwood. Based on chemical composition, these seven juvenile deciduous species could serve as a raw material for the paper and chemical industries, as well as for energy. 19 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Horry County Beach Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Horry County has coordinated with DHEC OCRM to fully inventory, analyze, and documenteach of the ten required elements for an approvable local comprehensive beach...

  20. 1933 Long Beach, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 5 kilometers southwest of Newport Beach. Seriously affected area: 1,200 square kilometers. Damage: $40 million. Schools were among the buildings most severely...

  1. The Defense Waste Processing Facility: Two Years of Radioactive Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, S.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Gee, J.T.; Sproull, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC is currently immobilizing high level radioactive sludge waste in borosilicate glass. The DWPF began vitrification of radioactive waste in May, 1996. Prior to that time, an extensive startup test program was completed with simulated waste. The DWPF is a first of its kind facility. The experience gained and data collected during the startup program and early years of operation can provide valuable information to other similar facilities. This experience involves many areas such as process enhancements, analytical improvements, glass pouring issues, and documentation/data collection and tracking. A summary of this experience and the results of the first two years of operation will be presented.

  2. Two years of operation of a large solar cooling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Romagnoni, P. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Casasola, L. (CERIT, Pordenone (Italy))

    1993-05-01

    A solar plant was installed with a surface area of 440 m[sup 2] of evacuated-tube collectors, a reflecting surface of the same area and an absorption refrigeration system for air-conditioning the CERIT building of Pordenone. A 43 m[sup 3] heat-storage unit, at temperatures of 80-90[sup o]C, and a 150 m[sup 3] cold-storage unit were also installed. These components form the largest solar cooling plant in Europe. After two years of operation, it is possible to evaluate the project as a whole, and to appreciate the contribution of the flat solar reflector and the working of the absorption unit. (Author)

  3. Spheroid degeneration of conjunctiva and cornea. Two years' follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, M

    1980-10-01

    Twenty-six subjects with spheroid degeneration were followed up after two years. The number of colourless conjunctival droplets was seen to have increased by on an average 46% (2 alpha = 0.05) and that of autofluorescent conjunctival droplets by 223% (2 alpha less than 0.01). Counting within the individual sites sites disclosed that some droplets will disappear (not less than 30 and 21% respectivelY), while recently formed will constitute at least 76 and 243%. The number of areas with band-shaped keratopathy was found to rise from 3 to 26 (P less than 0.001) out of 104 possibilities, (nasally and temporally of right and left eye). Vital staining (fluorescein, rose bengal, tetrazolium, alcian blue) showed the epithelium above the droplets to be intact, and the droplet-containing eyes were found not to be abnormally dry (break up time, tear production).

  4. Two-Year Community: A 3+8 Model of Undergraduate Research for Community College STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett-Robinson, Pamela M.; Villa, Brandi C.; Mooring, Suazette Reid

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of an innovative undergraduate research model for students attending a two-year institution. It gives students an opportunity to engage in undergraduate research at nearby four-year institutions, which provides a foundation that allows them to successfully make the transition to STEM programs at the…

  5. Two-Year College Succession Planning: Utilizing the Mission Statement for Selection of the Vice President of Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey-Nevitt, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Colleges have a critical investment in the proper selection of key executive administrative positions with high quality leadership and character since leadership transitions can be unsettling and costly, and governing boards have a vested interest in getting it right. The problem is that two-year colleges are facing a strategic planning crisis…

  6. Complications, Reoperations, and Nutrient Deficiencies Two Years after Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Pech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate patient outcomes and nutritional deficiencies following sleeve gastrectomy (SG during a follow-up of two years. Methods. Over a period of 56 months, all consecutive patients who underwent SG were documented in this prospective, single-center, observational study. The study endpoints included operative time, complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL. Results. From September 26, 2005 to May 28, 2009, 82 patients (female : male = 48 : 34 with a mean age of 43.3 years (range: 22–64 and a preoperative BMI of 52.5 kg/m² (range: 36.8–77.0 underwent SG. Major complications were observed in 9.8% of the patients, with 1 death. During follow up 51.2% of patients were supplemented with iron, 36.6% with zinc, 37.8% with calcium, 26.8% with vitamin D, 46.3% with vitamin B12 and 41.5% with folic acid. %EWL was 54.3, 65.3 and 62.6% after 6, 12 and 24 months. Conclusion. SG as a single step procedure is an effective bariatric intervention. Nutritional deficiencies after SG can be detected by routine nutritional screening. Our results show that Vitamin B12 supplementation should suggest routinely after SG.

  7. Two Years of Site Diversity Measurements in Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Morse, J.; Zemba, M.; Nessel, J.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA communication networks upgrade to higher frequencies, such as Ka-Band, atmospherically induced attenuation can become significant. This attenuation is caused by rain, clouds and atmospheric gases (oxygen and water vapor), with rain having the most noticeable effects. One technique to circumvent the increase in attenuation is to operate two terminals separated by a distance that exceeds the average rain cell size. The fact that rain cells are of finite size can then be exploited by rerouting the signal to the terminal with the strongest link. This technique, known as site diversity, is best suited for climates that have compact (less than 2km) and intense rain cells such as in Guam. In order to study the potential diversity gain at the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam a site test interferometer (STI) was installed in May of 2010. The STI is composed of two terminals with a 900m baseline that observe the same unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., UFO 8). The potential site diversity gain is calculated by measuring the difference in signal attenuation seen at each terminal. Over the two years of data collection the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the site diversity gain shows a better than 3 dB improvement for 90% of the time over standard operation. These results show that the use of site diversity in Guam can be very effective in combating rain fades.

  8. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  9. Complications and nutrient deficiencies two years after sleeve gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pech Nicole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this systematic study was to investigate patient outcomes and nutritional deficiencies following sleeve gastrectomy (SG during a median follow-up of two years. Methods Over a period of 56 months, all consecutive patients who underwent SG were documented in this prospective, single-center, observational study. The study endpoints included complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL. Results From September 26, 2005 to May 28, 2009, 100 patients (female: male = 59:41 with a mean age of 43.6 years (range: 22–64 and a preoperative BMI of 52.3 kg/² (range: 36–77 underwent SG. The mean operative time was 86.4 min (range: 35–275. Major complications were observed in 8.0 % of the patients. During the follow-up period, 25 patients (25.0 % underwent a second bariatric intervention (22 DS and 3 RYGBP. Out of the total 100 patients, 48 % were supplemented with iron, 33 % with zinc, 34 % with a combination of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol, 24 % with vitamin D, 42 % with vitamin B12 and 40 % with folic acid. The patients who received only a SG (n = 75 had %EWL of 53.6, 65.8 and 62.6 % after 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Conclusions SG is a highly effective bariatric intervention for morbidly obese patients. Nutritional deficiencies resulting from the procedure can be detected by routine nutritional screening. Results of the study show that Vitamin B12 supplementation should suggested routinely.

  10. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August...

  11. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  12. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in...

  13. Improving Oasis Beach: Creating a sustainable and attractive beach around hotel Oasis in Varadero Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, E.F.; Poelhekke, L.; Schlepers, M.H.; De Boer, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the North of Cuba, the Oasis beach area is situated. The beach suffers from structural erosion and earlier measures to deal with this have not succeeded. In this project, a solution is offered to reach two goals: foremost, a beach improvement to the Oasis beach sector and second, a halt to the s

  14. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic... Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised of a series of triathlon races, is scheduled to take place on Saturday, October 8, 2011 and...

  15. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised of a series of triathlon races, is scheduled to take place on Saturday, October...

  16. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised of a series of triathlon races, is scheduled to take place on Saturday, October...

  17. Amchitka beach surveys, 1978-1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of 16 beaches on Amchitka Island began 28 October 1978 as part of Alaska Beached Bird Survey. The purpose of the surveys is to provide baseline data on...

  18. The beach ridges of India: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    An attempt has been made to assemble and synthesize research work conducted on beach ridges and associated geomorphic features around India. Information on location, morphology, origin, and age of beach ridges, has been gathered from the literature...

  19. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Beaches 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...

  20. Lake Beach Monitoring Locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...

  1. FETAL AUTOPSY STUDY OVER A TWO YEAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Perinatal death rate is declining in developed and developing countries and so are perinatal autopsies. In the present days due to wider availability and awareness of prenatal scanning more and more congenital malformations are picked up in e arlier weeks of gestation. This helps in counselling of the couple which usually leads to an informed decision on medical termination of pregnancy. Autopsy performed on such fetuses , yields additional information in many cases. AIMS: The study was carried out to determine how well the prenatal ultrasound findings correlate with autopsy findings and also to determine the cause of death where ultrasound was not performed in patients who had spontaneous intrauterine death and abortion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T his was a prospective study carried out over a period of two years in the department of pathology at Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre , Hyderabad , from January 2013 to December 2014. A total of 23 fetal autopsies were performed of wh ich one was a twin pregnancy. Brief maternal history , prenatal ultrasound scans , relevant biochemical markers and genetic studies wherever done , were noted. RESULTS : There were 14 male (60.86% and 8 female (34.78% fetuses , and in one case (4.34% gender could not be identified. Nineteen cases (82.60 % were less than 28 weeks of gestation. Medical termination of pregnancy was done in 13 cases (56.52 % whereas , 10 patients (43.47 % had spontaneous intrauterine death of the fetus. Ultrasound scanning was done in 15 cases (65.21 %. In 13 cases (86.66 % the ultrasound and autopsy findings were correlating whereas in two cases (13.33 % there were findings on imaging study which could not be identified on autopsy. Ultrasound was not done in 8 cases (34.78 % out of which 5 cases (62.5 % showed findings on autopsy which could have led to the fetal demise. Twelve cases (52.17 % were referral cases which had come from other hospitals

  2. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  3. The First Two Years of Electromagnetic Follow-Up with Advanced LIGO and Virgo

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, Leo P; Farr, Ben; Urban, Alex L; Pankow, Chris; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Farr, Will M; Hanna, Chad; Cannon, Kipp; Downes, Tom; Graff, Philip; Haster, Carl-Johan; Mandel, Ilya; Sidery, Trevor; Vecchio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We anticipate the first direct detections of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Virgo later this decade. Though this groundbreaking technical achievement will be its own reward, a still greater prize could be observations of compact binary mergers in both gravitational and electromagnetic channels simultaneously. During Advanced LIGO and Virgo's first two years of operation, 2015 through 2016, we expect the global gravitational-wave detector array to improve in sensitivity and livetime and expand from two to three detectors. We model the detection rate and the sky localization accuracy for binary neutron star mergers across this transition. We have analyzed a large, astrophysically motivated source population using real-time detection and sky localization codes and higher-latency parameter estimation codes that have been expressly built for operation in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We show that for most binary neutron star events the rapid sky localization, available about a minute after a detection, ...

  4. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  5. Number of Physics Faculty in Two-Year Colleges: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics in Two-Year Colleges. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Chu, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier report, ("Physics Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges," ED547610), Susan White and Raymond Chu examined physics enrollments--both the number of students and the types of classes taught--at the 1,063 two-year college campuses in the US where they believe physics is offered. This "Focus On" considers the faculty…

  6. Natural and Anthropogenic Controls on Beach Morphology from Analysis of Terrestrial Scanning Laser Time Series Data, Waimea Bay, Oahu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Becker, J.; Merrifield, M.; Foster, J.; Ericksen, T.; Hilmer, T.; Vitousek, S.

    2008-12-01

    To determine the environmental conditions and timing leading to long time scale (O(years)) and specific event (O(days-hours)) changes in beach morphology we collected terrestrial scanning laser (TLS) topographic time series, offshore wave data, and high resolution digital photographs of the entire beach at Waimea Bay, Oahu from January through June 2007. Each survey had better than 1cm range-resolution, average spot-spacing of 10 cm, and had tilts removed using GPS-based geocoding. The TLS surveys on monthly time-scales quantify the seasonal transition in beach morphology and volume forced by high waves (winter) to small waves (summer). The surveys over daily to hourly time scales quantify the evolution of discrete morphological features. For instance, two surveys taken three hours apart on 27 April 2007 when significant wave height was roughly 0.7m document an order 0.1 m increase in sand elevation occurring along the foreshore indicating active sand accretion following an erosion event on 24 April 2007 when significant wave height was roughly 2.5m. Well-defined fore-beach and back-beach cuspate features were present during the surveys. The elevation difference map shows that the main area of accretion occurred in the fore-beach cusp embayments, i.e., the beach cusps appear to be filling in with sand. We further use the TLS time series data to quantify the subaerial morphologic signal and volumetric beach change budget of foot-traffic on the beach. Our initial observations indicate that the upper portions of the beach, rarely affected by waves but receiving hundreds to thousands of visitors per day, exhibits convex upward character typical of diffusive forcing. We assess whether a diffusive landscape evolution model based on linear or non-linear flux laws describes the temporal and spatial evolution of the upper parts of beaches where wave forcing rarely occurs.

  7. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  8. Case study Piçarras Beach: Erosion and nourishment of a headland bay beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, S.; Hoekstra, R.; De Zeeuw, R.; Zoon, A.

    2008-01-01

    Master project report. Piçarras is one of the touristic beaches of Santa Catarina state in Brazil. Piçarras beach is a headland bay beach. In the bay irregular features like an island, rocky outcrops and shoals are present influencing wave propagation. In the south Piçarras is bounded by Piçarras ri

  9. Five years of beach drainage survey on a macrotidal beach (Quend-Plage, northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.

  10. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  11. Beach Nourishment and Artificial Surf Reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.H.; De Menezes, J.T.; Sperb, R.S.; Siegle, E.; Fontura, R.; Van de Graaff, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van der Schrieck, G.L.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Balneário Camboriú is a very touristy city in southern Brazil, situated in the five kilometer wide Camboriú Bay. Its main tourist attraction is the beach, which is 5800 m long and rather narrow with a dry width of 10 to 20 m. The city is facing several problems regarding the beach that have a negati

  12. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    A need exists for frequent and prompt updating of shoreline positions, rates of shoreline movement, and volumetric nearshore changes. To effectively monitor and predict these beach changes, accurate measurements of beach morphology incorporating both shore-parallel and shore-normal transects are required. Although it is possible to monitor beach dynamics using land-based surveying methods, it is generally not practical to collect data of sufficient density and resolution to satisfy a three-dimensional beach-change model of long segments of the coast. The challenge to coastal scientists is to devise new beach monitoring methods that address these needs and are rapid, reliable, relatively inexpensive, and maintain or improve measurement accuracy.

  13. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  14. Physics Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics in Two-Year Colleges. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Chu, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    This "Focus On" first considers the role two-year colleges (TYCs) play in post-secondary physics education. In their 2007 Survey of Undergraduate Seniors in degree-granting physics departments, the authors asked students if they had begun their post-secondary education at a TYC. Nine percent of the physics undergraduate seniors in 2007…

  15. A Framework and Strategies for Advancing Change and Innovation in Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Christopher J.; Conrad, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding variation in institutional missions, two-year colleges are the gateway to postsecondary education for the majority of college and university students in this country. As institutions of choice for many and institutions of necessity for others, two-year institutions are constantly challenged to meet the rapidly changing needs of…

  16. Hispanic Student Enrollment and Attainment in Texas Two-Year Colleges: A Multiyear, Statewide Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jack; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined the numbers and percentages of Hispanic college students enrolled in Texas two-year colleges and the numbers and percentages of Hispanic students who obtained associate degrees from Texas two-year colleges for the 2000 through the 2011 academic years. Hispanic student enrollment and educational attainment…

  17. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... east of Daytona Beach, Florida, during the Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, a series of...

  18. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and...

  19. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  20. Long-term effects of beach nourishment on intertidal invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, Tyler Brock

    2015-01-01

    Although beach nourishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, no consensus exists regarding how long nourishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of sandy beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a nourishment project at eight beaches across San Diego County. Each beach was split into nourished and control sections. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately fol...

  1. Observation on foreshore morphodynamics of microtidal sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.

    of two microtidal sandy beaches, Kundapura and Padukare, along the Karna- taka shoreline on the west coast of India during three annual cycles from March 2008 to March 2011. The net observation at both sites exhibits slow rate of sediment accretion... sustainable coastal zone management studies. Beach profiles provide signifi- cant insights for understanding short and long-term spatio- temporal beach morphodynamics1,2. Also, beach profile is an essential tool in predicting beach morphodynamics...

  2. Faults--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  3. Beach Nourishment History (1920s to 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...

  4. Folds--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  5. Habitat--Offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the habitat map of the seafloor (see sheet 7) offshore of Refugio Beach, California (vector data file is included in...

  6. Contours--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of Offshore Refugio Beach, California (vector data file is included in...

  7. A case of a retained intralenticular foreign body for two years

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Mete; YILMAZ, Turgut; Yiǧit, Mehmet; Ülkü, Gülşen; Arslan, Sermal

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a missed metallic intraocular foreign body retained in the lens over a two-year period without causing inflammatory reaction, which presented with cataract later. A 24-year-old man presented with a progressive blurring of vision in the left eye for two years. He had had a history of metal-on-metal activity two years before. He had pain for one day in left eye and it was healed by the following day. Biomicroscopic examination revealed cataract, an intralenticular foreign bo...

  8. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-08-15

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion.

  9. PAH concentrations in Coquina (Donax spp.) on a sandy beach shoreline impacted by a marine oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Richard A; Vestal, Alexandra; Welch, Christina; Barnes, Gracie; Pelot, Robert; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick

    2014-06-15

    The BP MC252 well failure in the Gulf of Mexico, April 2010 caused concern for crude oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) exposure along the sandy beaches of the Florida Panhandle. We began collections of Coquina clams (Donax spp.) from the surf zone of Florida Panhandle beaches to monitor PAH contamination to compliment analysis of surf zone sand samples. These clams had higher levels of PAHs relative to ambient sand, and this allowed us to continue to monitor PAH levels after sand concentrations fell below limits of detection. PAH levels in the Coquina tissues were highly variable, perhaps indicative of the heterogeneous distribution of oil and tar on the beaches and exposure to tar particles. Overall, PAH levels decreased continuously in both sand and Coquina tissues, reaching limits of detection within one and two years respectively after oil landed on Florida Panhandle beaches. Our work suggests these surf zone molluscs may be used to monitor pollutant exposure along high energy sandy beach shorelines.

  10. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    For mammography, a woman 40 years of age or older must have reported having at least one mammography in her life. Furthermore, she should have had the most recent one within the last two years by the time of interview.

  11. Contributions of Two-Year Institutions to Four-Year Completions. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the 2013-14 academic year, 46 percent of students who completed a degree at a four-year institution were enrolled at a two-year institution at some point in the previous 10 years. This is a one percentage point increase over the comparable figure for degrees awarded in 2010-11. The prior two-year enrollment may have been brief (as little as a…

  12. Age and morphodynamics of a sandy beach fronted by a macrotidal mud flat along the west coast of Korea: a lateral headland bypass model for beach-dune formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Choi, Jeong-Heon

    2016-11-01

    The Dasari beach-dune system fronted by an intertidal mud flat is a typical example of numerous small beaches found both in embayments and along the open macrotidal west coast of Korea. The beach is frequently exposed to energetic wave action at high tide in winter. Although this coastal dune-sandy beach-intertidal mud flat system has previously been described, its origin and morphodynamic behavior has to date not been firmly established. To clarify these issues, elevation profiles and surficial sediment samples were collected seasonally along five monitoring transects across the tidal flat. In addition, box-cores as well as vibro- and drill-cores were acquired along the middle transect. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C- AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) dating methods were applied to determine the age of the tidal flat, the beach and the dune deposits. The results show that Dasari beach is topographically composed of two distinct morphological and sedimentological sectors, comprising a high-tide sandy beach that merges seaward into an extensive low-tide tidal flat composed of mud. The transition between the two sectors is marked by a sharp break in slope and change in internal sedimentary structures. At the boundary, the subtle shoreward fining trend in mean grain size on the intertidal flat switches to a pronounced shoreward coarsening trend. Near the transition, mixing between the beach sand and the mud is observed. Another striking feature is a seasonal rotation of the beach system centered on the middle sector, with the northern sector eroding in winter and accreting in summer, and the southern sector accreting in winter and eroding in summer. The spatial grain-size pattern reveals that the beach is fed from the neighboring beach in the north by lateral headland bypassing, rather than onshore transport across the tidal flat, the intermittent lateral supply of sand explaining the seasonal rotation of the beach. Stratigraphically, the beach

  13. Haeundae beach in Korea: Seasonal-to-decadal wave statistics and impulsive beach responses to typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Do, Jong-Dae; Kim, Sun Sin; Park, Won-Kyung; Jun, Kicheon

    2016-12-01

    Haeundae Beach represents Korean pocket beaches that are currently erosional and dominated by summertime typhoons. The decadal wave characteristics 9 km offshore of Haeundae Beach were analyzed using the WAM model that was validated through the 2007 wave observations. The wave statistics modelled for 1979-2007 indicates that the seasonal mean significant wave height (H s) is highest (0.6-0.7 m) in summer due to typhoons, in contrast to the lowest (around 0.5 m) autumn analog. The wave direction is also pronouncedly seasonal with the principal bearings of SSW and NE in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The WAM results additionally show that the H s has gradually increased over the region of Haeundae Beach since 1993. Beach profiling during June-November 2014 shows the opposite processes of the typhoon and fair-weather on beach sands. During a typhoon, foreshore sands were eroded and then accumulated as sand bars on the surf zone. In the subsequent fair-weather, the sand bars moved back to the beach resulting in the surf-zone erosion and foreshore accretion. A total of 5 cycles of these beach-wide sand movements yielded a net retreat (up to 20 m) of the shoreline associated with large foreshore erosion. However, the surf zone only slightly accumulated as a result of the sand cycles. This was attributed to the sand escape offshore from the westernmost tip of the beach. The present study may provide an important clue to understanding the erosional processes in Haeundae Beach.

  14. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  15. Complex, dynamic combination of physical, chemical and nutritional variables controls spatio-temporal variation of sandy beach community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Cisneros, Kelly; Smit, Albertus J; Laudien, Jürgen; Schoeman, David S

    2011-01-01

    Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C∶N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis) that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean-exposed sandy

  16. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  17. Beach Management & Analysis of the Visitors’ Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Paksoy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available User perceptions can become vital especially at beach preferences as cleanliness, safety and amenities are some of the apparent factors that will affect. With the awareness of probable adaptation of beach users’ demands into policy recommendations, a case study has been carried out at Black Sea Coast of İstanbul at Şile beaches. Şile has been chosen in this study purposefully as it is a touristic district of İstanbul which has aimed to earn Blue Flag award previously. Secondly, it receives high amount of visitors especially during the peak periods in weekends; as it has a very close location to the city, people are choosing here most of the time just for the day. In this research with factors about human use of beach and impacts like cleanliness and sufficiency of amenities (showers, toilets, changing cubicles, parks etc. and the number of lifeguards are studied. Regarding the findings, the researchers consequently highlight recommendations for Şile beach management which could enhance the visitor experience.

  18. Beach Management & Analysis of Visitors’ Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Paksoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available User perceptions can become vital especially at beach preferences as cleanliness, safety and amenities are some of the apparent factors that will affect. With the awareness of probable adaptation of beach users’ demands into policy recommendations, a case study has been carried out at Black Sea Coast of İstanbul at Şile beaches. Şile has been chosen in this study purposefully as it is a touristic district of İstanbul which has aimed to earn Blue Flag award previously. Secondly, it receives high amount of visitors especially during the peak periods in weekends; as it has a very close location to the city, people are choosing here most of the time just for the day. In this research with factors about human use of beach and impacts like cleanliness and sufficiency of amenities (showers, toilets, changing cubicles, parks etc. and the number of lifeguards are studied. Regarding the findings, the researchers consequently highlight recommendations for Şile beach management which could enhance the visitor experience.

  19. RIP current zones along beaches in Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jena, B.K.

    . Parts of stations 5 and 6 in Harmal Beach, 16 at Vagator Beach, 51-54 at Miramar Beach, 75 and 76 at Valsao Beach, 84 at Majorda Beach, and 116 at Palolem Beach are observed to have the risk of permanent rip current zones; and they are unsafe places...

  20. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches PRAWN Attribute Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  1. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  2. Evaluation of Subterranean Subsidence at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of subsurface subsidence at Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach (NWSSB) areas which include Seal Beach National...

  3. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  4. Tidal flow separation at protruding beach nourishments

    OpenAIRE

    Rademacher, Max; de Schipper, Matthieu A.; Swinkels, Cilia; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JC011942 In recent years, the application of large-scale beach nourishments has been discussed, with the Sand Motor in the Netherlands as the first real-world example. Such protruding beach nourishments have an impact on tidal currents, potentially leading to tidal flow separation and the generation of tidal eddies of length scales larger than the nourishment itself. The present study examines the cha...

  5. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  6. Beachwatch : The effect of daily morphodynamics on seasonal beach evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Not only the storm intensity, but also the capacity of the beach to recover during fair weather conditions, influences the erosion trends of beaches. Susanne Quartel concludes this in her thesis in which the daily changes of the intertidal beach of Noordwijk aan Zee, the Netherlands, are described.

  7. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  8. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  9. Intertidal beach slope predictions compared to field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium valu

  10. Surf zone fauna of Ecuadorian sandy beaches: Spatial and temporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Fockedey, N.; de Grunauer, M. del P. Cornejo R.; Dominguez-Granda, L.

    2017-02-01

    Sandy beaches and their surf zones are the most common open shoreline habitat; however, surf zone fauna in the tropics is one of the least studied communities in the world. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that Ecuadorian surf zone hyperbenthos (invertebrates and vertebrates 1-5 mm in length) and epibenthos (fish and macrocrustaceans > 5 mm in length) vary among beaches and seasons. Therefore, the fauna was described and related to environmental variables. In addition, indicator taxa were identified. The hyperbenthos was divided into holo- and mero-hyperbenthos depending on whether taxa were present during their entire life or only early life stages, respectively. Samples were collected at eight different beaches during the wet, dry and intermediate or transitional season during the low spring tide, from 1999 to 2000, using a hyperbenthic sledge and epibenthic trawl. A total of 447 hyperbenthic and 30 epibenthic taxa were collected, most of which were crustaceans and fish, respectively (52 and 60% of taxa). The mysid, Metamysidopsis sp., was the most abundant member of the hyperbenthos (average ± SD: 14,425 ± 40,039 ind. 100 m- 2, present in 92% of samples collected), and the swimming blue crab, Areneus mexicanus, was the most encountered species among the epibenthos (1 ± 1 ind. 100 m- 2, 97% of samples collected). All faunal groups varied among beaches, while the holo-hyperbenthos and less strongly the epibenthos varied among seasons. Variability in the three faunas among beaches, distance from the continental slope and the Guayas estuarine system, and beach water physical characteristics were all strongly correlated suggesting adjacent habitats can influence surf zone biological communities and water physical characteristics. Seasonal effects were related to changes in water physical characteristics among seasons potentially reflecting changes in oceanic currents. These results suggest that, similarly to other beaches around the world, Ecuadorian

  11. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  12. Determining the Numeracy and Algebra Errors of Students in a Two-Year Vocational School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the mathematics achievement level in basic numeracy and algebra concepts of students in a two-year program in a technical vocational school of higher education and determine the errors that they make in these topics. The researcher developed a diagnostic mathematics achievement test related to numeracy and…

  13. Where the Italian Journal of Public Health is going? A tale of the last two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Extract:

    Two years ago, speaking about the future of the Italian Journal of Public Health, we told that the reason why the journal is also an international journal (almost 40% of published papers come from outside Italy is “mainly due to our membership to EUPHA and to several scientific network”.

  14. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

  15. Experiences of University Physicists Working With Their Two-Year College Neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassenburg, A. A.

    1971-01-01

    Describes programs designed to minimize problems that physics departments of two-year colleges have: (1) articulating with degree institutions, (2) teaching students that are weaker academically than those in typical four-year colleges, (3) obtaining suitable teaching materials, and (4) obtaining adequately prepared teachers. (DS)

  16. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  17. Effect of Rearing Environment on the Feeding Pattern of under Two Years Old Nigerian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Ifeoluwapo Oyebola

    2011-01-01

    With economic pressures on families increasing, more women are working outside the home leaving their children in day care centres. In a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study, the feeding pattern in two groups of children under two years old, cared for in two different rearing environments: home environment and day care centres, was…

  18. Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing for Technical Workforce Training at Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council for Geographic Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the outcomes of a workshop held at the National Science Foundation on August 15-16, 2005. Forty-six participants, representing academia, industry, government agencies, professional associations, and special projects met to: (1) discuss how geospatial technology training at two-year colleges can address workforce needs; and…

  19. Brief Report: Fathers' and Mothers' Marital Relationship Predicts Daughters' Pubertal Development Two Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Repetti, Rena L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents of 50 4th grade girls reported on their marital relationships and then, two years later, rated their daughters' pubertal development. Fathers' ratings of marital dissatisfaction, mothers' ratings of less emotional support from husbands, and both parents' ratings of aversive marital conflict were correlated with more advanced pubertal…

  20. Does High Quality Childcare Narrow the Achievement Gap at Two Years of Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Erik; Burchinal, Margaret; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg; Dang, Tran; Lee, Weilin

    2011-01-01

    The authors use the ECLS-B, a nationally-representative study of children born in 2001 to report the child care arrangements and quality characteristics for 2-year olds in the United States and to estimate the effects of differing levels of child care quality on two-year old children's cognitive development. Their goal is to test whether high…

  1. Two Years into the Journey: AACSB Assessment of Learning in a "Principles of Marketing" Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Steven R.; Marco, Gayle; Chu, Yun

    2009-01-01

    Using a "Principles of Marketing" course, the authors demonstrate how compliance with AACSB standards and assessment of learning has been undertaken at Robert Morris University over a two-year period. Learning goals and objectives are tied to a specific assessment instrument to provide an illustration of how broad conceptual ideas are…

  2. Two-Year-Olds Exclude Novel Objects as Potential Referents of Novel Words Based on Pragmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Susanne; Stracke, Maren; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have established that children tend to exclude objects for which they already have a name as potential referents of novel words. In the current study we asked whether this exclusion can be triggered by social-pragmatic context alone without pre-existing words as blockers. Two-year-old children watched an adult looking at a novel…

  3. Guidelines for Chemistry and Chemical Technology Programs in Two-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Designed for use in institutional self-studies and program reviews, these guidelines provide a comprehensive model for chemistry and chemical technology programs in two-year, associate-degree-granting colleges. The eight sections of the guide suggest 90 standards in the areas of: (1) chemistry program mission and periodic program review; (2)…

  4. Do Institutional Attributes Predict Individuals' Degree Success at Two-Year Colleges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Lisbeth J.; Rosenbaum, James E.; Stephan, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores institutional attributes that matter for two-year college students and how they vary by different subpopulations of students, with an eye toward understanding what institutional attributes better support the success of underprepared students. In particular, the authors address the following questions: (1) Which institutional…

  5. An Inquiry into the Graduate Training Needs of Two-Year College Teachers of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Robert; And Others

    About 10% of the approximately 6,000 two-year college mathematics teachers were surveyed to assess their views on graduate training needs in their field. A profile of these teachers revealed that two-thirds were less than 45 years of age, all but 6% held masters degrees, 22% were women, and over 60% had high school teaching experience; typically…

  6. Institutional Researchers' Use of Qualitative Research Methods for Institutional Accountability at Two Year Colleges in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Bishar M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined institutional researchers' use of qualitative methods to document institutional accountability and effectiveness at two-year colleges in Texas. Participants were Institutional Research and Effectiveness personnel. Data were collected through a survey consisting of closed and open ended questions which was administered…

  7. From Simple Questions to Powerful Connections: A Two-Year Conversation about Negative Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Jean L.; Mohs, Laura C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of a group of primary-grade students and their teacher as they explore negative numbers over the course of two years. It is just one example of how a problem-solving environment contributes to discussion and understanding in mathematics. (Contains 3 figures.)

  8. The Volunteers. The Peace Corps Educational Television (ETV) Project in Colombia: Two Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George; And Others

    For this report on a two-year Peace Corps project designed to implement educational television (ETV) into Colombia schools, the Peace Corps Volunteers who participated are investigated. The history and experience of these Volunteers in the Peace Corps are sketched first. Next, the consequences for them of serving in a large, integrated, special…

  9. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  10. Role of Early Family Configuration and Hours Worked on Student Success in Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Robert A.; Passmore, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence student success in two-year colleges, community colleges, or junior colleges. In determining the purpose of the study, a research framework is established to review the relationships between student success and biological children, marriage/co-habitation, early family configuration,…

  11. Bypass iliac-mesenteric-cava inpatients under two years of age. Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva López Noé

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the treatment of portal hypertension in pediatric patients, some type of porto-systemic shunt is indicated, which is an unusual surgical procedure in patients under two years of age, due to the low incidence of this disease at this age and the increase in the number of complications. Objective: We present our experience and results with this procedure in patients under two years of age seen in the Hepatobiliopancreatic general surgery service at Instituto Nacional de PediatríaDiscussion: The causes of portal hypertension in children are varied. Among the extrahepatic causes, the most common is cavernomatous portal degeneration. Children with portal hypertension under two years have severe symptoms such as recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia; others have hypersplenism data. In many cases medical management is useless and a surgical procedure require such as a portosystemic shunt in order to decrease the size of varicose esophageal veins and prevent bleeding that threatens the patient’s life. Conclusion: The iliac-mesenteric-caval shunt in patients under two years is a feasible alternative that improves the clinical status of the patient, reducing the risk of bleeding. However long-term studies are needed to determine the outcome of these patients. Keywords: Iliac-mesenteric-caval shunt, portal hypertension.

  12. Invisibility, Difference, and Disparity: Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Two-Year College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Colleen; Keeton, André

    2015-01-01

    The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on college students' behavior has become a ripe area of focus and research. However, interest and research has primarily been focused on traditional four- year college students. Thus, the four-year college experience is taken as the default against which two-year colleges are compared. Nearly 12 million…

  13. A Data-Driven Approach to SEM Development at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirius, Landon K.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores implementation of strategic enrollment management (SEM) at a two-year college and why SEM is critical to the long-term viability of an institution. This article also outlines the five initial steps needed to implement SEM, including identifying SEM leadership, building a SEM committee, developing a common understanding of…

  14. Evolution of Costs of Inflammatory Bowel Disease over Two Years of Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, Mirthe E; Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Severs, Mirjam; van der Have, Mike; Dijkstra, Gerard; van Bodegraven, Ad A; Fidder, Herma H; de Jong, Dirk J; van der Woude, C Janneke; Romberg-Camps, Mariëlle J L; Clemens, Cees H M; Jansen, Jeroen M; van de Meeberg, Paul C; Mahmmod, Nofel; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y; Bolwerk, Clemens; Vermeijden, J Reinoud; Siersema, Peter D; Leenders, Max; Oldenburg, Bas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of anti-TNF therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a shift of costs has been observed with medication costs replacing hospitalization and surgery as major cost driver. We aimed to explore the evolution of IBD-related costs over two years of follow-up. METHOD

  15. Evolution of costs of inflammatory bowel disease over two years of follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van der Valk (Mirthe); M.J.J. Mangen; M. Severs; M. van der Have (Mike); G. Dijkstra (Gerard); A.A. van Bodegraven (Ad); M. Fidder (Melissa); D.J. De Jong (Dirk J.); C.J. van der Woude (Janneke); M. Romberg-Camps (Mariëlle); P.R. Clemens (Paula ); J.M. Jansen (Jeroen); P.C. van de Meeberg (Paul); N. Mahmmod (Nofel); A.E. van der Meulen-de Jong (Andrea); B.P. Ponsioen (Ben); C.L. Bolwerk (Clemens); J.R. Vermeijden (J. Reinoud); P.D. Siersema (Peter); M. Leenders (Max); B. Oldenburg (Bas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: With the increasing use of anti-TNF therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a shift of costs has been observed with medication costs replacing hospitalization and surgery as major cost driver. We aimed to explore the evolution of IBD-related costs over two years of follo

  16. Preparing students in two-year colleges for geoscience degrees and careers: Workshop results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.

    2012-12-01

    Building a strong and diverse geoscience workforce is a critical national challenge. Two-year colleges (2YCs) play an important role in increasing both the number and diversity of geoscience graduates. A workshop on Preparing Students from Two-year Colleges for Geoscience Degrees and Careers was held in Tacoma, WA in July 2012 to discuss the successes and challenges of programs, strategies, and activities that support career preparation of 2YC students for geoscience careers, either as geotechnical graduates or as geoscience majors at four-year colleges and universities, and to make recommendations for future efforts. At the workshop several successful partnerships between employers and two-year colleges as well as between two-year colleges and four-year institutions were discussed as potential models that could be replicated with adaptations for local employment needs. Participants shared successful techniques for supporting 2YC students in their career path such as internships, early opportunities for participating in research, joint fieldtrips with transfer institutions, and supportive curriculum alignment between two and four-year institutions. Professional organizations have much to offer including information about career options, networking opportunities, and more. Participants discussed strategies for supporting geoscience workforce development at 2YCs such as making connections between 2YCs and local employers, identifying geoscience students at 2YCs who are planning to transfer and building relationships with 4YCs, establishing internship programs, supporting student geoscience clubs, and developing a repository of geoscience employment information targeted to 2YC students. Participants recognized significant barriers to incorporating career training and information into the geoscience curriculum at two-year colleges. These barriers include a predominance of non-geoscience students in classes, lack of support or rewards for improving or increasing the

  17. Two-year treatment patterns and costs in glaucoma patients initiating treatment with prostaglandin analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana K Schmier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jordana K Schmier1, Edmund C Lau2, David W Covert31Exponent, Alexandria, VI, USA; 2Exponent, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 3Alcon Research Ltd, Fort Worth, TX, USAObjective: To determine treatment patterns and costs over a two-year period among new initiators of topical prostaglandin analogs in a managed care population by retrospective cohort analysis of an insurance claims database.Methods: Patients who initiated therapy with a prostaglandin analog between September 2006 and March 2007 were identified. The use of monotherapy and adjunctive therapies were compared by index prostaglandin. Days to initiation of adjunctive therapy and rates of glaucoma surgical procedures were also calculated. Medical costs (antiglaucoma medications and ophthalmic visits over the two-year period were estimated.Results: The analysis identified 5018 patients with at least one prostaglandin analog prescription (bimatoprost, n = 747; latanoprost, n = 1651; benzalkonium chloride (BAK-free travoprost, n = 203. The majority (51%–54% had repeat prescriptions. Among those with repeat prescriptions, 52% were female (not significant and mean age was 64 years (P < 0.01. Rates of adjunctive therapy use varied across groups (bimatoprost 51%, latanoprost 37%, and BAK-free travoprost 35%, P < 0.0001. Median and mean days to initiation of adjunctive therapy were 83 and 140 for bimatoprost, 101 and 181 for latanoprost, and 113 and 221 for BAK-free travoprost. Two-year medical costs were $3147, $2843, and $2557 for patients initiating treatment with bimatoprost, latanoprost, and BAK-free travoprost, respectively. Use of glaucoma surgical procedures across the treatment groups was similar over the two-year period.Conclusions: Over a two-year period, the rate and time to initiation of adjunctive therapy use, as well as medical costs, varied between index prostaglandins. However, the rate of glaucoma surgical interventions did not vary significantly across index medications.Keywords: costs

  18. Coastal erosion project, Diani beach, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballot, J.; Hoyng, C.; Kateman, I.; Smits, M.; De Winter, R.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. Since the seventies, the establishment of hotels and other facilities has increased the pressure on the Kenyan coast. During the last decade, hotel managers and residents in Diani Beach have been experiencing problems with erosion. The only measures taken to address the proble

  19. Alongshore variability of nourished and natural beaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Schipper, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Alongshore variability in topography (i.e. height differences in bed level along the coast) can exist on both natural and nourished beaches. An important question prior to implementation of a nourishment project is how alongshore variability is going to evolve and, related to this variability, the e

  20. Cross-Shore Exchange on Natural Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    public health cost estimates of contaminated coastal waters: A case study of gastroenteritis at Southern California beaches. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40...Jones, J. Svejkovsky, G. V. Leipzig, and A. Brown, 2001: Generation of enterococci bacteria in a coastal saltwater marsh and its impact on surf zone

  1. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  2. The effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.; Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Hua, G.; Tao, X.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Beach slope changes the tidal induced saltwater-freshwater circulations in coastal aquifers. However, the effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater-freshwater mixing process is far from understood. Based on sand flume experiments and numerical simulations, we investigated the intrusion process of saltwater into freshwater under tidal forcing and variable beach slopes. The sand flume experiment results show that milder slope induces larger upper saline plume (USP) and seaward salt wedge interface (SWI) under tidal forcing. While, the steady state SWI keeps stagnant with different beach slopes. Consistent with the previous research, our numerical simulations also show a lager flux exchange across the milder beach induced by the tidal fluctuations. The groundwater table fluctuates more intensify with deeper beach slope. The next step of our study will pay attention to the effect of beach slope on the instability of USP which induces the salt-fingering flow.

  3. Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Two-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John R.; Taylor, Robert D.; Flanagan, David T.; Carr, Sandra E.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Svoboda, Judy V.; Huls, M. H.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of iodine to maintain microbial water quality in a simulated spacecraft water system is being studied. An iodine level of about 2.0 mg/L is maintained by passing ultrapure influent water through an iodinated ion exchange resin. Six liters are withdrawn daily and the chemical and microbial quality of the water is monitored regularly. Stainless steel coupons used to monitor biofilm formation are being analyzed by culture methods, epifluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Results from the first two years of operation show a single episode of high bacterial colony counts in the iodinated system. This growth was apparently controlled by replacing the iodinated ion exchange resin. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the iodine has limited but not completely eliminated the formation of biofilm during the first two years of operation. Significant microbial contamination has been present continuously in a parallel noniodinated system since the third week of operation.

  4. A Model of the Earth's Magnetic Field From Two Year of Swarm Satellite Constellation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars;

    More than two year of data from ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive a model of the Earth’s magnetic field and its time variation (secular variation). The model describes contributions from the core and lithosphere as well as large-scale contributions from the magnetosphere (and its...... Earth-induced counterpart). We use data from geomagnetic quiet times and co-estimate the Euler angles describing the rotation between the vector magnetometer instrument frame and the North-East-Center (NEC) frame. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm...... satellites and alongtrack first differences we include the East-west magnetic gradient information provided by the lower Swarm satellite pair, thereby explicitly taking advantage of the constellation aspect of Swarm. We assess the spatial and temporal model resolution that can be obtained from two years...

  5. A Model of the Earth's Magnetic Field From Two Years of Swarm Satellite Constellation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, N.; Finlay, C. C.; Kotsiaros, S.

    2015-12-01

    Two years of data from ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive a model of the Earth's magnetic field and its time variation (secular variation). The model describes contributions from the core and lithosphere as well as large-scale contributions from the magnetosphere (and its Earth-induced counterpart). We use data from geomagnetic quiet times and co-estimate the Euler angles describing the rotation between the vector magnetometer instrument frame and the North-East-Center (NEC) frame. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites and alongtrack first differences we include the East-west magnetic gradient information provided by the lower Swarm satellite pair, thereby explicitly taking advantage of the constellation aspect of Swarm. We assess the spatial and temporal model resolution that can be obtained from two years of Swarm satellite data by comparison with other recent models that also include non-Swarm magnetic observations.

  6. Awareness, attitudes and behavior of hospital healthcare workers towards a mandatory vaccination directive: two years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Holly; Leask, Julie; Macintyre, C Raina

    2011-05-12

    In 2007, the state of New South Wales, Australia instituted a policy directive with compulsory provisions for health care workers to be vaccinated. This study sought to identify staff awareness and attitudes two years after it was implemented. It involved a self administered paper-based questionnaire of HCWs in two tertiary-referral teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia in 2009. In the early phase, general awareness of the policy was incomplete and detailed knowledge was poor. However, support levels were high. Two years later, while the respondents indicated that they were aware that there was a policy in place, very few of the respondents were able to accurately describe its requirements. Regardless of the level of knowledge, support for the policy was still high (83% vs. 91%, respectively). Despite the high levels of general support for the vaccine policy directive in NSW, this study indicates that including influenza vaccination into the policy could be challenging.

  7. eBooks for Libraries and Patrons: Two Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Rosy

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A little over two years ago, netLibrary defined its primary mission to encompass a singular focus on developing and offering library-centric solutions for organizing, hosting, and serving digital learning content in ways that integrated with the mission and methods of libraries. Today, netLibrary provides thousands of academic, public, government, corporate, special and school libraries with access to digital versions of monograph content they deem of particular value to their patrons.

  8. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuss Annicka M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs, in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004 or 2005 (cohort 2005 in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004 to 51% (cohort 2005 in the studied regions (p Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time.

  9. Cosmological-constant cold dark matter models and the cobe two-year Sky maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bunn, E F; Emory F Bunn; Naoshi Sugiyama

    1994-01-01

    Abstract. We compare the two-year COBE DMR sky maps with the predictions of cosmological-constant cold dark matter models. Using a Bayesian analysis, we find that the most likely value of the cosmological constant in such a model is Lambda = 0. The data set an upper limit on Lambda of 0.71 (0.78) at 90% confidence, and 0.78 (0.86) at 95% confidence with (without) the quadrupole anisotropy.

  10. NSF Programs That Support Research in the Two-Year College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, V.; Ryan, J. G.; Singer, J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Science Foundation recognizes the significant role provided by two-year institutions in providing high quality STEM courses to large numbers of students. For some students the STEM courses completed while attending a two-year institution represent the only STEM courses a student may take; for others the courses serve as the foundation to continue on into a STEM major at a four-year institution; and some students complete STEM courses that lead directly into the workforce. Several programs in the Division of Undergraduate Research, including the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program, STEM Talent Expansion Program (STEP), and the Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM (TUES) program, support the inclusion of student research experiences at two-year institutions. Information about these programs and examples of successful funded projects will be provided. Resources for faculty considering applying for support will be shared with special attention to a faculty development program designed to help faculty learn about funding opportunities and prepare proposals for submission to the TUES and ATE programs.

  11. A case of a retained intralenticular foreign body for two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Guler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mete Güler1, Turgut Yilmaz2, Mehmet Yigit2, Gülsen Ülkü2, Sermal Arslan21Department of Ophthalmology, Elazig Harput State Hospital, Turkey; 2Departmant of Ophthalmology, Elazig Education and Research HospitalAbstract: We report a case of a missed metallic intraocular foreign body retained in the lens over a two-year period without causing inflammatory reaction, which presented with cataract later. A 24-year-old man presented with a progressive blurring of vision in the left eye for two years. He had had a history of metal-on-metal activity two years before. He had pain for one day in left eye and it was healed by the following day. Biomicroscopic examination revealed cataract, an intralenticular foreign body, and a corneal scar at seven o’clock meridian of the cornea in the left eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in the left eye. Intralenticular foreign body removal, phacoemulsification, and an intraocular lens implantation was performed under local anesthesia. The intralenticular foreign body was metallic and its size was about 2 × 2 mm. Two weeks after the operation best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in left eye. A retained foreign body should be considered in each patient with a history of penetrating ocular trauma and all efforts must be made to exclude presumptive diagnosis of intraocular foreign body.Keywords: cataract, intralenticular foreign body, penetrating intraocular injury

  12. Supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for first-episode psychosis: two-year outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne; Knudsen, Per; Køster, Anne; Lindhardt, Anne; Lajer, Matilde; Valbak, Kristian; Winther, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, the field of treatment of schizophrenia has lacked empirical, systematic outcome studies that support psychodynamic psychotherapy as an evidence-based intervention for patients with schizophrenia. The Danish schizophrenia project (DNS) compared psychodynamic psychotherapy for psychosis with standard treatment in patients with a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The study was designed as a prospective, comparative, longitudinal multi-site investigation of consecutively referred patients who were included during two years. The patients were treated with either manualized individual supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) in addition to treatment as usual or with treatment as usual alone (TaU). Symptoms and functional outcomes were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF). The study included 269 consecutively admitted patients, age 18-35, of whom 79% remained in the study after two years. The intervention group improved significantly on measures of both PANSS and GAF scores, with large effect sizes at two years follow-up after inclusion. Further, improvement on GAF(function) (p = 0.000) and GAF(symptom) (p = 0.010) significantly favored SPP in combination with TaU over TaU alone. In spite of limitations, this study speaks in favor of including supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy in the treatment for patients with schizophrenic first-episode psychoses.

  13. Supporting Geoscience Students at Two-Year Colleges: Career Preparation and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Layou, K.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-year colleges play an important role in developing a competent and creative geoscience workforce, teaching science to pre-service K-12 teachers, producing earth-science literate citizens, and providing a foundation for broadening participation in the geosciences. The Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) project has developed web resources for geoscience faculty on the preparation and support of students in two-year colleges (2YCs). Online resources developed from two topical workshops and several national, regional, and local workshops around the country focus on two main categories: Career Preparation and Workforce Development, and Supporting Student Success in Geoscience at Two-year Colleges. The Career Preparation and Workforce Development resources were developed to help faculty make the case that careers in the geosciences provide a range of possibilities for students and to support preparation for the geoscience workforce and for transfer to four-year programs as geoscience majors. Many two-year college students are unaware of geoscience career opportunities and these materials help illuminate possible futures for them. Resources include an overview of what geoscientists do; profiles of possible careers along with the preparation necessary to qualify for them; geoscience employer perspectives about jobs and the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes they are looking for in their employees; employment trends in sectors of the economy that employ geoscience professionals; examples of geotechnician workforce programs (e.g. Advanced Technological Education Centers, environmental technology programs, marine technician programs); and career resources available from professional societies. The website also provides information to support student recruitment into the geosciences and facilitate student transfer to geoscience programs at four- year colleges and universities, including sections on advising support before

  14. Mesoscale Morphological Change, Beach Rotation and Storm Climate Influences along a Macrotidal Embayed Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shore profiles and environmental forcing were used to analyse morphological change of a headland bay beach: Tenby, West Wales (51.66 N; −4.71 W over a mesoscale timeframe (1996–2013. Beach profile variations were attuned with longer term shoreline change identified by previous research showing southern erosion and northern accretion within the subaerial zone and were statistically significant in both sectors although centrally there was little or no significance. Conversely a statistically significant volume loss was shown at all profile locations within the intertidal zone. There were negative phase relationships between volume changes at the beach extremities, indicative of beach rotation and results were statistically significant (p < 0.01 within both subaerial (R2 = 0.59 and intertidal (R2 = 0.70 zones. This was confirmed qualitatively by time-series analysis and further cross correlation analysis showed trend reversal time-lagged associations between sediment exchanges at either end of the beach. Wave height and storm events displayed summer/winter trends which explained longer term one directional rotation at this location. In line with previous regional research, environmental forcing suggests that imposed changes are influenced by variations in southwesterly wind regimes. Winter storms are generated by Atlantic southwesterly winds and cause a south toward north sediment exchange, while southeasterly conditions that cause a trend reversal are generally limited to the summer period when waves are less energetic. Natural and man-made embayed beaches are a common coastal feature and many experience shoreline changes, jeopardising protective and recreational beach functions. In order to facilitate effective and sustainable coastal zone management strategies, an understanding of the morphological variability of these systems is needed. Therefore, this macrotidal research dealing with rotational processes across the entire intertidal

  15. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  16. Preoperative MRI findings predict two-year postoperative clinical outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kuittinen

    Full Text Available To study the predictive value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings for the two-year postoperative clinical outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS.84 patients (mean age 63±11 years, male 43% with symptoms severe enough to indicate LSS surgery were included in this prospective observational single-center study. Preoperative MRI of the lumbar spine was performed with a 1.5-T unit. The imaging protocol conformed to the requirements of the American College of Radiology for the performance of MRI of the adult spine. Visual and quantitative assessment of MRI was performed by one experienced neuroradiologist. At the two-year postoperative follow-up, functional ability was assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI 0-100% and treadmill test (0-1000 m, pain symptoms with the overall Visual Analogue Scale (VAS 0-100 mm, and specific low back pain (LBP and specific leg pain (LP separately with a numeric rating scale from 0-10 (NRS-11. Satisfaction with the surgical outcome was also assessed.Preoperative severe central stenosis predicted postoperatively lower LP, LBP, and VAS when compared in patients with moderate central stenosis (p<0.05. Moreover, severe stenosis predicted higher postoperative satisfaction (p = 0.029. Preoperative scoliosis predicted an impaired outcome in the ODI (p = 0.031 and lowered the walking distance in the treadmill test (p = 0.001. The preoperative finding of only one stenotic level in visual assessment predicted less postoperative LBP when compared with patients having 2 or more stenotic levels (p = 0.026. No significant differences were detected between quantitative measurements and the patient outcome.Routine preoperative lumbar spine MRI can predict the patient outcome in a two-year follow up in patients with LSS surgery. Severe central stenosis and one-level central stenosis are predictors of good outcome. Preoperative finding of scoliosis may indicate worse functional ability.

  17. Cooled radiofrequency denervation for treatment of sacroiliac joint pain: two-year results from 20 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho KY

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kok-Yuen Ho,1 Mohamed Abdul Hadi,2 Koravee Pasutharnchat,2 Kian-Hian Tan21Pain Management Centre, Raffles Hospital, 2Pain Management Centre, Singapore General Hospital, SingaporeBackground: Sacroiliac joint pain is a common cause of chronic low back pain. Different techniques for radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint have been used to treat this condition. However, results have been inconsistent because the variable sensory supply to the sacroiliac joint is difficult to disrupt completely using conventional radiofrequency. Cooled radiofrequency is a novel technique that uses internally cooled radiofrequency probes to enlarge lesion size, thereby increasing the chance of completely denervating the sacroiliac joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cooled radiofrequency denervation using the SInergyTM cooled radiofrequency system for sacroiliac joint pain.Methods: The charts of 20 patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain who had undergone denervation using the SInergyTM cooled radiofrequency system were reviewed at two years following the procedure. Outcome measures included the Numeric Rating Scale for pain intensity, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Global Perceived Effect for patient satisfaction.Results: Fifteen of 20 patients showed a significant reduction in pain (a decrease of at least three points on the Numeric Rating Scale. Mean Numeric Rating Scale for pain decreased from 7.4 ± 1.4 to 3.1 ± 2.5, mean Patient Global Impression of Change was "improved" (1.4 ± 1.5, and Global Perceived Effect was reported to be positive in 16 patients at two years following the procedure.Conclusion: Cooled radiofrequency denervation showed long-term efficacy for up to two years in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain.Keywords: ablation, chronic low back pain, intervention, neurotomy, sacroiliitis

  18. Purulent Meningoencephalitis Mixed Etiology in a Child Two Years Old: Problems of Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Simovanyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern features of purulent meningoencephalitis is the frequent development of the disease at adverse premorbid background, the formation of a mixed infection, which leads to severe prolonged duration, the occurrence of complications. For example the medical history of two years old child with acute purulent meningoencephalitis mixed etiology (Str. Pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b, developed on the background of chronic herpes virus infection, rezudual-organic CNS pathology, submitted the algorithm of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in these cohort of patients.

  19. Psychological characteristics and associations with weight outcomes two years after gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Nina N; Mehlsen, Mimi; Støving, René Klinkby

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symptoms of eating disorder, depression, and anxiety among Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients two years after surgery, and the relationship between these characteristics and weight loss. Respondents completed assessment questionnaires including Eating Disorder Inventory-2...... (EDI-2), Harvard Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and questions related specifically to binge eating. Forty-five patients (8 men, 37 women) out of 65 (67%) responded. Scores were significant higher on impulse regulation, interoceptive awareness, ineffectiveness, maturity fears and interpersonal...... that knowledge of the potential influence of eating disorder symptoms on outcomes after bariatric surgery is needed in order to optimize weight outcomes following surgery....

  20. Undergraduate Research in Geoscience with Students from Two-year Colleges: SAGE 2YC Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Hodder, J.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Undergraduate research experiences are important for the development of expertise in geoscience disciplines. These experiences have been shown to help students learn content and skills, promote students' cognitive and affective development, and develop students' sense of self. Early exposure to research experiences has shown to be effective in the recruitment of students, improved retention and persistence in degree programs, motivation for students to learn and increase self-efficacy, improved attitudes and values about science, and overall increased student success. Just as departments at four-year institutions (4YCs) are increasingly integrating research into their introductory courses, two-year college (2YC) geoscience faculty have a great opportunity to ground their students in authentic research. The Undergraduate Research with Two-year College Students website developed by SAGE 2YC: Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-year Colleges provides ideas and advice for 2YC and 4YC faculty who want to get more 2YC students involved in research. The continuum of possibilities for faculty to explore includes things that can be done at 2YCs (eg. doing research as part of a regular course, developing a course specifically around research on a particular topic, or independent study), done in collaboration with other local institutions (eg. using their facilities, conducting joint class research, or using research to support transfer programs), and by involving students in the kind of organized Undergraduate Research programs run by a number of institutions and organizations. The website includes profiles illustrating how 2YC geoscience faculty have tackled these various models of research and addressed potential challenges such as lack of time, space, and funding as part of supporting the wide diversity of students that attend 2YCs, most of whom have less experience than that of rising seniors who are the traditional REU participant. The website also

  1. Hyperparathyroidism Two Years after Radioactive Iodine Therapy in an Adolescent Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Gomez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism is a very rare complication following radioactive iodine therapy. There is typically a latency period of more than a decade following radiation exposure and, therefore, it is observed almost exclusively in adults. Consequently, pediatricians are not aware of the association. We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma occurring in an adolescent male two years following radioactive iodine treatment for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Periodic screening of serum calcium following ablative doses of radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer may be justified even in adolescents.

  2. Tidal flow separation at protruding beach nourishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Max; de Schipper, Matthieu A.; Swinkels, Cilia; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J. H. M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the application of large-scale beach nourishments has been discussed, with the Sand Motor in the Netherlands as the first real-world example. Such protruding beach nourishments have an impact on tidal currents, potentially leading to tidal flow separation and the generation of tidal eddies of length scales larger than the nourishment itself. The present study examines the characteristics of the tidal flow field around protruding beach nourishments under varying nourishment geometry and tidal conditions, based on extensive field observations and numerical flow simulations. Observations of the flow field around the Sand Motor, obtained with a ship-mounted current profiler and a set of fixed current profilers, show that a tidal eddy develops along the northern edge of the mega-nourishment every flood period. The eddy is generated around peak tidal flow and gradually gains size and strength, growing much larger than the cross-shore dimension of the coastline perturbation. Based on a 3 week measurement period, it is shown that the intensity of the eddy modulates with the spring-neap tidal cycle. Depth-averaged tidal currents around coastline perturbations are simulated and compared to the field observations. The occurrence and behavior of tidal eddies is derived for a large set of simulations with varying nourishment size and shape. Results show that several different types of behavior exist, characterized by different combinations of the nourishment aspect ratio, the size of the nourishment relative to the tidal excursion length, and the influence of bed friction.

  3. Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume I. Evaluation summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    The EES pilot program was initiated in August 1977, when 10 states were selected on a competitive basis for participation. The pilot states (Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) devoted the first 6 months to start-up activities. This document is a follow-up report to the three volume Evaluation Summary of the first year of the pilot EES program published in September 1979. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the impacts and costs of the two years of the pilot program, and to check the consistency of findings over the two year period. The analysis addresses the following: (1) were the impact findings of Year I and Year II consistent, or did Year I and Year II attitudes and behavior vary. If variation existed, could it be attributed to program changes as the EES progressed from a start-up phase (Year I) to more normal service delivery (Year II); and (2) did costs of service delivery change (again reflecting start-up and normal service delivery costs). Did cost changes affect conclusions about the relative cost effectiveness of delivering services to different target audiences.

  4. Lack of effect of zinc sulfate on wheezing after bronchiolitis in infants less than two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Abasi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: Wheezing after bronchiolitis is known as a risk factor for asthma. No cure or effective vaccine has been identified for such disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of zinc sulfate on persistent wheezing after bronchiolitis in infants less than two years. Methods: The present randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 90 infants under two years of age suffering from the first attack with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis wheezing hospitalized in Imam Sajjad Hospital, Yasuj. All infants were equally placed in test groups and control group. In addition to bronchiolitis usual treatment, test group received 20 mg of elemental zinc for seven days. Patient information including risk factors associated with wheezing and persistent wheezing were compared 48 hours and two weeks after treatment. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t tests. Results: In all 90 infants diagnosed with bronchiolitis, wheezing was observed. After 48 hours and two weeks wheezing was continued in 67 patients (74.4% and 54 patients (60% respectively Conclusion: The results showed Zinc sulfate had no effect on the improvement of wheezing after bronchiolitis.

  5. Estimated risk of radiation-induced cancer from paediatric chest CT: two-year cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Tilo [Cantonal Hospital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Colas, Lucie; Santangelo, Teresa; Faivre, Jean Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Roser, Hans W.; Bremerich, Jens [University of Basel Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    The increasing absolute number of paediatric CT scans raises concern about the safety and efficacy and the effects of consecutive diagnostic ionising radiation. To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single low-dose helical chest CT in a two-year patient cohort. A two-year cohort of 522 paediatric helical chest CT scans acquired using a dedicated low-dose protocol were analysed retrospectively. Patient-specific estimations of radiation doses were modelled using three different mathematical phantoms. Per-organ attributable cancer risk was then estimated using epidemiological models. Additional comparison was provided for naturally occurring risks. Total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence remains low for all age and sex categories, being highest in female neonates (0.34%). Summation of all cancer sites analysed raised the relative lifetime attributable risk of organ cancer incidence up to 3.6% in female neonates and 2.1% in male neonates. Using dedicated scan protocols, total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence and mortality for chest CT is estimated low for paediatric chest CT, being highest for female neonates. (orig.)

  6. Blazar Monitoring at the Bell Observatory: Results from the First Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W. L.; Carini, M. T.; Barnaby, D.; Atkerson, A.; Glass, D. A.; Monroe, T. R.; Ryle, W. T.

    2003-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are some of the most energetic objects in the Universe. They are composed of an ordinary elliptical galaxy with a super massive black hole at the center. An accretion disk surrounds the black hole while jets of material, moving at nearly relativistic speeds are emitted perpendicular to the disk. In the Blazar class of AGN jets are pointed almost directly along the line of sight, resulting in large amplitude, erratic brightness variations. Blazars are the most extreme examples of AGN with highly variable continuum emission as one of their defining characteristics. Our primary goal is the monitoring of the brightness variations of Blazars and using these variations to investigate the physics at work in these objects. The Bell Observatory has been used for the past two years to collect data to monitor these continuum variations. Undergraduate students run each observing session from either WKU's campus via the Internet or on-site. The telescope is equipped with a CCD camera, which is used to obtain images that are then transferred to WKU's campus where they are archived and analyzed by undergraduate students and faculty mentors. The results of the first two years of monitoring will be presented. Funding for this research was provided by NASA Kentucky Space Grant Consortium, NASA Kentucky EPSCoR Program, NSF EPSCoR Program, and the Applied Research and Technology Program at Western Kentucky University.

  7. [Dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years with mild malnutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Mariana Martínez; Gutiérrez, María Luisa Alvarez

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition is conditioned by a series of factors, among them the dietary factors, which include appetite, eating behaviors and habits. In order to assess these factors, the following objective was pursued: describe the dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years of age with mild malnutrition. A correlational study was conducted. The sample consisted of all children under two years of age (n = 168) diagnosed with primary (mild) malnutrition, who attended consultation at the Centro de Atención Nutricional Infantil Antímano, CANIA, during the period 2000-2008. The results showed intake of energy and macronutrients was lower than the individual requirement; iron intake children showed rebellious behavior and caregivers were permissive. Protein adequacy, vegetable and whole milk consumption frequency, preparation type, identification of refusals and preferences, place and duration of meals, and child-caregiver interaction at mealtimes were significantly associated with appetite; if we consider this last one as a guide and we try to modify inadequate eating behaviors and habits, we will generate an impact over the child appetite that could improve the food consumption and prevent malnutrition.

  8. Patient’s Cross-border Mobility Directive: Application, Performance and Perceptions Two Years after Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedel Rafał

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyse the directive on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare. Two years after the transposition, it is time for first evaluations of its application, performance and perception. The analysis consists of three major elements: reconstruction of the legal scope and subject matter of the new legislation, conclusions of the evaluative reports monitoring its implementation and performance as well as the public opinion polls revealing the EU citizens’ perception of its details. These three components combined together deliver a picture of the state of play about the pan-European cross-border patients’ mobility. The bottomline conclusions negatively verify the supposition present in some earlier literature on patients’ cross-border mobility that the directive has a transformative potential leading towards the creation of truly competitive pan-European medical market. After two years of its operation, there is still no increased patients’ mobility across EU internal borders observed. As regards the speculations for the future, there are only some weak symptoms identified and they may result in intensified cross-border mobility for healthcare.

  9. Miramar (Goa) Beach Management Project: An Oceanographic Evaluation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Ingole, B.S.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 16 Miramar (Goa) Beach Management Project: An Oceanographic Evaluation ANTONIO MASCARENHAS and BABAN INGOLE ABSTRACT Miramar beach is a faunal storehouse as 50 macrobenthic species are recorded. About 80% meiobenthic communities... and perspectives. eds. by: Jayappa, K.S.; Narayana, A.C.I.K. ; 212-225p. Miramar (Goa) Beach Management Project: An Oceanographic Evaluation 213 private parties (Anonymous, 2001). This idea met with rigid resistance from various stakeholders. As a result, Goa state...

  10. Website Resources and Support for Two-Year College Geoscience Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Macdonald, H.; Blodgett, R. H.; Manduca, C. A.; Maier, M.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscience faculty at two-year colleges (2YC) face a number of challenges, from the wide diversity of the student population to being isolated from other geoscience faculty. Several projects have developed web resources that address some of these issues by providing professional development, teaching materials, and opportunities to connect with their colleagues at other institutions. The Role of Two-Year Colleges in Geoscience Education and in Broadening Participation in the Geosciences project brought together 2YC faculty from across the country for a planning workshop to discuss these issues and propose strategies and mechanisms to strengthen the 2YC geoscience education community (http://serc.carleton.edu/geo2yc/index.html). The website now hosts more than 30 essays on the state of 2YC education, teaching activities, and course descriptions submitted by 2YC faculty as well as an email discussion list and other ways of networking and discussing important. One outcome of this work is that the National Association of Geoscience Teachers has created a division for 2YC faculty so that members can network with each other and discuss solutions to pressing issues. (http://nagt.org/nagt/divisions/2yc/index.html) The On the Cutting Edge program has an array of professional development resources available (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/). Over its decade of work, the program has developed resources on topics of interest to 2YC faculty including: teaching introductory courses, the affective domain, teaching with data, metacognition, online courses, teaching about hazards, and many others. There are also extensive collections of teaching activities and visualizations. In addition, the program continues to hold face-to-face and virtual professional development workshops and webinars that are accessible to 2YC faculty and can help them feel less isolated The Starting Point: Teaching Introductory Geoscience (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo) website is specifically

  11. Chenang Beach and its Crowding Capacity: A Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This working paper focuses in enjoyment factors, specifically: number of beach users, perceived maximum number of beach users accepted, perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the tourism experience and perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the beach quality. At a deeper extent, the evaluation is categorized by number of visitation, visitation motivations, and Chenang Island’s push and pull factors. Relationships between variables were assessed using a two-phase evaluation framework where interestingly, only one demographic factor works with all the studied independent variables. It is also learned that the density of an area number of people seen is considered as a n accepted crowding factor, as opposed to this working paper scope experienced crowding . A unique relationship was observed for crowding level, and visitation satisfaction level and overall evaluation of Chenang beach quality. This working paper further supports the previous literature on the significance of beach carrying capacity management and it is learned that the idea of crowding standard is interlinks with ‘gender, ‘time spend’ and ‘number of boaters’. From findings, this working paper envisages the preferences polar exchange where this should be of interest to tourism-related personnel. It is within this working paper interest to highlight the pressing need in brandishing the image of Chenang Beach. This is to ensure that Chenang Beach, as a field, is maintaining its importance and popularity.

  12. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  13. Ventilation rates in large commercial layer hen houses with two-year continuous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, L; Ni, J-Q; Diehl, C A; Kilic, I; Heber, A J; Chen, Y; Cortus, E L; Bogan, B W; Lim, T T; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J-C; Chen, L

    2012-01-01

    1. Ventilation controls the indoor environment and is critical for poultry production and welfare. Ventilation is also crucial for assessing aerial pollutant emissions from the poultry industry. Published ventilation data for commercial layer houses have been limited, and are mostly based on short-term studies, mainly because monitoring airflow from large numbers of fans is technically challenging. 2. A two-year continuous ventilation monitoring trial was conducted at two commercial manure belt houses (A and B), each with 250 000 layers and 88 130-cm exhaust fans. All the fans were individually monitored with fan rotational speed sensors or vibration sensors. Differential static pressures across the house walls were also measured. Three fan performance assessment methods were applied periodically to determine fan degradations. Fan models were developed to calculate house ventilations. 3. A total of 693 and 678 complete data days, each containing >16 h of valid ventilation data, were obtained in houses A and B, respectively. The two-year mean ventilation rates of houses A and B were 2·08 and 2·10 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1), corresponding to static pressures of -36·5 and -48·9 Pa, respectively. For monthly mean ventilation, the maximum rates were 4·87 and 5·01 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in July 2008, and the minimum were 0·59 and 0·81 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in February 2008, for houses A and B, respectively. 4. The two-year mean ventilation rates were similar to those from a survey in Germany and a 6-month study in Indiana, USA, but were much lower than the 8·4 and 6·2 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) from a study in Italy. The minimum monthly mean ventilation rates were similar to the data obtained in winter in Canada, but were lower than the minimum ventilation suggested in the literature. The lower static pressure in house B required more ventilation energy input. The two houses, although identical, demonstrated differences in indoor environment controls

  14. Two years since SSAMS: Status of {sup 14}C AMS at CAIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Prasad, G.V.; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Culp, Randy A.; Dvoracek, Doug K.

    2015-10-15

    The NEC 250 kV single stage AMS accelerator (SSAMS) was installed two years ago at the Center for Applied Isotope Studies (CAIS), University of Georgia. The accelerator is primarily being used for radiocarbon measurements to test the authenticity of natural and bio-based samples while all other samples such as geological, atmospheric, marine and archaeological. are run on the 500 kV, NEC 1.5SDH-1 model tandem accelerator, which has been operating since 2001. The data obtained over a six months period for OXI, OXII, ANU sucrose and FIRI-D are discussed. The mean value of ANU sucrose observed to be slightly lower than the consensus value. The processed blanks on SSAMS produce lower apparent age compared to the tandem accelerator as expected.

  15. Left Inguinal Adenopathy Two Years after Cytoreductive Surgery: A Rare Sign of Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibek E. Mirrakhimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecological cancer in the Western world. Despite a good response to treatment, most patients with ovarian cancer will relapse. The abdominal, pelvic, and retroperitoneal cavities represent the most common sites of ovarian cancer recurrence, with inguinal lymph node involvement rarely reported. Herein we report the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian female who underwent successful surgical and chemotherapy treatment for ovarian epithelial cancer. Two years later, the patient was found to have painless left inguinal adenopathy, which was subsequently found to be metastatic ovarian cancer. CA-125 levels were elevated despite the lack of any foci of metabolically active tissue on imaging. Inguinal lymph node involvement is a rare sign of ovarian cancer. Despite that, it is essential to consider ovarian cancer in the differential diagnosis for inguinal lymphadenopathy in a female patient.

  16. Science highlights from MAVEN/IUVS after two years in Mars orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nicholas M.; Deighan, Justin; Stiepen, Arnaud; Lefevre, Franck; Jain, Sonal Kumar; Halekas, Jasper; Evans, Scott; Stevens, Michael H.; Stewart, A. Ian F.; McClintock, William; Chaffin, Michael S.; Crismani, Matteo; Lo, Daniel; Holsclaw, Gregory; Clarke, John T.; Montmessin, Franck; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    The broad capabilities of the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph on the MAVEN mission are enabling new science ranging from Mars' lower atmosphere up though the escaping corona. After two years in Mars orbit, the instrument has yielded insights on the Mars dayglow, season cycles, nightglow, aurora, meteor showers, clouds, solar-planetary interactions and atmospheric escape. In this presentation we will highlight several new discoveries. First, IUVS has observed a third type of aurora not previously seen at Mars, indicative of a new kind of solar-planet interaction for non-magnetized planets. Second, spatial mapping of nitric oxide nightglow reveals regions of atmospheric downwelling necessitating substantial changes to global atmospheric circulation models. Finally, a new high-spatial-resolution UV imaging mode allows unprecedented determinations of Mars' low-altitude ozone, as well as detection of clouds from nadir to limb.

  17. CERIT air-conditioning system powered by solar energy: Two years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Romagnoni, P.; Casasola, L. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica ed Impianti Termotecnici CERIT S.p.A., Pordenone (Italy) Padova Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    The largest European solar air conditioner (equipped with 440 square meters of aluminized Myler reflection panels; 440 square meters of Cortec evacuated tube solar collectors; 150 and 43 cubic meter, respectively, cold and hot water storage tanks; 50 kW absorption machine; 4 cylinder compression chiller; and natural gas fired boiler for winter space heating) was built at the CERIT (Regional Technological Research Center) of Pordenone, Italy. This article, with the aid of flowsheets, outlines the plant's key design and operational features, and tables performance and energy consumption data to back up a discussion of the major results achieved during two years of operation. Particular attention is given to the plant's seasonal performance.

  18. Two-year stability of the late positive potential across middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Klein, Daniel N; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2013-10-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) may be a useful measure of individual differences in emotional processing across development, but little is known about the stability of the LPP across time. We assessed the LPP and behavioral measures of emotional interference following pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images in 8- to 13-year-old youth. Approximately two years later, the same participants completed the task again (N=34). Results indicated that the LPP is moderately-to-highly reliable across development. Stability was lower and more inconsistent for behavioral measures. In addition, consistent with previous cross-sectional analyses, a decrease in occipital activity was observed at the second assessment. Results indicate that the LPP appears to be a stable measure of emotional processing, even across a fairly large period of development.

  19. Livedo reticularis due to pellagra in a two year old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Vasudevan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year-old girl child was admitted with complaints of diarrhoea of one week duration in the paediatric ward. She was referred to the skin OPD for gradually progressive skin rashes on both lower limbs noticed since two days. Dermatological examination revealed finding of livedo reticularis. Dietary history revealed maize forming a significant portion of the child′s diet since the age of nine months. The child was treated with a course of Niacin in the form of Nicotinamide 50 mg twice a day for 4 weeks and the parents were advised not to give her maize in the diet. The skin lesions and diarrhoea regressed in duration of two weeks. This is probably the first time that a case of pellagra causing livedo is being reported, that too in a child.

  20. What We Need: The 2012 NASA EPO Forum Survey on Two-Year College STEM Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Schultz, G.

    2014-07-01

    A survey of community college STEM faculty, administered by the NASA SMD Higher Education Working Group (HEWG), was administered in fall 2012 in an effort to document the demographic make-up and views of community college faculty who teach NASA science-related STEM courses in astronomy, physics, Earth science, and engineering. Nearly half of respondents reported that less than 10% of students in their classroom are “STEMward bound” and indicated the need for STEM resources that can relate science course content and be relevant to the daily life of their students. A number of respondents also noted a new or renewed emphasis on outreach activities within the community served by their institution as part of their job description. The survey suggests specific directions and ways that the NASA SMD EPO forum can support two-year college stakeholders.

  1. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments.

  2. Two-years therapy with bosentan of pulmonary arterial hypertension related to connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizzo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a rare but severe complication of connective tissue diseases (CTD, with a negative impact on patients survival. Bosentan, a receptor antagonist of endothelin, has been proved effective for the treatment of PAH. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects and the safety of bosentan administered for 2 years in a group of patients with PAH related to CTD. Methods: Twelve patients with PAH related to systemic sclerosis (8 cases, SLE (2 cases, mixed connective tissue disease (1 case and polymyositis (1 case attending the Rheumatology Unit of Padova University were treated with bosentan for two years. Distance walked in 6 minutes, right ventricular systolic pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure estimated by doppler echocardiography were evaluated at baseline and after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of treatment. Safety was assessed by laboratory tests performed every two months. Results: During bosentan treatment, a significant decrease of right ventricular systolic pressure was observed after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months in comparison to baseline, whereas pulmonary artery mean pressure remained unchanged. Distance walked in 6 minutes slightly increased after 6 and 12 months, but significantly decreased after 18 and 24 months, mostly because complications of CTD which compromised the ability to walk arose in 4 patients. Adverse events related to bosentan were observed in 2 cases. Conclusions: Bosentan has been demonstrated effective in reducing pulmonary arterial pressure in a two-year period of treatment. Exercise capacity improved only in the first year of therapy and worsened thereafter, suggesting the opportunity of a combination therapy for a long-term treatment of PAH related to CTD.

  3. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  4. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  5. Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Spine in a Two-Year-Old Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electricwala, Jaffer T.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) is a highly malignant bone tumour. It may involve any part of the skeleton but the most frequent parts are the ilium and diaphysis of femur and tibia (Alfeeli et al., 2005; Zhu et al., 2012). Primary ES of the spine is extremely rare (Yan et al., 2011). It accounts for only 3.5 to 14.9 percent of all primary bone sarcomas. The age of presentation ranges from 12 to 24 years (median 21 years) (Ferguson, 1999; Sharafuddin et al., 1992; Klimo Jr. et al., 2009). We report an unusual case of primary ES of the spine in a two-year-old boy, who presented to us with paraparesis and features of cauda equina syndrome. MRI scan showed a tumour mass arising from the pedicle of L4 vertebra invading the spinal canal. Tc-99 bone scan showed increased tracer uptake in L4 vertebra and normal tracer uptake elsewhere in the skeleton. After reaching the diagnosis of a space occupying lesion invading the lumber spinal canal, we performed a decompressive laminectomy and a biopsy was sent which confirmed the diagnosis of ES. Immunohistochemistry showed tumour cells staining positive for CD-99 (specific stain for ES). Gene testing showed an EWS-FLI 1 chimera. Surgery was followed by good improvement in motor signs. The child was then referred to a specialized oncotherapy centre for further treatment, radiation, and chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report primary ES of the spine at the age of two years. PMID:27895949

  6. Primary Ewing’s Sarcoma of the Spine in a Two-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali J. Electricwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing’s Sarcoma (ES is a highly malignant bone tumour. It may involve any part of the skeleton but the most frequent parts are the ilium and diaphysis of femur and tibia (Alfeeli et al., 2005; Zhu et al., 2012. Primary ES of the spine is extremely rare (Yan et al., 2011. It accounts for only 3.5 to 14.9 percent of all primary bone sarcomas. The age of presentation ranges from 12 to 24 years (median 21 years (Ferguson, 1999; Sharafuddin et al., 1992; Klimo Jr. et al., 2009. We report an unusual case of primary ES of the spine in a two-year-old boy, who presented to us with paraparesis and features of cauda equina syndrome. MRI scan showed a tumour mass arising from the pedicle of L4 vertebra invading the spinal canal. Tc-99 bone scan showed increased tracer uptake in L4 vertebra and normal tracer uptake elsewhere in the skeleton. After reaching the diagnosis of a space occupying lesion invading the lumber spinal canal, we performed a decompressive laminectomy and a biopsy was sent which confirmed the diagnosis of ES. Immunohistochemistry showed tumour cells staining positive for CD-99 (specific stain for ES. Gene testing showed an EWS-FLI 1 chimera. Surgery was followed by good improvement in motor signs. The child was then referred to a specialized oncotherapy centre for further treatment, radiation, and chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report primary ES of the spine at the age of two years.

  7. COEXISTENCE OF CARCINOMAS OF THYROID WITH MULTINODULAR GOITRES OF THYROID – A TWO-YEAR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar Epari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Multinodular goitre or nodular hyperplasia or adenomatoid goitre is the most common thyroid disease, which occurs due to deficient iodine intake. Initial hyperthyroid states, followed by follicular atrophy and secondary changes like haemorrhage, calcification and cystic degeneration occurs in most of the cases. Longstanding cases of nodular goitre can be associated with carcinomas, usually follicular carcinomas, and rarely papillary carcinomas.[1] This study was done to know the incidence of coexisting malignancies, follicular and papillary carcinomas of thyroid, in longstanding nodular goitres of thyroid. METHODS All the cases of nodular goitres examined in the last two years were studied, including the thyroidectomy specimens and FNAC slides whichever was done. Extensive grossing of the thyroidectomy specimens was done to detect the possibility of malignancy in longstanding cases of nodular goitre of thyroid. Review of FNAC slides was done in cases where cytodiagnosis of coexisting malignancy was missed and detected in histopathological examination. RESULTS In the present study, conducted over a two-year period, out of 50 cases of thyroidectomy specimens of multinodular goitres studied, six cases were diagnosed to be having coexisting malignancy of thyroid, of which four were follicular carcinomas of thyroid and two were papillary carcinomas of thyroid. FNAC diagnosis of coexisting malignancy was initially missed in FNAC in two cases, i.e. one case each of follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. These FNAC slides were reviewed and the foci of malignancies detected. CONCLUSION There is a possibility of malignancy of thyroid coexisting with longstanding multinodular goitre of thyroid, which should be kept in mind, while performing the needle biopsy and thorough examination of FNAC slides is needed to avoid missing the possible detection of the coexisting malignant lesion. Thyroidectomy specimens should be extensively grossed to

  8. Clinical manifestations of atopy in children up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Nevenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma have had increased prevalence during the past decade and nowadays occur in every third child in developed countries. The aim of the study was to determine frequency and type of atopic diseases at the age of two, as well as the importance the total IgE antibodies concentrations have in diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Methods. The study involved 175 children up to two years of age. Allergy-like symptoms were found after surveying their parents and pediatric medical records. Using the fluorescence immunossay (FIA method, total IgE antibodies concentrations and specific IgE antibodies (Phadiatop infant were determined on an Immunocap 100 Dyagnostic System. Results. One or more allergy-like symptoms accounted for 57.7% of findings in children under the age of two, whilst in 19.4% the existence of IgE-related allergic diseases was found. Atopic diseases usually have clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis (11.4%, IgE-bound wheezing/asthma (10.8% and food allergies (7.4%, and to much lesser extent those of allergic rhinitis (3.4% and urticaria (1.7%. The significantly higher total IgE antibodies concentrations were found in children with allergy-like symptoms (p < 0.0005 (cut-off 15.15 kU/L, sensitivity 76.5% specificity 71.6%. Conclusion. Almost 20% of two-year-old children have any of clinically manifested allergic diseases, with atopic dermatitis and IgE wheeze/asthma being predominant. The higher total IgE antibodies concentration is a good marker for sensitization in children with allergy-like symptoms.

  9. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.D. Chavan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach pea seeds contained very low grain weight, density, hydration capacity,  hydration index, swelling capacity and swelling index than the green pea and field pea. Beach pea had higher amount of crude protein, ash, crude fibre and polyphenols, but lower in starch content than the green pea and field pea. Without any treatment to beach pea seeds the water uptake capacity was very low. Mechanical treatment to beach pea seeds increasedthe water uptake percentage. The recovery of hull was 3 to 6 times higher in beach pea than that of green pea and field pea. The crude protein  content in beach pea hull was 2-5% higher than others. The beach pea hull, dhal and whole seeds were good source of macro- and micro- minerals than that of the other two peas. The electron microscopic  structure of beach pea hull crude fibre showed a very close and compact structure than green pea and field pea hull crude fibre structure. Lowering the hardness of beach pea seeds with mechanical or chemical treatments will give more scope for their utilization in the human nutrition.

  10. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in..., which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select...

  11. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the City of New Smyrna... Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are in compliance with applicable requirements....

  12. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  13. Dinosaurs nesting on a red beach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P. Martin; Peitz, Christian; Gallemi, Jaume; Cousin, Rémi

    1998-07-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Basturs locality (Tremp Basin, northern Spain) preserves numerous dinosaur eggs ( Megaloolithus cf. M. mammilare Vianey-Liaud, 1994). The locality was recently studied by Sanz et al. (1995) as well as by us. However, we have to disagree with several conclusions by Sanz et al. and suggest alternative interpretations incorporating data from other localities (Coll de Nargó). The dinosaurs at Basturs did not nest at the beach, nor is there evidence for colonial nesting and territorial behaviour. However, the locality superbly documents nesting site fidelity with an estimated occupation time of over 10 000 years.

  14. Mauritius: A journey from beach to laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.

    stream_size 8323 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Geol_Surv_India_Newslett_Mar_Wing_18-19_79.pdf.txt stream_source_info Geol_Surv_India_Newslett_Mar_Wing_18-19_79.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text... and fun-filled sunny golden beach-centered tourism. However, despite having an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) thousand times its landmass, the ocean based economic activities contributing to the Gross National Product of Mauritius have been...

  15. Review of Online Programming Characteristics and Pricing at Private Not-for-Profit Two Year Colleges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Online programming has expanded greatly within higher education and much attention has been spent on public two year colleges (more commonly known as community colleges) and both private and public four year institutions. This research seeks to expand understanding of the small market of private not-for-profit two year colleges within the United…

  16. A Model for Reform. Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers (TYC21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C., Ed.

    This book describes the TYC21 project (Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers), which provided a framework to implement reform in science, engineering, and physics education at two-year colleges via the cooperative efforts of faculty in cross-educational activities. The project sought to increase the quality of…

  17. An Examination of Standards-Based Instructional Practices in College Algebra in the First Two Years of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Laurn Reye

    2013-01-01

    Instructional practices in mathematics courses at two-year colleges include lecture as the predominant instructional form in 78% of two-year colleges, with class sizes averaging about 26 students (AACC, 2005). The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) indicates that there is a need for change in the practices of mathematics teachers…

  18. Stability of the beaches in Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Angusamy, N.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    Beach profiles were carried out in Dec.2003, 2004 and Jan,.2005. Annual profiles of Dec. 2003 and 2004 show a normal trend of beach dynamics. At Poompuhar 63 M sup(3) M sup(1) of sediments are found to be deposited. However, a total change...

  19. 1981 beached animal and plastic litter surveys report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 119.63 km of beach were walked in 41 surveys (Appendix 1.). Birds and mammals were found on 16 of these surveys. There were 0.03 birds/km beach walked,...

  20. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  1. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  2. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  3. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  4. Waihi Beach to the future: An objective review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugmans, J.; Van Dijk, R.; Van der Lans, J.; Loeffen, R.; Wagner, J.

    2003-01-01

    Waihi Beach is a village consisting out of 2300 inhabitants, located in the Bay of Plenty on the North Island of New Zealand. It can be seen as a 9 km long tombolo beach. Dunes used to protect most of the land, but have decreased in size through natural erosive processes and through urban developmen

  5. A study on the reconstruction of Los Acantilados Beach, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algera, A.; Burger, B.; Hartog, W.M.; De Rijke, Q.C.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Mar del Plata is situated some 400 km South of Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina. The city has two main incomes, namely industry and tourism. In summer, beaches of this Atlantic Ocean faced destination are packed with typical Argentine beach tents, which can be rented, and people fr

  6. Post tsunami rebuilding of beaches and the texture of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.; Sudha, V.; Sunderasen, D.

    Under CS1R-CMRI Network Programme of Coastal Placer Mining beach sand samples have been collected along the Poompuhar-Nagoor beaches of Central Tamil Nadu, India. Representative samples of 2003, 2005 and 2006 have been analysed for grain size...

  7. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  8. Observations of shoreline-sandbar coupling on an embayed beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W.I.; Bryan, K.R.; Coco, G.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a seven-year dataset (1999–2005) of shoreline and sandbar variations derived from video observations at the embayed Tairua Beach, New Zealand, to explore sandbar–shoreline coupling and to determine how this coupling is related to alongshore-averaged sandbar–shoreline separation and beach

  9. Wave Reflection on a Two-Slope Steep Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    surveys taken during cross-shore transport study experiment. .....................................12  Figure 7.  Sea kayak with echo sounder and...Suhayda, 1974) Natural beaches are composed of complicated slopes and encounter a wide spectrum of wave frequencies, amplitudes, and directions. Suhayda...1974) conducted a field experiment investigating standing waves on a natural beach. He expanded on the theoretical results of Lamb (1932

  10. Two years of country-wide rainfall maps employing cellular communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijlenhoet, Remko; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Rios Gaona, Manuel Felipe

    2014-05-01

    Accurate rainfall observations with high spatial and temporal resolutions are needed for hydrological applications, agriculture, meteorology, and climate monitoring. However, the majority of the land surface of the earth lacks accurate rainfall information and the number of rain gauges is even severely declining in Europe, South-America, and Africa. This calls for alternative sources of rainfall information. Various studies have shown that microwave links from operational cellular telecommunication networks may be employed for rainfall monitoring. Such networks cover 20% of the land surface of the earth and have a high density, especially in urban areas. The basic principle of rainfall monitoring using microwave links is as follows. Rainfall attenuates the electromagnetic signals transmitted from one telephone tower to another. By measuring the received power at one end of a microwave link as a function of time, the path-integrated attenuation due to rainfall can be calculated. Previous studies have shown that average rainfall intensities over the length of a link can be derived from the path-integrated attenuation. This is particularly interesting for those countries where few surface rainfall observations are available. Here we present almost two years of country-wide rainfall maps employing cellular communication networks. A data set from a commercial microwave link network over the Netherlands is analyzed, containing data from an unprecedented number of links (~ 2000) covering the land surface of the Netherlands (35500 square kilometers). This data set almost completely covers the years 2011 and 2012. Fifteen-minute and daily rainfall maps (1 km spatial resolution) are derived from the microwave link data and compared to maps from a gauge-adjusted radar data set. The performance of the rainfall retrieval algorithm will be studied, particularly differences in time and space. Time series of air temperature and snow from automatic weather stations, operated by the

  11. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  12. Long-Term Effects of AposTherapy in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Two-Year Followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron Bar-Ziv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several biomechanics treatments for knee osteoarthritis (OA have emerged with the goal of reducing pain and improving function. Through this, researchers have hoped to achieve a transition from the pathological gait patterns to coordinated motor responses. The purpose of the study was to determine the long-term effects of a therapy using a biomechanical device in patients with knee OA. Patients with knee OA were enrolled to active and control groups. The biomechanical device used in therapy (AposTherapy was individually calibrated to each patient in the active group. Patients in the control group received standard treatment. Outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, Aggregated Locomotor Function (ALF, Short Form 36 (SF-36, and Knee Society Score assessments. The active and control groups were similar at the baseline (group difference in all scores . The active group showed a larger improvement over time between groups in all three WOMAC categories (, 21.7, and 18.1 for pain, stiffness, and function; all , SF-36 Physical Scale (; , Knee Society Knee Score (; , and Knee Society Function Score (; . At the two-year endpoint, the active group showed significantly better results (all . The groups showed a difference of 4.9, 5.6, and 4.7 for the WOMAC pain, stiffness, and function scores, respectively, 10.8 s in ALF score, 30.5 in SF-36 Physical Scale, 16.9 in SF-36 Mental Scale, 17.8 in Knee Society Knee Score, and 25.2 in Knee Society Function Score. The biomechanical therapy examined was shown to significantly reduce pain and improve function and quality of life of patients with knee OA over the long term.

  13. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  14. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  15. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time.

  16. Two-year carcinogenicity study of acrylamide in Wistar Han rats with in utero exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronpot, R R; Thoolen, R J M M; Hansen, B

    2015-02-01

    Acrylamide is an important chemical with widespread industrial and other uses in addition to generalized population exposure from certain cooked foods. Previous rat studies to assess the carcinogenic potential of acrylamide have been carried out exclusively in the Fischer 344 rat with identification of a number of tumors amongst which mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis is an important tumor endpoint in the classification of acrylamide as a 'probably human carcinogen. In a rat carcinogenicity study to determine the human relevance of mesotheliomas Wistar Han rats were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, or 3.0mg acrylamide/kg body weight/day in drinking water starting at gestation day 6. At the end of two years, mammary gland fibroadenomas in females and thyroid follicular cell tumors in both sexes were the only tumors increased in acrylamide treated rats. These tumor endpoints have rat-specific modes of action suggesting less likelihood of human cancer risk than previously estimated. This study demonstrates that tunica vaginalis mesotheliomas are strain specific and not likely of genotoxic origin.

  17. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette E-mail: melieres@glaciog.ujf-grenoble.fr; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-07-01

    To make up for the lack of data on {sup 210}Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23{+-}0.02 mBq m{sup -3} during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall (<15 cm per 15-day), while this correlation is masked by strong fluctuations at high rainfall. The estimated mean annual deposition over the last ten years is 163{+-}75 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana.

  18. Rattan (Calamoideae) Diversity and Biomass Change in Different Habitat Types During Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Nadine; Mansor, Asyraf; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Rattans (subfamily Calamoideae) are an important component of the forests of the Old World. However, few studies have been conducted on the distribution of these abundant palms within different habitats, specifically in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was aimed at assessing rattan diversity, abundance and biomass change across two different habitat types, namely, dipterocarp forests and fresh-water swamps within the Segari Melintang Forest Reserve, Perak, within two years. All rattan stems within five 100 m × 100 m sized study plots (A–E) of the two habitat types were counted in 2011 and 2013, and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H′) and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices were calculated. A total of 11 species from 5 genera (161 stems ha−1) were sampled. Rattan abundance was higher in all swamp plots; however, rattan diversity (H′) was highest in the dipterocarp plot (D: H′ (2011)1.79; H′ (2013)1.84). Bray-Curtis indices of rattan abundance (highest similarity in swamp: plot BC(2011) 0.484, BC(2013) 0.262) and biomass were highest for study plots with the same vegetation types in both years. For rattan biomass, the most similar plot pairs changed during the years: dipterocarp plots A and D were most similar in 2011 (0.509), and swamp plots B and C were most similar in 2013 (0.282). This study helped contribute information regarding the distribution and dynamics of rattans in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:28228915

  19. Two-year-olds exclude novel objects as potential referents of novel words based on pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Susanne; Stracke, Marén; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Many studies have established that children tend to exclude objects for which they already have a name as potential referents of novel words. In the current study we asked whether this exclusion can be triggered by social-pragmatic context alone without pre-existing words as blockers. Two-year-old children watched an adult looking at a novel object while saying a novel word with excitement. In one condition the adult had not seen the object beforehand, and so the children interpreted the adult's utterance as referring to the gazed-at object. In another condition the adult and child had previously played jointly with the gazed-at object. In this case, children less often assumed that the adult was referring to the object but rather they searched for an alternative referent--presumably because they inferred that the gazed-at object was old news in their common ground with the adult and so not worthy of excited labeling. Since this inference based on exclusion is highly similar to that underlying the Principle of Contrast/Mutual Exclusivity, we propose that this principle is not purely lexical but rather is based on children's understanding of how and why people direct one another's attention to things either with or without language.

  20. Radiological and migration results of the DURALOC(R)-cup after two years

    CERN Document Server

    Juen, F

    2000-01-01

    4 years of implantation was assessed to be 1.23 mm, however a decreasing speed of migration over the final 2-year-period was indicated. Our results demonstrate that statements relating to migration results of particular cups are more accurate after four years. However, statements about mean migration values are possible after two years. A migration speed of 1 mm total migration within the first 2 years after operation was predictive for radiological loosening of the cup after four years (p=0,0004). Further, appearance of postoperative gaps in zone one of the cup correlate with high migration values later leading to radiological loosening and may be a result of errors during implantation. However, we could demonstrate that presence of gaps around the cup postoperatively is an important factor for later loosening. With consideration to the findings concerning the DURALOC(R) cup within four years of implantation, predictions of results over a long term may be undesirable. In 1997 a study was conduced concerning ...

  1. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  2. Er:YAG laser ablation: evaluation after a two-year clinical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Kucerova, Hana; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav

    1998-04-01

    The aim of the clinical study is to evaluate Er:YAG laser ablation after two year-long clinical treatment. One hundred fifty cavities were volunteered for checking. Three restorative materials were used following manufacturer's directions. For the experiment, an Er:YAG laser drilling machine was applied. The laser delivered energy from 100 to 450 mJ, repetition rate from 1 to 4 Hz. The length of the generated pulses was 200 microseconds. During our experiments cooling of the teeth was achieved by fine water mist. The number of pulses was from 16 to 489. Caries of enamel and dentin were treated. Old insufficient fillings were also removed (not amalgam or metal alloys). The experiments followed the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki (1964), Tokyo (1975), Venice (1983) and Hong-Kong (1989). Clinical evaluation of fillings after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months based on ADA recommendation was used. Eight criteria were applied for the restoration control. Composite resins and glassionomers could be used as filling materials.

  3. White matter and memory in healthy adults: Coupled changes over two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrew R; Prindle, John J; Brandmaier, Andreas M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Numerous cross-sectional studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to link age-related differences in white matter (WM) anisotropy and concomitant decrements in cognitive ability. Due to a dearth of longitudinal evidence, the relationship between changes in diffusion properties of WM and cognitive performance remains unclear. Here we examine the relationship between two-year changes in WM organization and cognitive performance in healthy adults (N=96, age range at baseline=18-79 years). We used latent change score models (LCSM) to evaluate changes in age-sensitive cognitive abilities - fluid intelligence and associative memory. WM changes were assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in WM regions that are considered part of established memory networks and exhibited individual differences in change. In modeling change, we postulated reciprocal paths between baseline measures and change factors, within and between WM and cognition domains, and accounted for individual differences in baseline age. Although baseline cross-sectional memory performance was positively associated with FA and negatively with RD, longitudinal effects told an altogether different story. Independent of age, longitudinal improvements in associative memory were significantly associated with linear reductions in FA and increases in RD. The present findings demonstrate the sensitivity of DTI-derived indices to changes in the brain and cognition and affirm the importance of longitudinal models for evaluating brain-cognition relations.

  4. Temporal and spatial evolution of brain network topology during the first two years of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available The mature brain features high wiring efficiency for information transfer. However, the emerging process of such an efficient topology remains elusive. With resting state functional MRI and a large cohort of normal pediatric subjects (n = 147 imaged during a critical time period of brain development, 3 wk- to 2 yr-old, the temporal and spatial evolution of brain network topology is revealed. The brain possesses the small world topology immediately after birth, followed by a remarkable improvement in whole brain wiring efficiency in 1 yr olds and becomes more stable in 2 yr olds. Regional developments of brain wiring efficiency and the evolution of functional hubs suggest differential development trend for primary and higher order cognitive functions during the first two years of life. Simulations of random errors and targeted attacks reveal an age-dependent improvement of resilience. The lower resilience to targeted attack observed in 3 wk old group is likely due to the fact that there are fewer well-established long-distance functional connections at this age whose elimination might have more profound implications in the overall efficiency of information transfer. Overall, our results offer new insights into the temporal and spatial evolution of brain topology during early brain development.

  5. Changes in Body Composition in the Two Years after Initiation of Haemodialysis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, David; Gardiner, Claire; Lindley, Elizabeth; Lines, Simon; Woodrow, Graham; Wright, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in haemodialysis (HD) and is linked to poor outcomes. This study aimed to describe changes in body composition after the initiation of HD and investigate whether any routinely collected parameters were associated with these changes. The study cohort came from the HD population of a single centre between 2009 and 2014. Body composition measurements were obtained from a database of bioimpedance results using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM), while demographics and laboratory values came from the renal unit database. Primary outcomes were changes in normohydration weight, lean tissue mass and adipose tissue mass over the two years after HD initiation. A total of 299 patients were included in the primary analyses, showing an increase in adipose tissue, loss of lean tissue and no significant change in normohydration weight. None of the routinely collected parameters were associated with the lean tissue changes. Loss of lean tissue over the first year of dialysis was associated with increased mortality. The results showing loss of lean tissue that is not limited to those traditionally assumed to be at high risk supports interventions to maintain or improve lean tissue as soon as possible after the initiation of HD. It highlights the importance of monitoring nutrition and the potential for routine use of bioimpedance. PMID:27827911

  6. Two-year-olds with autism orient to non-social contingencies rather than biological motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Ami; Lin, David J; Gorrindo, Phillip; Ramsay, Gordon; Jones, Warren

    2009-05-14

    Typically developing human infants preferentially attend to biological motion within the first days of life. This ability is highly conserved across species and is believed to be critical for filial attachment and for detection of predators. The neural underpinnings of biological motion perception are overlapping with brain regions involved in perception of basic social signals such as facial expression and gaze direction, and preferential attention to biological motion is seen as a precursor to the capacity for attributing intentions to others. However, in a serendipitous observation, we recently found that an infant with autism failed to recognize point-light displays of biological motion, but was instead highly sensitive to the presence of a non-social, physical contingency that occurred within the stimuli by chance. This observation raised the possibility that perception of biological motion may be altered in children with autism from a very early age, with cascading consequences for both social development and the lifelong impairments in social interaction that are a hallmark of autism spectrum disorders. Here we show that two-year-olds with autism fail to orient towards point-light displays of biological motion, and their viewing behaviour when watching these point-light displays can be explained instead as a response to non-social, physical contingencies--physical contingencies that are disregarded by control children. This observation has far-reaching implications for understanding the altered neurodevelopmental trajectory of brain specialization in autism.

  7. Risk Factors for Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients: Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Sameiro-Faria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. End-stage renal disease (ESRD patients under hemodialysis (HD have high mortality rate. Inflammation, dyslipidemia, disturbances in erythropoiesis, iron metabolism, endothelial function, and nutritional status have been reported in these patients. Our aim was to identify any significant association of death with these disturbances, by performing a two-year follow-up study. Methods and Results. A large set of data was obtained from 189 HD patients (55.0% male; 66.4 ± 13.9 years old, including hematological data, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory, and endothelial (dysfunction markers, and dialysis adequacy. Results. 35 patients (18.5% died along the follow-up period. Our data showed that the type of vascular access, C-reactive protein (CRP, and triglycerides (TG are significant predictors of death. The risk of death was higher in patients using central venous catheter (CVC (Hazard ratio [HR] =3.03, 95% CI = 1.49–6.13, with higher CRP levels (fourth quartile, compared with those with lower levels (first quartile (HR = 17.3, 95% CI = 2.40–124.9. Patients with higher TG levels (fourth quartile presented a lower risk of death, compared with those with the lower TG levels (first quartile (HR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.05–0.58. Conclusions. The use of CVC, high CRP, and low TG values seem to be independent risk factors for mortality in HD patients.

  8. Results from Two Years of Ka-Band Propagation Characterization at Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Zemba, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Over the several years, NASA plans to launch several earth science missions which are expected to achieve data throughputs of 5-40 terabits per day transmitted from low earth orbiting spacecraft to ground stations. The current S-band and X-band frequency allocations in use by NASA, however, are incapable of supporting the data rates required to meet this demand. As such, NASA is in the planning stages to upgrade its existing Near Earth Network (NEN) Polar ground stations to support Ka-band (25.5-27 GHz) operations. Consequently, it becomes imperative that characterization of propagation effects at these NEN sites is conducted to determine expected system performance, particularly at low elevation angles ((is) less than 10 deg) where spacecraft signal acquisition typically occurs. Since May 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center has installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the NEN site located in Svalbard, Norway. The Ka-band radiometer monitors the water vapor line, as well as 6 frequencies around 26.5 GHz at multiple elevation angles: 45 deg, 20 deg, and 10 deg. Two year data collection results indicate comparable performance to previously characterized northern latitude sites in the United States, i.e., Fairbanks, Alaska. It is observed that cloud cover at the Svalbard site remains the dominant loss mechanism for Ka-band links, resulting in a margin requirement of 4.1 dB to maintain link availability of 99% at 10 deg elevation.

  9. The proba2 mission: the first two years of solar observation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The PRoject for OnBoard Autonomy (PROBA) missions are a series of microsatellites launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) and intended to provide an in-orbit test platform for new technologies. The second satellite in the series, PROBA2, was launched on November 2, 2009. The primary mission goal of PROBA2 is to perform an in-flight demonstration of a series of new spacecraft technologies. The secondary mission goal is the exploitation of the payload of scientific instruments consisting of two Sun-sensing instruments, the Sun Watcher with Active Pixel Sensor and Image Processing, and the Large Yield Radiometer. Both instruments are unique in a technological sense but also provide unique scientific data for the solar physics community. In this volume, a number of papers are collected that give an overview of the mission, the spacecraft, its instrument and its operations. In addition, the scientific outcome of the mission during the first two years is presented in a series of research papers.  This volume ...

  10. Temporal and spatial evolution of brain network topology during the first two years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Giovanello, Kelly S; Smith, Jeffery Keith; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili

    2011-01-01

    The mature brain features high wiring efficiency for information transfer. However, the emerging process of such an efficient topology remains elusive. With resting state functional MRI and a large cohort of normal pediatric subjects (n = 147) imaged during a critical time period of brain development, 3 wk- to 2 yr-old, the temporal and spatial evolution of brain network topology is revealed. The brain possesses the small world topology immediately after birth, followed by a remarkable improvement in whole brain wiring efficiency in 1 yr olds and becomes more stable in 2 yr olds. Regional developments of brain wiring efficiency and the evolution of functional hubs suggest differential development trend for primary and higher order cognitive functions during the first two years of life. Simulations of random errors and targeted attacks reveal an age-dependent improvement of resilience. The lower resilience to targeted attack observed in 3 wk old group is likely due to the fact that there are fewer well-established long-distance functional connections at this age whose elimination might have more profound implications in the overall efficiency of information transfer. Overall, our results offer new insights into the temporal and spatial evolution of brain topology during early brain development.

  11. Ozone over the Western Mediterranean Sea – results from two years of shipborne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Velchev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, along with other air pollutants, has been measured for two years from a monitoring station placed on a cruise ship that follows a regular track in the Western Mediterranean between April and October. Conditions favouring high ozone levels have been studied by analysis of weather maps and back trajectories. This analysis was focused on a transect over the open sea in the South Western Mediterranean between Tunis and Palma de Mallorca. High ozone levels were found in situations with an anticyclonic circulation over the Western Mediterranean when subsidence brings air masses down from altitudes between 1000 and 3500 m a.s.l. Analysis of composite meteorological maps suggests a relevant contribution of breeze circulation to subsidence during events with high surface ozone concentrations; this points to an important contribution from local ozone formation. A detailed back trajectory analysis of the origin of air masses with high ozone concentrations was carried out for two "hot spots" for ozone pollution, in the Gulf of Genoa and between Naples and Palermo, respectively. The main cause of high ozone levels in the Gulf of Genoa was found to be outflow from the Po Valley and the Genoa area while such episodes along the Naples-Palermo transect were most often associated with trajectories from the Rome or Naples areas. Analysis of the relationship between measured concentrations of Black Carbon and ozone allowed to evaluate the degree of photochemical "ageing" of the air masses encountered along the route of the cruise ship.

  12. Ozone over the Western Mediterranean Sea – results from two years of shipborne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Velchev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, along with other air pollutants, has been measured for two years from a monitoring station placed on a cruise ship that follows a regular track in the Western Mediterranean between April and October. Conditions favoring high ozone levels have been studied by analysis of weather maps and back trajectories. This analysis was focused on a transect over the open sea in the South Western Mediterranean between Tunis and Palma de Mallorca. High ozone levels were found in situations with an anticyclonic circulation over the Western Mediterranean when subsidence brings air masses down from altitudes between 1000 and 3500 m a.s.l. Analysis of composite meteorological maps suggest a relevant contribution of breeze circulation to subsidence during events with high surface ozone concentrations; this points to an important contribution from local ozone formation. A detailed back trajectory analysis of the origin of air masses with high ozone concentrations was carried out for two "hot spots" for ozone pollution, found along the coast south of Genova and between Napoli and Palermo, respectively. While it was found that the influence of plumes from areas with high pollutant levels might explain most episodes in the Northwestern transect, such "local" influences appeared to be of minor importance within the Napoli-Palermo transect.

  13. Curriculum alignment and higher order thinking in introductory biology in Arkansas public two-year colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Elizabeth Diane

    This dissertation identified the cognitive levels of lecture objectives, lab objectives, and test questions in introductory majors' biology. The study group included courses offered by 27 faculty members at 18 of the 22 community colleges in Arkansas. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to identify cognitive levels, the median lecture learning outcomes were at level 2 (Comprehension) and test assessments at Level 1 (Knowledge). Lab learning outcomes were determined to have a median of level 3 (Analysis). A correlation analysis was performed using SPSS software to determine if there was an association between the Bloom's level of lecture objectives and test assessments. The only significant difference found was at the Analysis level, or Bloom's level 4 (p=.043). Correlation analyses were run for two other data sets. Years of college teaching experience and hours of training in writing objectives and assessments were compared to the Bloom's Taxonomy level of lecture objectives and test items. No significant difference was found for either of these independent variables. This dissertation provides Arkansas two-year college biology faculty with baseline information about the levels of cognitive skills that are required in freshman biology for majors courses. It can serve to initiate conversations about where we are compared to a national study, where we need to be, and how we get there.

  14. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  15. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  16. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S....

  17. Beach monitoring project Sand Key Phase II Beach nourishment program (North Redington Beach and Redington Shores) Post-Nourishment Report Part II Offshore Profiles and Wave Data

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    This study presents the third post-nourishment survey (January 1989) results for the Sand Key Phase II beach nourishment project carried out in June, 1988. The monitoring program to this beach nourishment project is a joint effort between the University of South Florida and University of Florida. The field surveys include a total of 26 profiles, encompassing approximately 3 miles of shoreline extending from DNR R-96 to R-1ll. The total calculated volume loss of sand in the n...

  18. Interdependence of soil and agricultural practice in a two - year phytoremediation in situ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia; Onyeike, Eugene; Frac, Magdalena; Iwo, Godknows

    2016-04-01

    A two - year plant - based soil clean - up was carried out at a crude oil spill agricultural site in a Niger Delta community in Nigeria to access further clean - up potentials of Cymbopogon citratus. Applied diagnostic ratios identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs. Up to 90.8% sequestration was obtained for carcinogenic PAHs especially Benz (a) pyrene in a 2 - phase manner. A community level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to differentiate spatial and temporal changes in the soil microbial communities. In relation to pollution, soil conditioning notably decreased the lag times and showed mixed effects for colour development rates, maximum absorbance and the overall community pattern. For rate and utilization of different carbon substrates in BIOLOG wells, after day 3, in comparison to control soil communities, contamination with hydrocarbons and associated types increased amines and amides consumption. Consumption of carbohydrates in all polluted and unamended regimes decreased markedlyin comparison to those cultivated with C. citratus. We found a direct relationship between cellulose breakdown, measurable with B-glucosidase activity, organic matter content and CO2 realease within all soils in the present study. Organic amendment rendered most studied contaminants unavailable for uptake in preference to inorganic fertilizer in both study years. Generally, phytoremediation improved significantly the microbial community activity and thus would promote ecosystem restoration in relation to most patronised techniques. Supplementation with required nutrients, in a long - term design would present many ecological benefits. Keywords: Agricultural soils; Recovery; Hydrocarbon pollution; Ecology; Management practice.

  19. Surgery of condyloma acuminatum permagnum and permagnum recurrence after two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucic, Nenad; Antonic, Zora; Ecim, Vesna; Grahovac, Slobodan; Jeftovic, Rosanda; Draganovic, Dragica; Cancarevic-Djajic, Branka; Rodic, Aleksandar

    2011-09-01

    The authors in their paper show the case with the female patient D.S. 51 years old, which was surgically treated for genital condyloma in 1981, 1986, 1999, 2006 and 2008. Under registration number 3119/2006 was received at Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic in Banja Luka with the diagnosis of condyloma acuminatum permagnum. Patient suffered from a huge tumorous, cauliflower formation, which was located on the mons pubis, and down to the anus, laterally to the right of the gluteal region to the left thigh. Patient was operated-Vulvectomia simplex cum extirpatio tumoris reg glutealis l dex. We obtained pathohistological findings (no. 4876 / 06) which read: condyloma acuminatum permagnum. After two years patient was rehospitalized at Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic in Banja Luka, (registration number 1311/08) with almost identical findings in the same region under the diagnosis of condyloma acuminatum permagnum recidivans, St. post. vulvectomiam simplex et extitpationem tumoris glutealis reg l dex. All preoperative findings - laboratory analysis, X-ray of the lung and heart and ultrasound of the small pelvis were within the reference values. In this paper we describe the location of the tumor and how it is resolved - Extirpatio tumoris reg glutealis l. dex. et perianalis.Pathohistological findings confirmed previous diagnosis. In this paper we highlight our experiences regarding the operations of an unusually large tumors of genital condyloma and recurrent genital condyloma that were almost of the same size. Our experience could be useful to work on the education about sexually transmitted diseases, in order to improve the prevention of the viral diseases (vaccination), the treatment of these illnesses and to disseminate the warning that the regular check-ups with gynecologist are necessary.

  20. Two years of psychogeriatric consultations in a nursing home: reasons for referral compared to psychiatrists' assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantini Chiara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among elderly residents in nursing homes, only a small number of patients in need of specialist care are referred to a psychiatric consultant. The aim of this research was to evaluate the consultation activity and the appropriateness of referral to psychiatric assessment. Methods Data were collected and analysed on consultation carried out over a two-year period in a RSA (Residenza Socio-Assistenziale in Northern-Italy. Data were catalogued with reference to: patients, consultation, diagnosis and recommended medications. Statistical correlation analysis by means of Spearman test and signification test was carried out. Results Residents referred to psychiatric consultation at least once were 112 (14.5% of all residents. Reason for referral were: depression (17.2%, delusions and hallucinations (14%, agitation (34.8%, aggressive behaviour (23.5% and disturbances of sleep (6.8%. Most frequent diagnoses were organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (33.9%, mood disorders (22.3% and schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional syndromes (18.8%. No psychiatric diagnosis was found only in 1.8% of cases, thus confirming high sensibility of referring physicians. A statistically significant correlation was found when comparing referrals for depression or delusions and allucinations or sleep disturbances and diagnostic confirmation of such symptoms by specialistic assessment (respectively 49.8%, 52.7% and 19.6%. Correlation between psychotic symptoms and the consequent prescription of antipsychotic drugs had a significant if somewhat modest value (24% while correlation between depression symptoms and prescription of antidepressant drugs was more noticeable (66.5%. Conclusion Main reason for referral to psychiatric consultation resulted to be the presence of agitation, a non-specific symptom often difficult to attribute. Data concerning depression confirm tendency to

  1. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hansen-Turton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6% of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7% of the 628 control children (p = 0.1. Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4 months versus 23.6 (3.1 months (P = 0.6. Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4. The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ≥20, ≥10 and ≥5 μg/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes.

  2. Regional brain shrinkage over two years: individual differences and effects of pro-inflammatory genetic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, N; Ghisletta, P; Dahle, C L; Bender, A R; Yang, Y; Yuan, P; Daugherty, A M; Raz, N

    2014-12-01

    We examined regional changes in brain volume in healthy adults (N=167, age 19-79years at baseline; N=90 at follow-up) over approximately two years. With latent change score models, we evaluated mean change and individual differences in rates of change in 10 anatomically-defined and manually-traced regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OF), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), insula (In), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC). Significant mean shrinkage was observed in the Hc, CbH, In, OF, and PhG, and individual differences in change were noted in all regions, except the OF. Pro-inflammatory genetic variants modified shrinkage in PhG and CbH. Carriers of two T alleles of interleukin-1β (IL-1β C-511T, rs16944) and a T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, rs1801133) polymorphisms showed increased PhG shrinkage. No effects of a pro-inflammatory polymorphism for C-reactive protein (CRP-286C>A>T, rs3091244) or apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele were noted. These results replicate the pattern of brain shrinkage observed in previous studies, with a notable exception of the LPFC, thus casting doubt on the unique importance of prefrontal cortex in aging. Larger baseline volumes of CbH and In were associated with increased shrinkage, in conflict with the brain reserve hypothesis. Contrary to previous reports, we observed no significant linear effects of age and hypertension on regional brain shrinkage. Our findings warrant further investigation of the effects of neuroinflammation on structural brain change throughout the lifespan.

  3. Two-year outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: results from GARFIELD-AF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Accetta, Gabriele; Camm, Alan John; Cools, Frank; Fitzmaurice, David A.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Goto, Shinya; Haas, Sylvia; Hacke, Werner; Kayani, Gloria; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Misselwitz, Frank; ten Cate, Hugo; Turpie, Alexander G.G.; Verheugt, Freek W.A.; Kakkar, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The relationship between outcomes and time after diagnosis for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is poorly defined, especially beyond the first year. Methods and results GARFIELD-AF is an ongoing, global observational study of adults with newly diagnosed NVAF. Two-year outcomes of 17 162 patients prospectively enrolled in GARFIELD-AF were analysed in light of baseline characteristics, risk profiles for stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and antithrombotic therapy. The mean (standard deviation) age was 69.8 (11.4) years, 43.8% were women, and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.3 (1.6); 60.8% of patients were prescribed anticoagulant therapy with/without antiplatelet (AP) therapy, 27.4% AP monotherapy, and 11.8% no antithrombotic therapy. At 2-year follow-up, all-cause mortality, stroke/SE, and major bleeding had occurred at a rate (95% confidence interval) of 3.83 (3.62; 4.05), 1.25 (1.13; 1.38), and 0.70 (0.62; 0.81) per 100 person-years, respectively. Rates for all three major events were highest during the first 4 months. Congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, sudden/unwitnessed death, malignancy, respiratory failure, and infection/sepsis accounted for 65% of all known causes of death and strokes for <10%. Anticoagulant treatment was associated with a 35% lower risk of death. Conclusion The most frequent of the three major outcome measures was death, whose most common causes are not known to be significantly influenced by anticoagulation. This suggests that a more comprehensive approach to the management of NVAF may be needed to improve outcome. This could include, in addition to anticoagulation, interventions targeting modifiable, cause-specific risk factors for death. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01090362. PMID:27357359

  4. Effects of Subsoiling on Soil Moisture Under No-Tillage for Two Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the water use efficiency under conservation tillage, the effects of subsoiling on soil moisture under no tillage were studied. An experiment of 40 cm subsoiling in a field kept under no-tillage for 2 years was operated from 2005 to 2006. Based on the data of the soil moisture and crop yield, the physical basis of subsoiling for water conservation and yield increase was analyzed.The results showed that the soil water storage under subsoiling, from the soil surface to a depth of 100 cm was more than that under no-tillage for the growth season. In the 0-100 cm soil depth,the soil moisture in 50-100 cm depth under subsoiling was more compared with no-tillage, which increased when it's drought and decreased when it's rainy with the increase in soil depth. Compared with no-tillage, subsoiling could reduce the water consumption of oats in the 0-50 cm depth and increase the water consumption in the 50-100 cm depth. Also, subsoiling increased the yield by 18.29% and the water use efficiency by 16.8% in a two-year average. The effects of subsoiling on water conservation and yield increase were affected by precipitation, and a well-proportioned rainfall was better to increase yield and water use efficiency. Meanwhile, subsoiling decreased bulk density, which increased with the available precipitation. Subsoiling under no-tillage is the effective rotation tillage to contain more soil moisture and improve water use efficiency in ecotone of North China.

  5. Biochemical characterization of embryogenic calli of Vanilla planifolia in response to two years of thidiazuron treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodja, Hippolyte; Noirot, Michel; Khoyratty, Shahnoo S; Limbada, Hafsah; Verpoorte, Robert; Palama, Tony Lionel

    2015-11-01

    Vanilla planifolia embryogenic calli were cultured for two years on a medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ). Due to the presence of TDZ, these calli were under permanent chemical treatment and the differentiation of adventitious shoots from protocorm-like-bodies (PLBs) was blocked. When embryogenic calli were transferred onto a medium without TDZ, shoot organogenesis and plantlet regeneration occurred. To gain better knowledge about the biochemical and molecular processes involved in the morphoregulatory role of TDZ, hormonal and metabolomic analyses were performed. Our results indicate that in the presence of TDZ, embryogenic calli contained a high amount of abscisic acid (ABA) essentially metabolized into abscisic acid glucosyl ester (ABAGE) and phaseic acid (PA), which was the most abundant. When transferred onto a medium without TDZ, shoot regeneration and development take place in four stages that include: embryogenic calli growth, differentiation of PLBs from meristmatic cells zones (MCZ), shoot organogenesis from PLBs and the elongation of well-formed shoots. From a hormonal perspective, the significant reduction in ABA metabolism and its readjustment in the ABAGE pathway triggered PLBs formation. However, this first morphogenesis was stimulated by a strong reduction in IAA metabolism. The organogenesis of PLBs into shoots is associated with an increase in ABA catabolism and a gradual shift in cellular metabolism towards shoot differentiation. Thus, the initiation of the elongation process in shoots is correlated with an alteration in metabolite composition, including an increase in energy reserves (sucrose/starch) and a rapid decrease in alanine content. Our data highlighted the relationship between endogenous hormone signalling, carbohydrate metabolism and shoot organogenesis in Orchid plants.

  6. Undergraduate Research in Earth Science Classes: Engaging Students in the First Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Wysession, M. E.; Beauregard, A.; Reinen, L. A.; Surpless, K.; O'Connell, K.; McDaris, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent PCAST report (2012), Engage to Excel, calls for a major shift in instructional modes in introductory (geo)science courses by "replacing standard laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses". An increased emphasis is recommended to engage students in experiments with the possibility of true discovery and expanded use of scientific research courses in the first two years. To address this challenge, the On the Cutting Edge program convened a workshop of geoscience faculty to explore the many ways that true research experiences can be built into introductory geoscience courses. The workshop goals included: consideration of the opportunities, strategies and methods used to provide research experiences for students in lower division geoscience courses; examination of ways to develop students' "geoscience habits of mind" through participation in authentic research activities; exploration of ways that student research projects can be designed to contribute to public science literacy with applications to a range of issues facing humanity; and development of strategies to obtain funding for these research projects, to make these programs sustainable in departments and institutions, and to scale-up these programs so that all students may participate. Access to Earth data, information technology, lab and field-based instrumentation, and field experiences provide unprecedented opportunities for students to engage in authentic research at early stages in their careers. Early exposure to research experiences has proven to be effective in the recruitment of students to the geoscience disciplines, improved retention and persistence in degree programs, motivation for students to learn and increase self-efficacy, improved attitudes and values about science, and overall increased student success. Workshop outcomes include an online collection of tested research projects currently being used in geoscience classes, resources related to effective design

  7. Two-years of NO3 radical observations in the boundary layer over the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vrekoussis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study that investigates the seasonal variability of nitrate (NO3 radicals in the marine boundary layer over the East Mediterranean Sea. An extensive data set of NO3 radical observations on the north coast of Crete for more than two years (June 2001–September 2003 is presented here. NO3 radicals follow a distinct seasonal dependency with the highest seasonally average mixing ratios in summer (5.6±1.2 pptv and the lowest in winter (1.2±1.2 pptv. Episodes with high NO3 mixing ratios have been encountered mainly in polluted air masses originating from mainland Greece, Central and East Europe, and Turkey. Ancillary measurements of ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and meteorological parameters have been conducted and used to reveal possible relationship with the observed NO3 variability. The acquired NO2 nighttime observations provide the up-to-date most complete overview of NO2 temporal variability in the area. The data show correlations of the NO3 nighttime mixing ratios with temperature (positive, relative humidity (negative and to a lesser extend with O3 (positive. As inferred from these observations, on average the major sink of NO3 radicals in the area is the heterogeneous reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 on aqueous particles whereas the homogeneous gas phase reactions of NO3 are most important during spring and summer. These observations support a significant contribution of NO3 nighttime chemistry to the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere.

  8. A functional assessment of patients two years after lung transplantation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumola, Anna; Wojarski, Jacek; Żegleń, Sławomir; Ochman, Marek; Czyżewski, Damian; Ziora, Dariusz; Zembala, Marian; Kozielski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study The aim of the study was to assess the long-term results of lung transplantation (LT) in Poland two years after the procedure. Material and methods The study included patients who underwent LT between December 2004 and December 2009 in the Silesian Center for Heart Diseases in Zabrze. Various lung functions (forced vital capacity – FVC; forced expiratory volume in 1 second – FEV1), the quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire), the level of perceived dyspnea (Medical Research Council – MRC; basic dyspnea index – BDI), and the patient's mobility (the 6-minute walking test – 6MWT) were assessed before and approximately 24 months after LT. Among 35 patients who underwent LT, 20 patients were referred to our study (mean age: 46.6 ± 9.03 years). Results After LT, a statistically significant increase was observed in the distance achieved in the 6MWT (323.8 vs. 505.8 m), FVC (1.64 vs. 2.88 L), and FEV1 (1.37 vs. 2.09 L). An improvement in perceived dyspnea in MRC and BDI questionnaires was observed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after LT. The assessment of the quality of life, excluding perceived pain, showed the most significant improvement in the physical cumulative score (PCS; 25 vs. 45 points), especially in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusions Lung transplantation in Poland, in patients who live longer than 2 years after the procedure, significantly improves the mobility, lung function, perceived dyspnea, and the quality of life. PMID:26336415

  9. The Two-Year Colleges' Role in Building the Future Geoscience Technical Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, B.

    2014-12-01

    Careers in energy science related fields represent significant job growth in the U.S. Yet post-secondary career and technical programs have not kept pace with demand and energy science curriculum, including fundamental concepts of energy generation and environmental impact, lacks a firm position among general or career and technical education courses. Many of these emerging energy related jobs are skilled labor and entry level technical positions requiring less than a bachelor's degree. These include jobs such as solar/photovoltaic design and installation, solar water and space heating installation, energy management, efficiency and conservation auditor, environmental technician, etc. These energy related career pathways fit naturally within the geosciences discipline. Many of these jobs can be filled by individuals from HVAC, Industrial technology, welding, and electrical degree programs needing some additional specialized training and curriculum focused on fundamental concepts of energy, fossil fuel exploration and use, atmospheric pollution, energy generation, alternative energy sources, and energy conservation. Two-year colleges (2ycs) are uniquely positioned to train and fill these workforce needs as they already have existing career and technical programs and attract both recent high school graduates, as well as non-traditional students including displaced workers and returning veterans. We have established geoscience related workforce certificate programs that individuals completing the traditional industrial career and technical degrees can obtain to meet these emerging workforce needs. This presentation will discuss the role of geosciences programs at 2ycs in training these new workers, developing curriculum, and building a career/technical program that is on the forefront of this evolving industry.

  10. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Beach County Park Airport, West Palm Beach, FL (78 FR 6258). Interested parties were invited to... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have...

  11. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and...

  12. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  13. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  14. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  15. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  16. Perceptions of teachers' general and informational feedback and intrinsic motivation in physical education: two-year effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Andre; Hein, Vello

    2006-10-01

    Relative change or stability of perceived positive general feedback and perceived informational feedback and their influence on students' intrinsic motivation in physical education over two years were examined. 302 students, ages 11 to 15 years, responded to the Perception of Teacher's Feedback questionnaire. Two years later, these students filled out the questionnaire again, along with a modified version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Analysis showed that both types of perceived feedback exhibited moderate stability over the two years. Perceived positive general feedback demonstrated a significant direct effect on students' intrinsic motivation measured concurrently in physical education. Further, fixing to zero the effect of perceived positive general feedback on intrinsic motivation measured concurrently, an effect emerged over the two years.

  17. A Study of Remedial Mathematics Programs (RMP) at Two Year Colleges (TYC) in New York State (NYS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, James

    1974-01-01

    Members of the New York State Mathematics Association of Two-Year Colleges were surveyed concerning characteristics of remedial programs, objectives of such programs, and facilities necessary. The results of the survey are reported and discussed. (SD)

  18. Rhythm Control and Its Relation to Symptoms during the First Two Years after Radiofrequency Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkenheim, Anna; Brandes, Axel; Chemnitz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00697359. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate rhythm control up to two years after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation and its relation to reported symptoms. BACKGROUND: The implantable loop recorder (ILR) continuously records...

  19. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals.

  20. Two years of gaseous emissions from contrasting soils amended with organic and synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, D. E.; Chantigny, M. H.; Rochette, P.; Angers, D. A.; Rieux, C.; Vanasse, A.

    2012-04-01

    Animal manures are often used as a source of nitrogen (N) for agriculture; however impacts of amendment type on N2O production may vary. In this study, N2O emissions from two soil types with contrasting texture and carbon (C) content (a silty clay mixed frigid dystric eutrudept and a sandy loam mixed frigid typic dystrudept) were measured for two years under a cool, humid climate. Treatments consisted of a no N control (CTL), calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), poultry manure (PM), liquid cattle manure (LCM), or liquid swine manure (LSM). The N sources were surface applied and immediately incorporated at 90 kg N ha-1 before seeding of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Leaching losses of N were also measured using zero-tension lysimeters located at approximately 0.35 m depth. Cumulative growing season N2O-N emissions from the silty clay ranged from 2.2 to 8.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 and were slightly lower in CTL plots than in the fertilized plots (P = 0.067). The mean N2O emission factors ranged from 2.0 to 4.4% of added N with no difference among treatments. Emissions of N2O from the sandy loam soil ranged from 0.3 to 2.2 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, with greatest emissions following PM application (P < 0.001). The N2O emission factor from sandy loam plots amended with PM was 1.7%, more than double that of the other treatments (0.3 to 0.9%), likely because of the high C content of the PM. On the silty clay the yield-based N2O emissions (g N2O-N kg-1 grain yield N) were similar between treatments; while on the sandy loam, they were greatest when amended with PM. Annual N leaching losses averaged 28.7 kg ha-1 for the silty clay and 19.6 kg ha-1 for the sandy loam and were similar for all amendment types suggesting that off-site N2O emissions will also be similar amongst treatments. Preliminary data indicate that overwinter N2O emissions from sandy loam plots were consistently greater when amended with pig slurry compared with unamended soils, and that these overwinter losses may exceed

  1. Acute Vs Delayed ACL Reconstruction. Early Differences and Preliminary Two Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Karl; Barenius, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Historically acute ACL reconstruction has been avoided due to reports of early rehabilitation problems with stiffness. Are these reports still valid today with modern arthroscopic techniques? Methods: 70 patients with a high recreational activity level (Tegner ≥6) who presented with a acute ACL injury were randomized to an acute reconstruction within 8 days from the injury or delayed reconstruction after 6-10 weeks. Four surgeons performed the ACL reconstructions with quadrupled semitendinosus tendon grafts and endobutton and metallic interference screw fixation. The rehabilitation training was performed at the same physiotherapy center for all patients. The follow up at 6 and 24 months included ROM, Lachman, Rolimeter, pivot shift, one leg hop, IKDC, KOOS, Lysholm and Tegner activity level. Results: There were no differences between the groups in ROM, IKDC, activity level or laxity at 6 months. Four patients had a combined extension and flexion deficit of more than 15 degrees, two from each group. In the acute group 79% had an objective IKDC grade A or B compared with 73% in the delayed group. The one leg hop index above 90% was found in 50% in the acute group and 24% in the delayed group (p=0.04). Functional data for the 2-year follow up are not available at the time of abstract writing. The median activity level according to Tegner was restored to pre-injury levels in both groups after one year, and was stationary at 2 years. The visual analogue scale (VAS) response to the question “How is your knee working on a scale from 0-100? (100 = best)” revealed 81 in the acute and 71 in the delayed group (p=0.1). To the question “How does your knee affect your activity level on a scale from 0-100? (100 = no affection)” the mean score was 75 in the acute group and 67 in the delayed group (p=0.3). At one and two years the KOOS was statistically similar between the groups but with slightly higher subscale “Sport and recreation” scores, 85 in the

  2. A Cometary Update from the First Two Years of the NEOWISE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Bauer, James M.; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph R.; Nugent, Carolyn; Sonnett, Sarah M.; Cutri, Roc M.; Stevenson, Rachel; NEOWISE Team

    2016-10-01

    The NEOWISE augmentation to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission has provided the largest survey of comets in the infrared [1]. During the fully cryogenic prime mission, 163 comets were detected in four infrared wavelength bands (3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm) [2], and over 100 comets have been detected (as of June 2016) in the two-band (3.4 and 4.6 μm) restarted mission. Twenty-two comets were discovered during the prime mission, and 8 have been discovered to date with the restarted mission.The comets detected by NEOWISE represent a substantial fraction of the known population, allowing characterization to be done across a wide range of objects. The non-targeted nature of the survey allows for population-wide characterization to be done with fewer biases than with a targeted survey. The comets detected were split roughly evenly between short-period and long-period comets, and many displayed extended dust structures. Several of the comets have been detected multiple times over the course of the WISE prime and NEOWISE restarted mission, allowing for long-term analysis of cometary behavior.We present here an update of the NEOWISE cometary database, including comets from the prime mission and first two years of the restarted mission, and a selection of particularly interesting comets from the third year of the restarted mission. This unique data set will be a valuable resource for the analysis of comets in the infrared for years to come.References: [1] Mainzer, A. et al., 2014, ApJ, 792:1; [2] Bauer et al. 2015, ApJ, 814:2 Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. EK and SS gratefully acknowledge support from the NASA Postdoctoral Program.

  3. Early juvenile arthritis – results of two-year follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Salugina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study clinical and laboratory manifestations of different variants of juvenile arthritis (JA at the disease onset and during prospective two-year follow up. Material and methods. The study was performed as a part of Institute of Rheumatology early arthritis examination program RADIKAL. 130 pts with early JA (60,7% - girls with disease duration from 2 weeks to 6 months (mean 2,9±1,6 months aged 1,5- 16 years (mean 7,9±5,0 years were included. 13 (10% pts had systemic, 45 (34,6% – polyarticular and 72 (55,4% – olygoarticular variant of JA. General state, joint status, systemic and organ manifestation as well as immunological parameters (ANF, RF, disease activity, functional class (by Steinbrocker and CHAQ were assessed at baseline, and after 6, 12, 24 months of follow up. Results. Oligoarticular variant prevailed at onset and after 2 years (57,6%-55,6%. Systemic features were noted in reduced form as single manifestations. Morning stiffness was absent in half of children and lasted more than 1 hour in 16,4% of pts. After 2 years number of pts with morning stiffness significantly decreased and its duration diminished. Rheumatoid nodules appeared in 1 pt after 1 year. Uveitis developed in 7 children (5,3% and to the end of follow up it appeared in 2 more pts. Most of pts had minimal or moderate functional disability (FK 1,2 and CHAQ 0,1-1,5 during follow up. Disease activity at onset did not exceed 1 or 2 stage (80,2% and after 2 years the disease was not active in half of pts. To the end of follow up remission was achieved in 59% of pts, more often in those who received disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. In 23,2% of pts mostly in those with polyarthritis JA continued to recur independently on treatment. Conclusion. Timely administered complex therapy hampered disease progression, induced remission and improved quality of life in most children with JA. Pts with olygoarthritis had most favorable course of the disease. Pts

  4. Water, soil and soccer: an experience of two years promoting humanistic competences and standardization of curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Feliciana; Consoli, Simona; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Parraguirre, Sebastián; Pérez-Palazón, María J.; Pimentel, Rafael; Polo, María J.; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    We present an experience of two years where a group of professors of University in Catania (Italy) and the University of Cordoba (Spain) created a practical case about hydrological planning in the context of similar subjects. The proposed work had to be solved and presented by teams of two students who competed following the philosophy of soccer leagues (national and champion). In the final match, the best teams of each country "played" and defended their work which was judged by an international committee of professors. The presentation and defense was carried out through videoconference so the fans in each country could support their teams. The winners in each country received a certificate of both Universities and the participation in the EGU Assembly 2014 and 2015 as coauthors of the present work. The objective of the practical case is the calculation of design peak flow for a rainfall quantile in a rural catchment following the Curve Number method developed by the Soil Conservation Service (1972.) This type of study implies different disciplines of Hydrology and Soil Sciences and the use of Geographic Information Systems and calculation and programming tools which is very useful to improve the students' technical skills. As for humanistic skills, an oral presentation in English allows improving their knowledge in foreign languages and to face a challenging experience which can be compared with an interview for a job. This teaching experience was very motivating for the students and the professors involved. The results of surveys done by the students indicated the improvement of the level of knowledge about hydrological engineering projects as well as the interest in managing water resources. This type of experience can be useful for other subjects or can integrate more teaching centres. REFERENCES: USDA Soil Conservation Service, 1972. National Engineering Handbook, Section 4, Hydrology. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 544. Acknowledment

  5. Factors related to the economic sustainability of two-year chemistry-based technology training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Bridgid A.

    Two-year chemistry-based technology training (CBTT) programs in the U.S. are important in the preparation of the professional technical workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify, examine, and analyze factors related to the economic sustainability of CBTT programs. A review of literature identified four clustered categories of 31 sub-factors related to program sustainability. Three research questions relating to program sustainability were: (1) What is the relative importance of the identified factors?, (2) What differences exist between the opinions of administrators and faculty?, and (3) What are the interrelationships among the factors? In order to answer these questions, survey data gathered from CBTT programs throughout the United States were analyzed statistically. Conclusions included the following: (1) Rank order of the importance to sustainability of the clustered categories was: (1) Partnerships, (2) Employer and Student Educational Goals, (3) Faculty and Their Resources, and (4) Community Perceptions and Marketing Strategies. (2) Significant correlations between ratings of sustainability and the sub-factors included: degree of partnering, college responsiveness, administration involvement in partnerships, experiential learning opportunities, employer input in curriculum development, use of skill standards, number of program graduates, student job placement, professional development opportunities, administrator support, presence of a champion, flexible scheduling, program visibility, perception of chemical technicians, marketing plans, and promotion to secondary students. (3) Faculty and administrators differed significantly on only two sub-factor ratings: employer assisted curriculum development, and faculty workloads. (4) Significant differences in ratings by small program faculty and administrators and large program faculty and administrators were indicated, with most between small program faculty and large program administrators. The study

  6. A Multicentre Study of CLa Implant and Sino-implant Expanded Application (two-year follow-up)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方可娟; 关艳敏; 范慧民; 高尔生; 杨丹; 薜丽; 韩耀玲; 刘宝

    1997-01-01

    A multicentre comparative clinical study of CLa implant and Sino-implant was carried out at 100 subcentres in 11 provinces, and a total of 19673 subjects were recruited. Two year follow up has been finished. The follow-up rate at the end of two years was 94,29%. Two-year cumulative continuation rate per 100 women for Sino-implant(89.93) was significantly higher than that for CLa implant (88.89). Two-year cumulative pregnancy rates per 100 women were 0.0462(CLa implant) and 0.281(Sino-implant) respectively; there was statistically significant difference between them. No ectopic pregnancy was recorded among CLa implant users and three ectopic pregnancies were reported among Sino implant users,resulting in an ectopic pregnancy rate of 0.163 per 1000 women years. The incidence of side-effects appeared to diminish with time. The major side effects were the menstrual disturbances, which accounted for more than 90% of the total sideeffects, and the incidence of frequent menstruation, irregular bleeding and spotring was higher than that of infrequentjscanty menstruation and amenorrhea. Use of CLa implant had higher incidence of amenorrhea and infrequentjscanty menstruation than that of Sin-imptant. During two-year follow-up, the number of discontinuation due to menstrual problems contributed 78% of the total number of discontinuation; two year menstrual-related cumulative discontinuation rates were 8.96 per 100 women for CLa implant and 7.84 for Sino-implant; there was statistically significant difference(P< 0.01). Two-year study shows that the two types of implant are similar to Norplant in the incidence of side-effects and contraceptive efficacy as well as two year continuation rates.

  7. Combining remote sensing with an inverse Bruun Rule for the analysis and management of almost equilibrium beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo; Männikus, Rain

    2016-04-01

    The management of beaches that suffer from sediment deficit and construction of nearshore infrastructure in locations with intense sediment transit require adequate predictions of the future of the relevant sedimentary systems. To a large extent, this task can be accomplished by using jointly the information about sediment texture and long-term changes in the dry beach volume and the location of the waterline. It is straightforward to evaluate relative changes in the dry beach volume from a succession of airborne laser scanning (ALS) surveys. We use in addition terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technique to reduce ALS surveys performed with different devices and from different height to the same absolute height. This is accomplished using a TLS survey of a large horizontal surface of constant elevation within ALS snapshots. The most complicated, time-consuming and expensive task in beach management and planning of nearshore infrastructure is to get an adequate picture of the intensity and direction of underwater sediment transport processes. We demonstrate how a simple application of so-called inverse Bruun Rule makes it possible to evaluate the underwater volumetric changes for almost equilibrium beaches. The approach requires three data sets: wave statistics, sediment texture and changes in the average position of the waterline. The main properties of the wave climate, closure depths, magnitude and direction of wave-driven alongshore transport near the test areas are established using a triple nested high-resolution version of the wave model WAM that is forced for 34 years by high-quality marine winds. The relocation of the waterline is extracted from the ALS scanning of elevation isolines of 0.4-0.7 m on the subaerial beach. The technique has been applied to two basically different sections of Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea. Pirita Beach is gradually losing sand and requires beach refill while a moderate reclamation action is planned in the vicinity of gradually

  8. Breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond and its influence on child growth and development: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carlos; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2013-02-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies describing the global prevalence of breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond and its effects on child growth and development. The MEDLINE and LILACS databases were searched without any language or date restrictions, retrieving 3,561 titles. All retrieved titles, 453 abstracts and 49 full-text articles were read. Articles with maximum breastfeeding duration of over two years were included. An analysis was carried out of 19 articles that met the inclusion criteria resulting in a combined prevalence of breastfeeding at two years of age of 33 % (95%CI: 0.23; 0.42). Increasing trends towards breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond were observed in the past decades in South Asia. The six studies analyzing the effects of breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond on child growth showed contradictory results. No association was found with child development. It is concluded that evidence on the medium-term effects of breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond is scarce and contradictory. Hence, further research is needed regarding this practice.

  9. Morphological changes, beach inundation and overwash caused by an extreme storm on a low-lying embayed beach bounded by a dune system (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Ruth; Guillén, Jorge; Ruiz, Antonio; Jiménez, José A.; Sagristà, Enric

    2016-12-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a low-lying, micro-tidal sandy beach in the western Mediterranean, Pals beach, was characterized using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Data were collected in prior to and six months after the impact of an extreme storm with a return period of approx. 50 years, with the aim of characterizing the beach's response to the storm. The use of repeated high-resolution topographic data to quantify beach geomorphic changes has allowed assessment of the accuracy of different proxies for estimating beach volume changes. Results revealed that changes in the shoreline position cannot accurately reproduce beach volume changes on low-lying beaches where overwash processes are significant. Observations also suggested that volume estimations from beach profiles do not accurately represent subaerial volume changes at large profile distances on beaches with significant alongshore geomorphological variability. Accordingly, the segmentation of the beach into regularly spaced bins is proposed to assess alongshore variations in the beach volume with the accuracy of the topographic data. The morphological evolution of Pals beach during the study period showed a net shoreline retreat (- 4 m) and a significant sediment gain on the subaerial beach (+ 7.5 m3/m). The net gain of sediment is mostly due to the impact of the extreme storm, driving significant overwash processes that transport sediment landwards, increasing volume on the backshore and dunes. The increase of volume on the foreshore and the presence of cuspate morphologies along the shoreline also evidence post-storm beach recovery. Observed morphological changes exhibit a high variability along the beach related to variations in beach morphology. Changes in the morphology and migration of megacusps result in a high variability in the shoreline position and foreshore volume changes. On the other hand, larger morphological changes on the backshore and larger inundation distances

  10. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory T. Kleinheinz; McDermott, Colleen M.; Sarah Hughes; Amanda Brown

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impa...

  11. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  12. Characteristics of Two-Year College Students on the Autism Spectrum and Their Support Services Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Anne M; Shattuck, Paul T; Rast, Jessica E; Rava, Julianna A; Edwards, Amy D; Wei, Xin; McCracken, Mary; Yu, Jennifer W

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 80% of college-going youth with autism in the US attend a 2-year college at some point. These community-based, universally accessible institutions offer both academic and vocational courses and have experience in teaching diverse learners. This study used nationally representative survey data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to describe the characteristics and services experiences of adults with autism who attended postsecondary education after high school, focusing on those who attended a 2-year college. Over 60% of those who attended 2-year colleges had little to no trouble conversing or performing functional skills like counting change during high school, and extracurricular participation was common (93.8%). Most 2-year college attenders (85.7%) were able to navigate to places outside the home versus 43.9% of those with no postsecondary education. Over half took vocational courses at 2-year colleges, while one-quarter pursued academic study. Less than half (48.6%) of those who disclosed their disability to the school reported receiving services, accommodations, or other help. Most (87.3%) felt they received enough help, but fewer (68.0%) felt the services they received were useful. Future research should delineate specific needs of students with autism in 2-year college settings and identify what supports are needed to improve persistence and completion rates.

  13. Characteristics of Two-Year College Students on the Autism Spectrum and Their Support Services Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Roux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 80% of college-going youth with autism in the US attend a 2-year college at some point. These community-based, universally accessible institutions offer both academic and vocational courses and have experience in teaching diverse learners. This study used nationally representative survey data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to describe the characteristics and services experiences of adults with autism who attended postsecondary education after high school, focusing on those who attended a 2-year college. Over 60% of those who attended 2-year colleges had little to no trouble conversing or performing functional skills like counting change during high school, and extracurricular participation was common (93.8%. Most 2-year college attenders (85.7% were able to navigate to places outside the home versus 43.9% of those with no postsecondary education. Over half took vocational courses at 2-year colleges, while one-quarter pursued academic study. Less than half (48.6% of those who disclosed their disability to the school reported receiving services, accommodations, or other help. Most (87.3% felt they received enough help, but fewer (68.0% felt the services they received were useful. Future research should delineate specific needs of students with autism in 2-year college settings and identify what supports are needed to improve persistence and completion rates.

  14. Transport and distribution of bottom sediments at Pirita Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomere, Tarmo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic factors affecting sediment supply for and transport processes at Pirita Beach, a sandy section of the south­eastern coast of Tallinn Bay, are analysed. Observations of bathymetry, sediment properties and sources, sediment transport processes and their changes arising from coastal engineering activities are reported. The mean grain size is about 0.12 mm, with the fine sand fraction (0.063–0.125 mm accounting for about 77% of the sediments. Coarse sand dominates only along the waterline. The content of coarser sediments is greater in the northern part of the beach. A number of coastal engineering structures have blocked natural sediment supplies. The beach suffers from sediment deficit now and has lost about 400 m3 of sand annually from the dry beach between 1997 and 2005.

  15. A holistic evaluation of a typical beach nourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    is the primary method used by the Danish Coastal Authority for coastal protection and represents a management tool which serves a dual purpose. Beach Nourishment is protecting coastal lands as well as backshore properties (infrastructures, buildings etc.) and preserving natural heritages. Nevertheless, more......The coastal landscape in Denmark is characterized by multiple areas of geologic, biologic and recreational interests both at a national and international level. In the later years several guidelines have been set up in the coastal protection area. Recognizing the value of the healthy natural...... environment, the aims for the future are to ensure the presence of naturally shaped beaches and at the same time to reduce the risk of erosion. For this reason beach nourishment is used widely along the Danish North Sea coast and this method is preferred to solid constructions. Beach Nourishment...

  16. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyus-Melvin Mobilik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  17. Virginia Beach Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Beach, Virginia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  18. Daytona Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Daytona Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  19. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is included in...

  20. Modes of embayed beach dynamics: analysis reveals emergent timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. T.; Murray, A.; Limber, P. W.; Ells, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    Embayed beaches, or beaches positioned between rocky headlands, exhibit morphologic changes over many length and time scales. Beach sediment is transported as a result of the day-to-day wave forcing, causing patterns of erosion and accretion. We use the Rocky Coastline Evolution Model (RCEM) to investigate how patterns of shoreline change depend on wave climate (the distribution of wave-approach angles) and beach characteristics. Measuring changes in beach width through time allows us to track the evolution of the shape of the beach and the movement of sand within it. By using Principle Component Analysis (PCA), these changes can be categorized into modes, where the first few modes explain the majority of the variation in the time series. We analyze these modes and how they vary as a function of wave climate and headland/bay aspect ratio. In the purposefully simple RCEM, sediment transport is wave-driven and affected by wave shadowing behind the headlands. The rock elements in our model experiments (including the headlands) are fixed and unerodable so that this analysis can focus purely on sand dynamics between the headlands, without a sand contribution from the headlands or cliffs behind the beach. The wave climate is characterized by dictating the percentage of offshore waves arriving from the left and the percentage of waves arriving from high angles (very oblique to the coastline orientation). A high-angle dominated wave climate tends to amplify coastline perturbations, whereas a lower-angle wave climate is diffusive. By changing the headland/bay aspect ratio and wave climate, we can perform PCA analysis of generalized embayed beaches with differing anatomy and wave climate forcings. Previous work using PCA analysis of embayed beaches focused on specific locations and shorter timescales (beach dynamics over longer timescales. The first two PCA modes, which explain a majority of the beach width time series variation (typically >70%), are a 'breathing' mode and a

  1. Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Seal Beach NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  2. Massachusetts raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting...

  3. Artificial Beach Lighting Survey of St. George Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — St. George Island SGI is a significant sea turtle nesting beach for loggerhead and occasionally leatherback sea turtles in the Florida panhandle Lewis et al 1996 ....

  4. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A; Rokade, M.A

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  5. Backscatter--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach map area, California. The raster data...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Seal Beach NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  7. Seafloor character--Offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7) offshore of Refugio Beach, California (raster data file is included in...

  8. Lido Beach National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lido Beach Wildlife Management Area. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  9. Longshore Currents of Random Waves on Different Plane Beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志利; 王淑平; 邱大洪; 王艳; 王风龙; 董国海

    2003-01-01

    Model tests and numerical calculation of longshore currents and wave heights produced by irregular waves on two beaches with slopes of 1:100 and 1:40 are studied. The cross-shore distributions of longshore current velocities and wave heights are given and the influences of wave heights, wave periods, and beach slopes on longshore currents are discussed. The discussion is also made on the influences of different eddy viscosity coefficients on the numerical results of longshore current velocities.

  10. Integrated Co-management of Lakes through Beach Management Units

    OpenAIRE

    Goverment of Uganda; Department for International Development (DFID) of the UK Government

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record In 1999, the Integrated Co-management of Lakes through Beach Management Units project was started in an effort to implement a new approach to the management of lake resources in Uganda. The main components of this plan involved decentralization, local community management, and improving the livelihood of the poor. In order to finance the management of these areas, the Beach Management Units (BMU's) are charging user fees to those individuals who obtain benefit from the...

  11. Longshore currents of regular waves on different beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志利; 王淑平; 邱大洪; 王艳; 王风龙; 董国海

    2003-01-01

    The experiment and numerical computations of longshore currents produced by regularwaves on the two beaches with the slopes of 1:100 and 1: 40 are made. The cross-shore distributions oflongshore current velocities and wave heights are given and the influences of wave heights, wave periodsand beach slopes on the longshore currents are discussed. The discussion is also made for the influencesof different eddy viscosity coefficients on the numerical results of longshore current velocities.

  12. Surface Wave Processes on the Shelf and Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    surface wave information on the continental shelf and beach to estimate sea state, and to provide input for models of currents, sediment transport, radar...interactions in operational wave prediction models • determine the effects of wave nonlinearity and directional spreading on sea surface statistics...Surface Wave Processes On The Shelf And Beach Thomas H. C. Herbers Department of Oceanography, Code OC/He Naval Postgraduate School Monterey

  13. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  14. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  15. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  16. Post-monsoon equilibrium beach profiles and longshore sediment transport rates at Candolim, Miramar and Keri beaches of Goa, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Yadhunath, E.M.; Jishad, M.; Gowthaman, R.; Rajasekaran, C.; Pednekar, P

    Equilibrium profile is one of the concepts in coastal geomorphology which is a result of the balance of destructive versus constructive forces. Two equilibrium beach profile models, viz . Bruun/Dean’s two thirds power model and modified Bodge...

  17. Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Key Results Two Years Into The Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Franck; Rameau, Julien; Nielsen, Eric L.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Esposito, Thomas; Draper, Zachary H.; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; GPIES

    2016-10-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) is targeting 600 young, nearby stars using the GPI instrument. We report here on recent results obtained with this instrument from our team.Rameau et al. (ApJL, 822 2, L2, 2016) presented astrometric monitoring of the young exoplanet HD 95086 b obtained with GPI between 2013 and 2016. Efficient Monte Carlo techniques place preliminary constraints on the orbital parameters of HD 95086 b. Under the assumption of a coplanar planet-disk system, the periastron of HD 95086 b is beyond 51 AU. Therefore, HD 95086 b cannot carve the entire gap inferred from the measured infrared excess in the SED of HD 95086. Additional photometric and spectroscopic measurements reported by de Rosa et al. (2016, apJ, in press) showed that the spectral energy distribution of HD 95086 b is best fit by low temperature (T~800-1300 K), low surface gravity spectra from models which simulate high photospheric dust content. Its temperature is typical to L/T transition objects, but the spectral type is poorly constrained. HD 95086 b is an important exoplanet to test our models of atmospheric properties of young extrasolar planets.Direct detections of debris disk are keys to infer the collisional past and understand the formation of planetary systems. Two debris disks were recently studied with GPI:- Draper et al. (submitted to ApJ, 2016) show the resolved circumstellar debris disk around HD 111520 at a projected range of ~30-100 AU using both total and polarized H-band intensity. Structures in the disks such as a large brightness asymmetry and symmetric polarization fraction are seen. Additional data would confirm if a large disruption event from a stellar fly-by or planetary perturbations altered the disk density- Esposito et al. (submitted to ApJ, 2016) combined Keck NIRC2 data taken at 1.2-2.3 microns and GPI 1.6 micron total intensity and polarized light detections that probes down to projected separations less than 10 AU to show that the HD

  18. Arthroscopic subacromial decompression results in normal shoulder function after two years in less than 50% of patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Lars Aage Glud; Jensen, Claus Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    with impingement of the shoulder undergoing arthroscopic subacromial decompression were prospectively assessed preoperatively, at three months and at two years post-operatively using the WORC index. All patients had received non-operative treatment for at least six months before undergoing surgery. Active range...... additional resection of the acromioclavicular joint. RESULTS: WORC scores improved significantly from preoperatively (median: 1,392) to three months (median: 204) and two years post-operatively (median: 243) (p ... of motion was measured preoperatively by the examining physician and at two years by the patient him-/herself using a diagram-based questionnaire to self-assess active shoulder ROM. A total of 75 patients (94%), of whom 31 were women, completed the study. The median age was 56 years. In all, 31 patients had...

  19. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-beach developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy beaches that do not have back-beach armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-beach barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict beaches from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the beach. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long Beach to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which California’s beaches are restricted in the back beach, to describe the effects of back-beach barriers on sandy beach morphology, and to predict how these different beaches might behave with future sea-level rise. Beach morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select beaches with back-beach barriers and unrestricted beaches using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically

  20. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes-Entering a new era of investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?

  1. [Pulmonal bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection two years after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin installation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbjerg, Julie Lykke; Bjerre, Cathrine Collin; Lillebæk, Troels; Weinreich, Ulla Møller

    2014-12-15

    Major complications following installation of bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) in the bladder as treatment for early stage cancer are rare and there are only few reports of BCG isolated from patients with suspected "BCGitis". We report a case where sputum culture yielded a BCG strain identical to one used two years earlier to treat the patient's bladder cancer. Some aspects were challenging in differential diagnosis: the patient's prior history of pulmonary tuberculosis ten years earlier and a two-year interval since BCG installation. PCR analysis and culture finally provided the diagnosis disseminated BCG infection.

  2. An Engineering Application Tool for Visual Assessment of the Equilibrium Beach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An engineering application tool for prediction of the static equilibrium bay (Beach Mod) is established to describe two bay shape formulas by use of the programming software "MATLAB" with a graphic user interface (GUI). The tool is user-friendly for engineering students for the design of beach shapes. This tool was tested through application on three types of beaches in Taiwan and Australia. By implementing the concept of Headland Control, the Beach Mod program allows users to draw a structure and create an artificial headland. The results indicate that Beach Mod can efficiently forecast beach changes as well as MEPBAY, a competing software package, while boasting a better user interface.

  3. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  4. Toxicologic Laboratory Findings in Cases Reported with Hanging Death: a Two-Year Retrospective Study in Northeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ranjbar

    2013-09-01

    How to cite this article: Ranjbar R, Liaghat AR, Ranjbar A, Mohabbati H. Toxicologic Laboratory Findings in Cases Reported with Hanging Death: a Two-Year Retrospective Study in Northeast Iran. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:92-5.

  5. Relationship between two year PSA nadir and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio da Silva Franca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the relationship between two year PSA nadir (PSAn after brachytherapy and biochemical recurrence rates in prostate cancer patients. Materials and Methods In the period from January 1998 to August 2007, 120 patients were treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy alone. The results analysis was based on the definition of biochemical recurrence according to the Phoenix Consensus. Results Biochemical control was observed in 86 patients (71.7%, and biochemical recurrence, in 34 (28.3%. Mean PSAn was 0.53 ng/ml. The mean follow-up was 98 months. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1, with two year PSAn < 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy (74 patients; 61.7%, and group 2, with two year PSAn ≥ 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy (46 patients; 38.3%. Group 1 presented biochemical recurrence in 15 patients (20.3%, and group 2, in 19 patients (43.2% (p < 0.02. The analysis of biochemical disease-free survival at seven years, stratified by the two groups, showed values of 80% and 64% (p < 0.02, respectively. Conclusion Levels of two year PSAn ≥ 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy are strongly correlated with a poor prognosis. This fact may help to identify patients at risk for disease recurrence.

  6. Comparative study on semen quality of one-and two-year-old ganders during the entire reproductive season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EwaLukaszewiczl; HirokiFuruta; Yong-MeiXi; NoboruFujihara

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the characteristics of semen produced by one- and two-years old White Italian ganders during the entire reproductive season, in order to clarify whether the young ganders are responsible for a low fertility rate in young geese. Methods: Males were kept individually in cages under natural light. Semen was collected by dorso-abdominal massage three times a week and routine examination was performed. Results: The mean ejaculate volume (2.1 and 1.6 mL, respectively) and sperm concentration (323 and 281 x 106/mL, respectively) in one-year-old ganders were higher than those of two-year-old ones. The percentages viable spermatozoa of one- and two-year-old ganders were similar (91.4 and 92.3%, respectively), but the percentage of normally formed viable spermatozoa was significantly higher in the older ganders than in the younger (47.8 and 42.9%, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The semina from one- or two-year-old Ganders were similar in regard to volume, sperm density and sperm motility, but the percentage of normally formed viable spermatozoa, which is critical for fertilization, was significantly higher in the older ganders. It appears that the ganders are responsible for the low fertility rate in young geese.

  7. What Do I Need to Learn in the Next Two Years to Be Well Prepared to Teach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙嘉宇; 尹翔

    2013-01-01

    I will be a teacher in two years later and I really want to be a qualified teacher.Most good teachers are made,not born.They hone their skills in their everyday lives.This paper will tell you what I need to learn to be well prepared to teach.

  8. The Impact of Achieve3000 on Elementary Literacy Outcomes: Evidence from a Two-Year Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Darryl V.; Lenard, Matthew A.; Page, Lindsay Coleman

    2016-01-01

    School districts are increasingly adopting technology-based resources in an attempt to improve student achievement. This paper reports the two-year results from randomized control trial of Achieve3000 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Achieve3000 is an early literacy program that differentiates non-fiction…

  9. Activities in Support of Two-Year College Science, Engineering, Technology, and Mathematics Education, Fiscal Year 1993. Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    This report describes the efforts of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) to provide educational support to two-year colleges to strengthen science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs through grants, collaborative efforts, and support for curriculum materials and teacher activities.…

  10. Identifying Effective Design Features of Technology-Infused Inquiry Learning Modules: A Two-Year Study of Students' Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Fang, Su-Chi; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsin-Kai, Wu; Wu, Pai-Hsing; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2016-01-01

    The two-year study aimed to explore how students' development of different inquiry abilities actually benefited from the design of technology-infused learning modules. Three learning modules on the topics of seasons, environmental issues and air pollution were developed to facilitate students' inquiry abilities: questioning, planning, analyzing,…

  11. Institutional Researchers' Use of Qualitative Research Methods for Institutional Accountability at Two Year Colleges in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Bishar M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined institutional researchers' use of qualitative methods to document institutional accountability and effectiveness at two-year colleges in Texas. Participants were Institutional Research and Effectiveness personnel. Data were collected through a survey consisting of closed and open ended questions which was administered…

  12. Relationship between Students' Reading Ability and Their Success in Medical Terminology at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Mary Gene

    2011-01-01

    Health sciences faculty members at a two-year college were concerned about the poor pass rates in medical terminology, a gateway course for all students planning to major in health-related fields. Faculty suspected that students coming out of developmental reading might not have adequate reading skills to do well in medical terminology.…

  13. The effect of a Galeazzi fracture on the strength of pronation and supination two years after surgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, J. J. W.; The, B.; Brutty, M.; Ackland, T. R.; Wang, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a Galeazzi fracture on the strength of pronation and supination at a mean of two years after surgical treatment. The strength of pronation and supination was measured in varying rotational positions of the forearm of ten male patients (mean age 38

  14. In-School Work Experience and the Returns to Two-Year and Four-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, C.J.; Leigh, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Building on the existing education literature, we address two interrelated questions. First, how sensitive are estimated returns to two-year and four-year colleges to the inclusion of in-school work experience? Second, do the estimated returns to in-school work experience vary by type of educational institution attended? Regarding the first…

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy as a Preview of Coming Attractions: Teaching Chemistry with Instrumental Methods at Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David R.; Bushey, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Two-year colleges (2YCs) provide a significant amount of chemical education to undergraduates in the United States. By design, the charge of the 2YCs is to provide coursework at the lower-division level. Nonetheless, general chemistry courses in 2YCs can be enhanced with content to prepare future chemistry majors for upper-division education. The…

  16. Steep Houses in Basic Writing: Advocating for Latino Immigrants in a North Georgia Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Recounting the controversy surrounding a town hall meeting on "illegal" Latino immigration at a two-year college in North Georgia, this ethnographic narrative details the aftermath that ensued and its consequences for an ESL basic writing instructor. Fallout included the potential loss of her job, the rumored reallocation of a $5 million…

  17. The effect of five years versus two years of specialised assertive intervention for first episode psychosis - OPUS II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melau, Marianne; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    . Based on our sample size estimation, 400 patients treated in OPUS for two years will be randomized to further three years of OPUS treatment versus standard treatment. The specialized assertive OPUS treatment consists of three core elements: assertive community treatment, psycho-educational family...

  18. Association of land use and its change with beach closure in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land use and its change have great influences on water quality. However, their impacts on microbial contamination of beach water have been rarely investigated and their relationship with beach closure is still unknown. Here, we analyzed beach closure data obtained from 2004 to 2013 for more than 500 beaches in the United States, and examined their associations with land use around beaches in 2006 and 2011, respectively, as well as the land use change between 2011 and 2006. The results show that the number of beach closures is negatively associated with the percentages of forest, barren land, grassland and wetland, while positively associated with the percentage of urban area. The results from multi-level models also indicate the negative association with forest area but positive association with urban area and agriculture. The examination of the change of land use and the number of beach closures between 2011 and 2006 indicates that the increase in the number of beach closures is positively associated with the increase in urban (β=1.612, p<0.05) and agricultural area including pasture (β=0.098, p<0.05), but negatively associated with the increase in forest area (β= -1.789, p<0.05). The study suggests that urbanization and agriculture development near beaches have adverse effects on beach microbial water quality, while afforestation may protect beach water quality and reduce the number of beach closures. To compare differences in beach closures across the US u

  19. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors

  20. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. The {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the {sup 40}K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 222} Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 1074 Bq.kg{sup -'}1 for {sup 232}Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For {sup 40}K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 179 Bq.kg{sup -1} and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  1. New beach ridge type: severely limited fetch, very shallow water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, W.F.; Demirpolat, S.

    1988-09-01

    The southern end of Laguna Madre (Texas) north of the Rio Grande mouth is marked by very shallow water, wide tidal flats, lunettes, islands made of beach ridges, and lesser features. The number and variety of islands in the lagoon is remarkable. The lunettes (clay dunes) are made primarily of quartz sand and coarse silt. They are common 5-10 m high, irregular in shape, and steep sided. They were deposited from wind transport and did not migrate. Those that are islands in the lagoon predate present position of sea level. Islands made of beach ridges were built from the lagoon side. Photoanalysis, field work, and granulometry all show that this sand was not moved into these ridges by Gulf of Mexico waves. Trenches in 12 beach ridges showed horizontal bedding but neither low-angle nor steep cross-bedding (quite unlike swash-built beach ridges). The ridges were built by wind-tide lag effects, not from the swash. Therefore, these beach ridges are a new type, in addition to swash-built, eolian, and storm-surge ridges. Growth of the ridges appears to be completed.

  2. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment.

  3. Land use and beach closure 2004-2013 in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the beach closure data and land use information around each beach in 2006 and 2011 in the United States. The original data are created by EPA...

  4. Prospect of Oil/Gas Exploration in Beach Area of Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gansheng; Dou Lirong; Yuan Lingling; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Located in beach zone along Bohai Bay, the beach area of Bohai Bay basin is restricted between coastline and water depth of 5 m, stretching from Bayuquan to Huludao, Liaoning Province and Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province to Weihekou, Shandong Province.

  5. Textural studies of beach sediments from Sadashivagad and Karwar, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P; Antao, F.B.

    . Frequency distribution curves for both the beach sediments differ in their modal class showing unimodal to weakly bimodal trend for the Sadashivagad and strongly bimodal to unimodal trend for the Karwar beach sediments. The plots of mean grain size vs...

  6. Rethinking Transfer: Learning from CALL Teacher Education as Consequential Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chin-chi

    2015-01-01

    Behind CALL teacher education (CTE) there is an unproblematized consensus of transfer, which suggests a positivist and tool-centered view of learning gains that differs from the sociocultural focus of recent teacher education research. Drawing on Beach's (2003) conceptualization of transfer as "consequential transition," this…

  7. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  8. A method for determining average beach slope and beach slope variability for U.S. sandy coastlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.

  9. Sediment Transport Study in Haeundae Beach using Radioisotope Labelled Compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Sup [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer.

  10. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers.

  11. Assessment of the fitness of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Moonkoo; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-12-15

    In December 2007, >150km of the West coast of Korea were heavily polluted by crude oil leaked from the oil tanker Hebei Spirit, leading to mass mortality of bivalve mollusks on the intertidal areas. Two years after, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from two impacted sites to investigate sub-lethal effects of the oil spill. Tissue content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hemocyte parameters, reproductive status and energetic reserves were analyzed. PAHs in tissues of mussels as well as hemocyte parameters were not different between impacted and control sites. Energetic reserves were altered in mussels from the impacted sites. Glycogen content remained low at polluted sites, whatever the season. Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, mussels then presented altered energetic metabolism. Further investigations are thus warranted to monitor the sustainability of mussel populations on the oil spilled West coast of Korea.

  12. Parental loss of family members within two years of offspring birth predicts elevated absorption scores in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau; Duschinsky, Robbie; Hesse, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Liotti proposed that interactions during infancy with a parent suffering unresolved loss could lead to vulnerabilities to altered states of consciousness. Hesse and van IJzendoorn provided initial support for Liotti's hypothesis, finding elevated scores on Tellegen's Absorption Scale - a normative form of dissociation - for undergraduates reporting that their parents had experienced the loss of family members within two years of their birth. Here, we replicated the above findings in a large undergraduate sample (N = 927). Additionally, we investigated mother's and father's losses separately. Perinatal losses, including miscarriage, were also considered. Participants reporting that the mother or both parents had experienced loss within two years of their birth scored significantly higher on absorption than those reporting only perinatal, only father, or no losses. While not applicable to the assessment of individuals, the brief loss questionnaire utilized here could provide a useful addition to selected large-scale studies.

  13. Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção; Santos, Isaac Rodrigues dos; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed beaches, where cigarette butts, straws, paper fragments, soft plastic fragments, and food packaging...

  14. Seasonal variations in the amount of isoorientin and isovitexin in cecropia glaziovii sneth. leaves over a two-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Geison; Caroline F. Ortmann; Eloir P. Schenkel; Reginatto,Flávio H.

    2014-01-01

    Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (Urticaceae) is a common tree from Southeast and South of Brazil, being widely used in traditional medicine to treat heart and respiratory conditions. C-glycosylflavonoids have being described as the major compounds for this genus, however, no seasonality studies of individual flavonoids was conducted for any Cecropia specie. In this work, the content of isoorientin and isovitexin in aqueous extract from the leaves of C glaziovii during a two-year period was determine...

  15. Denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia. Treatment with carbon dioxide laser and a two year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia (DIFH is a persistent lesion caused mostly by the prolonged wear of an ill-fitting, over-extended denture. Although the condition frequently coexists with denture stomatitis, it is a distinct entity with a different protocol for management. The article describes successful treatment for a case of DIFH using carbon dioxide laser and a two year follow-up. The inherent advantages of using carbon dioxide laser over conventional surgical techniques are discussed.

  16. Teaching Introductory Programming Concepts with Lego MindStorms in Greek High Schools: A Two-Year Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Sartatzemi, Maya; Vassilios DAGDILELIS; Kagani, Katerina

    2008-01-01

    Below, conclusions are drawn of the findings from the 2 series of lessons; they are related to other studies, and proposals for further research are made. The analysis of the findings of the two-year study allowed us not only to make a comparison of the teaching methods applied each but also to formulate certain general conclusions in relation to the application of LegoMindstorms robots within the framework of an introduction to programming in secondary education. Our teaching approaches with...

  17. Voices long silent were invited to speak: A study of science anxiety in female biology students at a two-year branch campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Deborah J.

    This qualitative study of six female biology students at a two-year branch campus of a major Midwestern university was undertaken to study science anxiety. The study was grounded in feminist theory and addressed the questions of how the students described their science anxiety, what were the possible causes of their science anxiety, what gender issues had impinged upon their lives and education, and what factors had helped them to succeed, despite their science anxiety. Focus group meetings, private interviews, and web-based discussions provided data that described this problem. Data were analyzed for descriptions of science anxiety, possible causes of science anxiety, gender issues, and factors that have encouraged student success. Among the students' varied stories and backgrounds, four commonalities emerged: exposure to some type of significant trauma or obstacles, a lack of rescue for the students as they experienced trauma, a loss of confidence and resulting loss of voice in the students, and elucidation of classroom strategies and other factors that have helped them succeed, despite their science anxiety. Implications arising from this study include the need for a much better understanding of female students attending two-year institutions of higher education, and what measures help them learn. This requires more student-teacher interaction and the use of feminist pedagogy that prioritizes not only best practices, but also justice in the classroom, and opportunities for students to network and share their stories. Other implications include the need for curricular adjustments that would enable the changes in classroom strategies that students need to facilitate learning. Educators and counselors in K--12 also need to be more attentive to student needs and fears, directing them to resources that may smooth their transition to college courses. Implications for future research include the need for a new assessment tool that would test for the kind of data found

  18. Adaptive radiation of gobies in the interstitial habitats of gravel beaches accompanied by body elongation and excessive vertebral segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakita Atsushi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The seacoasts of the Japanese Arc are fringed by many gravel beaches owing to active tectonic uplift and intense denudation caused by heavy rainfall. These gravel beaches are inhabited by gobies of the genus Luciogobius that burrow into the gravel sediment and live interstitially. Although their habitat and morphology (e. g., reduced fins, elongated, scale-less body, and highly segmented vertebral column are highly unusual among fishes, little is known on how their morphological evolution has facilitated the colonization of interstitial habitats and promoted extensive diversification. We conducted thorough sampling of Luciogobius and related species throughout Japan, and performed molecular phylogenetic analysis to explore the patterns of morphological evolution associated with gravel beach colonization. Results An analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene suggested a remarkable diversity of previously unrecognized species. The species-level phylogeny based on six protein-coding nuclear genes clearly indicated that interstitial species cluster into two distinct clades, and that transitions from benthic or demersal habits to interstitial habits are strongly correlated with an increase in vertebral number. Colonization of gravel beach habitats is estimated to have occurred ca. 10 Ma, which coincides with the period of active orogenesis of the Japanese landmass. Different species of interstitial Luciogobius inhabit sediments with different granulometric properties, suggesting that microhabitat partitioning has been an important mechanism facilitating speciation in these fishes. Conclusion This is the first study to document the adaptation to interstitial habitats by a vertebrate. Body elongation and excessive vertebral segmentation had been the key aspects enhancing body flexibility and fishes' ability to burrow into the gravel sediment. The rich diversity of coastal gravel habitats of the Japanese Arc has likely promoted

  19. Can Multiple Mini-Interviews Predict Academic Performance of Dental Students? A Two-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaki, Sumer M; Yamany, Ibrahim A; Shinawi, Lana A; Hassan, Mona H A; Tekian, Ara

    2016-11-01

    Prior research has shown that students' previous grade point average (GPA) is the best predictor for future academic success. However, it can only partly predict the variability in dental school performance. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of multiple mini-interviews (MMI) as an admission criterion by comparing them with the academic performance of dental students over a two-year period. All incoming undergraduate dental students at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry (KAUFD) during academic year 2013-14 were invited to participate in MMI. Students rotated through six objective structured clinical exam (OSCE)-like stations for 30 minutes total and were interviewed by two trained faculty interviewers at each station. The stations were focused on noncognitive skills thought to be essential to academic performance at KAUFD. The academic performance of these students was then followed for two years and linked to their MMI scores. A total of 146 students (71 males and 75 females) participated in an interview (response rate=92.9%). Most students scored in the acceptable range at each MMI station. Students' total MMI score, ambitions, and motives were significant predictors of GPA during the two years of follow-up (pacademic performance of undergraduate dental students.

  20. Effect of educational outreach on general practice prescribing of antibiotics and antidepressants: A two-year randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-puga, Andres; Baker, Richard; Paul, Sanjoy; Villoro-Valdes, Renata

    2009-01-01

    Objective Prescribing of broad spectrum antibiotics and antidepressants in general practice often does not accord with guidelines. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of educational outreach in improving the prescribing of selected antibiotics and antidepressants, and whether the effect is sustained for two years. Design Single blind randomized trial. Setting Twenty-eight general practices in Leicestershire, England. Intervention Educational outreach visits were undertaken, tailored to barriers to change, 14 practices receiving visits for reducing selected antibiotics and 14 for improving antidepressant prescribing. Main outcome measures Number of items prescribed per 1000 registered patients for amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) and quinolone antibiotics, and average daily quantities per 1000 patients for lofepramine and fluoxetine antidepressants, measured at the practice level for six-month periods over two years. Results There was no effect on the prescribing of co-amoxiclav, quinolones, or fluoxetine, but prescribing of lofepramine increased in accordance with the guidelines. The increase persisted throughout two years of follow-up. Conclusion A simple, group-level educational outreach intervention, designed to take account of identified barriers to change, can have a modest but sustained effect on prescribing levels. However, outreach is not always effective. The context in which change in prescribing practice is being sought, the views of prescribers concerning the value of the drug, or other unrecognised barriers to change may influence the effectiveness of outreach. PMID:19958063

  1. [Microbiological quality of seaside sands: a beach in Latium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Lucia; Briancesco, Rossella; Cataldo, Claudia; Di Girolamo, Irene

    2002-01-01

    This study is focused on the microbiological quality of a sandy beach in the coastal area around Rome, Italy. The microbiological surveys were carried out on the sands collected both on the beach and on the waterline. A low-concentration of faecal bacteria (streptococci outnumbered Escherichia coli) and a constant rate of staphylococci were detected over the sampling period. Significant statistical correlations were calculated between yeasts and moulds, Escherichia coli and streptococci, streptococci and sulfite-reducing clostridium spores. This survey's data could be a baseline for future studies.

  2. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  3. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA in approximate position 39 13'55'' N, 120 01'42'' W...

  4. 77 FR 50444 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 295.6, at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict...

  5. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  6. 75 FR 79293 - Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend and remove Class E airspace at Vero Beach, FL (75 FR 65581... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach... removes Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach...

  7. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  8. 77 FR 38005 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Kings Beach Independence Day Fireworks display from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. on July 3... from Tahoe Keys Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA at position 39 13'55'' N, 120...

  9. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Miami Beach, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. The area to the eastward of a line bearing 12° (N. 12° E.) through a point X, which is 11/2 nautical miles due east of the intersection of the Miami Beach shore line... Miami Beach, Fla. 110.188 Section 110.188 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY... amends Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic... of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic coordinates for the airport...

  11. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY... in the Federal Register on April 11, 2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES... D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error was made in...

  12. Linkages between sediment composition, wave climate and beach profile variability at multiple timescales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karunarathna, H.; Horrillo-Caraballo, J.M.; Kuriyama, Y.; Mase, H.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.; Reeve, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses, compares and contrasts cross-shore morphodynamic behaviour of four diverse beaches that have very different regional settings, wave climates and sediment characteristics, with the aid of rarely available long term measurements of beach profiles and incident waves. The beaches inv

  13. Morphodynamic characterization of the Spanish beaches of the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente, J.; Gracia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Anfuso, G.; Rodriguez-Ramirez, A.

    2015-07-01

    During the1980s several attempts were made to classify beaches according to their morphodynamic behav- iour. Published papers proposed classifications based mainly on wave incident energy and beach character- istics, such as foreshore slopes and sediment settling velocities. In the 1990s more complex classifications appeared, where the effect of tides on wave action was included, highlighting their relevance to the determi- nation of the morphodynamic state of the beach. In this paper we present a beach monitoring programme, in which more than 30 beaches located along the Spanish shores of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Strait of Gibraltar were surveyed for four years (2000-2004). The long study period allowed the monitoring of beach morphologies related both to fair weather (summer) and storm (winter) conditions. The coastal setting in the study area provided the opportunity for covering a wide range of tidal conditions, from high mesotidal (MSTR ca. 4 m) to microtidal (MSTR around 1 m). Furthermore, the dimensions of the study area permitted the mon- itoring of beaches linked to different boundary conditions, thus including both attached and detached beach- es located at varying distances from main sediment sources, and influenced by different wave regimes. The analysis of the beach morphologies related to such contrasting conditions allowed the identification of the real significance of the tidal effect on beach profile morphology and hence on beach morphodynamics. Finally, we conclude that the effect of tides on wave action is the main factor determining beach morphody- namic behaviour. (Author)

  14. Field Guide to Beaches. Early Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, John H.

    The study of beaches and their capacity as an interface between land, air, and water is presented. Students investigate shore phenomena to better understand the beach's history and possible future. Also discussed is the interaction between man and the beach, from weather effects to pollution. Laboratory investigations of samples collected from the…

  15. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the triathlon. The special local...

  16. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the...

  17. 78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide..., February 20, 2013, dredging operations will be conducted on Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida... the southwestern corner of Singer Island and then due south across the inlet to Palm Beach...

  18. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... south by a 10-mile radius of the Palm Beach International Airport, and on the west by the Florida... Florida Turnpike (highway 91) and Lantana Road to the intersection of a 5-mile radius of the Palm Beach... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach...

  19. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  20. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  1. Geomorphology and anthropogenic impact including military constraints in a microtidal wave-dominated embayment in south western Sardinia (Porto Pino beach, SCI ITB040025, Mediterranean Sea). Implications for beach management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Buosi, Carla; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    impact. The coastal dunes vulnerability status of this three parts was assessed using the Dune Vulnerability Index (DVI) based on 57 variables that described geomorphological condition, marine influence, aeolian influence, vegetation condition, and human effects. Results reveal the lowest vulnerability value in the area undergone military constraints. Blowouts, breaches in the coastal dune system and deflation areas are observed in the first and second part where there is the greatest human transit to allow users access of the beach. The main pressures and threats identified that determine significant impacts on dune habitats are: transit of vehicles in the dune with the subsequent degradation of vegetation and the triggering of deflation processes; setting of infrastructure on the dune; removal of seagrass banquettes. In particular, the impact of trucks used to remove banquettes is significant on subaerial beach morphology. This traffic flattens the berms, modifies sand permeability and reduces organic sediment input to the shore. This study has allowed to highlight the geomorphological processes, the anthropic pressure and the coastal dune vulnerability of this coastal area in order to mitigate the impacts.

  2. Bathymetry--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps (see sheets 1, 2, SIM 3319) of the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area, California. The...

  3. Climate induced changes in beach morphology and sediment dynamics, Machilipatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    the prevalent moderate-high wave regime, and moderate-strong littoral currents, the beach profiles of the NE monsoon had accretion over the profiles of the SW monsoon. Based upon the variations in the longshore sediment transport, wave energy flux, magnitude...

  4. Highly Valued Degrees at California State University, Long Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) received the national award from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) for Excellence and Innovation in Student Success and Completion, recognizing record high graduation rates with a diverse student population, significantly above comparable institutions.…

  5. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  6. Surfin’ California with Whitman and The Beach Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    of American literary Romanticism, whereas The Beach Boys became the sixties’ most well-known pop icon of surf music and surf culture. Nevertheless, their common interest in California as a particular topographic image of the American West invites comparison and further study. This paper aims to make...

  7. Coastal engineering: vol II. Harbor and beach problems

    OpenAIRE

    Massie, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Ship motions, channel depth, channel width, ship maneuvering models, maneuverability improvement, total channel optimization, coastal sand transport, radiation stress, wave set-up, radiation stress gradient, tidal forces, turbulent forces, bottom friction forces, longshore current computations, early coastal transport formula, sand transport mechanisms, model coastal transport formula, coastal dynamics with single line theory, sand transport along a beach profile, coastal changes with multipl...

  8. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  9. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps (see sheets 1, 2, SIM 3319) of the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area, California. The...

  10. Source identification of beached oil at Al Zubarah, Northwestern Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Kaabi, Nasser S.; Kristensen, Mette; Zouari, Nabil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Gulf was contaminated with a large quantity of crude oil during the Gulf War in 1991. Some of the oil beached on the shorelines of the Northwest coast of Qatar. It was discovered, during a sampling campaign in 2015, that the shorelines were contaminated with both fresh oil and heavily...

  11. Modeling the Movement of Beach Alluvia in the Alongshore Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Bondareva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have worked out a design model for the dynamics of a mixed-composition beach in the vicinity of transverse structures. The model uses a modified formula for calculating alluvia, which is based on modified energy dependencies. The authors provide an algorithm for performing these calculations.

  12. Pollution of some recreation beaches of Mumbai, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Pollution in terms of water and sediment qualities of Madh. Juhu, Dadar and Girgaon recreation beaches was studied. Water quality in respect of low pH (7.8-8.3), low salinity (15.1-34.5 ppl), high microbial population (coliform count up to 18000...

  13. Assessing the extreme overwash regime along an embayed urban beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Tanya M.; Taborda, Rui; Carapuço, Mafalda M.; Andrade, César; Freitas, Maria C.; Duarte, João F.; Psuty, Norbert P.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal overwash is one of the most important hazards affecting the coastal zone and therefore has been the focus of several studies related to the establishment of setback lines. However, studies of extreme overwash (EO) events along urban beaches backed by a seawall or structure are scarce, and reveal the difficulties associated with its assessment, measurement and validation. The Nazaré coastal urban area (located on the west coast of Portugal) is developed adjacent to an embayed reflective beach and is subject to frequent and localized inundation due to EO events capable of overtopping the protection seawall. The current work develops a methodological approach to simulate total water levels (TWL) and seawall overtopping occurrences in time and space, with the ultimate goal of identifying the factors that govern the extreme overwash regime. The method uses multi-decadal time series of site-specific wave and tide, and high-resolution topo-bathymetric data, and recreates the TWL time series for a 36-year period. The model is successfully validated against video imagery and maximum swash line data that provide information on the reach of the water levels measured during modal and extreme TWL conditions along the studied beach. This study establishes the importance of the interaction of the modal and extreme hydrodynamic processes with the beach and backshore morphology. The Nazaré embayment is in equilibrium with the alongshore-varying modal wave conditions, resulting in higher vulnerability of the most sheltered sector during extreme events.

  14. Treatment of the calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle lavage. Two years prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo-González, Federico; Ramos-Álvarez, Juan José; Rodríguez-Fabián, Guillermo; González-Pérez, José; Calderón-Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Purpose: to evaluate the short and long term effectiveness of ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous needle lavage in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To study the evolution of the size of calcifications and pain in the two years after treatment. Methods: a 2 year longitudinal prospective study is carried out after applying the UGPL technique on a number of patients diagnosed with calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Clinical, ultrasound and radiology follow-up controls were performed, 3 months, 6 months, one year and two years after the treatment. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess the pain. The degree and point of pain is selected on a 10cm line, arranged horizontally or vertically. The “0” represents no pain and “10” represents worst pain. The population studied was made up of 121 patients that required our service as a result of suffering from a painful shoulder. Results: the pain (VAS) and the size of the calcification significantly decreased with the application of the technique (p< 0,001 in both cases) and regardless of the sex (p: 0.384 for pain and p: 0.578 for the size of the calcification). This occurred from the first check-up (3 months) and was maintained for two year. Conclusion: we consider this technique to be a valid alternative as a first-choice treatment of calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. The intervention is simple, cost-effective, does not require hospitalization, involves no complications, rehabilitation treatment is not required and it shows very few side effects without sequelae, significantly reducing the size of the calcification and pain in the majority of patients. PMID:25767776

  15. Nurses’ research utilization two years after graduation—a national survey of associated individual, organizational, and educational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsman Henrietta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses’ research utilization (RU as part of evidence-based practice is strongly emphasized in today’s nursing education and clinical practice. The primary aim of RU is to provide high-quality nursing care to patients. Data on newly graduated nurses’ RU are scarce, but a predominance of low use has been reported in recent studies. Factors associated with nurses’ RU have previously been identified among individual and organizational/contextual factors, but there is a lack of knowledge about how these factors, including educational ones, interact with each other and with RU, particularly in nurses during the first years after graduation. The purpose of this study was therefore to identify factors that predict the probability for low RU among registered nurses two years after graduation. Methods Data were collected as part of the LANE study (Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education, a Swedish national survey of nursing students and registered nurses. Data on nurses’ instrumental, conceptual, and persuasive RU were collected two years after graduation (2007, n = 845, together with data on work contextual factors. Data on individual and educational factors were collected in the first year (2002 and last term of education (2004. Guided by an analytic schedule, bivariate analyses, followed by logistic regression modeling, were applied. Results Of the variables associated with RU in the bivariate analyses, six were found to be significantly related to low RU in the final logistic regression model: work in the psychiatric setting, role ambiguity, sufficient staffing, low work challenge, being male, and low student activity. Conclusions A number of factors associated with nurses’ low extent of RU two years postgraduation were found, most of them potentially modifiable. These findings illustrate the multitude of factors related to low RU extent and take their interrelationships into account. This knowledge might serve

  16. A Two-Year Multidisciplinary Training Program for the Frontline Workforce in Community Treatment of Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Torleif; Flage, Karin Blix; Kolbjørnsrud, Ole-Bjørn; Haugen, Gunnar Brox; Sørlie, Tore

    2016-01-01

    Since 1999, a national two-year multidisciplinary onsite training program has been in operation in Norway. The program trains frontline workforce personnel who provide community treatment to people with severe mental illness. A national network of mental health workers, consumers, caregivers, and others providing or supporting psychosocial treatment and rehabilitation for people with severe mental illness has organized local onsite part-time training programs in collaboration with community mental health centers (CMHCs), municipalities, and primary care providers. CMHC and primary care staff are trained together to increase collaboration. Nationwide dissemination has continued, with new local programs established every year. Evaluations have shown that the program is successful.

  17. Two Years of Chandra Observations: Neutron Stars and Pulsars with Emphasis on the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory is entering its third year of operation. The Observatory, the premiere x-ray telescope for high-resolution imaging, has exceeded all expectations. The sub-arc second angular resolution together with other instrumental capabilities has allowed for new insights into the understanding of compact x-ray emitting objects including neutron stars and pulsars. We briefly review the Chandra Program and the first two years of observation with emphasis on these interesting objects. We detail the results of our observations of the pulsar in the Crab Nebula including the first continuum spectrum that is virtually uncontaminated by any dust-scattered radiation.

  18. Carbonate Beaches: A Balance Between Biological and Physical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, R.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    Carbonate beaches are a unique example of the interaction between biological processes, creating the sediments, and physical processes, moving and often removing the sediments. On the sediment supply side, carbonate sediments are born, not made. They exist in dynamic equilibrium between production and destruction. Following the creation of carbonate sediment in coral reef and lagoon environments, the sediments are moved shoreward to the beach, transport along the shore and sometimes, eventually lost offshore, often as the result of tropical storms. Comprehensive studies of the balance between the supply and loss of carbonate sediments and beach dynamics have been completed for the islands of Mauritius and Barbados. Field studies and remote sensing (Compact Airborne Spectrometry Imaging) have been applied to develop carbonate sediment production rates for a range of reef and lagoon conditions. Using GIS, these production rates have been integrated to determine sediment supply rates for different segments of the coastline. 1-D and 2-D models of waves, hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphodynamics were set-up and tested against observed beach response to storm events or a sequence of storm events. These complex deterministic models are not suitable for application over periods of decades. However, it was possible to characterize storm events by the extent of sand loss, and relate this to key descriptive factors for groups of storm events, thereby encapsulating the erosion response. A long-term predictive tool for evaluating beach erosion and accretion response, over a period of several decades, was developed by combining the supply rates for carbonate sediment and the encapsulated representation of the loss rates through physical processes. The ability of this predictive tool was successfully tested against observed long term beach evolution along sections of the coast in Barbados and Mauritius using air photo analysis in GIS for shoreline change over periods

  19. A geomorphological response of beaches to Typhoon Meari in the eastern Shandong Peninsula in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Dong; YANG Jichao; LI Guangxue; DADA Olusegun A; GONG Lixin; WANG Nan; WANG Xiangdong; ZHANG Bin

    2015-01-01

    Eight representative beach profiles on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula are observed and measured in 2011 and 2012 to determine the coastal processes under the lower tropical wind speed condition and the beach response to and recovery from the tropical storm Meari in a rare typhoon region. The results show that it is the enhancement and directional change of cross-shore and longshore sediment transports caused by Meari that leads to the beach morphological changes, and most of the sediment transports occur during the pre-Meari landing phase. The erosional scarp formation and the berm or beach face erosion are the main geomorphological responses of the beaches to the storm. The storm characteristics are more important than the beach shapes in the storm response process of the beaches on Shandong Peninsula. The typhoon is a fortuitous strong dynamic event, and the effect on the dissipative beach is more obvious than it is on the reflective beach in the study region. Furthermore, the beach trend is the main factor that controlls the storm effect intensity, and it is also closely related to the recovery of the beach profiles.

  20. Morphological developments after a beach and shoreface nourishment at Vlugtenburg beach, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schipper, M. A.; de Vries, S.; Ranasinghe, R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Stive, M. J. F.

    2012-04-01

    For the last decades Dutch coastal policy requires sand nourishments to mitigate the effects of coastal erosion. Over time, the nourishment strategy has evolved from direct protection approach to a feeder approach; instead of placing the sand on the beach or dune where it directly benefits safety, sand is placed on the shoreface or alongshore concentrated. Subsequently natural processes redistribute the sand over the profile and alongshore. With the shift in nourishment approach, a study was started to investigate in detail how nourished sand is redistributed in space and time. Here we present results from a high resolution bathymetric survey campaign conducted at Vlugtenburg beach at the south west coast of the Netherlands. At this site a beach and shoreface nourishment of 5.4 million m3 was installed in spring 2009, moving the shoreline approximately 250 m forward. Since the completion of the project, a total of 22 profiles were measured monthly extending from the dunefoot to 9 m below mean sea level. These surveys are executed using walking GPS surveys for the subaerial part and jetski surveys for the subaqueous part. Observations show that the morphodynamic evolution can be characterized by two stages; first a period of rapid changes followed by a period of more stable topography. In the first period, 12 to 15 months after construction, a large cross shore (offshore) movement of the nourished sand is found. The cross shore movement results from a rapid adaptation of the construction profile (characterized by a steep foreshore slope from -2 to -4 m) to a more natural profile with a large subtidal bar. A sediment budget analysis over all 28 surveys up to present shows a gradual loss of volume. As topographic changes below the -8 m and above +3 m are small, it is most likely that the majority of the sediment deficit can be contributed to alongshore losses. Furthermore, the domain itself is subdivided in various coastal sections, revealing that the cross shore

  1. Present status of effect of microorganisms from sand beach on public health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Velonakis; Dimitra Dimitriadi; Emmanuel Papadogiannakis; Alkiviades Vatopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are significant components of beach sand. According to the research, all kind of microorganisms have been isolated from beach sand; certain genera and species are potential pathogens for humans and animals. In resort areas, especially during the summer, certain infections (e.g. gastroenteritis and dermatitis) are usually related to polluted bathing water. Lately, the interest of scientists is also focused on the potential association of some of the above diseases with the beach sand. Relatively, recent epidemiological studies in the USA revealed positive correlation between time spent at the beach and gastroenteritis. New parameters such as wind blowing and beach users’ density are also introduced for discussion in association with the sand microbial load. Regarding the preventative measures, the microbiological quality of beach sand can be improved by raising the general level of hygiene, as well as by using simple methods, such as sweeping and aeration of the sand, together with constant beach supervision.

  2. Present status of effect of microorganisms from sand beach on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Velonakis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are significant components of beach sand. According to the research, all kind of microorganisms have been isolated from beach sand; certain genera and species are potential pathogens for humans and animals. In resort areas, especially during the summer, certain infections (e.g. gastroenteritis and dermatitis are usually related to polluted bathing water. Lately, the interest of scientists is also focused on the potential association of some of the above diseases with the beach sand. Relatively, recent epidemiological studies in the USA revealed positive correlation between time spent at the beach and gastroenteritis. New parameters such as wind blowing and beach users’ density are also introduced for discussion in association with the sand microbial load. Regarding the preventative measures, the microbiological quality of beach sand can be improved by raising the general level of hygiene, as well as by using simple methods, such as sweeping and aeration of the sand, together with constant beach supervision.

  3. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved.

  4. Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of hydrazine monohydrate in rats and mice by two-year drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Michiharu; Kano, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Masaaki; Katagiri, Taku; Umeda, Yumi; Fukushima, Shoji

    2016-04-01

    The carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of hydrazine monohydrate was examined by administrating hydrazine monohydrate in drinking water to groups of 50 F344/DuCrj rats and 50 Crj:BDF1 mice of both sexes for two years. The drinking water concentration of hydrazine monohydrate was 0, 20, 40 or 80 ppm (wt/wt) for male and female rats and male mice; and 0, 40, 80 or 160 ppm for female mice. Survival rates of each group of males and females rats and mice were similar to the respective controls, except female rats administered 80 ppm. Two-year administration of hydrazine monohydrate produced an increase in the incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in rats of both sexes along with hepatic foci. In mice, the incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were increased in females, and significantly increased incidences of hepatocellular adenomas in females administered 160 ppm were observed. Thus, hydrazine monohydrate is carcinogenic in two species, rats and mice. Additionally, non-neoplastic renal lesions in rats and mice and non-neoplastic nasal lesions in mice were observed.

  5. A Two Year Longitudinal Outcome Study of Addicted Health Care Professionals: An Investigation of the Role of Personality Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angres, Daniel; Bologeorges, Stephanie; Chou, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The co-morbidity of personality disorders (PDs) and other dysregulatory personality patterns with addiction have been well-established, although few studies have examined this interplay on long-term sobriety outcome. In addition, health care professionals suffering from addiction have both a significant public health impact and a unique set of treatment and recovery challenges. The aim of this study was to investigate if personality variables differentiated sobriety outcome in this population over a two year interval. A clinical sample of health care professionals participated in a substance abuse hospital treatment program individually tailored with respect to personality. Participants took the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory at intake, and were tracked two years post-discharge to determine sobriety status. Univariate analyses showed antisocial personality, female gender, and alcohol dependence were independent predictors of relapse, however a significant relationship between personality and substance use did not exist in multivariate analysis when controlling for demographic variables The lack of multivariate relationships demonstrates the heterogeneity in self-report measures of personality, which suggests the interplay of personality and addiction is complex and individualized. PMID:23531922

  6. No relationship between mode of delivery and neonatal mortality and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants aged two years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jun Zhu; Ying-Ying Bao; Guo-Lian Zhang; Li-Xin Ma; Ming-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of age in very low birth weight infants (≤1500 g) born by cesarean with those by vaginal delivery. Methods: In this retrospective, case-control study, we evaluated neonatal mortality, medical conditions and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of corrected age in 710 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born between January 2005 and December 2010. Of the 710 infants, 351 were born by the cesarean and 359/710 by vaginal route. Results: There were no significant differences in neonatal mortality between the cesarean delivery group and vaginal delivery group [56/351 (15.9%) vs. 71/359 (19.8%), P=0.20]. VLBW infants delivered by the cesarean procedure had a higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome than those born by the vaginal route [221/351 (63.0%) vs. 178/359 (49.6%), P Conclusions: In neither neurodevelopment nor neonatal mortality did cesarean birth offered significant advantages to VLBW infants. Moreover, the operation might be associated with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome for VLBW infants. The mode of delivery of VLBW infants should be largely based on obstetric indications and maternal considerations rather than perceived better outcomes for the neonate.

  7. Oribatid Mite Community Decline Two Years after Low-Intensity Burning in the Southern Cascade Range of California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Gillette

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess effects of low-intensity fire, we combined two silvicultural prescriptions with prescribed fire in the California Cascade Range. In the first treatment, two 100-ha stands were thinned to reduce density while retaining old-growth structural characteristics, yielding residual stands with high structural diversity (HSD. Two other 100-ha plots were thinned to minimize old growth structure, producing even-aged stands of low structural diversity (LSD, and one 50-ha split-plot from each treatment was burned. In addition, two 50 ha old-growth Research Natural Areas (RNA were selected as untreated reference plots, one of which was also burned. Fire treatments profoundly altered mite assemblages in the short term, and forest structure modification likely exacerbated that response. Sampling conducted two years following treatment confirmed a continuing decline in oribatid mite abundance. Oribatid species richness and assemblage heterogeneity also declined, and community dominance patterns were disrupted. Oribatid responses to fire were either more intense or began earlier in the LSD treatments, suggesting that removal of old-growth structure exacerbated mite responses to fire. Prostigmatids recovered quickly, but their populations nonetheless diminished significantly in burned split-plots. Mite assemblage responses to prescribed fire were continuing nearly two years later, with no clear evidence of recovery.

  8. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ..., Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... an air show which consist of aircraft performing aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean off of..., which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select...

  9. Beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana

    2010-05-01

    Hydrodynamic forces over the beach sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in beach systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the beach profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially beach systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the beach morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. Beach systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are beach-dune, beach-cliff and beach-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three beach systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro beaches are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, beach face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run

  10. Depression and suicidal ideation after predictive testing for Huntington's disease: a two-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria U; Luszcz, Mary A; Bui, The-Hung; Wahlin, Tarja-Brita Robins

    2006-10-01

    The present study reports a two-year follow-up of psychological effects of predictive testing for Huntington's disease. Questionnaires assessing depression, general health, well-being, self injurious behavior, life satisfaction, and lifestyle were completed by 35 carriers and 58 non-carriers before the predictive test, and 2, 6, 12, and 24 months afterwards. Both carriers and non-carriers showed high suicidal ideation before the predictive testing. Depression scores and frequency of suicidal thoughts increased for carriers, compared to non-carriers, over time. There were no differences regarding life satisfaction or life style between carriers and non-carriers. Predictive testing was beneficial in reducing overall ill-health symptoms and increasing well-being for those initially expressing concern about Huntington's disease. The importance of assessing suicidal ideation and of continuing to provide adequate support is emphasized.

  11. Asymptomatic hyperCKemia during a two-year monitoring period: A case report and literature overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinis, Spyridon; Symeonidis, Athanasios; Karanasios, Dimitrios; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.

    2017-01-01

    High creatine kinase (CK) levels can be associated with many disorders, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic, endocrine and traumatic. Idiopathic hyperCKemia is a diagnostic dilemma for physicians even though its long-term prognosis is usually benign. We report a case of a Caucasian 61-year-old woman who presented as completely asymptomatic to her general practitioner with a serum CK (sCK) level at 6,122 IU/l. A complete diagnostic evaluation, including physical and laboratory examinations, electromyogram and muscle biopsy were negative for any neuromuscular or other disorder. Two years later the patient remains asymptomatic, active and overall healthy but sCK levels remain elevated, ≤6,591 IU/l (>50-fold higher than normal values). PMID:28123712

  12. Trace element mobility in a contaminated soil two years after field-amendment with a greenwaste compost mulch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Rafael; Hartley, William; Riby, Philip; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Lepp, Nicholas W

    2010-05-01

    Application of greenwaste compost to brownfield land is increasingly common in soil and landscape restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects of this material on trace element mobility. A pot experiment with homogenised soil/compost investigated distribution and mobility of trace elements, two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch to shallow soils overlying a former alkali-works contaminated with Pb, Cu and As (approximately 900, 200 and 500 mg kg(-1), respectively). Compost mulch increased organic carbon and Fe in soil pore water, which in turn increased As and Sb mobilization; this enhanced uptake by lettuce and sunflower. A very small proportion of the total soil trace element pool was in readily-exchangeable form (compost on behaviour of metals was variable and ambiguous. It is concluded that greenwaste compost should be applied with caution to multi-element contaminated soils.

  13. A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Kolstad, Henrik A.; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public...... employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed...... with depression and subsequently excluded. Two years later in 2009, 2920 participants who had provided at least one valid saliva cortisol measurement at baseline participated at follow up. The psychiatric interviews were repeated and 62 cases of newly onset depression were diagnosed. Odds ratios of depression...

  14. A STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL TYPES OF ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL - A TWO-YEAR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar Epari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In this tertiary care hospital, one of the common condition of all the patients attending the hospital is Anaemia, which is a decrease in haemoglobin content or decrease in haematocrit below the lower limit of the 95% reference range for the individual’s age and sex. The patient presents with varied symptoms of different grades, depending on the severity of anaemia, in different clinical settings. Common presenting symptoms of anaemia are generalised weakness, malaise, loss of appetite and muscular pains. METHODS All the patient samples received at the central laboratory for haemogram, complete blood counts and peripheral smear examination over the period of two years between June 2014 to May 2016 were included in the study. Anaemia cases were diagnosed depending on the criteria of the definition of anaemia, and morphological typing of anaemia was done based on the peripheral smear examination of all the cases with decreased haemoglobin level. Standard cell counter was used to estimate the Hb and other red cell indices, and corroborated with peripheral blood smear examination by standard Romanowsky stains. RESULTS A total of 810 cases of anaemia were diagnosed over the period of two years, of which morphological typing yielded 685 cases of Microcytic and hypochromic anaemia, 15 cases of Dimorphic anaemia, 22 cases of Macrocytic anaemia and 88 cases of Normocytic and normochromic anaemia. CONCLUSION Anaemia is one of the most common problems of patients attending this tertiary care hospital, and detection and morphological typing of anaemia is very helping in guiding the clinicians in diagnosis and further management of anaemias for better patient care.

  15. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A Two-Year Follow-up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eWagner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a two-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. 96 subjects were assessed at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns and subjective well-being were assessed.The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of two years. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, in the recent study, further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was not observed.

  16. Geo-Needs: Investigating Models for Improved Access to Geosciences at Two-Year and Minority-Serving Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, X.; Turner, S. P.; LaDue, N.; Bentley, A. P.; Petcovic, H. L.; Mogk, D. W.; Cartwright, T.

    2015-12-01

    Geosciences are an important field of study for the future of energy, water, climate resilience, and infrastructure in our country. Geoscience related job growth is expected to steeply climb in the United States, however many of these positions will be left unfilled. One untapped population of Americans is ethnic minorities, who have historically been underrepresented in the geosciences. In 2010, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported that black and Hispanics only make 8.1% of geoscience related jobs, while making up nearly 30% of Americans. This pattern of underrepresentation has been attributed to 1) minority serving institutions lacking geoscience programs, 2) low interest in the outdoors due to a lack of opportunity, and 3) negative and low prestigious perceptions of geoscientists. Our project focuses specifically on the first barrier. Preliminary research suggests that only 2.5% of institutions with geoscience programs (n= 609) are also minority serving. The goals of the Geo-Needs project are to identify obstacles to and opportunities for better use of existing educational resources in two-year and minority-serving institutions, and to explore "ideal" models of resources, partnerships, and other support for geoscience faculty and students in these institutions. Four focus group meetings were held in August 2015 bringing administrators, instructors, resource providers, and education researchers together to discuss and develop these models. Activities at the meetings included small and whole group prompted discussion, guest speakers, gallery walks, and individual reflection. Content from the focus group meetings is available at the project's website: http://serc.carleton.edu/geoneeds/index.html. Findings from the meetings can be used to inform future efforts aimed toward broadening access to the geosciences at two-year and minority-serving institutions.

  17. Reliability, technical error of measurements and validity of length and weight measurements for children under two years old in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Safiza, M N; Khor, G L; Wong, N F; Kee, C C; Rahmah, R; Ahmad, A Z; Suzana, S; Chen, W S; Rajaah, M; Adam, B

    2010-06-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey III 2006 wanted to perform anthropometric measurements (length and weight) for children in their survey. However there is limited literature on the reliability, technical error of measurement (TEM) and validity of these two measurements. This study assessed the above properties of length (LT) and weight (WT) measurements in 130 children age below two years, from the Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) paediatric outpatient clinics, during the period of December 2005 to January 2006. Two trained nurses measured WT using Tanita digital infant scale model 1583, Japan (0.01kg) and Seca beam scale, Germany (0.01 kg) and LT using Seca measuring mat, Germany (0.1cm) and Sensormedics stadiometer model 2130 (0.1cm). Findings showed high inter and intra-examiner reliability using 'change in the mean' and 'intraclass correlation' (ICC) for WT and LT. However, LT was found to be less reliable using the 'Bland and Altman plot'. This was also true using Relative TEMs, where the TEM value of LT was slightly more than the acceptable limit. The test instruments were highly valid for WT using 'change in the mean' and 'ICC' but was less valid for LT measurement. In spite of this we concluded that, WT and LT measurements in children below two years old using the test instruments were reliable and valid for a community survey such as NHMS III within the limits of their error. We recommend that LT measurements be given special attention to improve its reliability and validity.

  18. Human Genotoxic Study Carried Out Two Years after Oil Exposure during the Clean-up Activities Using Two Different Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Biern

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Micronuclei, comet and chromosome alterations assays are the most widely used biomarkers for determining the genotoxic damage in a population exposed to genotoxic chemicals. While chromosome alterations are an excellent biomarker to detect short- and long-term genotoxic effects, the comet assay only measures early biological effects, and furthermore it is unknown whether nuclear abnormalies, such as those measured in the micronucleus test, remain detectable long-term after an acute exposure. In our previous study, an increase in structural chromosome alterations in fishermen involved in the clean-up of the Prestige oil spill, two years after acute exposure, was detected. The aim of this study is to investigate whether, in lymphocytes from peripheral blood, the nuclear abnormalies (micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds have a similar sensitivity to the chromosome damage analysis for genotoxic detection two years after oil exposure in the same non-smoker individuals and in the same peripheral blood extraction. No significant differences in nuclear abnormalies frequencies between exposed and non-exposed individuals were found (p > 0.05. However, chromosome damage, in the same individuals, was higher in exposed vs. non-exposed individuals, especially for chromosome lesions (p < 0.05. These findings, despite the small sample size, suggest that nuclear abnormalities are probably less-successful biomarkers than are chromosome alterations to evaluate genotoxic effects two or more years after an exposure to oil. Due to the great advantage of micronucleus automatic determination, which allows for a rapid study of hundreds of individuals exposed to genotoxic chemical exposure, further studies are needed to confirm whether this assay is or is not useful in long-term genotoxic studies after the toxic agent is no longer present.

  19. Quality control of CT systems by automated monitoring of key performance indicators: a two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowik, Patrik; Bujila, Robert; Poludniowski, Gavin; Fransson, Annette

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of performing routine periodical quality controls (QC) of CT systems by automatically analyzing key performance indicators (KPIs), obtainable from images of manufacturers' quality assurance (QA) phantoms. A KPI pertains to a measurable or determinable QC parameter that is influenced by other underlying fundamental QC parameters. The established KPIs are based on relationships between existing QC parameters used in the annual testing program of CT scanners at the Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. The KPIs include positioning, image noise, uniformity, homogeneity, the CT number of water, and the CT number of air. An application (MonitorCT) was developed to automatically evaluate phantom images in terms of the established KPIs. The developed methodology has been used for two years in clinical routine, where CT technologists perform daily scans of the manufacturer's QA phantom and automatically send the images to MonitorCT for KPI evaluation. In the cases where results were out of tolerance, actions could be initiated in less than 10 min. 900 QC scans from two CT scanners have been collected and analyzed over the two-year period that MonitorCT has been active. Two types of errors have been registered in this period: a ring artifact was discovered with the image noise test, and a calibration error was detected multiple times with the CT number test. In both cases, results were outside the tolerances defined for MonitorCT, as well as by the vendor. Automated monitoring of KPIs is a powerful tool that can be used to supplement established QC methodologies. Medical physicists and other professionals concerned with the performance of a CT system will, using such methods, have access to comprehensive data on the current and historical (trend) status of the system such that swift actions can be taken in order to ensure the quality of the CT examinations, patient safety, and minimal disruption of service.

  20. Biofilm formation, gel and esp gene carriage among recreational beach Enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, Ahmad; Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Gires, Usup

    2014-06-12

    Biofilm production, gel and esp gene carriage was enumerated among forty six vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin susceptible enterococci (VSE) beach isolates. A higher proportion (61.54%) of biofilm producers was observed among beach sand as compared to beach water enterococci isolates (30%) indicating that enterococci within the sand column may be more dependent on biofilm production for survival than their beach water counterparts. Correlation analysis revealed strongly negative correlation (r=-0.535, p=0.015) between vancomycin resistance and biofilm formation. Given the observation of high prevalence of biofilm production among beach sand and the concomitant absence of esp gene carriage in any of the isolate, esp gene carriage may not be necessary for the production of biofilms among beach sand isolates. On the whole beach sand and water isolates demonstrated clearly different prevalence levels of vancomycin resistance, biofilm formation, esp and gel gene carriage. Application of these differences may be found useful in beach microbial source tracking studies. Tested starved cells still produced biofilm albeit at lower efficiencies. Non-dividing enterococci in beach sand can survive extended periods of environmental hardship and can resume growth or biofilm production in appropriate conditions thus making them infectious agents with potential health risk to recreational beach users.

  1. Climate-change impacts on sandy-beach biota: crossing a line in the sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, David S; Schlacher, Thomas A; Defeo, Omar

    2014-08-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are iconic assets that provide irreplaceable ecosystem services to society. Despite their great socioeconomic importance, beaches as ecosystems are severely under-represented in the literature on climate-change ecology. Here, we redress this imbalance by examining whether beach biota have been observed to respond to recent climate change in ways that are consistent with expectations under climate change. We base our assessments on evidence coming from case studies on beach invertebrates in South America and on sea turtles globally. Surprisingly, we find that observational evidence for climate-change responses in beach biota is more convincing for invertebrates than for highly charismatic turtles. This asymmetry is paradoxical given the better theoretical understanding of the mechanisms by which turtles are likely to respond to changes in climate. Regardless of this disparity, knowledge of the unique attributes of beach systems can complement our detection of climate-change impacts on sandy-shore invertebrates to add rigor to studies of climate-change ecology for sandy beaches. To this end, we combine theory from beach ecology and climate-change ecology to put forward a suite of predictive hypotheses regarding climate impacts on beaches and to suggest ways that these can be tested. Addressing these hypotheses could significantly advance both beach and climate-change ecology, thereby progressing understanding of how future climate change will impact coastal ecosystems more generally.

  2. Family on the beach : Representations of romantic and bourgeois family values by realistic genre painting of nineteenth-century Scheveningen beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, JJH

    2003-01-01

    Around 1800, the desire to go to the beach developed in Europe, and Scheveningen became one of the first beach places. In the same time, poets and painters romanticized the Scheveningen fishing culture and the fishers' moral behavior A group of nineteenth-century painters rediscovered Scheveningen-a

  3. Clay Mineralogy, Authigenic Smectite Concentration, and Fault Weakening of the San Gregorio Fault; Moss Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, S.; Moore, J.; Bish, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    The apparently weak nature of the San Andreas fault system poses a fundamental geophysical question. The San Gregorio fault at Moss Beach, CA is an active splay of the right-lateral San Andreas fault zone and has a total offset of about 150 km. At Moss Beach, the San Gregorio fault offsets Pliocene sedimentary rocks and consists of a clay-rich gouge zone, eastern sandstone block, and western mudstone block. In the presence of fluids, smectite clays can swell and become very weak to shearing. We studied a profile of samples across the fault zone and wall rocks to determine if there is a concentration of smectite in the gouge zone and propose a possible formation mechanism. Samples were analyzed using standard quantitative X-ray diffraction methods and software recently developed at Los Alamos National Lab. XRD results show a high smectite/illite (weak clay/strong clay) ratio in the gouge (S/I ratio=2-4), lower in the mudstone (S/I ratio=2), and very low in the sandstone (S/I ratio=1). The variability of smectite/illite ratio in the gouge zone may be evidence of preferential alteration where developed shear planes undergo progressive smectite enrichment. The amount of illite layers in illite/smectites is 5-30%, indicating little illitization; therefore, these fault rocks have not undergone significant diagenesis above 100 degrees C and illite present must be largely detrital. Bulk mineralogy shows significant anti-correlation of smectite with feldspar, especially in the gouge, suggesting authigenic smectite generation from feldspar. Under scanning-electron microscope inspection, smectites have fibrous, grain coating growth fabrics, also suggesting smectite authigenesis. If in situ production of smectite via chemical alteration is possible in active faults, it could have significant implications for self-generated weakening of faults above the smectite-to-illite transition (<150 degrees C, or 5-7km).

  4. Anthropogenic disruption to the seismic driving of beach ridge formation: The Sendai coast, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, James, E-mail: j.goff@unsw.edu.au [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Knight, Jasper, E-mail: jasper.knight@wits.ac.za [School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sugawara, Daisuke, E-mail: sugawara@irides.tohoku.ac.jp [Hazard and Risk Evaluation Research Division, International Research, Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University, Aoba 468-1, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan); Terry, James P., E-mail: james.terry@zu.ac.ae [College of Sustainability Sciences and Humanities, Zayed University, PO Box 19282, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-02-15

    The expected geomorphic after-effects of the M{sub w} 9.0 Tōhoku-oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 (eastern Japan) are summarized by a schematic model of seismic driving, which details seismogenic disturbances to sediment systems that affect the rate or timing of sediment delivery to coastlines over timescales of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} years. The immediate physical environmental responses to this high-magnitude earthquake included a large tsunami and extensive region-wide slope failures. Normally, slope failures within mountain catchments would have significant impacts on Japan's river and coastal geomorphology in the coming decades with, for example, a new beach ridge expected to form within 20–100 years on the Sendai Plain. However, human activity has significantly modified the rate and timing of geomorphic processes of the region, which will have impacts on likely geomorphic responses to seismic driving. For example, the rivers draining into Sendai Bay have been dammed, providing sediment traps that will efficiently capture bedload and much suspended sediment in transit through the river system. Instead of the expected ~ 1 km of coastal progradation and formation of a ~ 3 m high beach ridge prior to the next large tsunami, it is likely that progradation of the Sendai Plain will continue to slow or even cease as a result of damming of river systems and capture of river sediments behind dams. The resulting reduction of fluvial sediment delivery to the coast due to modification of rivers inadvertently makes seawalls and other engineered coastal structures even more necessary than they would be otherwise. - Highlights: • The Tōhoku-oki earthquake led to seismogenic landslides inland. • Seismogenic sediments are reworked through river systems to the coast. • River dams are capturing these sediments, reducing sediment supply to the coast. • Reduced coastal sediment supply is increasing tsunami risk. • Engineering of river systems is making coastal

  5. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  6. Development of a numerical 2-dimensional beach evolution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykal, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the description of a 2-dimensional numerical model constructed for the simulation of beach evolution under the action of wind waves only over the arbitrary land and sea topographies around existing coastal structures and formations. The developed beach evolution numerical model...... is composed of 4 submodels: a nearshore spectral wave transformation model based on an energy balance equation including random wave breaking and diffraction terms to compute the nearshore wave characteristics, a nearshore wave-induced circulation model based on the nonlinear shallow water equations...... to compute the nearshore depth-averaged wave-induced current velocities and mean water level changes, a sediment transport model to compute the local total sediment transport rates occurring under the action of wind waves, and a bottom evolution model to compute the bed level changes in time based...

  7. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  8. Utilisation of macroalgae from the Sopot beach (Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Filipkowska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilising the macroalgae accumulating on the Sopot beach, a part of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea.During this work (2004-2006 a range of activities were undertaken: monitoring the occurrence of macroalgae, collection of plant material, taxonomic identification, laboratory analyses of contamination (metals - Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg;radionuclides - 137Cs, 40K; organic contaminants - polychlorinated biphenyls,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the stage of algal degradation and studying possible uses of the plant material collected on the beach. The most suitable way of utilising the plant material seems to be as a biofertiliser. Laboratorygrowth tests were carried out to assess this possible use; they were successful.

  9. Bryophytes of beach forests in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiangphak Sukkharak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of bryophyte diversity of three beach forests including Had Tung Prong, Had Tein Talay, and the beach forest in Thai Island and Sea Natural History Museum in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, was carried out. From 137 enumerated specimens, 16 species (6 mosses, 10 liverworts in 12 genera (5 mosses, 7 liverworts and eight families (5 mosses, 3 liverworts were found. Among those the most common families of mosses are Fissidentaceae (2 species and the most common families of liverwort are Lejeuneaceae (8 species. A comparison of species richness among the three areas revealed that the highest species richness of bryophytes was found in Had Tung Prong. Moreover, of all bryophyte species found, Weissia edentula Mitt. was the most common one.

  10. Myrtle Beach Air Force Base Community Redevelopment Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    senior citizen cultural programs and uses. " The opportunity exists at MBAFB to encourage a high-quality destination resort with first-class lodging...one which has several subareas within the entire facility which are built up around themes. As an example, Disneyland has areas such as Fantasyland and...Archaeological Historic Sites ’-- ( Cultural Resources Analysis, May, 1980) fo,,2 Installation Restoration Program Sites (Source: Myrtle Beach Air

  11. Cape Cod Easterly Shore Beach Erosion Study. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    bacterial slimes. In addition, these structures might provide roosting and nesting sites for certain bird species. Proposed structural and non-structural...Charles E. McClenne, Associate Professor, Colgate University, dated 3 August 1977 Notes from visit to Cape Cod Easterly Shores Beach Erosion Control...ments should be supported by factual information insofar as practicable. Oral statements will be heard but, for accuracy of record, all important facts

  12. Modeling the Economics of Beach Nourishment Decisions in Response to Coastal Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, M.; Ashton, A. D.; Hoagland, P.; Jin, D.; Kite-Powell, H.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.

    2012-12-01

    Beaches are constantly moving and changing. The dynamic transformations of beaches are mostly the result of the erosion of sand, which can occur through movements alongshore caused by waves, movements off-shore due to storms, or submersion due to sea-level rise. Predicted climate change impacts include potential changes in storminess and accelerated sea-level rise, which will lead to increased coastal erosion. At the same time, the number of people residing in coastal communities is increasing. The risks from eroding beaches (increased coastal flooding, damage to infrastructure, and displaced residents) are therefore increasing in number and scale; and coastal residents are taking actions to protect their homes. One such action is beach nourishment, where sand is added to a resident's property in order to widen the beach. We have developed an economic model of beach nourishment decision-making to investigate the relationship between the optimal volume and timing of beach nourishment and factors such as property value, erosion rate, and initial beach width. In this model, waterfront property owners nourish a beach when the losses in net rental income exceed the costs incurred from nourishing the beach. (Rental income is a function of property value, which in turn depends upon the width of the beach.) It is assumed that erosion and sea-level rise are related. We examine different nourishment scenarios, including one-time nourishment in the first year; constant annual nourishment; and a myopic decision process in which the homeowner nourishes the beach if property losses from erosion over the next five years are expected to exceed the cost of nourishment. One-time nourishment delays property flooding for both constant and accelerating sea level rise; however, this delay is more substantial under constant sea level rise. With continual nourishment, the beach can be maintained under constant sea-level rise, provided that the erosion rate is comparable to the additional

  13. Spectral and Geological Characterization of Beach Components in Northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo Álvarez, I. O.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how changes in beach components may reflect beach processes is essential since variations along beach profiles can shed light on river and ocean processes influencing beach sedimentation and beachrock formation. It is likely these influences are related to beach proximity within the Río Grande de Manatí river mouth. Therefore, this study focuses on characterizing beach components at two sites in Manatí, Puerto Rico. Playa Machuca and Playa Tombolo, which are separated by eolianites, differ greatly in sediment size, mineralogy, and beachrock morphology. Several approaches were taken to geologically and spectrally characterize main beach components at each site. These approaches included field and microscopic laboratory identification, granulometry, and a comparison between remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) obtained with a field spectroradiometer and pre-existing spectral library signatures. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between each method. This study may help explore the possibility of using only Rrs to characterize beach and shallow submarine components for detailed image analysis and management of coastal features.This study focuses on characterizing beach components at two sites in Manatí, Puerto Rico. Playa Machuca and Playa Tombolo, two beaches that are separated by eolianites, differ greatly in sediment size and mineralogy, as well as in beachrock morphology. Understanding how changes in beach components may reflect beach processes is essential, since it is likely that differences are mostly related to each beaches' proximity to the Río Grande de Manatí river mouth. Hence, changes in components along beach profiles can shed light on the river's and the ocean's influence on beach sedimentation and beachrock formation. Several approaches were taken to properly geologically and spectrally characterize the main beach components at each site. These approaches included field and microscopic laboratory identification

  14. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji

    2016-05-01

    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth’s environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with other more laborious methods. Our results revealed that LIDAR should be used for the classification of marine debris into plastic, paper, cloth and metal. Additionally, we reconstructed a 3-dimensional model of different types of debris on a beach with a high validity of debris revivification using LIDAR-based individual separation. These findings demonstrate that the availability of this new technique enables detailed observations to be made of debris on a large beach that was previously not possible. It is strongly suggested that LIDAR could be implemented as an appropriate monitoring tool for marine debris by global researchers and governments.

  15. Know Your Students: Rochester's Two-Year Ethnographic Study Reveals What Students Do on Campus and How the Library Fits In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ann; Burns, Vicki; Briden, Judi

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how the University of Rochester's two-year ethnographic study reveals what students do on campus and how the library fits in. Under Nancy Fried Foster's guidance, teams of librarians and staff conducted a two-year investigation. The goal: to improve the libraries' reference services, facilities, and web pages…

  16. Variability of grain sizes in a beach nourishment programme for the Danish West Caost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    The coastal landscape in Denmark is characterized by multiple areas of geologic, biologic and recreational interests both national and international. In the later years several guidelines have been set up for the coastal protection area. The aims for the future are to ensure the presence...... of naturally shaped beaches while at the same time the risk for erosion is reduced. For this reason beach nourishment is used widely along the Danish North Sea coast (called West Coast) and this method is preferred in preference to put up solid constructions. Beach nourishment is the primary method used...... by the Danish Coastal Authority. However problems have occurred in describing the spatial distribution of medium grain size d50 and the gradation U of the sediment used for beach nourishment. At the same time the sedimentary composition determines how fast the nourished beach is eroded and how the beach...

  17. Assessment of Enterococcus Levels in Recreational Beach Sand Along the Rhode Island Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Eugenie; Parris, Amie L; Wyman, Al; Latowsky, Gretchen

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that coastal beach sand as well as coastal ocean water can be contaminated with fecal indicator Enterococcus bacteria (ENT). A study of sand ENT concentrations over a four-week period at 12 Rhode Island beaches was conducted during the summer of 2009. While average contamination was low relative to water quality standards, every beach had at least one day with very high sand ENT readings. On 10 of the 12 beaches, a statistically significant gradient occurred in geometric mean ENT concentrations among tidal zones, with dry (supratidal, or above high tide mark) sand having the highest level, followed by wet (intratidal, or below high tide mark) and underwater sand. Beaches with higher wave action had significantly lower ENT levels in wet and underwater sand compared to beaches with lower wave action.

  18. Cardiovascular consequence of reclining vs. sitting beach-chair body position for induction of anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Soren L.; Lyngeraa, Tobias S.; Maschmann, Christian P.

    2014-01-01

    The sitting beach-chair position is regularly used for shoulder surgery and anesthesia may be induced in that position. We tested the hypothesis that the cardiovascular challenge induced by induction of anesthesia is attenuated if the patient is placed in a reclining beach-chair position....... Anesthesia was induced with propofol in the sitting beach-chair (n = 15) or with the beach-chair tilted backwards to a reclining beach-chair position (n = 15). The last group was stepwise tilted to the sitting beach-chair position prior to surgery. Hypotension was treated with ephedrine. Continuous...... ± 12 vs. 45 ± 15 % reduction from baseline, p = 0.04) and ScO2 (7 ± 6 vs. 1 ± 8% increase from baseline, p = 0.02) and received less ephedrine (mean: 4 vs. 13 mg, p = 0.048). The higher blood pressure and lower need of vasopressor following induction of anesthesia in the reclining compared...

  19. Effect of coastal urbanization on sandy beach coleoptera Phaleria maculata (Kulzer, 1959) in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sergio A; Yáñez-Navea, Katherine; Muñoz, Mauricio

    2014-06-15

    The beetle Phaleria maculata is a common inhabitant of the upper intertidal fringe of Chilean beaches. Anthropogenic intervention in coastal areas has increased intensely, leading to changes in the flora and fauna of sandy beaches. To examine the impact of human activities on P. maculata, we studied several beaches along the northern Chilean coast. Beaches were characterized based on morphodynamics and the level of intervention, leading to the estimation of an "Urbanization Index" based on various indicators. The analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the rate of urbanization and night sky quality. Larval and adult beetles were almost absent on beaches with high levels of urbanization. The results of simple and multiple correlations based on nMDS ordination showed an inverse relationship between increases in urbanization and the abundance of beetles. Because darkling beetles are very sensitive to human interventions on sandy beaches, we suggest that they are ideal indicator organisms for the health of these environments.

  20. Dementia as a determinant of social and health service use in the last two years of life 1996-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raitanen Jani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia is one of the most common causes of death among old people in Finland and other countries with high life expectancies. Dementing illnesses are the most important disease group behind the need for long-term care and therefore place a considerable burden on the health and social care system. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of dementia and year of death (1998-2003 on health and social service use in the last two years of life among old people. Methods The data were derived from multiple national registers in Finland and comprise all those who died in 1998, 2002 or 2003 and 40% of those who died in 1999-2001 at the age of 70 or over (n = 145 944. We studied the use of hospitals, long-term care and home care in the last two years of life. Statistics were performed using binary logistic regression analyses and negative binomial regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender and comorbidity. Results The proportion of study participants with a dementia diagnosis was 23.5%. People with dementia diagnosis used long-term care more often (OR 9.30, 95% CI 8.60, 10.06 but hospital (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.31, 0.35 and home care (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.46, 0.54 less often than people without dementia. The likelihood of using university hospital and long-term care increased during the eight-year study period, while the number of days spent in university and general hospital among the users decreased. Differences in service use between people with and without dementia decreased during the study period. Conclusions Old people with dementia used long-term care to a much greater extent and hospital and home care to a lesser extent than those without dementia. This difference persisted even when controlling for age, gender and comorbidity. It is important that greater attention is paid to ensuring that old people with dementia have equitable access to care.

  1. A two-year follow-up for Chinese patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm undergoing open/endovascular repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Tao; Zhang Hongju; Cheng Yutong; Wang Su; Tao Ying; Zhang Donghua; Huang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of studies have demonstrated the rates of overall and aneurysm-related mortality and morbidity in Western populations.The cardiovascular risk factors influencing postoperative outcome have been also reported.Until recently,little has been known about the prognosis in this patient cohort in the Chinese population.We evaluated the independent predictors of mortality and morbidity in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients undergoing elective surgical treatment and emphasized whether the coronary artery revascularization could have any effect on the overall mortality and morbidity in patients following the current guideline recommendation.Methods A total of 386 patients (174 women) undergoing surgery in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from January 2008 to June 2010 were enrolled (mean age (70.6±10.5) years).Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to compare the mortality and morbidity of AAA patients with coronary artery revascularization and those without.A Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to identify clinical factors associated with two-year outcomes.The primary outcomes were death from any cause,the pre-specified morbidity was re-hospitalization for pulmonary conditions,congestive heart failure,angina,ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke.Results During the two-year follow-up,34 patients died and 65 experienced re-hospitalization with pulmonary conditions,congestive heart failure,angina,or ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke.Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the AAA patients with cardiac revascularization had no higher incidence of overall mortality and major morbidity than those without (log-rank test P=0.35 and P=0.40,respectively).Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that level of low-density lipoprotein (HR,4.06; 95% CI:1.19-18.7,P=0.027) and AAA size (HR,2.18; 95% CI:1.28-11.65,P=0.036) were independently associated with the incidence of overall mortality.Long-term use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

  2. Emotional support predicts more sickness absence and poorer self assessed work ability: a two-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristenson Margareta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While back pain and stressful work environment are shown to be important causes of sickness absence the effect of psychosocial resources on sickness absence, and on self assessed work ability, is less commonly investigated. The aim of this study was to assess these associations in a two-year follow-up study. Methods 341 working people aged 45 to 64, randomly drawn from the population, responded to a questionnaire at baseline and at a two-year follow-up. Poisson regression was used to analyse the association of psychosocial factors (psychosocial instruments on work environment, emotional support and psychological resources and previous back pain (low back and/or neck at baseline with sickness absence (spells and days at follow-up, controlling for effects of age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol, occupation, disease and previous sickness absence. Logistic regression was used to study the associations of psychosocial factors and previous back pain at baseline with self assessed prognosis of poor work ability six months from follow-up. Finally, a multivariate analysis tested the independent effects of previous back pain and 3 psychosocial factors derived in a factor analysis: 1. work environment; 2. emotional support; 3. psychological resources, on work ability and absence days and spells. Results 80% of the sickness absence spells within the last 12 months before follow-up were short-term (≤ 14 days. In the final model, high emotional support predicted more sickness absence spells (RR 1.36; 1.11-1.67 and days (RR 1.68, 1.22-2.31. Previous back pain (OR 2.56; 1.13-5.81, high emotional support (OR 1.58; 1.02-2.46, and low psychological resources (OR 0.62; 0.44-0.89 were related to poorer self assessed prognosis of work ability at follow up. Conclusions In a general middle aged working population high emotional support was related to more sickness absence and also poorer self assessed prognosis of work ability. Our findings suggest

  3. Geothermal energy at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine and evaluate sources of geothermal energy at two military bases in southern California, the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station. One part of the project focused on the natural geothermal characteristics beneath the naval bases. Another part focused on the geothermal energy produced by oilfield operations on and adjacent to each base. Results of the study are presented here for the US Department of the Navy to use in its program to reduce its reliance on petrolem by the development of different sources of energy. The study was accomplished under a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy's San Francisco Operations Office and the Department of the Navy's Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California, for joint research and development of geothermal energy at military installations.

  4. The Using of Beach Handball Proceeds in the Classroom for Physical Education of the Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna N. Ovsyannikova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of students' attitudes toward beach handball with the motivation and needs of dealing with the sport has been carried out in the university. It has been established that the use in the course of physical studying the targeted pedagogical influences planned in the course "Beach Handball", leads to significant increase of physical fitness, physical condition and functional performance among students, which indicates the feasibility of beach handball means in the classroom for physical education among the students.

  5. Pleistocene and holocene beaches and estuaries along the Southern Barrier of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Federico I.; Cortizo, Luis C.; Schnack, Enrique J.

    The Buenos Aires aggradation plain has a good record of Quaternary sea-level fluctuations. To the east of the Tandilia Range, the elevations of the Pleistocene beaches respond to the tectonic behaviour of the Salado Basin. Holocene beaches indicate a maximum transgression higher than 2 m. The low relief permitted an extended horizontal record of beach/chenier plains interfingered with estuarine environments (coastal lagoons, marshes) covered by a sandy (Eastern) barrier. Between the Tandilia and Ventania ranges, the location of Pleistocene and Holocene beaches are related to a former higher relief; i.e. they are attached to low-altitude cliffs and underneath cliff-top dunes composing the Southern Barrier. At Claromecó, Pleistocene gravel beaches, mostly composed of caliche pebbles, occur at heights between 4 and 7 m, and are overlying estuarine Pleistocene environments. Beaches of the same age are at a level of 10 m at Mar del Plata Harbour and Arroyo Sotelo (west of Mar Chiquita Lagoon). Holocene beaches found at Punta Mogotes and Costa Bonita are at higher altitudes than on the Eastern Barrier (ca. 2-4 m). The Holocene estuarine sequences are related laterally to present operating inlets (Las Brusquitas, La Ballenera, Quequén Grande, Claromecó, Quequén Salado). They are seldon thicker than 2.4 m, and comprise basal layers of black muds; towards the top, the layers are thinner, of coarser grain size and white colours. Grain-size analyses were performed comparatively on Pleistocene, mid-Holocene and present beaches. Sangamonian beaches aregravelly or coarser than medium sand (mean). Holocene beaches are usually coarser than medium sand, but dominantly shelly to the north of Mar del Plata, and composed of volcanic clasts to the south of this city. Modern beaches are dominated by fine sand, except at some erosive beaches between the Mar del Plata capes. They have a lesser content of shells than those of mid-Holocene.

  6. From Sand to Rock: a teaching activity to introduce beach dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Teresita

    2015-04-01

    The Italian coastline is about 7,500 km long; approximately 53% of the coastlines are low or deltaic coastlines, while 3,240 km were mainly composed of sand or gravel beaches. Most of the Italian coastal environment suffers from intense and growing urbanization, tourism and industry pressure, which could partly explain that 42% of Italian beaches experience erosion. Terracina is situated Lazio (Central Italy), a region strongly impacted by coastal erosion, and for this reason we organized a teaching activity, carried out with fourth year high school classes, in order to help students to understand sand beach dynamics, acquisition of geology issues and land conservation and preservation skills. We decided to focus our activity on the mineralogical composition of beach sand in order to relate beach formations with the geological evolution of the territory. Sand beach minerals were used as tracers in order to support students to understand dynamics that influence beach formations. In addition to mineral characteristic recognition, this activity allows us to introduce the beach balance concept and the phenomena that regulate sediment balance, in order to allow students to consider beaches as a resource which needs to be preserved. Sand mineralogical composition data is treated in a worksheet to elaborate simple statistical analysis in order to recognize the mineral composition of Terracina beach sand's rock sources. This exercise allows students to find relationships between regional geology and beach sand's composition. Finally, statistical evidence could be compared with geological maps of the area in order to find the probable provenance of sand's rock source and rocks recognition thanks to related morphologies. Our main purpose was to help students to understand that beaches are dynamic systems subject to anthropogenic pressure and for this reason they needed to be preserved. Proposed teaching activities involve topics related to students' living territory and to

  7. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study. Southern California Coastal Photography and Beach Profile Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    OBISPO COUNTY 17 TORRANCE ..... . ...... ............... 118.5-120.0 IS. SAN PEDRO ..................................... 119.0-1280 44. ARROYO GRANDE...Between Bangor and Dover Lanes, two views of groin from 100 ft upcoast and downcoast at berm. 205.10 Groin No. 7: End of San Pedro Road, two views of...Downcoast view of beach, from 4th guard rail post, from downcoast end of bluff, over-looking pier. 251.90 El Capitan State Beach: Downcoast view of beach

  8. A snapshot of genetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ireland over a two-year period, 2010 and 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgibbon, M M

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing alone was used to investigate the genetic lineages among 361 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in Ireland over a two-year period, 2010 and 2011. The majority of isolates, 63% (229\\/361), belonged to lineage 4 (Euro-American), while lineages 1 (Indo-Oceanic), 2 (East-Asian) and 3 (East-African–Indian) represented 12% of isolates each (42\\/361, 45\\/361, and 45\\/361, respectively). Sub-lineages Beijing (lineage 2), East-African–Indian (lineage 1) and Delhi\\/central-Asian (lineage 3) predominated among foreign-born cases, while a higher proportion of Euro-American lineages were identified among cases born in Ireland. Eighteen molecular clusters involving 63 tuberculosis (TB) cases were identified across four sub-lineages of lineage 4. While the mean cluster size was 3.5 TB cases, the largest cluster (involving 12 Irish-born cases) was identified in the Latin American–Mediterranean sub-lineage. Clustering of isolates was higher among Irish-born TB cases (47 of 63 clustered cases), whereas only one cluster (3\\/63) involved solely foreign-born individuals. Four multidrug-resistant cases identified during this period represented lineages 2 and 4. This study provides the first insight into the structure of the M. tuberculosis population in Ireland.

  9. Impact of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in children up to two years of age in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indianara Maria Grando

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae on the morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal meningitis in children ≤ 2 years in Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. This is a descriptive study and ecological analysis using data from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases. Pre-vaccination (2007-2009 and post-vaccination (2011-2012 periods were defined to compare incidence rates and mortality. A total of 1,311 cases and 430 deaths were reported during the study period. Incidence decreased from 3.70/100,000 in 2007 to 1.84/100,000 in 2012, and mortality decreased from 1.30/100,000 to 0.40/100,000, or 50% and 69% respectively, with the greatest impact in the 6-11 month age group. This decrease in Pneumococcal meningitis morbidity and mortality rates two years after introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine suggests its effectiveness.

  10. On the rms anisotropy at 7 deg and 10 deg observed in the COBE-DMR two year sky maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M.; Tenorio, L.; Wright, E. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Lineweaver, C. H.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency-independent rms temperature fluctuations determined from the Cosmic Background Explorer-Differential Microwave Radiometer (COBE-DMR) two-year sky maps are used to infer the parameter Q(sub rms-PS), which characterizes the normalization of power-law models of primordial cosmological temperature anisotropy, for a forced fit to a scale-invariant Harrison-Zel'dovich (n = 1) spectral model. Using a joint analysis of the 7 deg and 10 deg 'cross'-rms derived from both the 53 and 90 GHz sky maps, we find Q(sub rms-PS) = 17.0(sub -2.1 sup +2.5) micro Kelvin when the low quadrupole is included, and Q(sub rms-PS) = 19.4(sub -2.1 sup +2.3) micro Kelvin excluding the quadrupole. These results are consistent with the n = 1 fits from more sensitive methods. The effect of the low quadrupole derived from the COBE-DMR data on the inferred Q(sub rms-PS) normalization is investigated. A bias to lower Q(sub rms-PS) is found when the quadrupole is included. The higher normalization for a forced n = 1 fit is then favored by the cross-rms technique.

  11. Enhancing Teachers' Technological Knowledge and Assessment Practices to Enhance Student Learning in Technology: A Two-year Classroom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Judy; Jones, Alister; Northover, Ann

    2001-02-01

    This paper reports on a two-year classroom investigation of primary school (Years 1-8) technology education. The first year of the project explored emerging classroom practices in technology. In the second year intervention strategies were developed to enhance teaching, learning and assessment practices. Findings from the first year revealed that assessment was often seen in terms of social and managerial aspects, such as teamwork, turn taking and co-operative skills, rather than procedural and conceptual technological aspects. Existing formative interactions with students distorted the learning away from the procedural and conceptual aspects of the subject. The second year explored the development of teachers' technological knowledge in order to enhance formative assessment practices in technology, to inform classroom practice in technology, and to enhance student learning. Intervention strategies were designed to enhance the development of procedural, conceptual, societal and technical aspects of technology for teachers and students. The results from this intervention were very positive. This paper highlights the importance of developing teacher expertise pertaining to broad concepts of technology, detailed concepts in different technological areas and general pedagogical knowledge. The findings from this research therefore have implications for thinking about teaching, learning and assessment in technology.

  12. A two-year field measurement of methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from rice paddies under contrasting climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huifeng; Zhou, Sheng; Fu, Zishi; Chen, Guifa; Zou, Guoyan; Song, Xiangfu

    2016-06-01

    The effects of three irrigation levels (traditional normal amount of irrigation [NA100%], 70%, and 30% of the normal amount [NA70% and NA30%]) and two rice varieties (Oryza sativa L. Huayou14 and Hanyou8) on CH4 and N2O emissions were investigated over two years under contrasting climate conditions (a ‘warm and dry’ season in 2013 and a normal season in 2014). Hanyou8 was developed as a drought-resistant variety. The mean seasonal air temperature in 2013 was 2.3 °C higher than in 2014, while the amount of precipitation from transplanting to the grain-filling stage in 2013 was only 36% of that in 2014. CH4 emission rose by 93-161%, but rice grain yield fell by 7-13% in 2013, compared to 2014 under the NA100% conditions. Surface standing water depths (SSWD) were higher in Hanyou8 than in Huayou14 due to the lower water demand by Hanyou8. A reduction in the amount of irrigation water applied can effectively reduce the CH4 emissions regardless of the rice variety and climate condition. However, less irrigation during the ‘warm and dry’ season greatly decreased Huayou14 grain yield, but had little impact on Hanyou8. In contrast, N2O emission depended more on fertilization and SSWD than on rice variety.

  13. Two Years of Plankton Tows in a Seasonal Upwelling Region: Foraminiferal Abundances and Implications for the Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. V.; Hill, T. M.; Jahncke, J.

    2014-12-01

    Planktic foraminifera have a long history of use as paleoceaographic proxies due to their environmental sensitivity, cosmopolitan distribution and extensive fossil record. The seasonal, spatial and water mass affinities of foraminifera species have implications for the interpretation of fossil assemblages and the interpretation of shell geochemistry. Two years (2012-2014) of shallow (dynamics of planktic foraminifera in an upwelling regime. Tows along with intensive hydrologic monitoring by CTD casts and discrete bottle sampling (temperature, salinity, oxygen, thermocline depth, carbonate saturation state) have spanned two complete seasonal upwelling-relaxation cycles. We present the results from these tows as well as preliminary models linking environmental drivers and foraminifera assemblages in this highly dynamic environment. Species abundances appear to be highly seasonal, in keeping with water column structure, with a seasonal upwelling to relaxation trade off between the non-spinose foraminifers Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Neogloboquadrina incompta. We focus on the implications of species seasonality and hydrologic affinities to the interpretation of the fossil record in upwelling regions.

  14. Information policy in Japan two years after the Tohoku tsunami; Informationspolitik in Japan zwei Jahre nach dem Fukushima-Tsunami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinartz, Jerome [atw (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Two years have passed since the strongest tsunami ever measured in Japan which, ultimately, was the cause of an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. In retrospect, the question arises about the consequences of the accident, and also about the conclusions not drawn in Japan. It is a fact that Japan will stick to nuclear power. However, it is also a fact that information policy at the time, especially by the Tepco operating company, had failed. What has since been achieved by dialog with the Japanese society and people all over the world who want to know? Today's slogan is 'as much information to the public as possible.' Now, Tepco is only one out of 11 operating companies. Also the power utilities not affected by the natural disaster have used the opportunity to initiate a more open dialog. Recent opinion polls indicate that the majority of the population in Japan have no intention to give up nuclear power. (orig.)

  15. Experimental xenoimplantation of antlerogenic cells into mandibular bone lesions in rabbits: two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielski, Marek; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Zabel, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr; Kuryszko, Jan; Izykowska, Ilona; Zatoński, Maciej; Bochnia, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Different types of cells require activation, and take part in annual, dynamic growth of deer antlers. Stem cells play the most important role in this process. This report shows the results of a two-year long observation of xenogenic implant of antlerogenic stem cells (cell line MIC-1). The cells were derived from growing antler of a deer (Cervus elaphus), seeded onto Spongostan and placed in postoperative lesions of mandibular bones of 15 experimental rabbits. The healing process observed in the implantation sites in all rabbits was normal, and no local inflammatory response was ever observed. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed after 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 months, and confirmed the participation of xenogenic cells in the regeneration processes, as well as a lack of rejection of the implants. The deficiencies in the bones were replaced by newly formed, thick fibrous bone tissue that underwent mineralization and was later remodelled into lamellar bone. The results of the experiment with rabbits allow us to believe that antlerogenic cells could be used in reconstruction of bone tissues in other species as well.

  16. Multimethod psychoeducational intervention for preschool children with disruptive behavior: two-year post-treatment follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, T L; Barkley, R A; Crosswait, C; Moorehouse, M; Fletcher, K; Barrett, S; Jenkins, L; Metevia, L

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes the 2-year post-treatment follow-up of preschool children identified as having high levels of disruptive behavior at kindergarten entry. They were assigned to four treatment conditions: A no-treatment group, parent-training only, treatment classroom only, and the combination of parent training with the treatment classroom. Interventions lasted the entire kindergarten academic year. Initial post-treatment results reported previously indicated no effects for the parent-training program but some efficacy for the classroom intervention program. For this report, the disruptive behavior (DB) children were subdivided into those who did (n = 74) and did not (n = 77) receive the treatment classroom. Two-year post-treatment follow-up results indicated no differences between the classroom treated and untreated DB groups. These groups also failed to differ in the percentage of children using available treatments across the follow-up period. The DB children in both groups had significantly more symptoms of ADHD and ODD than a community control group (N = 47) at follow-up. They also received higher ratings of externalizing problems on the parent Child Behavior Checklist, more severe ratings of behavior problems at home, and ratings of more pervasive behavior problems at school, and had poorer academic skills. Results suggested that early intervention classrooms for DB children may not produce enduring effects once treatment is withdrawn, and that better approaches are needed for identifying those DB children at greatest risk for later maladjustment.

  17. Dose of fluphenazine, familial expressed emotion, and outcome in schizophrenia. Results of a two-year controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarty, G E; McEvoy, J P; Munetz, M; DiBarry, A L; Bartone, P; Cather, R; Cooley, S J; Ulrich, R F; Carter, M; Madonia, M J

    1988-09-01

    Issues regarding the side effects of antipsychotic medication and the possible contribution of the environment to dose requirements led to a two-year controlled dosage study of maintenance antipsychotic medication and familial environment among recently discharged schizophrenic patients. Seventy stable patients, living in high- or low-expressed emotion (EE) households, were randomized, double blind, to receive a standard dose of fluphenazine decanoate (average, 25 mg every two weeks) or a minimal dose representing 20% of the dose prescribed (average, 3.8 mg every two weeks). No differences in relapse were observed among dose, EE, or dose and EE. Patients in the minimal dose/high-EE condition experienced more minor but aborted episodes in year 2. Side effects were fewer on the minimal dose after one year, and low-EE patients were better adjusted than high-EE patients. Over time, minimal-dose recipients were significantly more improved in their instrumental and interpersonal role performance than were standard-dose recipients.

  18. A two year BTV-8 vaccination follow up: molecular diagnostics and assessment of humoral and cellular immune reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Alexandra; Gollnick, Nicole; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Neubauer-Juric, Antonie; Lahm, Harald; Büttner, Mathias

    2012-01-27

    The compulsory vaccination campaign against Bluetongue virus serotype eight (BTV-8) in Germany was exercised in the state of Bavaria using three commercial monovalent inactivated vaccines given provisional marketing authorisation for emergency use. In eleven Bavarian farms representing a cross sectional area of the state the immune reactions of sheep and cattle were followed over a two year period (2008-2009) using cELISA, a serum neutralisation test (SNT) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) ELISPOT. For molecular diagnostics of BTV genome presence two recommended real time quantitative RT-PCR protocols were applied. The recommended vaccination scheme led to low or even undetectable antibody titers (ELISA) in serum samples of both cattle and sheep. A fourfold increase of the vaccine dose in cattle, however, induced higher ELISA titers and virus neutralising antibodies. Accordingly, repeated vaccination in sheep caused an increase in ELISA-antibody titers. BTV-8 neutralising antibodies occurred in most animals only after multiple vaccinations in the second year of the campaign. The secretion of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in ELISPOT after in vitro re-stimulation of PBMC of BTV-8 vaccinated animals with BTV was evaluated in the field for the first time. Sera of BTV-8 infected or vaccinated animals neutralising BTV-8 could also neutralise an Italian BTV serotype 1 cell culture adapted strain and PBMC of such animals secreted IFN-γ when stimulated with BTV-1.

  19. Two Years versus One Year of Tianjiu Therapy in Sanfu Days for Chronic Asthma: A Clinical Efficacy Observation Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tianjiu therapy has established efficacy against chronic asthma with related symptoms or the medication need during asthma attack. This study aimed to explore the optimal duration of Tianjiu therapy for asthma. Methods. This study was a self-comparison-to-the-baseline study, which comparing treatment with Tianjiu therapy for 1 year and 2 years in the same 102 chronic asthma patients. Totally 6 sessions of Tianjiu treatment were provided, 3 sessions in a year as a course of treatment and totally two years treatment. The primary endpoint was the number of asthma related symptoms which frequently appeared in asthma patients and the frequency of bronchodilator used during asthma attack. Results. The frequency of bronchodilator used during asthma attack significantly improved (χ2=46.276, P=0.000. But the number of asthma related symptoms which frequently appeared in asthma patients added by 1.38 points (95% CI, 0.25 to 2.51, 2.93±0.41 in 1-year group and 4.31±0.41 in the 2-years group (P<0.05. Conclusions. The effect of 2 years Tianjiu therapy was not as effective as 1 year such treatment for asthma, but the second year Tianjiu therapy was still needed because it has a role to consolidate the curative effect of Tianjiu therapy for asthma.

  20. Permanency Outcomes for Toddlers in Child Welfare Two Years After a Randomized Trial of a Parenting Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susan J; Oxford, Monica L; Fleming, Charles B

    2014-09-01

    This study reports on child welfare outcomes of a community based, randomized control trial of Promoting First Relationships® (PFR; Kelly, Sandoval, Zuckerman, & Buehlman, 2008), a 10-week relationship-based home visiting program, on stability of children's placements and permanency status two years after enrollment into the study. Toddlers 10 - 24 months (N = 210) with a recent placement disruption were randomized, along with their birth or foster/kin parents, to PFR (n = 105) or a comparison condition (n = 105). A stable placement had no interruptions or disruptions. A permanent placement was a stable placement ending with a legal discharge to the study caregiver. Logistic regression models predicting the dichotomous stability and permanency variables, controlling for caregiver type, child welfare variables, and caregiver commitment, were conducted. There was no difference by intervention group on stability or permanency, but there was a significant interaction between caregiver type (birth parent vs. foster/kin) and intervention group. More foster/kin caregivers who received the PFR intervention provided stable, uninterrupted care and eventually adopted or became the legal guardians of the toddlers in their care, compared to foster/kin caregivers randomized to the comparison condition.

  1. A two years study on vectors of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Evidence for sylvatic transmission cycle in the state of Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar-Téllez, E A; Ramírez-Fraire, A; Andrade-Narvaez, F J

    1996-01-01

    Vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche were studied in relation to the transmission cycle of Leishmania (Le.) mexicana. To determine how transmission of leishmaniasis occurs, we collected phlebotomine sand flies for two years. In the first year (October 1990 to November 1991) the collections were made with CDC light traps, Shannon traps and direct captures at natural shelters around the village (Libertad. In the second year (February 1993 to January 1994) the catches were performed at 8 km southeast of La Libertad in the forest. Female sand flies were examined for Leishmania. During the first year, 347 sand flies of nine species were collected, most of which were Lutzomyia deleoni (61.3%). When all nine species were considered, more females than males were captured. Low densities of anthropophillic species of sand flies around the village indicated that sylvatic transmission was taking place. For the second year. 1484 sand flies of 16 species were caught. The most common were L. olmeca olmeca (21.7%), L. cruciata (19.2%) and L. ovallesi (14.1%). Similarly, more females were caught than males. Thirty-five females of five species were found infected with flagellates believed to be Leishmania sp. The highest infection rate was found in L. olmeca olmeca (7.1%) followed by L. cruciata (4.5%) and L. ovallesi (1.1%). These data plus other evidence on the epidemiology of human cases and results from reservoir studies are discussed in relation to the sylvatic transmission cycle.

  2. Two years of MAXDOAS measurements of NO2, HONO, SO2 and HCHO at SORPES station in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Nan; Ding, Aijun; Van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Shen, Yicheng; Valks, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region includes the mega-city Shanghai and the well-industrialized and urbanized areas of Zhejiang Province and Jiangsu Province, with over ten large cities, such as Hangzhou, Suzhou and Nanjing. Covering only 2% land area, this region produces over 20% of China's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which makes it the most densely populated region and one of the most polluted regions in China. In the YRD region, knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of the source and transport of air pollutants because only few measurement studies have been conducted. This work presents two years measurements of air pollutants including NO2, HONO, SO2, HCHO and CHOCHO at a regional back-ground site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. A retrieval algorithm, based on an on-line implementation of the radiative transfer code LIDORT and the optimal estimation technique, has been used to provide information on trace gases vertical profiles and vertical column densities (VCDs). The seasonal and diurnal cycles of trace gases have been studies and compared with in situ measurements. The retrieved tropospheric NO2, HCHO and SO2 VCDs were compared to satellite measurements, while the NO2 and SO2 near surface concentrations (0-200 m layer) were compared to measurements from in situ instruments at SORPES.

  3. Human viruses and viral indicators in marine water at two recreational beaches in Southern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Gibbons, Christopher D; Griffith, John F; Yu, Qilu; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses may pose disease risks to bather health but occurrence of these viruses has been difficult to characterize at recreational beaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate water for human virus occurrence at two Southern California recreational beaches with a history of beach closures. Human enteric viruses (adenovirus and norovirus) and viral indicators (F+ and somatic coliphages) were measured in water samples over a 4-month period from Avalon Beach, Catalina Island (n = 324) and Doheny Beach, Orange County (n = 112). Human viruses were concentrated from 40 L samples and detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection frequencies at Doheny Beach were 25.5% (adenovirus) and 22.3% (norovirus), and at Avalon Beach were 9.3% (adenovirus) and 0.7% (norovirus). Positive associations between adenoviruses and fecal coliforms were observed at Doheny (p = 0.02) and Avalon (p = 0.01) Beaches. Human viruses were present at both beaches at higher frequencies than previously detected in the region, suggesting that the virus detection methods presented here may better measure potential health risks to bathers. These virus recovery, concentration, and molecular detection methods are advancing practices so that analysis of enteric viruses can become more effective and routine for recreational water quality monitoring.

  4. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Shore Protection Policy § 263... shore and beach restoration and protection projects not specifically authorized by Congress,...

  5. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai.

  6. Microplastics in tourist beaches of Huatulco Bay, Pacific coast of southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retama, I; Jonathan, M P; Shruti, V C; Velumani, S; Sarkar, S K; Roy, Priyadarsi D; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F

    2016-12-15

    The presence and impacts of plastic marine debris (PMD) have been documented in the oceans worldwide, and they deserve special attention. This study is the first to report the presence of microplastics in tourist beaches located in Huatulco Bay, southern Mexico. A total of 70 beach sediment samples (for 2 distinct seasons) were collected from Huatulco Bay in April 2013 and December 2014. The samples were subsequently extracted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify the fibrous microplastics (diametermicroplastics is present in the Conejos, Tangolunda, Santa Cruz, and San Agustin beaches. The microplastics are mainly derived from tourism-based activities and effluents discharged from the hotels and restaurants located along the beaches.

  7. Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport in a Tidally influenced gravel beach in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, A. M.; Boufadel, M. C.; Abdollahi Nasab, A.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated beach hydraulics in a gravel beach on Eleanor Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska that was previously polluted with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The beach contains trace amounts of oil such that they don’t affect beach hydraulics. Measurements of water pressure and salinity were analyzed and simulated using the model SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport). The results indicated that the beach consists of two layers with contrasting hydraulic properties: an upper layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 10-2 m/s, and a lower layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 10-5 m/s. The presence of the layer of low hydraulic conductivity constrained the fall of the water table resulting in a water table fluctuation that is almost independent of distance from the shoreline. This is unlike previous studies, which occurred in sandy beaches, and where the fluctuation decreased going landward. The water table remained above the layers’ interface, which suggests that the oil did not penetrate the lower layer. This could explain the presence of only tracer amount of oil in the beach. A sudden seaward increase of the slope of the two layers’ interface resulted in water leaving the lower layer near the mid-intertidal zone, and draining to the sea through the upper layer. This created the effect of a hydraulic rupture separating the hydraulics in the seaward portion of the beach from the rest of beach, especially at low tide.

  8. Beach Profiles Characteristics Along Giao Thuy and Hai Hau Coasts,Vietnam: A Field Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN Viet Thanh; ZHENG Jin-hai; ZHANG Chi

    2012-01-01

    Giao Thuy and Hai Hau coasts are located in Nam Dinh province,Vietnam,with a total coastline of 54.42 km in length.The sea-dike system has been seriously damaged and there have been many dike breaches which caused floods and losses.This situation is considered of a general representative for coastal area in the northern part of Vietnam.A variety of studies have shown that the gradient in the longshore sediment transport rate and the offshore fine sediment lost are the main mechanisms causing the beach erosion.This study presents a field investigation of the beach profiles at Giao Thuy and Hai Hau beaches.Three types of empirical functions for the equilibrium beach profile are applied and compared with the observations.Results show that all observed beach profiles can be described by a single function.However,one specific equilibrium profile equation is not sufficient to assess all beach profiles.In Section 1 of Giao Thuy and Section 3 of Hai Thinh beaches,beach profiles are consistent with the logarithmic function,while the exponential function fits well in Section 2.This difference is explained with respect to coastal morphology,sediment characteristics and hydrodynamic conditions which vary in site.An analysis of the validity of the beach profile functions is recommended for the numerical modeling and engineering designs in this area.

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of sediment size on a mixed sand and gravel beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Diane P.; Walton, Susan M.

    2007-12-01

    Mixed sand and gravel beaches have been the subject of comparatively few studies in the UK. This paper describes the sediment distribution before, during and after a programme of beach nourishment along a section of mixed sand and gravel beach forming part of the Pevensey Bay Coastal Defences, in East Sussex, UK. The beach was recharged in September 2002, and beach profiles were measured along three cross-shore transects from August 2002 to February 2003. Sediment samples were taken along the transects between August and November 2002, and a total of 147 sediment samples were analysed, 40 before nourishment and 107 after nourishment. The majority of the sediment samples were strongly bimodal, with mean sizes varying between a minimum of 0.18 mm (2.48 ϕ) for the sand fraction and a maximum of 27 mm (- 4.74 ϕ) for the gravel. The recharge material was also bimodal but contained more fine sediment than the natural beach material, particularly on the upper beach. The recharge sediment had grain sizes and sorting similar to some of the natural material but lower bimodality parameters than any of the natural sediment. The sediment distributions after recharge contained significantly more fine sediment, particularly on the upper beach. Over time, the beach profile lowered and fine sediment appeared to be selectively transported seawards from the beachface.

  10. Response to storm conditions of two different beaches at the Mediterranean coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mrini, Aldelmounim; Anfuso, Giorgio; Nachite, Driss; Taaouati, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades the increased demand for the recreational use of beaches has resulted in the uptake of studies on the morphodynamic processes which are acting on beaches. This knowledge is fundamental for appropriate coastal erosion management, suitable tourist use of littoral and for the design and shape of human construction. The Mediterranean sectors of Moroccan littoral investigated in this study, Ksar Rimal and Cabo Negro beaches, are respectively located north and south of Cabo Negro promontory and, over recent years, have been subject to increasing tourist activity. This has consisted mainly of the construction of two tourist ports (Marina Smir and Kabila), residential developments, hotels and a motorway which runs parallel to the coast, affecting the dune ridges and two lagoons which are of great ecological interest. In detail, the dunes located in the backshore at Ksar Rimal beach, are nowadays occupied by summer houses threaten by coastal retreat. A wide, partially urbanized, backshore is observed at Cabo Negro beach. With the intention of characterize the morphodynamic and seasonal behavior and the response of the studied beaches to storm impact, a beach monitoring program was carried out in the period 2006-2008, with special attention to the February-March 2008 stormy period. On analyzing the information obtained, it was possible to characterize the morphology and sedimentology of the studied beaches, and to calculate beach volumetric variations. Ksar Rimal is an open, exposed beach characterized by an intermediate slope (tan β = 0.10) with medium-coarse sands. The beach showed a reflective beach state characterized by plunging breakers. Small morphological seasonal changes were observed, most important morphological and volumetric variations (about 20 m3/m) taking place after winter storms which usually gave rise to a more dissipative beach profile (tan β = 0.05) characterized by spilling breakers. Beach recovery was quite rapid, usually lasting 2

  11. Terrestrial-based lidar beach topography of Fire Island, New York, June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Owen T.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Lee, Kathryn G.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2016-02-19

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) in Florida and the USGS Lower Mississippi-Gulf Water Science Center (LMG WSC) in Montgomery, Alabama, collaborated to gather alongshore terrestrial-based lidar beach elevation data at Fire Island, New York. This high-resolution elevation dataset was collected on June 11, 2014, to characterize beach topography and document ongoing beach evolution and recovery, and is part of the ongoing beach monitoring within the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. This USGS data series includes the resulting processed elevation point data (xyz) and an interpolated digital elevation model (DEM).

  12. Huntington beach shoreline contamination investigation, phase III: coastal circulation and transport patterns : the likelihood of OCSD's plume impacting Huntington beach shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene; Xu, Jingping; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Robertson, George

    2003-01-01

    A consortium of agencies have conducted an extensive investigation of the coastal ocean circulation and transport pathways off Huntington Beach, with the aim of identifying any causal links that may exist between the offshore discharge of wastewater by OCSD and the significant bacterial contamination observed along the Huntington Beach shoreline. This is the third study supported by OCSD to determine possible land-based and coa Although the study identifies several possible coastal ocean pathways by which diluted wastewater may be transported to the beach, including internal tide, sea-breeze and subtidal flow features, there were no direct observations of either the high bacteria concentrations seen in the OCSD plume at the shelf break reaching the shoreline in significant levels or of an association between the existence of a coastal ocean process and beach contamination at or above AB411 levels. It is concluded that the OCSD plume is not a major cause of beach contamination; no causal links could be demonstrated. This conclusion is based on the absence of direct observation of plume-beach links, on analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of shoreline contamination and coastal ocean processes, and on the observation of higher levels of contamination at the beach than in the plume.

  13. Towards improved prediction and mitigation of beach overwash: Terrestrial LiDAR observation of dynamic beach berm erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, J. E.; Gallien, T.; Shakeri Majd, M.; Sanders, B. F.

    2012-12-01

    Globally, over 20 million people currently reside below high tide levels and 200 million are below storm tide levels. Future climate change along with the pressures of urbanization will exacerbate flooding in low lying coastal communities. In Southern California, coastal flooding is triggered by a combination of high tides, storm surge, and waves and recent research suggests that a current 100 year flood event may be experienced on a yearly basis by 2050 due to sea level rise adding a positive offset to return levels. Currently, Southern California coastal communities mitigate the threat of beach overwash, and consequent backshore flooding, with a combination of planning and operational activities such as protective beach berm construction. Theses berms consist of temporary alongshore sand dunes constructed days or hours before an extreme tide or wave event. Hydraulic modeling in urbanized embayments has shown that coastal flooding predictions are extremely sensitive to the presence of coastal protective infrastructure, requiring parameterization of the hard infrastructure elevations at centimetric accuracy. Beach berms are an example of temporary dynamic structures which undergo severe erosion during extreme events and are typically not included in flood risk assessment. Currently, little is known about the erosion process and performance of these structures, which adds uncertainty to flood hazard delineation and flood forecasts. To develop a deeper understanding of beach berm erosion dynamics, three trapezoidal shaped berms, approximately 35 m long and 1.5 m high, were constructed and failure during rising tide conditions was observed using terrestrial laser scanning. Concurrently, real-time kinematic GPS, high-definition time lapse photography, a local tide gauge and wave climate data were collected. The result is a rich and unique observational dataset capturing berm erosion dynamics. This poster highlights the data collected and presents methods for processing

  14. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1996-06-03 to 1997-01-22 (NODC Accession 0037171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  15. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 2002-11-09 to 2003-06-20 (NODC Accession 0071423)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  16. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1999-10-29 to 2000-06-09 (NODC Accession 0071401)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  17. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1998-06-12 to 1998-12-11 (NODC Accession 0069131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  18. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 2004-06-20 to 2004-09-26 (NODC Accession 0071433)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  19. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Dillon Beach (segment 1-10), California from 1994-02-05 to 1995-11-12 (NCEI Accession 0071544)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  20. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1999-04-02 to 1999-10-15 (NODC Accession 0071354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  1. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1999-10-29 to 1999-12-10 (NODC Accession 0071355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  2. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1997-12-27 to 1998-12-11 (NODC Accession 0071352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  3. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1993-10-19 to 1993-12-15 (NODC Accession 0002428)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  4. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1997-02-09 to 1997-09-22 (NODC Accession 0037172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  5. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Dillon Beach (segment 1-10), California from 1996-04-14 to 1996-10-25 (NCEI Accession 0071545)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  6. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Dillon Beach (segment 1-10), California from 1996-11-04 to 1997-11-27 (NCEI Accession 0071546)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  7. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1997-10-02 to 1998-05-15 (NODC Accession 0037173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  8. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 2003-08-03 to 2004-05-23 (NODC Accession 0071431)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  9. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1995-07-29 to 1995-12-18 (NODC Accession 0037167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  10. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1995-01-15 to 1995-07-01 (NODC Accession 0037166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  11. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1994-01-13 to 1994-06-01 (NODC Accession 0037161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  12. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 2000-12-08 to 2001-05-26 (NODC Accession 0071403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  13. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 2001-03-30 to 2002-01-18 (NODC Accession 0071404)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  14. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 2000-06-23 to 2000-11-24 (NODC Accession 0071402)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  15. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 2002-02-01 to 2002-10-25 (NODC Accession 0071405)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  16. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1994-06-30 to 1994-12-18 (NODC Accession 0037162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  17. Digital collection of photographic surveys of beach profiles and animals taken as part of the Beach Watch program at Doran Beach (segment 1-06), California from 1996-01-14 to 1996-05-05 (NODC Accession 0037168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) Beach Watch Program, administered by the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association (FMSA), is a...

  18. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jing Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled high upto 41% of the total debris. Compared to the ocean conservancy�s 2013 report of marine debris in Malaysian beaches, which was 27,005 items with in 6.44 km, the current count is slightly low. However, Malaysia was ranked 14th place among the top 20 countries in International Marine Debris Watch program. Nelayan Beach is the dirtiest beach in Port Dickson. Around 50% of the total plastic items collected are found on those beaches. The marine debris items indicated that they arrived there by land-based and ocean-based activities. High energy conditions such as wind and waves in the beaches correlated well with less debris deposition on the beaches. With debris equivalent of 4193 items/km, Malaysia harvests less solid wastes compared to Croatia, USA, Singapore and Turkey. However, a nation wide survey is needed to assess the seriousness of marine debris problem in Malaysia.

  19. Twenty-Two Years of Combined GPS Daily Coordinate Time Series and Derived Parameters: Implications for ITRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Kedar, S.; Moore, A. W.; Fang, P.; Liu, Z.; Owen, S. E.; Squibb, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA-funded "Solid Earth Science ESDR System (SESES)" MEaSUREs project publishes long-term Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), the result of a combined solution of independent daily JPL (GIPSY-OASIS software) and SIO (GAMIT software) GPS analyses, using a common source of metadata from the SOPAC database. The project has now produced up to twenty-two years of consistent, calibrated and validated ESDR products for over 3200 GPS stations from Western North America, other plate boundaries, and global networks made available through the GPS Explorer data portal and NASA's CDDIS archive. The combined solution of daily coordinate time series uses SOPAC h-files and JPL STACOV files as input to the st_filter software. The combined time series are then fit with the analyze_tseri software for daily positions/displacements, secular velocities, coseismic and postseismic displacements, as well as annual and semi-annual signatures and non-coseismic offsets due primarily to equipment (antenna) changes. Published uncertainties for the estimated parameters take into account temporal noise in the daily coordinate time series. The resulting residual coordinate time series with typical daily RMS values of 1.5-4.0 mm in the horizontal and 4.0-8.0 mm in the vertical can then can be mined for other signals such as transient deformation associated with earthquake tremor and slip (ETS) and hydrological effects. As part of this process we have catalogued and characterized coseismic displacements due to more than 80 earthquakes affecting over hundreds of regional and global stations, as well as significant postseismic deformation for the larger events. The larger events can affect stations 1000's of km from the earthquake epicenters and thus significantly affect the positions of stations used in defining the reference frame. We discuss the implications and contributions of our ongoing analysis to the long-term maintenance of the international terrestrial reference frame.

  20. Yucca brevifolia fruit production, predispersal seed predation, and fruit removal by rodents during two years of contrasting reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Mark I.; DeFalco, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. METHODS: Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. KEY RESULTS: In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. CONCLUSIONS: High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years.

  1. Change and associated factors of self-esteem among children in rural China: A two-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Le; Chen, Jian; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood has been targeted as an especially important period for self-esteem formation. The aim of this study is to examine the change and associated factors of self-esteem among children in rural China. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted with a general elementary and secondary school population in Anhui Province, China including 816 children aged between 7 and 16 years. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to examine relationships between low self-esteem and socio-demographic, family environment, and psychosocial factors. On average, self-esteem level among children was increased across three assessments. Multivariable analysis (GEE) showed that low self-esteem in children was clearly associated with male gender (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.12-1.89), moderate and severe family dysfunction (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.40-2.51; OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.25-2.83, respectively), quality of life (OR = .97, 95%CI = .96-.98), depression (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.32-2.70), anxiety (OR = 2.05, 95%CI = 1.51-2.77), positive coping styles (OR = .91, 95%CI = .89-.94), and negative coping styles (OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 1.03-1.07). Self-esteem is a dynamic rather than a static construct during childhood. Low self-esteem among children was associated with a number of socio-demographic, family environment, and psychosocial factors. Further studies exploring the pathways and mechanisms by which the effect of these factors impact on self-esteem among children are warranted.

  2. The Influence of Gestational Diabetes on Neurodevelopment of Children in the First Two Years of Life: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Anqi; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wong, Eric Qinlong; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Saw, Seang Mei; Soh, Shu-E; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael J.; Kramer, Michael S.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Analyze the relation of gestational diabetes and maternal blood glucose levels to early cognitive functions in the first two years of life. Methods In a prospective Singaporean birth cohort study, pregnant women were screened for gestational diabetes at 26–28 weeks gestation using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Four hundred and seventy three children (n = 74 and n = 399 born to mothers with and without gestational diabetes respectively) underwent neurocognitive assessments at 6, 18, and/or 24 month, including electrophysiology during an attentional task and behavioral measures of attention, memory and cognition. Results Gestational diabetes is related to left hemisphere EPmax amplitude differences (oddball versus standard) at both six (P = 0.039) and eighteen months (P = 0.039), with mean amplitudes suggesting offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes exhibit greater neuronal activity to standard stimuli and less to oddball stimuli. Associations between 2-hour maternal glucose levels and the difference in EPmax amplitude were marginal at 6 months [adjusted β = -0.19 (95% CI: -0.42 to +0.04) μV, P = 0.100] and significant at 18 months [adjusted β = -0.27 (95% CI: -0.49 to -0.06) μV, P = 0.014], and the EPmax amplitude difference (oddball-standard) associated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and toddler Development-III cognitive score at 24 months [β = 0.598 (95% CI: 0.158 to 1.038), P = 0.008]. Conclusion Gestational diabetes and maternal blood glucose levels are associated with offspring neuronal activity during an attentional task at both six and eighteen months. Such electrophysiological differences are likely functionally important, having been previously linked to attention problems later in life. PMID:27603522

  3. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien M Kerstjens

    Full Text Available To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3 to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two.We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on ASQ3 and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSIDIII and neurological examination at 22-26 months' corrected age. We defined NDI as a score of <70 on the cognitive--or motor composite scale of BSIDIII, or impairment on neurological examination or audiovisual screening. We compared NDI with abnormal ASQ3 scores, i.e., < -2SDs on any domain, and with ASQ3 total scores. To correct for possible overestimation of BSIDIII, we also analyzed the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds for NDI, i.e., scores <80 and <85.We found 61 (27% children with abnormal ASQ3 scores, and 10 (4.5% children who had NDI with original BSIDIII thresholds (<70. Twelve children had NDI at BSIDIII thresholds at <80, and 15 had <85. None of the 163 (73% children who passed ASQ3 had NDI. The sensitivity of ASQ3 to detect NDI was excellent (100%, its specificity was acceptable (76%, and its negative predictive value (NPV was 100%. Sensitivity and NPV remained high with the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds.The Ages and Stages Questionnaire is a simple, valid and cost-effective screening tool to help identify and exclude NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two years.

  4. The emergence of spanking among a representative sample of children under two years of age in North Carolina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Zolotor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Spanking is common in the United States but less common in many European countries in which it has been outlawed. Being spanked has been associated with child abuse victimization, poor self-esteem, impaired parent-child relationships, and child and adult mental health, substance abuse, and behavioral consequences. Being spanked as a child has also been shown to increase the likelihood of abusing one’s own children or spouse as an adult. Spanking of very young children less than two is almost never recommended even among experts that consider spanking as reasonable in some circumstances. Using a cross-sectional anonymous telephone survey, we describe spanking rates among a representative sample of North Carolina mothers of children less than two years old and the association of spanking with demographic characteristics.A substantial proportion of mothers admit to spanking their very young children. The rate of spanking in the last year among all maternal respondents was 30%. Over 5% of the mothers of three month olds reported spanking. Over 70% of the mothers of 23 month olds reported spanking. Increased spanking was associated with higher age of the child and lower maternal age. With every month of age, a child had 27% increased odds of being spanked. Early spanking has been shown to be associated with poor cognitive development in early childhood. Further, early trauma has been shown to have significant effects on the early developing brain. It is therefore critical that health and human services professionals addres the risk of corporal punishment as a method of discipline early in the life of the child. The spanking of very young children may be an appropriate locus for policy and legislative debates regarding corporal punishment.

  5. Training the Trainees in Radiation Oncology with Telemedicine as a Tool in a Developing Country: A Two-Year Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The estimated new cancer patient load in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh is 0.1–0.12 million per year. Approximately two thirds of these require treatment by a radiation oncologist. Radiation oncologists: cancer patient ratio in this state is 1 : 2000 as compared to the recommended 1 : 250. This problem is compounded by the poor infrastructure of radiation oncology departments in the state which is suboptimal for teaching, training of resident doctors, and treatment in most barring a few departments. To bridge some gap in the sociodemographics stated above and enhancement of training of residents, we submitted a project for establishment of a telemedicine facility in our department to the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. We present the design, implementation, and a two-year audit of our tele-education activities. Materials and Methods. After the sanction of the project, we established telemedicine linkage with another medical institute in the city located 25 kms away in 2007. After implementation of the project, academic sessions designed for trainee residents in our department were shared with the remote end. A record of these activities and a feedback of the activities were audited at the end of 2 years of implementation of this project. Results. Regular videoconferencing sessions comprising of lectures on clinical oncology, medical physics, and radiobiology were held. Feedback from the users revealed satisfaction with the content of the academic sessions for the purpose of MD training. Conclusions. Distance education in radiation oncology is an important tool for training of the trainee residents.

  6. The effect of a Galeazzi fracture on the strength of pronation and supination two years after surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploegmakers, J J W; The, B; Brutty, M; Ackland, T R; Wang, A W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a Galeazzi fracture on the strength of pronation and supination at a mean of two years after surgical treatment. The strength of pronation and supination was measured in varying rotational positions of the forearm of ten male patients (mean age 38.9 years (21 to 64)) who had undergone plate fixation for a Galeazzi fracture. The stability of the distal radioulnar joint was assessed, and a clinical assessment using the quick-Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (quickDASH) questionnaire and patient-related wrist examination (PRWE) scores was undertaken. In addition, the strength of pronation and supination was measured in a male control group of 42 healthy volunteers (mean age 21.8 years (18 to 37)). The mean absolute loss of strength of supination in the injured compared with the non-injured arm throughout all ranges of forearm rotation was 16.1 kg (sem 5.3), corresponding to a relative loss of 12.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6 to 21.4). For the strength of pronation, the mean loss was 19.1 kg (sem 4.5), corresponding to a relative loss of 27.2% (95% CI 14.2 to 40.1). Loss of strength of supination following a Galeazzi fracture correlated with poor quickDASH (p = 0.03) and PRWE scores (p Galeazzi fracture is associated with worse clinical scores, highlighting the importance of supination of the forearm in function of the upper limb.

  7. Two Years of Simultaneous K(sub a)-Band Measurements: Goldstone, CA; White Sands, NM; and Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Zemba, M.; Morse, J.; Nessel, J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to statistically characterize the effect of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka-Band links, site test interferometers (STIs) have been deployed at three of NASA s operational sites to directly measure each site's tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These STIs are composed of two antennas on a short baseline (less than 1km) that observe the same unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2). The STIs are used to measure the differential phase between the two received signals as well as the individual signal attenuation at each terminal. There are currently three NASA sites utilizing STIs; the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, California; the White Sands Complex in Las Cruces, New Mexico; and the Guam Remote Ground Terminal on the island of Guam. The first two sites are both located in desert regions that have highly similar climates in terms of their seasonal temperatures, average humidity, and annual rain fall (the primary factors in determining phase stability). In contrast, Guam is in a tropical region with drastically higher annual rainfall and humidity. Five station years of data have been collected in Goldstone, three in White Sands, and two in Guam, yielding two years of simultaneous data collection across all three sites. During this period of simultaneous data collection, the root-mean-square (RMS) of the time delay fluctuations stayed under 2.40 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Goldstone, under 2.07 picoseconds for 90% of the time in White Sands, and under 10.13 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Guam. For the 99th percentile, the statistics were 6.32 ps, 6.03 ps, and 24.85 ps, respectively. These values, as well as various other site quality characteristics, will be used to determine the suitability of these sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-Band.

  8. Molecular diagnostics for lassa fever at Irrua specialist teaching hospital, Nigeria: lessons learnt from two years of laboratory operation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny A Asogun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa. However, none of the hospitals in the endemic areas of Nigeria has the capacity to perform Lassa virus diagnostics. Case identification and management solely relies on non-specific clinical criteria. The Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH in the central senatorial district of Edo State struggled with this challenge for many years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A laboratory for molecular diagnosis of Lassa fever, complying with basic standards of diagnostic PCR facilities, was established at ISTH in 2008. During 2009 through 2010, samples of 1,650 suspected cases were processed, of which 198 (12% tested positive by Lassa virus RT-PCR. No remarkable demographic differences were observed between PCR-positive and negative patients. The case fatality rate for Lassa fever was 31%. Nearly two thirds of confirmed cases attended the emergency departments of ISTH. The time window for therapeutic intervention was extremely short, as 50% of the fatal cases died within 2 days of hospitalization--often before ribavirin treatment could be commenced. Fatal Lassa fever cases were older (p = 0.005, had lower body temperature (p<0.0001, and had higher creatinine (p<0.0001 and blood urea levels (p<0.0001 than survivors. Lassa fever incidence in the hospital followed a seasonal pattern with a peak between November and March. Lassa virus sequences obtained from the patients originating from Edo State formed--within lineage II--a separate clade that could be further subdivided into three clusters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lassa fever case management was improved at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria through establishment of a laboratory for routine diagnostics of Lassa virus. Data collected in two years of operation demonstrate that Lassa fever is a serious public health problem in Edo State and reveal new insights into the disease in hospitalized patients.

  9. A two years study on vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis: Evidence for sylvatic transmission cycle in the State of Campeche, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A Rebollar-Téllez

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche were studied in relation to the transmission cycle of Leishmania (Le. mexicana. To determine how transmission of leishmaniasis occurs, we collected phlebotomine sand flies for two years. In the first year (October 1990 to November 1991 the collections were made with CDC light traps, Shannon traps and direct captures at natural shelters around the village (<200 m of La Libertad. In the second year (February 1993 to January 1994 the catches were performed at 8 km southeast of La Libertad in the forest. Female sand flies were examined for Leishmania. During the first year, 347 sand flies of nine species were collected, most of which were Lutzomyia deleoni (61.3%. When all nine species were considered, more females than males were captured. Low densities of anthropophillic species of sand flies around the village indicated that sylvatic transmission was taking place. For the second year, 1484 sand flies of 16 species were caught. The most common were L. olmeca olmeca (21.7%, L. cruciata (19.2% and L. ovallesi (14.1%. Similarly, more females were caught than males. Thirty-five females of five species were found infected with flagellates believed to be Leishmania sp. The highest infection rate was found in L. olmeca olmeca (7.1% followed by L. cruciata (4.5% and L. ovallesi (1.1%. These data plus other evidence on the epidemiology of human cases and results from reservoir studies are discussed in relation to the sylvatic transmission cycle.

  10. Comparison in outcomes at two-years of age of very preterm infants born in 2000, 2005 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénaïg Abily-Donval

    Full Text Available To investigate alteration in 2-year neurological/behavioral outcomes of very preterm infants born in a French level three neonatal intensive care unit.We conducted a prospective, comparative study of very preterm infants born before 33 weeks' gestation at 5-year intervals in 2000, 2005 and 2010 at Rouen University Hospital. Neonatal mortality/morbidities, ante- and neonatal treatments, and at age 2 years motor, cognitive and behavioral data were collected by standardized questionnaires.We included 536 very preterm infants. Follow-up rates at two years old were 78% in 2000, 93% in 2005 and 92% in 2010 respectively. No difference in gestational age, birthweight, neonatal mortality/morbidities was observed except a decrease in low grade subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhages. Care modifications concerned use of antenatal magnesium sulfate, breast-feeding and post-natal corticosteroid therapy. Significant improvement in motor outcome and dramatic decrease in cerebral palsy rates (12% in 2000, 6% in 2005, 1% in 2010, p<0.001 were observed, as were improvements in feeding behavior. Although a non significant difference to better psychosocial behavior was reported, there was no difference in cognitive outcome.Improvement in neuromotor outcome and behavior was reported. This could be due to multiple modifications in care: including administration of magnesium sulfate to women at risk of preterm birth, increase in breast-feeding, decrease in low grade subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhages, and decrease in post-natal corticosteroid therapy, all of which require further investigation in other studies. Extended follow-up until school age is mandatory for better detection of cognitive, learning and behavioral disorders.

  11. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life--The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne K Küpers

    Full Text Available To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors.In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains.Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%.Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

  12. Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Raquel; Rodrigues, R.; Costa, I.; Carneiro, Carlos; Cunha, M.; Duarte, A.; Faria, N.; Ferriera, F.C.; Gargate, M.J.; Julio, C.; Martins, M.L.; Nevers, Meredith; Oleastro, M.; Solo-Gabriele, H.; Verissimo, C.; Viegas, C.; Whitman, Richard L.; Brandao, J.

    2014-01-01

    Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the “Microareias 2012” workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications.

  13. Modeling enterococcus densities measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and membrane filtration using environmental conditions at four Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the summer months of 2003 and 2004 at four US Great Lakes beaches were analyzed using regression analysis to identify relationships between meteorological, physical water characteristics, and beach characterist...

  14. Microbiology and biochemistry of placer rich beach sediment: Short-term response to small scale simulated mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Das, A.; Faria, D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    In order to understand the influence of sand mining on the bacterial community of a placer rich beach ecosystem, a mechanical disturbance was simulated in Kalbadevi beach, Ratnagiri. Core samples from dune, berm, high tide, mid tide and low tide...

  15. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beachgoer’s activity at the start and end of their beach visit and the environmental factors: water and air temperature, wind speed and wave height at the study site each day. At the time, there was no notification of algal blooms; we retrospectively evaluated the presence of algal blooms using MERIS data from the Envisat-1 satellite. A total of 2840 people participated in the study over 16 study days. The majority (55%) were female, and 751 (26%) were < 18 years of age. An algal bloom was detected retrospectively by remotely sensed satellite imagery during August 16 – 24. This peak bloom period (PB) included 4 study days. During PB study days, more study participants 226/742 (31%) reported body contact with the water compared to contact 531/2098 (25%) on non-peak days. During the 4 PB days, of the environmental factors, only mean water temperature was significantly different, 250 C vs. 230 C (p<0.05) from other days.These results suggest that beachgoer body contact with water was not deterred by the presence of an algal bloom, and that interventions to actively discourage water contact during a bloom are needed to reduce exposure to blooms. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and

  16. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  17. Nutritional advice in older patients at risk of malnutrition during treatment for chemotherapy: a two-year randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Bourdel-Marchasson

    Full Text Available We tested the effect of dietary advice dedicated to increase intake in older patients at risk for malnutrition during chemotherapy, versus usual care, on one-year mortality.We conducted a multicentre, open-label interventional, stratified (centre, parallel randomised controlled trial, with a 1∶1 ratio, with two-year follow-up. Patients were aged 70 years or older treated with chemotherapy for solid tumour and at risk of malnutrition (MNA, Mini Nutritional Assessment 17-23.5. Intervention consisted of diet counselling with the aim of achieving an energy intake of 30 kCal/kg body weight/d and 1.2 g protein/kg/d, by face-to-face discussion targeting the main nutritional symptoms, compared to usual care. Interviews were performed 6 times during the chemotherapy sessions for 3 to 6 months. The primary endpoint was 1-year mortality and secondary endpoints were 2-year mortality, toxicities and chemotherapy outcomes.Between April 2007 and March 2010 we randomised 341 patients and 336 were analysed: mean (standard deviation age of 78.0 y (4·9, 51.2% male, mean MNA 20.2 (2.1. Distribution of cancer types was similar in the two groups; the most frequent were colon (22.4%, lymphoma (14.9%, lung (10.4%, and pancreas (17.0%. Both groups increased their dietary intake, but to a larger extent with intervention (p<0.01. At the second visit, the energy target was achieved in 57 (40.4% patients and the protein target in 66 (46.8% with the intervention compared respectively to 13 (13.5% and 20 (20.8% in the controls. Death occurred during the first year in 143 patients (42.56%, without difference according to the intervention (p = 0.79. No difference in nutritional status changes was found. Response to chemotherapy was also similar between the groups.Early dietary counselling was efficient in increasing intake but had no beneficial effect on mortality or secondary outcomes. Cancer cachexia antianabolism may explain this lack of effect.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  18. Aerosol mass and black carbon concentrations, two year-round observations at NCO-P (5079 m, Southern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marinoni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol mass and the absorbing fraction are important variables, needed to constrain the role of atmospheric particles in the Earth radiation budget, both directly and indirectly through CCN activation. In particular, their monitoring in remote areas and mountain sites is essential for determining source regions, elucidating the mechanisms of long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants, and validating regional and global models. Since March 2006, aerosol mass and black carbon concentration have been monitored at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid, a permanent high-altitude research station located in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. below Mt. Everest. The first two-year averages of PM1 and PM1-10 mass were 1.94 μg m−3 and 1.88 μg m−3, with standard deviations of 3.90 μg m−3 and 4.45 μg m−3, respectively, while the black carbon concentration average is 160.5 ng m−3, with a standard deviation of 296.1 ng m−3. Both aerosol mass and black carbon show well defined annual cycles, with a maximum during the pre-monsoon season and a minimum during the monsoon. They also display a typical diurnal cycle during all the seasons, with the lowest particle concentration recorded during the night, and a considerable increase during the afternoon, revealing the major role played by thermal winds in influencing the behaviour of atmospheric compounds over the high Himalayas. The aerosol concentration is subject to high variability: in fact, as well as frequent "background conditions" (55% of the time when BC concentrations are mainly below 100 ng m−3, concentrations up to 5 μg m−3 are reached during some episodes (a few days every year in the pre-monsoon seasons. The variability of PM and BC is the result of both short-term changes due to thermal wind development in the valley, and long-range transport/synoptic circulation. At

  19. Aerosol mass and black carbon concentrations, a two year record at NCO-P (5079 m, Southern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marinoni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol mass and the absorbing fraction are important variables, needed to constrain the role of atmospheric particles in the Earth radiation budget, both directly and indirectly through CCN activation. In particular, their monitoring in remote areas and mountain sites is essential for determining source regions, elucidating the mechanisms of long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants, and validating regional and global models. Since March 2006, aerosol mass and black carbon concentration have been monitored at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid, a permanent high-altitude research station located in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. below Mt. Everest. The first two-year averages of PM1 and PM1−10 mass were 1.94 μg m−3 and 1.88 μg m−3, with standard deviations of 3.90 μg m−3 and 4.45 μg m−3, respectively, while the black carbon concentration average is 160.5 ng m−3, with a standard deviation of 296.1 ng m−3. Both aerosol mass and black carbon show well defined annual cycles, with a maximum during the pre-monsoon season and a minimum during the monsoon. They also display a typical diurnal cycle during all the seasons, with the lowest particle concentration recorded during the night, and a considerable increase during the afternoon, revealing the major role played by thermal winds in influencing the behaviour of atmospheric compounds over the high Himalayas. The aerosol concentration is subject to high variability: in fact, as well as frequent "background conditions" (55% of the time when BC concentrations are mainly below 100 ng m−3, concentrations up to 5 μg m−3 are reached during some episodes (a few days every year in the pre-monsoon seasons. The variability of PM and BC is the result of both short-term changes due to thermal wind development in the valley, and long-range transport/synoptic circulation

  20. Two-year prognosis after residential treatment for patients with alcohol dependence: three chief guidelines for sobriety in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tetsuji; Negoro, Hideki; Saka, Yasuhiro; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the three chief traditional guidelines for sobriety (3CGS) are regular medical checkups, participation in self-help groups, and pharmacotherapy with antidipsotropics. However, the official record of the origins of 3CGS is not clear. The aim of this current study was to assess 3CGS by an examination of the prognosis of patients with alcohol dependence 2 years after their discharge from a residential treatment program. Subjects and methods The association between subjects’ abstinence from alcohol and their regular medical checkups, participation in self-help groups, and treatment with antidipsotropics were prospectively examined. Two years after discharge, the relationship between the 3CGS compliance and abstinence rates was investigated as the primary outcome. In addition, the following were examined as secondary outcomes: the time taken till the first drink after discharge, whether the participants were readmitted to residential treatment, the number of days to readmission, the number of heavy drinking days, and recovery. Results A total of 98 patients participated. The perfect and partial abstinence rates for patients who followed all the principles of 3CGS were significantly higher than those for patients who followed no guidelines (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The perfect abstinence rates for patients who had continued attending checkup sessions (P<0.001) and who were taking antidipsotropics (P<0.05) were significantly higher than those for patients who did not follow these components of 3CGS. However, the perfect abstinence rates were not higher for patients who had continued to participate in self-help groups. In addition, the perfect abstinence rate was statistically associated with regular medical checkups (adjusted odds ratio =5.33, 95% confidence interval =1.35–21.0) and participation in self-help groups (adjusted odds ratio =3.79, 95% confidence interval =1.17–12.3). Conclusion This study, reports the effectiveness of 3CGS