WorldWideScience

Sample records for beach transit two-year

  1. Two year study of swash zone suprabenthos of two Galician beaches (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Madrid, Rubén; Martínez-Vázquez, Juan M.; Viéitez, José M.; Junoy, Juan

    2013-10-01

    The suprabenthos is considered a major food resource for some fish and birds. Moreover, it plays a key role in the food chain and in nutrient regeneration in the surf zone. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that regulate this fauna and the differences between the suprabenthic groups, to study the possibility of seasonal variations and to compare these results with those of other studies conducted in Europe. A study and geographical comparison was conducted of the temporal patterns of the suprabenthos in the swash zone at two sandy beaches on the NE Atlantic coast (Altar and Ladeira beaches) in the NW of Spain. The study was carried out from September 2005 to August 2007 (24 months). To study the fauna, 60 m2 was sampled monthly with a suprabenthic sledge, and a total of 101 species belonging to Peracarida and Decapoda were recorded. Total densities ranged from 0.42 ind·m- 2 to 178.75 ind·m- 2. Ladeira beach showed higher densities and species richness than Altar beach, and the biocoenosis showed a different dynamic over the 24 months and between years and locations. These results indicate that there is no clear seasonality in the dynamic of suprabenthic species, although the variance of Peracarida orders was explained in diverse degree by environmental variables. The environmental models implemented explained between 27.7% and 93.8% of the faunal data, and hydrodynamic factors and daily global irradiance were selected as the best factors to explain the temporal variations.

  2. Two-Year Institution Part-Time Nurse Faculty Experiences During Role Transition and Identity Development: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Rhoda A

    This study explored two-year institution part-time nurse faculty's perceptions of their experiences during their role transitions from nurses in clinical practice to part-time clinical instructors. Part-time nurse faculty enter academia as expert clinicians, but most have little or no training in the pedagogy of effective student learning. A phenomenological study was used to explore the faculty role transition experiences. Findings support the proposition that six participants transitioned from their expert clinician to instructor identities; however, two continue in the process. Critical to this process are relationships with individuals in their environments, past and present experiences, the incentive to learn to be better instructors, and the importance of support and training. A model emerged, Process of Role Transition and Professional Identity Formation for Part-Time Clinical Instructors at Two-Year Institutions, that is potentially useful for administrators in developing individualized orientation and professional development programs.

  3. A Strategic Enrollment Management Approach to Studying High School Student Transition to a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ye, Feifei; Pilarzyk, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This study used a strategic enrollment management (SEM) approach to studying high school students' transition to a two-year college and their initial college success. Path analyses suggested two important findings: (a) clear career choices among students, family influence, academic preparedness, and college recruitment efforts predicted earlier…

  4. 78 FR 49600 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Virginia Beach Transit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Virginia Beach Transit Extension Study, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Transit... Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) are planning to prepare an...

  5. Spatial and temporal correlation between beach and wave processes: implications for bar-berm sediment transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Saravanan, S.; Anandakumar, H.; Thanushkodi, K.; Suguna, N.; Jaya, J.

    2018-06-01

    Investigation of a beach and its wave conditions is highly requisite for understanding the physical processes in a coast. This study composes spatial and temporal correlation between beach and nearshore processes along the extensive sandy beach of Nagapattinam coast, southeast peninsular India. The data collection includes beach profile, wave data, and intertidal sediment samples for 2 years from January 2011 to January 2013. The field data revealed significant variability in beach and wave morphology during the northeast (NE) and southwest (SW) monsoon. However, the beach has been stabilized by the reworking of sediment distribution during the calm period. The changes in grain sorting and longshore sediment transport serve as a clear evidence of the sediment migration that persevered between foreshore and nearshore regions. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) were utilized to investigate the spatial and temporal linkages between beach and nearshore criterions. The outcome of the multivariate analysis unveiled that the seasonal variations in the wave climate tends to influence the bar-berm sediment transition that is discerned in the coast.

  6. Spatial and temporal correlation between beach and wave processes: implications for bar-berm sediment transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Saravanan, S.; Anandakumar, H.; Thanushkodi, K.; Suguna, N.; Jaya, J.

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of a beach and its wave conditions is highly requisite for understanding the physical processes in a coast. This study composes spatial and temporal correlation between beach and nearshore processes along the extensive sandy beach of Nagapattinam coast, southeast peninsular India. The data collection includes beach profile, wave data, and intertidal sediment samples for 2 years from January 2011 to January 2013. The field data revealed significant variability in beach and wave morphology during the northeast (NE) and southwest (SW) monsoon. However, the beach has been stabilized by the reworking of sediment distribution during the calm period. The changes in grain sorting and longshore sediment transport serve as a clear evidence of the sediment migration that persevered between foreshore and nearshore regions. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) were utilized to investigate the spatial and temporal linkages between beach and nearshore criterions. The outcome of the multivariate analysis unveiled that the seasonal variations in the wave climate tends to influence the bar-berm sediment transition that is discerned in the coast.

  7. Dual enrollment as a factor for women transitioning into STEM majors in Montana two-year colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Penny Jane

    The purpose of this non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative study was to describe the impact high school dual enrollment coursework has had on initial enrollment of women with STEM majors in Montana two-year colleges. The study was designed to find whether or not differences existed for access (initial enrollment), persistence (to third semester), and success (associate's degree, certificate, or transfer to a four-year institution within 150% of program length). The literature review highlighted the need for studies to address the issue of few women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations. One goal of dual enrollment in Montana is to ease transitions from high school to college, including underrepresented populations such as women in STEM fields. The scope of this study was to collect, organize, and interpret data to describe the effect of that effort for women enrolling in STEM majors at two-year colleges in Montana. Baseline information established the demographics of young women who participated in dual enrollment in Montana high schools during 2007-2009. Data analysis described results using attributes of gender, dual enrollment, access, persistence, and success for those enrolled in STEM fields. Results indicated more young women than young men take advantage of dual enrollment in high school and more women than men with dual-enrollment credit initially enroll in college. More men than women major in a STEM field and more men persist and graduate within the STEM fields. Data indicated that 221 students enrolled in a Montana two-year college with DE/DC credit during 2007-2009. Of those, eight women chose STEM majors, six persisted to the third semester, and two completed. It is recommended that a mixed-methods study be conducted to give a deeper level of understanding for enrollment trends and career choice. Longitudinal studies should also be conducted as dual enrollment grows within the state of Montana. Further studies

  8. The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) - Design, Trades, and Analyses Performed in a Two Year NASA Investigation of Electric Sail Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Scheider, Todd; Heaton, Andrew; Vaughn, Jason; Stone, Nobie; Wright, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Personnel from NASA's MSFC have been investigating the feasibility of an advanced propulsion system known as the Electric Sail (E-Sail) for future scientific exploration missions. This team initially won a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) award and then a two-year follow-on Phase II NIAC award in October 2015. This paper documents the findings from this three-year investigation. An Electric sail, a propellant-less propulsion system, uses solar wind ions to rapidly travel either to deep space or the inner solar system. Scientific spacecraft could reach Pluto in 5 years, or the boundary of the solar system in ten to twelve years compared to the thirty-five plus years the Voyager spacecraft took. The team's recent focuses have been: 1) Developing a Particle in Cell (PIC) numeric engineering model from MSFC's experimental data on the interaction between simulated solar wind and a charged bare wire that can be applied to a variety of missions, 2) Determining what missions could benefit from this revolutionary propulsion system, 3) Conceptualizing spacecraft designs for various tasks: to reach the solar system's edge, to orbit the sun as Heliophysics sentinels, or to examine a multitude of asteroids.

  9. The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) Design, Trades, and Analyses Performed in a Two Year NASA Investigation of Electric Sail Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2017-01-01

    The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) was one of the seven total Phase II NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) that was down-selected in 2015 for continued funding and research. In Phase I our team learned that a spacecraft propelled by an Electric Sail (E-Sail) can travel great astronomical distances, such as to the Heliopause region of the solar system (approx. 100 to 120 AU) in approximately one quarter of the time (10 years) versus the time it took the Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977 (36 years). The completed work within the Phase II NIAC funded effort builds upon the work that was done in the Phase I NIAC and is focused on: 1) Testing of plasma interaction with a charged wire in a MSFC simulated solar environment vacuum test chamber. 2) Development of a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) models that are validated in the plasma testing and used to extrapolate to the E-Sail propulsion system design. 3) Conceptual design of a Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) spacecraft developed to showcase E-Sail propulsion systems. 4) Down selection of both: a) Materials for a multi km length conductor and, b) Best configuration of the proposed conductor deployment subsystem. This paper will document the findings to date (June, 2017) of the above focused areas.

  10. Fukushima two year processing update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark S.; Mertz, Joshua [Kurion, Inc., P.O. Box 5901, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, now two years ago, the magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan earth quake, Tohoku, hit off the Fukushima coast of Japan. This was one of the most powerful earthquakes in recorded history and the most powerful one known to have hit Japan. The ensuing tsunami devastated a huge area resulting in some 25,000 persons confirmed dead or missing. The perfect storm was complete when the tsunami then found the four-reactor, Fukushima- Daiichi Nuclear Station directly in its destructive path. Some 2 million people were evacuated from a fifty mile radius of the area and evaluation and cleanup began. A tremendous effort has been made, by many nationalities, since this time to restore this damaged plant and surrounding area and to return a great deal of the residents to their homes and farm lands. While most of the outcome of this unprecedented natural and manmade disaster was negative, both in Japan and worldwide, there have been some extremely valuable lessons learned and new emergency recovery technologies and systems developed to cope with the aftermath of this disaster. This paper describes new technology developed to selectively remove radioactive materials dangerous to workers, local citizens, and the natural environment from seawater used to cool the damaged reactors at Fukushima. As always, the mother of invention is necessity. (authors)

  11. Depth-Dependent Earthquake Properties Beneath Long-Beach, CA: Implications for the Rheology at the Brittle-Ductile Transition Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbal, A.; Clayton, R. W.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Except for a few localities, seismicity along faults in southern California is generally confined to depths shallower than 15 km. Among faults hosting deep seismicity, the Newport-Inglewood Fault (NIF), which traverses the Los-Angeles basin, has an exceptionally mild surface expression and low deformation rates. Moreover, the NIF structure is not as well resolved as other, less well instrumented faults because of poor signal-to-noise ratio. Here we use data from three temporary dense seismic arrays, which were deployed for exploration purposes and contain up to several thousands of vertical geophones, to investigate the properties of deep seismicity beneath Long-Beach (LB), Compton and Santa-Fe Springs (SFS). The latter is located 15 km northeast of the NIF, presumably above a major detachment fault underthrusting the basin.Event detection is carried out using a new approach for microseismic multi-channel picking, in which downward-continued data are back-projected onto the volume beneath the arrays, and locations are derived from statistical analysis of back-projection images. Our technique reveals numerous, previously undetected events along the NIF, and confirms the presence of an active shallow structure gently dipping to the north beneath SFS. Seismicity characteristics vary along the NIF strike and dip. While LB seismicity is uncorrelated with the mapped trace of the NIF, Compton seismicity illuminates a sub-vertical fault that extends down to about 20 km. This result, along with the reported high flux of mantle Helium along the NIF (Boles et al., 2015), suggests that the NIF is deeply rooted and acts as a major conduit for mantle fluids. We find that the LB size distribution obeys the typical power-law at shallow depths, but falls off exponentially for events occurring below 20 km. Because deep seismicity occurs uniformly beneath LB, this transition is attributed to a reduction in seismic asperity density with increasing depth, consistent with a transition

  12. Curing the ‘Beach Disease’: Corruption and the Potential of Tourismled Transformation for Developing Countries and Transitional Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Papathanassis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous global growth of the tourism sector over the last decades has highlighted itspotential as a developmental strategy for developing countries and transitional economies. Theattractiveness of a tourism-led economic transformation lies in the capability of attracting foreigninvestment and generating significant income even when subjected to unfavorable infrastructural-,business-, economic- and social-conditions. Empirically, nonetheless, tourism competitiveness,potential and transformational success greatly varies between country-cases. This paper exploresand discusses a number of potential factors (Regulatory framework- and Safety/Security-relatedsuggested in tourism literature as responsible for such outcome variations. Following thequantitative/statistical analysis of multi-source combined secondary data, there is inadequatequantitative support for the factors suggested. To account for the resulting theoretical (orexplanatory gap, the role of corruption is proposed as a latent and under-researched factor for abetter understanding, exploration and implementation of tourism-led economic growth.

  13. Human Health at the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Beaches Contact Us Share LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with pollution ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. The ...

  14. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  15. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  16. Cognitive Development: Two-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Cognitive Development: Two-Year-Old Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Cognitive Development: ... Content Article Body Think back to your child’s infancy and early toddler months. That was a time when he learned ...

  17. Cassini at Saturn: The Final Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L.; Edgington, S.; Altobelli, N.

    2015-10-01

    After 11 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn, a collaboration of NASA, ESA, and ASI, continues to wow the imagination and reveal unprecedented findings. Every year Cassini produces answers to questions raised by the Voyager flybys, while at the same time posing new questions that can only be answered with a long duration mission using a flagship-class spacecraft. Here we sample a few of Cassini's discoveries from the past year and give an overview of Cassini's final two years.

  18. US Strategic Plan: two years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the two years since it issued its Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants, the US nuclear power industry says significant progress has been achieved. The plan's major points call for completing the engineering for advanced reactor designs over the next five years; identifying suitable sites for new nuclear plants; achieving stable regulatory conditions so investors can be assured of earning a fair return on financing for new plants; improving the performance of existing nuclear plants; resolving the waste problems; and improving public acceptance of nuclear power. (author)

  19. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  20. Beach Ball Coronagraph

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A precision formation flying coronagraph with an inflatable, passive ‘beach ball’ occulter has the chance to make possible the next generation of advances in coronal...

  1. National List of Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the...

  2. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  3. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  4. Summary of Annual Beach Notifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA gathers state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories. Between 1999 and...

  5. Dune recovery after storm erosion on a high-energy beach: Vougot Beach, Brittany (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanez, Serge; Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Cancouët, Romain; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Delacourt, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    On 10th March 2008, the high energy storm Johanna hit the French Atlantic coast, generating severe dune erosion on Vougot Beach (Brittany, France). In this paper, the recovery of the dune of Vougot Beach is analysed through a survey of morphological changes and hydrodynamic conditions. Data collection focused on the period immediately following storm Johanna until July 2010, i.e. over two and a half years. Results showed that the dune retreated by a maximum of almost 6 m where storm surge and wave attack were the most energetic. Dune retreat led to the creation of accommodation space for the storage of sediment by widening and elevating space between the pre- and post-storm dune toe, and reducing impacts of the storm surge. Dune recovery started in the month following the storm event and is still ongoing. It is characterised by the construction of "secondary" embryo dunes, which recovered at an average rate of 4-4.5 cm per month, although average monthly volume changes varied from - 1 to 2 m 3.m - 1 . These embryo dunes accreted due to a large aeolian sand supply from the upper tidal beach to the existing foredune. These dune-construction processes were facilitated by growth of vegetation on low-profile embryo dunes promoting backshore accretion. After more than two years of survey, the sediment budget of the beach/dune system showed that more than 10,000 m 3 has been lost by the upper tidal beach. We suggest that seaward return currents generated during the storm of 10th March 2008 are responsible for offshore sediment transport. Reconstitution of the equilibrium beach profile following the storm event may therefore have generated cross-shore sediment redistribution inducing net erosion in the tidal zone.

  6. Beach ridge sedimentology: field observation and palaeoenvironmental interpretation for Anegada Island, British Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescon, Anna Lisa; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.

    2014-05-01

    Beach ridge landforms have been observed in different environments and in settings that range from polar to tropical. Their stratigraphy and sedimentology has received a limited amount of discussion in the literature (Tamura, 2012). In coastal geomorphology a beach ridge can be seen as a transitional deposit between onshore and offshore environments. They are regarded as representing high level wave action along a coastline. In the Caribbean the origin of beach ridges has been variously attributed to one of three extreme wave events: extreme swell, extreme storm or tsunami waves. Beach ridges are arranged in beach ridge plains where there is succession of the landforms and can be several kilometres long. Beach ridge accumulation is not continuous and the coast shows alternating accretion and erosion periods. The use of beach ridges as palaeostorm archives is therefore not straightforward. The temporal continuity of beach ridge formation is being assessed on the beach ridge plains of Anegada, British Virgin Islands (Lesser Antilles). This carbonate platform surrounded by a fringing reef contains two beach ridge plains. There are more than 30 ridges in the Atlantic facing- coast and around 10 in the south, Caribbean- facing coast. The sediments of the modern beaches are dominated by the sand fraction and are 100% biogenic origin due to the isolation of Anegada from terrestrial sediment sources. The beach ridge sections have been studied in different area of Anegada beach ridge plains and present low angle seaward-dipping bedding. The sand fraction is dominant in the stratigraphy with a few intact shells. At only one site were coral pebbles deposited in association with the sand fraction. Aeolian deposits represent the upper part of the beach ridges and reflect the stabilization of the beach ridges with ongoing accretion. The sedimentology of the contemporary beach and dunes will be discussed in terms of their implications for understanding beach ridge genesis and its

  7. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  8. On the profile evolution of three artificial pebble beaches at Marina di Pisa, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the profiles of three artificial coarse-grained beaches located at Marina di Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) were monitored from April 2008 to May 2009 in order to define the response of the beaches to major storms that occurred during the study. Two beaches are similar, the third differs in length and in the level of protection, being less than half the length of the others and devoid of an offshore submerged breakwater. The work was achieved by means of accurate topographic surveys intended to reconstruct the beach profile from the backshore up to the foreshore-upper shoreface transition (step). The surveys were performed with an RTK-GPS instrument, which provided extremely precise recording of the beach. The most significant features of the beaches were tracked during each survey; in particular, the landward foot of the storm berm, the crest of the storm berm, the coastline, and the step crest were monitored. Five cross-shore transects were traced on each beach. Along these transects, any meaningful slope change was recorded to obtain accurate sections of the beach. The field datasets were processed with AutoCAD software to compare the beach profile evolution during the year-long research. The results showed a comparable evolution of the twin beaches: the resulting storm berm retreat of about 15 to 19 m is a remarkable feature considering the coarse grain size and the offshore protection. Due to the absence of the breakwater, the third beach was characterized by even higher values of recession (over 20 m), and showed hints of wave reflection-related processes after the huge, steep storm berm had been formed and grown after the high energy events. These processes were not as evident on the twin beaches. These results underline the different response of three similar protection schemes, and the importance that frequent monitoring of the beach morphology holds when it comes to coastal management issues.

  9. Migrations of sandy beach meiofauna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meiofauna at higher tide levels on a sheltered beach has been found to .... temperature of the sea water was also measured in the shallows (about 0,5 m deep). For the ... Movement was monitored over a five-hour period on the rising tide (08h30-13h30) and a ...... Distribution of sand fauna in beaches at Miami, Florida.

  10. Followership Styles at a Two-Year Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellie, Bethine J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined relationships among reported followership styles and employee demographics at one Midwestern two-year college. It replicated a study by Ghislieri, Gatti, and Cortese (2015), and provided a baseline measure of followership styles at one Midwestern two-year college. It found that conformist follower styles showed the highest…

  11. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due at least partially to long-held gender stereotypes: women are to prepare themselves for marriage and homemaking at a two-year college. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of motherhood and womanhood.…

  12. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

    2015-02-01

    Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Can persuasive and demonstrative messages to visitors reduce littering in river beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Ana M; Barberá, Iván; Renison, Daniel; Barri, Fernando R

    2016-12-01

    Littering of public areas is a significant problem worldwide. Here we evaluate the success of persuasive and demonstrative messages at reducing littering in highly visited river beaches in Argentina. We made an intervention at the beaches which consisted of a personalized verbal request asking visitors to take their litter to the waste cans (persuasive message) while they were exposed to the example of picking up the litter already left on the beach (demonstrative message). We conducted 102 observations distributed over 29 dates, two years and four beaches. Each observation consisted of three or four rounds: before the presence of visitors we cleaned the beaches, during the stay of visitors we made the intervention (once or twice) in two out of the four beaches, and early next morning we estimated the amount of litter left per beach. Litter weight ranged from 0 to 53gvisitor -1 day -1 . Littering per visitor was reduced an average of 35% due to the intervention (p=0.049). We also found differences among beaches (p=0.001), and an increase in littering with crowding (p=0.005). We show for the first time that the personalized request combined with the example of picking up litter is effective in reducing littering in a Latin American country. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers. The event is scheduled to...

  15. Two years after the storms; 2 ans apres les tempetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    This document takes stock on the power distribution repair, two years after the storms of december 1999 in France. It also presents the new organization (FIRE) developed to face such natural or accidental disasters. (A.L.B.)

  16. TTI reports on its first two years of programming | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-03-17

    Mar 17, 2011 ... During its first two years, the Think Tank Initiative has supported 52 institutions in four regions. Read the report​ to learn about our progress, our grantees, and our plans for the future.

  17. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  18. BEACH VOLUME CHANGE USING UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY SONGJUNG BEACH, KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D and beach profile (vertical 2D on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  19. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  20. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    constituents of beach rock found along Goa coast is dealt with in detail. While discussing the various views on its origin, it is emphasized that the process of cementation is chiefly controlled by ground water evaporation, inorganic precipitation and optimum...

  1. The Virginia Beach shallow ground-water study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Henry M.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionVirginia Beach is a rapidly growing city of more than 425,000 people. Sources of fresh water within the city, however, are limited. Prior to 1998, the Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department met the city's water needs by purchasing treated drinking water from the City of Norfolk. Because Norfolk had to meet its own requirements, the amount of water available to Virginia Beach was limited to about 30 million gallons per day (mgd) and even less during droughts. This water supply was supplemented with ground water from city-owned, community, and private wells. In many parts of the city, however, ground water cannot be used because of high concentrations of chloride, iron, and (or) sulfur, which give the water an unpleasant taste.In early 1998, a pipeline came on-line that can carry up to 45 mgd of water from Lake Gaston to Virginia Beach. The Gaston pipeline has alleviated concerns about water supply and quality for most residents living north of the "Green Line." These residents primarily use ground water only for small-scale domestic activities such as watering lawns, filling ponds and pools, and washing cars. City water and sewer services have been extended beyond the Green Line into the "Transition Area." Residents and businesses south of the Transition Area, however, continue to rely on ground water to meet most of their needs for potable and non-potable water. To help assure a continued, reliable supply of ground water, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department, has begun an assessment of the shallow ground-water resources underlying the City of Virginia Beach.

  2. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  3. Psychological distress two years after diagnosis of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleiker, E M; Pouwer, F; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2000-01-01

    The present prospective study aimed at (1) investigating the frequency of high levels of psychological distress in women with early-stage breast cancer almost two years after diagnosis and (2) identifying characteristics associated with long-term distress. One hundred and seventy women participated...... of surgery). At the second measurement, subjective distress was assessed for a second time by means of the Impact of Events Scale (IES). Almost two years after diagnosis, 16% of the women reported a high level of psychological distress as measured by the Intrusion scale (IES). Best predictors of a high level...

  4. Popham Beach, Maine: An example of engineering activity that saved beach property without harming the beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joseph T.

    2013-10-01

    Beach and property erosion on coasts is a widespread and chronic problem. Historical approaches to this issue, including seawalls and sand replenishment, are often inappropriate or too expensive. In Maine, seawalls were banned in 1983 and replenishment is too costly to employ. Replacement of storm-damaged buildings is also not allowed, and a precedent case on Popham Beach, Maine required that the owner remove an unpermitted building from a site where an earlier structure was damaged. When the most popular park in Maine, Popham Beach State Park, experienced inlet associated erosion that threatened park infrastructure (a bathhouse), temporary measures were all that the law allowed. Because it was clear that the inlet channel causing the erosion would eventually change course, the state opted to erect a temporary seawall with fallen trees at the site. This may or may not have slowed the erosion temporarily, but reassured the public that "something was being done". Once a storm cut a new tidal inlet channel and closed off the old one, tidal water still entered the former channel and continued to threaten the bathhouse. To ultimately save the property, beach scraping was employed. Sand was scraped from the lower beach to construct a sand berm that deflected the tidal current away from the endangered property. This action created enough time for natural processes to drive the remains of the former spit onto the beach and widen it significantly. Whereas many examples of engineering practices exist that endanger instead of saving beaches, this example is one of an appropriate engineering effort to rescue unwisely located beach-front property.

  5. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…

  6. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  7. The Social Science Curriculum of the Two-Year College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Describes a nationwide study to identify: (1) the representation of different areas within the social sciences (i.e. anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, social/ethnic studies, sociology, and interdisciplinary social sciences) in the two-year college curriculum, and (2) which courses were offered for transfer,…

  8. Prevalence of active trachoma two years after control activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of TF/TI showed significant reduction (p-value <0.001) in all five districts and overall in the two regions. Conclusion: Trachoma control activities over a two-year period in two regions in Ghana had led to significant reduction in the prevalence of active disease. Integrated surveillance and active monitoring will ...

  9. Characteristics of Millennial Students at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Susanne Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the degree to which Millennial students who attend two-year colleges exhibit the characteristics of the seven Millennial generation characteristics. Howe and Strauss (2007) purport that the Millennials exhibit seven key characteristics in their behavior: Special, Sheltered, Confident, Team-oriented,…

  10. Selected Collective Bargaining Agreements of Michigan Two-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Collective bargaining agreements of 19 selected Michigan two-year colleges are presented, representing contracts in effect in 1987. Contracts for the following colleges are included: Alpena Community College, Bay de Noc Community College, Gogebic Community College, Grand Rapids Junior College, Kalamazoo Valley Community College, Kellogg Community…

  11. [Information About New Mexico Two-Year Colleges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico State Board of Educational Finance, Santa Fe.

    In a collection of statistical summaries, the following information regarding New Mexico two-year colleges is presented for each institution: (1) 1977-78 average full-time faculty salaries; (2) 1975-76 unrestricted expenditures for instruction, academic support, student services, institutional support, and plant operation; (3) local district tax…

  12. Business Management Concept Areas for Two-Year Postsecondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Lee; Gentry, Eileen

    1978-01-01

    A core of educational concepts in business ownership and management for two-year postsecondary institutions is outlined: economic systems, economic decisionmaking, organizational structure, management principles, marketing factors, accounting, legal obligations, financial structure, risk-taking and insurance, taxes, data processing, and social…

  13. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  14. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  15. Can bilingual two-year-olds code-switch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, E

    1992-10-01

    Sociolinguists have investigated language mixing as code-switching in the speech of bilingual children three years old and older. Language mixing by bilingual two-year-olds, however, has generally been interpreted in the child language literature as a sign of the child's lack of language differentiation. The present study applies perspectives from sociolinguistics to investigate the language mixing of a bilingual two-year-old acquiring Norwegian and English simultaneously in Norway. Monthly recordings of the child's spontaneous speech in interactions with her parents were made from the age of 2;0 to 2;7. An investigation into the formal aspects of the child's mixing and the context of the mixing reveals that she does differentiate her language use in contextually sensitive ways, hence that she can code-switch. This investigation stresses the need to examine more carefully the roles of dominance and context in the language mixing of young bilingual children.

  16. Periprosthetic femoral fracture within two years after total hip replacement:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thien, T. M.; Chatziagorou, G.; Garellick, G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We used the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association database to evaluate whether age, sex, preoperative diagnosis, fixation, and implant design influence the risk of revision arthroplasty due to periprosthetic fracture within two years from operation of a primary total hip replacement....... METHODS: Included in the study were 325,730 cemented femoral stems and 111,899 uncemented femoral stems inserted from 1995 to 2009. Seven frequently used stems (two cemented stems [Exeter and Lubinus SP II] and five uncemented stems [Bi-Metric, Corail, CLS Spotorno, ABG I, and ABG II]) were specifically...... studied. RESULTS: The incidence of revision at two years was low: 0.47% for uncemented stems and 0.07% for cemented stems. Uncemented stems were much more likely to have this complication (relative risk, 8.72 [95% confidence interval, 7.37 to 10.32]; p

  17. Lake Beach Monitoring Locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...

  18. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in tropical sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...

  19. Studies on beach changes at Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rao, D.P.

    Various factors controlling the coastal processes at 7.5 km long Visakhapatnam Beach were investigated in detail. Studies reveal that the depositional and erosional phases differ from place to place along this coast. Major part of the beach...

  20. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Beaches 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...

  1. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY... temporary special local regulation on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during... powerboat racing regatta. The event will be held on the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY and will feature...

  2. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, I.R.; Dekker, S.C.; Kanters, T.J.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: socalled beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand,

  3. Aeolian transport of seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica ) beach-cast to terrestrial systems

    KAUST Repository

    Jiménez, Maria A.

    2017-06-29

    The annual export of the Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) litter to adjacent beaches and coastal dunes was quantified by examining the fortnight evolution of seagrass beach-cast volume on two beaches in the NW Mediterranean (Son Real and Es Trenc, Mallorca Island, Spain) for two years and analyzing the wind speed and direction obtained from the closest Meteorological Spanish Agency surface weather stations. The decomposition stage of the deposits was examined by analyzing the total hydrolysable amino acids, its percentage distribution and derived degradation indexes. Prevalent winds exceeding 6 m s−1, the coastline morphology and type of terrestrial vegetation determine the annual dynamics of the seagrass beach-cast. In the most protected beach (Son Real) the seagrass beach-cast remained nearly stationary during the two studied years while it exhibited wide annual fluctuations in the less protected one (Es Trenc). The amounts of P. oceanica wrack washed on Son Real and Es Trenc beaches, respectively, were estimated at 309 kg DW m coastline−1 yr−1 and 1359 kg DW m coastline−1 yr−1. They supplied between 20 kg CaCO3 m coastline−1 yr−1 and 47 kg CaCO3 m coastline−1 yr−1. Between 54% (Son Real) and 70% (Es Trenc) of seagrass beach-cast, respectively accounting for 1.5 kg N m coastline−1 yr−1 and 8.6 kg N m coastline−1 yr−1, were annually exported from the beaches to adjacent dune systems. Our results reveal that Mediterranean seagrass meadows might be an important source of materials, including sand and nutrients, for adjacent terrestrial systems, able to support their functioning.

  4. Aeolian transport of seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) beach-cast to terrestrial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Maria A.; Beltran, Rafel; Traveset, Anna; Calleja, Maria Ll; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Marbà, Núria

    2017-09-01

    The annual export of the Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) litter to adjacent beaches and coastal dunes was quantified by examining the fortnight evolution of seagrass beach-cast volume on two beaches in the NW Mediterranean (Son Real and Es Trenc, Mallorca Island, Spain) for two years and analyzing the wind speed and direction obtained from the closest Meteorological Spanish Agency surface weather stations. The decomposition stage of the deposits was examined by analyzing the total hydrolysable amino acids, its percentage distribution and derived degradation indexes. Prevalent winds exceeding 6 m s-1, the coastline morphology and type of terrestrial vegetation determine the annual dynamics of the seagrass beach-cast. In the most protected beach (Son Real) the seagrass beach-cast remained nearly stationary during the two studied years while it exhibited wide annual fluctuations in the less protected one (Es Trenc). The amounts of P. oceanica wrack washed on Son Real and Es Trenc beaches, respectively, were estimated at 309 kg DW m coastline-1 yr-1 and 1359 kg DW m coastline-1 yr-1. They supplied between 20 kg CaCO3 m coastline-1 yr-1 and 47 kg CaCO3 m coastline-1 yr-1. Between 54% (Son Real) and 70% (Es Trenc) of seagrass beach-cast, respectively accounting for 1.5 kg N m coastline-1 yr-1 and 8.6 kg N m coastline-1 yr-1, were annually exported from the beaches to adjacent dune systems. Our results reveal that Mediterranean seagrass meadows might be an important source of materials, including sand and nutrients, for adjacent terrestrial systems, able to support their functioning.

  5. Aeolian transport of seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica ) beach-cast to terrestrial systems

    KAUST Repository

    Jimé nez, Maria A.; Beltran, Rafel; Traveset, Anna; Calleja, Maria Ll; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Marbà , Nú ria

    2017-01-01

    The annual export of the Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) litter to adjacent beaches and coastal dunes was quantified by examining the fortnight evolution of seagrass beach-cast volume on two beaches in the NW Mediterranean (Son Real and Es Trenc, Mallorca Island, Spain) for two years and analyzing the wind speed and direction obtained from the closest Meteorological Spanish Agency surface weather stations. The decomposition stage of the deposits was examined by analyzing the total hydrolysable amino acids, its percentage distribution and derived degradation indexes. Prevalent winds exceeding 6 m s−1, the coastline morphology and type of terrestrial vegetation determine the annual dynamics of the seagrass beach-cast. In the most protected beach (Son Real) the seagrass beach-cast remained nearly stationary during the two studied years while it exhibited wide annual fluctuations in the less protected one (Es Trenc). The amounts of P. oceanica wrack washed on Son Real and Es Trenc beaches, respectively, were estimated at 309 kg DW m coastline−1 yr−1 and 1359 kg DW m coastline−1 yr−1. They supplied between 20 kg CaCO3 m coastline−1 yr−1 and 47 kg CaCO3 m coastline−1 yr−1. Between 54% (Son Real) and 70% (Es Trenc) of seagrass beach-cast, respectively accounting for 1.5 kg N m coastline−1 yr−1 and 8.6 kg N m coastline−1 yr−1, were annually exported from the beaches to adjacent dune systems. Our results reveal that Mediterranean seagrass meadows might be an important source of materials, including sand and nutrients, for adjacent terrestrial systems, able to support their functioning.

  6. The ecology of sandy beaches in Transkei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from an ecological survey of three sandy beaches in. Transkei and from Gulu beach on the eastern Cape coast,. South Africa, are presented. Physical parameters such as beach profile, sand particle size, Eh and carbonate content, as well as abundance, composition, biomass and distribution of the macrofauna and ...

  7. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  8. The beach ridges of India: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    , and is presented in a consolidated form. Beach ridges of the east and west coast of India are grouped in thirteen-beach ridge complexes based on their association. Review indicates that the beach ridges of India are not older than the Holocene age...

  9. The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal. A.H. Dye, A. Mclachlan and T. Wooldridge. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. Data from an ecological survey of four sandy beaches on the. Natal coast of South Africa are presented. Physical para· meters such as beach profile, particle size, moisture, ...

  10. Bali beach conservation project and issues related to beach maintenance after completion of project

    OpenAIRE

    Onaka, S.; Endo, S.; Uda, T.

    2013-01-01

    Bali Island in Indonesia is a world-famous resort area, and the beaches composed of coral sand are one of the most important resources for tourism. However, serious beach erosion has occurred since the 1970s owing to the tourism development along the coastal areas. To recover previous natural sandy beaches, Bali Beach Conservation Project was undertaken by the Indonesian Government as the ODA project financed by Japan. Three seriously eroded beaches (Sanur, Nusa Dua and Kuta) with a total len...

  11. Goiania's radioactive accident - Evolutive description two years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarck, P. de; Almeida Lignelli, O.J. de; Sobrinho, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The authors lead a brief review of three patients that undergone lesions caused by ionizing radiations at the Goiania's radioactive accident, two years after. They describe the actual conditions of the skin lesions, hematologic values, sequels, diagnostic and therapeutics procedures on the follow up of this patients. They still make a comparative study between nuclear weapon's victims at Hiroshima and Nagasaki events (2 sup(nd) World War) and Goiania accident s victims. In their conclusions, the authors point out the importance in detecting early lesions, diseases or late sequels, due to radioactive expositions. (author)

  12. The A.Q. Khan case, two years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    Two years after the first public revelations on the importance of Pakistani nuclear trades, the author proposes a critical comment of the so-called A.Q. Khan case. He outlines that making A.Q. Khan the father of the Pakistani atomic bomb is exaggerated, indicates what Khan actually exported (some know-how on head militarization, and on uranium centrifugation). He identifies Khan's motivations and outlines the different situations and relationships associated with the different concerned countries (Iran, North Korea, Libya)

  13. Two years of aerosol pollution monitoring in Singapore: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, I.; Wen, X.; Ng, T.H.; Tang, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    An aerosol sampling campaign was initiated more than two years ago in Singapore. The aim was to determine the average elemental concentrations in fine and coarse aerosol fractions as well as to identify major pollution sources and their impact. For that purpose, two air samplers were employed at two different sampling locations; one sampler was a fine particulate aerosol sampler (PM2.5) located at the vicinity of a major industrial area. The other was a stacked filter unit (SFU) sampler designed for collection of fine and coarse fractions (PM2.5 and PM10) and installed in the residential area. Samples were taken typically twice a week and in several occasions daily. During the period of two years more than 700 aerosol samples were collected and analyzed using PIXE and RBS techniques. All samples were analyzed for 18 elements ranging between Na, Mg, Al, etc. up to As and Pb. Large daily and seasonal variations were found for most of the elements. These variations are attributed mainly to meteorological changes, in particular changes in wind speed and direction. On several occasions, short term sampling was performed to identify fingerprints of major pollution sources such as road traffic, refineries, as well as the rain-forest fires in neighboring countries. A summary of our findings is presented and discussed

  14. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  15. An orthopaedic geriatric rehabilitation unit: the first two years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, R; Gillespie, W J; Armour, P C; Newman, E F

    1986-08-13

    Experience of the first two years of an orthopaedic geriatric rehabilitation unit is described. There were 325 admissions comprising 271 females and 54 males. The predominant diagnosis was fracture of the proximal femur. Average length of stay in the unit was 43 days for males and 36.7 days for females. 75.9% of patients admitted from home returned there and 66.1% of patients admitted from residential care returned to similar accommodation. In the first year there was a fall of 13.5 days in the average length of stay for elderly females with proximal femoral fracture, resulting in 2175 less bed days for this diagnosis. This improvement has continued.

  16. Pulmonary Hernia in a Two-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Fine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hernia, also known as lung herniation or intercostal herniation, is best explained as the lung parenchyma protruding beyond the confines of the thoracic wall. This rare finding can be classified as congenital or acquired. Acquired pulmonary herniations are often the complication of blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest wall. This report describes a two-year-old male who fell onto a rigid post, striking his left lower chest. Imaging studies demonstrated a small pneumothorax as well as pulmonary herniation. The patient underwent a diagnostic thoracoscopy and repair of a pulmonary hernia within the 7th intercostal space without complication. In this case report, we aim to add to the limited body of existing literature on the surgical management of pulmonary hernias.

  17. ENDOSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTROPLASTY FOR OBESITY TREATMENT: TWO YEARS OF EXPERIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nava, Gontrand; Galvão, M P; Bautista-Castaño, I; Fernandez-Corbelle, J P; Trell, M; Lopez, N

    2017-01-01

    Bariatric endoscopic techniques are minimally invasive and induce gastric volume reduction to treat obesity. Aim : To evaluate endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (Apollo method) using a suturing method directed at the greater curvature, as well as the perioperative care, two year safety and weight loss. Prospective single-center study over 154 patients (108 females) using the endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty procedure under general anesthesia with overnight inpatient observation. Of the154 initial patients, 143 were available for 1-month of follow-up, 133 for 6-month, 64 for 12-month and 28 completed the 24 month assessment. Follow-up was carried out by a multidisciplinary team (nutritionist and psychologist). Outcomes evaluated were: change in BMI; change in body weight (TBWL); % of loss of initial body weight (%TBWL); % of excess body weight loss (%EWL) (segregated in > or 25% %EWL. There were no mayor adverse events intraprocedure or during the 24 months of follow-up . Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty with regular monitoring by a multidisciplinary team can be considered an effective, safe and well tolerated procedure for obesity treatment, at least for two years of follow-up. As técnicas de endoscopia bariátrica são minimamente invasivas e induzem à redução do volume gástrico para tratar a obesidade. Avaliar a gastroplastia sleeve endoscópica (método Apollo) usando um método de sutura direcionado para a grande curvatura, bem como os cuidados perioperatórios, segurança em dois anos e perda de peso. Estudo prospectivo em um único centro com 154 pacientes (108 mulheres) usando o procedimento endoscópico de gastroplastia sleeve sob anestesia geral com observação do paciente internado durante a noite. Dos 154 pacientes iniciais, 143 estiveram disponíveis para acompanhamento de um mês, 133 durante seis meses, 64 durante 12 meses e 28 completaram a avaliação de 24 meses. O acompanhamento foi realizado por equipe multidisciplinar (nutricionista e psic

  18. Two Years of Site Diversity Measurements in Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Morse, J.; Zemba, M.; Nessel, J.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA communication networks upgrade to higher frequencies, such as Ka-Band, atmospherically induced attenuation can become significant. This attenuation is caused by rain, clouds and atmospheric gases (oxygen and water vapor), with rain having the most noticeable effects. One technique to circumvent the increase in attenuation is to operate two terminals separated by a distance that exceeds the average rain cell size. The fact that rain cells are of finite size can then be exploited by rerouting the signal to the terminal with the strongest link. This technique, known as site diversity, is best suited for climates that have compact (less than 2km) and intense rain cells such as in Guam. In order to study the potential diversity gain at the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam a site test interferometer (STI) was installed in May of 2010. The STI is composed of two terminals with a 900m baseline that observe the same unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., UFO 8). The potential site diversity gain is calculated by measuring the difference in signal attenuation seen at each terminal. Over the two years of data collection the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the site diversity gain shows a better than 3 dB improvement for 90% of the time over standard operation. These results show that the use of site diversity in Guam can be very effective in combating rain fades.

  19. Two Years and Five Images of Supernova Refsdal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In 1964, Sjur Refsdal hypothesized that a supernova (SN) whose light takes multiple paths to reach us around a strong gravitational lens could be used as a highly powerful probe. For such a system, the time delays between the images of the SN should depend sensitively on the cosmic expansion rate and the distribution of matter within the lens. I will present observations of the first strongly lensed SN resolved into multiple images, which was found in near-infrared imaging taken in early November 2014 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). SN `Refsdal' appeared in an Einstein cross configuration around an early-type galaxy in the MACS J1149.6+2223 cluster (z=0.54), and its light curve and spectrum are broadly similar to those of the peculiar and well-studied SN 1987A. Models of the cluster potential predicted that the SN would reappear within two years in a different image of its spiral host galaxy (z=1.49) closer to the cluster's center. In early December 2015, we detected the new image of the SN with the HST, and we anticipate being able to measure its relative time delay with a 1-2% precision, providing a rare test of blind model predictions.

  20. Complications, Reoperations, and Nutrient Deficiencies Two Years after Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Pech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate patient outcomes and nutritional deficiencies following sleeve gastrectomy (SG during a follow-up of two years. Methods. Over a period of 56 months, all consecutive patients who underwent SG were documented in this prospective, single-center, observational study. The study endpoints included operative time, complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL. Results. From September 26, 2005 to May 28, 2009, 82 patients (female : male = 48 : 34 with a mean age of 43.3 years (range: 22–64 and a preoperative BMI of 52.5 kg/m² (range: 36.8–77.0 underwent SG. Major complications were observed in 9.8% of the patients, with 1 death. During follow up 51.2% of patients were supplemented with iron, 36.6% with zinc, 37.8% with calcium, 26.8% with vitamin D, 46.3% with vitamin B12 and 41.5% with folic acid. %EWL was 54.3, 65.3 and 62.6% after 6, 12 and 24 months. Conclusion. SG as a single step procedure is an effective bariatric intervention. Nutritional deficiencies after SG can be detected by routine nutritional screening. Our results show that Vitamin B12 supplementation should suggest routinely after SG.

  1. The Arab Spring and health: two years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Adam; Stuckler, David; Batniji, Rajaie; Ismail, Sharif; Maziak, Wasim; McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The "Arab Spring" has touched almost all countries in the Middle East and North Africa. While most attention has focused on security and political developments, there are significant consequences for population health. These include immediate problems, such as violent deaths and injuries, population displacement, and damage to essential infrastructure, but also longer term vulnerabilities not yet addressed by the political changes, including high unemployment, the low status of women, erosion of already weak welfare systems, and rising food prices. It will be important to tackle these underlying issues while not repeating the mistakes made in other countries that have undergone rapid political transition.

  2. Persistence of cow's milk allergy beyond two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A; Santos, A; Pinheiro, J A

    2010-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) epidemiology seems to be changing over time, with an increase in prevalence and persistence. Our aim was to characterise a population of children with CMA beyond two years of age, followed up in a Paediatric Allergy Clinic at the tertiary care level. Retrospective study of children with persistent CMA diagnosed from January 1997 to June 2006. Medical records were analysed regarding: clinical presentation, follow-up, treatment and acquisition of tolerance. Data analysis was performed using Excel 2007 for Windows. Seventy-nine children were included, with mean age at first symptoms of 3 months. The symptoms were immediate in 93%, with cutaneous (87.3%), gastrointestinal (55.7%) and respiratory (25.3%) manifestations. During the follow-up period, 30% developed atopic eczema, 52% asthma and 35% rhinoconjunctivitis. A family history of atopy was identified in 53%. The majority presented increased serum total IgE (376+/-723 KU/l) and positive skin prick test (SPT) to cow's milk (CM) (79%). SPT to goat's milk was positive in 2/3 of cases. Fifty-five percent had at least one accidental exposure to CM (severe reactions in 6%). During CM elimination diet, 35% were initially given an extensively hydrolysed formula, 17% a soy formula, and 48% both. By the age of 10 years, 44% of children persisted with CMA. Our population of CM allergic children presented immediate symptoms with cutaneous expression in the majority. Severe reactions were common on accidental exposure. By the age of 10 years, 44% maintained CMA, highlighting the importance of a multidisciplinary follow-up. Copyright 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-year outcomes of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Seng Yew; Yue, Wai Mun; Chen, Li-Tat John; Guo, Chang-Ming; Yeo, William; Tan, Seang-Beng

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the outcomes, fusion rates, complications, and adjacent segment degeneration associated with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). 32 men and 80 women aged 15 to 85 (mean, 57) years underwent 141 fusions (84 one-level, 27 2-level, and one 3-level) and were followed up for 24 to 76 (mean, 33) months. 92% of the patients had degenerative lumbar disease, 15 of whom had had previous lumbar surgery. Radiographic and clinical outcomes were assessed at 2 years. The short-form 36 (SF-36) health survey, visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, and the modified North American Spine Society (NASS) Low Back Pain Outcome Instrument were used. Of the 141 levels fused, 110 (78%) were fused with remodelling and trabeculae (grade I), and 31 (22%) had intact grafts but were not fully incorporated (grade II). No patient had pseudoarthroses (grade III or IV). For one-level fusions, poorer radiological fusion grades correlated with higher VAS scores for pain (p<0.01). All components of the SF-36, the VAS scores for pain, and the NASS scores improved significantly after TLIF (p<0.01), except for general health in the SF-36 (p=0.59). Improvement from postoperative 6 months to 2 years was not significant, except for physical function (p<0.01) and role function (physical) [p=0.01] in the SF-36. Two years after TLIF, 50% of the patients reported returning to full function, whereas 72% were satisfied. 26 (23%) of the patients had adjacent segment degeneration, but only 4 of them were symptomatic. TLIF is a safe and effective treatment for degenerative lumbar diseases.

  4. Complications and nutrient deficiencies two years after sleeve gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pech Nicole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this systematic study was to investigate patient outcomes and nutritional deficiencies following sleeve gastrectomy (SG during a median follow-up of two years. Methods Over a period of 56 months, all consecutive patients who underwent SG were documented in this prospective, single-center, observational study. The study endpoints included complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL. Results From September 26, 2005 to May 28, 2009, 100 patients (female: male = 59:41 with a mean age of 43.6 years (range: 22–64 and a preoperative BMI of 52.3 kg/² (range: 36–77 underwent SG. The mean operative time was 86.4 min (range: 35–275. Major complications were observed in 8.0 % of the patients. During the follow-up period, 25 patients (25.0 % underwent a second bariatric intervention (22 DS and 3 RYGBP. Out of the total 100 patients, 48 % were supplemented with iron, 33 % with zinc, 34 % with a combination of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol, 24 % with vitamin D, 42 % with vitamin B12 and 40 % with folic acid. The patients who received only a SG (n = 75 had %EWL of 53.6, 65.8 and 62.6 % after 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Conclusions SG is a highly effective bariatric intervention for morbidly obese patients. Nutritional deficiencies resulting from the procedure can be detected by routine nutritional screening. Results of the study show that Vitamin B12 supplementation should suggested routinely.

  5. Beach and Morphology Change Using Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    of Expertise. Beach profile surveys were provided by USACE Jacksonville District (SAJ), University of South Florida (USF), and Coastal Planning ...the Gulf of Mexico from Clearwater Beach in Pinellas County, FL, to Venice Beach in Sarasota County, FL (Figure 1). Active Federal projects existing...since the early 1900s. At present, most of the shoreline is considered to be urban . The coastal area is directly under the influence of past and present

  6. Beach Observations using Quadcopter Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Chung; Wang, Hsing-Yu; Fang, Hui-Ming; Hsiao, Sung-Shan; Tsai, Cheng-Han

    2017-04-01

    Beaches are the places where the interaction of the land and sea takes place, and it is under the influence of many environmental factors, including meteorological and oceanic ones. To understand the evolution or changes of beaches, it may require constant monitoring. One way to monitor the beach changes is to use optical cameras. With careful placements of ground control points, land-based optical cameras, which are inexpensive compared to other remote sensing apparatuses, can be used to survey a relatively large area in a short time. For example, we have used terrestrial optical cameras incorporated with ground control points to monitor beaches. The images from the cameras were calibrated by applying the direct linear transformation, projective transformation, and Sobel edge detector to locate the shoreline. The terrestrial optical cameras can record the beach images continuous, and the shorelines can be satisfactorily identified. However, the terrestrial cameras have some limitations. First, the camera system set a sufficiently high level so that the camera can cover the whole area that is of interest; such a location may not be available. The second limitation is that objects in the image have a different resolution, depending on the distance of objects from the cameras. To overcome these limitations, the present study tested a quadcopter equipped with a down-looking camera to record video and still images of a beach. The quadcopter can be controlled to hover at one location. However, the hovering of the quadcopter can be affected by the wind, since it is not positively anchored to a structure. Although the quadcopter has a gimbal mechanism to damp out tiny shakings of the copter, it will not completely counter movements due to the wind. In our preliminary tests, we have flown the quadcopter up to 500 m high to record 10-minnte video. We then took a 10-minute average of the video data. The averaged image of the coast was blurred because of the time duration of

  7. Topographic changes of the beach at Valiathura, Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Studies on the topography of the beach and the inshore reaches at Valiathura, near Trivandrum reveal that the beach is in a stable equilibrium and presents well defined cyclicity in accretion and erosion every year. During 1 year, the beach...

  8. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  9. Five years of beach drainage survey on a macrotidal beach (Quend-Plage, northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.

  10. Tidal flow separation at protruding beach nourishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radermacher, M.; de Schipper, M.A.; Swinkels, Cilia M.; MacMahan, Jamie; Reniers, A.J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the application of large-scale beach nourishments has been discussed, with the Sand Motor in the Netherlands as the first real-world example. Such protruding beach nourishments have an impact on tidal currents, potentially leading to tidal flow separation and the generation of tidal

  11. Morphological changes of the beaches of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Morphological variations of 2 of the major beaches of Goa have been found to be cyclic over a period of approximately 1 yr. These beaches attain their maximum sediment storage around April/May. They are then subjected to rapid rates of erosion...

  12. Differentiating experts’ anticipatory skills in beach volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; Mooren, M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants

  13. Stability and safety of Anjuna beach, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    are generally weak and the rip currents are very rare. The sweep zone is around 1.5 m in the foreshore of the beach. Investigations on beach volume indicate that sand bypasses Baga promontory and moves northward and gets locked up in the southern part of Anjuna...

  14. GIOVE-A: Two Years of Galileo Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; da Silva Curiel, A.; Rooney, E.; Sweeting, M.; Gattia, G.

    2008-08-01

    During 2007, the GIOVE-A mission has transitioned from an experimental mission into what is effectively an operational mission. The small satellite approach used in the development of the mission, and the lessons learned from this mission, are being applied in the development of SSTL's Geostationary communication satellite platform. Furthermore, ESA has also been considering the lessons learned from small low-cost, rapid-response missions such as GIOVE with a view to a new procurement approach for such "entry-level" missions. On 28 December 2005 the first satellite in the Galileo programme was launched into space. The satellite, GIOVE-A, was developed for the European Space Agency (ESA) under a contract signed in July 2003. Since January 2006 GIOVE-A has broadcast the Galileo signal enabling Europe to claim the ITU frequency filing, to qualify the Galileo payload equipment, to characterise the performance of the Galileo system and to develop ground receiving equipment. The satellite was built for a relatively low-cost, €28M, within a very rapid timescale - from contract signature to flight readiness in 28 months. In order to meet this timescale SSTL used a development approach similar to the one it uses for its range of microsatellites. Further, the GIOVE-A satellite carries many pieces of equipment from the microsatellite range integrated into a larger structure, and in-flight results with the COTS parts are now showing that these are holding up well in the harsh MEO environment. The development approach was very different from a typical ESA operational mission and formed one of the reference inputs to the "Lightsat" approach which ESA will employ on some of its future projects. The paper will cover the main results and lessons learned from the GIOVE-A mission. We will describe the small satellite approach to its development and the main lessons learned from the development phase. We will also cover the main results of the mission since launch concentrating on

  15. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  16. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    A need exists for frequent and prompt updating of shoreline positions, rates of shoreline movement, and volumetric nearshore changes. To effectively monitor and predict these beach changes, accurate measurements of beach morphology incorporating both shore-parallel and shore-normal transects are required. Although it is possible to monitor beach dynamics using land-based surveying methods, it is generally not practical to collect data of sufficient density and resolution to satisfy a three-dimensional beach-change model of long segments of the coast. The challenge to coastal scientists is to devise new beach monitoring methods that address these needs and are rapid, reliable, relatively inexpensive, and maintain or improve measurement accuracy.

  17. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... benefit LNA traffic that primarily arrives from, or departs to, the west and east of the airport. The... Beach Approach to maneuver, provide better transit to the practice areas to the west and permit straight... above. The dispersal headings vary from 030 to 160 degrees and the southern most heading would exit...

  18. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    .... Discussion of Proposed Rule On June 1, 2013, Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach... representative via VHF radio on channel 16, to request authorization. If authorization to enter, transit through... between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among...

  19. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Championship. On June 1, 2013, Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach Triathlon... VHF radio on channel 16, to request authorization. If authorization to enter, transit through, anchor... government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of...

  20. Extreme beach retreat history inferred from cut-and-fill beach deposits at Moruya, SE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T.; Woodroffe, C. D.; Oliver, T.; Cunningham, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    A sequence of beach ridges often records a `cut and fill', where the fair-weather swash accretion of beach sand is punctuated by storm erosion. The detailed chronology of the sequence is thus a clue to decipher past storm events and associated beach erosion, but has not been explored much. Here we explore the potential of such a sequence to detect past extreme retreats in Bengello Beach at Moruya, southeastern Australia. Beach monitoring since 1972 reveals that Bengello beach has shown a typical cut and fill, in which the beach retreats several tens of meters in relation to storms and recovers within a following few years. A storm event caused extreme retreat up to 50 m in 1974. Since then, no retreat exceeded 30 m. The beach monitoring highlights the sporadic nature of the prograded beach deposits; they can only be preserved as stratigraphic records during rapid beach recovery following a large retreat deeper than the beach profile envelope. Thus, ages of the preserved beach deposits roughly correspond to timings of large retreat. Optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages were determined for beach deposits at 5-10 m intervals along a shore-normal transect from the modern foredune to beach ridge 120 m inland. The most landward sample was dated as 510 yr, indicating that the net progradation rate is 0.24 m/yr, concordant with both the long- and short-term rates since the mid Holocene and 1972, respectively. Other ages show four events of retreat around 350, 180, 130 and 90 yr, and also reflect the beach scarp resulting from the 1974 event. The retreat of each event is given by the distance between the shoreline position prior to storm erosion and relevant gap in OSL age. The position of the pre-storm shoreline is estimated by assuming a constant rate of the net progradation of 0.24 m/yr, as with long- and short-term rates. The retreat of the four events is then determined as 45-55 m, similar to the 1974 event. In summary, extreme beach retreats, including that in

  1. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The middle shore is primarily occupied by cirolanids and bivalves, and hippid crabs, bivalves and amphipods dominate the lower beach. Generally, species richness increases from upper to lower beach levels. Studies carried out on exposed sandy beaches of south-central Chile (ca. 40°S) show that different beach states ...

  2. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is the public-facing query of the Program tracking, Beach Advisories, Water quality standards, and Nutrients database (PRAWN) which tracks beach closing and advisory information.

  3. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T.

    1991-01-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches

  4. Subsurface Flow and Moisture Dynamics in Response to Swash Motions: Effects of Beach Hydraulic Conductivity and Capillarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Heiss, James W.; Michael, Holly A.; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2017-12-01

    A combined field and numerical study was conducted to investigate dynamics of subsurface flow and moisture response to waves in the swash zone of a sandy beach located on Cape Henlopen, DE. A density-dependent variably saturated flow model MARUN was used to simulate subsurface flow beneath the swash zone. Values of hydraulic conductivity (K) and characteristic pore size (α, a capillary fringe property) were varied to evaluate their effects on subsurface flow and moisture dynamics in response to swash motions in beach aquifers. The site-specific modeling results were validated against spatiotemporal measurements of moisture and pore pressure in the beach. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the hydraulic conductivity and capillary fringe thickness of the beach greatly influenced groundwater flow pathways and associated transit times in the swash zone. A higher value of K enhanced swash-induced seawater infiltration into the beach, thereby resulting in a faster expansion of a wedge of high moisture content induced by swash cycles, and a flatter water table mound beneath the swash zone. In contrast, a thicker capillary fringe retained higher moisture content near the beach surface, and thus, significantly reduced the available pore space for infiltration of seawater. This attenuated wave effects on pore water flow in the unsaturated zone of the beach. Also, a thicker capillary fringe enhanced horizontal flow driven by the larger-scale hydraulic gradient caused by tides.

  5. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  6. Gone to the Beach — Using GIS to infer how people value different beaches for salt water recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating the non-market value of beaches for saltwater recreation is complex. An individual’s preference for a beach depends on their perception of beach characteristics. When choosing one beach over another, an individual balances these personal preferences with any addi...

  7. Number of Physics Faculty in Two-Year Colleges: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics in Two-Year Colleges. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Chu, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier report, ("Physics Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges," ED547610), Susan White and Raymond Chu examined physics enrollments--both the number of students and the types of classes taught--at the 1,063 two-year college campuses in the US where they believe physics is offered. This "Focus On" considers the faculty…

  8. Beach Nourishment History (1920s to 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...

  9. Measurement of biological oxygen demand sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of biological oxygen demand in a sandy beach using conventional .... counting the cells present in a sample of aged seawater and comparing this with .... This activity peaked at 71 % above the undisturbed level after 16 hours.

  10. March 1933 Long Beach, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 5 kilometers southwest of Newport Beach. Seriously affected area: 1,200 square kilometers. Damage: $40 million. Schools were among the buildings most severely...

  11. Plastics and beaches: A degrading relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, Patricia L.; Biesinger, Mark C.; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth

  12. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cerebral oxygen desaturation during beach chair position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, Annelies T.; de Hert, Stefan G.; Jacobs, Tom F.; de Wilde, Lieven F.; Wouters, Patrick F.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of ischaemic brain damage have been reported in relatively healthy patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. Unrecognised cerebral hypoperfusion may have contributed to these catastrophic events, indicating that routine anaesthesia monitoring may not suffice.

  14. The first two years of electromagnetic follow-up with advanced LIGO and Virgo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Leo P.; Price, Larry R.; Farr, Ben; Urban, Alex L.; Pankow, Chris; Downes, Tom; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Farr, Will M.; Haster, Carl-Johan; Mandel, Ilya; Sidery, Trevor; Vecchio, Alberto; Hanna, Chad; Cannon, Kipp; Graff, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We anticipate the first direct detections of gravitational waves (GWs) with Advanced LIGO and Virgo later this decade. Though this groundbreaking technical achievement will be its own reward, a still greater prize could be observations of compact binary mergers in both gravitational and electromagnetic channels simultaneously. During Advanced LIGO and Virgo's first two years of operation, 2015 through 2016, we expect the global GW detector array to improve in sensitivity and livetime and expand from two to three detectors. We model the detection rate and the sky localization accuracy for binary neutron star (BNS) mergers across this transition. We have analyzed a large, astrophysically motivated source population using real-time detection and sky localization codes and higher-latency parameter estimation codes that have been expressly built for operation in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We show that for most BNS events, the rapid sky localization, available about a minute after a detection, is as accurate as the full parameter estimation. We demonstrate that Advanced Virgo will play an important role in sky localization, even though it is anticipated to come online with only one-third as much sensitivity as the Advanced LIGO detectors. We find that the median 90% confidence region shrinks from ∼500 deg 2 in 2015 to ∼200 deg 2 in 2016. A few distinct scenarios for the first LIGO/Virgo detections emerge from our simulations.

  15. Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ou-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70 under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30 in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting.

  16. Beach Management & Analysis of Visitors’ Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Paksoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available User perceptions can become vital especially at beach preferences as cleanliness, safety and amenities are some of the apparent factors that will affect. With the awareness of probable adaptation of beach users’ demands into policy recommendations, a case study has been carried out at Black Sea Coast of İstanbul at Şile beaches. Şile has been chosen in this study purposefully as it is a touristic district of İstanbul which has aimed to earn Blue Flag award previously. Secondly, it receives high amount of visitors especially during the peak periods in weekends; as it has a very close location to the city, people are choosing here most of the time just for the day. In this research with factors about human use of beach and impacts like cleanliness and sufficiency of amenities (showers, toilets, changing cubicles, parks etc. and the number of lifeguards are studied. Regarding the findings, the researchers consequently highlight recommendations for Şile beach management which could enhance the visitor experience.

  17. Internal structure of a barrier beach as revealed by ground penetrating radar (GPR): Chesil beach, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Cassidy, Nigel J.; Pile, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    Chesil Beach (Dorset) is one of the most famous coastal landforms on the British coast. The gravel beach is over 18 km long and is separated for much of its length from land by a tidal lagoon known as The Fleet. The beach links the Isle of Portland in the east to the mainland in the west. Despite its iconic status there is little available information on its internal geometry and evolutionary history. Here we present a three-fold model for the evolution of Chesil Beach based on a series of nine ground penetrating radar (GPR) traverses located at three sites along its length at Abbotsbury, Langton Herring and at Ferry Bridge. The GPR traverses reveal a remarkably consistent picture of the internal structure of this barrier beach. The first phase of evolution involves the landward transgression of a small sand and gravel beach which closed upon the coast leading to deposition of freshwater peat between 5 and 7 k yr BP. The second evolutionary phase involves the 'bulking-out' of the beach during continued sea level rise, but in the presence of abundant gravel supplied by down-drift erosion of periglacial slope deposits. This episode of growth was associated with a series of washover fans which accumulated on the landward flank of the barrier increasing its breadth and height but without significant landward transgression of the barrier as a whole. The final phase in the evolution of Chesil Beach involves the seaward progradation of the beach crest and upper beach face associated with continued sediment abundance, but during a still-stand or slight fall in relative sea level. This phase may provide further evidence of a slight fall in relative sea level noted elsewhere along the South Coast of Britain and dated to between 1.2 and 2.4 k yr BP. Subsequently the barrier appears to have become largely inactive, except for the reworking of sediment on the beach face during storm events. The case study not only refines the evolutionary picture of Chesil Beach, but

  18. The plight of the beaches of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L.; Foteinis, S.; Kalligeris, N.; Palaiologou, A.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The coastlines of the Greece are rapidly retreating at a rate that has increased substantially in the past decade. We describe here specific examples of rapid erosion and we speculate as to the causes. In some instances, erosion is advancing at a rate of 1m/year. As in other parts of the Mediterranean, the causes are anthropogenic and include sand mining from the beaches and rivers, poor design of coastal structures that create reflection patterns that focus waves on vulnerable areas, removal of sand dunes to build roads, and coastal construction too close to shoreline. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management in Greece and antiquated legislation. We conclude that unless urgent salvage measures to protect the beaches and end sand mining and dune removal, several beaches will disappear within the next decade.

  19. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  20. Climate induced changes in beach morphology and sediment dynamics, Machilipatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    The wave climate, littoral current patterns, monthly and seasonal longshore drift rates, beach profile changes, and sediment budget of the beach sediments were determined along Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India) for the NE, SW monsoons...

  1. Beach processes between Mulgund and Shiroda, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Sanilkumar, V.; Pathak, K.C.

    Study on beach processes for an year shows seasonal changes without annual net erosion. The beaches are stable and regain the maximum profiles during February to April. Distribution of longshore current direction is not uniform along the study...

  2. The ecology of sandy beaches in southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diversity and abundance of macrofauna, beach slope and par- ticle size are analysed in ... Particular attention will be given to the distribution .of physical beach types .... hibited some evidence of phytoplankton blooms which are an important ...

  3. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  4. Through the sands of time: Beach litter trends from nine cleaned north cornish beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Andrew J R; Porter, Adam; Hembrow, Neil; Sharpe, Jolyon; Galloway, Tamara S; Lewis, Ceri

    2017-09-01

    Marine litter and its accumulation on beaches is an issue of major current concern due to its significant environmental and economic impacts. Yet our understanding of spatio-temporal trends in beach litter and the drivers of these trends are currently limited by the availability of robust long term data sets. Here we present a unique data set collected systematically once a month, every month over a six year period for nine beaches along the North Coast of Cornwall, U.K. to investigate the key drivers of beach litter in the Bude, Padstow and Porthcothan areas. Overall, an average of 0.02 litter items m -2 per month were collected during the six year study, with Bude beaches (Summerleaze, Crooklets and Widemouth) the most impacted (0.03 ± 0.004 litter items m -2 per month). The amount of litter collected each month decreased by 18% and 71% respectively for Padstow (Polzeath, Trevone and Harlyn) and Bude areas over the 6 years, possibly related to the regular cleaning, however litter increased by 120% despite this monthly cleaning effort on the Padstow area beaches. Importantly, at all nine beaches the litter was dominated by small, fragmented plastic pieces and rope fibres, which account for 32% and 17% of all litter items collected, respectively. The weathered nature of these plastics indicates they have been in the marine environment for an extended period of time. So, whilst classifying the original source of these plastics is not possible, it can be concluded they are not the result of recent public littering. This data highlights both the extent of the marine litter problem and that current efforts to reduce littering by beach users will only tackle a fraction of this litter. Such information is vital for developing effective management strategies for beach and marine litter at both regional and global levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  6. Through the sands of time: Beach litter trends from nine cleaned north cornish beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, Andrew J.R.; Porter, Adam; Hembrow, Neil; Sharpe, Jolyon; Galloway, Tamara S.; Lewis, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    Marine litter and its accumulation on beaches is an issue of major current concern due to its significant environmental and economic impacts. Yet our understanding of spatio-temporal trends in beach litter and the drivers of these trends are currently limited by the availability of robust long term data sets. Here we present a unique data set collected systematically once a month, every month over a six year period for nine beaches along the North Coast of Cornwall, U.K. to investigate the key drivers of beach litter in the Bude, Padstow and Porthcothan areas. Overall, an average of 0.02 litter items m −2 per month were collected during the six year study, with Bude beaches (Summerleaze, Crooklets and Widemouth) the most impacted (0.03 ± 0.004 litter items m −2 per month). The amount of litter collected each month decreased by 18% and 71% respectively for Padstow (Polzeath, Trevone and Harlyn) and Bude areas over the 6 years, possibly related to the regular cleaning, however litter increased by 120% despite this monthly cleaning effort on the Padstow area beaches. Importantly, at all nine beaches the litter was dominated by small, fragmented plastic pieces and rope fibres, which account for 32% and 17% of all litter items collected, respectively. The weathered nature of these plastics indicates they have been in the marine environment for an extended period of time. So, whilst classifying the original source of these plastics is not possible, it can be concluded they are not the result of recent public littering. This data highlights both the extent of the marine litter problem and that current efforts to reduce littering by beach users will only tackle a fraction of this litter. Such information is vital for developing effective management strategies for beach and marine litter at both regional and global levels. - Highlights: • Unique and systemically collected beach clean data set from 9 beaches over 6 years. • The most abundant litter items were

  7. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    beaches with rdkctive and dissip:1tive characteristics (sensu. R eprodu ced by Sabin et G atew ay u n der licen ce gran ted by th e P u blish er (dated 2009). ... beach intertidal communities WaS reviewed, (b) location of len sam.!y beaches studied in south-central Chile, imd (c) location of two sandy beaches studied on the ...

  8. Daily beach profiles and littoral environmental observations off Baga, Calangute and Miramar beaches during November-December 1999

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Raju, N.S.N.; Gowthaman, R.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    16th November-15th December 1999, are as follows: (1) daily beach profiles, (2) daily littoral environmental observations and (3) beach sediment samples for grain size distribution. Longshore sediment transport rate is estimated theoretically based...

  9. The environmental impacts of beach sport tourism events: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durban has several established beach sport events. One of the many events is the Mr Price Pro, an internationally recognised surfi ng event, which takes place during the Vodacom Beach Africa festival, held annually during the July holiday season. This article examines the environmental impact of beach tourism events by ...

  10. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. ... the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy ... of beach dynamics and depositional environment. ...... erates beach ridges and inland sediment deposits ... Waterways, Harbors and Coastal Engineering Division;.

  11. Fine particle deposition at Vainguinim tourist beach, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Jayakumar, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Ilangovan, D.

    Vainguinim Beach is a small and narrow pocket beach located on the rocky coast of Dona Paula Bay, at the estuarine front of the Zuari River in Goa, India. The beach has been widely used for recreation and swimming by a large number of tourists...

  12. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  13. Post tsunami rebuilding of beaches and the texture of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.; Sudha, V.; Sunderasen, D.

    and textural statistic studies. In view of the presence tsunami in between, the beach sand composition and texture have been drastically changed, the studies on beach re-building effort has been initiated in continuing the beach sand sample collection to 2006...

  14. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  15. Intertidal beach slope predictions compared to field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium

  16. Measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.; Verheijen, A.H.; Hoonhout, B.M.; Vos, S.E.; Cohn, Nicholas; Ruggiero, P; Aagaard, T.; Deigaard, R.; Fuhrman, D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the first results of measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes during the recently conducted SEDEX2 field experiment at Long Beach, Washington, U.S.A.. Beach erosion and sedimentation were derived using series of detailed terrestrial LIDAR measurements

  17. Physics Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics in Two-Year Colleges. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Chu, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    This "Focus On" first considers the role two-year colleges (TYCs) play in post-secondary physics education. In their 2007 Survey of Undergraduate Seniors in degree-granting physics departments, the authors asked students if they had begun their post-secondary education at a TYC. Nine percent of the physics undergraduate seniors in 2007…

  18. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  19. The Ties That Bind: Linkages among Secondary Schools, Two-Year Colleges, and Baccalaureate Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, James J.

    This document discusses the roles of secondary schools, two-year colleges, and the upper level university in the University of Wisconsin System. Because of close ties with the host communities, Wisconsin's two-year institutions are uniquely situated to function as community resources. The paper discusses the advantages of a collaborative…

  20. A Framework and Strategies for Advancing Change and Innovation in Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Christopher J.; Conrad, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding variation in institutional missions, two-year colleges are the gateway to postsecondary education for the majority of college and university students in this country. As institutions of choice for many and institutions of necessity for others, two-year institutions are constantly challenged to meet the rapidly changing needs of…

  1. Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealanTs placed as parT of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealanTs placed as parT of proximal aTraumaTic. resToraTive ... absTracT. Objective: To evaluate after two years, the survival rate of glass ionomer cement (gic) ... or symptoms of periodontal disease, and clinically the ..... saliva contamination on the bond of dentine resin-.

  2. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male…

  3. Administrative Governance and Mission of Two Year Colleges within Universities. SACE Research Report #14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, William S.

    It is estimated that over 200 two-year colleges exist within universities in the United States. In April 1987, at the annual meeting of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, the Council of Two Year Colleges within Universities was formed to better represent the issues and concerns unique to these academic institutions. In…

  4. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 and 50-301; NRC-2010-0123] FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background FPL Energy Point Beach.... Borchardt (NRC) to M. S. Fertel (Nuclear Energy Institute) dated June 4, 2009. The licensee's request for an...

  5. Alongshore variability of nourished and natural beaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Schipper, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Alongshore variability in topography (i.e. height differences in bed level along the coast) can exist on both natural and nourished beaches. An important question prior to implementation of a nourishment project is how alongshore variability is going to evolve and, related to this variability, the

  6. Erosion in the Beaches of Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, C. E.; Foteinis, S.; Voukouvalas, V.; Kalligeris, N.

    2009-04-01

    In the past decade, erosion rates for the coastlines of Greece are rapidly increasing. Many beaches on the northern coast of the island have substantially retreated, while others have disappeared or will disappear within the present or the following decade if no action is taken. For the better understanding and visualization of the current situation, specific examples of rapid erosion are described and afterwards we speculate as to the causes. We infer that, as in other parts of the Mediterranean, the causes are anthropogenic and include removal of sand dunes to build roads, sand mining from beaches and rivers, permanent building construction within the active coastal zone, on or too close to shoreline, and poor design of coastal structures. The reason behind the rapid erosion of Greece coastlines is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management and antiquated legislation. We conclude that unless urgent measures for the protection and even salvation of the beaches are taken and if the sand mining and dune removal does not stop, then several beaches will disappear within the present and the following decade.

  7. Spectral signatures for swash on reflective, intermediate and dissipative beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Michael G; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom E

    2014-01-01

    (reflective, intermediate and dissipative), with beach gradients ranging from approximately 1:6 to 1:60 exposed to offshore significant wave heights of 0.5–3.0 m. The ratio of swash energy in the short-wave (f > 0.05 Hz) to long-wave (f ... the three beach types. Swash energy at short-wave frequencies is dominant on reflective and intermediate beaches and swash at long-wave frequencies is dominant on dissipative beaches; consistent with previously reported spectral signatures for the surf zone on these beach types. The available swash spectra...

  8. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  9. Effect of beach management policies on recreational water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elizabeth A; Feng, Zhixuan; Gidley, Maribeth L; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Kumar, Naresh; Donahue, Allison G; Reniers, Adrianus J H M; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2018-04-15

    When beach water monitoring programs identify poor water quality, the causes are frequently unknown. We hypothesize that management policies play an important role in the frequency of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) exceedances (enterococci and fecal coliform) at recreational beaches. To test this hypothesis we implemented an innovative approach utilizing large amounts of monitoring data (n > 150,000 measurements per FIB) to determine associations between the frequency of contaminant exceedances and beach management practices. The large FIB database was augmented with results from a survey designed to assess management policies for 316 beaches throughout the state of Florida. The FIB and survey data were analyzed using t-tests, ANOVA, factor analysis, and linear regression. Results show that beach geomorphology (beach type) was highly associated with exceedance of regulatory standards. Low enterococci exceedances were associated with open coast beaches (n = 211) that have sparse human densities, no homeless populations, low densities of dogs and birds, bird management policies, low densities of seaweed, beach renourishment, charge access fees, employ lifeguards, without nearby marinas, and those that manage storm water. Factor analysis and a linear regression confirmed beach type as the predominant factor with secondary influences from grooming activities (including seaweed densities and beach renourishment) and beach access (including charging fees, employing lifeguards, and without nearby marinas). Our results were observable primarily because of the very large public FIB database available for analyses; similar approaches can be adopted at other beaches. The findings of this research have important policy implications because the selected beach management practices that were associated with low levels of FIB can be implemented in other parts of the US and around the world to improve recreational beach water quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Radiological assessment of beach sands of Marataizes, Espirito Santo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo R.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: raquino@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study samples of three major beaches of Marataizes (Centro Beach, Preta Beach and Cidade Nova Beach) were analyzed by high resolution gamma-spectrometry in order to determine the activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, followed by the dosimetric index assessment. Samples were collected, dried at 80 deg C for 24h sealed in 100-mL HDPE flat-bottom cylindrical flask and stored for approximately 4 weeks before counting, in order to allow the reaching of secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The gamma-ray spectra were analyzed with the InterWinner software. The {sup 226}Ra activity concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi and the {sup 232}Th activity concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi. The activity concentration of {sup 40}K was determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The activity concentrations for the studied sites are in the range from 75 to 860 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 990 to 2300 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 30 to 270 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The radium equivalent activities concentration ranged from 300 to 4200 Bqkg{sup -1}. The highest activity concentration has been determined for 'Cidade Nova' beach. The measured values for the locality of Marataizes are higher than other locations previously investigated. (author)

  11. Quasi-two-year cycle in indices of geomagnetic and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzhdina, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The spectral, amplitude and phase analysis of monthly standardized anomalies in the indices of planetary geomagnetic disturbance and Wolf numbers for the 100-year period and 18-year time ranges are carried out. There is a weak correlation between the monthly anomalies of fluctuations of the Wolf numbers and planetary indices of geomagnetic distubance manifesting quasi-two-year cyclic recurrence. There is the quasi-two-year cycle of 26 months average duration in the indices of geomagnetic disturbance and Wolf numbers. The quasi-two-year cycle is a rather wide band with the oscillation periods of 21 to 29 months having different amplitudes and phases. The quasi-two-year cycle in geomagnetism and the Wolf numbers is unstable: for 100 years of observations its components change in amplitude and phase

  12. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions from birth to two years | Yilmaz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A total of 299 infants from newborn to two years of ... dermatological disease in infants, which affects the oral feeding of the infants. Routine examination of the oral mucosa should be a part of the pediatric examination.

  13. Study on Growth Rhythm of Juveniles Cistolemmys Flavomarginata for One and Two Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin

    Growth of one and two year old Cistolemmys flavomarginata is studied. In natural temperature and under artificial feeding condition, juvenile turtles grow for 180 days in Xinyang, one year old turtle average body weight increased from 18.1 g to 54.5 g, the relative growth rate is 204.1%, the absolute growth rate is 0.21. two year old turtle average body weight increased from 46.8 g to 101.1 g, the relative growth rate is 115.98%, the absolute growth rate is 0.30. But two year old turtle growth rate is slower than that of one year old turtle. The body weight, carapace length, carapace width, plastron length, plastron width and carapace high are correlated positively to daily age. The body weight growth equations of one and two year old turtles are deduced. Compared with other reptiles, whole growth cycle is grasped systemically by the growth patterns.

  14. Revising the ACS Guidelines for Chemistry Programs in Two-Year Colleges: Shaping the Next Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, John V.; Wesemann, Jodi L.

    2008-06-01

    Much has changed since the second edition of the ACS Guidelines for Chemistry Programs in Two-Year Colleges was prepared in 1997. The roles that two-year college programs can and do play in providing access to and success in higher education are receiving more attention. Increased knowledge on how people learn, advances in technology, and demands for accountability are changing the educational landscape.

  15. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  17. Field Evaluation/Demonstration of a Multisegmented Dewatering System for Accreting Beach Sand in a High-Wave-Energy Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, William

    1998-01-01

    This study documents the use of beach dewatering systems to accrete beach sand and minimize erosion, and to develop quantitative guidance for constructing and operating beach dewatering installations...

  18. Mauritius: A journey from beach to laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.

    and fun-filled sunny golden beach-centered tourism. However, despite having an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) thousand times its landmass, the ocean based economic activities contributing to the Gross National Product of Mauritius have been... and necessary legislation for conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity and its Exclusive Economic Zone (in yellow) of the Republic of Mauritius 79 components. Setting up of an integrated coastal zone management framework involving impact...

  19. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Minal Joshi,1 Ruth Cheng,2 Hattiyangadi Kamath,1 Joel Yarmush1 1Department of Anesthesiology, New York Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2School of Medicine, St. George’s University, Grenada, West Indies Abstract: Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently. Keywords: neuropraxia, anesthesia, arthroscopy, great auricular nerve

  20. Intensified coastal development behind nourished beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-04-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.

  1. Internal wave turbulence near a Texel beach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Haren

    Full Text Available A summer bather entering a calm sea from the beach may sense alternating warm and cold water. This can be felt when moving forward into the sea ('vertically homogeneous' and 'horizontally different', but also when standing still between one's feet and body ('vertically different'. On a calm summer-day, an array of high-precision sensors has measured fast temperature-changes up to 1 °C near a Texel-island (NL beach. The measurements show that sensed variations are in fact internal waves, fronts and turbulence, supported in part by vertical stable stratification in density (temperature. Such motions are common in the deep ocean, but generally not in shallow seas where turbulent mixing is expected strong enough to homogenize. The internal beach-waves have amplitudes ten-times larger than those of the small surface wind waves. Quantifying their turbulent mixing gives diffusivity estimates of 10(-4-10(-3 m(2 s(-1, which are larger than found in open-ocean but smaller than wave breaking above deep sloping topography.

  2. NEW TWO-YEAR RESTRICTION APPLICABLE TO VEHICLES REGISTERED IN THE FRENCH'431 K' AND '431 CD' SERIES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has recently informed CERN that, with effect from 1st January 2002, owners of vehicles registered in the '431 K' and '431 CD' special series will not be able to change them for other vehicles in these series until two years have elapsed. The Ministry has also reminded us that members of the personnel with diplomatic status who are neither French nor permanent residents are entitled to register one vehicle in the '431 CD' series if they are single and two if they are married. However, irrespective of their marital status, members of the personnel holding an FI or AT carte spéciale, may register only one vehicle in the '431 K' series. CERN has requested the Ministry to clarify certain issues relating to the above and to arrange a transition period for the two-year restriction. Further information on this subject will be published shortly. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  3. Recreational impacts on Colorado River beaches in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Steven W.; Johnson, Robert A.; Dolan, Robert

    1984-07-01

    Recreational impact was measured on eight beaches in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and 15 beaches in Grand Canyon National Park using permanently located transects and plots. Recreational impact indices included densities of human trash and charcoal and a measure of sand discoloration due to charcoal. Significant increases in the indices occurred on several Glen Canyon beaches over a seven-month period. Sand discoloration became significantly higher over all Glen Canyon beaches during the same time period. All indices were significantly higher in Glen Canyon than on similar Grand Canyon beaches. These differences are probably due to differences in: (a) level of impacts tolerated by the respective management regimes and, (b) in the number of user days among the two National Park Service administrative units. Management alternatives are presented for reversing the present trends of recreational impact on Glen Canyon beaches.

  4. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Newton

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls. Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise

  6. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    U.D. Chavan; R. Amarowicz; F. Shahidi

    2013-01-01

    Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions) that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach...

  7. Storm Impact Assessment for Beaches at Panama City, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Panama City Beaches, and they contain a wide variety of beach homes, condominiums, hotels, small commercial tourism - based enterprises, and resorts. The...exam Mexico Beach T O2.5 miles MaVO Ma KLLT GUL F OF MEXI CO Erosion Area No. 5I C EWoM Crooked Island 4.2 miles ECT Erosion Area No. 4 BAY Lwcmca.n

  8. A statewide consortium's adoption of a unified nursing curriculum: evaluation of the first two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Alice M; Niederhauser, Victoria; Steffen, John J; Magnussen, Lois; Morrisette, Nova; Polokoff, Rachael; Chock, Johnelle

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an evaluation of the first two years of implementation of a statewide nursing consortium (SNC) curriculum on nursing faculty work life, teaching productivity, and quality of education. In response to the call for nursing education reform, the SNC incorporated new approaches to competency-based, student-centered learning and clinical education. Faculty and two cohorts of students were measured at three points over the first two years of the curriculum implementation. The expected positive impact of the SNC was documented at the start of the first year, but not sustained. Students reported having more confidence in their clinical skills at the start of the first year, yet demonstrated significantly less confidence in their ability after two years. Faculty indicated that the SNC allowed greater opportunity for collaboration, but that the experience did not alter their classroom performance or satisfaction beyond the first year.

  9. Chenang Beach and its Crowding Capacity: A Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This working paper focuses in enjoyment factors, specifically: number of beach users, perceived maximum number of beach users accepted, perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the tourism experience and perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the beach quality. At a deeper extent, the evaluation is categorized by number of visitation, visitation motivations, and Chenang Island’s push and pull factors. Relationships between variables were assessed using a two-phase evaluation framework where interestingly, only one demographic factor works with all the studied independent variables. It is also learned that the density of an area number of people seen is considered as a n accepted crowding factor, as opposed to this working paper scope experienced crowding . A unique relationship was observed for crowding level, and visitation satisfaction level and overall evaluation of Chenang beach quality. This working paper further supports the previous literature on the significance of beach carrying capacity management and it is learned that the idea of crowding standard is interlinks with ‘gender, ‘time spend’ and ‘number of boaters’. From findings, this working paper envisages the preferences polar exchange where this should be of interest to tourism-related personnel. It is within this working paper interest to highlight the pressing need in brandishing the image of Chenang Beach. This is to ensure that Chenang Beach, as a field, is maintaining its importance and popularity.

  10. Exploring the social dimension of sandy beaches through predictive modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Tejo, Elianny; Metternicht, Graciela; Johnston, Emma L; Hedge, Luke

    2018-05-15

    Sandy beaches are unique ecosystems increasingly exposed to human-induced pressures. Consistent with emerging frameworks promoting this holistic approach towards beach management, is the need to improve the integration of social data into management practices. This paper aims to increase understanding of links between demographics and community values and preferred beach activities, as key components of the social dimension of the beach environment. A mixed method approach was adopted to elucidate users' opinions on beach preferences and community values through a survey carried out in Manly Local Government Area in Sydney Harbour, Australia. A proposed conceptual model was used to frame demographic models (using age, education, employment, household income and residence status) as predictors of these two community responses. All possible regression-model combinations were compared using Akaike's information criterion. Best models were then used to calculate quantitative likelihoods of the responses, presented as heat maps. Findings concur with international research indicating the relevance of social and restful activities as important social links between the community and the beach environment. Participant's age was a significant variable in the four predictive models. The use of predictive models informed by demographics could potentially increase our understanding of interactions between the social and ecological systems of the beach environment, as a prelude to integrated beach management approaches. The research represents a practical demonstration of how demographic predictive models could support proactive approaches to beach management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperspectral image classifier based on beach spectral feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhang; Lianru, Gao; Bing, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The seashore, especially coral bank, is sensitive to human activities and environmental changes. A multispectral image, with coarse spectral resolution, is inadaptable for identify subtle spectral distinctions between various beaches. To the contrary, hyperspectral image with narrow and consecutive channels increases our capability to retrieve minor spectral features which is suit for identification and classification of surface materials on the shore. Herein, this paper used airborne hyperspectral data, in addition to ground spectral data to study the beaches in Qingdao. The image data first went through image pretreatment to deal with the disturbance of noise, radiation inconsistence and distortion. In succession, the reflection spectrum, the derivative spectrum and the spectral absorption features of the beach surface were inspected in search of diagnostic features. Hence, spectra indices specific for the unique environment of seashore were developed. According to expert decisions based on image spectrums, the beaches are ultimately classified into sand beach, rock beach, vegetation beach, mud beach, bare land and water. In situ surveying reflection spectrum from GER1500 field spectrometer validated the classification production. In conclusion, the classification approach under expert decision based on feature spectrum is proved to be feasible for beaches

  12. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  13. Beach changes at Visakhapatnam due to the cyclone of May 1979

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, B.P.

    The impact of the May, 1979 cyclonic storm on Visakhapatnam beach, India and the observations made on beach profiles, waves and littoral currents prior to and during the storm are discussed. In general, at Visakhapatnam beach accretion trend starts...

  14. Wave refraction in relation to beach stability along the coast from Cape Ramas to Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gouveia, A.D.; Joseph, P.S.; Kurup, P.G.

    Results of wave refraction and beach profile studies are presented for a stretch of 35 km shore line comprising of Loliem Beach, Karwar, Karnataka, India which is separated by rock promontories from comparatively stable beaches on either side of it...

  15. Transaldolase deficiency in a two-year-old boy with cirrhosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, M.M.; Struijs, E.A.; Salomons, G.S.; Fowler, D.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Clayton, P.T.

    2008-01-01

    Transaldolase (TALDO) deficiency is a rare inborn error of the pentose phosphate pathway. We report the clinical presentation and laboratory findings of a new patient with TALDO deficiency. The two-year-old Arabic boy presented with neonatal onset of anemia and thrombocytopenia, tubulopathy, and

  16. The Fermi GBM Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog: The First Two Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paciesas, W.S.; Meegan, C.A.; von Kienlin, A.; Bhat, P.N.; Bissaldi, E.; Briggs, M.S.; M. Burgess, J.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Diehl, R.; Fishman, G.J.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; H. Gibby, M.; Giles, M.; Goldstein, A.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; Kippen, R.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lichti, G.; Lin, L.; McBreen, S.; Preece, R.D.; Rau, A.; Tierney, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is designed to enhance the scientific return from Fermi in studying gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In its first two years of operation GBM triggered on 491 GRBs. We summarize the criteria used for triggering and quantify the general characteristics of the triggered

  17. Bypass iliac-mesenteric-cava inpatients under two years of age. Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva López Noé

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the treatment of portal hypertension in pediatric patients, some type of porto-systemic shunt is indicated, which is an unusual surgical procedure in patients under two years of age, due to the low incidence of this disease at this age and the increase in the number of complications. Objective: We present our experience and results with this procedure in patients under two years of age seen in the Hepatobiliopancreatic general surgery service at Instituto Nacional de PediatríaDiscussion: The causes of portal hypertension in children are varied. Among the extrahepatic causes, the most common is cavernomatous portal degeneration. Children with portal hypertension under two years have severe symptoms such as recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia; others have hypersplenism data. In many cases medical management is useless and a surgical procedure require such as a portosystemic shunt in order to decrease the size of varicose esophageal veins and prevent bleeding that threatens the patient’s life. Conclusion: The iliac-mesenteric-caval shunt in patients under two years is a feasible alternative that improves the clinical status of the patient, reducing the risk of bleeding. However long-term studies are needed to determine the outcome of these patients. Keywords: Iliac-mesenteric-caval shunt, portal hypertension.

  18. Assessing the nutritional information for children younger than two years old available on popular websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele da Silva Gomes Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze whether the information found on popular Internet sites are in accordance with the steps recommended by the Food Guide for Children Younger than Two Years of the Ministry of Health (2010. Methods: Descriptive/comparative study, carried out between August and October 2014, which carried out a search for popular sites (for lay people in Portuguese, containing information on nutrition of children younger than two years. The Google search engine was used. These findings were compared with the Food Guide for Children Younger than Two Years of the Ministry of Health (2010. It was verified whether the information shown on the websites was in accordance with the Guide. Results: A total of 50 sites were analyzed, including blogs, food company websites and websites specialized in child nutrition. Only 10% of those pages correctly showed every step of the Food Guide. The recommendations were: exclusive breastfeeding up to six months of life (80%; complementary feeding from six months of life (36%; baby food consistency according to the guide (48%; encouraging the consumption of fruits and vegetables daily (60%. Regarding the complementary feeding safety and hygiene, 26% contained correct information. Only 36% correctly warned about which foods should be avoided in the first years of life. Conclusions: The information found on the sites is largely in disagreement with the Ministry of Health recommendations, which can lead to misconceptions in the nutritional care of the children younger than two years.

  19. Where to Attend? Estimating the Effects of Beginning College at a Two-Year Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. Lockwood

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges are an important part of the higher education system in the United States but there are concerns as to how attendance at these institutions affects educational attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper uses data from a nationally representative survey to examine the impact of students beginning their college career at a…

  20. Evolution of Costs of Inflammatory Bowel Disease over Two Years of Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, M. van der; Mangen, M.J.; Severs, M.; Have, M. van der; Dijkstra, G.; Bodegraven, A.A. van; Fidder, H.H.; Jong, D.J. de; Woude, C.J. van der; Romberg-Camps, M.J.; Clemens, C.H.; Jansen, J.M.; Meeberg, P.C. van de; Mahmmod, N.; Meulen-de Jong, A.E. van der; Ponsioen, C.Y.; Bolwerk, C.; Vermeijden, J.R.; Siersema, P.D.; Leenders, M.; Oldenburg, B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of anti-TNF therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a shift of costs has been observed with medication costs replacing hospitalization and surgery as major cost driver. We aimed to explore the evolution of IBD-related costs over two years of follow-up.

  1. Evolution of Costs of Inflammatory Bowel Disease over Two Years of Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, Mirthe E.; Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Severs, Mirjam; van der Have, Mike; Dijkstra, Gerard; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; Fidder, Herma H.; de Jong, Dirk J.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; Romberg-Camps, Marielle J. L.; Clemens, Cees H. M.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; de Meeberg, Paul C. van; Mahmmod, Nofel; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Bolwerk, Clemens; Vermeijden, J. Reinoud; Siersema, Peter D.; Leenders, Max; Oldenburg, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Background With the increasing use of anti-TNF therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a shift of costs has been observed with medication costs replacing hospitalization and surgery as major cost driver. We aimed to explore the evolution of IBD-related costs over two years of follow-up. Methods

  2. Evolution of Costs of Inflammatory Bowel Disease over Two Years of Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, Mirthe E.; Mangen, Marie-Josée J.; Severs, Mirjam; van der Have, Mike; Dijkstra, Gerard; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; Fidder, Herma H.; de Jong, Dirk J.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; Romberg-Camps, Mariëlle J. L.; Clemens, Cees H. M.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; van de Meeberg, Paul C.; Mahmmod, Nofel; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Bolwerk, Clemens; Vermeijden, J. Reinoud; Siersema, Peter D.; Leenders, Max; Oldenburg, Bas

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing use of anti-TNF therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a shift of costs has been observed with medication costs replacing hospitalization and surgery as major cost driver. We aimed to explore the evolution of IBD-related costs over two years of follow-up. In total 1,307

  3. Evolution of costs of inflammatory bowel disease over two years of follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van der Valk (Mirthe); M.J.J. Mangen; M. Severs; M. van der Have (Mike); G. Dijkstra (Gerard); A.A. van Bodegraven (Ad); M. Fidder (Melissa); D.J. De Jong (Dirk J.); C.J. van der Woude (Janneke); M. Romberg-Camps (Mariëlle); P.R. Clemens (Paula ); J.M. Jansen (Jeroen); P.C. van de Meeberg (Paul); N. Mahmmod (Nofel); A.E. van der Meulen-de Jong (Andrea); C.Y. Ponsioen (Cyril); C.L. Bolwerk (Clemens); J.R. Vermeijden (J. Reinoud); P.D. Siersema (Peter); M. Leenders (Max); B. Oldenburg (Bas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: With the increasing use of anti-TNF therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a shift of costs has been observed with medication costs replacing hospitalization and surgery as major cost driver. We aimed to explore the evolution of IBD-related costs over two years of

  4. Determining the Numeracy and Algebra Errors of Students in a Two-Year Vocational School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the mathematics achievement level in basic numeracy and algebra concepts of students in a two-year program in a technical vocational school of higher education and determine the errors that they make in these topics. The researcher developed a diagnostic mathematics achievement test related to numeracy and…

  5. Old Premises and Old Promises: Contemporary Critical Theory and Teaching at the Two-Year College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Norman P.

    One composition teacher's experiences with the pluralistic student body of a two-year college led him to question the value of higher education, in particular writing and literature. Most current literature teachers were trained in the principles and methods of New Criticism, and most have found that these approaches are not adequate for their…

  6. Hydroxychloroquine treatment for primary Sjögren's syndrome: a two year double blind crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruize, A. A.; Hené, R. J.; Kallenberg, C. G.; van Bijsterveld, O. P.; van der Heide, A.; Kater, L.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    In 1985 and 1988 a positive effect of treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome with hydroxychloroquine was reported in two small open studies. To investigate further the clinical and laboratory effects of hydroxychloroquine in primary Sjögren's syndrome a two year study was performed. The design of

  7. Interview with Brian Kotz: Data Science at Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Kotz, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Brian Kotz is Professor of Mathematics and Statistics at Montgomery College. He is a former member of the American Statistical Association/American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges (ASA)/(AMATYC) Joint Committee and the current chair of the AMATYC Data Science Subcommittee. This interview took place via email on November 23,…

  8. In-place cement stabilized base reconstruction techniques interim report : "construction and two year evaluation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of soil cement shrinkage crack mitigation techniques. The contents of this report reflect an evaluation of the construction of the test sections and a two-year evaluation of the test sect...

  9. A Survey of Speech Education in United States Two-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck, Carolyn Roberts

    The status of speech education in all United States two-year colleges is discussed. Both public and private schools are examined. Two separate studies were conducted, each utilizing the same procedure. The specific aspects with which the research was concerned were: (1) availability of speech courses, (2) departmentalization of speech courses, (3)…

  10. Two-year results of femtosecond assisted LASIK versus PRK for different severity of astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Miraftab

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: Our results pointed to better two-year results with femto-LASIK in the treatment of different degrees of astigmatism. UDVA improvement was superior with femto-LASIK, but the two methods did not significantly differ in terms of CDVA improvement.

  11. Aetiological Agents of Ear Discharge: A Two year Review in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 48, No 2 (2014) > ... Methodology: This was a retrospective review of laboratory records of all ear swabs submitted for culture over a two year ... Data was obtained on demographic characteristics of patients, clinical ... of the discharging ear was Pseudomonas spp followed by Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Two Years into the Journey: AACSB Assessment of Learning in a "Principles of Marketing" Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Steven R.; Marco, Gayle; Chu, Yun

    2009-01-01

    Using a "Principles of Marketing" course, the authors demonstrate how compliance with AACSB standards and assessment of learning has been undertaken at Robert Morris University over a two-year period. Learning goals and objectives are tied to a specific assessment instrument to provide an illustration of how broad conceptual ideas are…

  13. Institutional Researchers' Use of Qualitative Research Methods for Institutional Accountability at Two Year Colleges in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Bishar M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined institutional researchers' use of qualitative methods to document institutional accountability and effectiveness at two-year colleges in Texas. Participants were Institutional Research and Effectiveness personnel. Data were collected through a survey consisting of closed and open ended questions which was administered…

  14. Provision of Educational Supports to Students with Disabilities in Two-year Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rhonda; Smith, Garnett; Harding, Tom; Stodden, Rboert A.

    2002-01-01

    A national survey of support services for students with disabilities in postsecondary institutions (n=650; 43% response) found that, despite legislative mandates, provision of accommodations, advocacy, remedial assistance, college-adjustment assistance, and career-related supports varies widely. The level of services in two-year and four-year…

  15. Where the Italian Journal of Public Health is going? A tale of the last two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Extract:

    Two years ago, speaking about the future of the Italian Journal of Public Health, we told that the reason why the journal is also an international journal (almost 40% of published papers come from outside Italy is “mainly due to our membership to EUPHA and to several scientific network”.

  16. A Call for Strategic Planning: The Two-Year College Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, David J.; Essex, Nathan, L.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses the imperative for strategic and tactical planning to support the viability of the two-year college. Describes a process for approaching strategic planning, comprising the following steps: self-identification, self-analysis, analysis of service area, informed decision making, and the development of a marketing plan. (CBC)

  17. Changing Autoerotic Attitudes and Practices among College Females: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. Kenneth, Sr.; Darling, Carol A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined effects of functional marriage and family course on female undergraduates' masturbatory attitudes and behaviors. Subjects completed questionnaires during course and two years later. Control group also completed questionnaires. Course respondents became substantially more accepting of masturbation by acquaintances and were more likely to…

  18. Omphalocele: from diagnosis to growth and development at two years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hijkoop (Annelieke); N.C.J. Peters (Nina); R.L. Lechner (Rosan); Y. van Bever (Yolande); A.P.J.M. van Gils-Frijters (Annabel); D. Tibboel (Dick); R.M.H. Wijnen (René); T.E. Cohen-Overbeek (Titia); H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective__ To compare the prenatal frame of reference of omphalocele (i.e. survival of fetuses) with that after birth (i.e. survival of liveborn neonates), and to assess physical growth and neurodevelopment in children with minor or giant omphalocele up to two years of age.

  19. Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…

  20. Cognitive performance of detoxified alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome patients remains stable over two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Esther; Brand, Matthias; Borsutzky, Sabine; Steingass, Hans-P; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2008-07-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is assumed to promote cognitive decline, eventually increasing the risk of dementia. However, little is known about the time course of cognitive functions in patients with chronic alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome (KS). Therefore, we assessed neuropsychological performance in 20 detoxified chronic KS inpatients at time 1 (T1) with a follow-up after two years (T2). The neuropsychological tests assessed verbal and visual short- and long-term memory, working memory, basic executive functions, language, general knowledge, and visual-spatial abilities. Surveys with caregivers and medical records provided information about current and previous disease-related parameters, drinking history, additional pathologies, as well as psychosocial and cognitive therapy within the two-year period. At both sessions, the majority of the KS patients' results were inferior to those of normal subjects. Comparing T1 and T2 revealed no significant decline in any of the investigated functions. Instead, general knowledge, visual long-term memory, and verbal fluency improved slightly after two years, though they still remained within pathological range. Comparing most improved and most deteriorated patients, better outcome occurred more frequently in men than women and was associated with higher premorbid education and fewer detoxifications in the past. In this sample of detoxified KS patients there was no indication of accelerated cognitive decline or onset of dementia-like symptoms over two years.

  1. Academic Life at the Franchise: Faculty Culture in a Rural Two-Year Branch Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, John R.; Strange, C. Carney

    2003-01-01

    This case study of faculty culture focused on the dynamics of a small, rural, two-year branch campus of a large state university. It reports descriptive themes concerning the isolation and rural location of the campus, its diminutive size, faculty role perspectives, and factors related to faculty role implementation. It provides a portrait of this…

  2. A Data-Driven Approach to SEM Development at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirius, Landon K.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores implementation of strategic enrollment management (SEM) at a two-year college and why SEM is critical to the long-term viability of an institution. This article also outlines the five initial steps needed to implement SEM, including identifying SEM leadership, building a SEM committee, developing a common understanding of…

  3. Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealants placed as part of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ... Results: The two-year cumulative survival of the sealants was 10.9%, and the survival of the sealants was not significantly affected by the GIC material brand and the toothisolation method used. However, slightly more sealants survived ...

  4. S. U. N. Y. Profiles of the Two-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Office of Access Services.

    Profiles of each of the six agricultural and technical colleges, 29 community colleges, and three other colleges offering two-year programs within the State University of New York (SUNY) system are presented. Tuition and other costs as well as availability of financial assistance are outlined. A description of the Educational Opportunity Program…

  5. Development of early communication skills in the first two years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuker, K.T.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Donders, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental

  6. Analyzing Four-Year Public University and Two-Year College Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.; Pierce, Rebecca L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the graduation rates between 2000 and 2015 of United States colleges and universities at the national, state, and institutional levels. This research focuses on two-year and four-year programs. Rates are investigated longitudinally along with variables that distinguish between public/private institutions, percentages of…

  7. The Wired Island: The First Two Years of Public Access To Cable Television In Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmer, David

    A review is presented of the first two years of free public access programing on New York City's cable television (CATV) systems. The report provides some background information on franchising, public access to CATV in New York City, and Federal Communications Commission regulations. It also deals with the public access programing developed; it…

  8. Two-year outcome of team-based intensive case management for patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg-Wistedt, A; Cressell, T; Lidberg, Y; Liljenberg, B; Osby, U

    1995-12-01

    Two-year outcomes of patients with schizophrenic disorders who were assigned to an intensive, team-based case management program and patients who received standard psychiatric services were assessed. The case management model featured increased staff contact time with patients, rehabilitation plans based on patients' expressed needs, and patients' attendance at team meetings where their rehabilitation plan was discussed. Forty patients were randomly assigned to either the case management group or the control group that received standard services. Patients' use of emergency and inpatient services, their quality of life, the size of their social networks, and their relatives' burden of care were assessed at assignment to the study groups and at two-year follow-up. Patients in the case management group had significantly fewer emergency visits compared with the two years before the study, and their relatives reported significantly reduced burden of care associated with relationships with psychiatric services over the two-year period. The size of patients' social networks increased for the case management group and decreased for the control group. A team-based intensive case management model is an effective intervention in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic schizophrenia.

  9. Solitary Secondary Malignant Melanoma of Clavicle Two Years after Enuclation for Ocular Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Tozum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary metastasis of uveal melanoma to bone is extremely rare and usually associated with other organ involvement. We present a rare case of an ocular melanoma patient presenting with solitary metastasis to the clavicle two years after enucleation, without any other organ involvement. In this report, we tried to present our treatment strategy for the solitary metastasis of bone.

  10. The Pros and Cons of Two-Year Versus Four-Year Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of a research survey conducted to determine what differences (job titles, income, relevance of courses, satisfaction, suitability) exist between two-year (Associate of Science) graduates and four-year (Bachelor of Science) graduates in business. Statistical tables are included. (CT)

  11. Faculty Motivation Toward Professional Improvement: A Study of Two-Year College Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Luene Holmes

    Faculty from 16 food service and hotel technology programs in New York two-year colleges were surveyed to determine the components of faculty decisions concerning participation in professional improvement activities aimed at updating knowledge, to explore the function and relationship of the components of a composite expectancy model which…

  12. Anaemia, Malaria and malnutrition in the first two years of life in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaemia, Malaria and malnutrition in the first two years of life in Nigeria. B M Afolabi, A G Mafe. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Malaria in Africa and the Tropics Vol. 1 (3) 2005: pp. 15-27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  13. Results of a Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Use among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Werch, Chudley

    2007-01-01

    This study explored beverage-specific alcohol consumption patterns among a sample of high school students over a two-year period. Four hundred fifty-five students completed the validated questionnaire at all three time points (2002, 2003, 2004). Variables of interest included five use measures (past year use, 30-day frequency, quantity, heavy use,…

  14. Radiogenic heavy minerals in Brazilian beach sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanca, A.

    1998-01-01

    Sand samples collected on the beaches of the 'radioactive' Brazilian town of Guarapari were first separated by flotation in bromoform and successively divided into various magnetic fractions with a Franz isodynamic separator. concentrations of background radionuclides in samples of monazite, ilmenite, and zircon were determined by a γ-ray spectrometer. Chemical composition of monazite, ilmenite and magnetite were assessed by means of an electron microprobe. Monazite resulted to be relatively rich in ThO 2 whose abundance ranged from 5.3 to 7.7 (wt%). (author)

  15. Airflow Dynamics over a Beach and Foredune System with Large Woody Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Grilliot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Airflow dynamics over beach-foredune systems can be complex. Although a great deal is known about the effects of topographic forcing and vegetation cover on wind-field modification, the role of large woody debris (LWD as a roughness element and modifier of boundary layer flow is relatively understudied. Individual pieces of LWD are non-porous elements that impose bluff body effects and induce secondary flow circulation that varies with size, density, and arrangement. Large assemblages of LWD are common on beaches near forested watersheds and collectively have a degree of porosity that increases aerodynamic roughness in ways that are not fully understood. A field study on a mesotidal sandy beach with a scarped foredune (Calvert Island, British Columbia, Canada shows that LWD influences flow patterns and turbulence levels. Overall mean and fluctuating energy decline as flow transitions across LWD, while mean energy is converted to turbulent energy. Such flow alterations have implications for sand transport pathways and resulting sedimentation patterns, primarily by inducing deposition within the LWD matrix.

  16. Geophysical Imaging of Sea-level Proxies in Beach-Ridge Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L.; Emerich Souza, P.; Meldgaard, A.; Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.; Clemmensen, L. B.

    2017-12-01

    We show ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data collected over modern and fossil beach deposits from different localities along coastlines in meso-tidal regimes of Greenland and micro-tidal regimes of Denmark. The acquired reflection GPR sections show several similar characteristics but also some differences. A similar characteristic is the presence of downlapping reflections, where the downlap point is interpreted to mark the transition from upper shoreface to beachface deposits and, thus, be a marker of a level close to or at sea-level at the time of deposition. Differences in grain size of the investigated beach ridge system result in different scattering characteristics of the acquired GPR data. These differences call for tailored, careful processing of the GPR data for optimal imaging of internal beach ridge architecture. We outline elements of the GPR data processing of particular importance for optimal imaging. Moreover, we discuss advantages and challenges related to using GPR-based proxies of sea-level as compared to other methods traditionally used for establishment of curves of past sea-level variation.

  17. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  18. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  19. Sand transport in urbanized beaches - models and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineiro, G.; Norbis, W.; Panario, D.

    2012-01-01

    The general objective is to quantify the wind transport of sand in the urbanized beaches. The specific objectives include testing and calibration of the wind velocity as well as the classification of the beaches according to the magnitude and the direction of sand transport

  20. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  1. Modelling wind forced bedforms on a sandy beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to conceptually simulate observed spatial and temporal variability in aeolian sediment transport rates, erosion and deposition on a beach. Traditional strategies of modeling aeolian sediment transport rates do not account for supply limitations that are common on natural beaches. A

  2. Application of GIS in Beach Placer Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in beach placer exploration combines the activities of data collection, organisation, visualisation, query, analysis and prediction. GIS has the potential to enhance the capability for creative data analysis, modelling and interpretation. Exploration software and GIS are essential tools for geoscientists searching for mineral deposits. GIS technology has come a long way in the past fifteen years, especially in data handling, analysis, visualization etc. Modern technology and solutions are now evolving to allow geoscientists to share data easily between mapping platforms and enterprise level GIS environments. In beach placer exploration programme, data handling and processing are the main challenging tasks due to generation and processing of large volume of field and laboratory data of the areas under investigation. Though there are limitations in visualising map data as a single map on a screen, due to its non-proportionate lengths and widths, a GIS can very well handle all these varied datasets to demarcate highly potential zones within a narrow coastal strip. Generally these datasets contain information from thousands of drillholes about their location co-ordinates, depth, height, description and thickness of lithounits, water table level, radioactivity and other pertinent subsurface properties. Field data collection can be efficiently done using a hand held global positioning system (GPS) installed with mobile-GIS application and data handling software

  3. Ilmenite Mineral's Recovery from Beach Sand Tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F.; Mukendi-Ngalula, David; Waanders, Frans B.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.

  4. Gleaning and Dreaming on Car Park Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Croft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores beachcombing and gleaning as practices that combine mobility with daydreaming and which allow us to experience our environment with the perception of ‘tactile nearness’ (Benjamin. Through eco-poetics shaped by ‘inconceivable analogies and connections’ (Benjamin, the author re-imagines a neglected space used as a short-cut on the way to work—the Liverpool Adelphi car park in Liverpool—as “Car Park Beach”. Inspired by the situationists’ slogan ‘Sous les pavés, la plage’, the author argues that Car Park Beach opens up imaginative possibilities for a different form of ecological encounter with our own precarity, one ushered in by a ‘close-up’ awareness of how waste transforms our world. Car Park Beach is a site that the author associates with the drift-like, distracted movements of both people and matter, and this article therefore attempts to deploy an equivalent method of analysis. Drawing on her own practice of gleaning photos and objects on the way to work, the author places a vocabulary of flotsam and jetsam at the axis of her discussion. Allusive, often layered, connections are followed between a diverse range of sources including beachcombing guides, literary memoirs, documentary films, eco-criticism, and auto-ethnography.

  5. Training nuclear technicians in two-year, post-secondary educational programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, D.M.; Roney, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    An available and economical supply to future manpower requirements for various types of nuclear technicians can be met by developing and/or restructuring two-year, post-secondary programs at local educational institutions. The Technical Education Research Centers program is under contract from the U.S. Office of Education to delineate the job requirements and develop curricula and instructional materials for two-year, post-secondary training of nuclear technicians. Six job categories have been identified along with corresponding tasks which the technician performs. These categories are: Reactor Operator, Nuclear Instrumentation Technician, Nuclear QA/QC Technician, Radiochemistry Technician, Radiation Protection Technician and Nuclear Medicine Technician. For the first five categories curricula have been established, courses have been described, and instructional materials are being written

  6. Two years of real progress in European HEP networking: A CERN perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.E.; Fluckiger, F.; Gerard, J.M.; Lord, D.; Segal, B.

    1987-01-01

    The last two years have been marked by real progress in networking in HEP. Home-made developments, studies and plans have given way to the use of real networks involving hundreds of HEP and other computers and based on externally produced software and hardware. Within the last year, the first generation of industrial software products following some of the international standards for networking have become available. Related developments are taking place in networking for on-line systems and indeed the LEP experiments are distinguished by their heavy and crucial reliance on both local and wide-area networks. This paper describes the progress made at CERN since the last two years and looks at perspectives for the future. (orig.)

  7. A juvenile case of radiation-induced meningioma two years after radiation for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Tomoaki; Zama, Akira; Ono, Nobuo; Nakamura, Tadashi; Tamura, Masaru; Ohe, Tihiro; Nakazato, Yoichi

    1994-01-01

    The patient was a 7-years-old boy who received radiation therapy of 50 Gy after total gross removal of a craniopharyngioma. After two years a follow up CT scan showed a new enhanced lesion in the right temporal tip within the previous irradiation field. Total removal of the tumor was performed and its histological examination showed it to be an atypical meningioma. This atypical meningioma satisfied Cahan's criteria. So we diagnosed this atypical meningioma as radiation-induced meningioma. Immunohistochemically this meningioma stained for Vimentin. An electron microscopical examination showed neither desmosome nor interdigitation. The score of Ki-67 and BrdU-L. I was very small. Compared with previously reported juvenile radiation-induced meningioma, the latency was very short. The patient received growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy. We suspected relation between GH replacement therapy and short latency. He was discharged without any new neurological deficits and we haven't detected tumor recurrence for two years. (author)

  8. Severity of Giardia infection associated with post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rortveit Guri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high rate of post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis in Bergen, Norway in 2004 has previously been reported. The aim of this report was to identify risk factors associated with such manifestations. Methods All laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis (n = 1262 during the outbreak in Bergen in 2004 received a postal questionnaire two years after. Degree of post-infectious abdominal symptoms and fatigue, as well as previous abdominal problems, was recorded. In the statistical analyses number of treatment courses, treatment refractory infection, delayed education and sick leave were used as indices of protracted and severe Giardia infection. Age, gender, previous abdominal problems and symptoms during infection were also analysed as possible risk factors. Simple and multiple ordinal logistic regression models were used for the analyses. Results The response rate was 81% (1017/1262, 64% were women and median age was 31 years (range 3-93, compared to 61% women and 30 years (range 2-93 among all 1262 cases. Factors in multiple regression analysis significantly associated with abdominal symptoms two years after infection were: More than one treatment course, treatment refractory infection, delayed education, bloating and female gender. Abdominal problems prior to Giardia infection were not associated with post-infectious abdominal symptoms. More than one treatment course, delayed education, sick leave more than 2 weeks, and malaise at the time of infection, were significantly associated with fatigue in the multiple regression analysis, as were increasing age and previous abdominal problems. Conclusion Protracted and severe giardiasis seemed to be a risk factor for post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after clearing the Giardia infection.

  9. Two-year results of femtosecond assisted LASIK versus PRK for different severity of astigmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Miraftab; Hassan Hashemi; Soheila Asgari

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To compare two-year results of femtosecond laser assisted LASIK (femto-LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in terms of astigmatism correction in patients with less than 2.0 diopters (D) of spherical error and more than 2.0 D of cylinder error. Methods: In this retrospective study, data were extracted from 100 patient charts. The two study groups were matched by age, gender, and baseline uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and refractive astigmatism (RA). Preoperativ...

  10. Two years post-stroke, Luxembourgish informal caregivers’ life satisfaction and their couple and family repercussions

    OpenAIRE

    Lurbe-Puerto, Katia; Baumann, Michèle; Le Bihan, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to improve our understanding of the changes in the couple and family lives of stroke survivors’ caregivers and to analyse the relationships between the Caregivers’ Life Satisfaction (CLS) and the social and emotional repercussions of the caregiving role, two years after this event. Life satisfaction, optimism about the future, happiness and other subjective well-being aspects have attracted the European policymakers, leading to the Eurofund to introduce a “life satisfaction” d...

  11. Intestinal perforation in a two-year-old child with eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, A; Husby, S; Høst, A

    1991-01-01

    A two-year-old boy underwent a laparatomy for an intestinal perforation due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis. He had marked peripheral blood eosinophilia and a small duodenal biopsy showed heavy eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa. After 1 1/2 year on a restricted diet, a control duodenal biopsy...... showed only slight eosinophilia. Perforation of the small intestine is a rare but serious complication in eosinophilic gastroenteritis....

  12. [Two years clinical observation of a kind of castable ceramic--IPS Empress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Li, Y; Nie, Y

    1999-03-01

    We used this material in clinic since 1995. Discussion on the prosthetic effects of the above-mentioned material to spreat it clinically. Through half to two years clinical observations to evaluate the effect of IPS Empress crowns in anterior teeth and inlays in posteriors. and Prosthesis made of this kind of material IPS Empress is one kind of excellent all-ceramic prosthetic material. IPS Empress also could be used in post crowns and the clinical effect was satisfactory.

  13. eBooks for Libraries and Patrons: Two Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Rosy

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A little over two years ago, netLibrary defined its primary mission to encompass a singular focus on developing and offering library-centric solutions for organizing, hosting, and serving digital learning content in ways that integrated with the mission and methods of libraries. Today, netLibrary provides thousands of academic, public, government, corporate, special and school libraries with access to digital versions of monograph content they deem of particular value to their patrons.

  14. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuss Annicka M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs, in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004 or 2005 (cohort 2005 in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004 to 51% (cohort 2005 in the studied regions (p Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time.

  15. South Beach Diet associated ketoacidosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalasani Swapna

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction It has been previously unclear whether a "mild" degree of low carbohydrate or "starvation" ketonemia and acidosis induced by a low carbohydrate diet is clinically relevant to a patient. Case presentation A 30-year-old Caucasian male on a low carbohydrate diet presented with nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The patient's bicarbonate level was 12 and he had hyperglycemia and ketonemia. He was felt to be in diabetic ketoacidosis and was started on intravenous insulin and isotonic saline infusions and responded well. Following cessation of insulin therapy, the patient remained normoglycemic for the remainder of his hospital stay. He later admitted to having been on the South Beach Diet, which is a low carbohydrate diet, for the three weeks prior to his presentation and during which time he had lost 16 pounds. On admission his BMI was 27.1. On presentation, the patient was felt to be in diabetic ketoacidosis but, interestingly, he was subsequently euglycemic without therapy. Following discharge, the patient discontinued the diet plan and he has remained asymptomatic and euglycemic over the following two years. Conclusion The hyperglycemic ketoacidosis in this patient may have been caused by increased concentrations of free fatty acids in the absence of carbohydrate-induced inhibition of beta-oxidation of fatty acids and in the presence of an abnormally high ratio of glucagons to insulin. Given the present day popularity of low-carbohydrate diet plans, healthcare providers should be aware of the apparent association between such diets and symptomatic ketoacidosis. In a patient with ketoacidosis suspected to be secondary to a low carbohydrate diet, all other causes of high anion gap acidosis should be ruled out before attributing the acidosis to the low carbohydrate diet.

  16. Cooled radiofrequency denervation for treatment of sacroiliac joint pain: two-year results from 20 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kok-Yuen; Hadi, Mohamed Abdul; Pasutharnchat, Koravee; Tan, Kian-Hian

    2013-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac joint pain is a common cause of chronic low back pain. Different techniques for radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint have been used to treat this condition. However, results have been inconsistent because the variable sensory supply to the sacroiliac joint is difficult to disrupt completely using conventional radiofrequency. Cooled radiofrequency is a novel technique that uses internally cooled radiofrequency probes to enlarge lesion size, thereby increasing the chance of completely denervating the sacroiliac joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cooled radiofrequency denervation using the SInergy™ cooled radiofrequency system for sacroiliac joint pain. Methods The charts of 20 patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain who had undergone denervation using the SInergy™ cooled radiofrequency system were reviewed at two years following the procedure. Outcome measures included the Numeric Rating Scale for pain intensity, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Global Perceived Effect for patient satisfaction. Results Fifteen of 20 patients showed a significant reduction in pain (a decrease of at least three points on the Numeric Rating Scale). Mean Numeric Rating Scale for pain decreased from 7.4 ± 1.4 to 3.1 ± 2.5, mean Patient Global Impression of Change was “improved” (1.4 ± 1.5), and Global Perceived Effect was reported to be positive in 16 patients at two years following the procedure. Conclusion Cooled radiofrequency denervation showed long-term efficacy for up to two years in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain. PMID:23869175

  17. Two-year clinical evaluation of IPS Empress II ceramic onlays/inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagtekin, D A; Ozyöney, G; Yanikoglu, F

    2009-01-01

    The stronger the ceramic material, the longer the restoration stays in the mouth. The current study evaluated the two-year clinical performance of a strong ceramic system, IPS Empress II, with increased strength on onlay/inlay restorations of molars. Teeth from 35 patients, including three premolars and 32 molars, were prepared for 28 onlay and seven inlay restorations with IPS Empress II ceramics. The restorations were cemented with a highly viscous, dual-curing luting composite cement (Bifix) and evaluated by two examiners using USPHS criteria at baseline (one week following insertion), six months, one year and two years. The baseline scores and recalls were assessed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Statistically significant marginal discoloration at the Bravo level was found at the 12- and 24-month recalls (p=0.046). One debonding was statistically insignificant. No changes were observed with respect to anamnesis, such as any symptom from the TMJ or masticatory muscles. No restorations were replaced due to hypersensitivity or were missing at the two-year evaluation. Any wear on the restoration, antagonist tooth or any changes of proximal contacts were not observed. IPS Empress II Ceramics were found to be appropriate as onlay/inlay restorations for clinical use under the conditions of the current study.

  18. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of an Exemption, pursuant to...

  19. Supporting Geoscience Students at Two-Year Colleges: Career Preparation and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Layou, K.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-year colleges play an important role in developing a competent and creative geoscience workforce, teaching science to pre-service K-12 teachers, producing earth-science literate citizens, and providing a foundation for broadening participation in the geosciences. The Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) project has developed web resources for geoscience faculty on the preparation and support of students in two-year colleges (2YCs). Online resources developed from two topical workshops and several national, regional, and local workshops around the country focus on two main categories: Career Preparation and Workforce Development, and Supporting Student Success in Geoscience at Two-year Colleges. The Career Preparation and Workforce Development resources were developed to help faculty make the case that careers in the geosciences provide a range of possibilities for students and to support preparation for the geoscience workforce and for transfer to four-year programs as geoscience majors. Many two-year college students are unaware of geoscience career opportunities and these materials help illuminate possible futures for them. Resources include an overview of what geoscientists do; profiles of possible careers along with the preparation necessary to qualify for them; geoscience employer perspectives about jobs and the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes they are looking for in their employees; employment trends in sectors of the economy that employ geoscience professionals; examples of geotechnician workforce programs (e.g. Advanced Technological Education Centers, environmental technology programs, marine technician programs); and career resources available from professional societies. The website also provides information to support student recruitment into the geosciences and facilitate student transfer to geoscience programs at four- year colleges and universities, including sections on advising support before

  20. The Two-Year College as a First Choice, Second Chance Institution for Baccalaureate-Degree Holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on degree-seeking baccalaureate-degree holders at one two-year technical institute in the Midsouth to determine why they chose to study at the two-year college and how they compared their two-year college experience with their baccalaureate educational experience. Findings indicated the technical college was their first choice…

  1. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  2. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  3. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, F J; Surman, S B; Martin, K; Wareing, D R; Humphrey, T J

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.

  4. Preoperative MRI findings predict two-year postoperative clinical outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kuittinen

    Full Text Available To study the predictive value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings for the two-year postoperative clinical outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS.84 patients (mean age 63±11 years, male 43% with symptoms severe enough to indicate LSS surgery were included in this prospective observational single-center study. Preoperative MRI of the lumbar spine was performed with a 1.5-T unit. The imaging protocol conformed to the requirements of the American College of Radiology for the performance of MRI of the adult spine. Visual and quantitative assessment of MRI was performed by one experienced neuroradiologist. At the two-year postoperative follow-up, functional ability was assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI 0-100% and treadmill test (0-1000 m, pain symptoms with the overall Visual Analogue Scale (VAS 0-100 mm, and specific low back pain (LBP and specific leg pain (LP separately with a numeric rating scale from 0-10 (NRS-11. Satisfaction with the surgical outcome was also assessed.Preoperative severe central stenosis predicted postoperatively lower LP, LBP, and VAS when compared in patients with moderate central stenosis (p<0.05. Moreover, severe stenosis predicted higher postoperative satisfaction (p = 0.029. Preoperative scoliosis predicted an impaired outcome in the ODI (p = 0.031 and lowered the walking distance in the treadmill test (p = 0.001. The preoperative finding of only one stenotic level in visual assessment predicted less postoperative LBP when compared with patients having 2 or more stenotic levels (p = 0.026. No significant differences were detected between quantitative measurements and the patient outcome.Routine preoperative lumbar spine MRI can predict the patient outcome in a two-year follow up in patients with LSS surgery. Severe central stenosis and one-level central stenosis are predictors of good outcome. Preoperative finding of scoliosis may indicate worse functional ability.

  5. Off Label Use of Botulinum Toxin in Children under Two Years of Age: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Druschel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of children with cerebral palsy with Botulinum Toxin is considered safe and effective, but is only approved for children older than two years of age. The effect of BoNT-A injection on juvenile skeletal muscle especially on neuromuscular junction density, distribution and morphology is poorly delineated and concerns of irreversible damage to the motor endplates especially in young children exist. In contrast, earlier treatment could be appropriate to improve the attainment of motor milestones and general motor development. This review systematically analyzes the evidence regarding this hypothesis. A database search, including PubMed and Medline databases, was performed and all randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing the efficacy of Botulinum Toxin in children younger than two years were identified. Two authors independently extracted the data and the methods of all identified trials were assessed. Three RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The results of the analysis revealed an improvement in spasticity of the upper and lower extremities as well as in the range of motion in the joints of the lower limbs. However, evidence of an improvement of general motor development could not be found, as the assessment of this area was not completely specified for this patient group. Based on available evidence it can not be concluded that Botulinum Toxin treatment in children younger than two years improves the achievement of motor milestones. However, there is evidence for the reduction of spasticity, avoiding contractures and delaying surgery. Due to some limitations, the results of this review should be cautiously interpreted. More studies, long-term follow up independent high-quality RCTs with effectiveness analyses are needed.

  6. Rotational Grazing System for Beef Cows on Dwarf Elephantgrass Pasture for Two Years after Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mukhtar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An intensive rotational grazing system for dwarf and late heading (DL elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach pasture was examined in a summer period for two years following establishment. Four 0.05 of DL elephant grass pastures (20×25 m were established on May 2003. They were rotationally grazed for 1 week, followed by a 3-week rest period by three breeding or raising beef cattle for three and six cycles during the first and second years of establishment respectively. Before grazing, the plant height, leaf area index and the ratio of leaf blade to stem were at the highest, while tiller number increased and herbage mass tended to increase, except for the first grazing cycle both two years and for one paddock in the second year. Herbage consumption, the rate of herbage consumption and dry matter intake tended to decrease in three paddocks from the first to the third cycle in the first year, but increase as grazing occurred in the second year. Dry matter intake averaged 10.2-14.5 and 15.4–23.2 g DM/kg/live weight (LW/day over the four paddocks in the first and second year, respectively, and average daily gains were 0.09 and 0.35 kg/head/day in the first and second year respectively. The carrying capacities were estimated at 1,016 and 208 cow-days (CD/ha (annual total 1,224 CD/ha in the first year and 1,355 and 207 CD/ha (annual total 1,562 CD/ha in the second year. Thus, DL elephant grass pasture can expand the grazing period for beef cows for the following two-year establishment. (Animal Production 13(1:10-17 (2011 Key Words: dwarf elephant grass, herbage mass, plant characters, rotational grazing

  7. Creating Authentic Geoscience Research Experiences for Underrepresented Students in Two-Year Undergraduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.

    2014-12-01

    With community college and two-year program students playing pivotal roles in advancing the nation's STEM agenda now and throughout the remainder of this young millennia, it is incumbent on educators to devise innovative and sustainable STEM initiatives to attract, retain, graduate, and elevate these students to four-year programs and beyond. Involving these students in comprehensive, holistic research experiences is one approach that has paid tremendous dividends. The New York City College of Technology (City Tech) was recently awarded a National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) supplemental grant to integrate a community college/two-year program component into its existing REU program. The program created an inviting and supportive community of scholars for these students, nurtured them through strong, dynamic mentoring, provided them with the support structures needed for successful scholarship, and challenged them to attain the same research prominence as their Bachelor degree program companions. Along with their colleagues, the community college/two-year program students were given an opportunity to conduct intensive satellite and ground-based remote sensing research at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (NOAA-CREST) at City College and its CREST Institute Center for Remote Sensing and Earth System Science (ReSESS) at City Tech. This presentation highlights the challenges, the rewards, and the lessons learned from this necessary and timely experiment. Preliminary results indicate that this paradigm for geoscience inclusion and high expectation has been remarkably successful. (The program is supported by NSF REU grant #1062934.)

  8. Undergraduate Research in Geoscience with Students from Two-year Colleges: SAGE 2YC Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Hodder, J.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Undergraduate research experiences are important for the development of expertise in geoscience disciplines. These experiences have been shown to help students learn content and skills, promote students' cognitive and affective development, and develop students' sense of self. Early exposure to research experiences has shown to be effective in the recruitment of students, improved retention and persistence in degree programs, motivation for students to learn and increase self-efficacy, improved attitudes and values about science, and overall increased student success. Just as departments at four-year institutions (4YCs) are increasingly integrating research into their introductory courses, two-year college (2YC) geoscience faculty have a great opportunity to ground their students in authentic research. The Undergraduate Research with Two-year College Students website developed by SAGE 2YC: Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-year Colleges provides ideas and advice for 2YC and 4YC faculty who want to get more 2YC students involved in research. The continuum of possibilities for faculty to explore includes things that can be done at 2YCs (eg. doing research as part of a regular course, developing a course specifically around research on a particular topic, or independent study), done in collaboration with other local institutions (eg. using their facilities, conducting joint class research, or using research to support transfer programs), and by involving students in the kind of organized Undergraduate Research programs run by a number of institutions and organizations. The website includes profiles illustrating how 2YC geoscience faculty have tackled these various models of research and addressed potential challenges such as lack of time, space, and funding as part of supporting the wide diversity of students that attend 2YCs, most of whom have less experience than that of rising seniors who are the traditional REU participant. The website also

  9. A Model of the Earth's Magnetic Field From Two Year of Swarm Satellite Constellation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    More than two year of data from ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive a model of the Earth’s magnetic field and its time variation (secular variation). The model describes contributions from the core and lithosphere as well as large-scale contributions from the magnetosphere (and its...... Earth-induced counterpart). We use data from geomagnetic quiet times and co-estimate the Euler angles describing the rotation between the vector magnetometer instrument frame and the North-East-Center (NEC) frame. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm...

  10. Prostate cancer outcomes in France: treatments, adverse effects and two-year mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This very large population-based study investigated outcomes after a diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) in terms of mortality rates, treatments and adverse effects. Methods Among the 11 million men aged 40 years and over covered by the general national health insurance scheme, those with newly managed PCa in 2009 were followed for two years based on data from the national health insurance information system (SNIIRAM). Patients were identified using hospitalisation diagnoses and specific refunds related to PCa and PCa treatments. Adverse effects of PCa treatments were identified by using hospital diagnoses, specific procedures and drug refunds. Results The age-standardised two-year all-cause mortality rate among the 43,460 men included in the study was 8.4%, twice that of all men aged 40 years and over. Among the 36,734 two-year survivors, 38% had undergone prostatectomy, 36% had been treated by hormone therapy, 29% by radiotherapy, 3% by brachytherapy and 20% were not treated. The frequency of treatment-related adverse effects varied according to age and type of treatment. Among men between 50 and 69 years of age treated by prostatectomy alone, 61% were treated for erectile dysfunction and 24% were treated for urinary disorders. The frequency of treatment for these disorders decreased during the second year compared to the first year (erectile dysfunction: 41% vs 53%, urinary disorders: 9% vs 20%). The frequencies of these treatments among men treated by external beam radiotherapy alone were 7% and 14%, respectively. Among men between 50 and 69 years with treated PCa, 46% received treatments for erectile dysfunction and 22% for urinary disorders. For controls without PCa but treated surgically for benign prostatic hyperplasia, these frequencies were 1.5% and 6.0%, respectively. Conclusions We report high survival rates two years after a diagnosis of PCa, but a high frequency of PCa treatment-related adverse effects. These frequencies remain

  11. Two years of wind-lidar measurements at an Italian Mediterranean Coastal Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullí, D.; Avolio, E.; Calidonna, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measurements of vertical profiles of wind speed and direction are needed for testing models and methodologies of use for wind energy assessment. In particular, modelling complex terrain such as coastal areas is challenging due to the coastal discontinuity that is not accurately resolved...... in mesoscale numerical model. Here, we present a unique database from a coastal site in South Italy (middle of the Mediterranean area) where vertical profiles of wind speed and direction have been collected during a two-year period from a wind-lidar ZEPHIR-300® at a coastal-suburban area. We show an overview...

  12. The European Journal of Case Reports in Internal Medicine – The First Two Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kellett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Journal of Case Reports in Internal Medicine (EJCRIM is just over two years old. To date 400 reports have been submitted and just under half have been accepted for publication. In order to keep costs down our initial policy was to charge a small fee for all submissions, and a further small publication fee for papers that were accepted. However, we have now abolished the submission charge and replaced it with a single, slightly increased, publication charge for all accepted papers.

  13. Two years of the operation of a domestic MBR wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikorová, Tina

    2012-06-01

    The paper evaluates the results of data obtained from two years of observing an actual domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with an immersed membrane module. The domestic MBR (membrane bioreactor) WWTP was linked to a dwelling with four residents. Two different commercial flat sheet membrane modules were investigated. The membrane modules, as well as the whole WWTP, were tested with different fluxes as well as the response of the membrane and activated sludge to different conditions, such as actual peak wastewater flows, extremes temperatures (a winter below 5 °C), and high pH values.

  14. Fournier’s Gangrene in a Two Year Old Child: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Satinder Pal Singh; Singh, Vikram; Jain, Amit; Arry, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and external genitalia is a life-threatening infective gangrene, primarily seen in adults. It may be seen at any age but it is relatively uncommon in children. Here, we report a case of Fournier’s gangrene in a two year old male child who was treated aggressively with broad spectrum antibiotics and early surgical debridement with hemodynamic stabilization. Even though no obvious precipitating cause was identified, hygiene was thought to be the inciting factor. Early surgical debridement with appropriate antibiotics and aggressive supportive care gave good results. PMID:25302233

  15. Coastal Land Air Sea Interaction: "the" beach towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahan, J. H.; Koscinski, J. S.; Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Thornton, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Coastal Land Air Sea Interaction (CLASI) experiment, an alongshore array of 6-m high towers instrumented with ultrasonic 3D anemometers and temperature-relative humidity sensors were deployed at five sandy beaches near the high-tide line in Monterey Bay, CA, in May-June 2016. A cross-shore array of towers was also deployed from within the active surfzone to the toe of the dune at one beach. In addition, waves and ocean temperature were obtained along the 10m isobath for each beach. The dissipative surfzone was O(80m) wide. The wave energy varies among the beaches owing to sheltering and refraction by the Monterey Canyon and headlands. The tides are semi-diurnal mixed, meso-tidal with a maximum tidal range of 2m. This results in a variable beach width from the tower to the tidal line. Footprint analysis for estimating the source region for the turbulent momentum fluxes, suggests that the observations represent three scenarios described as primarily ocean, mixed beach and ocean, and primarily beach. The direct-estimate of the atmospheric stability by the sonic anemometer suggest that all of the beaches are mostly unstable except for a few occurrences in the evening during low wind conditions. The onshore neutral drag coefficient (Cd) estimated at 10m heights is 3-5 times larger than open ocean estimates. Minimal variability was found in Cd based on the footprint analysis. Beach-specific spatial variability in Cd was found related to atmospheric stability and wave energy.

  16. Synthesis study of an erosion hot spot, Ocean Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7 years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.

  17. Application of geostatistics in Beach Placer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, G.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of Geostatistics is in the prediction of possible spatial distribution of a property. Application of Geostatistics has gained significance in the field of exploration, evaluation and mining. In the case of beach and inland placer sands exploration, geostatistics can be used in optimising the drill hole spacing, estimate resources of the total heavy minerals (THM), estimation on different grid pattern and grade - tonnage curves. Steps involved in a geostatistical study are exploratory data analysis, creation of experimental variogram, variogram model fitting, kriging and cross validation. Basic tools in geostatistics are variogram and kriging. Characteristics of a variogram are sill, range and nugget. There is a necessity for variogram model fitting prior to kriging. Commonly used variogram models are spherical, exponential and gaussian

  18. Renewable Energy Development in Hermosa Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K.

    2016-12-01

    The City of Hermosa Beach, California, with the support of the AGU's TEX program, is exploring the potential for renewable energy generation inside the City, as part of the implementation of the City's 2015 Municipal Carbon Neutral Plan. Task 1: Estimate the technical potential of existing and future technologies Given the City's characteristics, this task will identify feasible technologies: wind, solar, tidal/wave, wastewater biogas, landfill biogas, microscale anaerobic digestion (AD), and complementary energy storage. Some options may be open to the City acting alone, but others will require working with municipal partners and private entities that provide services to Hermosa Beach (e.g., wastewater treatment). Energy storage is a means to integrate intermittent renewable energy output. Task 2: Review transaction types and pathways In this task, feasible technologies will be further examined in terms of municipal ordinances and contractual paths: (a) power purchase agreements (PPAs) with developers, under which the City would purchase energy or storage services directly; (b) leases with developers, under which the City would rent sites (e.g., municipal rooftops) to developers; (c) ordinances related to permitting, under which the City would reduce regulatory barriers to entry for developers; (d) pilot projects, under which the City would engage with developers to test new technologies such as wind/wave/microscale AD (pursuant to PPAs and/or leases); and (e) existing projects, under which the City would work with current wastewater and landfill contractors to understand (i) current plans to develop renewable energy, and (ii) opportunities for the City to work with such contractors to promote renewable energy. Task 3: Estimate costs by technology Finally, the last task will gather existing information about the costs, both current and projected, of the feasible technologies, including (i) overnight construction cost (capital); (ii) integration costs (e

  19. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  20. Cranial nerves neuropraxia after shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, A; Boyer, P; Soubeyrand, M; Hamida, F Ben; Vannier, J-L; Massin, P

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of neuropraxia of the 9th, 10th and 12th cranial nerve pairs after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the beach chair position. The elements in the medical file seem to exclude an intracranial cause of the lesions and support a mechanical, extracranial cause due to intubation and/or the beach chair position. This clinical case report shows the neurological risks of the beach chair position during arthroscopic shoulder surgery and presents the essential safety measures to prevent these risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The posture of adolescent male handball players: A two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Małgorzata

    2018-02-06

    Young athletes at the stage of growth acceleration tend to exhibit increased susceptibility to postural abnormalities, especially in the trunk region. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the posture in male adolescent handball players over two years of regular training sessions. The study group comprised 21 handball players. At the start of the study 15 participants were aged 14 and 6 participants were aged 15 (mean 14.25 ± 0.58). The measurements were repeated three times. Posture was assessed with a photogrammetric method based on the moiré phenomenon. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not reveal any significant differences between posture indicators obtained during the successive measurements. Sagittal plane posture indicators revealed significant changes in torso forward inclination angle and the shape of anteroposterior spinal curvatures. The latter consisted of significant deepening of the upper thoracic curve (angle α) and flattening of the lumbosacral curve (angle γ). A two-year period of handball training did not result in posture asymmetries in young male handball players. The observed changes in the shape of anteroposterior spinal curvatures might be related both to sports training and somatic parameters.

  2. Lack of effect of zinc sulfate on wheezing after bronchiolitis in infants less than two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Abasi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: Wheezing after bronchiolitis is known as a risk factor for asthma. No cure or effective vaccine has been identified for such disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of zinc sulfate on persistent wheezing after bronchiolitis in infants less than two years. Methods: The present randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 90 infants under two years of age suffering from the first attack with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis wheezing hospitalized in Imam Sajjad Hospital, Yasuj. All infants were equally placed in test groups and control group. In addition to bronchiolitis usual treatment, test group received 20 mg of elemental zinc for seven days. Patient information including risk factors associated with wheezing and persistent wheezing were compared 48 hours and two weeks after treatment. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t tests. Results: In all 90 infants diagnosed with bronchiolitis, wheezing was observed. After 48 hours and two weeks wheezing was continued in 67 patients (74.4% and 54 patients (60% respectively Conclusion: The results showed Zinc sulfate had no effect on the improvement of wheezing after bronchiolitis.

  3. A juvenile case of radiation-induced meningioma two years after radiation for craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, Tomoaki; Zama, Akira; Ono, Nobuo; Nakamura, Tadashi; Tamura, Masaru; Ohe, Tihiro; Nakazato, Yoichi (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    The patient was a 7-years-old boy who received radiation therapy of 50 Gy after total gross removal of a craniopharyngioma. After two years a follow up CT scan showed a new enhanced lesion in the right temporal tip within the previous irradiation field. Total removal of the tumor was performed and its histological examination showed it to be an atypical meningioma. This atypical meningioma satisfied Cahan's criteria. So we diagnosed this atypical meningioma as radiation-induced meningioma. Immunohistochemically this meningioma stained for Vimentin. An electron microscopical examination showed neither desmosome nor interdigitation. The score of Ki-67 and BrdU-L. I was very small. Compared with previously reported juvenile radiation-induced meningioma, the latency was very short. The patient received growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy. We suspected relation between GH replacement therapy and short latency. He was discharged without any new neurological deficits and we haven't detected tumor recurrence for two years. (author).

  4. [Dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years with mild malnutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Mariana Martínez; Gutiérrez, María Luisa Alvarez

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition is conditioned by a series of factors, among them the dietary factors, which include appetite, eating behaviors and habits. In order to assess these factors, the following objective was pursued: describe the dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years of age with mild malnutrition. A correlational study was conducted. The sample consisted of all children under two years of age (n = 168) diagnosed with primary (mild) malnutrition, who attended consultation at the Centro de Atención Nutricional Infantil Antímano, CANIA, during the period 2000-2008. The results showed intake of energy and macronutrients was lower than the individual requirement; iron intake < 85% of the requirement, in accordance with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in over 50% of the sample; weekly consumption of vegetables (57%) and miscellaneous (66%) was inadequate; inadequate intake of formula and whole milk in more than 60%; 9% were exclusively breastfed during the first six months; 64% lacked a regular eating place; in child-caregiver interaction during mealtimes, more than half of the children showed rebellious behavior and caregivers were permissive. Protein adequacy, vegetable and whole milk consumption frequency, preparation type, identification of refusals and preferences, place and duration of meals, and child-caregiver interaction at mealtimes were significantly associated with appetite; if we consider this last one as a guide and we try to modify inadequate eating behaviors and habits, we will generate an impact over the child appetite that could improve the food consumption and prevent malnutrition.

  5. Estimated risk of radiation-induced cancer from paediatric chest CT: two-year cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Tilo [Cantonal Hospital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Colas, Lucie; Santangelo, Teresa; Faivre, Jean Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Roser, Hans W.; Bremerich, Jens [University of Basel Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    The increasing absolute number of paediatric CT scans raises concern about the safety and efficacy and the effects of consecutive diagnostic ionising radiation. To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single low-dose helical chest CT in a two-year patient cohort. A two-year cohort of 522 paediatric helical chest CT scans acquired using a dedicated low-dose protocol were analysed retrospectively. Patient-specific estimations of radiation doses were modelled using three different mathematical phantoms. Per-organ attributable cancer risk was then estimated using epidemiological models. Additional comparison was provided for naturally occurring risks. Total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence remains low for all age and sex categories, being highest in female neonates (0.34%). Summation of all cancer sites analysed raised the relative lifetime attributable risk of organ cancer incidence up to 3.6% in female neonates and 2.1% in male neonates. Using dedicated scan protocols, total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence and mortality for chest CT is estimated low for paediatric chest CT, being highest for female neonates. (orig.)

  6. Trajectories of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum among overweight or obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ti; Stroo, Marissa; Fuemmeler, Bernard; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls

    2014-01-01

    Background Although depressive symptoms are common postpartum, few studies have followed women beyond 12 months postpartum to investigate changes in the number and severity of these symptoms over time, especially in overweight and obese women. Using two complementary analytical methods, this study aims to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum among overweight or obese mothers, and assess the demographic, socio-economic , and health covariates for these trajectories. Methods Using longitudinal data from two behavioral intervention studies (KAN-DO and AMP; N = 844), we used latent growth modeling to identify the overall trajectory of depressive symptoms and how it was related to key covariates. Next, we used latent class growth analysis to assess the heterogeneity in the depressive symptom trajectories over time, and thereby, identify subgroups of women with distinct trajectories. Findings The overall trajectory of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum was relatively stable in our sample. However, the presence of three distinct latent class trajectories [stable-low (82.5%), decreasing symptoms (7.3%) and increasing symptoms (10.2%)], identified based on trajectory shape and mean depressive symptom score, supported heterogeneity in depressive symptom trajectories over time. Lower maternal education was related to a higher symptom score, and poorer subjective health status at baseline predicted inclusion in the increasing symptoms trajectory. Conclusions In some overweight or obese mothers postpartum depressive symptoms do not resolve quickly. Practitioners should be aware of this phenomenon and continue to screen for depression for longer periods of time postpartum. PMID:25213748

  7. Patient’s Cross-border Mobility Directive: Application, Performance and Perceptions Two Years after Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedel Rafał

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyse the directive on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare. Two years after the transposition, it is time for first evaluations of its application, performance and perception. The analysis consists of three major elements: reconstruction of the legal scope and subject matter of the new legislation, conclusions of the evaluative reports monitoring its implementation and performance as well as the public opinion polls revealing the EU citizens’ perception of its details. These three components combined together deliver a picture of the state of play about the pan-European cross-border patients’ mobility. The bottomline conclusions negatively verify the supposition present in some earlier literature on patients’ cross-border mobility that the directive has a transformative potential leading towards the creation of truly competitive pan-European medical market. After two years of its operation, there is still no increased patients’ mobility across EU internal borders observed. As regards the speculations for the future, there are only some weak symptoms identified and they may result in intensified cross-border mobility for healthcare.

  8. Health and re-employment in a two year follow up of long term unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, B; Bjørndal, A; Hjort, P F

    1993-02-01

    The aim was to examine re-employment and changes in health during a two year follow up of a representative sample of long term unemployed. This was a cross sectional study and a two year follow up. Health was measured by psychometric testing, Hopkins symptom checklist, General health questionnaire, and medical examination. Health related selection to continuous unemployment and recovery by re-employment was estimated by logistic regression with covariances deduced from the labour market theories of human capital and segmented labour market. Four municipalities in Greenland, southern Norway. Participants were a random sample of 17 to 63 year old people registered as unemployed for more than 12 weeks. In the cross sectional study, the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatic illness was from four to 10 times higher than in a control group of employed people. In the follow up study, there was considerable health related selection to re-employment. A psychiatric diagnosis was associated with a 70% reduction in chances of obtaining a job. Normal performance on psychometric testing showed a two to three times increased chance of re-employment. Recovery of health following re-employment was less than expected from previous studies. Health related selection to long term unemployment seems to explain a substantial part of the excess mental morbidity among unemployed people. An increased proportion of the long term unemployed will be vocationally handicapped as years pass, putting a heavy burden on social services.

  9. Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume I. Evaluation summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    The EES pilot program was initiated in August 1977, when 10 states were selected on a competitive basis for participation. The pilot states (Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) devoted the first 6 months to start-up activities. This document is a follow-up report to the three volume Evaluation Summary of the first year of the pilot EES program published in September 1979. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the impacts and costs of the two years of the pilot program, and to check the consistency of findings over the two year period. The analysis addresses the following: (1) were the impact findings of Year I and Year II consistent, or did Year I and Year II attitudes and behavior vary. If variation existed, could it be attributed to program changes as the EES progressed from a start-up phase (Year I) to more normal service delivery (Year II); and (2) did costs of service delivery change (again reflecting start-up and normal service delivery costs). Did cost changes affect conclusions about the relative cost effectiveness of delivering services to different target audiences.

  10. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Jing Yi; Narayanan Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled h...

  11. Combining remote sensing with an inverse Bruun Rule for the analysis and management of almost equilibrium beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo; Männikus, Rain

    2016-04-01

    The management of beaches that suffer from sediment deficit and construction of nearshore infrastructure in locations with intense sediment transit require adequate predictions of the future of the relevant sedimentary systems. To a large extent, this task can be accomplished by using jointly the information about sediment texture and long-term changes in the dry beach volume and the location of the waterline. It is straightforward to evaluate relative changes in the dry beach volume from a succession of airborne laser scanning (ALS) surveys. We use in addition terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technique to reduce ALS surveys performed with different devices and from different height to the same absolute height. This is accomplished using a TLS survey of a large horizontal surface of constant elevation within ALS snapshots. The most complicated, time-consuming and expensive task in beach management and planning of nearshore infrastructure is to get an adequate picture of the intensity and direction of underwater sediment transport processes. We demonstrate how a simple application of so-called inverse Bruun Rule makes it possible to evaluate the underwater volumetric changes for almost equilibrium beaches. The approach requires three data sets: wave statistics, sediment texture and changes in the average position of the waterline. The main properties of the wave climate, closure depths, magnitude and direction of wave-driven alongshore transport near the test areas are established using a triple nested high-resolution version of the wave model WAM that is forced for 34 years by high-quality marine winds. The relocation of the waterline is extracted from the ALS scanning of elevation isolines of 0.4-0.7 m on the subaerial beach. The technique has been applied to two basically different sections of Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea. Pirita Beach is gradually losing sand and requires beach refill while a moderate reclamation action is planned in the vicinity of gradually

  12. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  14. [The over the counter drugs reform in Israel--two years later].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaknin, Sharona; Abadi-Korek, Ifat; Marom, Eli; Shemer, Joshua; Luxenburg, Osnat

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades there has been a world wide increase in the number of drugs that are being switched from the prescription-only category to non-prescription categories. In Israel, until recently, non-prescription medicines were only permitted to be sold by a pharmacist in pharmacies. In May 2005, following amendments to the law, several non-prescription medicines which were previously sold under a pharmacist's supervision, were reclassified as general-sales-list (GSL) medicines and permitted to be displayed and sold directly off the shelves in pharmacies and in other places such as grocery stores and petrol stations. To study the change in the patterns of consumption of non-prescription drugs in Israel two years after the reform began. A representative sample of the population of Israel was chosen and interviews were conducted at two time points: before the reform commenced and two years after the beginning of the reform. Statistical processing was performed in order to examine the changes in patterns of consumption of non-prescription drugs in Israel between these two time points. In both surveys it was found that: approximately 70% of the Israeli public buys non-prescription medicines; 70% of the people interviewed said that they had been aware of the reform, but of these, about 75% continued buying nonprescription drugs from the pharmacist while 21% bought medicines off the shelves at the pharmacy and 4% purchased medications at grocery stores. The most common reasons for buying medicines off the shelves without a pharmacist were earlier knowLedge about the medication, convenience and availabiLity when the pharmacies were closed. An insignificant difference was observed for the purchase of non-prescription drugs from the different types of pharmacies: the health maintenance organizations (HMO) pharmacies continue to be the leading pharmacies from which the public purchased their non-prescription medicines, white there was a slight increase in the

  15. Health-related quality of life two years after injury due to terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchner, Maya; Meiner, Zeev; Parush, Shula; Hartman-Maeir, Adina

    2010-01-01

    During the past few decades, terrorist acts have been an unfortunate reality worldwide. There is a striking paucity of research investigating the multitude of long-term outcomes after severe physical injury due to terrorist attacks, a unique subgroup of trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to provide a profile of the long-term health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) after injury due to terrorist attacks and to explore the relationships between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), occupational status and injury severity with HR-QOL. We included 35 survivors of terrorist attacks living in the community, two years on average after the injury, mean age at follow-up = 32.1 (±13.8), mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) = 27 (±14.2). The subjects were recruited from consecutive admissions to a rehabilitation department in a tertiary care center between September 2000 - June 2004. Most of the subjects suffered multiple trauma. The main outcome measures were the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Post Traumatic Diagnostic Scale and return to work rates. The mean scores on 6/8 of the SF-36 subscales were significantly lower among the survivors compared to normative population norms. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was found in 39% of the sample and 43% did not resume their main occupation two years after the injury. Multivariate analysis of variance of PTSD and occupational status (returned vs. did not return to work) on quality of life scores revealed significant main effects for both PTSD (p=. 000) and occupational status (p=. 005) with no interaction effect (p=. 476). No significant correlations were found between injury severity and the SF-36 scores. This study demonstrated the long-term impact of injury due to terrorism. Results showed independent effects of PTSD and occupational status on health related quality of life, two years after injury. These findings suggest that this group may benefit from intervention focusing on their emotional and

  16. Evaluating the radiological health compliance of some beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Evaluating the radiological health compliance of some beach environments in Delta State ... as well as specified members of the public (customers) are not at radiological risk.

  17. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyus-Melvin Mobilik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  18. Plastic pellets on the Caranzalem beach sands, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Postmonsoonal survey of Caranzalem beach, Goa, India indicated the presence of plastic pellets. These pellets varied in shape, size and number, and are considered to be contaminants of marine environment...

  19. Daytona Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Daytona Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  20. Macrofauna and meiofauna of two sandy beaches at Mombasa, Kenya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Macrofauna and meiofauna of 2 sandy beaches having medium and fine sand particles, respectively, were investigated, quantitatively Macrofauna density was highest around high water mark and progressively decreased towards low water mark Meiofauna...

  1. Miramar (Goa) Beach Management Project: An Oceanographic Evaluation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Ingole, B.S.

    implications of sand dunes, significance of benthic biodiversity, knowledge of coastal geological processes and restoration of degraded sand dunes should form an integral part of any beach management strategy....

  2. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A; Rokade, M.A

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  3. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  4. Beach morphological variations over micro-time scales

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.; Sastry, J.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    formation, variations in the profiles show anomalous behaviour. The differences in grain-size distribution of the sediments of these 2 beaches are attributed to the available wave energies at these 2 locations...

  5. Virginia Beach Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Beach, Virginia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  6. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Mohd-Lokman

    2016-01-01

    Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km) found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel. PMID:27819020

  7. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  8. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  9. Wave refraction and littoral currents off Colva Beach, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Wave refraction studies have been carried out for waves of different periods approaching the coast at Colva, with directions of approach lying between180 degrees and 340 degrees, to obtain a qualitative picture of littoral flows along the beach...

  10. Geochemistry of dark coastal heavy-mineral beaches sand (Annaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    3 Institute of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Potsdam, ... Some beaches are characterized by a red-brownish sand colour, the Ain Achir and the ... The occurrence of clays has been determined using the methyl-blue method.

  11. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pit, Iris R.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Kanters, Tobias J.; Wassen, Martin J.; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of

  12. [Reconstruction of the heel in a two-year-old boy after lawn mower injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, R; Albrecht, J; Schnettler, R; von Pichler, M

    2012-04-01

    Lawn mower injuries in children usually involve the lower extremities and can lead to serious amputation injuries. Treatment should look not only at the acute reconstruction, but also on maintaining the ability to grow. We report the case of a two-year-old boy with amputation of the heel. The boy was run over by a lawn mower. He suffered a complete loss of heel soft tissue, 30 % of the os calcis and the Achilles tendon. The one-stage reconstruction was performed by transplantation of an iliac crest graft, fascia lata to reconstruct the Achilles tendon and a microvascular latissimus dorsi flap. After one year, the functional and cosmetic result is excellent, the bone graft is healed completely and shows growth trends. The successful treatment of such a severe amputation injury requires the interdisciplinary cooperation between paediatric traumatologists, plastic surgeons, physical therapists and orthopaedic shoemaker. The result justifies the great effort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Self-Rated Health as a Predictor of Death after Two Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Marie; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Bestle, Morten H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The objective of this study is, among half-year intensive care survivors, to determine whether self-assessment of health can predict two-year mortality. Methods. The study is a prospective cohort study based on the Procalcitonin and Survival Study trial. Half-year survivors from...... this 1200-patient multicenter intensive care trial were sent the SF-36 questionnaire. We used both a simple one-item question and multiple questions summarized as a Physical Component Summary (PCS) and a Mental Component Summary (MCS) score. The responders were followed for vital status 730 days after...... inclusion. Answers were dichotomized into a low-risk and a high-risk group and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazard analyses. Conclusion. We found that self-rated health measured by a single question was a strong independent predictor of two...

  14. Endoscopic sinus surgery: results at two year follow-up on 200 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Gandomi, B.; Chohedri, A.H.; Eghadami, H.

    2007-01-01

    The technique of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has been widely accepted and applied to inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses with internationally reported results of this technique having been very good. Our objective was to find out outcome after FESS at our centre. Two hundred patients who had undergone FESS during a two year period with an average follow-up period of eleven months were evaluated subjectively regarding the outcome of their endoscopic sinus surgery. An overall subjective improvement of about 94% was documented, with improvement in specific symptoms such as headache, nasal congestion, change in sense of smell, nasal discharge and recurrent infections ranging from 52% to 97%. Our center reports a subjective improvement of symptoms following FESS compatible with results attained internationally. (author)

  15. Two-year predictors of runaway and homeless episodes following shelter services among substance abusing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Feng, Xin

    2013-10-01

    Given high levels of health and psychological costs associated with the family disruption of homelessness, identifying predictors of runaway and homeless episodes is an important goal. The current study followed 179 substance abusing, shelter-recruited adolescents who participated in a randomized clinical trial. Predictors of runaway and homeless episodes were examined over a two year period. Results from the hierarchical linear modeling analysis showed that family cohesion and substance use, but not family conflict or depressive symptoms, delinquency, or school enrollment predicted future runaway and homeless episodes. Findings suggest that increasing family support, care and connection and reducing substance use are important targets of intervention efforts in preventing future runaway and homeless episodes amongst a high risk sample of adolescents. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monthly radiation protection training of workers: An evaluation of two years operational practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berus, D.; Covens, P.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection training and education is important in stimulating safety culture of occupationally exposed workers. Taking into account the mandatory requirements in relation to education and training a digital training tool was introduced for communication of personal dose results and regular information on radiation protection. This tool enables that personal dose reports are monthly sent to the individual mailbox of workers together with short comprehensive slideshows on radiation protection topics. After two years of operational practice a survey was organised to evaluate the training tool. The results show that the majority (92%) of the occupationally exposed workers are aware of the communication of personal dose results through e-mail. Furthermore, 81% of these workers are also aware of their monthly and cumulated dose level. The monthly information on radiation protection topics is however less consulted. Around 40% of the workers that noticed the link are indifferent to the monthly information. The interest in radiation protection issues increases however with the education level.

  17. Two years since SSAMS: Status of {sup 14}C AMS at CAIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Prasad, G.V.; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Culp, Randy A.; Dvoracek, Doug K.

    2015-10-15

    The NEC 250 kV single stage AMS accelerator (SSAMS) was installed two years ago at the Center for Applied Isotope Studies (CAIS), University of Georgia. The accelerator is primarily being used for radiocarbon measurements to test the authenticity of natural and bio-based samples while all other samples such as geological, atmospheric, marine and archaeological. are run on the 500 kV, NEC 1.5SDH-1 model tandem accelerator, which has been operating since 2001. The data obtained over a six months period for OXI, OXII, ANU sucrose and FIRI-D are discussed. The mean value of ANU sucrose observed to be slightly lower than the consensus value. The processed blanks on SSAMS produce lower apparent age compared to the tandem accelerator as expected.

  18. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-01-01

    To make up for the lack of data on 210 Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23±0.02 mBq m -3 during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall ( -2 y -1 . This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana

  19. What We Need: The 2012 NASA EPO Forum Survey on Two-Year College STEM Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Schultz, G.

    2014-07-01

    A survey of community college STEM faculty, administered by the NASA SMD Higher Education Working Group (HEWG), was administered in fall 2012 in an effort to document the demographic make-up and views of community college faculty who teach NASA science-related STEM courses in astronomy, physics, Earth science, and engineering. Nearly half of respondents reported that less than 10% of students in their classroom are “STEMward bound” and indicated the need for STEM resources that can relate science course content and be relevant to the daily life of their students. A number of respondents also noted a new or renewed emphasis on outreach activities within the community served by their institution as part of their job description. The survey suggests specific directions and ways that the NASA SMD EPO forum can support two-year college stakeholders.

  20. Livedo reticularis due to pellagra in a two year old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Vasudevan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year-old girl child was admitted with complaints of diarrhoea of one week duration in the paediatric ward. She was referred to the skin OPD for gradually progressive skin rashes on both lower limbs noticed since two days. Dermatological examination revealed finding of livedo reticularis. Dietary history revealed maize forming a significant portion of the child′s diet since the age of nine months. The child was treated with a course of Niacin in the form of Nicotinamide 50 mg twice a day for 4 weeks and the parents were advised not to give her maize in the diet. The skin lesions and diarrhoea regressed in duration of two weeks. This is probably the first time that a case of pellagra causing livedo is being reported, that too in a child.

  1. Evaluation of water beef buffalo from birth to two years using different growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Lamberson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo is a domestic animal species of growing world-wide importance. Research to improve genetic improvement programs is important to maintain the productivity of buffalo. The objective this research was to evaluate the growth of Brazilian buffalo to two years of age with different growth curves. Growth curves consolidate the information contained in the weight-age data into three or four biologically meaningful parameters. The data included 31,452 weights at birth and 120, 205, 365, 550 and 730 days of buffalo (n = 5,178 raised on pasture without supplementation. Logistic, Gompertz, quadratic logarithmic, and linear hyperbolic curves (designated L, G, QL, and LH, respectively were fitted to the data by using proc NLIN of SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA. The parameters estimates for L [WT= A * (((1 + exp (-k * AGE**-m] were A = 865.1 ± 5.42; k= 0.0028 ± 0.00002; M= 3.808 ± 0.007; R2 = 0.95. For G [WT= A * exp (-b * exp (-k * age] the parameters estimates were A= 967.6 ± 7.23; k = 0.00217 ± 0.000015; b = -2.8152 ± 0.00532. For QL [WT= A + b*age + k*(age*age + m*log (age] parameters estimates were A= 37.41 ± 0.48; k= 0.00019 ± 6.4E-6; b= 0.539 ± 0.006; m= 2.32 ± 0.23; R2=0.96. For LH [WT= A + b*AGE + k*(1/AGE] the parameters estimates were A= 23.15 ± 0.44; k=15.16 ± 0.66; b= 0.707 ± 0.001; R2= 0.96. Each of these curves fit these data equally well and could be used for characterizing growth to two years in beef buffalo.

  2. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  3. Two-years therapy with bosentan of pulmonary arterial hypertension related to connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizzo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a rare but severe complication of connective tissue diseases (CTD, with a negative impact on patients survival. Bosentan, a receptor antagonist of endothelin, has been proved effective for the treatment of PAH. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects and the safety of bosentan administered for 2 years in a group of patients with PAH related to CTD. Methods: Twelve patients with PAH related to systemic sclerosis (8 cases, SLE (2 cases, mixed connective tissue disease (1 case and polymyositis (1 case attending the Rheumatology Unit of Padova University were treated with bosentan for two years. Distance walked in 6 minutes, right ventricular systolic pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure estimated by doppler echocardiography were evaluated at baseline and after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of treatment. Safety was assessed by laboratory tests performed every two months. Results: During bosentan treatment, a significant decrease of right ventricular systolic pressure was observed after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months in comparison to baseline, whereas pulmonary artery mean pressure remained unchanged. Distance walked in 6 minutes slightly increased after 6 and 12 months, but significantly decreased after 18 and 24 months, mostly because complications of CTD which compromised the ability to walk arose in 4 patients. Adverse events related to bosentan were observed in 2 cases. Conclusions: Bosentan has been demonstrated effective in reducing pulmonary arterial pressure in a two-year period of treatment. Exercise capacity improved only in the first year of therapy and worsened thereafter, suggesting the opportunity of a combination therapy for a long-term treatment of PAH related to CTD.

  4. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  5. [Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Studying Disabling Occupational Accidents in the Construction Industry During Two Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soltanzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Idnetifying causes of occupational accidents is a key issue to prevent these accidents. The present study aimed to identify and analyze debilitating accidents in the construction industry during a two-year period ( 2010 - 2011 years . Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. The study data included information about all debilitating accidents occurred within two years. Data collection was performed according to the accident report forms in construction sites. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 16. The level of significance was considered as P=0.05. Results: The mean age and job experience of injured people were 27.95±6.95 and 2.34±2.00 years, respectively. Most injuries to people were reported in hand (35.4%, legs (28.3% and back (20.4%. Most of accident types were respectively related to slipping and falling (26.1%, throwing objects (21.7%, falls (18.6%, abrasion (16.8% and clash (16.4%. Moreover, the main causes of accidents were related to lack of housekeeping (97.3%, lack of proper training (85.8%, lack of PPE (73.0%, unsafe acts (63.3%, unsafe conditions (32.3% and equipment (22.6%. Conclusion: Analyzing causes of disabling accidents in the construction industry showed that important factors in these accidents included lack of housekeeping, failure to provide proper training, lack of suitable PPE, unsafe acts, unsafe conditions and equipment for the construction jobs

  7. COEXISTENCE OF CARCINOMAS OF THYROID WITH MULTINODULAR GOITRES OF THYROID – A TWO-YEAR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar Epari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Multinodular goitre or nodular hyperplasia or adenomatoid goitre is the most common thyroid disease, which occurs due to deficient iodine intake. Initial hyperthyroid states, followed by follicular atrophy and secondary changes like haemorrhage, calcification and cystic degeneration occurs in most of the cases. Longstanding cases of nodular goitre can be associated with carcinomas, usually follicular carcinomas, and rarely papillary carcinomas.[1] This study was done to know the incidence of coexisting malignancies, follicular and papillary carcinomas of thyroid, in longstanding nodular goitres of thyroid. METHODS All the cases of nodular goitres examined in the last two years were studied, including the thyroidectomy specimens and FNAC slides whichever was done. Extensive grossing of the thyroidectomy specimens was done to detect the possibility of malignancy in longstanding cases of nodular goitre of thyroid. Review of FNAC slides was done in cases where cytodiagnosis of coexisting malignancy was missed and detected in histopathological examination. RESULTS In the present study, conducted over a two-year period, out of 50 cases of thyroidectomy specimens of multinodular goitres studied, six cases were diagnosed to be having coexisting malignancy of thyroid, of which four were follicular carcinomas of thyroid and two were papillary carcinomas of thyroid. FNAC diagnosis of coexisting malignancy was initially missed in FNAC in two cases, i.e. one case each of follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. These FNAC slides were reviewed and the foci of malignancies detected. CONCLUSION There is a possibility of malignancy of thyroid coexisting with longstanding multinodular goitre of thyroid, which should be kept in mind, while performing the needle biopsy and thorough examination of FNAC slides is needed to avoid missing the possible detection of the coexisting malignant lesion. Thyroidectomy specimens should be extensively grossed to

  8. Primary Ewing’s Sarcoma of the Spine in a Two-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali J. Electricwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing’s Sarcoma (ES is a highly malignant bone tumour. It may involve any part of the skeleton but the most frequent parts are the ilium and diaphysis of femur and tibia (Alfeeli et al., 2005; Zhu et al., 2012. Primary ES of the spine is extremely rare (Yan et al., 2011. It accounts for only 3.5 to 14.9 percent of all primary bone sarcomas. The age of presentation ranges from 12 to 24 years (median 21 years (Ferguson, 1999; Sharafuddin et al., 1992; Klimo Jr. et al., 2009. We report an unusual case of primary ES of the spine in a two-year-old boy, who presented to us with paraparesis and features of cauda equina syndrome. MRI scan showed a tumour mass arising from the pedicle of L4 vertebra invading the spinal canal. Tc-99 bone scan showed increased tracer uptake in L4 vertebra and normal tracer uptake elsewhere in the skeleton. After reaching the diagnosis of a space occupying lesion invading the lumber spinal canal, we performed a decompressive laminectomy and a biopsy was sent which confirmed the diagnosis of ES. Immunohistochemistry showed tumour cells staining positive for CD-99 (specific stain for ES. Gene testing showed an EWS-FLI 1 chimera. Surgery was followed by good improvement in motor signs. The child was then referred to a specialized oncotherapy centre for further treatment, radiation, and chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report primary ES of the spine at the age of two years.

  9. Clinical manifestations of atopy in children up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Nevenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma have had increased prevalence during the past decade and nowadays occur in every third child in developed countries. The aim of the study was to determine frequency and type of atopic diseases at the age of two, as well as the importance the total IgE antibodies concentrations have in diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Methods. The study involved 175 children up to two years of age. Allergy-like symptoms were found after surveying their parents and pediatric medical records. Using the fluorescence immunossay (FIA method, total IgE antibodies concentrations and specific IgE antibodies (Phadiatop infant were determined on an Immunocap 100 Dyagnostic System. Results. One or more allergy-like symptoms accounted for 57.7% of findings in children under the age of two, whilst in 19.4% the existence of IgE-related allergic diseases was found. Atopic diseases usually have clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis (11.4%, IgE-bound wheezing/asthma (10.8% and food allergies (7.4%, and to much lesser extent those of allergic rhinitis (3.4% and urticaria (1.7%. The significantly higher total IgE antibodies concentrations were found in children with allergy-like symptoms (p < 0.0005 (cut-off 15.15 kU/L, sensitivity 76.5% specificity 71.6%. Conclusion. Almost 20% of two-year-old children have any of clinically manifested allergic diseases, with atopic dermatitis and IgE wheeze/asthma being predominant. The higher total IgE antibodies concentration is a good marker for sensitization in children with allergy-like symptoms.

  10. Two-year water degradation of self-etching adhesives bonded to bur ground enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ali I; Feilzer, Albert J

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of water storage on the microshear bond strength to ground enamel of three "all-in-one" self-etch adhesives: Futurabond DC, Clearfil S Tri Bond and Hybrid bond; a self-etching primer; Clearfil SE Bond and an etch-and-rinse adhesive system, Admira Bond. Sixty human molars were used. The root of each tooth was removed and the crown was sectioned into two halves. The convex enamel surfaces were reduced by polishing on silicon paper to prepare a flat surface that was roughened with a parallel-sided diamond bur with abundant water for five seconds. The bonding systems were applied on this surface. Prior to adhesive curing, a hollow cylinder (2.0 mm in height/0.75 mm in internal diameter) was placed on the treated surfaces and cured. A resin composite was then inserted into the tube and cured. For each adhesive, two procedures were carried out: A--the specimens were kept in water for 24 hours, then the tube was removed and the microshear bond strength was determined in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute; B--the specimens were stored in water for two-years before microshear testing. The fractured surface of the bonded specimens after each test procedure was examined by SEM. For the 24-hour control, there was no significant difference in bond strength between the tested adhesives. After two years of water storage, the bond strength of Admira Bond, Clearfil SE Bond and Futurabond DC decreased, but the reduction was not significantly different from that of 24 hours. For Clearfil S Tri Bond and Hybrid Bond, the bond strengths were significantly reduced compared to their 24-hour results.

  11. Reliability of computer designed surgical guides in six implant rehabilitations with two years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Mauro; Ausiello, Pietro; Martorelli, Massimo; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the reliability and accuracy of computer-designed surgical guides in osseointegrated oral implant rehabilitation. Six implant rehabilitations, with a total of 17 implants, were completed with computer-designed surgical guides, performed with the master model developed by muco-compressive and muco-static impressions. In the first case, the surgical guide had exclusively mucosal support, in the second case exclusively dental support. For all six cases computer-aided surgical planning was performed by virtual analyses with 3D models obtained by dental scan DICOM data. The accuracy and stability of implant osseointegration over two years post surgery was then evaluated with clinical and radiographic examinations. Radiographic examination, performed with digital acquisitions (RVG - Radio Video graph) and parallel techniques, allowed two-dimensional feedback with a margin of linear error of 10%. Implant osseointegration was recorded for all the examined rehabilitations. During the clinical and radiographic post-surgical assessments, over the following two years, the peri-implant bone level was found to be stable and without appearance of any complications. The margin of error recorded between pre-operative positions assigned by virtual analysis and the post-surgical digital radiographic observations was as low as 0.2mm. Computer-guided implant surgery can be very effective in oral rehabilitations, providing an opportunity for the surgeon: (a) to avoid the necessity of muco-periosteal detachments and then (b) to perform minimally invasive interventions, whenever appropriate, with a flapless approach. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated Co-management of Lakes through Beach Management Units

    OpenAIRE

    Goverment of Uganda; Department for International Development (DFID) of the UK Government

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record In 1999, the Integrated Co-management of Lakes through Beach Management Units project was started in an effort to implement a new approach to the management of lake resources in Uganda. The main components of this plan involved decentralization, local community management, and improving the livelihood of the poor. In order to finance the management of these areas, the Beach Management Units (BMU's) are charging user fees to those individuals who obtain benefit from the...

  13. Marine pollution: Let us not forget beach sand

    OpenAIRE

    Galgani, Francois; Ellerbrake, Katrin; Fries, Elke; Goreux, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessing the chemical or bacterial contamination in marine waters and sediments is a very common approach to evaluate marine pollution and associated risks. However, toxicity and organic pollution of beach sands have not yet been considered, except in adjacent waters. In the present study, the toxicity and the chemical contamination of natural beach sands collected 20 m from the shoreline at two sites located on the Mediterranean Sea (Marseille and La Marana, Corsica) were studie...

  14. Stability of the beaches in Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Angusamy, N.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    in Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India Soosai Manickaraj, D 1 ., Chandrasekaran, R 1 ., Gujar, A.R 2 ., Loveson, V.J 3 ., Angusamy, N 4 ., Chandrasekar, N 5 ., and Victor Rajamanickam, G 1 1 Disaster Management, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur... measurements are necessary. By comparing measurements taken at different times, a beach's stability is determined. Shoreline change data has many uses. This information is needed to evaluate the carrying capacity of the beach. It is also used to set...

  15. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, Iris R; Dekker, Stefan C; Kanters, Tobias J; Wassen, Martin J; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-12-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of mobilisation

  16. Estuarine beaches of the Amazon coast: environmental and recreational characterization

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Rosigleyse C.; Pereira, Luci Cajueiro Carneiro; Jiménez Quintana, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon coast is rich in natural resources, with highly valued natural landscapes and ecological systems. These environments include estuarine beaches, which are important areas for recreational activities. The present study provides an environmental and recreational diagnosis of three of these estuarine beaches on the Amazon coast (Colares, Maruda, and Murubira). The study was conducted in July, 2012, 2013 and 2015. An set of variables was assessed: (i) physical variables (hydrodynamics),...

  17. Medium-term dynamics of a middle Adriatic barred beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Postacchini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been paid to beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscape feature and around 70 % of the Marche region's coast (central Adriatic is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the region includes the beach of Senigallia, frequently monitored in the last decades and characterized by a multiple bar system, which represents a natural beach defense. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show long-term stability, confirmed by a good adaptation of an analyzed stretch of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short- to medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. The medium-term dynamics of the beach, which deal with the evolution of submerged bars and are of the order of years or seasons, have been related to the wave climate collected, during the analyzed temporal windows, by a wave buoy located about 40 km off Senigallia. An overall interpretation of the hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and seabed morphology suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term. These medium-term time ranges during which waves mainly come from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and by a larger/smaller relative wave height, and seem to induce seaward/shoreward bar migration as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southeastward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile shape suggests the adaptation to a decreasing sediment size in the submerged beach. This is probably due to the presence of both the harbor jetty and river mouth north of the investigated area.

  18. Sediment Transport and erosion modeling at Heaundae Beach in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, K.; Yoo, J.; McCall, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    The sand pocket beaches with two headlands are global features, but it's not easy to predict berm and dune erosion due to alongshore variation of water depth. This study investigates the sediment transport and morphological change using available wave and beach profile data, as well as to assess the applicability of the XBeach morphological model (Roelvink et al., 2009). The Haeundae is small pocket beach, 1.4 km long, located in the southern corner of the Korean Peninsula. The Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) measured beach profile along 27 survey lines. The beach profiles were surveyed five times from 17 June 2014 to 10 October 2014. For this duration, a wave gauge (AWAC) was installed at a depth about 23 m off the coast of Haeundae Beach. Severe four storms attacked Haeundae Beach for this duration and these storms lasted about 1 2 days with a peak significant wave height of 2.5 4.0 m. The placed sand is fairly sorted and its median diameter is 0.23 mm. 2DH coastal morphological model, XBeach developed to simulate dune erosion due to storm impacts. The model is based on the nonlinear shallow water equation and resolves nearshore hydrodynamics by employing a 2DH description of wave groups and infragravity motions. In this study, the numerical model XBeach was compared with the field data and used to estimate the sediment transport pattern on the sand pocket beach. The numerical model resulted in a comparable prediction in the west-part, but the east-part cannot reproduce the erosion and accretion of the sand, partly due to complex bathymetry and the lack of sediment. This limitation needs to be improved to use measured sand thickness data in future study

  19. A holistic evaluation of a typical beach nourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    is the primary method used by the Danish Coastal Authority for coastal protection and represents a management tool which serves a dual purpose. Beach Nourishment is protecting coastal lands as well as backshore properties (infrastructures, buildings etc.) and preserving natural heritages. Nevertheless, more...... an example of a holistic evaluation of a 721.000 m3  (155 m3 /m) Beach Nourishment done at the Danish West Coast in 2005....

  20. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-01-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the 238 U and 2 '3 2 Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The 226 Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 214 Pb and 21 '4Bi, the 232 Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 228 Ac, 2 '1 2 Pb and 212 Bi and the concentration of 40 K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 4 '0K. 226 Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg -1 , with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. 232 Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg -1 to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg -1 , with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. 40 K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg -1 to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg -1 , with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. Calculation of the radium equivalent and the external hazard index showed two distinct groups. In the first one, for the majority of the beaches, the

  1. Results of a two-year quality control program for a helical tomotherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broggi, Sara; Mauro Cattaneo, Giovanni; Molinelli, Silvia; Maggiulli, Eleonora; Del Vecchio, Antonella; Longobardi, Barbara; Perna, Lucia; Fazio, Ferruccio; Calandrino, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Image-guided helical tomotherapy (HT) is a new modality for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with helical irradiation: the slip ring continuously rotates while the couch moves into the bore. The radiation source (Linac, 6 MV) is collimated into a fan beam and modulated by means of a binary multileaf collimator (MLC). A xenon detector array, opposite the radiation source, allows a megavoltage-CT (MVCT) acquisition of patient images for set-up verification. The aim of this paper is to report the results of a two-year quality control (QC) program for the physical and dosimetric characterization of an HT unit installed at our Institute and clinically activated in November 2004, in order to monitor and verify the stability and the reliability of this promising radiation treatment unit. Materials and methods: Conventional Linac acceptance protocols (ATP) and QC protocols were adapted to HT with the addition of specific items reflecting important differences between the two irradiation modalities. QC tests can be summarized as: (a) mechanical and geometrical characterization of the system's components: evaluation of alignment among radiation source-gantry rotation plan-jaws-MLC-MVCT; (b) treatment beam configuration in static condition: depth dose curves (PDD) and profiles, output factors, output reproducibility and linearity; (c) dynamic component characterization: accuracy and reproducibility of MLC positioning; rotational output reproducibility and linearity, leaf latency, couch movement constancy; (d) gantry-couch and MLC-gantry synchronization; and (e) MVCT image quality. Peculiar periodicity specific tolerance and action levels were defined. Ionization chambers (Exradin A1SL 0.056 cc), films (XOmat-V/EDR2), water and solid water phantoms were used to perform quality assurance measurements. Results: Over a two-year period the final average output variation after possible beam output adjustment was -0.2 ± 1% for the

  2. Radiological and migration results of the DURALOC(R)-cup after two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juen, F.

    2000-10-01

    In 1997 a study was conduced concerning 69 consecutive patients, all of whom consisted of DURALOC(R) series 100 acetabular components. The clinical, radiological and migrational aspect of each component was investigated 2 and 4 years postoperatively. In addition to this, a further 92 cups were analyzed in an identical manner, again 2 years after implantation. This therefore equated to a total of 161 investigated cups after a follow up interval of 2 years. In 144 of these cases the cup was combined with a cementless hydroxyapatite coated Spotorno shaft, with the remaining 17 involving a cemented Link-shaft (Lubinus SP II). A 28 mm Biolox(R) ceramic head was constant in all cases. Clinical data for each cup was collected via completion of a standard examination form, while acetabular migration, both vertical and horizontal, was measured on serial radiographs by the computer assisted EBRA method. From analyses of collected data, it was clearly shown that the clinical results remained very good over the 2- and 4-year-periods however, from radiological evidence it was indicated that for the period 3-4 years postoperatively, an increasing amount of radiolucencies around the cups were apparent. There was clearly no correlation between clinical and migration results. From the data taken from 106 migration curves, the mean total migration over the initial two-year-period was calculated to be 0.88 mm. From analysis of a further 56 migration curves, the mean total migration within 4 years of implantation was assessed to be 1.23 mm, however a decreasing speed of migration over the final 2-year-period was indicated. Our results demonstrate that statements relating to migration results of particular cups are more accurate after four years. However, statements about mean migration values are possible after two years. A migration speed of 1 mm total migration within the first 2 years after operation was predictive for radiological loosening of the cup after four years (p=0

  3. Diversion and injection of buprenorphine-naloxone film two years post-introduction in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larance, Briony; Mattick, Richard; Ali, Robert; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Jenkinson, Rebecca; White, Nancy; Kihas, Ivana; Cassidy, Rosemary; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 years of post-marketing surveillance of the diversion and injection of buprenorphine-naloxone (BNX) film following its introduction in 2011. Interviews were conducted with people who inject drugs regularly (PWID) (2004-2013), opioid substitution therapy clients (2013, n = 492) and key experts (n = 44). Key outcomes were unsanctioned removal of supervised doses, diversion, injection and street price. Prevalence of past 6-month injection among PWID was adjusted for background availability of opioid substitution therapy medications using sales data. Among out-of-treatment PWID, the levels of regular (weekly+) BNX film injection were comparable to methadone and BNX tablets, and lower than mono-buprenorphine, adjusting for background availability. Fewer BNX film clients [3%; 95% (CI) 1-5] regularly injected their medication than mono-buprenorphine clients (25%; 95% CI 11-39), but at levels equivalent to those among methadone (3%; 95% CI 1-6) and BNX tablet clients (2%; 95% CI 0-6). Key experts perceived BNX film needed less supervised dosing time as it dissolved rapidly and was harder to remove from the mouth than sublingual tablets; however, removal of supervised doses was higher among BNX film clients (15%; 95% CI: 10-20) than methadone clients (3%; 95% CI 1-6), and not significantly different from BNX tablet (11%; 95% CI 2-21) and mono-buprenorphine clients (31%; 95% CI 16-46). Two years post-introduction, levels of BNX film diversion and injection remained comparable with those for methadone and BNX tablets, and lower than mono-buprenorphine. We found no evidence that BNX film has lower non-adherence and diversion than the tablet formulation. [Larance B, Mattick R, Ali R, Lintzeris N, Jenkinson R, White N, Kihas I, Cassidy R, Degenhardt L. Diversion and injection of buprenorphine-naloxone film two years post-introduction in Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Professional Development Opportunities for Two-Year College Geoscience Faculty: Issues, Opportunities, and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, E. M.; Macdonald, H.; McDaris, J. R.; Granshaw, F. D.; Wenner, J. M.; Hodder, J.; van der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Filson, R. H.; Guertin, L. A.; Wiese, K.

    2011-12-01

    Two-year colleges (2YCs) play a critical role in geoscience education in the United States. Nearly half of the undergraduate students who take introductory geoscience do so at a 2YC. With awide reach and diverse student populations, 2YCs may be key to producing a well-trained, diverse and sufficiently large geoscience workforce. However, faculty at 2YCs often face many barriers to professional development including lack of financial resources, heavy and inflexible teaching loads, lack of awareness of opportunities, and few professional development resources/events targeted at their needs. As an example, at the 2009 GSA meeting in Portland, fewer than 80 of the 6500 attendees were from community colleges, although this was more than twice the 2YC faculty attendance the previous year. Other issues include the isolation described by many 2YC geoscience faculty who may be the only full time geoscientist on a campus and challenges faced by adjunct faculty who may have even fewer opportunities for professional development and networking with other geoscience faculty. Over the past three years we have convened several workshops and events for 2YC geoscience faculty including technical sessions and a workshop on funding opportunities for 2YC faculty at GSA annual meetings, a field trip and networking event at the fall AGU meeting, a planning workshop that examined the role of 2YCs in geoscience education and in broadening participation in the geosciences, two workshops supporting use of the 'Math You Need, When You Need It' educational materials that included a majority of 2YC faculty, and marine science summer institutes offered by COSEE-Pacific Partnerships for 2YC faculty. Our experience indicates that 2YC faculty desire professional development opportunities when the experience is tailored to the needs and character of their students, programs, and institutions. The content of the professional development opportunity must be useful to 2YC faculty -workshops and

  5. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  6. Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes-Entering a new era of investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?

  8. Users' Perception as a Tool to Improve Urban Beach Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Omar; Espejel, Ileana; Arellano, Evarista; Delhumeau, Sheila

    2008-08-01

    Four beaches that share physiographic characteristics (sandy, wide, and long) but differ in socioeconomic and cultural terms (three are located in northwestern Mexico and one in California, USA) were evaluated by beach users. Surveys (565) composed of 36 questions were handed out to beach users on weekends and holidays in 2005. The 25 questions that revealed the most information were selected by factor analysis and classified by cluster analysis. Beach users’ preferences were assigned a value by comparing the present survey results with the characteristics of an “ideal” recreational urban beach. Cluster analysis separated three groups of questions: (a) services and infrastructure, (b) recreational activities, and (c) beach conditions. Cluster linkage distance ( r = 0.82, r = 0.78, r = 0.67) was used as a weight and multiplied by the value of beach descriptive factors. Mazatlán and Oceanside obtained the highest values because there are enough infrastructure and services; on the contrary, Ensenada and Rosarito were rated medium and low because infrastructure and services are lacking. The presently proposed method can contribute to improving current beach evaluations because the final score represents the beach users’ evaluation of the quality of the beach. The weight considered in the present study marks the beach users’ preferences among the studied beaches. Adding this weight to beach evaluation will contribute to more specific beach planning in which users’ perception is considered.

  9. Two years of operating experience with the Seattle clinical neutron therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risler, R.; Brossard, S.; Eenmaa, J.; Kalet, I.; Wootton, P.

    1987-01-01

    After five years of planning, equipment acquisition, facility construction and beam testing the Seattle Clinical Neutron Therapy facility became operational in October 1984. In the past two years nearly 300 people have been treated in clinical trials. During this time 82 % of the planned treatment sessions were performed on schedule, 3 % had to be rescheduled for patient related reasons and 15 % because of equipment problems. The facility is at present running on a 5 days/week schedule: Three ten-hour treatment days, one maintenance day and one research day (radiobiology, therapy related physics). Short runs for short lived isotopes are done between patient treatments. The isocentric gantry, capable of 360 rotation is equipped with a variable collimator with 40 independent leaves. This collimation system allows the use of complex field shapes without the necessity of handling radioactive components like collimator inserts or blocks. It has turned out to be a very essential part for the efficient operation of the facility. Major causes for equipment downtime were associated with the control system, the beryllium target system, RF and magnet systems and the treatment gantry. (author)

  10. Risk Factors for Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients: Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Sameiro-Faria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. End-stage renal disease (ESRD patients under hemodialysis (HD have high mortality rate. Inflammation, dyslipidemia, disturbances in erythropoiesis, iron metabolism, endothelial function, and nutritional status have been reported in these patients. Our aim was to identify any significant association of death with these disturbances, by performing a two-year follow-up study. Methods and Results. A large set of data was obtained from 189 HD patients (55.0% male; 66.4 ± 13.9 years old, including hematological data, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory, and endothelial (dysfunction markers, and dialysis adequacy. Results. 35 patients (18.5% died along the follow-up period. Our data showed that the type of vascular access, C-reactive protein (CRP, and triglycerides (TG are significant predictors of death. The risk of death was higher in patients using central venous catheter (CVC (Hazard ratio [HR] =3.03, 95% CI = 1.49–6.13, with higher CRP levels (fourth quartile, compared with those with lower levels (first quartile (HR = 17.3, 95% CI = 2.40–124.9. Patients with higher TG levels (fourth quartile presented a lower risk of death, compared with those with the lower TG levels (first quartile (HR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.05–0.58. Conclusions. The use of CVC, high CRP, and low TG values seem to be independent risk factors for mortality in HD patients.

  11. Engaging College Students at Two-year Campuses in Aerospace Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirienzo, William

    2018-01-01

    College students at two-year campuses have unique challenges to their learning and are often "nontraditional" students, including first-generation and/or returning adult students. They have little or no exposure to research, related to science and aerospace or otherwise, and so they do not think of these fields as possible careers or understand how the disciplines operate. Exposing these students to real research projects, especially ones that include rocket payloads, have a dramatic effect on the interests and academic success of students. Projects such as these can be quite large and expensive, perhaps prohibitively so for small institutions. We engaged a group of these students through the RockOn and RockSat programs lead by the Colorado Space Grant Consortium, which are programs for postsecondary students to access space with relatively easy access and low cost. The student team designed, built, and flew a scientific payload on a suborbital sounding rocket launched at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. The experiment sent E. coli DNA samples into space to assess the damage and measured the radiation exposure with and without radiation shielding, and assessed the samples for DNA damage upon their return. We report on the process and the effects on the students as part of their experience.

  12. Microbially influenced corrosion of zinc and aluminium - Two-year subjection to influence of Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzeliunas, Eimutis [Institute of Chemistry, A.Gostauto 9, 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: ejuzel@ktl.mii.lt; Ramanauskas, Rimantas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Leinartas, Konstantinas; Samuleviciene, Meilute; Sudavicius, Aloyzas; Juskenas, Remigijus [Institute of Chemistry, A.Gostauto 9, 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2007-11-15

    Aspergillus niger. Tiegh., a filamentous ascomycete fungus, was isolated from the metal samples exposed to marine, rural and urban sites in Lithuania. Al and Zn samples were subjected to two-year influence of A. niger under laboratory conditions in humid atmosphere. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) ascertained microbially influenced corrosion acceleration (MICA) of Zn and inhibition (MICI) of Al. EIS data indicated a two-layer structure of corrosion products on Zn. The microorganisms reduced the thickness of the inner layer, whose passivating capacity was much higher when compared to that of the outer layer. An increase in aluminium oxide layer resistance but decrease in the layer thickness implied that MICI affected primarily the sites of localized corrosion of Al (pores, micro-cracks, etc.). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies indicated that bioproducts (i.e. organic acids) did not form crystalline phases with corrosion products of zinc. The study suggested a hypothesis that microorganisms could be used as corrosion protectors instead of toxic chemicals, application of which tends to be increasingly restricted.

  13. Microbially influenced corrosion of zinc and aluminium - Two-year subjection to influence of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juzeliunas, Eimutis; Ramanauskas, Rimantas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Leinartas, Konstantinas; Samuleviciene, Meilute; Sudavicius, Aloyzas; Juskenas, Remigijus

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus niger. Tiegh., a filamentous ascomycete fungus, was isolated from the metal samples exposed to marine, rural and urban sites in Lithuania. Al and Zn samples were subjected to two-year influence of A. niger under laboratory conditions in humid atmosphere. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) ascertained microbially influenced corrosion acceleration (MICA) of Zn and inhibition (MICI) of Al. EIS data indicated a two-layer structure of corrosion products on Zn. The microorganisms reduced the thickness of the inner layer, whose passivating capacity was much higher when compared to that of the outer layer. An increase in aluminium oxide layer resistance but decrease in the layer thickness implied that MICI affected primarily the sites of localized corrosion of Al (pores, micro-cracks, etc.). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies indicated that bioproducts (i.e. organic acids) did not form crystalline phases with corrosion products of zinc. The study suggested a hypothesis that microorganisms could be used as corrosion protectors instead of toxic chemicals, application of which tends to be increasingly restricted

  14. The accident of the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant. Status two years after the event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    In a first part, this report briefly recalls the circumstances and occurrence of the accident, gives an overview of actions undertaken by the IRSN (calculations of installation damages, modelling of contaminated air movements, simulations of radionuclide dispersion in the sea environment, information of French nationals in Japan, press and public information), and an overview of strength tests of nuclear installations (additional safety assessments and European stress tests). The second part gives an overview of the situation in Japan two years after the accident: evolution of governance in terms of nuclear risk management, condition of the Fukushima plant in January 2013, health and environmental impact and post-accidental management, actions undertaken by the IRSN (assessment of doses potentially received by populations, strengthening of cooperation between Japan and France in the field of severe accidents, participation to the Fukushima Dialogue). The third part presents the contribution of the IRSN to the strengthening of nuclear safety and radiation protection at the international level, at the European level, and in France

  15. A two-year follow-up on a program theory of return to work intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anne Grete Claudi

    2013-01-01

    Validation of a salutogenic theory for return to work (RTW) and an associated program process theory. A longitudinal non-randomized one-year trial study design was used with a two-year follow-up and with comparison to a reference group. Changes in attitudes and active behaviour in the intervention group and at the workplace were supported by cognitive and behavioural approaches. The intervention group included 118 unskilled Danish public employees and privately employed house-cleaners on sick leave due to musculoskeletal and/or common mental illnesses. Significant improvements of work ability index and perceived health (SF36 subgroups) were reported. A significantly higher RTW and a shorter sick leave than in the reference group also emerged. Positive predictors of RTW were keeping the pre-sick-leave job and improving work ability index and physical impairment/role physical. Decline in self-efficacy was a negative predictor. Support for the theory and associated program process theory was found. The intervention seemed to influence RTW and the employees' attitudes, behaviour and health by affecting comprehensibility, meaningfulness and manageability. Sustainable RTW emerged from a synergism of support from the work place and improved personal resources, especially such as concern mental health. The approach is consistent with integrating health promotion in RTW.

  16. Two years experience with tunneled dialysis catheters in patients requiring haemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheem, A.; Rana, A. I.; Ramzan, M.; Shah, R. A.; Mehmood, S. N.; Naseem, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To look for survival rate and major reasons behind the failure of tunnelled dialysis catheters in patients on haemodialysis. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Interventional Radiology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, and comprised records of 100 consecutive subjects from a list of patients in whom tunnelled cuffed catheters were placed from February 2009 to January 2011 and were followed up for two years. Data was collected on a proforma from the hospital database and medical records of patients. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 122 catheters placed in 100 patients, 49(40.16%) were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 73(59.83%) catheters, 38(52%) had achieved their desired function, while 35(48%) failed to achieve the target duration. Among the reasons of catheter failure, infection was the commonest at 13(37.14%) with infection rate of 0.24 per 1000 catheter days. According to Kaplan Meier analysis, catheter survival rates at 60, 90 and 180 days were 89%, 77% and 64% respectively. Mean effective duration of catheter was 129+-117 days. Conclusion: Tunnelled dialysis catheters can be safely used as vascular access till the maturation of fistula and may be an alternative to Arterio-Venous Fistula or graft for long-term vascular access if indicated. (author)

  17. Essential Thrombocythemia in a Two-year-old Child, Responsive to Hydroxyurea but Not Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq N. Aladily

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential thrombocythemia (ET is a myeloproliferative neoplasm that occurs mostly in patients above the age of 50 years. Its incidence in children is very rare, with around 100 cases reported in the literature. High-risk patients are defined by previous life threatening major thrombotic or severe hemorrhagic complication or age > 60. Those patients probably benefit from cytoreductive therapy. On the other hand, antiplatelet drugs are recommended for patients with low risk group. Although rare, ET should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent thrombocytosis in children, even at a very young age. A constellation of clinical, pathologic ,and molecular testing are essential for diagnosis. Given the rarity of these cases, there is currently no consensus for treatment guidelines in children, especially in asymptomatic patients. We describe a case of a two-year old girl who presented with unexplained, isolated thrombocytosis which persisted for eight years. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated typical features of ET. Over the course of the disease, hydroxyurea, but not aspirin, showed better control of symptoms and lowered the platelets level.

  18. Two year follow-up of a garbage collector with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmers, H; Huber, H; Baur, X

    2000-04-01

    Separate collection of biodegradable garbage and recyclable waste is expected to become mandatory in some western countries. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and separation might become endangered by high loads of bacteria and fungi. Case history and examination A 29 year old garbage collector involved in emptying so-called biological garbage complained of dyspnea, fever, and flu-like symptoms during work beginning in the summer of 1992. Chest x-ray showed streaky shadows near both hili reaching into the upper regions. IgE- and IgG-antibodies (CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden) were strongly positive for Aspergillus fumigatus with 90.5 kU/L and 186%, respectively. Total-IgE was also strongly elevated with 5430 kU/L. Bronchial challenge testing with commercially available Aspergillus fumigatus extract resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. Two years later he was still symptomatic and antibodies persisted at lower levels. Our diagnosis was allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) including asthmatic responses as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) due to exposure to moldy household waste. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and handling are exposed and at risk to develop sensitization to fungi due to exposure to dust of biodegradable waste. Further studies are necessary to show if separate collection of biodegradable waste increases the health risks due to exposure to bacteria and fungi in comparison to waste collection without separation. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Cognitive outcome and reliable change indices two years following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy E; Arzola, Gladys Marina; Strutt, Adriana M; Simpson, Richard; Jankovic, Joseph; York, Michele K

    2011-06-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is currently the treatment of choice for medication-resistant levodopa-related motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). While STN-DBS often results in meaningful motor improvements, consensus regarding long-term neuropsychological outcome continues to be debated. We assessed the cognitive outcomes of 19 STN-DBS patients compared to a group of 18 medically-managed PD patients on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at baseline and two years post-surgery. Patients did not demonstrate changes in global cognitive functioning on screening measures. However, neuropsychological results revealed impairments in nonverbal recall, oral information processing speed, and lexical and semantic fluency in STN-DBS patients compared to PD controls 2 years post-surgery in these preliminary analyses. Additionally, reliable change indices revealed that approximately 50% of STN-DBS patients demonstrated significant declines in nonverbal memory and oral information processing speed compared to 25-30% of PD controls, and 26% of STN-DBS patients declined on lexical fluency compared to 11% of PD patients. Approximately 30% of both groups declined on semantic fluency. The number of STN-DBS patients who converted to dementia 2 years following surgery was not significantly different from the PD participants (32% versus 16%, respectively). Our results suggest that neuropsychological evaluations may identify possible mild cognitive changes following surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-05

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  1. Proposed diagnosis criteria for inflicted head injury of children younger than two years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Aritaki, Kentarou; Yotani, Nobuyuki; Miyasaka, Mikiko; Nishina, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish whether children's head injuries are due to physical abuse or unintentional accidents. However, in the literature, medical findings specific to infant physical abuse were identified. Thus, we developed diagnostic criteria for inflicted head injury (IHI) and assessed its validity. Subjects were collected from all patients who were less than two years old when they visited National Center for Child Health (NCCHD) and Development and underwent head CT scan to assess head trauma from March 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005. Diagnostic criteria for IHI were developed based on definitions of Duhaime et al (1992) and Reece et al (2001). Validity of diagnosis criteria was assessed by comparing the official report to the Child Guidance Center (CGC) from NCCHD to the disposition decided by the CGC. Two-hundred and sixty cases were collected and diagnosed. There was a 86.5% match of the number of cases which were diagnosed as IHI or non-IHI using the IHI diagnostic criteria with official reports to CGC from NCCHD. Among the cases which were diagnosed as presumptive IHI and also reported to the CGC, 20 cases (83.3%) were regarded as abused cases by the CGC. The diagnostic criteria for IHI were valid and would be useful for pediatricians not to condone inflicted head injury. (author)

  2. Two-year review of an on-line accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.; Bair, W.J.; Larson, G.F.; Serier, M.N.; Woehle, B.A.

    1983-05-01

    In November 1980, Westinghouse Hanford Company installed the initial version of the Safeguards Active Response Inventory System (SARIS). It was designed as an advanced accountability system to meet the needs of process, safeguards, criticality, safety, and inventory control. A single database translates information about a quantity of nuclear material into the language used by process operators or accountants. Modifications made through functions that model the process automatically generate changes in nuclear material reports, including input of transactions to the NMMSS system at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. During the past two years, the user attitude about SARIS has improved, largely due to the changes implemented in four major additions. Problems encountered during development include: obtaining accurate and complete data to load the database, slow computer response, insufficient training of users before system implementation, and functions that did not exactly meet the user's needs. The benefits of SARIS have included: consistency in data reporting, fewer errors due to immediate resolution of discrepancies, a standardized audit trail, and elimination of manual methods. The most important improvement is a reporting scheme that enables rapid conduction and reconciliation of physical inventories

  3. Nonpigmented Metastatic Melanoma in a Two-Year-Old Girl: A Serious Diagnostic Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Gulden; Tosun Yildirim, Hulya; Yamaci, Selcen

    2015-01-01

    Although rare, malignant melanoma may occur in children. Childhood melanomas account for only 0.3–3% of all melanomas. In particular the presence of congenital melanocytic nevi is associated with an increased risk of development of melanoma. We herein report a case of malignant melanoma that developed on a giant congenital melanocytic nevus and made a metastasis to the subcutaneous tissue of neck in a two-year-old girl. The patient was hospitalized for differential diagnosis and treatment of cervical mass with a suspicion of hematological malignancy, because the malignant transformation of congenital nevus was not noticed before. In this case, we found out a nonpigmented malignant tumor of pleomorphic cells after the microscopic examination of subcutaneous lesion. Nonpigmented metastatic melanoma was diagnosed by several immunohistochemical and flow cytometric studies. She was offered palliative chemotherapy; however, her parents did not accept treatment. The patient died within 9 months of diagnosis. We emphasized here that the possibility of malignant melanoma in the differential diagnosis of childhood tumors should be kept in mind. PMID:25763285

  4. Two-year prospective study of major depressive disorder in HIV-infected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J Hampton; Heaton, Robert K; Patterson, Thomas L; Wolfson, Tanya; Deutsch, Reena; Brown, Stephen J; Summers, J; Sciolla, A; Gutierrez, R; Ellis, Ronald J; Abramson, Ian; Hesselink, John R; McCutchan, J Allen; Grant, Igor

    2008-06-01

    The risks and factors contributing to major depressive episodes in HIV infection remain unclear. This 2-year prospective study compared cumulative rates and predictors of a major depressive episode in HIV-infected (HIV+) men (N=297) and uninfected (HIV-) risk-group controls (N=90). By design participants at entry were without current major depression, substance dependence or major anxiety disorder. Standardized neuromedical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, life events, and psychiatric assessments (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R) were conducted semi-annually for those with AIDS, and annually for all others. Lifetime prevalence of major depression or other psychiatric disorder did not differ at baseline between HIV+ men and controls. On a two-year follow-up those with symptomatic HIV disease were significantly more likely to experience a major depressive episode than were asymptomatic HIV+ individuals and HIV-controls (pdepression. After baseline disease stage and medical variables associated with HIV infection were controlled, a lifetime history of major depression, or of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity (two or more psychiatric disorders), predicted subsequent major depressive episode (pdepressive episode. Research cohort of men examined before era of widespread use of advanced anti-HIV therapies. Symptomatic HIV disease, but not HIV infection itself, increases intermediate-term risk of major depression. Prior psychiatric history most strongly predicted future vulnerability.

  5. A Two-Year Prospective Analysis of Mandibular Fractures in Western Population of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwinirani Suragimath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trauma to the facial region causes injuries to hard and soft tissues of the face. Injuries to the maxillofacial region are increasing in frequency and severity because of the increased number of road traffic accidents (RTAs and increased number of violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate age, gender distribution, etiology, and pattern of mandibular fractures in Western part of Maharashtra population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology for a period of two years from June 2013 to June 2015. Clinical examination of all trauma patients was done and diagnosis was made based on signs, clinical features, and confirmed by orthopantomographs. Results: Totally, 193 patients were detected with different types of mandibular fractures. Study group involved 77.2% males and 22.8% females with a male to female ratio of 3.3:1. Majority of patients were in the age group of 21–30 years followed by 31–40 years. Trauma due to RTAs were more common followed by assaults and fall. Parasymphyseal fractures were most common type followed by condylar fracture and fracture of angle of mandible. Conclusion: Males were most commonly affected by trauma than females with a predominant age group of 21–30 years. Majority of trauma were due to RTAs with parasymphyseal as most common type of fracture.

  6. Two-year-olds with autism orient to nonsocial contingencies rather than biological motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Ami; Lin, David J.; Gorrindo, Phillip; Ramsay, Gordon; Jones, Warren

    2009-01-01

    Typically-developing human infants preferentially attend to biological motion within the first days of life1. This ability is highly conserved across species2,3 and is believed to be critical for filial attachment and for detection of predators4. The neural underpinnings of biological motion perception are overlapping with brain regions involved in perception of basic social signals such as facial expression and gaze direction5, and preferential attention to biological motion is seen as a precursor to the capacity for attributing intentions to others6. However, in a serendipitous observation7, we recently found that an infant with autism failed to recognize point-light displays of biological motion but was instead highly sensitive to the presence of a non-social, physical contingency that occurred within the stimuli by chance. This observation raised the hypothesis that perception of biological motion may be altered in children with autism from a very early age, with cascading consequences for both social development and for the lifelong impairments in social interaction that are a hallmark of autism spectrum disorders8. Here we show that two-year-olds with autism fail to orient towards point-light displays of biological motion, and that their viewing behavior when watching these point-light displays can be explained instead as a response to non-social, physical contingencies physical contingencies that are disregarded by control children. This observation has far-reaching implications for understanding the altered neurodevelopmental trajectory of brain specialization in autism9. PMID:19329996

  7. ANTI-IGE THERAPY FOR SEVERE ASTHMA IN CHILDREN: TWO-YEAR TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Kulichenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes a two-year experience of treating children and adolescents with severe uncontrolled atopic asthma using Omalizumab. This treatment facilitated to achieve full asthma control in 70% of patients and partial control in 30% of patients. Anti-Ig Etherapy contributes to reduce the frequency of asthma relapses 77%, and the number of those seeking emergency medical treatment, particularly no need for in-patient asthma care. Thanks to treatment, lung function parameters improve, particularly in children with low bronchial patency parameters even after administration of broncholytics. Thanks to treatment with omalizumab, the dosage of inhalant glucocorticosteroids is reduced 1.5 to 2.5 times in 75% patients. Treatment tolerance in all children is satisfactory, no serious adverse events associated with the medication or any system side effects are registered in patients. Anti-IgE therapy is a good alternative to use of high and ultra-high doses of inhalant glucocorticosteroids in children with severe atopic asthma. Key words: omalizumab, anti-IgE-antibodies, treatment-resistant asthma, atopic asthma, treatment, children, adolescents, asthma control. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:57-65

  8. Effect of North Carolina's restriction on teenage driver cell phone use two years after implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Arthur H; O'Brien, Natalie P; Foss, Robert D

    2012-09-01

    A majority of states now restrict teenagers from using a mobile communication device while driving. The effect of these restrictions is largely unknown. In a previous study, we found North Carolina's teenage driver cell phone restriction had little influence on young driver behavior four months after the law took effect (Foss et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to examine the longer-term effect of North Carolina's cell phone restriction. It was expected that compliance with the restriction would increase, as awareness of the restriction grew over time. Teenagers were observed at high schools in North Carolina approximately two years after the law was implemented. Observations were also conducted in South Carolina, which did not have a cell phone restriction. In both states, there was a broad decrease in cell phone use. A logistic regression analysis showed the decrease in cell phone use did not significantly differ between the two states. Although hand-held cell phone use decreased, there was an increase in the likelihood that drivers in North Carolina were observed physically manipulating a phone. Finally, a mail survey of teenagers in North Carolina showed awareness for the cell phone restriction now stands at 78% among licensed teens. Overall, the findings suggest North Carolina's cell phone restriction has had no long-term effect on the behavior of teenage drivers. Moreover, it appears many teenage drivers may be shifting from talking on a phone to texting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  10. Assessing Student-Mentor Interaction During a Summer REU for Two Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Olivarez, A.; Rohrbaugh, R.; Villalobos, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    UTEP-ROCCS (Research Opportunities for Community College Students) is a summer REU program designed exclusively for two-year college students. The program differs from other summer REU's in several ways. First, the participants are only in El Paso during the month of June to begin their research projects, with subsequent research carried out at their home institutions with intensive virtual mentoring in July. Second, the mentoring team is a unique mix of 2-year and 4-year college faculty and undergraduate juniors and seniors. Our first cohort of 6 ROCCS students began their research in June 2017 supported by 2 UTEP undergraduate mentors and 5 faculty mentors. Preliminary results of a series of 4 weekly road checks indicate that 95% of the time the participants felt the faculty and student mentors were supportive, encouraging, and able to respond to their questions and concerns. All felt they received constructive, useful critiques of their field and research work, were motivated by the mentors to learn more and were challenged to extend their abilities and skills for the success of their research projects. Over 70% of the time they felt the mentors encouraged them by suggesting appropriate and available resources when they were struggling. And, most importantly, over 96% of the time they felt the experience stimulated their interest in geology as a future career. We hope to observe similar trends in the road checks of July 2017 as participants prepare their results for the AGU's fall virtual undergraduate poster session.

  11. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette E-mail: melieres@glaciog.ujf-grenoble.fr; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-07-01

    To make up for the lack of data on {sup 210}Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23{+-}0.02 mBq m{sup -3} during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall (<15 cm per 15-day), while this correlation is masked by strong fluctuations at high rainfall. The estimated mean annual deposition over the last ten years is 163{+-}75 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana.

  12. Chemical and microbiological studies on petroleum contaminated soils after two years of biotreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosecker, K.; Hollerbach, A.; Teschner, M.; Wehner, H.; Kassner, H.

    1993-01-01

    For reclamation of a former refinery area, five batches of 200--300 m 3 of contaminated soil were treated with indigenous or specially selected microorganisms. Partly, the beds were irrigated, nutrients were added or the test sites were heated. After two years of bioremediation soil samples were investigated by chemical and microbiological techniques. Within the period the total concentration of hydrocarbons decreased from 15,000--35,000 mg/kg weight to 3,750--9,400 mg/kg dry weight. The portion of saturated hydrocarbons was reduced by 20--60%. In parallel, the amount of heterocompounds and asphaltenes increased. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were in the range of 16--31 mg/kg dry weight, phenols were 130--170 μg/kg dry weight. Microbiological investigations resulted in a roughly similar distribution pattern of ecophysiological groups in all samples. Among the heterotrophic aerobes which ranged from 1.2 x 10 7 -- 1.2 x 10 8 cfu/ml oil degrading bacteria predominated (up to 9.4 x 10 7 cells/ml) showing high potential for degradation of saturated hydrocarbons under laboratory conditions

  13. Memory by association: Integrating memories prolongs retention by two-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien

    2017-02-01

    Recalling one memory often leads to the recollection of other memories that share overlapping features. This phenomenon, spreading activation, was originally documented in studies conducted with verbal adults, and more recently, it has been demonstrated with preverbal infants. Here, we examine the effect of spreading activation on long-term retention by 2-year-olds. Participants were tested in the Visual Recognition Memory (VRM) paradigm and the deferred imitation paradigm. Typically, infants of this age exhibit retention in the VRM paradigm for 24h, while they exhibit retention in the deferred imitation paradigm for at least 8 weeks. In the present experiment, we paired these tasks together during original encoding and tested infants after an 8-week delay. Two-year-olds exhibited retention in both tasks. That is, when these two tasks initially occurred together - one task that is extremely memorable and one that is not - retrieving the memory of the more memorable task cued retrieval of the less memorable task, extending its longevity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of early communication skills in the first two years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuker, Karin T; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2013-02-01

    The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-year-olds exclude novel objects as potential referents of novel words based on pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Susanne; Stracke, Marén; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Many studies have established that children tend to exclude objects for which they already have a name as potential referents of novel words. In the current study we asked whether this exclusion can be triggered by social-pragmatic context alone without pre-existing words as blockers. Two-year-old children watched an adult looking at a novel object while saying a novel word with excitement. In one condition the adult had not seen the object beforehand, and so the children interpreted the adult's utterance as referring to the gazed-at object. In another condition the adult and child had previously played jointly with the gazed-at object. In this case, children less often assumed that the adult was referring to the object but rather they searched for an alternative referent--presumably because they inferred that the gazed-at object was old news in their common ground with the adult and so not worthy of excited labeling. Since this inference based on exclusion is highly similar to that underlying the Principle of Contrast/Mutual Exclusivity, we propose that this principle is not purely lexical but rather is based on children's understanding of how and why people direct one another's attention to things either with or without language.

  16. The Quest CCS Project - MMV Technology Deployment Through Two Years of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S.

    2017-12-01

    In September 2012, Shell, on behalf of the Athabasca Oil Sands Project venture (Shell Canada Energy, Chevron Canada Limited, Marathon Oil Canada Corporation), announced that it was proceeding to construct the Quest Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) project near Fort Saskatchewan. Quest is the world's first large-scale commercial application of CCS at an oil sands operation, and it is now capturing more than one million tonnes of CO2 per year from the Scotford Upgrader. It is a fully integrated project, involving CO2 capture at the bitumen upgrader, transportation along a 65 km pipeline, and CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer (the Basal Cambrian Sands). Construction was completed in August 2015, and the Quest project was certified for commercial operation in September 2015. The Measurement, Monitoring and Verification (MMV) program for Quest is comprehensive, with a variety of technologies being used to monitor the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere. These include a Lightsource system for atmospheric monitoring, extensive groundwater sampling, DAS VSPs to assess the development of the CO2 plume, a microseismic array to measure any induced seismic activity, and temperature and pressure gauges for reservoir monitoring. Over two years of operations, this program has been optimized to address key risks while improving operational efficiency. Quest has now successfully captured and stored more than 2 million tonnes of CO2 with no MMV indications of any storage issues.

  17. A two-year review of an on-line accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.; Bair, W.J.; Larson, G.F.; Serier, M.N.; Woehle, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    In November 1980, Westinghouse Hanford Company installed the initial version of the Safeguards Active Response Inventory System (SARIS). It was designed as an advanced accountability system to meet the needs of process, safeguards, criticality, safety, and inventory control. A single database translates information about a quantity of nuclear material into the language used by process operators or accountants. Modifications made through functions that model the process automatically generate changes in nuclear material reports, including input of transactions to the NMMSS system at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. During the past two years, the user attitude about SARIS has improved, largely due to the changes implemented in four major additions. Problems encountered during development include: obtaining accurate and complete data to load the database, slow computer response, insufficient communication between users and developers, insufficient training of users before system implementation, and functions that did not exactly meet the user's needs. The benefits of SARIS have included: consistency in data reporting, fewer errors due to immediate resolution of discrepancies, a standardized audit trail, and elimination of manual methods. The most important improvement is a reporting scheme that enables rapid conduction and reconciliation of physical inventories

  18. A Tale of Ambivalence: Salman Rushdie's "Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ziyad Gulcu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salman Rushdie’s memoirs, essays and novels contribute to the appreciation of the contradictions in his outlook on life. His experiences in his family enable Rushdie to make efforts for objective and tolerant judgement of British lifestyle and culture. However, his isolation from the society in Britain despite his struggle for adaptation to British cultural values cause contradictions in his cultural identity. While Rushdie expresses his allegiance to India and its culture in The Ground Beneath Her Feet (1999, he reflects his alienation from his homeland in this novel as well. Similarly, in his Imaginary Homelands (1981-1991 whereas Rushdie questions the injustice and inequality caused by imperialism in The New Empire within Britain (1982, he justifies the colonialist discourse in Kipling (1990. He elaborates on the contradictions in his outlook on life in terms of his cultural ambivalence in his fictions such as Midnight’s Children (1981 and Shame (1983. However, in his latest novel, Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights (2015, Rushdie reflects his cultural identity conflict in terms of rationalism-mysticism dichotomy. With the use of allegory as well as the lack of linearity in time and space, Rushdie justifies his cultural ambivalence in relation to the dynamism of contemporary world. Thus, Rushdie’s latest novel invites reading for its representation of the oppositions in his approach to life.

  19. Review of Online Programming Characteristics and Pricing at Private Not-for-Profit Two Year Colleges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Online programming has expanded greatly within higher education and much attention has been spent on public two year colleges (more commonly known as community colleges) and both private and public four year institutions. This research seeks to expand understanding of the small market of private not-for-profit two year colleges within the United…

  20. Feeding ecology of the beach silverside Atherinella blackburni (Atherinopsidae in a tropical sandy beach, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Guazzelli Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Abstract The feeding ecology of the beach silverside (Atherinella blackburni in the surf zone of a tropical sand beach, located in the southeastern Brazil, was accessed through the gut content analysis of 198 fish. Factors such as fish's size, season and day period were analysed to understand how these variables affect the diet composition of the species. Results show that A. blackburni is a coastal neritic fish with a broad feeding niche. Most recurrent prey were zooplanktonic crustaceans, insects and benthic molluscs, in which Copepoda crustaceans were the dominant dietary item in occurrence and abundance. A. blackburni appears to have a slight ontogenetic shift in its diet, changing from benthic molluscs to crustaceans and insects along its life cycle. The diel activity also reveals to be an important factor to the A. blackburni feeding ecology. The predominant occurrence of small fish during the morning, along with the main preys for this size class, suggests that small individuals use shallower waters as feeding grounds during the morning and, during the night, they move to deeper waters for protection against predators.

  1. Experimental Study of Irregular Waves on a Gravel Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nai-Ren; Wu, Yun-Ta; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng

    2017-04-01

    In the east coast of Taiwan, the sort grain size more belongs to cobble or gravel, which is physically distinct compared to the sandy beach in the west coast of Taiwan. Although gravel beaches can dissipate more of wave energy, gravel beaches were eroded and coastal road were damaged especially during typhoons. The purpose of this study is to investigate the geomorphological response of gravel beach due to irregular waves. This experiment was carry out in a 21m long, 50 cm wide, 70 cm high wave tank at Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan. To simulate of the geometry in the east coast of Taiwan, a physical model with 1/36 scale-down was used, in which the seawall was 10cm built upon a 1:10 slope and gravel grains with D50 being 3.87 mm was nourished in front of the seawall. In terms of typhoon-scale wave condition, irregular waves with scale-down conditions were generated for 600 s for each scenarios and, three different water levels with respect to the gravel beach are designed. Application of laser combined with image processing to produce 3D topographic map, the erosion zone and accretion zone would be found. The resulting morphological change of gravel beach will be measured using an integrated laser and image processing tool to have 3D topographic maps. It is expected to have more understanding about under what conditions the gravel coasts suffer the least damage. In particular, the relation between erosion rates of gravel beach, the angle of gravel slope and the length of the plane on the gravel slope will be achieved

  2. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  3. Trends in physical activity, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills in children during a two-year comprehensive school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Nam, Kahyun; Goodrum, Sara; Burns, Ryan D

    2018-01-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the trends in school-day step counts, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills during a two-year Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) in children. Longitudinal trend analysis. Participants were a sample of children (N=240; mean age=7.9±1.2 years; 125 girls, 115 boys) enrolled in five low-income schools. Outcome variables consisted of school day step counts, Body Mass Index (BMI), estimated VO 2 Peak , and gross motor skill scores assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3rd Edition (TGMD-3). Measures were collected over a two-year CSPAP including a baseline and several follow-up time-points. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine time trends on each continuous outcome variable. Markov-chain transition models were employed to examine time trends for derived binary variables for school day steps, BMI, and estimated VO 2 Peak . There were statistically significant time coefficients for estimated VO 2 Peak (b=1.10mL/kg/min, 95% C.I. [0.35mL/kg/min-2.53mL/kg/min], p=0.009) and TGMD-3 scores (b=7.8, 95% C.I. [6.2-9.3], p<0.001). There were no significant changes over time for school-day step counts or BMI. Boys had greater change in odds of achieving a step count associating with 30min of school day MVPA (OR=1.25, 95% C.I. [1.02-1.48], p=0.044). A two-year CSPAP related to increases in cardio-respiratory endurance and TGMD-3 scores. School day steps and BMI were primarily stable across the two-year intervention. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Two-year results of femtosecond assisted LASIK versus PRK for different severity of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraftab, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan; Asgari, Soheila

    2018-03-01

    To compare two-year results of femtosecond laser assisted LASIK (femto-LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in terms of astigmatism correction in patients with less than 2.0 diopters (D) of spherical error and more than 2.0 D of cylinder error. In this retrospective study, data were extracted from 100 patient charts. The two study groups were matched by age, gender, and baseline uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and refractive astigmatism (RA). Preoperative astigmatism was categorized as mild: 2.00 to LASIK and PRK groups was respectively -3.15 ± 0.94 D (-7.00 to -2.00 D) and -3.29 ± 0.95 D (-6.25 to -2.00 D) at baseline ( P  = 0.284), and -0.61 ± 0.40 D and -0.62 ± 0.60 D one year after surgery ( P  = 0.674), but significantly lower in the femto-LASIK group (-0.61 ± 0.39 vs. -0.83 ± 0.56 D, P  = 0.021) at 2 years when the rate of residual astigmatism more than 1.0 D was 6.3% in the femto-LASIK and 19.6% in the PRK group ( P  = 0.046). Mean UDVA in the femto-LASIK group (0.02 ± 0.05 logMAR) was better than the PRK group (0.06 ± 0.10 logMAR) ( P  = 0.025). Mean corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was not significantly different between groups (0.01 ± 0.03 vs. 0.01 ± 0.04 logMAR, P  = 0.714). Both groups had 1-4 Snellen lines CDVA improvement. The three subgroups of baseline astigmatism did not differ significantly in terms of residual astigmatism (all P  > 0.05). However, in subgroups with ≥4.00 D cylinder, there was less astigmatic regression at 1 year in the femto-LASIK group (0.28 ± 0.43 D) than the PRK group (0.54 ± 0.68 D) ( P  = 0.007). Our results pointed to better two-year results with femto-LASIK in the treatment of different degrees of astigmatism. UDVA improvement was superior with femto-LASIK, but the two methods did not significantly differ in terms of CDVA improvement.

  5. The Two-Year Colleges' Role in Building the Future Geoscience Technical Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, B.

    2014-12-01

    Careers in energy science related fields represent significant job growth in the U.S. Yet post-secondary career and technical programs have not kept pace with demand and energy science curriculum, including fundamental concepts of energy generation and environmental impact, lacks a firm position among general or career and technical education courses. Many of these emerging energy related jobs are skilled labor and entry level technical positions requiring less than a bachelor's degree. These include jobs such as solar/photovoltaic design and installation, solar water and space heating installation, energy management, efficiency and conservation auditor, environmental technician, etc. These energy related career pathways fit naturally within the geosciences discipline. Many of these jobs can be filled by individuals from HVAC, Industrial technology, welding, and electrical degree programs needing some additional specialized training and curriculum focused on fundamental concepts of energy, fossil fuel exploration and use, atmospheric pollution, energy generation, alternative energy sources, and energy conservation. Two-year colleges (2ycs) are uniquely positioned to train and fill these workforce needs as they already have existing career and technical programs and attract both recent high school graduates, as well as non-traditional students including displaced workers and returning veterans. We have established geoscience related workforce certificate programs that individuals completing the traditional industrial career and technical degrees can obtain to meet these emerging workforce needs. This presentation will discuss the role of geosciences programs at 2ycs in training these new workers, developing curriculum, and building a career/technical program that is on the forefront of this evolving industry.

  6. Two-year mortality, complications, and healthcare use in children with medicaid following tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Karen; O'Neill, Margaret; Zhu, Hannah; Graham, Robert J; Hall, Matthew; Berry, Jay

    2016-11-01

    To assess patient characteristics associated with adverse outcomes in the first 2 years following tracheostomy, and to report healthcare utilization and cost of caring for these children. Retrospective cohort study. Children (0-16 years) in Medicaid from 10 states undergoing tracheostomy in 2009, identified with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes and followed through 2011, were selected using the Truven Health Medicaid Marketscan Database (Truven Health Analytics, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI). Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed with likelihood of death and tracheostomy complication using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Healthcare use and spending across the care continuum (hospital, outpatient, community, and home) were reported. A total of 502 children underwent tracheostomy in 2009, with 34.1% eligible for Medicaid because of disability. Median age at tracheostomy was 8 years (interquartile range 1-16 years), and 62.7% had a complex chronic condition. Two-year rates of in-hospital mortality and tracheostomy complication were 8.9% and 38.8%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, the highest likelihood of mortality occurred in children age tracheostomy complication was in children with a complex chronic condition versus those without a complex chronic condition (OR 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9). Total healthcare spending in the 2 years following tracheostomy was $53.3 million, with hospital, home, and primary care constituting 64.4%, 9.4%, and 0.5% of total spending, respectively. Mortality and morbidity are high, and spending on primary and home care is small following tracheostomy in children with Medicaid. Future studies should assess whether improved outpatient and community care might improve their health outcomes. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2611-2617, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Undergraduate Research in Earth Science Classes: Engaging Students in the First Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Wysession, M. E.; Beauregard, A.; Reinen, L. A.; Surpless, K.; O'Connell, K.; McDaris, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent PCAST report (2012), Engage to Excel, calls for a major shift in instructional modes in introductory (geo)science courses by "replacing standard laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses". An increased emphasis is recommended to engage students in experiments with the possibility of true discovery and expanded use of scientific research courses in the first two years. To address this challenge, the On the Cutting Edge program convened a workshop of geoscience faculty to explore the many ways that true research experiences can be built into introductory geoscience courses. The workshop goals included: consideration of the opportunities, strategies and methods used to provide research experiences for students in lower division geoscience courses; examination of ways to develop students' "geoscience habits of mind" through participation in authentic research activities; exploration of ways that student research projects can be designed to contribute to public science literacy with applications to a range of issues facing humanity; and development of strategies to obtain funding for these research projects, to make these programs sustainable in departments and institutions, and to scale-up these programs so that all students may participate. Access to Earth data, information technology, lab and field-based instrumentation, and field experiences provide unprecedented opportunities for students to engage in authentic research at early stages in their careers. Early exposure to research experiences has proven to be effective in the recruitment of students to the geoscience disciplines, improved retention and persistence in degree programs, motivation for students to learn and increase self-efficacy, improved attitudes and values about science, and overall increased student success. Workshop outcomes include an online collection of tested research projects currently being used in geoscience classes, resources related to effective design

  8. [Hypercholesterolemia reduction in children and adolescents after two years of intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Jorge A; Siccardi, Leonardo J; Cosio, Francisco; Rodríguez, María I; Robledo, Pamela; Rojas, Natalia; Lubetkin, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Hypercholesterolemia, one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, can be detected since childhood. The early detection and a suitable educational process would allow to generate changes of habits and to decrease its prevalence. In 2003, total cholesterol (TC) > 170 mg/dl was found in 39.2% school children and adolescents, aged 5-17 years, of Jovita, Córdoba. To assess cholesterol levels decrease after an educational process and to analyze the relation between hypercholesterolemia and family history for cardiovascular diseases. Formal and no formal educational intervention was developed for two years, through curricular adaptations, talks, campaigns in radio and TV, graphic press, drama, workshops and leaflets. In 2005, cholesterol level was assessed, along with a survey on changes of nutritional habits and physical activity, and family history. A group of 161 students was assesses in both opportunities. There was a significant reduction in total cholesterol (average 13 mg/dl; p 199 mg/dl, the variations of the averages were: TC= -21 mg/dl, LDL-C= -16 mg/dl. The survey revealed improvements in the habits; family history was positive in 59%, unknown in 14%, and negative in 27%, the last ones had the best response to the intervention. A significant reduction of TC was obtained in the studied population; this may be due to the educational intervention. More than a quarter of the individuals presented negative family history for cardiovascular risk factors. Decrease in TC was proportionally better in this group than in those with positive family history.

  9. Costs of allergic diseases from birth to two years in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanne, S; Maskunitty, A; Nermes, M; Laitinen, K; Pekurinen, M

    2012-10-01

    Costing studies are needed to identify the resources used for treatment and inform payers of the costs incurred. The objectives were to determine the costs of diagnosing and treating atopic dermatitis, food allergy and asthma, and to compare the share of costs to society and to the family during the first two years of life. The data were obtained from an ongoing mother-infant nutrition study. The sample comprised 60 infants who developed allergic disease by the age of 24 months and 56 healthy infants with no allergic disease. The costs included diagnosis and treatment of the allergy, disability allowances, travel expenses and time spent by parents. The median costs per infant were €275 (range 94-1306) for atopic dermatitis, €1408 (163-5408) for asthma, €3182 (628-11195) for food allergy, and €10 (0-619) for the healthy infants due to the suspicion of allergic disease. The highest costs in atopic dermatitis were caused by primary care visits, topical treatments, travel costs and parents' time, and those for food allergy by hospital out-patient care, infant formulae for cow's milk allergy, disability allowances and travel costs. The families paid 43% of the costs arising from atopic dermatitis, 13.6% of those from food allergy and 16.5% of those from asthma. Cow's milk allergy emerged as the most expensive allergic disease, especially for the society, and concurrent asthma in particular further increased the costs. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The good, the bad, and the ugly, of the two year review cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killar, F.

    2004-01-01

    With the adoption of the 1996 Edition of the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' IAEA began a biennial process for the review and potential modifications of the regulations. IAEA members are currently in the third review cycle; this experience provides a perspective of the benefits, the problems and the discord with this process. This paper presents a perspective of the nuclear industry on these issues. It also includes recommendations to make the process more meaningful and of greater value to all parties that involved. ''The Good'' will focus on the benefits, ''The Bad'' will identify the problems, and ''The Ugly'' will cover the discords. ''The Good'' An effective safety program/procedure includes a provision for periodic review and, if warranted, modifications. The 1996 Edition provides a schedule and a plan for executing that schedule. This provides for a logical review and modification and therefore a plan for keeping the regulations current. ''The Bad'' The benefit of a review of the regulations is lost when it is consumed by minor editorial changes that have minimal positive impact on safety. The use of limited resources to address insignificant changes results in a reduction of resources for safety in other aspects of the transportation area. The two year review should capture these minor changes but the implementation should be deferred until prompted by a significant change requirement or the volume of minor changes warrants a revision of the regulations. ''The Ugly'' The ugly part of the process is the adoption of the changes by the various competent authorities. In some competent authorizes it is a simple dictate that this is the way it will be, while other authorities have a very open public process with public participation and open meetings. The result is there is not uniform adoption of the changes either in timing or in consistency

  11. Multiple sclerosis risk sharing scheme: two year results of clinical cohort study with historical comparator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, Mike; Palace, Jackie; Barton, Pelham; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bregenzer, Thomas; Dobson, Charles; Gray, Richard

    2009-12-02

    To generate evidence on the longer term cost effectiveness of disease modifying treatments in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Prospective cohort study with historical comparator. Specialist multiple sclerosis clinics in 70 centres in the United Kingdom. Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who started treatment from May 2002 to April 2005 under the UK risk sharing scheme. Treatment with interferon beta or glatiramer acetate in accordance with guidelines of the UK Association of British Neurologists. Observed utility weighted progression in disability at two years' follow-up assessed on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) compared with that expected by applying the progression rates in a comparator dataset, modified for patients receiving treatment by multiplying by the hazard ratio derived separately for each disease modifying treatment from the randomised trials. In the primary per protocol analysis, progression in disability was worse than that predicted and worse than that in the untreated comparator dataset ("deviation score" of 113%; excess in mean disability status scale 0.28). In sensitivity analyses, however, the deviation score varied from -72% (using raw baseline disability status scale scores, rather than applying a "no improvement" algorithm) to 156% (imputing missing data for year two from progression rates for year one). It is too early to reach any conclusion about the cost effectiveness of disease modifying treatments from this first interim analysis. Important methodological issues, including the need for additional comparator datasets, the potential bias from missing data, and the impact of the "no improvement" rule, will need to be addressed and long term follow-up of all patients is essential to secure meaningful results. Future analyses of the cohort are likely to be more informative, not least because they will be less sensitive to short term fluctuations in disability.

  12. Regional Brain Shrinkage over Two Years: Individual Differences and Effects of Pro-Inflammatory Genetic Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, N.; Ghisletta, P.; Dahle, C.L.; Bender, A.R.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, P.; Daugherty, A.M.; Raz, N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined regional changes in brain volume in healthy adults (N = 167, age 19-79 years at baseline; N = 90 at follow-up) over approximately two years. With latent change score models, we evaluated mean change and individual differences in rates of change in 10 anatomically-defined and manually-traced regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OF), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (HC), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), insula (In), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC). Significant mean shrinkage was observed in the HC, CbH, In, OF, and the PhG, and individual differences in change were noted in all regions, except the OF. Pro-inflammatory genetic variants mediated shrinkage in PhG and CbH. Carriers of two T alleles of interleukin-1β (IL-1βC-511T, rs16944) and a T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFRC677T, rs1801133) polymorphisms showed increased PhG shrinkage. No effects of a pro-inflammatory polymorphism for C-reactive protein (CRP-286C>A>T, rs3091244) or apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele were noted. These results replicate the pattern of brain shrinkage observed in previous studies, with a notable exception of the LPFC thus casting doubt on the unique importance of prefrontal cortex in aging. Larger baseline volumes of CbH and In were associated with increased shrinkage, in conflict with the brain reserve hypothesis. Contrary to previous reports, we observed no significant linear effects of age and hypertension on regional brain shrinkage. Our findings warrant further investigation of the effects of neuroinflammation on structural brain change throughout the lifespan. PMID:25264227

  13. Progressive numbness of distal limbs for two years, unsteady gait for two months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun MA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old female was admitted to our department, complaining of progressive numbness of distal limbs for two years and unsteady gait for two months. “Peripheral neuropathy” was the presumed diagnosis. She has suffered dry mouth for months. Neurological examination revealed proximal upper muscle strength was normal and distal was 5-/5 while muscle strength in lower limbs was normal. Tendon reflexes in all limbs were reduced, and superficial sensation as well as deep sensation in all limbs was also diminished. Deep sensation below T8-10 was diminished. Romberg’s test was positive with negative pathological reflex. Several sensory nerves action potentials (SNAPs were diminished or absent with normal compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs. Cervical MRI showed hyperintensities in the dorsal column. Serum anti-Ro/SSA antibody was positive. Tear break-up time was abnormal in either eye (5s, normal range>10s; the rate of saliva production declined 0.02 ml/min (> 1.50 ml/15 min; parotid gland contrast sialography was abnormal; lip biopsy was positive with focal lymphocytic sialadenitis with focus score ≥1. The patient was diagnosed as primary Sjogren's syndrome and sensory neuronopathy. She received oral prednisone in dose of 1mg/(kg·d for four weeks, then reduce the dosage with 5mg/w to 0.50mg/ (kg·d. Later she reduced the dosage with 2.5mg/per week. At the same time, she got cyclophosphamide (100mg every other day and hydroxychloroquine (0.20g twice a day. Numbness of limbs and unsteady gait were improved when the patient was discharged. Two month later, during the follow-up, the patient’ gait was slightly improved, but the numbness still existed. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.11.016

  14. Two years of outstanding AFGD performance, pure air on the Lakes Bailly Scrubber Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J.; Vymazal, D.C. [Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States); Styf, D.A. [Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO), Chesterton, IN (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $151.3 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and a project company of Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The goal of the AFGD project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities, and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Briefly, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, located approximately 40 miles southeast of Chicago, Illinois. The facility is used to demonstrate a variety of advanced technical and business-related features, during a three-year period of operation which began in the summer of 1992. The aim of this demonstration is to accelerate near-term commercialization. Key features of the AFGD project are discussed. Construction of the scrubber is complete; operations began in June 1992, ahead of schedule and within budget. The Clean Coal demonstration project calls for three years of operations. After the three-year demonstration period, Pure Air on the Lake will continue to Own-and-Operate the scrubber for the next 17 years. This paper review the advanced wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) design features, and the environmental and business features of the project. Also included are data on the first two years of successful operation.

  15. Topography and Reflectance of Mercury After Two Years of Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G. A.; Sun, X.; Mazarico, E.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Ernst, C. M.; Barnouin, O. S.; Chabot, N. L.; Paige, D. A.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MESSENGER spacecraft has been ranging to the planet Mercury since March 2011, first in a 12-h, 83.5°-inclination orbit, and currently in an 8-h orbit. The orbital periapsis latitude, initially at 60°N, moved slowly northward during the first two years of the orbital mission, enabling near-complete coverage of the northern hemisphere with ~15 million measured radii. Targeted observations during the first extended mission allowed mapping of nearly all regions of extensive shadow within northern high-latitude craters. The refined topography provides a comprehensive dataset for geological studies, illumination and thermal modeling, and studies of the interior. The strength of laser returns in relation to the 10-20 mJ energy of the outgoing laser pulses has provided ~8.7 million active measurements of surface reflectance. Initial results, in conjunction with neutron spectrometry and Earth-based radar, confirmed the existence of water ice exposed at the surface within the deepest shadows of Prokofiev Crater at 85° N and other regions of high radar cross-section, as well as darker volatile species that provide an insulating surficial layer for most radar-bright polar deposits. Refined measurements of reflectance, corroborated by imaging of shadowed regions illuminated by scattered light, reveal the areal extent of polar deposits. These deposits expose water ice at the surface only in limited regions where surface temperatures are predicted never to exceed the long-term stability limit of water ice, whereas subsurface temperatures in other areas of permanent shadow predict the long-term preservation of more extensive deposits of water ice and other volatiles if that material is overlain by an insulating layer.

  16. Associations between sports participation and psychological difficulties during childhood: a two-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Magee, Christopher A; Okely, Anthony D

    2015-05-01

    This paper assessed the associations between sports participation and the development of psychological strengths and difficulties during childhood. Two-year follow up study of a sample of 4042 Australian children who were followed from age 8 years to 10 years. Parents reported children's participation in organised sports, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Univariate general linear models were used to examine the association between changes in sports participation and psychological strengths and difficulties at 10 years, adjusting for psychological strengths and difficulties at age 8. Children who maintained participation in sport had lower rates of parent-reported psychological difficulties at 10 years compared with children who dropped out of sport. Less internalising problems were also reported for children who participated in organised sports compared to children who dropped out of sports and children who did not participate in sports. These relationships did not differ by BMI, socioeconomic status, or parental education. Greater psychological difficulties are experienced by children who drop out of sports, and greater social and emotional problems are experienced by children who drop out of sports and who do not participate in organised sports. Due consideration should be given to the quality and implementation of sporting programs to ensure that they provide benefits to mental health. Due consideration should also be given to the potential psychological difficulties being experienced by children who drop out of organised sports as a higher level of psychological difficulties may be experienced prior to or subsequent to dropout. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Expressive language of two year-old pre-term and full-term children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isotani, Selma Mie; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de; Chiari, Brasília Maria; Perissinoto, Jacy

    2009-01-01

    expressive language of pre-term children. to compare the expressive vocabulary of two year-old children born prematurely, to that of those born at term. the study sample was composed by 118 speech-language assessment protocols, divided in two groups: the pre-term group (PTG) composed by 58 underweight premature children followed by a multi-professional team at the Casa do Prematuro (House of Premature Children) at Unifesp, and the full-term group (FTG) composed by 60 full-term born children. In order to evaluate the expressive language of these children, the Lave - Lista de Avaliação do Vocabulário Expressivo (Assessment List of the Expressive Vocabulary) was used. The Lave is an adaptation of the LDS - Language Development Survey - for the Brazilian Portuguese Language. The Lave investigates the expressive language and detects delays in oral language. children born underweight and prematurely present a greater occurrence of expressive language delay, 27.6%. These pre-term children present significantly lower expressive vocabulary and phrasal extension than children of the same age born at full-term in all semantic categories. Family income proved to be positively associated to phrasal extension, as well as to gestational age and weight at birth; thus indicating the effect of these adverse conditions still during the third year of age. The audiological status was associated to word utterances in the PTG. children born prematurely and underweight are at risk in terms of vocabulary development; this determines the need for speech-therapy intervention programs.

  18. Interdependence of soil and agricultural practice in a two - year phytoremediation in situ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia; Onyeike, Eugene; Frac, Magdalena; Iwo, Godknows

    2016-04-01

    A two - year plant - based soil clean - up was carried out at a crude oil spill agricultural site in a Niger Delta community in Nigeria to access further clean - up potentials of Cymbopogon citratus. Applied diagnostic ratios identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs. Up to 90.8% sequestration was obtained for carcinogenic PAHs especially Benz (a) pyrene in a 2 - phase manner. A community level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to differentiate spatial and temporal changes in the soil microbial communities. In relation to pollution, soil conditioning notably decreased the lag times and showed mixed effects for colour development rates, maximum absorbance and the overall community pattern. For rate and utilization of different carbon substrates in BIOLOG wells, after day 3, in comparison to control soil communities, contamination with hydrocarbons and associated types increased amines and amides consumption. Consumption of carbohydrates in all polluted and unamended regimes decreased markedlyin comparison to those cultivated with C. citratus. We found a direct relationship between cellulose breakdown, measurable with B-glucosidase activity, organic matter content and CO2 realease within all soils in the present study. Organic amendment rendered most studied contaminants unavailable for uptake in preference to inorganic fertilizer in both study years. Generally, phytoremediation improved significantly the microbial community activity and thus would promote ecosystem restoration in relation to most patronised techniques. Supplementation with required nutrients, in a long - term design would present many ecological benefits. Keywords: Agricultural soils; Recovery; Hydrocarbon pollution; Ecology; Management practice.

  19. Safety of strength training in premenopausal women: musculoskeletal injuries from a two-year randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Meghan; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2009-01-01

    The health benefits of strength training must be weighed against risks, including injuries. A prior study observed 4.2 injuries that limited usual activities for a day per 1000 strength training sessions among men and women. The analysis herein explores the incidence rates of musculoskeletal injuries from strength training in women. Randomized controlled trial. SETTING; Free-living community. A total of 163 injury-free, overweight, sedentary, premenopausal women aged 25 to 44 years. Two years of strength training (n = 81) or standard care (n = 82). The intervention followed published guidelines (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) with hypothesized injury prevention strategies. An injury survey was administered at years 1 and 2. Injury was defined as physical activity or strength training associated injuries that limited daily activities for 1 week or more. Denominators for rate calculation were accelerometer-measured physical activity and strength training attendance (strength training only). The between-group probability of injuries was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Injury incidence rates were higher in strength training compared with standard care. In strength training, the injury rates were 3.6 per 1000 strength training sessions (95% confidence interval: 2.5-4.8 per 1000) for physical activity-related injuries, and 2.6 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.6 per 1000) for strength training-related injuries. Injury rates varied by definition and denominator. Strength training had lower injury rates than previously reported, providing preliminary support for the prevention strategies. The finding of strength training injuries underscores the need for balancing the benefits against the potential risks of this exercise modality.

  20. Impact of functional and structural social relationships on two year depression outcomes: A multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Sandra K; Dowrick, Christopher F; Gunn, Jane M

    2016-03-15

    High rates of persistent depression highlight the need to identify the risk factors associated with poor depression outcomes and to provide targeted interventions to people at high risk. Although social relationships have been implicated in depression course, interventions targeting social relationships have been disappointing. Possibly, interventions have targeted the wrong elements of relationships. Alternatively, the statistical association between relationships and depression course is not causal, but due to shared variance with other factors. We investigated whether elements of social relationships predict major depressive episode (MDE) when multiple relevant variables are considered. Data is from a longitudinal study of primary care patients with depressive symptoms. 494 participants completed questionnaires at baseline and a depression measure (PHQ-9) two years later. Baseline measures included functional (i.e. quality) and structural (i.e. quantity) social relationships, depression, neuroticism, chronic illness, alcohol abuse, childhood abuse, partner violence and sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations was used to estimate the association between social relationships and MDE. Both functional and structural social relationships predicted MDE in univariate analysis. Only functional social relationships remained significant in multivariate analysis (OR: 0.87; 95%CI: 0.79-0.97; p=0.01). Other unique predictors of MDE were baseline depression severity, neuroticism, childhood sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. We did not assess how a person's position in their depression trajectory influenced the association between social relationships and depression. Interventions targeting relationship quality may be part of a personalised treatment plan for people at high risk due of persistent depression due to poor social relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Family influence on the consumption of sugary drinks by children under two years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Prado, Rogério Ruscitto do; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of family habits and household characteristics on the consumption of sugary drinks by Brazilian children under two years old. This was a cross-sectional study that used secondary data generated by the National Health Survey (PNS) in 2013. We studied 4,839 pairs of children under two years old and adults living in the same house. We estimated the prevalence of the indicator of sugary drinks consumption for the total sample of children and according to family and household variables. We applied multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of family habits and household characteristics on the consumption of sugary drinks by the children. The consumption of sugary drinks was identified in 32% of the studied children (95%CI 30.6-33.3) and was independently associated with the following family and household characteristics: regular consumption of sugary drinks by the adult living in the house (OR = 1.78; 95%CI 1.51-2.10), watching TV for more than three hours per day (OR = 1.22; 95%CI 1.03-1.45), older age (OR = 3.10; 95%CI 1.54-6.26), greater education level (OR = 0.70; 95%CI 0.53-0.91), house located in the Northeast region (OR = 0.65; 95%CI 1.54-6.26), and number of family members (OR = 1.05; 95%CI 1.00-1.09). Our findings indicate the high prevalence of sugary drinks consumption by Brazilian children under two years old and show that sociodemographic characteristics and family habits affect this feeding practice not recommended in childhood. Avaliar a influência de hábitos familiares e características do domicílio sobre o consumo de bebidas açucaradas em crianças brasileiras menores de dois anos. Estudo transversal que utilizou dados secundários gerados pela Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), em 2013. Foram estudados 4.839 pares de crianças menores de dois anos e adultos residentes no mesmo domicílio. Foram estimadas as prevalências do indicador consumo de bebidas açucaradas para a amostra total de crianças e

  2. Swashed away? Storm impacts on sandy beach macrofaunal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Smale, Malcolm; Schoeman, David

    2011-09-01

    Storms can have a large impact on sandy shores, with powerful waves eroding large volumes of sand off the beach. Resulting damage to the physical environment has been well-studied but the ecological implications of these natural phenomena are less known. Since climate change predictions suggest an increase in storminess in the near future, understanding these ecological implications is vital if sandy shores are to be proactively managed for resilience. Here, we report on an opportunistic experiment that tests the a priori expectation that storms impact beach macrofaunal communities by modifying natural patterns of beach morphodynamics. Two sites at Sardinia Bay, South Africa, were sampled for macrofauna and physical descriptors following standard sampling methods. This sampling took place five times at three- to four-month intervals between April 2008 and August 2009. The second and last sampling events were undertaken after unusually large storms, the first of which was sufficiently large to transform one site from a sandy beach into a mixed shore for the first time in living memory. A range of univariate (linear mixed-effects models) and multivariate (e.g. non-metric multidimensional scaling, PERMANOVA) methods were employed to describe trends in the time series, and to explore the likelihood of possible explanatory mechanisms. Macrofaunal communities at the dune-backed beach (Site 2) withstood the effects of the first storm but were altered significantly by the second storm. In contrast, macrofauna communities at Site 1, where the supralittoral had been anthropogenically modified so that exchange of sediments with the beach was limited, were strongly affected by the first storm and showed little recovery over the study period. In line with predictions from ecological theory, beach morphodynamics was found to be a strong driver of temporal patterns in the macrofaunal community structure, with the storm events also identified as a significant factor, likely

  3. Behavioural adaptations in talitrids from two Atlantic beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Claudia; Gambineri, Simone; Fanini, Lucia; Durier, Virginie; Rivault, Colette; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to test sun orientation and rhythmic activity of two sandhopper populations from two Atlantic macro-tidal beaches. A population from Le Verger beach (orientated to 346°, Ille et Vilaine, Brittany, France) and a population from Damgan (orientated to 195°, Morbihan, Brittany, France), were tested on the beach under clear sky discriminating for landscape vision. For both populations locomotor activity rhythm was recorded in the laboratory. The two beaches differed for climatic features, tidal range and for human use. Both talitrid populations resulted very well orientated toward the shoreline, and both used solar position and landscape vision to orient. However the multiple regression analysis of orientation with climatic features showed a different use of local cues by the two populations and a slight influence of tidal regime (ebbing and rising tide), in spite of the supralittoral zonation of sandhoppers. In the laboratory they showed a well defined rhythmic behaviour as well as a bimodal rhythmicity, explained as a tidal one. These results are a new brick in the complex picture of orientation and rhythm studies on sandy beach invertebrates.

  4. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. The {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the {sup 40}K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 222} Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 1074 Bq.kg{sup -'}1 for {sup 232}Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For {sup 40}K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 179 Bq.kg{sup -1} and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  6. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R.

    2011-01-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the 238 U and 232 Th series. The 226 Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 214 Pb and 214 Bi. The 232 Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi and the 40 K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg -1 to 222 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra and from 14 Bq.kg -1 to 1074 Bq.kg -' 1 for 232 Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For 40 K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg -1 to 179 Bq.kg -1 and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  7. Emergency Medical Technician Training for Medical Students: A Two-Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Thomas H; Halsey, R Maglin; Reinovsky, Jennifer H

    2016-01-01

    New medical school educational curriculum encourages early clinical experiences along with clinical and biomedical integration. The University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, one of the new expansion schools, was established in 2011 with the first class matriculating in 2012. To promote clinical skills early in the curriculum, emergency medical technician (EMT) training was included and begins in the first semester. Along with the early clinical exposure, the program introduces interprofessional health and teams and provides the opportunity for students to personally see and appreciate the wide variety of environments from which their future patients emanate. This report describes the EMT program and changes that were made after the first class that were designed to integrate EMT training with the biomedical sciences and to assess the value of these integrative changes using objective criteria. A two-year retrospective study was conducted that involved the first two classes of medical students. Baseline student data and pass rates from the psychomotor skill and written components of the State examination were used to determine if students performed better in the integrated, prolonged course. There were 53 students in the first class and 54 in the second. Of the 51 students in the first class and 53 students in the second class completing the state psychomotor and written examination, 20 (39%) in the first class and 17 (32%) in the second passed on the initial psychomotor skill attempt; however, more students passed in the first three attempts in the second class than the first class, 51 (96%) versus 45 (88%) , respectively. All students passed by 5 attempts. For the written examination, 50 (98%) students in the first class and 51 (96%) in the second class passed on the first attempt. All students passed by the third attempt. Pass rates on both components of the State examination were not significantly different between classes. Medical students who

  8. Two years of recorded data for a multisource heat pump system: A performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busato, F.; Lazzarin, R.M.; Noro, M.

    2013-01-01

    housed the same school, which had similar dimensions. -- Highlights: • We monitored an HVAC plant based on multisource heat pump for two years. • The electricity consumptions of auxiliaries (pumps etc) were taken into account. • A detailed first law energy balance of the plant was calculated on a monthly base, as well as a Primary Energy balance. • The use of more than one heat source at the evaporator level increases the efficiency of the heat pumps

  9. Factors related to the economic sustainability of two-year chemistry-based technology training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Bridgid A.

    Two-year chemistry-based technology training (CBTT) programs in the U.S. are important in the preparation of the professional technical workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify, examine, and analyze factors related to the economic sustainability of CBTT programs. A review of literature identified four clustered categories of 31 sub-factors related to program sustainability. Three research questions relating to program sustainability were: (1) What is the relative importance of the identified factors?, (2) What differences exist between the opinions of administrators and faculty?, and (3) What are the interrelationships among the factors? In order to answer these questions, survey data gathered from CBTT programs throughout the United States were analyzed statistically. Conclusions included the following: (1) Rank order of the importance to sustainability of the clustered categories was: (1) Partnerships, (2) Employer and Student Educational Goals, (3) Faculty and Their Resources, and (4) Community Perceptions and Marketing Strategies. (2) Significant correlations between ratings of sustainability and the sub-factors included: degree of partnering, college responsiveness, administration involvement in partnerships, experiential learning opportunities, employer input in curriculum development, use of skill standards, number of program graduates, student job placement, professional development opportunities, administrator support, presence of a champion, flexible scheduling, program visibility, perception of chemical technicians, marketing plans, and promotion to secondary students. (3) Faculty and administrators differed significantly on only two sub-factor ratings: employer assisted curriculum development, and faculty workloads. (4) Significant differences in ratings by small program faculty and administrators and large program faculty and administrators were indicated, with most between small program faculty and large program administrators. The study

  10. Health costs in anthroposophic therapy users: a two-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich Stefan N

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic therapies (counselling, special medication, art, eurythmy movement, and rhythmical massage aim to stimulate long-term self-healing processes, which theoretically could lead to a reduction of healthcare use. In a prospective two-year cohort study, anthroposophic therapies were followed by a reduction of chronic disease symptoms and improvement of quality of life. The purpose of this analysis was to describe health costs in users of anthroposophic therapies. Methods 717 consecutive outpatients from 134 medical practices in Germany, starting anthroposophic therapies for chronic diseases, participated in a prospective cohort study. We analysed direct health costs (anthroposophic therapies, physician and dentist consultations, psychotherapy, medication, physiotherapy, ergotherapy, hospital treatment, rehabilitation and indirect costs (sick leave compensation in the pre-study year and the first two study years. Costs were calculated from resource utilisation, documented by patient self-reporting. Data were collected from January 1999 to April 2003. Results Total health costs in the first study year (bootstrap mean 3,297 Euro; 95% confidence interval 95%-CI 3,157 Euro to 3,923 Euro did not differ significantly from the pre-study year (3,186 Euro; 95%-CI 3,037 Euro to 3,711 Euro, whereas in the second year, costs (2,771 Euro; 95%-CI 2,647 Euro to 3,256 Euro were significantly reduced by 416 Euro (95%-CI 264 Euro to 960 Euro compared to the pre-study year. In each period hospitalisation and sick-leave together amounted to more than half of the total health costs. Anthroposophic therapies and medication amounted to 3%, 15%, and 8% of total health costs in the pre-study year, first year, and second study year, respectively. The cost reduction in the second year was largely accounted for by a decrease of inpatient hospitalisation, leading to a hospital cost reduction of 519 Euro (95%-CI 377 Euro to 904 Euro compared to the

  11. Water, soil and soccer: an experience of two years promoting humanistic competences and standardization of curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Feliciana; Consoli, Simona; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Parraguirre, Sebastián; Pérez-Palazón, María J.; Pimentel, Rafael; Polo, María J.; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    We present an experience of two years where a group of professors of University in Catania (Italy) and the University of Cordoba (Spain) created a practical case about hydrological planning in the context of similar subjects. The proposed work had to be solved and presented by teams of two students who competed following the philosophy of soccer leagues (national and champion). In the final match, the best teams of each country "played" and defended their work which was judged by an international committee of professors. The presentation and defense was carried out through videoconference so the fans in each country could support their teams. The winners in each country received a certificate of both Universities and the participation in the EGU Assembly 2014 and 2015 as coauthors of the present work. The objective of the practical case is the calculation of design peak flow for a rainfall quantile in a rural catchment following the Curve Number method developed by the Soil Conservation Service (1972.) This type of study implies different disciplines of Hydrology and Soil Sciences and the use of Geographic Information Systems and calculation and programming tools which is very useful to improve the students' technical skills. As for humanistic skills, an oral presentation in English allows improving their knowledge in foreign languages and to face a challenging experience which can be compared with an interview for a job. This teaching experience was very motivating for the students and the professors involved. The results of surveys done by the students indicated the improvement of the level of knowledge about hydrological engineering projects as well as the interest in managing water resources. This type of experience can be useful for other subjects or can integrate more teaching centres. REFERENCES: USDA Soil Conservation Service, 1972. National Engineering Handbook, Section 4, Hydrology. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 544. Acknowledment

  12. A method for determining average beach slope and beach slope variability for U.S. sandy coastlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.

  13. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles for efficient beach litter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Cecilia

    2018-05-05

    A global beach litter assessment is challenged by use of low-efficiency methodologies and incomparable protocols that impede data integration and acquisition at a national scale. The implementation of an objective, reproducible and efficient approach is therefore required. Here we show the application of a remote sensing based methodology using a test beach located on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline. Litter was recorded via image acquisition from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, while an automatic processing of the high volume of imagery was developed through machine learning, employed for debris detection and classification in three categories. Application of the method resulted in an almost 40 times faster beach coverage when compared to a standard visual-census approach. While the machine learning tool faced some challenges in correctly detecting objects of interest, first classification results are promising and motivate efforts to further develop the technique and implement it at much larger scales.

  14. Sediment Transport Study in Haeundae Beach using Radioisotope Labelled Compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Sup [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer.

  15. Sediment Transport Study in Haeundae Beach using Radioisotope Labelled Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee; Lee, Jong Sup

    2005-01-01

    Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer

  16. Plastic pollution on the Baltic beaches of Kaliningrad region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena

    2017-01-30

    Contamination of sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea in Kaliningrad region is evaluated on the base of surveys carried out from June 2015 to January 2016. Quantity of macro/meso/microplastic objects in the upper 2cm of the sandy sediments of the wrack zone at 13 sampling sites all along the Russian coast is reported. Occurrence of paraffin and amber pieces at the same sites is pointed out. Special attention is paid to microplastics (range 0.5-5mm): its content ranges between 1.3 and 36.3 items per kg dry sediment. The prevailing found type is foamed plastic. No sound differences in contamination are discovered between beaches with high and low anthropogenic load. Mean level of contamination is of the same order of magnitude as has been reported by other authors for the Baltic Sea beaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles for efficient beach litter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Cecilia; Parkes, Stephen; Zhang, Qiannan; Zhang, Xiangliang; McCabe, Matthew; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    A global beach litter assessment is challenged by use of low-efficiency methodologies and incomparable protocols that impede data integration and acquisition at a national scale. The implementation of an objective, reproducible and efficient approach is therefore required. Here we show the application of a remote sensing based methodology using a test beach located on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline. Litter was recorded via image acquisition from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, while an automatic processing of the high volume of imagery was developed through machine learning, employed for debris detection and classification in three categories. Application of the method resulted in an almost 40 times faster beach coverage when compared to a standard visual-census approach. While the machine learning tool faced some challenges in correctly detecting objects of interest, first classification results are promising and motivate efforts to further develop the technique and implement it at much larger scales.

  18. Textural studies of beach sediments from Sadashivagad and Karwar, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Antao, F.B.

    . Frequency distribution curves for both the beach sediments differ in their modal class showing unimodal to weakly bimodal trend for the Sadashivagad and strongly bimodal to unimodal trend for the Karwar beach sediments. The plots of mean grain size vs...

  19. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Observations on the ecology of some sandy beaches of the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, B.M.; Rajan, S.

    The seasonal cycles of organic matter and chlorophyll at some beaches of the Kerala Coast were studied in relation to the abundance of the interstitial fauna at one of the beaches The faunal abundance showed no definite correlation either...

  1. Valuing Coastal Beaches and Closures Using Benefit Transfer: An Application to Barnstable, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, millions of Americans visit beaches for recreation and contribute significantly to local coastal economies as a result. Considering the frequency that coastal beaches are used for recreation, closures due to bacterial contamination have the potential to negatively impa...

  2. Short-term observation of beach dynamics using cross-shore profiles and foreshore sediment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Philip, C.S.; Vinayaraj, P.

    Cross-shore beach profiles and textural characteristics of foreshore sediment were analyzed for understanding an annual cycle of intertidal beach dynamics at Devbag, an Island sheltered estuarine coast. Cross-shore transects were monitored in a...

  3. A simple model to estimate the impact of sea-level rise on platform beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica Afonso

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of future beach evolution in response to sea-level rise are needed to assess coastal vulnerability. A research gap is identified in providing adequate predictive methods to use for platform beaches. This work describes a simple model to evaluate the effects of sea-level rise on platform beaches that relies on the conservation of beach sand volume and assumes an invariant beach profile shape. In closed systems, when compared with the Inundation Model, results show larger retreats; the differences are higher for beaches with wide berms and when the shore platform develops at shallow depths. The application of the proposed model to Cascais (Portugal) beaches, using 21st century sea-level rise scenarios, shows that there will be a significant reduction in beach width.

  4. Dose rates of beach sands along the Enshu-nada coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Susumu; Shimo, Michikuni

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanism of beach-to-beach variations in dose rates, measurements at 35 sand beaches were carried out along the Enshu-nada coast (a total of 140km). The sand samples were collected at 10 beaches to obtain the concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium by means of Ge(Li) spectroscopy. Factors affecting the variation in dose rates were discussed, incorporating these data with data of coastal sea-bottom sediments taken by the Geological Survey of Japan. Two-dimensional measurements were performed at 50 locations each in two beaches near the Tenryu river mouth to know within-beach variations in detail. Contour maps of the data revealed a considerable regularity. It was found from simple analyses of the data collected in this work that the dose rate levels at beaches are affected by the distance from the river mouth, erosion or sedimentation of beach, and depth distribution of seawater. (author)

  5. 77 FR 51475 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Apache Pier in Myrtle Beach, SC, during the Labor Day fireworks... [[Page 51476

  6. Studies on nearshore processes at Yarada beach (South of Visakhapatnam harbour) east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rao, D.P.; Rao, B.P.

    Influence of breakwaters on Yarada Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India (3.5 km length) stability and distribution on wave induced longshore currents in this region were studied. Monthly observations on variation in beach levels, distribution of wave...

  7. Land use and beach closure 2004-2013 in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the beach closure data and land use information around each beach in 2006 and 2011 in the United States. The original data are created by EPA...

  8. Wave Runup on a Frozen Beach Under High Energy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, D.; Bernatchez, P.; Dumont, D.; Corriveau, M.

    2017-12-01

    High and mid-latitude beaches have typical morphological characteristics influenced by nearshore processes prevailing under ice conditions during cold season. Nearshore ice complexes (NIC) offer a natural coastal protection by covering beach sediments, while offshore ice-infested waters dissipate incoming waves. Climate change contributes to sea ice shrinking therefore reducing its protection against erosion and flooding. In the Estuary and Gulf of the St. Lawrence (ESL, GSL) (eastern Canada), sea ice cover undergoes an overall shrinking and simulated future projections tend toward a negligible effect on wave climate by 2100. Quantifying the effect of nearshore dynamics on frozen beaches is therefore imperative for coastal management as more wave energy at the coast is expected in the future. To measure the effect of a frozen beach on wave runup elevations, this study employs a continuous video recording of the swash motion at 4Hz. Video-derived wave runup statistics have been extracted during a tidal cycle on a frozen beach, using the Pointe-Lebel beach (ESL) as a test case. Timestack analysis was combined with offshore water levels and wave measurements. A comparison of runup under icy conditions (Dec. 30 2016) with a runup distribution during summer was made under similar high energy wave conditions. Results indicate high runup excursions potentially caused by lowered sediment permeability due to high pore-ice saturation in the swash zone, accentuating the overwash of the eroding coastline and thus the risk of flooding. With projected reduction in coastal sea ice cover and thus higher wave energy, this study suggests that episodes of degradation and weakening could influence the coastal flood risk in mid- and high-latitude cold environments.

  9. Sports injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Risi, Ahmed; Al-Mawali, Suleiman

    2012-09-01

    Prevention of sport injuries and illnesses is a focus for epidemiological surveillance. To record and analyse all sports injuries and illnesses registered during the second Asian Beach Games. A descriptive epidemiological study using the International Olympic Committee Surveillance system to register injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games. The second Asian Beach Games hosted 1132 athletes from 43 countries competing in 14 beach sports. All National Olympic Committees' physicians of the participating teams were invited to report all injuries and illnesses. In addition, medical officers at the different Olympic venues and the main Olympic village reported injuries and illnesses treated at the clinics on a daily basis. A total of 177 injuries were reported equating to an incidence rate of 156.4 per 1000 registered athletes. Tent pegging recorded the highest incidence of injuries with 357 per 1000 registered athletes. The most prevalent injuries were in the foot/toe with 14.1% of all reported injuries. The majority of injuries were incurred during competition (75.4%). In addition, the most common mechanism of injury was contact with another athlete (n=42, 23.7%) and combined sudden and gradual overuse contributed to 30% of the total injury burden. Furthermore, 118 illnesses were reported resulting in an incidence rate of 104.2 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. The most affected system was the respiratory tract (39.1%) with infection being the most common cause (n=33, 38.0%). The incidence of injury and illness differed significantly among the 14 sports. The data indicate that the risk of injury from beach games is sport dependant. This means that any preventive measures have to be tailored for each discipline. Furthermore, the study showed that respiratory infections are the commonest illness in beach sports and therefore, event organisers should focus improving public health measures and hygiene awareness.

  10. Predaceous ants, beach replenishment, and nest placement by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterer, James K; Wood, Lawrence D; Johnson, Chris; Krahe, Holly; Fitchett, Stephanie

    2007-10-01

    Ants known for attacking and killing hatchling birds and reptiles include the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren), tropical fire ant [Solenopsis geminata (Fabr.)], and little fire ant [Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger)]. We tested whether sea turtle nest placement influenced exposure to predaceous ants. In 2000 and 2001, we surveyed ants along a Florida beach where green turtles (Chelonia mydas L.), leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli), and loggerheads (Caretta caretta L.) nest. Part of the beach was artificially replenished between our two surveys. As a result, mean beach width experienced by nesting turtles differed greatly between the two nesting seasons. We surveyed 1,548 sea turtle nests (2000: 909 nests; 2001: 639 nests) and found 22 ant species. S. invicta was by far the most common species (on 431 nests); S. geminata and W. auropunctata were uncommon (on 3 and 16 nests, respectively). In 2000, 62.5% of nests had ants present (35.9% with S. invicta), but in 2001, only 30.5% of the nests had ants present (16.4% with S. invicta). Turtle nests closer to dune vegetation had significantly greater exposure to ants. Differences in ant presence on turtle nests between years and among turtle species were closely related to differences in nest placement relative to dune vegetation. Beach replenishment significantly lowered exposure of nests to ants because on the wider beaches turtles nested farther from the dune vegetation. Selective pressures on nesting sea turtles are altered both by the presence of predaceous ants and the practice of beach replenishment.

  11. Perceptions of teachers' general and informational feedback and intrinsic motivation in physical education: two-year effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Andre; Hein, Vello

    2006-10-01

    Relative change or stability of perceived positive general feedback and perceived informational feedback and their influence on students' intrinsic motivation in physical education over two years were examined. 302 students, ages 11 to 15 years, responded to the Perception of Teacher's Feedback questionnaire. Two years later, these students filled out the questionnaire again, along with a modified version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Analysis showed that both types of perceived feedback exhibited moderate stability over the two years. Perceived positive general feedback demonstrated a significant direct effect on students' intrinsic motivation measured concurrently in physical education. Further, fixing to zero the effect of perceived positive general feedback on intrinsic motivation measured concurrently, an effect emerged over the two years.

  12. Arthroscopic subacromial decompression results in normal shoulder function after two years in less than 50% of patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Lars Aage Glud; Jensen, Claus Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    additional resection of the acromioclavicular joint. RESULTS: WORC scores improved significantly from preoperatively (median: 1,392) to three months (median: 204) and two years post-operatively (median: 243) (p

  13. Morphosedimentary evolution of carbonate sandy beaches at decadal scale : case study in Reunion Island , Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabot, Marie-Myriam; Pennober, Gwenaelle; Suanez, Serge; Troadec, Roland; Delacourt, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Global change introduce a lot of uncertainties concerning future trajectory of beaches by directly or indirectly modifying major driving factors. An improved understanding of the past shoreline evolution may help for anticipate future coastline response. However, in tropical environment, studies concerning carbonate beaches dynamics are scarce compared to open sandy beaches. Consequently, coral reef protected beaches morphological adjustment is still poorly understood and long-term evolution rate are poorly quantified in these specific environment. In this context, La Reunion Island, insular department of France located in Indian Ocean, constitute a favoured laboratory. This high volcanic island possesses 25 km of carbonate beaches which experience hydrodynamic forcing specific from tropical environment: cyclonic swell during summer and long period swell during winter. Because of degraded coral reef health and high anthropogenic pressure, 50% of the beaches are in erosion since 1970s. Beach survey has been conducted since 1990s by scientist and are now encompassed as pilot site within a French observatory network which guarantee long-term survey with high resolution observational techniques. Thus, La Reunion Island is one of the rare carbonate beach to be surveyed since 20 years. This study aims to examined and quantify beach response at decadal scale on carbonate sandy beaches of Reunion Island. The study focus on 12 km of beaches from Cap Champagne to the Passe de Trois-Bassins. The analyze of 15 beach profile data originated from historical and DGPS beach topographic data confirm long term trend to erosion. Sediment lost varies between 0.5 and 2 m3.yr-1 since 1998. However longshore current have led to accretion of some part of beach compartment with rate of 0.7 to 1.6 m3.yr-1. Wave climate was examined from in-situ measurement over 15 years and show that extreme waves associated with tropical cyclones and long period swell play a major role in beach dynamics

  14. The sandy beach meiofauna and free-living nematodes from De Panne (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Gheskiere, T.; Hoste, E.; Kotwicki, L.; Degraer, S.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Vincx, M.

    2002-01-01

    Despite their rather barren and arid appearance, European sandy beaches harbour a highly diverse fauna and flora and some of them are even highly productive. In contrast to tropical sandy beaches little is known about the structural and functional diversity of the different benthic components. This study aims to investigate the structural diversity of the meiobenthos, emphasizing on free-living marine nematodes on a Belgian sandy beach.The samples were collected on the sandy beach of De Panne...

  15. Temporal shift of sea turtle nest sites in an eroding barrier island beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    2018-01-01

    Shoreline changes affect functionality of a sandy beach as a wildlife habitat and coastal erosion is among the primary causes of the changes. We examined temporal shifts in locations where loggerheads placed nests in relation to coastal erosion along a barrier island beach in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We first confirmed consistency in long-term (1855–2001), short-term (1976–2001), and more recent (2002–2012) shoreline change rates in two adjacent beach sections, one historically eroding (west beach) and the other accreting (east beach). The mean annual shoreline change rate in the two sections was significantly different in all time periods. The recent (1998–2012) mean change rate was −10.9 ± 9.9 m/year in the west beach and −2.8 ± 4.9 m/year in the east beach, which resulted in the loss of about 70% and 30% of area in the west and east beaches, respectively. Loggerheads nested significantly closer to the vegetation line in 2012 than in 2002 in the west beach but the difference between the two time periods was not significant in the east beach. However, the distance from nests to the vegetation line from 2002 to 2014 was significantly reduced annually in both beaches; on average, loggerheads nested closer to the vegetation line by 9 m/year in the west beach and 5.8 m/year in the east beach. The observed shoreline change rate and corresponding shift of nest placement sites, combined with the forecasted future beach loss, highlighted the importance of addressing the issue of beach erosion to conserve sandy beach habitats.

  16. Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    SUL, J. A. I. do.; SANTOS, I. R.; FRIEDRICH, A. C.; MATTHIENSEN, A.; FILLMANN, G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed beaches, where cigarette butts, straws, paper fragments, soft plastic fragments, and food packaging...

  17. Swash zone characteristics at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, L.H.; Hanes, D.M.; Barnard, P.L.; Gibbs, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA are analyzed and considered to be typical summer swash characteristics at this site. Analysis shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity energy dominated. Foreshore slopes were mild between 0.01 and 0.05 with swash periods on the order of a minute. Predicted runup heights obtained with six previously developed analytical runup formulae were compared to measured extreme runup statistics. Formulations dependent on offshore wave height, foreshore slope and deep water wavelength gave reasonable results.

  18. Observation on foreshore morphodynamics of microtidal sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.

    river mouth runs for ~6.2 km along the shore- line. Both sites are well-known fishing zones along west coast of India and also popular tourist places. However, there was no field data available on the beach morphody- namics covering different annual... Tables, Indian and selected Foreign Ports. Survey of India, Government of India, New Delhi, 2008–2011, p. 238. 10. Beach Morphology Analysis Package, Coastal Engineering Tech- nical Note, CETN-11/34, US Army Engineer Waterways Experi- ment Station...

  19. A Parametric Model for Barred Equilibrium Beach Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-10

    to shallow water. Bodge (1992) and Komar and McDougal (1994) suggested an exponential form as a preferred solution that exhibited finite slope at the...performance measures were computed from the shoreline to hsea, the active volume of sand bar variability. 3.1. Duck, NC, example Tests were carried out...applications. J. Coast. Res. 7, 53–84. Komar, P.D., McDougal ,W.G., 1994. The analysis of beach profiles and nearshore processes using the exponential beach

  20. Comparison of Intermittent Fasting Versus Caloric Restriction in Obese Subjects: A Two Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksungar, F B; Sarıkaya, M; Coskun, A; Serteser, M; Unsal, I

    2017-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is proven to be effective in increasing life span and it is well known that, nutritional habits, sleeping pattern and meal frequency have profound effects on human health. In Ramadan some Muslims fast during the day-light hours for a month, providing us a unique model of intermittent fasting (IF) in humans. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of IF versus CR on the same non-diabetic obese subjects who were followed for two years according to the growth hormone (GH)/Insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin resistance. Single-arm Interventional Human Study. 23 female subjects (Body Mass Index (BMI) 29-39, aged between 28-42years). Follow-up is designed as 12 months of CR, after which there was a month of IF and 11 months of CR again, to be totally 24 months. Subjects' daily diets were aligned as low calorie diet during CR and during the IF period, the same subjects fasted for 15 hours in a day for a month and there was no daily calorie restriction. Nutritional pattern was changed as 1 meal in the evening and a late supper before sleeping and no eating and drinking during the day light hours in the IF model. Subjects made brisk walking twice a day during the whole follow-up including both CR and IF periods. BMI, Blood glucose, insulin, TSH, GH, HbA1c, IGF-1, Homa-IR and urinary acetoacetate levels were monitored once in three months and twice in the fasting month. While subjects lost 1250 ± 372g monthly during the CR, in the IF period, weight loss was decreased to 473 ± 146 g. BMI of all subjects decreased gradually and as the BMI decreased, glucose, HbA1c, insulin, Homa-IR and TSH levels were decreased. GH levels were at baseline at the beginning, increased in the first six months and stayed steady during the CR and IF period than began decreasing after the IF period, while IGF-I increased gradually during the CR period and beginning with the 7th day of IF period, it decreased and kept on decreasing till the

  1. Water Erosion in a Two Year Old Stand of Eucalyptus benthamii under three Plantation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, J.; Bertol, I.; Marioti, J.; Ramos, J. C.; Flores, M. C.; Tanaka, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    The preparation of the soil is the main issue of soil management. Thus, it is also one of the main operations with regard to management of planted forest during the whole productive process. Soil preparation is thought to directly affect various processes of the hydrologic cycle, water erosion, crop productivity and, subsequently, play an important role both for the environment and for the invested capital. Therefore knowledge of the effect of each specific soil management system on forest production is viewed as an essential issue. Based on these considerations, the aim of this work was to quantify soil and water losses by water erosion during the seasons of the year with the highest rainfall intensity in the south hemisphere, i.e. spring and summer in a two year old stand planted with Eucalyptus benthamii. This tree species was planted following three different conditions: 1) soil mechanical preparation in furrows following the land slope, 2) soil mechanical preparation in furrows dug perpendicular to the slope and 3) semi-mechanical preparation by digging an individual hole for each plant. The field experiment was located in Otacílio Costa municipality, SC, Brazil, at the Gropp forest farm owned by the Kablin SA company, 841 m asl altitude. The soil was classified as a "Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico Léptico" according with the Brazilian Soil Classification System with a slope of about 0.12 m m-1. The experimental design consisted of randomly located erosion plots with 3 repetitions, thus a total of 9 plots. The surface area of the plots was 12 x 24 m and they were oriented so that the main side followed the land slope. Suspended sediments and water losses were channelled to collecting tank at the end of the plot. Runoff water and eroded sediments were weakly measured, so that they correspond to cumulative weakly rainfall. The highest soil and water losses were recorded in plots with furrows dug perpendicular to the slope and the lowest ones corresponded to the

  2. Urinary incontinence and vaginal squeeze pressure two years post-cesarean delivery in primiparous women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Angélica Mércia Pascon; Dias, Adriano; Marini, Gabriela; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Witkin, Steven; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of urinary incontinence and associated vaginal squeeze pressure in primiparous women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus two years post-cesarean delivery. METHODS: Primiparous women who delivered by cesarean two years previously were interviewed about the delivery and the occurrence of incontinence. Incontinence was reported by the women and vaginal pressure evaluated by a Perina perineometer. Sixty-three women with gestational diabetes ...

  3. Breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond and its influence on child growth and development: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carlos; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2013-02-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies describing the global prevalence of breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond and its effects on child growth and development. The MEDLINE and LILACS databases were searched without any language or date restrictions, retrieving 3,561 titles. All retrieved titles, 453 abstracts and 49 full-text articles were read. Articles with maximum breastfeeding duration of over two years were included. An analysis was carried out of 19 articles that met the inclusion criteria resulting in a combined prevalence of breastfeeding at two years of age of 33 % (95%CI: 0.23; 0.42). Increasing trends towards breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond were observed in the past decades in South Asia. The six studies analyzing the effects of breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond on child growth showed contradictory results. No association was found with child development. It is concluded that evidence on the medium-term effects of breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond is scarce and contradictory. Hence, further research is needed regarding this practice.

  4. 77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...-0099; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal... Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic coordinates... of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic coordinates for the airport need...

  5. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...-0099; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal... Federal Register on April 11, 2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES: Effective 0901...), amends Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error was made in...

  6. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in...

  7. 76 FR 77119 - Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano Beach... Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade on Sunday, December 11, 2011. The marine parade will consist of... Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this temporary...

  8. Gone to the Beach — Using GIS to infer how people value ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating the non-market value of beaches for saltwater recreation is complex. An individual’s preference for a beach depends on their perception of beach characteristics. When choosing one beach over another, an individual balances these personal preferences with any additional costs including travel time and/or fees to access the beach. This trade-off can be used to infer how people value different beach characteristics; especially when beaches are free to the public, beach value estimates rely heavily on accurate travel times. A current case study focused on public access on Cape Cod, MA will be used to demonstrate how travel costs can be used to determine the service area of different beaches, and model expected use of those beaches based on demographics. We will describe several of the transportation networks and route services available and compare a few based on their ability to meet our specific requirements of scale and seasonal travel time accuracy. We are currently developing a recreational demand model, based on visitation data and beach characteristics, that will allow decision makers to predict the benefits of different levels of water quality improvement. An important part of that model is the time required for potential recreation participants to get to different beaches. This presentation will describe different ways to estimate travel times and the advantages/disadvantages for our particular application. It will go on to outline how freely a

  9. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach, Alabama. This action is necessary for the... conduct a high speed boat race on the Gulf of Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October...

  10. Morphodynamic characterization of the Spanish beaches of the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente, J.; Gracia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Anfuso, G.; Rodriguez-Ramirez, A.

    2015-07-01

    During the1980s several attempts were made to classify beaches according to their morphodynamic behav- iour. Published papers proposed classifications based mainly on wave incident energy and beach character- istics, such as foreshore slopes and sediment settling velocities. In the 1990s more complex classifications appeared, where the effect of tides on wave action was included, highlighting their relevance to the determi- nation of the morphodynamic state of the beach. In this paper we present a beach monitoring programme, in which more than 30 beaches located along the Spanish shores of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Strait of Gibraltar were surveyed for four years (2000-2004). The long study period allowed the monitoring of beach morphologies related both to fair weather (summer) and storm (winter) conditions. The coastal setting in the study area provided the opportunity for covering a wide range of tidal conditions, from high mesotidal (MSTR ca. 4 m) to microtidal (MSTR around 1 m). Furthermore, the dimensions of the study area permitted the mon- itoring of beaches linked to different boundary conditions, thus including both attached and detached beach- es located at varying distances from main sediment sources, and influenced by different wave regimes. The analysis of the beach morphologies related to such contrasting conditions allowed the identification of the real significance of the tidal effect on beach profile morphology and hence on beach morphodynamics. Finally, we conclude that the effect of tides on wave action is the main factor determining beach morphody- namic behaviour. (Author)

  11. RIP current zones along beaches in Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jena, B.K.

    Goa has a 125-km-long coastline of which two-thirds consists of beautiful sandy beaches. There are mainly 17 beaches having significant importance of tourism. Sporadically, surf drownings have been reported at a few stretches of the beach. Longshore...

  12. Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Key Results Two Years Into The Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Franck; Rameau, Julien; Nielsen, Eric L.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Esposito, Thomas; Draper, Zachary H.; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; GPIES

    2016-10-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) is targeting 600 young, nearby stars using the GPI instrument. We report here on recent results obtained with this instrument from our team.Rameau et al. (ApJL, 822 2, L2, 2016) presented astrometric monitoring of the young exoplanet HD 95086 b obtained with GPI between 2013 and 2016. Efficient Monte Carlo techniques place preliminary constraints on the orbital parameters of HD 95086 b. Under the assumption of a coplanar planet-disk system, the periastron of HD 95086 b is beyond 51 AU. Therefore, HD 95086 b cannot carve the entire gap inferred from the measured infrared excess in the SED of HD 95086. Additional photometric and spectroscopic measurements reported by de Rosa et al. (2016, apJ, in press) showed that the spectral energy distribution of HD 95086 b is best fit by low temperature (T~800-1300 K), low surface gravity spectra from models which simulate high photospheric dust content. Its temperature is typical to L/T transition objects, but the spectral type is poorly constrained. HD 95086 b is an important exoplanet to test our models of atmospheric properties of young extrasolar planets.Direct detections of debris disk are keys to infer the collisional past and understand the formation of planetary systems. Two debris disks were recently studied with GPI:- Draper et al. (submitted to ApJ, 2016) show the resolved circumstellar debris disk around HD 111520 at a projected range of ~30-100 AU using both total and polarized H-band intensity. Structures in the disks such as a large brightness asymmetry and symmetric polarization fraction are seen. Additional data would confirm if a large disruption event from a stellar fly-by or planetary perturbations altered the disk density- Esposito et al. (submitted to ApJ, 2016) combined Keck NIRC2 data taken at 1.2-2.3 microns and GPI 1.6 micron total intensity and polarized light detections that probes down to projected separations less than 10 AU to show that the HD

  13. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. Wireless Time Tracking Improves Productivity at CSU Long Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmack, Scott; Walsh, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Describes California State University Long Beach's implementation of new maintenance management software, which integrated maintenance, inventory control, and key control and allows technicians to enter and receive information through handheld wireless devices for more accurate time accounting. The school estimates a 10 percent increase in…

  15. Aggregations of the sandy-beach isopod, Tylos granulatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lives as a scavenger in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches on the west coast of South Africa. Individuals emerge with the receding tide leaving exit holes, then forage for about two hours before returning to the vicinity of the high-water mark where they aggregate to bury themselves, leaving behind cone-shaped mounds.

  16. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  17. Spatial variability of macrobenthic zonation on exposed sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Cacabelos, Eva; Maldonado, Cristina; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    We analysed the consistence of vertical patterns of distribution (i.e. zonation) for macrofauna at different spatial scales on four intermediate exposed beaches in the North of Portugal. We tested the hypothesis that biological zonation on exposed sandy beaches would vary at the studied spatial scales. For this aim, abundance, diversity and structure of macrobenthic assemblages were examined at the scales of transect and beach. Moreover, the main environmental factors that could potentially drive zonation patterns were investigated. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the number of biological zones ranged from two to three depending on the beach and from indistinct zonation to three zones at the scale of transect. Therefore, results support our working hypothesis because zonation patterns were not consistent at the studied spatial scales. The median particle size, sorting coefficient and water content were significantly correlated with zonation patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. However, a high degree of correlation was not reached when the total structure of the assemblage was considered.

  18. Meiofauna of some sandy beaches of Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.

    Comparatively high meiofauna numbers were recorded from beaches having fine sand particles than those having coarse to medium sand particles The fauna was dominated mainly by nematodes (53.7%), harpacticoids (13.7%) and polychaetes (12.8%) On all...

  19. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  20. The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by means of GIS techniques. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work ...

  1. Sediment budget of a portion of Trivandrum beach (Kerala)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varma, P.U.; RamaRaju, V.S.; Pylee, A.; Swamy, G.N.

    to be deposited back when the erosion phase is over. Eventhough a net loss has been noticed during the period of study, it is considered not very significant from the point of view of long-term changes which the beach may undergo...

  2. Beaches and Bluffs of Puget Sound and the Northern Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    sand up to pebbles, cobbles, and occasionally boulders, often also containing shelly material. Puget Sound beaches commonly have two distinct...very limited historic wind records (wave hind- casting ). Drift directions indicated in the Atlas have repeatedly been proven inaccurate (Johannessen

  3. Surfin’ California with Whitman and The Beach Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    of American literary Romanticism, whereas The Beach Boys became the sixties’ most well-known pop icon of surf music and surf culture. Nevertheless, their common interest in California as a particular topographic image of the American West invites comparison and further study. This paper aims to make...

  4. Pollution of some recreation beaches of Mumbai, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Pollution in terms of water and sediment qualities of Madh. Juhu, Dadar and Girgaon recreation beaches was studied. Water quality in respect of low pH (7.8-8.3), low salinity (15.1-34.5 ppl), high microbial population (coliform count up to 18000...

  5. White shark and other chondrichthyan interactions with the beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public perception has been that an apparent increase in the nearshore occurrence of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, on the south coast of South Africa, can at least be partly attributed to beach-seine (treknet) operations attracting sharks into this coastal area. To assess the merit of these concerns, ...

  6. Economic valuation of illegal fishing: An empirical study of beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beach seining was banned in Kenya in 2001 largely due to growth overfishing. To-date compliance to this regulation remains a challenge to managers and policy makers. This paper analyses enforcement records in Lake Victoria between 2001 and 2012 and applies the model of rational criminality to estimate the economic ...

  7. Disturbance of beach sediment by off-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Fred J.; Leatherman, Stephen P.

    1987-10-01

    A three-year investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on the beach at Fire Island, New York. Within the National Seashore over 45,000 vehicle trips per year are concentrated in the zone seaward of the dune toe. The experimental approach was adopted in order to assess the environmental effects of ORVs. Specially developed instrumentation was used to measure the direct displacement of sand by vehicles traversing the beach. Direct displacement data were reduced graphically and analyzed by stepwise linear regression. The results of 89 field experiments (788 cases) showed that slope, sand compaction, and number of vehicle passes in the same track were the principal factors controlling the measured net seaward displacement of sand. The data suggest that ORV use levels within the National Seashore could be contributing to the overall erosion rate by delivering large quantities of sand to the swash zone (max. of 119,300 m3/yr). However, with proper management downslope movement of sand could be reduced by an order of magnitude. While vehicular passage over the open beach displaces sand seaward, it is not known if such activity actually increases the amount of erosion, measured as net loss to the beach face.

  8. Organisms associated with the sandy-beach bivalve Donax serra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    57: 134-136. BROWN, AC. & WEBB, S.c. 1994. Organisms associated \\.,.,ith burrowing whelks of the genus Bullia. S Afr. 1. Zool. 29: 144-151. BROWN, A.C., STENTON-DOZEY, J.~.E. & TRUEMAN, E.R.. 1989. Sandy-beach bivalves and gastropods; a comparison between Donax serra and Ruilia digitalis. Adv. mar. Bioi. 25:.

  9. Modeling the Movement of Beach Alluvia in the Alongshore Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Bondareva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have worked out a design model for the dynamics of a mixed-composition beach in the vicinity of transverse structures. The model uses a modified formula for calculating alluvia, which is based on modified energy dependencies. The authors provide an algorithm for performing these calculations.

  10. The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A transportable and robust gamma ray detection system (GISPI) was employed to determine the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides on various beaches in and around Saldanha Bay, located on the West Coast of South Africa. Several mathematical techniques were applied to obtain GIS overlay that could be ...

  11. Aggregations of the sandy-beach isopod, Tylos granulatu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-12-14

    Dec 14, 1995 ... The advantages of this are analysed in terms of energy conservation, and as a means of reducing ...... permanently unless washed out by the waves (Brown. Sten- .... The bc:- havior and life history or a sand-beach isopod.

  12. Effect of sillimanite beach sand composition on mullitization and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Effect of sillimanite beach sand composition on mullitization and properties of Al2O3–SiO2 system ... Presence of zircon in Z-variety increases the hardness and fracture toughness. Alumina addition ... The ratio of charge to grinding media was ...

  13. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.J.; James, I.; Jennings, P.J.; Keoyers, J.E.

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of

  14. March 1977 Sandy beaches are unstable, often very exposed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPOSITION, DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND BIOMASS OF THE ... beach giving macrofauna values of 17,5-16553,3 '/transect and meiofauna values .... and evenness, the two components of diversity, were calculated as done by ..... feeding on particulate matter and plankton, and Bullia occupies the niche feeding on.

  15. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players' experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27-42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual's inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players' self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community.

  16. Sun behaviour on the beach monitored by webcam photos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerfordt, I M; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2018-02-01

    To prevent skin cancer, the general population is recommended to limit time in the sun, to wear clothes and to seek shade around noon. This study aimed to investigate the number of beachgoers, the duration of sun exposure, and clothing worn during the day on a beach in Copenhagen. Observational, descriptive study. On 11 beach days in 2014 and 2015, beachgoers were counted every hour from 8:00 to 20:00. It was noted if they wore clothes or swimwear. To estimate the duration of sun exposure, it was noted how long cars were parked by the beach. Of the counted beachgoers 46% were present from noon to 15:00. The number of beachgoers peaked at 15:00 on weekend days (Saturdays and Sunday) and at 16:00 on working days (Monday to Friday). Both on weekend days and working days, the percentage of beachgoers wearing clothes was lowest at 13:00 when about 90% wore only swimwear. Cars were parked for 117 min on average. Around noon, the mean time expanded to 142 min. We assume this to reflect the duration of a beach visit. The results indicate a weak tendency to limit time in the sun and to seek shade when the ultraviolet radiation is strongest in the midday sun. Hopefully information about actual sun behaviour can be used to adjust campaigns. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plastics Distribution and Degradation on Lake Huron Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbyszewski, M.; Corcoran, P.

    2009-05-01

    The resistivity of plastic debris to chemical and mechanical weathering processes poses a serious threat to the environment. Numerous marine beaches are littered with plastic fragments that entangle and become ingested by organisms including birds, turtles and plankton. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the amount and effects of plastics pollution on marine organisms, relatively little is known about the distribution and quantity of polymer types along lacustrine beaches. Plastic particles sampled from selected beaches on Lake Huron were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine polymer composition. The majority of the plastic fragments are industrial pellets composed of polypropylene and polyethylene. Varying degrees of oxidation are indicated by multiple irregular peaks in the lower wavenumber region on the FTIR spectra. The oxidized pellets also represent the plastic particles with the most pronounced surface textures, as identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crazes and flakey, fibrous, or granular textures are consistent with chemical weathering processes, whereas gauges and pits occur through abrasion during mechanical weathering. Further textural and compositional analysis will indicate which polymer types are more resistant to weathering processes. Additional investigation of the distribution of plastic debris along the beaches of Lake Huron will indicate the amount and primary transport directions of resistant plastic debris polluting one of Ontario's Great Lakes.

  18. Lung protective mechanical ventilation and two year survival in patients with acute lung injury: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Dale M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Dinglas, Victor D; Sevransky, Jonathan E; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R; Desai, Sanjay V; Shanholtz, Carl; Brower, Roy G; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-05

    To evaluate the association of volume limited and pressure limited (lung protective) mechanical ventilation with two year survival in patients with acute lung injury. Prospective cohort study. 13 intensive care units at four hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 485 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury. Two year survival after onset of acute lung injury. 485 patients contributed data for 6240 eligible ventilator settings, as measured twice daily (median of eight eligible ventilator settings per patient; 41% of which adhered to lung protective ventilation). Of these patients, 311 (64%) died within two years. After adjusting for the total duration of ventilation and other relevant covariates, each additional ventilator setting adherent to lung protective ventilation was associated with a 3% decrease in the risk of mortality over two years (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.99, P=0.002). Compared with no adherence, the estimated absolute risk reduction in two year mortality for a prototypical patient with 50% adherence to lung protective ventilation was 4.0% (0.8% to 7.2%, P=0.012) and with 100% adherence was 7.8% (1.6% to 14.0%, P=0.011). Lung protective mechanical ventilation was associated with a substantial long term survival benefit for patients with acute lung injury. Greater use of lung protective ventilation in routine clinical practice could reduce long term mortality in patients with acute lung injury. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00300248.

  19. Internationally Adopted Children from Non-European Countries: General Development during the First Two Years in the Adoptive Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dalen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationally adopted children are often delayed in their development and demonstrate more behaviour problems than nonadopted children due to adverse preadoption circumstances. This is especially true for children adopted from Eastern European countries. Few studies have focused on children adopted from non-European countries. This paper presents results from an ongoing longitudinal study of 119 internationally adopted children from non-European countries during their first two years in Norway. Several scales measuring different aspects of the children’s development are included in the study: communication and gross motor development, temperamental characteristics, and behaviour problems. The results show that internationally adopted children are delayed in their general development when they first arrive in their adoptive families. After two years the children have made significant progress in development. However, they still lag behind in communication and motor skills compared to non-adopted children. The temperamental characteristics seem very stable from time of adoption until two years after adoption. The children demonstrate a low frequency of behaviour problems. However, the behaviour problems have changed during the two years. At time of adoption they show more nonphysically challenging behaviour while after two years their physically challenging behaviour has increased.

  20. Internationally adopted children from non-European countries: general development during the first two years in the adoptive family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children are often delayed in their development and demonstrate more behaviour problems than nonadopted children due to adverse preadoption circumstances. This is especially true for children adopted from Eastern European countries. Few studies have focused on children adopted from non-European countries. This paper presents results from an ongoing longitudinal study of 119 internationally adopted children from non-European countries during their first two years in Norway. Several scales measuring different aspects of the children's development are included in the study: communication and gross motor development, temperamental characteristics, and behaviour problems. The results show that internationally adopted children are delayed in their general development when they first arrive in their adoptive families. After two years the children have made significant progress in development. However, they still lag behind in communication and motor skills compared to non-adopted children. The temperamental characteristics seem very stable from time of adoption until two years after adoption. The children demonstrate a low frequency of behaviour problems. However, the behaviour problems have changed during the two years. At time of adoption they show more nonphysically challenging behaviour while after two years their physically challenging behaviour has increased.

  1. Geomorphology and anthropogenic impact including military constraints in a microtidal wave-dominated embayment in south western Sardinia (Porto Pino beach, SCI ITB040025, Mediterranean Sea). Implications for beach management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Buosi, Carla; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    impact. The coastal dunes vulnerability status of this three parts was assessed using the Dune Vulnerability Index (DVI) based on 57 variables that described geomorphological condition, marine influence, aeolian influence, vegetation condition, and human effects. Results reveal the lowest vulnerability value in the area undergone military constraints. Blowouts, breaches in the coastal dune system and deflation areas are observed in the first and second part where there is the greatest human transit to allow users access of the beach. The main pressures and threats identified that determine significant impacts on dune habitats are: transit of vehicles in the dune with the subsequent degradation of vegetation and the triggering of deflation processes; setting of infrastructure on the dune; removal of seagrass banquettes. In particular, the impact of trucks used to remove banquettes is significant on subaerial beach morphology. This traffic flattens the berms, modifies sand permeability and reduces organic sediment input to the shore. This study has allowed to highlight the geomorphological processes, the anthropic pressure and the coastal dune vulnerability of this coastal area in order to mitigate the impacts.

  2. Disentangling diversity patterns in sandy beaches along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Francisco R; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  3. Data on nearshore wave process and surficial beach deposits, central Tamil Nadu coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V; Chandrasekar, N

    2017-08-01

    The chronicles of nearshore morphology and surficial beach deposits provide valuable information about the nature of the beach condition and the depositional environment. It imparts an understanding about the spatial and temporal relationship of nearshore waves and its influence over the distribution of beach sediments. This article contains data about wave and sediment dynamics of the ten sandy beaches along the central Tamil Nadu coast, India. This present dataset comprises nearshore wave parameters, breaker wave type, beach morphodynamic state, grain size distribution and weight percentage of heavy and light mineral distribution. The dataset will figure out the beach morphology and hydrodynamic condition with respect to the different monsoonal season. This will act as a field reference to realize the coastal dynamics in an open sea condition. The nearshore entities were obtained from the intensive field survey between January 2011 and December 2011, while characteristics of beach sediments are examined by the chemical process in the laboratory environment.

  4. Impact of erosion and accretion on the distribution of enterococci in beach sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Rebecca J; Gorrell, Levi; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve

    2011-09-15

    Bacterial pathogens in coastal sediments may pose a health risk to users of beaches. Although recent work shows that beach sands harbor both indicator bacteria and potential pathogens, it is not known how deep within beach sands the organisms may persist nor if they may be exposed during natural physical processes. In this study, sand cores of approximately 1 m depth were collected at three sites across the beach face in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina before, during and after large waves from an offshore hurricane. The presence of DNA from the fecal indicator bacterium Enterococci was detected in subsamples at different depths within the cores by PCR amplification. Erosion and accretion of beach sand at the three sites also was determined for each sampling day. The results indicate that ocean beach sands with persisting enterococci signals could be exposed and redistributed when wind, waves, and currents cause beach erosion or accretion.

  5. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... meeting would be beneficial. If we determine that one would aid this rulemaking, we will hold one at a... to the shows, as well as providing additional time should they run over the scheduled period. The... running east along the shoreline of Jones Beach State Park to approximate position 40[deg]35'49'' N, 073...

  6. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... through Sunday, June 14-16, 2013, Powerboat P1-USA will host the Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, a... private sector of $100,000,000 (adjusted for inflation) or more in any one year. Though this rule will not...

  7. Post-monsoon equilibrium beach profiles and longshore sediment transport rates at Candolim, Miramar and Keri beaches of Goa, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Yadhunath, E.M.; Jishad, M.; Gowthaman, R.; Rajasekaran, C; Pednekar, P.S.

    ) and the profile shape factor m, which are inversely proportional to each other, have been analysed for their application to the study site. Also, the variation of these two parameters with beach slope and grain size is studied. Longshore sediment...

  8. Water Quality, Weather and Environmental Factors Associated with Fecal Indicator Organism Density in Beach Sand at Two Recreational Marine Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers wit sand contact have important public health implicatons because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact act...

  9. Urinary incontinence and vaginal squeeze pressure two years post-cesarean delivery in primiparous women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Mércia Pascon Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of urinary incontinence and associated vaginal squeeze pressure in primiparous women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus two years post-cesarean delivery. METHODS: Primiparous women who delivered by cesarean two years previously were interviewed about the delivery and the occurrence of incontinence. Incontinence was reported by the women and vaginal pressure evaluated by a Perina perineometer. Sixty-three women with gestational diabetes and 98 women without the disease were screened for incontinence and vaginal pressure. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effects of gestational diabetes. RESULTS: The prevalence of gestational incontinence was higher among women with gestational diabetes during their pregnancies (50.8% vs. 31.6% and two years after a cesarean (44.8% vs. 18.4%. Decreased vaginal pressure was also significantly higher among women with gestational diabetes (53.9% vs. 37.8%. Maternal weight gain and newborn weight were risk factors for decreased vaginal pressure. Maternal age, gestational incontinence and decreased vaginal pressure were risk factors for incontinence two years after a cesarean. In a multivariate logistic model, gestational diabetes was an independent risk factor for gestational incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of incontinence and decreased vaginal pressure two years post-cesarean were elevated among women with gestational diabetes compared to women who were normoglycemic during pregnancy. We confirmed an association between gestational diabetes mellitus and a subsequent decrease of vaginal pressure two years post-cesarean. These results may warrant more comprehensive prospective and translational studies.

  10. Infrared Spectroscopy as a Preview of Coming Attractions: Teaching Chemistry with Instrumental Methods at Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David R.; Bushey, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Two-year colleges (2YCs) provide a significant amount of chemical education to undergraduates in the United States. By design, the charge of the 2YCs is to provide coursework at the lower-division level. Nonetheless, general chemistry courses in 2YCs can be enhanced with content to prepare future chemistry majors for upper-division education. The…

  11. The Impact of Achieve3000 on Elementary Literacy Outcomes: Evidence from a Two-Year Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Darryl V.; Lenard, Matthew A.; Page, Lindsay Coleman

    2016-01-01

    School districts are increasingly adopting technology-based resources in an attempt to improve student achievement. This paper reports the two-year results from randomized control trial of Achieve3000 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Achieve3000 is an early literacy program that differentiates non-fiction…

  12. Who is "Daddy" Revisited: The Status of Two-Year-Olds' Over-Extended Words in Use and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jean R.; Chapman, Robin S.

    1977-01-01

    Diary observations of two-year-olds' over-extended word use have been interpreted as arising from the word's underlying semantic feature structure. This interpretation was rejected after a study of five children. The need to construct models of early word meaning reflecting certain early language development patterns is discussed. (CHK)

  13. An evaluation of a community-based basic parenting programme: a two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Deborah

    2012-02-01

    Behavioural difficulties in the early years and through primary school age present a challenge to community practitioners; and the long-term costs to society of untreated conduct disorder place a huge financial strain on services, as well as leading to a poor prognosis for the children affected. The aim of this study was to establish the long-term effects for participants attending a 12-week Basic Incredible Years Programme, two years post-completion. Fifty-seven participants were interviewed, representing 63% of the original sample, who parented children aged 1-12 years. Pre- and post-intervention and follow-up measures were the General Health Questionnaire (30) and Eyberg Child Behaviour Checklist. The most common theme reported was that it had helped to change their child's behaviour, and this was demonstrated quantitatively with mean average scores for the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory reducing to below clinical cut-off post-group and at two years. This same pattern was seen for participants' mental health, with improvements largely maintained at two years. Of the one-third of the children whose behaviour deteriorated two years after the course, two-thirds of these children had experienced adverse life events or had a secondary diagnosis.

  14. "Etxadi-Gangoiti" Scale: A Proposal to Evaluate the Family Contexts of Two-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz Freijo, Enrique B.; Olabarrieta Artetxe, Fernando; Manzano Fernández, Ainhoa; Martín Ayala, Juan luís; Galende Pérez, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a proposal for the comprehensive assessment of the family context of children aged two years. It offers an updated resource based on recent research into the assessment of family contexts and their influence on children's psychological development. The proposal explores the following areas: Presence of learning materials;…

  15. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in primiparae two years after cesarean section: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Angélica Mércia Pascon; Marini, Gabriela; Piculo, Fernanda; Rudge, Cibele Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha

    2013-01-01

    There is uncertainty in the literature regarding the theory that obstetric events and pelvic floor injuries give rise to lower risk of subsequent urinary incontinence among women delivering via cesarean section than among women delivering vaginally. The objective of this study was to assess the two-year postpartum prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and the factors responsible for them. Cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university. 220 women who had undergone elective cesarean section or vaginal childbirth two years earlier were selected. Their urinary incontinence symptoms were investigated, and their pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was assessed using digital palpation and a perineometer. The two-year urinary incontinence prevalences following vaginal childbirth and cesarean section were 17% and 18.9%, respectively. The only risk factor for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was weight gain during pregnancy. Body mass index less than 25 kg/m 2 and normal pelvic floor muscle function protected against urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence increased the risk of two-year postpartum urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence was a crucial precursor of postpartum urinary incontinence. Weight gain during pregnancy increased the subsequent risk of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and elective cesarean section did not prevent urinary incontinence.

  16. Relationship between Students' Reading Ability and Their Success in Medical Terminology at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Mary Gene

    2011-01-01

    Health sciences faculty members at a two-year college were concerned about the poor pass rates in medical terminology, a gateway course for all students planning to major in health-related fields. Faculty suspected that students coming out of developmental reading might not have adequate reading skills to do well in medical terminology.…

  17. 5 CFR 2641.202 - Two-year restriction on any former employee's representations to United States concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Two-year restriction on any former employee's representations to United States concerning particular matter for which the employee had official responsibility. 2641.202 Section 2641.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS POST-EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF...

  18. 5 CFR 2641.205 - Two-year restriction on any former very senior employee's representations to former agency or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Two-year restriction on any former very senior employee's representations to former agency or certain officials concerning any matter, regardless of prior involvement. 2641.205 Section 2641.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS POST-EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT...

  19. Toxicologic Laboratory Findings in Cases Reported with Hanging Death: a Two-Year Retrospective Study in Northeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ranjbar

    2013-09-01

    How to cite this article: Ranjbar R, Liaghat AR, Ranjbar A, Mohabbati H. Toxicologic Laboratory Findings in Cases Reported with Hanging Death: a Two-Year Retrospective Study in Northeast Iran. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:92-5.

  20. Three Incomplete Caries Removal Techniques Compared Over Two Years in Primary Molars with Asymptomatic Deep Caries or Reversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompu-inwai, Papimon; Boonsongsawat, Kamolthip; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Sophasri, Tidarat; Mankaen, Siripun; Nondon, Sutasinee; Tunlek, Sumattaya; Katwong, Supitchaya

    2015-01-01

    To directly compare the survival rates of three incomplete caries removal techniques that differed in the amount of caries removal and the base material used. Ninety-six primary molars with asymptomatic deep caries or reversible pulpitis were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) indirect pulp treatment (IPT); (2) minimal caries removal with both resin-modified glass ionomer base material and luting cement (MCRB/L); and (3) minimal caries removal with only resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement (MCRL). The treatments were followed clinically and radiographically for two years. The two-year survival probabilities in the IPT, MCRB/L, and MCRL groups were 0.90 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] equals 0.73 to 0.97), 0.93 (95 percent CI equals 0.76 to 0.98), and 0.77 (95 percent CI equals 0.58 to 0.89), respectively. There was no significant difference in the two-year survival probabilities of the three studied groups (generalized Wilcoxon P=.07). Following two years, neither the amount of caries removal nor the base material affected the success of incomplete caries removal treatment. However, minimal caries removal with MCRB/L presented the highest survival rate among the tested groups and resulted in no incidence of pulp exposure.

  1. A Two-Year Follow-Up of a Staff Development Program Designed to Change Teacher Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Eugene; Stringfield, Samuel; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Two years after participating in a replication of the Stallings Effective Use of Time (EUOT) Program, ten teachers were re-observed and interviewed to determine the extent to which they had maintained the measured changes in their behavior patterns. Subjects were selected for the follow-up from a 27 EUOT teacher sample based on having exhibited…

  2. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in primiparae two years after cesarean section: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Mércia Pascon Barbosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE There is uncertainty in the literature regarding the theory that obstetric events and pelvic floor injuries give rise to lower risk of subsequent urinary incontinence among women delivering via cesarean section than among women delivering vaginally. The objective of this study was to assess the two-year postpartum prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and the factors responsible for them. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university. METHODS 220 women who had undergone elective cesarean section or vaginal childbirth two years earlier were selected. Their urinary incontinence symptoms were investigated, and their pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was assessed using digital palpation and a perineometer. RESULTS The two-year urinary incontinence prevalences following vaginal childbirth and cesarean section were 17% and 18.9%, respectively. The only risk factor for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was weight gain during pregnancy. Body mass index less than 25 kg/m 2 and normal pelvic floor muscle function protected against urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence increased the risk of two-year postpartum urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION Gestational urinary incontinence was a crucial precursor of postpartum urinary incontinence. Weight gain during pregnancy increased the subsequent risk of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and elective cesarean section did not prevent urinary incontinence.

  3. Identifying Effective Design Features of Technology-Infused Inquiry Learning Modules: A Two-Year Study of Students' Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Fang, Su-Chi; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsin-Kai, Wu; Wu, Pai-Hsing; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2016-01-01

    The two-year study aimed to explore how students' development of different inquiry abilities actually benefited from the design of technology-infused learning modules. Three learning modules on the topics of seasons, environmental issues and air pollution were developed to facilitate students' inquiry abilities: questioning, planning, analyzing,…

  4. Relationship between two year PSA nadir and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio da Silva Franca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the relationship between two year PSA nadir (PSAn after brachytherapy and biochemical recurrence rates in prostate cancer patients. Materials and Methods In the period from January 1998 to August 2007, 120 patients were treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy alone. The results analysis was based on the definition of biochemical recurrence according to the Phoenix Consensus. Results Biochemical control was observed in 86 patients (71.7%, and biochemical recurrence, in 34 (28.3%. Mean PSAn was 0.53 ng/ml. The mean follow-up was 98 months. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1, with two year PSAn < 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy (74 patients; 61.7%, and group 2, with two year PSAn ≥ 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy (46 patients; 38.3%. Group 1 presented biochemical recurrence in 15 patients (20.3%, and group 2, in 19 patients (43.2% (p < 0.02. The analysis of biochemical disease-free survival at seven years, stratified by the two groups, showed values of 80% and 64% (p < 0.02, respectively. Conclusion Levels of two year PSAn ≥ 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy are strongly correlated with a poor prognosis. This fact may help to identify patients at risk for disease recurrence.

  5. 78 FR 62322 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year Licensing Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD13-9-000] Hydropower... recommendations on the feasibility of a two-year process for the issuance of a license for hydropower development... Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013. The workshop will be held in the Commission Meeting Room at 888...

  6. The Multigenerational Workforce within Two-Year Public Community Colleges: A Study of Generational Factors Affecting Employee Learning and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Florida Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to broaden multigenerational workforce research involving factors affecting employee learning and interaction by using a population of Baby Boomer, Generation X, and Millennial faculty and staff age cohorts employed at two-year public community college organizations. Researchers have studied…

  7. Short- and medium-term response to storms on three Mediterranean coarse-grained beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Edoardo; Bertoni, Duccio; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The storm response of three Italian coarse-grained beaches was investigated to better understand the morphodynamics of coarse-clastic beaches in a microtidal context. Two of the studied sites are located on the eastern side of the country (Portonovo and Sirolo) and the third one (Marina di Pisa) is on the western side. Portonovo and Sirolo are mixed sand and gravel beaches where the storms approach from two main directions, SE and NE. Marina di Pisa is a coarse-grained, gravel-dominated beach, exposed to storms driven by SW winds. Gravel nourishments were undertaken in recent years on the three sites. Beach topography was monitored measuring the same network of cross sections at a monthly (i.e. short-term) to seasonal frequency (i.e. medium-term). Geomorphic changes were examined before and after storm occurrences by means of profile analyses and shoreline position evaluations. The beach orientation and the influence of hard structures are the main factors controlling the transport and accumulation of significant amount of sediments and the consequent high variability of beach morphology over the medium-term. For Marina di Pisa, storms tend to accumulate material towards the upper part of the beach with no shoreline rotation and no chance to recover the initial configuration. Sirolo and Portonovo showed a similar behaviour that is more typical of pocket beaches. Both beaches show shoreline rotation after storms in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction according to the incoming wave direction. The wider and longer beach at Sirolo allows the accumulation of a thin layer of sediment during storms, rather than at Portonovo where, given its longshore and landward boundaries, the beach material tends to accumulate in greater thickness. After storms, Sirolo and especially Portonovo can quickly recover the initial beach configuration, as soon as another storm of comparable energy approaches from the opposite direction of the previous one. Large morphological

  8. Anthropogenic disruption to the seismic driving of beach ridge formation: The Sendai coast, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, James, E-mail: j.goff@unsw.edu.au [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Knight, Jasper, E-mail: jasper.knight@wits.ac.za [School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sugawara, Daisuke, E-mail: sugawara@irides.tohoku.ac.jp [Hazard and Risk Evaluation Research Division, International Research, Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University, Aoba 468-1, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan); Terry, James P., E-mail: james.terry@zu.ac.ae [College of Sustainability Sciences and Humanities, Zayed University, PO Box 19282, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-02-15

    The expected geomorphic after-effects of the M{sub w} 9.0 Tōhoku-oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 (eastern Japan) are summarized by a schematic model of seismic driving, which details seismogenic disturbances to sediment systems that affect the rate or timing of sediment delivery to coastlines over timescales of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} years. The immediate physical environmental responses to this high-magnitude earthquake included a large tsunami and extensive region-wide slope failures. Normally, slope failures within mountain catchments would have significant impacts on Japan's river and coastal geomorphology in the coming decades with, for example, a new beach ridge expected to form within 20–100 years on the Sendai Plain. However, human activity has significantly modified the rate and timing of geomorphic processes of the region, which will have impacts on likely geomorphic responses to seismic driving. For example, the rivers draining into Sendai Bay have been dammed, providing sediment traps that will efficiently capture bedload and much suspended sediment in transit through the river system. Instead of the expected ~ 1 km of coastal progradation and formation of a ~ 3 m high beach ridge prior to the next large tsunami, it is likely that progradation of the Sendai Plain will continue to slow or even cease as a result of damming of river systems and capture of river sediments behind dams. The resulting reduction of fluvial sediment delivery to the coast due to modification of rivers inadvertently makes seawalls and other engineered coastal structures even more necessary than they would be otherwise. - Highlights: • The Tōhoku-oki earthquake led to seismogenic landslides inland. • Seismogenic sediments are reworked through river systems to the coast. • River dams are capturing these sediments, reducing sediment supply to the coast. • Reduced coastal sediment supply is increasing tsunami risk. • Engineering of river systems is making coastal

  9. Anthropogenic disruption to the seismic driving of beach ridge formation: The Sendai coast, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, James; Knight, Jasper; Sugawara, Daisuke; Terry, James P

    2016-02-15

    The expected geomorphic after-effects of the Mw 9.0 Tōhoku-oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 (eastern Japan) are summarized by a schematic model of seismic driving, which details seismogenic disturbances to sediment systems that affect the rate or timing of sediment delivery to coastlines over timescales of 10(2)-10(4)years. The immediate physical environmental responses to this high-magnitude earthquake included a large tsunami and extensive region-wide slope failures. Normally, slope failures within mountain catchments would have significant impacts on Japan's river and coastal geomorphology in the coming decades with, for example, a new beach ridge expected to form within 20-100 years on the Sendai Plain. However, human activity has significantly modified the rate and timing of geomorphic processes of the region, which will have impacts on likely geomorphic responses to seismic driving. For example, the rivers draining into Sendai Bay have been dammed, providing sediment traps that will efficiently capture bedload and much suspended sediment in transit through the river system. Instead of the expected ~1 km of coastal progradation and formation of a ~3m high beach ridge prior to the next large tsunami, it is likely that progradation of the Sendai Plain will continue to slow or even cease as a result of damming of river systems and capture of river sediments behind dams. The resulting reduction of fluvial sediment delivery to the coast due to modification of rivers inadvertently makes seawalls and other engineered coastal structures even more necessary than they would be otherwise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anthropogenic disruption to the seismic driving of beach ridge formation: The Sendai coast, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, James; Knight, Jasper; Sugawara, Daisuke; Terry, James P.

    2016-01-01

    The expected geomorphic after-effects of the M_w 9.0 Tōhoku-oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 (eastern Japan) are summarized by a schematic model of seismic driving, which details seismogenic disturbances to sediment systems that affect the rate or timing of sediment delivery to coastlines over timescales of 10"2–10"4 years. The immediate physical environmental responses to this high-magnitude earthquake included a large tsunami and extensive region-wide slope failures. Normally, slope failures within mountain catchments would have significant impacts on Japan's river and coastal geomorphology in the coming decades with, for example, a new beach ridge expected to form within 20–100 years on the Sendai Plain. However, human activity has significantly modified the rate and timing of geomorphic processes of the region, which will have impacts on likely geomorphic responses to seismic driving. For example, the rivers draining into Sendai Bay have been dammed, providing sediment traps that will efficiently capture bedload and much suspended sediment in transit through the river system. Instead of the expected ~ 1 km of coastal progradation and formation of a ~ 3 m high beach ridge prior to the next large tsunami, it is likely that progradation of the Sendai Plain will continue to slow or even cease as a result of damming of river systems and capture of river sediments behind dams. The resulting reduction of fluvial sediment delivery to the coast due to modification of rivers inadvertently makes seawalls and other engineered coastal structures even more necessary than they would be otherwise. - Highlights: • The Tōhoku-oki earthquake led to seismogenic landslides inland. • Seismogenic sediments are reworked through river systems to the coast. • River dams are capturing these sediments, reducing sediment supply to the coast. • Reduced coastal sediment supply is increasing tsunami risk. • Engineering of river systems is making coastal engineering more

  11. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  12. Coastal morphology and dynamics of two beaches of Favignana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasanisi, Francesco; Tebano, Carlo; Grauso, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Results of an investigation on the coastal morphology and dynamics of two pocket beaches of Favignana, Cala Azzurra and Lido Burrone, are presented. Four detailed hydrographic surveys were performed using multibeam echo sounder with sidescan sonar and differential marine GPS. Surveys were repeated in different periods following the same navigation project. Moreover, incident wave climate and coastal hydrodynamics were investigated using state-of-the-art numerical models. Results of in-situ activities indicate little bathymetric variations among different surveys and suggest a substantial stability of submerged beach profiles limited to surveyed area. Slightly greater bathymetric changes and a generally more intense coastal dynamics were observed at Cala Azzurra compared to Lido Burrone. Simulations of wave propagation and nearshore circulation currents provided results consistent with field observations [it

  13. Development of a numerical 2-dimensional beach evolution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykal, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the description of a 2-dimensional numerical model constructed for the simulation of beach evolution under the action of wind waves only over the arbitrary land and sea topographies around existing coastal structures and formations. The developed beach evolution numerical model...... is composed of 4 submodels: a nearshore spectral wave transformation model based on an energy balance equation including random wave breaking and diffraction terms to compute the nearshore wave characteristics, a nearshore wave-induced circulation model based on the nonlinear shallow water equations...... to compute the nearshore depth-averaged wave-induced current velocities and mean water level changes, a sediment transport model to compute the local total sediment transport rates occurring under the action of wind waves, and a bottom evolution model to compute the bed level changes in time based...

  14. Bryophytes of beach forests in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiangphak Sukkharak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of bryophyte diversity of three beach forests including Had Tung Prong, Had Tein Talay, and the beach forest in Thai Island and Sea Natural History Museum in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, was carried out. From 137 enumerated specimens, 16 species (6 mosses, 10 liverworts in 12 genera (5 mosses, 7 liverworts and eight families (5 mosses, 3 liverworts were found. Among those the most common families of mosses are Fissidentaceae (2 species and the most common families of liverwort are Lejeuneaceae (8 species. A comparison of species richness among the three areas revealed that the highest species richness of bryophytes was found in Had Tung Prong. Moreover, of all bryophyte species found, Weissia edentula Mitt. was the most common one.

  15. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  16. Beach-ridge architecture constrained by beach topography and Ground-Penetrating Radar, Itilleq (Lakse Bugt), Disko, Greenland – Implications for sea-level reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerich Souza, Priscila; Kroon, Aart; Nielsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well-marked by......Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well...... beach-ridge GPR profiles. Most of them are located at the boundary between a unit with reflection characteristics representing palaeo foreshore deposits, and a deeper and more complex radar unit characterized by diffractions, which, however, is not penetrated to large depths by the GPR signals. Based...

  17. Vertical distribution of meiofauna on reflective sandy beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Oliveira Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extreme physical conditions usually limit the meiofauna occurrence and distribution in highly hydrodynamic environments such as reflective beaches. Despite sediment grains of the upper layers being constantly resuspended and deposited, the high energy of the swash zone besides depositing coarse sediments allows an ample vertical distribution of meiofaunal organisms. The effect of physical, chemical and sediment variables on the vertical distribution of meiofaunal organims and nematodes was analysed on two reflective exposed beaches. Sampling was conducted at three sampling points on each beach in the swash zone. The sediment collected was divided into four 10-cm strata (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm. The statistical differences between strata due to factors previously established (i.e. meiofaunal composition, density of most abundant taxa were tested using a hierarchical PERMANOVA applied under similarity and euclidian distances. An inverse relation among average grain size, content of organic matter and sediment sorting was evident. Coarser sediment characterized the upper layers, while at deeper layers the sediment was very poorly sorted and presented a higher content of organic matter. A similar pattern in the vertical distribution of meiofaunal and nematofaunal composition and density was detected. The lowest densities were associated with the first stratum (0-10 cm, highly affected by hydrodynamics. The vertical distribution of organisms was statistically different only when the interaction among factors was considered. This result suggests that zonation and vertical distribution of meiofaunal organisms are determined by the within-beach variability.

  18. Identifying Preserved Storm Events on Beaches from Trenches and Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadman, H. M.; Gallagher, E. L.; McNinch, J.; Reniers, A.; Koktas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research suggests that even small scale variations in grain size in the shallow stratigraphy of sandy beaches can significantly influence large-scale morphology change. However, few quantitative studies of variations in shallow stratigraphic layers, as differentiated by variations in mean grain size, have been conducted, in no small part due to the difficulty of collecting undisturbed sediment cores in the energetic lower beach and swash zone. Due to this lack of quantitative stratigraphic grain size data, most coastal morphology models assume that uniform grain sizes dominate sandy beaches, allowing for little to no temporal or spatial variations in grain size heterogeneity. In a first-order attempt to quantify small-scale, temporal and spatial variations in beach stratigraphy, thirty-five vibracores were collected at the USACE Field Research Facility (FRF), Duck, NC, in March-April of 2014 using the FRF's Coastal Research and Amphibious Buggy (CRAB). Vibracores were collected at set locations along a cross-shore profile from the toe of the dune to a water depth of ~1m in the surf zone. Vibracores were repeatedly collected from the same locations throughout a tidal cycle, as well as pre- and post a nor'easter event. In addition, two ~1.5m deep trenches were dug in the cross-shore and along-shore directions (each ~14m in length) after coring was completed to allow better interpretation of the stratigraphic sequences observed in the vibracores. The elevations of coherent stratigraphic layers, as revealed in vibracore-based fence diagrams and trench data, are used to relate specific observed stratigraphic sequences to individual storm events observed at the FRF. These data provide a first-order, quantitative examination of the small-scale temporal and spatial variability of shallow grain size along an open, sandy coastline. The data will be used to refine morphological model predictions to include variations in grain size and associated shallow stratigraphy.

  19. Markkinointisuunnitelma digitaaliseen markkinointiin Case Baan Lee Beach Resort & Sauna

    OpenAIRE

    Lähteenmäki, Essi

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on kehittää Baan Lee Beach Resort & Saunan digitaalista markkinointia markkinointisuunnitelman avulla. Yritys on aloittamassa liiketoimintaansa erittäin kilpailulla alalla, jossa digitaalinen markkinointi on tärkeä osa kilpailussa menestymistä ja se on otettava huomioon yrityksen markkinointistrategian tärkeänä osana. Markkinointisuunnitelmalla pyritään takaamaan markkinointistrategian mukainen toiminta. Markkinointisuunnitelmassa kuvataan yrityksen nykyti...

  20. Spectral responses of gravel beaches to tidal signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2017-01-01

    Tides have been recognized as a major driving forcing affecting coastal aquifer system, and deterministic modeling has been very effective in elucidating mechanisms caused by tides. However, such modeling does not lend itself to capture embedded information in the signal, and rather focuses on the primary processes. Here, using yearlong data sets measured at beaches in Alaska Prince William Sound, we performed spectral and correlation analyses to identify temporal behavior of pore-water pressure, temperature and salinity. We found that the response of the beach system was characterized by fluctuations of embedded diurnal, semidiurnal, terdiurnal and quarterdiurnal tidal components. Hydrodynamic dispersion of salinity and temperature, and the thermal conductivity greatly affected pore water signals. Spectral analyses revealed a faster dissipation of the semi-diurnal component with respect to the diurnal components. Correlation functions showed that salinity had a relatively short memory of the tidal signal when inland freshwater recharge was large. In contrast, the signature of the tidal signal on pore-water temperature persisted for longer times, up to a week. We also found that heterogeneity greatly affected beach response. The response varied from a simple linear mapping in the frequency domain to complete modulation and masking of the input frequencies.