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Sample records for beach sands

  1. Beach sand minerals in ceramic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Patra, R.N.; Mukherjee, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramics are in use since the time memorial and many new materials belonging to this segment of industry have come to existence as the human civilization progressed. Although clay and some non-clay minerals are used in the traditional ceramics, they are not compatible for advanced ceramic applications. The synthesized compounds of elements like aluminium, silicon, titanium, zirconium, rare earths etc are having ability to satisfy the requirements of such advanced high tech applications. The six heavy minerals present in abundantly available Indian beach sand minerals happen to contain these elements and find application as such or in their value added forms both in traditional and advanced ceramics. In this paper an effort has been made to describe the role of beach sand minerals being produced by Indian Rare Earths Ltd as basic raw materials for the Indian ceramic industry. (author)

  2. Beach Sand Supply and Transport at Kunduchi in Tanzania and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Beach-head erosion of sandy beach plains in eastern Africa threatens tourism-related infrastructure and the livelihoods of beach users. The nature and drivers of physical shoreline change at Kunduchi, Dar es Salaam, and Bamburi,. Mombasa, are described with analyses of beach sand transport through the ...

  3. Beach sand supply and transport at Kunduchi, Tanzania, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related infrastructure and the livelihoods of beach plain users. The nature and drivers of physical shoreline change at Kunduchi, near Dar es Salaam, and Bamburi, near Mombasa, are described with analyses of beach sand transport through the ...

  4. Sand transport in urbanized beaches - models and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineiro, G.; Norbis, W.; Panario, D.

    2012-01-01

    The general objective is to quantify the wind transport of sand in the urbanized beaches. The specific objectives include testing and calibration of the wind velocity as well as the classification of the beaches according to the magnitude and the direction of sand transport

  5. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  6. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  7. Geochemistry of dark coastal heavy-mineral beaches sand (Annaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés : Minéraux lourds- élément majeur –élément trace – les terres rares- sable de plage. The study area (Ain Achir and Plage-Militaire beaches) is a part of the Edough Massif/Annaba /Algeria. Recent beach sediments of Ain Achir are characterized by light sand and dark reddish one. This latter appears mostly after a ...

  8. Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to make it suitable for foundry use.

  9. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  10. Geochemistry of dark coastal heavy-mineral beaches sand (Annaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    correlation between the concentration of major, traces and REE elements and the amount of heavy and especially metamorphic minerals like garnet, staurolite, tourmaline and epidote. Key words: Heavy minerals- Major - Trace element – REE- Sand-Beach. * Corresponding Author: Chemam.asma@gmail.com ...

  11. The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by means of GIS techniques. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work ...

  12. Basic study on the estimating the value of sand beach using amenities replace

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, B-S; Kim, K-H.

    2013-01-01

    The sand beach along the east coast of Korea offers beautiful scenery with high-quality sand for leisure, and is also famous for white-sand and pine-trees both of which are important scenic resources. Furthermore, the sand beach helps to maintain natural environment of the coastal area and has the function of a disaster prevention system against high waves. There are two major value evaluation methods, Travel Cost Method and Contingent Valuation Method, to assess the value of sand beach. Cont...

  13. Mineralogical characterization of beach sand minerals: traditional and modern approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, P.

    2016-01-01

    Precise identification of beach sand minerals is an essential prerequisite for the reserve estimation of a given deposit and also in the subsequent evaluation of the process flow sheet for its optimal recovery. Traditional methods that are used for the identification of the beach sand minerals such as magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, rutile, anatase, zircon, garnet, sillimanite, monazite, quartz and others include heavy liquid separation (bromoform and methylene iodide) and studying the optical properties of the grains from different fractions so as to identify the specific phases in a sample. Grain counting of specific minerals from a given sievefraction under a petrological microscope to estimate the mode and their subsequent conversion in to weight percent fractions forms the critical second stage that is followed by the reserve estimates. These methodologies are tedious and time consuming often involving a few days for a single sample. The paper introduces the numerous instrumental methods (XRF, XRD - Rietveld and CCSEM) of mineral speciation and their qualification in with case studies from the west coast deposits in India

  14. Aeolian sand transport and its effects on the stability of Miramar-Caranzalem beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, G.V.; Sastry, J.S.

    Removal of sand by wind from the beach at Miramar-Caranzalem, Goa, has been found to effect its stability over a relatively longer time scale. This aeolian sand transport has been computed for this strip of the beach utilising the relation between...

  15. Dose rates of beach sands along the Enshu-nada coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Susumu; Shimo, Michikuni

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanism of beach-to-beach variations in dose rates, measurements at 35 sand beaches were carried out along the Enshu-nada coast (a total of 140km). The sand samples were collected at 10 beaches to obtain the concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium by means of Ge(Li) spectroscopy. Factors affecting the variation in dose rates were discussed, incorporating these data with data of coastal sea-bottom sediments taken by the Geological Survey of Japan. Two-dimensional measurements were performed at 50 locations each in two beaches near the Tenryu river mouth to know within-beach variations in detail. Contour maps of the data revealed a considerable regularity. It was found from simple analyses of the data collected in this work that the dose rate levels at beaches are affected by the distance from the river mouth, erosion or sedimentation of beach, and depth distribution of seawater. (author)

  16. Baseline for beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Seba B. Sheavly,; John Klavitter,

    2012-01-01

    Baseline measurements were made of the amount and weight of beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, June 2008–July 2010. On 23 surveys, 32,696 total debris objects (identifiable items and pieces) were collected; total weight was 740.4 kg. Seventy-two percent of the total was pieces; 91% of the pieces were made of plastic materials. Pieces were composed primarily of polyethylene and polypropylene. Identifiable items were 28% of the total; 88% of the identifiable items were in the fishing/aquaculture/shipping-related and beverage/household products-related categories. Identifiable items were lowest during April–August, while pieces were at their lowest during June–August. Sites facing the North Pacific Gyre received the most debris and proportionately more pieces. More debris tended to be found on Sand Island when the Subtropical Convergence Zone was closer to the Atoll. This information can be used for potential mitigation and to understand the impacts of large-scale events such as the 2011 Japanese tsunami.

  17. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing reveals freshwater beach sands as reservoir of bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Mahi M; Salama, Yasser; Schellhorn, Herb E; Golding, G Brian

    2017-05-15

    Recreational waters and adjacent beach sands harbor complex microbial communities which may contain human pathogens that cannot be detected by conventional methods. Here, we investigate the diversity of bacterial populations inhabiting four freshwater beaches of the Great Lakes region using shotgun metagenomic sequencing approach. Our analysis suggests that average taxonomic richness and alpha diversity are significantly higher (P beach sands compared to the corresponding water environments. Compared to the water environments, beach sands harbored taxa from a more diverse range of phyla, including a higher proportion of sequences from unclassified phyla. Unique phyla were also identified in sand which included species from Aquificae, Candidatus Microgenomates, Latescibacteria, and Candidatus Aminicenantes. Sequences originating from pathogens were detected in both sand and water, with some pathogens enriched in both environments. Both lakes exhibited similar community composition suggesting that geographic location did not appear to have any major impact on bacterial diversity. These findings reveal the diversity of bacterial communities of freshwater beaches and highlight the importance of monitoring pathogens in recreational beaches, especially in the sand environment of these beaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation, identification, and pathological effects of beach sand bacterial extract on human skin keratinocytesin vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Fazli; Shahzad, Raheem; Tauseef, Isfahan; Haleem, Kashif Syed; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Mahmood, Sajid; Lee, In-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Beaches are recreational spots for people. However, beach sand contains harmful microbes that affect human health, and there are no established methods for either sampling and identifying beach-borne pathogens or managing the quality of beach sand. This study was conducted with the aim of improving human safety at beaches and augmenting the quality of the beach experience. Beach sand was used as a resource to isolate bacteria due to its distinctive features and the biodiversity of the beach sand biota. A selected bacterial isolate termed FSRS was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, and the sequence was deposited in the NCBI GenBank database under the accession number MF599548. The isolated P. stutzeri bacterium was cultured in Luria-Bertani growth medium, and a crude extract was prepared using ethyl acetate to examine the potential pathogenic effect of P. stutzeri on human skin. A human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) was used to assess cell adhesion, cell viability, and cell proliferation using a morphological analysis and a WST-1 assay. The crude P. stutzeri extract inhibited cell adhesion and decreased cell viability in HaCaT cells. We concluded that the crude extract of P. stutzeri FSRS had a strong pathological effect on human skin cells. Beach visitors frequently get skin infections, but the exact cause of the infections is yet to be determined. The beach sand bacterium P. stutzeri may, therefore, be responsible for some of the dermatological problems experienced by people visiting the beach.

  19. Isolation, identification, and pathological effects of beach sand bacterial extract on human skin keratinocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Subhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Beaches are recreational spots for people. However, beach sand contains harmful microbes that affect human health, and there are no established methods for either sampling and identifying beach-borne pathogens or managing the quality of beach sand. Method This study was conducted with the aim of improving human safety at beaches and augmenting the quality of the beach experience. Beach sand was used as a resource to isolate bacteria due to its distinctive features and the biodiversity of the beach sand biota. A selected bacterial isolate termed FSRS was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, and the sequence was deposited in the NCBI GenBank database under the accession number MF599548. The isolated P. stutzeri bacterium was cultured in Luria–Bertani growth medium, and a crude extract was prepared using ethyl acetate to examine the potential pathogenic effect of P. stutzeri on human skin. A human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT was used to assess cell adhesion, cell viability, and cell proliferation using a morphological analysis and a WST-1 assay. Result The crude P. stutzeri extract inhibited cell adhesion and decreased cell viability in HaCaT cells. We concluded that the crude extract of P. stutzeri FSRS had a strong pathological effect on human skin cells. Discussion Beach visitors frequently get skin infections, but the exact cause of the infections is yet to be determined. The beach sand bacterium P. stutzeri may, therefore, be responsible for some of the dermatological problems experienced by people visiting the beach.

  20. Comparing different methods for fast screening of microbiological quality of beach sand aimed at rapid-response remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, Renan C; Almeida, Tito C M; Polette, Marcus; Branco, Joaquim O; Fischer, Larissa L; Niero, Guilherme; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Silva, Valéria C; Somensi, Cleder A; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Corrêa, Rogério; Rörig, Leonardo R; Itokazu, Ana Gabriela; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-05-15

    There is scientific evidence that beach sands are a significant contributor to the pathogen load to which visitors are exposed. To develop beach quality guidelines all beach zones must be included in microbiological evaluations, but monitoring methods for beach sand quality are relatively longstanding, expensive, laborious and require moderate laboratory infrastructure. This paper aimed to evaluate the microorganism activity in different beach zones applying and comparing a classical method of membrane filtration (MF) with two colorimetric screening methods based on fluorescein (FDA) and tetrazolium (TTC) salt biotransformation to evaluate a new rapid and low-cost method for beach sand microbiological contamination assessments. The colorimetric results can help beach managers to evaluate rapidly and at low cost the microbiological quality of different beach zones in order to decide whether remedial actions need to be adopted to prevent exposure of the public to microbes due to beach sand and/or water contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Sílvia [Laboratório Regional de Veterinária e Segurança Alimentar, Caminho das Quebradas de Baixo n° 79, 9000-254 Funchal (Portugal); Calado, Graça [Laboratório de Saúde Pública, IASaúde, Rua das Pretas n° 1, 9004-515 Funchal (Portugal); Brandão, João [Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Prada, Susana, E-mail: susana@uma.pt [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos Geológicos, Universidade dos Açores, Rua da Mãe de Deus, Edifício do Complexo Científico, 3° Andar — Ala Sul, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2013-09-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality.

  2. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vasconcelos, Sílvia; Calado, Graça; Brandão, João; Prada, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality

  3. Densities and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from marine waters and beach sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Vanessa da Costa; Zampieri, Bruna Del Busso; Ballesteros, Eliete Rodrigues; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is a rising problem all over the world. Many studies have showed that beach sands can contain higher concentration of microorganisms and represent a risk to public health. This paper aims to evaluate the densities and resistance to antimicrobials of Escherichia coli strains, isolated from seawater and samples. The hypothesis is that microorganisms show higher densities in contaminated beach sands and more antimicrobial resistance than the water column. Density, distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria E. coli were evaluate in seawater and sands from two recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. At the beach with higher degree of pollution (Gonzaguinha), water samples presented the highest densities of E. coli; however, higher frequency of resistant strains was observe in wet sand (71.9 %). Resistance to a larger number of antimicrobial groups was observe in water (betalactamics, aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifampicins, and tetracyclines) and sand (betagalactamics and aminoglycosids). In water samples, highest frequencies of resistance were obtain against ampicilin (22.5 %), streptomycin (15.0 %), and rifampicin (15.0 %), while in sand, the highest frequencies were observe in relation to ampicilin (36.25 %) and streptomycin (23.52 %). At the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat, highest densities of E. coli and higher frequency of resistance were obtain in wet and dry sand (53.7 and 53.8 %, respectively) compared to water (50 %). Antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from water and sand only occurred against betalactamics (ampicilin and amoxicilin plus clavulanic acid). The frequency and variability of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in marine recreational waters and sands were related to the degree of fecal contamination in this environment. These results show that water and sands from beaches with a high index of fecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens

  4. Effects of full-scale beach renovation on fecal indicator levels in shoreline sand and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rafael J; Hernandez, Yasiel; Jimenez, Nasly H; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-01-01

    Recolonization of enterococci, at a non-point source beach known to contain high background levels of bacteria, was studied after a full-scale beach renovation project. The renovation involved importation of new exogenous sand, in addition to infrastructure improvements. The study's objectives were to document changes in sand and water quality and to evaluate the relative contribution of different renovation activities towards these changes. These objectives were addressed: by measuring enterococci levels in the sand and fecal indicator bacteria levels (enterococci and fecal coliform) in the water, by documenting sediment characteristics (mineralogy and biofilm levels), and by estimating changes in observable enterococci loads. Analysis of enterococci levels on surface sand and within sediment depth cores were significantly higher prior to beach renovation (6.3-72 CFU/g for each sampling day) when compared to levels during and after beach renovation (0.8-12 CFU/g) (P < 0.01). During the renovation process, sand enterococci levels were frequently below detection limits (<0.1 CFU/g). For water, exceedances in the regulatory thresholds that would trigger a beach advisory decreased by 40% for enterococci and by 90% for fecal coliform. Factors that did not change significantly between pre- and post- renovation included the enterococci loads from animals (approx. 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Factors that were observed to change between pre- and post- renovation activities included: the composition of the beach sand (64% versus 98% quartz, and a significant decrease in biofilm levels) and loads from direct stormwater inputs (reduction of 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Overall, this study supports that beach renovation activities contributed to improved sand and water quality resulting in a 50% decrease of observable enterococci loads due to upgrades to the stormwater infrastructure. Of interest was that the change in the sand mineralogy also coincided with changes in biofilm

  5. Plastic pellets on the Caranzalem beach sands, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Postmonsoonal survey of Caranzalem beach, Goa, India indicated the presence of plastic pellets. These pellets varied in shape, size and number, and are considered to be contaminants of marine environment...

  6. Evaluation of beach grooming techniques on Escherichia coli density in foreshore sand at North Beach, Racine, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzelman, Julie L.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Jackson, Emma; Bagley, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of Escherichia coli(E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational waters. Current beach management practice involves daily mechanical grooming of the nearshore sand for aesthetics and removal of hazardous debris. However, this practice has not been evaluated in terms of its effects on E. coli loading to beach sand and potential introduction to contiguous swimming water. In this study, we tested E. coli responses to three treatments: mechanical groomer, daily and twice weekly hand raking, and a control (no raking/grooming). A randomized block design consisted of replicated treatments and one control (10 each), for a total of 40 blocks sampled daily for 10 days. Foreshore sand samples were collected by hand coring to an average depth of 10 cm. Median E. colirecovered were 73 (mechanically groomed), 27 (hand-raked daily), 32 (hand-raked twice weekly), and 22 (control) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram dry weight sand. E. colicounts in sand that was groomed were significantly higher than hand rakings and control (p management implications related to grooming efficacy and the importance of understanding non-point sources of bacterial contamination.

  7. Evaluation of beach grooming techniques on Escherichia coli density in foreshore sand at North Beach, Racine, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzelman, Julie L.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Jackson, Emma; Bagley, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of Escherichia coli(E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational waters. Current beach management practice involves daily mechanical grooming of the nearshore sand for aesthetics and removal of hazardous debris. However, this practice has not been evaluated in terms of its effects on E. coli loading to beach sand and potential introduction to contiguous swimming water. In this study, we tested E. coli responses to three treatments: mechanical groomer, daily and twice weekly hand raking, and a control (no raking/grooming). A randomized block design consisted of replicated treatments and one control (10 each), for a total of 40 blocks sampled daily for 10 days. Foreshore sand samples were collected by hand coring to an average depth of 10 cm. Median E. colirecovered were 73 (mechanically groomed), 27 (hand-raked daily), 32 (hand-raked twice weekly), and 22 (control) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram dry weight sand. E. colicounts in sand that was groomed were significantly higher than hand rakings and control (p grooming efficacy and the importance of understanding non-point sources of bacterial contamination.

  8. Oil spills and their impacts on sand beach invertebrate communities: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Sand beaches are highly dynamic habitats that can experience considerable impacts from oil spills. This review provides a synthesis of the scientific literature on major oil spills and their impacts on sand beaches, with emphasis on studies documenting effects and recoveries of intertidal invertebrate communities. One of the key observations arising from this review is that more attention has generally been given to studying the impacts of oil spills on invertebrates (mostly macrobenthos), and not to documenting their biological recovery. Biological recovery of sand beach invertebrates is highly dynamic, depending on several factors including site-specific physical properties and processes (e.g., sand grain size, beach exposure), the degree of oiling, depth of oil burial, and biological factors (e.g., species-specific life-history traits). Recovery of affected communities ranges from several weeks to several years, with longer recoveries generally associated with physical factors that facilitate oil persistence, or when cleanup activities are absent on heavily oiled beaches. There are considerable challenges in quantifying impacts from spills on sand beach invertebrates because of insufficient baseline information (e.g., distribution, abundance and composition), knowledge gaps in their natural variability (spatial and temporal), and inadequate sampling and replication during and after oil spills. Thus, environment assessments of impacts and recovery require a rigorous experimental design that controls for confounding sources of variability. General recommendations on sampling strategies and toxicity testing, and a preliminary framework for incorporating species-specific life history traits into future assessments are also provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seabed gradient controlling onshore transport rates of surf sand during beach retreat by sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Yi, Hi-Il

    2017-11-01

    A simple relationship is proposed for the onshore transport rates of surf-zone sand to evaluate the beach retreat caused by sea level rise. It suggests that the preservation potential of surf sand is proportional inversely to the seabed gradient during beach retreat. According to this relationship, the erosional remnants of surf sand would be more readily developed on a gentler shelf collectively as transgressive sand sheets. This finding may explain the previous studies regarding the Korean shelves that proposed that the Holocene transgressive sand sheets (HTSS) occur not in the steep eastern shelf but in the gentle western shelf. In line with such presence/absence of the HTSS are the results from some coastal seismic profiles obtained in the present study. The profiles indicate that sand deposits are restricted within the nearshore in the eastern coast, whereas they are persistently traceable to the offshore HTSS in the western coast. Tide is proven to have a negligible influence on the total duration of surf-zone processes. This study may be useful in predicting the consequences of the beach retreat that takes place worldwide as sea levels rise as a result of global warming.

  10. Seabed Gradient Controlling Onshore Transport Rates of Surf Sand during Beach Retreat by Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Yi, Hi-Il

    2018-03-01

    A simple relationship is proposed for the onshore transport rates of surf-zone sand to evaluate the beach retreat caused by sea level rise. It suggests that the preservation potential of surf sand is proportional inversely to the seabed gradient during beach retreat. According to this relationship, the erosional remnants of surf sand would be more readily developed on a gentler shelf collectively as transgressive sand sheets. This finding may explain the previous studies regarding the Korean shelves that proposed that the Holocene transgressive sand sheets (HTSS) occur not in the steep eastern shelf but in the gentle western shelf. In line with such presence/absence of the HTSS are the results from some coastal seismic profiles obtained in the present study. The profiles indicate that sand deposits are restricted within the nearshore in the eastern coast, whereas they are persistently traceable to the offshore HTSS in the western coast. Tide is proven to have a negligible influence on the total duration of surf-zone processes. This study may be useful in predicting the consequences of the beach retreat that takes place worldwide as sea levels rise as a result of global warming.

  11. Through the sands of time: Beach litter trends from nine cleaned north cornish beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Andrew J R; Porter, Adam; Hembrow, Neil; Sharpe, Jolyon; Galloway, Tamara S; Lewis, Ceri

    2017-09-01

    Marine litter and its accumulation on beaches is an issue of major current concern due to its significant environmental and economic impacts. Yet our understanding of spatio-temporal trends in beach litter and the drivers of these trends are currently limited by the availability of robust long term data sets. Here we present a unique data set collected systematically once a month, every month over a six year period for nine beaches along the North Coast of Cornwall, U.K. to investigate the key drivers of beach litter in the Bude, Padstow and Porthcothan areas. Overall, an average of 0.02 litter items m -2 per month were collected during the six year study, with Bude beaches (Summerleaze, Crooklets and Widemouth) the most impacted (0.03 ± 0.004 litter items m -2 per month). The amount of litter collected each month decreased by 18% and 71% respectively for Padstow (Polzeath, Trevone and Harlyn) and Bude areas over the 6 years, possibly related to the regular cleaning, however litter increased by 120% despite this monthly cleaning effort on the Padstow area beaches. Importantly, at all nine beaches the litter was dominated by small, fragmented plastic pieces and rope fibres, which account for 32% and 17% of all litter items collected, respectively. The weathered nature of these plastics indicates they have been in the marine environment for an extended period of time. So, whilst classifying the original source of these plastics is not possible, it can be concluded they are not the result of recent public littering. This data highlights both the extent of the marine litter problem and that current efforts to reduce littering by beach users will only tackle a fraction of this litter. Such information is vital for developing effective management strategies for beach and marine litter at both regional and global levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A transportable and robust gamma ray detection system (GISPI) was employed to determine the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides on various beaches in and around Saldanha Bay, located on the West Coast of South Africa. Several mathematical techniques were applied to obtain GIS overlay that could be ...

  13. The influence of rainfall on transport of beach sand by wind.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van P.M.; Stroosnijder, L.; Lima, de J.L.M.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of rainfall on the process of wind erosion of beach sands and presents results from both field and wind tunnel experiments. Although sediment transport by splash is of secondary importance on coastal dunes, splash-saltation processes can move sediments in conditions

  14. Intertidal benthic community ecology of sand-dwelling macroinvertebrates of Goa beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    , is relatively unstable, less productive, and supports a poor benthic fauna. In contrast, an estuarine beach at Siridao, having fine sand-grain size, is comparatively stable, more productive, and exhibits a rich fauna. This indicates the richness of benthic life...

  15. Moving sands along a headland-embayed beach system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sónia; Horta, João; Nascimento, Ana; Gomes, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    Resilience of embayed and pocket beaches located at the southernmost coast of Portugal is currently a major question to coastal management of this region. In fact, several among those beaches have been artificially fed aiming to increase the width of the beach allowing people to maintain a safe distance to the unstable rocky cliffs. The sand is dredged from the offshore (ca. 2 miles from the shoreline) representing high costs for the Portuguese government. For how long will the artificial feeding solve the problem? Which beaches are worth being nourished taking into account the morphosedimentary processes? The present work is the result of a field experiment aiming to study the efficiency of the alongshore sedimentary transport between successive embayed beaches. The experiment was performed in the very indented rocky coast of the Algarve region (Southern Portugal) and comprised two field campaigns, both in 2014, during spring tides in March and November. The Algarve coast experiences a semi-diurnal meso-tidal regime ranging from 1.3 m during neap tides to 3.5 m at spring tides and the waves approach from WSW (232°) during 72% of observations along the year, almost normal to the study area shoreline. The wave and current characteristics (significant height-Hs and Period-T for waves, velocity and direction for currents) were measured during three and six tidal cycles respectively for the first and second campaign, using two pressure transducers and one electromagnetic current meter. We used sand painted with orange fluorescent dye (100 kg in March and 200 kg in November) as tracer to track the movement of the sand along the coast. The marked sand was placed on the beach face of the westernmost beach of the study area during the first low tide of each campaign. Following, hundreds of sediment samples were collected during low tide, through the monitored period, in the nodes of a georeferenced square mesh of 10 x 20 m covering three embayed beaches. Later in the

  16. Holocene beach buildup and coastal aeolian sand incursions off the Nile littoral cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Shtienberg, Gilad; Porat, Naomi; Bookman, Revital

    2017-04-01

    Israel's coastal plain is abundant with sand originating from the Nile littoral cell. The inland windblown loose sand has formed 3-6 km wide lobe-like sand and dune fields currently comprised of foredunes, linear and northeasterly facing transverse and parabolic dunes that are currently stabilized by vegetation. This study reviews the architecture and history of the these dune fields aiming to: (a) Date the timings of beach accretion, and sand and dune incursions. (b) Discriminate between natural and human-induced forcing factors of sand mobilization and stabilization in time and space. (c) Present a model of the dunescape development. (d) Assess scenarios of sand transport in the future charcaterized by intense human impact and climate change. Luminescence ages, radiocarbon dates and relative ages from previously published geological and archaeological reports, historical texts, together with new optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages and stratigraphic and sedimentological data are analyzed. The deposition, mobilizations and preservation of the sand bodies, initially induced by the decline in sea level rise at 6-4 ka, were later controlled by historic land-use intensity and modern land-use/negligence practices. At 6 ka, beach sand buildup rapidly started. Where aeolianite ridges bordered the coast, pulses of sand with biogenic carbonate grains unconformably draped the ridges and rapidly consolidated into a distinct sandy calcarenite unit. Further east, sand sheets and low dunes partly pedogenized following their incursion, but did not cement. The water retention capacities of the sand sheets enabled the establishment of a sand-stabilizing vegetation cover that probably became an attractive environment for fuel and grazing. The growing Hellenistic-Roman-Byzantine ( 2.4-1.3 ka) populations probably led to increased consumption and massive destruction of sand stabilizing vegetation, enabling sand erodibility and mobilization during winter storms. The sand

  17. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vasconcelos, Sílvia; Calado, Graça; Brandão, João; Prada, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Scheme study of separation and concentration of heavy minerals from the black sand in Aguas dulces beach - Rocha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujica, H.; Marotta, L.

    1968-12-01

    This work is about a study of separation and concentration of heavy minerals from the black sand in Aguas dulces beach - Rocha. The beneficial minerals in that prospected zone are: ilmenite, zircon, rutile and monazite, associated with gangue minerals

  19. A standardized method for sampling and extraction methods for quantifying microplastics in beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, Aiken; Vijver, Martina G; Behrens, Paul; Bosker, Thijs

    2017-01-15

    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the environment, are frequently ingested by organisms, and may potentially cause harm. A range of studies have found significant levels of microplastics in beach sand. However, there is a considerable amount of methodological variability among these studies. Methodological variation currently limits comparisons as there is no standard procedure for sampling or extraction of microplastics. We identify key sampling and extraction procedures across the literature through a detailed review. We find that sampling depth, sampling location, number of repeat extractions, and settling times are the critical parameters of variation. Next, using a case-study we determine whether and to what extent these differences impact study outcomes. By investigating the common practices identified in the literature with the case-study, we provide a standard operating procedure for sampling and extracting microplastics from beach sand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and species composition of Enterococcus spp. isolated from waters and sands of marine recreational beaches in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso; Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe

    2008-04-01

    Density, species composition and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of the Enterococcus genus were evaluated in seawater and sands from 2 marine recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. The 2 beaches showed predominance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, in the water and the sand. Dry sand presented higher densities of Enterococcus sp. and higher frequency of resistant strains than wet sand and seawater. The beach with a higher degree of pollution presented higher percentages of resistant strains (66.7% and 61.5%, in sand and in water, respectively) and resistance to a larger number of antimicrobials compared with the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat (35.7% and 31.25% of resistant strains in sand and water, respectively). In water samples, the highest frequencies of resistance were obtained against streptomycin (38.5%) and erythromycin (25%), whilst in sand, the highest frequencies were observed in relation to erythromycin and tetracycline (38.1% and 14.3%, respectively). These results show that water and sands from beaches with high indexes of faecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens and contribute to the dissemination of bacterial resistance.

  1. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy: a sedimentological/ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  2. Seasonal persistence and population characteristics of Escherichia coli and entercocci in deep backshore sand of two freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Ting, W.T.E.; Tseng, C.C.; Nevers, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the shoreward and seasonal distribution of E. coli and enterococci in sand (at the water table) at two southern Lake Michigan beaches - Dunbar and West Beach (in Indiana). Deep, backshore sand (??? 20 m inland) was regularly sampled for 15 months during 2002-2003. E. coli counts were not significantly different in samples taken at 5-m intervals from 0-40 M inland (P = 0.25). Neither E. coli nor enterococci mean counts showed any correlation or differences between the two beaches studied. In laboratory experiments, E. coli readily grew in sand supplemented with lake plankton, suggesting that in situ E. coli growth may occur when temperature and natural organic sources are adequate. Of the 114 sand enterococci isolates tested, positive species identification was obtained for only 52 (46%), with E. faecium representing the most dominant species (92%). Genetic characterization by ribotyping revealed no distinct genotypic pattern (s) for E. coli, suggesting that the sand population was rather a mixture of numerous strains (genotypes). These findings indicate that E. coli and enterococci can occur and persist for extended periods in backshore sand at the groundwater table. Although this study was limited to two beaches of southern Lake Michigan, similar findings can be expected at other temperate freshwater beaches. The long-term persistence of these bacteria, perhaps independent of pollution events, complicates their use as indicator organisms. Further, backshore sand at the water table may act as a reservoir for these bacteria and potentially for human pathogens. ?? IWA Publishing 2006.

  3. Khnifiss Beach's Black Sand: Provenance and Transport Pathways Investigation Using Heavy Minerals' Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnani, M.; Elbelrhiti, H.; Ahmamou, M.; Masmoudi, L.

    2014-12-01

    Arid areas in south of Morocco suffer from silting problem causing destruction of villages infrastructure, roads, agriculture land and oasis heritage. Black sand on Khnifiss beach near Tarfaya city (S-W Morocco) is marked by enrichment of heavy minerals. This later is an important fraction that could help to assess the provenance and transport pathways of sediment. The sand's origin investigation could be useful to fight against erosion and silting problems from the source of supply, to this end, mineralogical analysis was carried out in Khnifiss beach's sand using Optic Microscope and Scanning Electronic Microscope with dispersive energy (SEM- EDS), in addition to physico-chemical analysis provided by Electronic Microprobe. The results revealed: (i) a high grade of oxides (Rutile, Ilmenite, Magnetite, Ulvöspinel) in samples, (ii) silicates (Quartz, Clinopyroxene, feldspar, Zircon), (iii) phosphate (apatite) and (iv) carbonate (calcite). The dominance of iron oxides justifies the black sand's colour. Then, the mineral composition supposes interference between different origins: proximal source (Calcareous cliff) for calcite, distal sources of oxides and silicates are supposed to be eroded and carried by Drâa valley from granite and igneous rocks in Anti-Atlasic field. Another source supposed might be a proximal volcanic island (Canaries island).

  4. PANTAI PASIR PADI (PADDY SAND BEACH OF BANGKA ISLAND; CRABS (Scopimera sp POPULATION, FEEDING BEHAVIOUR AND THEIR BIRD PREDATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifa Marisa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An observation about beach crab (Scopimera sp population, their feeding behaviour and predator bird had been done at October 9 th, 2014 in Pantai Pasir Padi, Eastern Bangka Island beach, near Pangkal Pinang town. Ten 1 meter square plots were put at sandy beach and number of Scopimera sp be counted by the number of their hole nest home. Their feeding behaviour observed directly by eye-watching and video making. The threatening of bird predator was noted too.  The investigation find out that the mean of crabs population is 17 individu/m2 .  They come out from home hole for feeding around by sieving wet sand that be taken by front legs, obsorb organic nutrious material by mouth and kick residual sand to behind legs, move it as a small sand ball to right of left back side.  Production of small ball sand were about 15 - 30 balls /per minute. For making the nest hole, bigger sand ball were produced about 7 – 9 ball/minute; ball colour is same with under layer beach sand; quite grey. The crabs run instinctivey fast, when the threat come from their natural enemy, predator bird, Actitis hypoleucos.  Bird searching behaviour look adapted to the fast run of crab. Keywords: Scopimera sp, Actitis hypoleucos, small sand ball, predator, behaviour

  5. Biosystematics of alkaliphilic streptomycetes isolated from seven locations across a beach and dune sand system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Goodfellow, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Alkaliphilic streptomycetes were isolated from composite sand samples collected from six out of seven locations across a beach and dune sand system using starch-casein-nitrate agar supplemented with cycloheximide and buffered to pH 10.5. The isolates had colonial and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with their classification in the genus Streptomyces. They were assigned to 49 multimembered and 114 single-membered colour-groups given their ability to produce pigments on oatmeal and peptone-yeast-extract-iron agars and to corresponding taxa based on whole-genome rep-PCR banding patterns. Twenty-four isolates representing the colour and rep-PCR groups grew well from pH 5 to 11, and optimally at pH 9, as did phylogenetically close members of the Streptomyces griseus 16S rRNA gene clade. One hundred and twelve representative alkaliphilic streptomycetes formed a heterogeneous but distinct clade in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree. A 3-dimensional representation of 16S rRNA sequence data showed that the alkaliphilic streptomycetes formed a distinct group in multidimensional taxospace. It is evident that alkaliphilic streptomycetes are common in the beach and dune sand system and that representatives of this community form new centers of taxonomic variation within the genus Streptomyces that can be equated with species.

  6. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples from Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özmen, S.F.; Cesur, A.; Boztosun, I.; Yavuz, M.

    2014-01-01

    Following Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a huge amount of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. It's impact on the environment is of great concern to the good of the public at large. In this regard environmental radioactivity monitoring such as external dose rate and radioactivity measurements in environmental samples has been carried out. For this purpose, several beach sand samples were collected from south coast of the Turkey in September 2011 and radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra ( 238 U), 228 Ac ( 232 Th), 40 K, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using a high-purity Germanium detector. The measured activity concentrations in beach sand samples ranged from 4.0±0.5 to 21.5±1.8 Bq/kg, 1.8±0.4 to 27.9±2.4 Bq/kg, 19.0±2.2 to 590.3±28.6 Bq/kg and 0.1±0.0 to 1.0±0.1 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs, respectively. However there was no sign of 134 Cs in the sample spectrum after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Hence we can safely conclude that there was no significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. The other activities are in good agreement with the published results of neighboring areas. The absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and the annual effective dose (AED) of beach sand samples were below the world wide average implying that the radiation hazard is insignificant. The data presented in this study would also be very useful to determine the possible future effects of the nuclear power plant to the environment. - Highlights: • Activity values of all samples are lower than the world wide average values. • Gamma dose rates of beach sand samples are in the range of 10–200 nGy/h. • Ra eq activity and AED values of samples are less than world wide average values. • No significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. • Strong correlations detected in between elemental and radioactivity concentration

  7. The Holocene evolution of the beach and inland aeolian sand of the north-central Mediterranean coast of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Shteinberg, Gilad

    2015-04-01

    Israel's coastal geomorphology, situated within a Mediterranean climate zone, is characterized by parallel Pleistocene aeolianite ridges, coastal cliffs of aeolianite, and sandy beaches. Lobe-like fields of predominantly stable transverse and parabolic quartz sand dunes protrude 2-7 km inland from the current Mediterranean Sea coastline. However, their migration and accumulation history is still not well-defined. This study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport along the Caesarea-Hadera dunefield in the north-central coastal plain of Israel. In order to achieve these goals, a detailed field survey and sampling campaign was carried out along a west-east and southwest-northeast transect, loyal to the advancement orientations of the currently stable dunes and directions of dominant sand transporting winds. Beach sand, a foredune, a linear dune, and interdunes of parabolic and transverse dunes were sampled down to their aeolianite or red loam (locally named hamra) palaeosol substrate by drilling and analyzing exposed sections. The sampled sediments were sedimentologically analyzed and twenty-five were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The results indicate that beach sand started to accumulate rapidly around 6 ka probably in response to global sea level stabilization. Until around 4 ka, thin sand sheets encroached 2-3 km inland. Sand ages in the range of 1.2-1.1 ka (8th-9th century CE -- Early Moslem period) were found throughout the study area, suggesting a major mobilization of sand, followed by stabilization around 0.6 ka and pedogenesis. By 1.2 ka, the sands had reached their current extent of 5-7 km inland, suggesting transport in a southwest-northeast orientation similar to the advancement orientation of the current transverse and parabolic dunes. The particle-size distributions of the fine to medium-sized aeolian sand showed minor variation linked to inland transport

  8. Elemental Analysis and Radionuclides Monitoring of Beach Black Sand at North of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdallah; Fayez-Hassan, M.; Mansour, N. A.; Mubarak, Fawzia; Ahmed, Talaat Salah; Hassanin, W. F.

    2017-12-01

    A study was carried out on the concentrations of elements presented in beach black sand samples collected from North of Nile Delta along Mediterranean Coast using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as an effective analysis technique, especially for monitoring elements. The Egyptian Research Reactor-2 (ETRR-2) as a facility was used for the samples irradiation in the thermal mode of a neutron flux 3 × 1011 n/cm2 s. Natural radioactive elements, rare element and heavy elements as U, Th, La, Lu, Sm, Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Sc, Tb, Yb, As, Br, Na, Sb, Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Hf, Sr, Ta, Zn and Zr were determined with concentrations average values 16.3, 78.8, 195.4, 3.3, 31.3, 445.1, 223, 7.2, 8.5, 97.1, 3.6, 31.1, 6.1, 24.5, 27,236.8, 1.42, 1327.7, 81.1, 1814.3, 263,735, 0.1, 237.3, 878.7, 20.8, 671.1 and 6225.9 (mg/kg), respectively. The experimental data results were analyzed to evidence any correlations of these elements as well as to know the geological formation in the study area. The elements concentrations in the black sand samples were found higher than the world average crustal soil values except for As and Sb. Results were compared with similar beach black sand in previous studies. The enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo) for heavy elements were presented to evaluate the contamination rate. We can summarize that exposure for natural radionuclides (U and Th) in this area were still within the acceptable limits due to little time of exposure. Therefore, the black sands from North of Nile Delta are not recommended for use in building constructions due to high radioactive doses.

  9. Monazite, the basic raw material for rare earth beneficiation from beach sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The largest monazite deposits in the world are the readily accessible placers in beach, bar and dune sands along the west and east coasts of India. The commercial monazite deposits in India are natural concentration of monazite with other valuable minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, garnet, sillimanite, etc. in the beach placers. These high grade accruals deposited to 1 - 1.5 m depth are selectively collected using labour intensive methods and processed for individual mineral recovery. All known methods of physical concentration of minerals are used for separating monazite and other valuable minerals. These make use of the five important physical properties of the minerals, viz., electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, specific gravity, surface characteristics and grain size distribution. The Indian Rare Earths (IRE) are operating three minerals beneficiation plants - two in the western coast at Chavara in Kerala and Manavalakurichi in Tamilnadu and one in the eastern coast of Chatrapur in Orissa State. Due to intensive selective mining all these years, there is considerable depletion in the quality of beach accruals which if fed directly to the processing plants will considerably affect their efficiency. Therefore, IRE has introduced integrated mining systems using dredge and pre-concentrate the dredge spoils to the required grade using spiral plants before feeding to the dry mills in the above plants. IRE has also advanced plans to exploit the 5 million m.t. monazite reserves in the country. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Comparative decay of Catellicoccus marimmalium and enterococci in beach sand and seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kendra I; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-10-15

    Most studies characterize microbial source tracking (MST) target performance using sensitivity and specificity metrics. However, it is important to also consider the temporal stability of MST targets in relation to regulated microbial pollutants. Differences among bacterial target stabilities may lead to erroneous conclusions about sources of contamination. The present study evaluates the relative stability of MST targets and fecal indicator organisms using the gull/pigeon-associated Catellicoccus marimammalium (CAT) marker and enterococci (ENT). The decay rates of CAT and ENT measured by culture (cENT) and QPCR (tENT) were compared in sand and seawater laboratory microcosms under environmentally relevant conditions (subject to tidal wetting versus no wetting in sand, and sunlit versus dark conditions in seawater). Bacterial targets were more persistent in beach sand than in seawater with decay rates on the order of 0.01-0.1 per day and 1 to 10 per day, respectively. Targets were more persistent in unwetted compared to wetted sand, and dark compared to sunlit seawater. During the first 8 days of the sand experiment, the decay rate k of CAT was greater than that of cENT. The decay rates of CAT, tENT, and cENT were similar in sand after day 8 and in dark seawater. In sunlit seawater, the decay rates were different between targets with kcENT > kCAT > ktENT. The decay rates presented here are useful for fate and transport models and also inform the use of MST marker concentrations to infer ENT sources in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. The {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the {sup 40}K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 222} Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 1074 Bq.kg{sup -'}1 for {sup 232}Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For {sup 40}K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 179 Bq.kg{sup -1} and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  12. PARASITOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF CONTAMINATION AT SAND OF BEACHES AND MONITORING BY TRADITIONAL METHODS AND IMMUNOENZYMATIC ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Amaral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminths are among the pathogens most often found in humans and can result in serious pathological, such as visceral larva migrans syndrome. Domestic animals serve as the natural hosts, but under certain conditions humans can acquire infection, developing an atypical cycle. Thus, the contamination for animal droppings in public spaces, such as beaches, poses risk factor in the transmission, increasing the incidence of these zoonoses. In this context, informations about environmental health is necessary because the monitoring would be the first step for treating unhealthy environments. Therefore, the study monitored the sand of beaches of two islands within Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro state, was carried out by traditional methods (Lutz and Baermann and the ELISA immunological test, in order to determine the level and the influence of seasonality on this contamination. Among the genera detected, Ascaris sp. and Ancylostoma sp. occurred with greatest frequency, functioning as important biological markers of environmental contamination. The highest frequency of parasite structures occurred in the summer, meaning a greater risk of disease transmission. The results evidence the high level of environmental contamination and the seasonal variations of this contamination. Additionally, the data obtained from ELISA confirm the sensitivity of this technique to detect cysts and oocysts of protozoa in the sand samples analyzed.

  13. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-01-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the 238 U and 2 '3 2 Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The 226 Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 214 Pb and 21 '4Bi, the 232 Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 228 Ac, 2 '1 2 Pb and 212 Bi and the concentration of 40 K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 4 '0K. 226 Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg -1 , with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. 232 Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg -1 to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg -1 , with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. 40 K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg -1 to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg -1 , with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. Calculation of the radium equivalent and the external hazard index showed two distinct groups. In the first one, for the majority of the beaches, the

  14. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Black

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are

  15. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer C; Welday, Jennifer N; Buckley, Brian; Ferguson, Alesia; Gurian, Patrick L; Mena, Kristina D; Yang, Ill; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2016-08-27

    Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10(-6) range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children's beach play habits, which are necessary to more

  16. Heavy metal levels in dune sands from Matanzas urban resorts and Varadero beach (Cuba): Assessment of contamination and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O; Denis Alpízar, Otoniel

    2015-12-30

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in dune sands from six urban and suburban Matanzas (Cuba) resorts and Varadero beach were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ranges of metal contents in dune sands show a strong variation across the studied locations (in mg/kg(-1)): 20-2964 for Cr, 17-183 for Ni, 17-51 for Cu, 18-88 for Zn and 5-29 for Pb. The values of contamination factors and contamination degrees how that two of the studied Matanzas's resorts (Judio and Chirry) are strongly polluted. The comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines shows that dune sands from Judio resort represent a serious risk for humans, due to polluted Cr and Ni levels, while sands from the rest of the studied resorts, including Varadero beach, do not represent any risk for public use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sedimentology, geochemistry and rock magnetic properties of beach sands in Galapagos Islands - implications for nesting marine turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Vazquez-Gutierrez, F.; Carranza-Edwards, A.

    2007-12-01

    Marine turtles are well known for their navigation ability in the open ocean and fidelity to nesting beaches. Green turtle adult females migrate from foraging areas to island nesting beaches, traveling hundreds or thousands of kilometers each way. The marine turtle breeding in the Galapagos Islands is the Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas agassisi); fairly common throughout the islands but with nesting sites located at Las Bachas (Santa Cruz), Barahona and Quinta Playa (Isabela), Salinas (Baltra), Gardner Bay (Española) and Bartolomé Islet. In order to characterize and to identify the geochemical signature of nesting marine turtle beaches in Galapagos Islands, sedimentological, geochemical and rock magnetic parameters are used. A total of one hundred and twenty sand samples were collected in four beaches to relate compositional characteristics between equivalent areas, these are: Las Bachas, Salinas, Barahona and Quinta Playa. Grain size is evaluated using laser particle analysis (Model Coulter LS 230). Bulk ICP-MS geochemical analysis is performed, following trace elements are analyzed: Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ba, Pb, Fe, Mn, K, Na, Mg, Sr, Ca and Hg; and low-field magnetic susceptibility is measured in all samples at low and high frequencies. Granulometric analysis showed that Barahona and Quinta Playa are characterized for fine grained sands. In contrast, Salinas and Las Bachas exhibit medium to coarse sands. Trace metals concentrations and magnetic susceptibility show different distribution patterns in the beach sands. Calcium is the most abundant element in the samples. In particular, Co, K, and Na show similar concentrations in the four beaches. Las Bachas beach shows highest concentrations of Pb and Hg (maximum values 101.1 and 118.5 mg/kg, respectively), we suggest that the enrichment corresponds to an anthropogenic signal. Salinas beach samples show high concentrations of Fe, V, Cr, Zn, Mn and the highest values of magnetic susceptibility (maximum

  18. Biological control of infective larvae of Ancylostoma spp. in beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Ingrid Ney Kramer; Braga, Fabio R; Monteiro, Thalita S Avelar; Freitas, Leandro G; Araujo, Juliana M; Soares, Filippe E Freitas; Araújo, Jackson V

    2014-01-01

    Geohelminths are parasites that stand out for their prevalence and wide distribution, depending on the soil for their transmission. The aim of this work was to evaluate the predatory capacity of the fungal isolate of the genus Duddingtonia (CG768) on third stage larvae (L3) of Ancylostoma spp. in beach sand under laboratory conditions. In the assay A five treatment groups and 1 control group were formed. The treatment groups contained 5000, 10,000, 15,000, 20,000 or 25,000 chlamydospores of the fungal isolate and 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 in pots containing 30g of sand. The control group (without fungus) contained only 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and distilled water in pots with 30g of sand. Evidence of predatory activity was observed at the end of 15 days, where we observed the following percentages of reduction of L3: Group 1 (4.5%); Group 2 (24.5%); Group 3 (59.2%); Group 4 (58.8%); Group 5 (63%). However, difference was noted (pcontrol group. In the assay B two groups were formed in Petri dishes of 9cm in diameter containing agar water 2% medium. In the treated group, each Petri dish contained 500 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and 5g of sand containing the isolate CG 768 at a concentration of 25,000 chlamydospores/g of sand, and the control group (without fungus) contained only 500 L3. At the end of 7 days the non-predation L3 of Petri dishes using the method of Baermann were recovered. Difference (pcontrol of Ancylostoma spp. infective larvae. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural radionuclides present in the beach sands of Guarapari and Anchieta, EspÍrito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Victor J.; Takahashi, Laura C.

    2017-01-01

    The natural radioactivity was determined in the Espírito Santo sands, in Brazil, in eight beaches from Anchieta and Guarapari. In the methodology, the sands of each beach were collected, sifted, dried in the oven, and conditioned in Marinellis. Its weight was measured on the scale, and stored for 30 days for their secular equilibrium. Then, the gamma spectrometry measurement was performed. The specific activities for each beach were calculated and the radioactive balance of the 238 U and 232 Th series was also studied. From the standard deviation of the estimated error (S), the chi-square distribution parameter (R 2 ), the coefficient of determination R 2 , R-sq, and the adjusted R 2 , R-sq (adj) was studied. In the results, a regression curve (fitted line plot) was performed on the quality adjustment with a 95% confidence interval for the values found in Neptune, Além, Coninhos, Onça, Três Praias, Morcego and Padres beaches. The R 2 measured presented values close to 1. The beach Areia Vermelha presented a specific activity with a percentage of 98.41% in relation to the other beaches and very high activity compared to the world average. (author)

  20. Natural radionuclides present in the beach sands of Guarapari and Anchieta, EspÍrito Santo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Victor J.; Takahashi, Laura C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem; Fontainha, Críssia C.P.; Santos, Talita O.; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: crissia@gmail.com, E-mail: zildete@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The natural radioactivity was determined in the Espírito Santo sands, in Brazil, in eight beaches from Anchieta and Guarapari. In the methodology, the sands of each beach were collected, sifted, dried in the oven, and conditioned in Marinellis. Its weight was measured on the scale, and stored for 30 days for their secular equilibrium. Then, the gamma spectrometry measurement was performed. The specific activities for each beach were calculated and the radioactive balance of the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series was also studied. From the standard deviation of the estimated error (S), the chi-square distribution parameter (R{sub 2}), the coefficient of determination R{sub 2}, R-sq, and the adjusted R{sub 2}, R-sq (adj) was studied. In the results, a regression curve (fitted line plot) was performed on the quality adjustment with a 95% confidence interval for the values found in Neptune, Além, Coninhos, Onça, Três Praias, Morcego and Padres beaches. The R{sub 2} measured presented values close to 1. The beach Areia Vermelha presented a specific activity with a percentage of 98.41% in relation to the other beaches and very high activity compared to the world average. (author)

  1. Beach sand mineral industries in India and challenges of value addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, R.N.

    2016-01-01

    Beach sand minerals (BSM) are a suite of seven minerals that often occur together in various proportions in the beach sands of coastal India. They are also called heavy minerals as they have densities in the range 3.2 gms/cc to 5.2 gms/cc, which are higher than the sand. Ilmenite, leucoxene and rutile are oxide minerals of titanium metal. Zircon is silicate of zirconium where as silimanite is silicate of aluminum. The titanium, zirconium and thorium bearing minerals are atomic minerals under the atomic energy act 1962 and need no objection from the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) for their mining. Further authorization is necessary from DAE to handle and process monazite as it contains thorium, as it is a prescribed substance under the notification issued under the atomic energy act. Radioactive nature of monazite also mandates obtaining permission from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with a view to ensure regulatory compliance with radiological safety. Monazite is processed to produce rare earths, trisodium phosphate (TSP) and thorium compounds.Thorium values are stockpiled in engineered trenches for use in nuclear power program of the country where as rare earths are used for manufacture of high power permanent magnets, energy efficient optical phosphors, metal alloys for battery to store electricity and hydrogen, as additives to glass for imparting special optical properties and myriads of applications in defence and strategic sectors. Rare earths of late have assumed importance as high power rare earths based permanent magnets are used in manufacture of wind mills, MRI machines, magnetic levitated bearings etc, having minimal impact on green house gas generation and use in renewable energy sector. The presentation brings out the limitation of value added product industries in India, the efforts taken by Indian Rare Earths Ltd. (IREL) in developing value added products in the face of technology denial regime and hostile market dynamics. The road map for

  2. Programs to obtain vertical heights from mean sea level and for computing volume of sand/mineral along beaches:A case study with Kalbadevi beach profiling data and results.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan

    Two programs have been developed to process beach profile data, for obtaining vertical heights with respect to mean sea level (M.S.L.) and for computation of volume of heavy mineral/sand accumulation or erosion along the beaches. The final output...

  3. Enhanced Gravitational Drainage of Crude Oil Through Alabama Beach Sand Caused by the Dispersant Corexit 9500A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffy, D. A.; Nichols, A.; Hobbs, K.

    2017-12-01

    Oil spill material released by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon accident contaminated a majority of the 60 miles of Alabama coastline. In response to the oil spill, BP sprayed a dispersant, Corexit 9500A, as an initial remediation effort. An unforeseen impact of the saltwater-dispersant mixture includes the mobilization of oil-spilled material into the underlying beach sand. This study investigated the effect of the dispersant to promote gravitational drainage by measuring the physical characteristics of the sand, saltwater, crude oil, and the dispersant solution. The saltwater-dispersant mixture promoted the downward movement of oil mass 20 times greater extent than just saltwater. These tests are meant to simulate spill material on the beach being exposed to a low-energy, 1-meter mixed tide occurring along the Alabama coastline. A separate test simulated oilwet sand exposed to saltwater and a saltwater-dispersant mixture. The oil-wet sand impeded the vertical movement of saltwater, but allowed a saltwater-dispersant solution to mobilize the oil to migrate downward. The mobilization of oil in this three phase system of saltwater, oil, and air is controlled by: the pressure-saturation profile of the sand; interfacial tension with saltwater; and its surface tension with air.

  4. Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo and Newport in Free-ranging Sea Turtles and Beach Sand in the Caribbean and Persistence in Sand and Seawater Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, A-K; Antaki, E; Stewart, K; Francis, S; Jay-Russell, M T; Sithole, F; Kearney, M T; Griffin, M J; Soto, E

    2017-09-01

    Salmonellae are Gram-negative zoonotic bacteria that are frequently part of the normal reptilian gastrointestinal flora. The main objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica in the nesting and foraging populations of sea turtles on St. Kitts and in sand from known nesting beaches. Results suggest a higher prevalence of Salmonella in nesting leatherback sea turtles compared with foraging green and hawksbill sea turtles. Salmonella was cultured from 2/9 and identified by molecular diagnostic methods in 3/9 leatherback sea turtle samples. Salmonella DNA was detected in one hawksbill turtle, but viable isolates were not recovered from any hawksbill sea turtles. No Salmonella was detected in green sea turtles. In samples collected from nesting beaches, Salmonella was only recovered from a single dry sand sample. All recovered isolates were positive for the wzx gene, consistent with the O:7 serogroup. Further serotyping characterized serovars Montevideo and Newport present in cloacal and sand samples. Repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 2014 isolates from turtles and sand as well as archived Salmonella isolates recovered from leatherback sea turtles in 2012 and 2013, identified two distinct genotypes and four different pulsotypes, respectively. The genotyping and serotyping were directly correlated. To determine the persistence of representative strains of each serotype/genotype in these environments, laboratory-controlled microcosm studies were performed in water and sand (dry and wet) incubated at 25 or 35°C. Isolates persisted for at least 32 days in most microcosms, although there were significant decreases in culturable bacteria in several microcosms, with the greatest reduction in dry sand incubated at 35°C. This information provides a better understanding of the epizootiology of Salmonella in free-ranging marine reptiles and the potential

  5. Next-generation sequencing and culture-based techniques offer complementary insights into fungi and prokaryotes in beach sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Daniela; Staley, Christopher; Ferreira, Filipa; Rodrigues, Raquel; Sabino, Raquel; Veríssimo, Cristina; Wang, Ping; Sadowsky, Michael; Brandão, João

    2017-06-15

    A next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach, in conjunction with culture-based methods, was used to examine fungal and prokaryotic communities for the presence of potential pathogens in beach sands throughout Portugal. Culture-based fungal enumeration revealed low and variable concentrations of the species targeted (yeasts and dermatophytes), which were underrepresented in the community characterized by NGS targeting the ITS1 region. Conversely, NGS indicated that the potentially pathogenic species Purpureocillium liliacinum comprised nearly the entire fungal community. Culturable fecal indicator bacterial concentrations were low throughout the study and unrelated to communities characterized by NGS. Notably, the prokaryotic communities characterized revealed a considerable abundance of archaea. Results highlight differences in communities between methods in beach sand monitoring but indicate the techniques offer complementary insights. Thus, there is a need to leverage culture-based methods with NGS methods, using a toolbox approach, to determine appropriate targets and metrics for beach sand monitoring to adequately protect public health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Assessment of natural radioactivity and gamma-ray dose in monazite rich black Sand Beach of Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibu, Hauwau Kulu; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Alrefae, Tareq; Bradley, D A

    2017-06-15

    Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in sand samples collected from the coastal beaches surrounding Penang Island have been measured using conventional γ-ray spectrometry, while in-situ γ-ray doses have been measured through use of a portable radiation survey meter. The mean activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K at different locations were found to be less than the world average values, while the Miami Bay values for 226 Ra and 232 Th were found to be greater, at 1023±47 and 2086±96Bqkg ̶ 1 respectively. The main contributor to radionuclide enrichment in Miami Bay is the presence of monazite-rich black sands. The measured data were compared against literature values and also recommended limits set by the relevant international bodies. With the exception of Miami Bay, considered an elevated background radiation area that would benefit from regular monitoring, Penang island beach sands typically pose no significant radiological risk to the local populace and tourists visiting the leisure beaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sand patties provide evidence for the presence of Deepwater Horizon oil on the beaches of the West Florida Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, L D; Basso, J; Pulster, E; Paul, J H

    2015-08-15

    The ecological consequences of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill are both long-term and pervasive. The distribution of toxicity and mutagenicity in the Gulf of Mexico suggests oil from the DWH spill could have contaminated the West Florida Shelf (WFS). We utilized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis to determine presence and potential origin of oil contaminants in beach sand patty samples. PAH profiles from WFS beaches were statistically significantly similar to DWH contaminated samples from the Northeast Gulf of Mexico (Gulf Shores, AL; Ft. Pickens, FL). Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), a major component of Corexit 9500 dispersant was also detected in the sediments. DOSS concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 5.5ngg(-1) dry weight. Additionally, two samples from DWH oil contaminated beaches were acutely toxic and one WFS beach sediment sample was mutagenic. These observations provide support for the theory that DWH oil made its way onto beaches of the WFS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of offshore New Jersey sources of Beach replenishment sand by diversified application of geologic and geophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, J.S.; Hall, D.W.; Uptegrove, J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Ashley, G.M.; Esker, D.

    1999-01-01

    Beach replenishment serves the dual purpose of maintaining a source of tourism and recreation while protecting life and property. For New Jersey, sources for beach sand supply are increasingly found offshore. To meet present and future needs, geologic and geophysical techniques can be used to improve the identification, volume estimation, and determination of suitability, thereby making the mining and managing of this resource more effective. Current research has improved both data collection and interpretation of seismic surveys and vibracore analysis for projects investigating sand ridges offshore of New Jersey. The New Jersey Geological Survey in cooperation with Rutgers University is evaluating the capabilities of digital seismic data (in addition to analog data) to analyze sand ridges. The printing density of analog systems limits the dynamic range to about 24 dB. Digital acquisition systems with dynamic ranges above 100 dB can permit enhanced seismic profiles by trace static correction, deconvolution, automatic gain scaling, horizontal stacking and digital filtering. Problems common to analog data, such as wave-motion effects of surface sources, water-bottom reverberation, and bubble-pulse-width can be addressed by processing. More than 160 line miles of digital high-resolution continuous profiling seismic data have been collected at sand ridges off Avalon, Beach Haven, and Barnegat Inlet. Digital multichannel data collection has recently been employed to map sand resources within the Port of New York/New Jersey expanded dredge-spoil site located 3 mi offshore of Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Multichannel data processing can reduce multiples, improve signal-to-noise calculations, enable source deconvolution, and generate sediment acoustic velocities and acoustic impedance analysis. Synthetic seismograms based on empirical relationships among grain size distribution, density, and velocity from vibracores are used to calculate proxy values for density and velocity

  10. The prevalence and distribution of indicators of fecal contamination in the sand from beaches of Oran coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoui, N.; Matallah-Boutiba, A.; Boutiba, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The microbiological quality of water at public bathing beaches is regularly monitored using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) as a surrogate for the presence of human sewage and pathogens. The common feature of all these routine screening procedures is that the primary analysis is for indicator organisms rather than the pathogens that might cause concern. Indicator organisms are bacteria such as non-specific coliforms, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are very commonly found in the human or animal gut and which, if detected, may suggest the presence of sewage. Indicator organisms are used because even when a person is infected with more pathogenic bacteria, they will still be excreting many millions times more indicator organisms than pathogens. It is therefore reasonable to surmise that if indicator organism levels are low, then pathogen levels will be very much lower or absent. Judgments as to suitability of water for use are based on very extensive precedents and relate to the probability of any sample population of bacteria being able to be infective at a reasonable statistical level of confidence. Exposure to FIB and associated pathogens may also occur through contact with contaminated beach sand, but no standards limiting levels of microbes in sand or required monitoring program has been established. As a result, the factors affecting FIB and pathogen survival/persistence in sand remain largely unstudied. A possible contamination of the sand by bacterial communities could be a source of transmission of certain pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this study was to look for a presence of certain bacteria that could be a source of illness to swimmers and compare the different levels of contamination between beach sand and sea water in four sites along the Western Oranian coast. First analysis were made during the dry season and rainy season from December 2010 to June 2012 to estimate fecal coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and total germs levels. E.coli and

  11. Evaluation of Ra, Th, K and radium equivalent activity in sand samples from Camburi Beach, Vitoria, Espirito Santos, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Camburi beach, in the city of Vitoria, Espirito Santo State. Brazil, is a naturally high background region in Brazil. The beach sands contain monazite, ilmenite and other accessory minerals rich in {sup 226}Ra, {sup 23}'2Th and {sup 40}K. As these radionuclides are the main natural contributors to external exposure from gamma rays, the knowledge of the sands radioactivity content plays an important role in radiation protection. In this work, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities concentrations, together with the radium equivalent activity, Ra{sub eq.} were determined in some selected sand samples from a single location at Camburi beach, known for the high level of radioactivity. The sand samples collected monthly from January to December 2011, were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL HPDE polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma-spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 23}'2Th series. Preliminary results, without considering samples self-attenuation, show activities concentrations in the range from 12 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 1022 {+-} 30 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 35 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 5731 {+-} 134 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 18 {+-} 4 Bqkg{sup -1} to 430 {+-} 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The Ra{sub eq}, presented values ranging from 63 Bq kg{sup -1} to 9250 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  12. Rhizobium subbaraonis sp. nov., an endolithic bacterium isolated from beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Ch V; Parag, B; Girija, K R; Ram, B Raghu; Ramana, V Venkata; Sasikala, Ch

    2013-02-01

    Two strains (JC85(T) and JC108) of Gram-stain-negative, motile bacteria were isolated from endolithic beach sand samples on an oligotrophic medium. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains were identified as belonging to the genus Rhizobium. Strain JC108 had 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 100 % with Rhizobium pusense NRCPB10(T) and formed a cluster with this strain. Strain JC85(T) had 96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and was 18 % related (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) to Rhizobium borbori DN316(T). With other strains of the genus Rhizobium, the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was less than 96.3 %. Strain JC85(T) could tolerate up to 3 % salinity, fix N(2), was resistant to ampicillin (10 µg) and was positive for catalase and oxidase. The major fatty acid was C(18 : 1)ω7c (69 %) with minor amounts of C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c (8.9 %), C(16 : 0) (6.9 %), C(12 : 0) (5.7 %) and C(19 : 1)ω7c/C(19 : 1)ω6c (2.2 %). Polar lipids of strain JC85(T) include two unidentified aminophospholipids (APL1,2), two unidentified phospholipids (PL1,2), phosphatidylcholine and four unidentified lipids (L1-4). Q-10 is the major quinone of strain JC85(T). Based on polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strain JC85(T) represents a novel species for which, the name Rhizobium subbaraonis JC85(T) is proposed. The type strain is JC85(T) ( = DSM 24765(T) = KCTC 23614(T)).

  13. Vertical structure of pore pressure under surface gravity waves on a steep, megatidal, mixed sand-gravel-cobble beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Tristan B.; Hay, Alex E.

    2017-01-01

    The vertical structure of surface gravity wave-induced pore pressure is investigated within the intertidal zone of a natural, steeply sloping, megatidal, mixed sand-gravel-cobble beach. Results from a coherent vertical array of buried pore pressure sensors are presented in terms of signal phase lag and attenuation as functions of oscillatory forcing frequency and burial depth. Comparison of the observations with the predictions of a theoretical poro-elastic bed response model indicates that the large observed phase lags and attenuation are attributable to interstitial trapped air. In addition to the dependence on entrapped air volume, the pore pressure phase and attenuation are shown to be sensitive to the hydraulic conductivity of the sediment, to the changing mean water depth during the tidal cycle, and to the redistribution/rearrangement of beach face material by energetic wave action during storm events. The latter result indicates that the effects on pore pressure of sediment column disturbance during instrument burial can persist for days to weeks, depending upon wave forcing conditions. Taken together, these results raise serious questions as to the practicality of using pore pressure measurements to estimate the kinematic properties of surface gravity waves on steep, mixed sand-gravel beaches.

  14. Evaporation of Arabian light crude oil spilled on sea and on beach sands : influence of solar radiation and wind velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Marti, A.; Fuertes, A.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.

    1998-01-01

    The evaporation of crude oil resulting from a spill on sea water was studied to develop a simulation model. Evaporation takes place within a complex process of mass and energy transfer. The effects of physical and chemical variables (such as wind velocity and direct and diffused solar radiation) and the environmental conditions of the spillage were also considered. Arabian crude oil was used in the simulation model for crude oil spillage on sea water. An equation for the evaporation process was used to correlate the evaporated fraction of oil as a function of time. The area of spreading was determined as a function of the dominant stage at each moment of spreading. The evaporation of spilled crude oil on beach sand consisting of three different particle sizes was also studied and used for a simulation model for crude oil spillage on a polluted beach. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs

  15. Frequency distribution of specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in surface beach sand samples collected in Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changkit, N.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Youngchauy, U.; Polthum, S.; Kessaratikoon, P.

    2017-09-01

    The specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) in 50 surface beach sand samples collected from Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province in the easthern region of Thailand, were measured and evaluated. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system in the special laboratory at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization). The IAEA-SOIL-375 reference material was used to analyze the concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in all samples. It was found that the specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were ranged from 510.85 - 771.35, 8.17 - 17.06 and 4.25 - 15.68 Bq/kg. Furthermore, frequency distribution of the specific activities were studied, analyzed and found to be the asymmetrical distribution by using a statistical computer program. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the investigated area were also calculated by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The results were also compared with the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) annual report data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurement and evaluations.

  16. An experiment to restore coastal sand dunes at Miramar beach, Goa: An appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    sand dunes. Three months later, in July 2007, results obtained were encouraging. Whereas several truckloads of sand were removed from the traffic circle every year, only a negligible amount of sand found its way on the road (in 2007), after the fences...

  17. The vertical structure of airflow turbulence characteristics within a boundary layer during wind blown sand transport over a beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Z. S.; Baas, A. C.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Lynch, K.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested the significant role of boundary layer turbulence and coherent flow structures on sand transport by wind over beaches and desert dunes. Widespread use of sonic anemometry and high-frequency sand transport sensors and traps have facilitated a move beyond the basic monitoring of shear velocities and bulk sediment transport to more detailed measurements at much higher spatio-temporal resolutions. In this paper we present results of a small-scale point-location field study of boundary layer turbulence and shear stresses conducted under obliquely onshore winds over a beach at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland. High-frequency (25 Hz) 3D wind vector measurements were collected at five different heights between 0.13 and 1.67 metres above the bed using sonic anemometry for durations of several hours, and the associated sand transport response was measured using an array of Safires. The wind data are used to investigate the vertical structure of Reynolds shear stresses and burst-sweep event characteristics, as well as a comparison with the standard logarithmic (law-of-the-wall) wind profile. The study explores the identification and selection of a characteristic event duration based on integral time-scales as well as spectral analysis, and includes an assessment of the issues involved with data rotations for yaw, pitch, and roll corrections relative to flow streamlines, and the subsequently derived turbulence parameters based on fluctuating vector components (u’, v’, w’). Results show how the contributions to shear stress and the average pitch of bursts and sweeps changes as a function of height above the bed, indicating the transformation of top-down turbulent eddies as they travel toward the surface. A comparison between the turbulence data and the synchronous sand transport events, meanwhile, reveals the potential effects of enhanced saltation layer roughness feedback on eddies close to the bed.

  18. Texture, carbonate content and component composition of Mauritius beach sands, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Veerayya, M.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    Samples collected from beaches bordering the southern, southeastern, western and northwestern shores representing swell (windward) and non-swell (leeward) dominated environments of the island of Mauritius were studied in order to define grain size...

  19. Preliminary assessment of a previously unknown fault zone beneath the Daytona Beach sand blow cluster near Marianna, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Jackson K.; Williams, Robert; Stephenson, William J.; Tuttle, Martitia P.; Al-Shukri, Hadar

    2016-01-01

    We collected new high‐resolution P‐wave seismic‐reflection data to explore for possible faults beneath a roughly linear cluster of early to mid‐Holocene earthquake‐induced sand blows to the south of Marianna, Arkansas. The Daytona Beach sand blow deposits are located in east‐central Arkansas about 75 km southwest of Memphis, Tennessee, and about 80 km south of the southwestern end of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). Previous studies of these sand blows indicate that they were produced between 10,500 and 5350 yr B.P. (before A.D. 1950). The sand blows are large and similar in size to those in the heart of the NMSZ produced by the 1811–1812 earthquakes. The seismic‐reflection profiles reveal a previously unknown zone of near‐vertical faults imaged in the 100–1100‐m depth range that are approximately coincident with a cluster of earthquake‐induced sand blows and a near‐linear surface lineament composed of air photo tonal anomalies. These interpreted faults are expressed as vertical discontinuities with the largest displacement fault showing about 40 m of west‐side‐up displacement at the top of the Paleozoic section at about 1100 m depth. There are about 20 m of folding on reflections within the Eocene strata at 400 m depth. Increasing fault displacement with depth suggests long‐term recurrent faulting. The imaged faults within the vicinity of the numerous sand blow features could be a causative earthquake source, although it does not rule out the possibility of other seismic sources nearby. These newly located faults add to a growing list of potentially active Pleistocene–Holocene faults discovered over the last two decades that are within the Mississippi embayment region but outside of the historical NMSZ.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance of heterotrophic marine bacteria isolated from seawater and sands of recreational beaches with different organic pollution levels in southeastern Brazil: evidences of resistance dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Cardoso de Oliveira, Ana Julia; Ranzani de França, Paula Thais; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi

    2010-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of marine heterotrophic bacteria to different antimicrobials agents were evaluated in seawater, dry and wet sands from three marine recreational beaches with different pollution levels. In all studied beaches, the greatest frequencies of resistance were found in relation to penicillin. On Gonzaguinha, the most polluted beach, 72.3% of all isolated strains showed simple resistance, whilst 8.33% had multiple resistance. The values found on Ilha Porchat beach, were 70.8% and 6.9% for simple and multiple resistances, respectively. On Guaraú, the less polluted beach, only 35.3% of isolated strains had simple resistance. Multiple resistance was not observed. While samples from Gonzaguinha and Ilha Porchat beach showed isolated strains resistant to seven and six different antimicrobial agents, respectively, samples from Guaraú beach were resistant only to penicillin and erytromicin. The positive correlations obtained between the degree of seawater contamination and frequency and variability of bacterial resistance indicate that polluted marine recreational waters and sands are sources of resistant bacteria contributing thus, to the dissemination of bacterial resistance.

  1. Geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology of detrital zircons in the Brujas beach sands, Campeche, Southwestern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Fernandez, Hector J.; Armstrong-Altrin, John S.; Selvaraj, Kandasamy

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the bulk sediment geochemistry, U-Pb ages and rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of one hundred detrital zircons recovered from the Brujas beach sands in southwestern Gulf of Mexico to understand the provenance and age spectra. The bulk sediments are high in Zr and Hf contents (∼1400-3773 ppm and ∼33-90 ppm, respectively) suggested the abundance of resistant mineral zircon. The chondrite normalized REE patterns of the bulk sediments are less fractionated with enriched low REE (LREE; LaCN/SmCN = ∼491-693), depleted heavy REE (HREE; GdCN/YbCN = ∼44-69) and a negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu∗ = ∼0.44-0.67) suggested that the source rock is felsic type. The results of this study revealed highly varied contents of Th (∼4.2-321 ppm), U (∼20.7-1680 ppm), and Hf (∼6970-14,200 ppm) in detrital zircons compared to bulk sands. The total REE content (∼75 and 1600 ppm) and its chondrite-normalized pattern with positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies as well as low Th/U ratio of zircon grains indicated that they were dominantly of magmatic origin. U-Pb data of zircons indicated two age populations, with predominance of Permian-Triassic (∼216-286 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (∼551-996 Ma). The Permian-Triassic zircons were contributed by the granitoids and recycled metasedimentary rocks of the Chiapas Massif Complex. The major contribution of Neoproterozoic zircons was from the Chaucus, Oaxacan, and Chiapas Massif Complexes in Grenville Province, southern Mexico. U-Pb ages of zircons from the Brujas beach are consistent to the reported zircon ages from the drainage basins of Usumacinta, Coatzacoalcos, and Grijalva Rivers in southern Mexico, suggesting that the sediments delivered by the rivers to the beach area are vital in defining the provenance of placers.

  2. Programs to obtain vertical heights from mean sea level and for computing volume of sand/mineral along beaches: A case study with Kalbadevi beach profiling data and results

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    Two programs have been developed to process profile data, for obtaining vertical heights with respect to mean sea level (M.S.L.) and for computation of volume of heavy mineral / sand accumulation or erosion along the beaches. The final output...

  3. Beach litter along various sand dune habitats in the southern Adriatic (E Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilc, Urban; Küzmič, Filip; Caković, Danka; Stešević, Danijela

    2018-03-01

    Marine litter accumulates on sandy beaches and is an important environmental problem, as well as a threat to habitat types that are among the most endangered according to EU legislation. We sampled 120 random plots (2 × 2 m) in spring 2017 to determine the distribution pattern of beach litter along the zonation of habitat types from sea to the inland. The most frequent litter items were plastic, polystyrene and glass. A clear increase of litter cover along the sea-inland gradient is evident, and foredunes and pine forests have the highest cover of litter. Almost no litter was present in humid dune slacks. Shoreline and recreational activities are the major source of beach litter, while ocean/waterway activities are more important in the aphytic zone and strandline. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring and modeling the effect of surface moisture on the spectral reflectance of coastal beach sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, Corjan; Poortinga, Ate; Roosjen, Peter; Bartholomeus, Harm; Ruessink, Gerben|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/169093360

    2014-01-01

    Surface moisture is an important supply limiting factor for aeolian sand transport, which is the primary driver of coastal dune development. As such, it is critical to account for the control of surface moisture on available sand for dune building. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure

  5. A Wireless Sensor Network for the Real-Time Remote Measurement of Aeolian Sand Transport on Sandy Beaches and Dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Alessandro; Cappelli, Irene; Mecocci, Alessandro; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Alquini, Fernanda

    2018-03-08

    Direct measurements of aeolian sand transport on coastal dunes and beaches is of paramount importance to make correct decisions about coast management. As most of the existing studies are mainly based on a statistical approach, the solution presented in this paper proposes a sensing structure able to orient itself according to wind direction and directly calculate the amount of wind-transported sand by collecting it and by measuring its weight. Measurements are performed remotely without requiring human action because the structure is equipped with a ZigBee radio module, which periodically sends readings to a local gateway. Here data are processed by a microcontroller and then transferred to a remote data collection centre, through GSM technology. The ease of installation, the reduced power consumption and the low maintenance required, make the proposed solution able to work independently, limiting human intervention, for all the duration of the expected experimental campaign. In order to analyze the cause-effect relationship between the transported sand and the wind, the sensing structure is integrated with a multi-layer anemoscope-anemometer structure. The overall sensor network has been developed and tested in the laboratory, and its operation has been validated in field through a 48 h measurement campaign.

  6. A Wireless Sensor Network for the Real-Time Remote Measurement of Aeolian Sand Transport on Sandy Beaches and Dunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pozzebon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurements of aeolian sand transport on coastal dunes and beaches is of paramount importance to make correct decisions about coast management. As most of the existing studies are mainly based on a statistical approach, the solution presented in this paper proposes a sensing structure able to orient itself according to wind direction and directly calculate the amount of wind-transported sand by collecting it and by measuring its weight. Measurements are performed remotely without requiring human action because the structure is equipped with a ZigBee radio module, which periodically sends readings to a local gateway. Here data are processed by a microcontroller and then transferred to a remote data collection centre, through GSM technology. The ease of installation, the reduced power consumption and the low maintenance required, make the proposed solution able to work independently, limiting human intervention, for all the duration of the expected experimental campaign. In order to analyze the cause-effect relationship between the transported sand and the wind, the sensing structure is integrated with a multi-layer anemoscope-anemometer structure. The overall sensor network has been developed and tested in the laboratory, and its operation has been validated in field through a 48 h measurement campaign.

  7. Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in heavy mineral-rich beach sands of Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Sulaiman, Abdullah Fadil Bin; Bradley, D A; Isinkaye, Matthew Omoniyi

    2018-02-01

    Study is made of the radioactivity in the beach sands of Langkawi island, a well-known tourist destination. Investigation is made of the relative presence of the naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K and the natural-series indicator radionuclides 226 Ra and 232 Th, the gamma radiation exposure also being estimated. Sample quantities of black and white sand were collected for gamma ray spectrometry, yielding activity concentration in black sands of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K from 451±9 to 2411±65Bqkg -1 (mean of 1478Bqkg -1 ); 232±4 to 1272±35Bqkg -1 (mean of 718Bqkg -1 ) and 61±6 to 136±7Bqkg -1 (mean of 103Bqkg -1 ) respectively. Conversely, in white sands the respective values for 226 Ra and 232 Th were appreciably lower, at 8.3±0.5 to 13.7±1.4Bqkg -1 (mean of 9.8Bqkg -1 ) and 4.5±0.7 to 9.4±1.0Bqkg -1 (mean of 5.9Bqkg -1 ); 40 K activities differed insubstantially from that in black sands, at 85±4 to 133±7Bqkg -1 with a mean of 102Bqkg -1 . The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 232 Th in black sands are comparable with that of high background areas elsewhere in the world. The heavy minerals content gives rise to elevated 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations in all of black sand samples. Evaluation of the various radiological risk parameters points to values which in some cases could be in excess of recommendations providing for safe living and working. Statistical analysis examines correlations between the origins of the radionuclides, also identifying and classifying the radiological parameters. Present results may help to form an interest in rare-earth resources for the electronics industry, power generation and the viability of nuclear fuels cycle resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the bacterial community response in gulf of Mexico beach sands impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Joel E; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C; Huettel, Markus

    2011-11-01

    A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C₈ to C₄₀) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg⁻¹ in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ∼10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 10⁷ to 10.2 × 10⁷ copies g⁻¹) versus clean (0.024 × 10⁷ to 1.4 × 10⁷ copies g⁻¹) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there.

  9. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis in sand samples from some beaches of Great Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Reginaldo R.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The natural radioactivity in superficial beach sand samples of 7 beaches of Great Vitoria, metropolitan region of the State of Espirito Santo, southeast Brazil, was determined from the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 4 0 K contents. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos, Camburi, Praia do Canto, Curva da Jurema, Itapua, Setibao and Areia Preta. Three samples of each beach were sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and stored in order to obtain secular equilibrium in the 238 U and 232 Th series. All samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra were analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The 232 Th concentration was determined from the average concentrations of 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi and the 226 Ra concentration was determined from the average concentrations of 214 Pb and 214 Bi. Preliminary results show concentrations varying from 9 Bq.kg -1 to 6035 Bq.kg -1 for 232 Th, from 4 Bq.kg -1 to 575 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra and from 13 Bq.kg -1 to 142 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. Areia Preta beach shows the highest values for 232 Th, while the highest value for 226 Ra was observed for Camburi beach. High values of 40 K were observed for Curva da Jurema beach. (author)

  10. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K analysis in sand samples from some beaches of Great Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo R.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes

    2009-07-01

    The natural radioactivity in superficial beach sand samples of 7 beaches of Great Vitoria, metropolitan region of the State of Espirito Santo, southeast Brazil, was determined from the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}0{sup K} contents. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos, Camburi, Praia do Canto, Curva da Jurema, Itapua, Setibao and Areia Preta. Three samples of each beach were sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and stored in order to obtain secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. All samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra were analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. Preliminary results show concentrations varying from 9 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 6035 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, from 4 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 575 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 13 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 142 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Areia Preta beach shows the highest values for {sup 232}Th, while the highest value for {sup 226}Ra was observed for Camburi beach. High values of {sup 40}K were observed for Curva da Jurema beach. (author)

  11. Integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling for assessing the provenance of beach sand in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hein, James R.; McGann, Mary; Mizell, Kira; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Takesue, Renee K.; Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Over 150 million m3 of sand-sized sediment has disappeared from the central region of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half century. This enormous loss may reflect numerous anthropogenic influences, such as watershed damming, bay-fill development, aggregate mining, and dredging. The reduction in Bay sediment also appears to be linked to a reduction in sediment supply and recent widespread erosion of adjacent beaches, wetlands, and submarine environments. A unique, multi-faceted provenance study was performed to definitively establish the primary sources, sinks, and transport pathways of beach-sized sand in the region, thereby identifying the activities and processes that directly limit supply to the outer coast. This integrative program is based on comprehensive surficial sediment sampling of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, including the seabed, Bay floor, area beaches, adjacent rock units, and major drainages. Analyses of sample morphometrics and biological composition (e.g., Foraminifera) were then integrated with a suite of tracers including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopes, rare earth elements, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogy, and heavy minerals, and with process-based numerical modeling, in situ current measurements, and bedform asymmetry to robustly determine the provenance of beach-sized sand in the region.

  12. Quantifying the effects of European beach grass on aeolian sand transport over the last century: Bodega Marine Reserve, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmat, R.; Werner, S.; Smith, M. E.; Riedel, T.; Best, R.; Olyarnik, S.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) to coastal dune systems of western North America induced significant changes to the transport and storage of sediment, and consequently the nesting habitat of the western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). At the Bodega Marine Reserve and Sonoma Coast State Park, Ammophila was introduced within the ~0.5 km2 dune area in the 1920's to limit the flux of sand through Bodega Harbor and agricultural land. To assess the potential impact of restoration efforts (Ammophila removal) on aeolian sediment flux, we measured sediment flux as a function of wind speeds and ground cover, and used these measurements to parameterize a spatial model for historical sand deposition Fine- to coarse-grained lithic to sub-lithic sand is delivered to the Bodega dune system from Salmon Creek beach, the down-shore terminus of a littoral system fed by the 3846 km2 Russian River catchment, several small (colonization occurred initially adjacent to the shoreface, inducing deposition of a ~10 meter-high foredune and has subsequently encroached the ~0.5 km2 region between the foredune and Bodega Harbor. Comparison of historical topographic maps via raster subtraction indicates rapid construction of both the foredune and a ~15 meter-high transverse dune (Gaffney ridge) at the edge of the planted region. An average accumulation rate of ~4,000 m3/yr is indicated within the study swath by the preserved sediment volumes. Within the modern dune system, unvegetated areas exhibit 2-3 meter wavelength, ~1/2 meter amplitude mega-ripples, and the uppermost 2-10 cm consists of coarse-sand to granule-sized armor layer. In contrast, grain-sizes in vegetated areas are largely vertically homogenous. Open areas are typically 2-8 meters lower than adjacent vegetated areas, and show evidence for net lowering of the land surface (i.e., exposed fence posts, roots). Conversely, vegetated areas appear prone to sediment accumulation, particularly

  13. Search for superheavy elements in monazite from Beach sands of South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.; Lal, R.; Kataria, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Monazite minerals obtained from beach of South India were examined for the presence of superheavy elements with photon-induced x-ray fluorescence method. The accumulated data of a number of runs each of several days duration do not show any convicing peaks above the background at the expected locations for superheavy elements which are above the present sensitivity of detection of about 10 ppm by weight for element 126. However, some intriguing features pertaining to structures in the x-ray spectra around 27 kev were observed, which are of interest for further investigations. (author)

  14. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure of beach sands in highly touristic areas associated with plutonic rocks of the Atticocycladic zone (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, A; Koroneos, A; Christofides, G; Papadopoulou, L; Tzifas, I; Stoulos, S

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 228 Th and 40 K along beaches close to the plutonic rocks of the Atticocycladic zone that ranged from 15 to 628, 12-2292, 16-10,143, 14-9953 and 191-1192 Bq/kg respectively. A sample from island of Mykonos contained the highest 232 Th content measured in sediments of Greece. The heavy magnetic fraction and the heavy non-magnetic fraction as well as the total heavy fraction, were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238 U and 232 Th mineral carrier. Similar correlations have been found between 238 U, 232 Th content and rare earth elements concentrations. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which at least in most cases are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. Since the Greek beaches are among the most popular worldwide the annual effective dose equivalent received due to sand exposure has been estimated and found to vary between 0.002 and 0.379 mSv y -1 for tourists and from 0.018 to 3.164 mSv y -1 for local people working on the beach. The values corresponding to ordinary sand samples are orders of magnitude lower than the limit of 1 mSv y -1 , only in the case of heavy minerals-rich sands the dose could reach or exceed the recommended maximum limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in the North East Beach Sands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamora, T.H.; Razafindramiandra, H.A.; Raoelina Andraimbololona; Ravelomanantsoa, S.D.; Ralaivelo, M.A.L.; Rasolonirina, M.; Zafimanjato, J. L. R.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration and exploitation of radioactive ores (ilmenite, zircon and monazite) are considered as the main source of exposure to ionizing radiation of the population living in the coast of Analanjorofo Region (Fenerive-Est Districts, Rural municipality Ampasimbe Manantsatrana). Radioactivity measurements have been performed in this region. The distribution of natural radionuclide gamma-emitters ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) and their respective annual effective dose rates have been determined for sand(s), water and air. The samples have been collected along and around the coast of the region. The radiation emitted from the natural radionuclide containing in the environmental samples has been determined by gamma spectrometry system and Radon meter (SARAD). Exposure dose rates at 1 m above the ground have been measured along the coast and in the villages around the exploitation sites. Dose rate measurements have been performed by Dosimeter Graetz X5DE, equipped of Geiger Muller Counter. Results have been compared with the reference values provided by IAEA (BSS 115) and UNSCEAR 2000.

  16. Provenance and tectonic settings of sands from Puerto Peñasco, Desemboque and Bahia Kino beaches, Gulf of California, Sonora, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavaraju, J.; Tom, Milu; Lee, Yong IL; Balaram, V.; Ramasamy, S.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Ramachandran, A.

    2016-11-01

    Textural, heavy minerals and geochemical (major, trace and rare earth elements) studies were undertaken on the sands from Puerto Peñasco, Desemboque and Bahia Kino beaches to determine the provenance and tectonic settings. Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino sands are coarse grained to fine grained, while Desemboque sands are fine grained. Geochemically, these sands are classified as arkose. The sands are depleted in most of the trace elements relative to upper continental crust (UCC), except for few trace elements (Sr, Rb and Ba), which are slightly enriched. High ΣREE content are observed in the Desemboque sands (94.43 ± 6.9) than in the Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino sands (51.58 ± 17.06; 72.38 ± 9.27; respectively). The chemical index of alteration (CIA) values of Puerto Peñasco, Desemboque and Bahia Kino sands (PP: 42 to 50; DE: 48 to 50; BK: 44 to 50: respectively) indicate the low intensity of chemical weathering in the source rocks. The tectonic discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagram shows arc and rift settings for Puerto Peñasco sands whereas rift setting for both Desemboque and Bahia Kino sands. The heavy mineral assemblage, immobile trace elements, REE patterns, elemental ratios such Eu/Eu*, (La/Lu)cn, La/Sc, Th/Sc, La/Co, Th/Co, and Cr/Th, various bivariate and ternary plots indicate the contribution of sediments from felsic composition. This interpretation is supported by the comparison of REE patterns of the Puerto Peñasco, Desemboque and Bahia Kino sands with the potential source rocks exposed nearby the study areas.

  17. Sex, Status, and Sand: California Academy of Sciences' Teen Interns Examine Trends of the Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) at Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J. B.; Conrad-Saydah, A.; Cohen, S.; Tom, R.; Robins-Moloney, M.; Masters, D.; Mason, K.; Alfaro, F.

    2003-12-01

    Student interns from the California Academy of Sciences' Careers in Sciences program monitored the Pacific mole crab (Emerita analoga), or sand crabs, in collaboration with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association. These small crustaceans live in the swash zone of the sandy beach habitat. Sand crabs are important in the food web, and therefore their status can help indicate the health of the larger environment. The interns helped the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary by monitoring the abundance and distribution of sand crabs at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. Students set up transects perpendicular to the shoreline, collected 10 samples along the transect, measured the carapace length, determined the sex of each crab, and checked for the presence of eggs. Students monitored June through September, 2003. Trends examined included differences in the gender ratio, size frequency, and distribution along the beach. Students also compared their data to other student data taken from other sites in San Francisco and Marin counties during 2001-2003 from the online database at http://www.sandcrabs.org. Using comparisons, interns were able to better understand the processes and significance of studying marine species. Implementation of the project was invaluable in aiding the interns in their understanding of the natural sciences and the role of monitoring habitats in environmental health.

  18. A luminescence dating intercomparison based on a Danish beach-ridge sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Andrew; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Thiel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for large scale intercomparisons to determine the degree of coherence of luminescence dating measurements made by different laboratories. Here we describe results from a laboratory intercomparison sample based on a quartz-rich aeolian and/or coastal marine sand ridge from the Skagen...... a mean dose (pre-processed quartz) of 4.58 Gy, σ ¼ 0.40 (n ¼ 26), to be compared to the mean dose (self-extracted quartz) of 4.52 Gy, σ ¼ 0.55 (n ¼ 21). The mean age is 3.99 ± 0.14 ka, σ ¼ 0.71 (n ¼ 22), i.e. a relative standard deviation of 18%.We present an analysis of all the important quantitative...... and qualitative responses we received between 2007 and 2012 and discuss the implications for our dating community and for users of luminescence ages. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Measurement and Analysis of Specific Activities of Natural Radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) in Beach Sand Samples from Talo Kapo Beach of Yaring District in Pattani Province using Gamma Ray Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoh, M.; Masae, R. N.; Po-oh, S.; Boonkrongcheep; Kessaratikoon, P.

    2017-09-01

    The Specific Activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were studied and determinate for 30 beach sand samples collected from Talo Kapo beach of Yaring district in Pattani province. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system. The IAEA-SOIL-6 reference materials obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency were also used to analyze and compute the 40K, 226Ra and 232Th specific activity in all 30 beach sand samples. The measuring time of each sample is 10,000 seconds. It was found that specific activity range from 1805.37 – 3323.05, 40.96 – 2137.36 38.63 – 4329.28 Bq/kg for with mean values of 2242.79 ± 117.40, 250.18 ± 8.21 and 458.42 ± 7.68 Bq/kg for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th, respectively. Moreover, the results were also compared with research data in the south of Thailand, the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) annual report data and the recommended values which were proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR,)

  20. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, I.R.; Dekker, S.C.; Kanters, Tobias J.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand,

  1. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, I.R.; Dekker, S.C.; Kanters, T.J.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: socalled beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand,

  2. Application of EDRXF technique for the determination of uranium and thorium in beach sand minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Zircon is a naturally occurring mineral and is available in many locations all over the world, This mineral usually contains U and Th at about 100-500 μg/g. Naturally occurring TiO 2 , containing minerals, rutile and ilmenite have small quantities of associated uranium. Natural rutile may contain upto 10% iron and upto 500 μg/g of uranium. Since the availability of rutile in nature is limited, ilmenite is used as raw material for producing synthetic rutile. In India, from monazite, thorium is separated by Indian Rare Earths Ltd., wherein uranium is a bye product. Since rutile is of importance to the gemstone markets, this is also produced from ilmenite ore. Roasting, reduction and leaching processes are important steps for removal of iron economically and efficiently from ilmenite ore during the production of synthetic rutile. We have developed a method to determine U and Th in zircon, using synthetic powder standards of ZrO 2 , containing U and Th in the range of 50 to 1000 μg/g. The limits of detection for U and Th were determined to be 200 and 100 μg/g respectively. Three zircon ore samples from different locations in India were analyzed for uranium and thorium using the method. The standardized method can be used for fast determination U and Th in zircon samples non-destructively with a precision of 10-20 %. Further another method was developed for the determination of uranium in rutile. Since iron and chromium are among the other impurities co-existing with U in rutile, these analytes have been included in the method. Synthetic standards containing U at 200-10,000 μg/g and Fe, Cr at 100- 2000 μg/g level were prepared and the spectrometer was calibrated using these standards. Two synthetic samples were analyzed using this method to evaluate the method for its reliability and reproducibility. In the present talk, details of these studies will be discussed. Moreover the work carried out on the determination of U/Th in sand minerals by other international

  3. Surf, sand, scrapes and stings: First aid incidents involving children at New Zealand beaches, 2007–2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kevin; Webber, Jonathon

    2014-03-01

    Aims: In spite of the popularity of beaches for family recreation, little is known about childhood injuries sustained at beaches. It is the purpose of this study to analyse data from incidents necessitating first aid treatment from reports compiled by surf lifeguards on New Zealand beaches.Method: A retrospective analysis of first aid incidents involving children (safety via greater care giver awareness, the use of protective clothing and footwear, and child safety promotion via health professionals and safety organisations are discussed.

  4. Ti-Zr placer mineralization in Neoproterozoic (Uppe r Riphean rocks of Kildin Formation and in contemporary beach sands of Sredny and Rybachy Peninsulas, Kola Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chickiryov I. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentration mechanisms of titanium-zirconium placer mineralizat ion in Neoproterozoic terrigenous rocks of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation, Kildin Group, and in contempo rary beach deposits from Sredny Peninsula and Motka Cape from Rybachy Peninsula (Kola region have been considered i n the paper. It has been shown that the rocks of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation are facially variable. The shallow littoral facies are confined to the western and central parts of Sredny Peninsula, the deeper sublitt oral facies are confined to the eastern part of Sredny Peninsula and to Motka Cape of Rybachy Peninsula. It has b een established that lenses and beds with titanium-zirconium placer mineralization occur solely in littoral facies. The ore minerals in aleurite-psamite of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation are represented by leucoxene, rutile and zircon, and in contemporary beach deposits – by ilmenite, rutile and minor zircon. Paleogeograp hic reconstruction indicates that almost all deposits of Neoproterozoic (Upper Riphean Kildin Group were accumulated in shallow (littoral and sublittoral environment during dominant humid climate and intense weat hering of source area. Thus, not only deposits of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation, but also the whole succession of Kildin Group can be regarded perspective for placers' accumulation. The low grade of heavy minerals (mainly Ti an d Zr minerals in contemporary beach deposits from Sredny Peninsula and Motka Cape from Rybachy Peninsu la is related to weak weathering of the Baltic Shield during Quaternary and to accumulation of coarse debris in littoral zone, preventing the differentiation of sand by wave action.

  5. Distribution and structure of the upper sublittoral macrobenthic communities of Tróia sand beaches (Setúbal, Portugal) and their relationship with environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Maria; Cabral, Henrique; Andrade, Francisco

    2010-04-01

    The present study dealt with the spatial and temporal variability of the distribution of the upper sublittoral benthic macrofauna of the Tróia peninsula sand beaches and its relationship with abiotic environmental factors. The existence of a relationship between the data set of macrobenthic species distribution and community structure in the Sado estuary (432 individual samples) and the environmental factors in analysis was investigated. Morpho-sedimentary data analysis revealed an environmental gradient, from the marine margin (exposed marine environment) to the estuarine margin (sheltered estuarine environment). Benthic macrofauna analysis showed a gradient of increasing number of individuals, species richness and diversity from the marine margin (Exposed) to the estuarine margin (Sheltered). Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed the dominant patterns in the community structure to be explained by the environmental factors considered, the most important, of which in influencing the spatial and temporal pattern, being beach slope, organic matter and calcium carbonate contents. The structure of the sandy beach communities studied showed a clear dominance of the spatial patterns over the seasonal ones. Four assemblages were defined-(1) an assemblage dominated by Angulus tenuis, on the marine margin of the peninsula; (2) an assemblage dominated by Euclymene sp. and Apseudes latreillei, on the sea-estuary transition area and related to the presence of a Zostera spp. meadow; (3) an assemblage dominated by Glycera sp. and Scoloplos armiger, on the sea-estuary transition area; (4) an assemblage dominated by Notomastus latericeus, Nassarius reticulatus and Cyathura carinata, on the estuarine margin.

  6. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach

  7. Biodegradation of subsurface oil in a tidally influenced sand beach: Impact of hydraulics and interaction with pore water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Lee, Kenneth; Abrams, Stewart; Suidan, Makram

    2015-05-01

    The aerobic biodegradation of oil in tidally influenced beaches was investigated numerically in this work using realistic beach and tide conditions. A numerical model BIOMARUN, coupling a multiple-Monod kinetic model BIOB to a density-dependent variably saturated groundwater flow model 2-D MARUN, was used to simulate the biodegradation of low-solubility hydrocarbon and transport processes of associated solute species (i.e., oxygen and nitrogen) in a tidally influenced beach environment. It was found that different limiting factors affect different portions of the beach. In the upper intertidal zone, where the inland incoming nutrient concentration was large (1.2 mg N/L), oil biodegradation occurred deeper in the beach (i.e., 0.3 m below the surface). In the midintertidal zone, a reversal was noted where the biodegradation was fast at shallow locations (i.e., 0.1 m below the surface), and it was due to the decrease of oxygen with depth due to consumption, which made oxygen the limiting factor for biodegradation. Oxygen concentration in the midintertidal zone exhibited two peaks as a function of time. One peak was associated with the high tide, when dissolved oxygen laden seawater filled the beach and a second oxygen peak was observed during low tides, and it was due to pore oxygen replenishment from the atmosphere. The effect of the capillary fringe (CF) height was investigated, and it was found that there is an optimal CF for the maximum biodegradation of oil in the beach. Too large a CF (i.e., very fine material) would attenuate oxygen replenishment (either from seawater or the atmosphere), while too small a CF (i.e., very coarse material) would reduce the interaction between microorganisms and oil in the upper intertidal zone due to rapid reduction in the soil moisture at low tide. This article was corrected on 22 JUN 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  8. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    OpenAIRE

    Pit, I.R.; Dekker, S.C.; Kanters, T.J.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: socalled beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore an...

  9. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    OpenAIRE

    Pit, I.R.; Dekker, S.C.; Kanters, Tobias J.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore a...

  10. Radioactivity of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in beach sand and sediment near to desalination plant in eastern Saudi Arabia: Assessment of radiological impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimh Alshahri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sand and sediment samples were collected from different locations along the beach near to desalination plant, which is one of the oldest and largest reverse osmosis desalination plants in Saudi Arabia, where the fluid waste is discharged. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. Radiation hazard indices were calculated to evaluate the radiological risk for the public and environment. This study is the first to evaluate the radiological impacts in the area under investigation. The mean values of radium equivalent activity (Raeq were 74.1 Bq kg−1 for surface sand samples, 78.8 Bq kg−1 for subsurface sand samples and 78.1 Bq kg−1 for sediments. The mean values of gamma absorbed dose rate (D in air and annual effective dose (E for analyzed samples were lower than the acceptable values. The external radiation hazard indices were lower than unity for all samples.

  11. Specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in beach sand samples in Songkhla province, Thailand after Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessaratikoon, P.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Choosiri, N.; Daoh, M.; Udomsomporn, S.

    2017-06-01

    According to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, specific activities of natural (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 210 beach sand samples which were collected from Maharat, Sai Kaew, Samila, Chalatat, Na Thab, Sakom and Soi Sawan beaches in Songkhla Province along the eastern coast of Thailand, have been studied and evaluated. The specific activity levels of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs in the area were found in the range 110.13 - 4574.12, 6.99 - 451.87, 3.75 - 665.76 and 0.58- 9.91 Bq/Kg, respectively. Furthermore, the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were calculated and compared with other research data in Thailand as well as global measurements and evaluations. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the studied area were also assessed by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th.

  12. Fine-Scale Volume Heterogeneity in a Mixed Sand/Mud Sediment Off Fort Walton Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    lenses within the mud drape. Lens- shaped mud inclusions within the sand sediment, or (lasers, were cre- ated when the mud that settled into the troughs...tected from resuspension by bottom currents. Over the course of the experiment, subsequent storm events broke up the surface mud layer into small clasts ...grained fractions (silt and clay sizes) were rele- gated to discrete layers, lenses, or clasts , occurring in 45% of all collected cores but occupying only

  13. Molecular and culture dependent characterization of endolithic bacteria in two beach sand samples and description of Rhizobium endolithicum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, B; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2013-12-01

    Endolithic metagenome analysis of two beach samples collected form Chilika, Odisha, India indicated rich bacterial diversity. While the metagenome analysis of sample one yielded 16S rRNA gene sequences which represent six phyla and 16 genera, sample two yielded very rich diversity representing 17 phyla and 286 genera. Six species of bacteria were isolated from the endolithic enrichments and most of them have 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of >99 % with known taxa, except for strain JC140(T) having Rhizobium yanglingense SH22623(T) (96.8 %), R. alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T) (96.3 %), R. vignae CCBAU 05176(T) (96.2 %), R. mesosinicum CCBAU 25010(T) (96.1 %) and other members of the genus Rhizobium with Rhizobium for which, the name R. endolithicum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC140(T) (= KCTC32077(T) = CCUG64352(T) = MTCC11723(T) = HAMBI 2447(T)).

  14. Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Markovina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimicking natural processes lead to progressive colonization and stabilization of the reconstructed beach dune ecosystem, as part of the ecologically sustainable development of Magenta Shores, on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. The retained and enhanced incipient dune formed the first line of storm defence. Placement of fibrous Leptospermum windrows allowed wind blown sand to form crests and swales parallel to the beach. Burial of Spinifex seed head in the moist sand layer achieved primary colonization of the reconstructed dune and development of a soil fungal hyphae network prior to introduction of secondary colonizing species. Monitoring stakes were used as roosts by birds, promoting re-introduction of native plant species requiring germination by digestive tract stimulation. Bush regeneration reduced competition from weeds, allowing native vegetation cover to succeed. On-going weeding and monitoring are essential at Magenta Shores until bitou bush is controlled for the entire length of beach. The reconstructed dunes provide enhanced protection from sand movement and storm bite, for built assets, remnant significant vegetation and sensitive estuarine ecosystems.

  15. Assessment of the variation of natural radioactivity in sands of Camburi beach, Vitoria, Epirito Santo, Brazil with climatological and geological factors of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Livia Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution to the external exposure to humans comes from gamma emitting radionuclides in soils, especially the 40 K and 238 U and 232 Th series. In this work, the activity concentrations of 226 Ra ( 238 U series), 232 Th and 40 K in surface sand monthly collected at 11 sites along the Camburi beach during the year 2011, selected to cover the entire length of the beach, were determined. The samples were hermetically sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry, after a resting time of approximately 30 days, in order to attain the radioactive equilibrium in the 238 U and 232 Th series. The activity concentration of 226 Ra was determined by the weighted average concentrations of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, the activity concentration of 232 Th by the weighted average concentrations of 212 Pb, 212 Bi and 228 Ac. The activity of 40 K was determined by its single transition of 1460,8 keV. For all samples the concentrations were corrected by self attenuation factors. From these concentrations, radiological indices like radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), activity concentration index (I γ ), external exposure risk index (H ext ), internal exposure risk index (H int ), absorbed gamma dose rate in air (D) in nGy.h -1 and annual effective dose (E) in mSv.y -1 were evaluated. In the studied area it was realized an assessment of the correlation of the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K with the geological, geographical, climatological (rainfall and temperature) and oceanographic (tidal height variation) factors. Due to the strong presence of monazite, the concentration of 232 Th is higher than the concentration of 226 Ra and 40 K. The activity concentrations found ranged from 4 Bq.kg -1 to 1380 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 9 Bq.kg -1 to 7453 Bq.kg -1 for 232 Th and 6 Bq.kg -1 to 504 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. The variation of Ra eq from 20 Bq.kg -1 to 12077 Bq.kg -1 , of I γ from 0,07 to 42,08, of H ext from 0,05 to 32,61, of H int from 0,06 to 36,34 and

  16. Provenance analysis of heavy minerals in beach sands (Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas) - A view to mineral deposits and the geodynamics of the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Harald G.; Skoda, Radek

    2017-10-01

    Beach sands are ideal traps to collect heavy minerals (HM) from different geodynamic settings and mineral deposits. The coastal sediments contain a mixture of HM derived from the submarine shelf and from source rocks in the hinterland. This is true in a transgressive periglacial regime, where drowned valleys and estuaries are instrumental in draining HM to the arenaceous beach sediments from more distal basement lithologies. A scenario like this can be found in the Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas. The site under study is the missing link between South Africa and South America, the splitting-apart of which is mirrored by the HM distribution predominantly concentrated in the backshore and dune belt along the coast. The HM are subdivided into three HM associations reflecting the geodynamic evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean and of some of the prominent mineral deposits on the Gondwana Continent: (1) Gondwana cratons and Proterozoic orogens, with Cr and BIF deposits (rutile, zircon, ilmenite, tourmaline, garnet, Cr spinel), (2) rift-related and break-apart magmatic lithologies with mantle-derived pipe rocks such as kimberlites (zircon, pyroxene, spinel, Mg ilmenite), (3) Cordillera-type lithologies with polymetallic stratabound deposits (tourmaline, amphibole, chlorite, REE phosphates). The variation of the major HM from the stable craton (Kalahari-Kaapvaal Craton) in the East to the mobile fold belt (Andes) in the West follows the order of stability of HM. In addition to these 3 geodynamic HM groups, sporadic occurrences of HM originating from alteration (leucoxene, chlorite s.s.s. (= solid solution series)) are part of armored relics such as "nigrine" which on transport disintegrated and thereby released these HM. The major ultrastable and stable HM zircon, rutile, tourmaline s.s.s., spinel s.s.s., and garnet s.s.s. are displayed in a synoptical x-y plot showing the mantle and crustal trends of fractionation and formation of cumulates by means of particular

  17. Post tsunami rebuilding of beaches and the texture of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.; Sudha, V.; Sunderasen, D.

    and textural statistic studies. In view of the presence tsunami in between, the beach sand composition and texture have been drastically changed, the studies on beach re-building effort has been initiated in continuing the beach sand sample collection to 2006...

  18. Gravel beaches nourishment: Modelling the equilibrium beach profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, I; Aragonés, L; Villacampa, Y; Navarro-González, F J

    2018-04-01

    The erosion of the world's coasts and the shortage of sand to mitigate beach erosion are leading to the increasingly common use of gravel for coastal protection and beach nourishment. Therefore, in order to determine the amount of gravel required for such actions, it is important to know perfectly the equilibrium profile of gravel beaches. However, at present, this profile is obtained from formulas obtained mainly after channel tests, and therefore most of them do not adapt to the real profiles formed by gravel beaches in nature. In this article, 31 variables related to sedimentology, waves, morphology and marine vegetation present on the beaches are studied to determine which are the most influential in the profile. From the study carried out, it is obtained that these variables are the steepness and probability of occurrence of the wave perpendicular to the coast, the profile starting slope (between MWL and -2m), the energy reduction coefficient due to Posidonia oceanica as well as the width of the meadow. Using these variables, different numerical models were generated to predict accurately the gravel beach profile, which will lead to a saving in the volume of material used in the order of 1300m 3 /ml of beach with respect to current formulations, and a greater certainty that the beach nourishment carried out will have the desired effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sanitary quality of sands from marine recreational beaches of São Paulo, Brazil Qualidade sanitária de areia de praias recreacionais em São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Zanoli Sato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A sanitary evaluation of sand and water from 16 beaches of São Paulo State, Brazil, was undertaken during spring of 1997 and summer of 1998. Ninety six samples each of wet and dry sand and seawater were collected and analysed for fecal indicator bacteria. A parasitological examination and Candida albicans analysis were also performed in sand samples and F-specific bacteriophages were determined in seawater. Statistical analysis of the results demonstrated higher concentrations of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci in dry sand during summer. Correlation analysis indicated a significant relationship between fecal indicator densities in wet sand and seawater. There was a significant correlation between the densities of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci for both types of sand, and this correlation was higher in wet sand. Cysts and eggs of parasites were detected in 4.2% of the samples and Candida albicans was isolated in 18% of the samples. The high concentrations of fecal indicators detected in sand during summer demonstrate that there is a health risk to the users of these recreational areas and suggest the necessity of some criteria for microbiological control. Preventive measures, such as education campaings and some management actions are important precautionary measures.Foi realizada uma avaliação sanitária das águas e areias de 16 praias do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, durante a primavera de 1997 e verão de 1998. Cento e noventa e duas amostras de areia seca e úmida, e 96 amostras de água do mar, foram coletadas e analisadas quanto à presença de bactérias indicadoras de contaminação fecal. Também foram realizados exames parasitológicos e análises de Candida albicans nas amostras de areia, e a determinação de bacteriófagos F-específicos nas amostras de água. A análise estatística dos resultados demonstrou concentrações mais elevadas de coliformes e estreptococos fecais na areia seca, durante o ver

  20. The presence of radioactive materials in soil, sand and sediment samples of Potenga sea beach area, Chittagong, Bangladesh: Geological characteristics and environmental implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Sabina; Barua, Bijoy Sonker; Uddin Khandaker, Mayeen; Kamal, Masud; Abdur Rashid, Md.; Abdul Sani, S. F.; Ahmed, H.; Nikouravan, Bijan; Bradley, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Accurate quantification of naturally occurring radioactive materials in soil provides information on geological characteristics, possibility of petroleum and mineral exploration, radiation hazards to the dwelling populace etc. Of practical significance, the earth surface media (soil, sand and sediment) collected from the densely populated coastal area of Chittagong city, Bangladesh were analysed using a high purity germanium γ-ray spectrometer with low background radiation environment. The mean activities of 226Ra (238U), 232Th and 40K in the studied materials show higher values than the respective world average of 33, 36 and 474 Bq/kg reported by the UNSCEAR (2000). The deduced mass concentrations of the primordial radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in the investigated samples are corresponding to the granite rocks, crustal minerals and typical rocks respectively. The estimated mean value of 232Th/238U for soil (3.98) and sediment (3.94) are in-line with the continental crustal average concentration of 3.82 for typical rock range reported by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). But the tonalites and more silicic rocks elevate the mean value of 232Th/238U for sand samples amounting to 4.69. This indicates a significant fractionation during weathering or associated with the metasomatic activity in the investigated area of sand collection.

  1. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  2. Mixed response in bacterial and biochemical variables to simulated sand mining in placer-rich beach sediments, Ratnagiri, West coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Christabelle E G; Das, Anindita; Nath, B N; Faria, Daphne G; Loka Bharathi, P A

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the influence on bacterial community and biochemical variables through mechanical disturbance of sediment-akin to small-scale mining in Kalbadevi beach, Ratnagiri, a placer-rich beach ecosystem which is a potential mining site. Changes were investigated by comparing three periods, namely phase I before disturbance, phase II just after disturbance, and phase III 24 h after disturbance as the bacterial generation time is ≤7 h. Cores from dune, berm, high-, mid-, and low-tide were examined for changes in distribution of total bacterial abundance, total direct viability (counts under aerobic and anaerobic conditions), culturability and biochemical parameters up to 40 cm depth. Results showed that bacterial abundance decreased by an order from 10(6) cells g(-1) sediment, while, viability reduced marginally. Culturability on different-strength nutrient broth increased by 155% during phase II. Changes in sedimentary proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids were marked at berm and dune and masked at other levels by tidal influence. Sedimentary ATP reduced drastically. During phase III, Pearson's correlation between these variables evolved from non-significant to significant level. Thus, simulated disturbance had a mixed effect on bacterial and biochemical variables of the sediments. It had a negative impact on bacterial abundance, viability and ATP but positive impact on culturability. Viability, culturability, and ATP could act as important indicators reflecting the disturbance in the system at short time intervals. Culturability, which improved by an order, could perhaps be a fraction that contributes to restoration of the system at bacterial level. This baseline information about the potential mining site could help in developing rational approach towards sustainable harnessing of resources with minimum damage to the ecosystem.

  3. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Niña event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study

  4. Filamentous fungi isolated from sand and water of "Bairro Novo" and "Casa Caiada" beaches, Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil Fungos filamentosos isolados do solo e da água nas praias de Bairro Novo e Casa Caiada, Olinda, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DNF. Gomes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi comprehend a heterogeneous group of heterotrophic microorganisms that act as saprobes or parasites or, less frequently, as symbionts living in association with other organisms. They are cosmopolitan and important components of ecosystems. Considering the small number of Brazilian papers on the filamentous mycota in marine environments, and the need to improve knowledge of the diversity of these microfungi in "Casa Caiada" and "Bairro Novo" beaches, Olinda, PE, the aim of this work was to isolate and identify the fungi from sand and water samples of these ecosystems. Thirty two samplings of sand (surface and 20 cm deep and water (surface and 1 m deep were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons, in low and high tide. From each sand sample, a suspension was made with 50 g of sand diluted in 90 mL of sterilized distilled water. From each sand suspension and water sample, 0.5 mL was spread, in triplicate, onto Petri dishes containing Sabouraud Agar added of chloramphenicol. The plates were incubated at 28 °C (±2 °C. Fifty seven species were isolated, identified, and classified in 20 genera. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the most frequent genera in both sand and water, with a total of 11 and 19 species, respectively.Os fungos compreendem um grupo heterogêneo de microorganismos heterotróficos, atuando como sapróbios ou parasitas, ou menos freqüentemente como simbiontes, vivendo em associação com outros organismos. São cosmopolitas e componentes importantes dos ecossistemas. Considerando-se a escassez de trabalhos no Brasil que tratam da micota filamentosa em ambientes marinhos, e ainda a necessidade do conhecimento da diversidade desses microfungos nas praias de Casa Caiada e Bairro Novo, Olinda, PE, este trabalho teve como objetivo o isolamento e identificação de fungos, em amostras de solo e de água, desses ecossistemas. Foram realizadas 32 coletas do solo (em superfície e a 20 cm de profundidade e da água (em superf

  5. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  6. BEACH VOLUME CHANGE USING UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY SONGJUNG BEACH, KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D and beach profile (vertical 2D on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  7. Southeast Florida Sediment Assessment and Needs Determination (SAND) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    between coastal areas and the destructive forces of ocean waves and storm events. However, sediments suitable for beach restoration are limited, non...feasible for beach nourishment. Carbonate-content testing of vibracore samples (SAND Study vibracores and historic data when available) indicated...heavy minerals, and other minor silicates . For beach nourishment, coarser and more durable carbonate will not increase turbidity or cause

  8. Seasonal beach profiling along Malvan and Kotharwadi coast , southern Maharashtra, central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan; Gaonkar

    Malvan beach has clearly shown the specific zones of sand erosion and sand accumulation at various periods. This report analyses the field data collected at different seasons at Malvan and presents the results of the field observations with final...

  9. Recreational impacts on Colorado River beaches in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Steven W.; Johnson, Robert A.; Dolan, Robert

    1984-07-01

    Recreational impact was measured on eight beaches in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and 15 beaches in Grand Canyon National Park using permanently located transects and plots. Recreational impact indices included densities of human trash and charcoal and a measure of sand discoloration due to charcoal. Significant increases in the indices occurred on several Glen Canyon beaches over a seven-month period. Sand discoloration became significantly higher over all Glen Canyon beaches during the same time period. All indices were significantly higher in Glen Canyon than on similar Grand Canyon beaches. These differences are probably due to differences in: (a) level of impacts tolerated by the respective management regimes and, (b) in the number of user days among the two National Park Service administrative units. Management alternatives are presented for reversing the present trends of recreational impact on Glen Canyon beaches.

  10. Macrofauna and meiofauna of two sandy beaches at Mombasa, Kenya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Macrofauna and meiofauna of 2 sandy beaches having medium and fine sand particles, respectively, were investigated, quantitatively Macrofauna density was highest around high water mark and progressively decreased towards low water mark Meiofauna...

  11. Breaking waves on a dynamic Hele-Shaw beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; van der Horn, Bram; van der Horn, Avraham/Bram; van der Meer, Roger M.; Zweers, Wout; Thornton, Anthony Richard

    We report the formation of quasi-steady beaches and dunes via breaking waves in our tabletop ‘Hele-Shaw’ beach experiment. Breaking waves are generated by a wave maker, and zeolite particles act as sand. The tank is narrow, just over one-particle diameter wide, creating a quasi-2D set-up. Classical

  12. Experimental Investigations of Effect of Sulphur on Beach Sand–Fly Ash–Asphalt (S-F-A) Paving Mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Satyakumar, M.; Satheeshchandran, R.

    2013-01-01

    The main components of the flexible pavements are asphalt and aggregates. But in most of the places in India there is shortage of the good quality aggregates (especially coarse aggregates), at the same time beach sand is available in plenty in many regions. Due to relative abundance of beach sand, the studies on the utilities of the beach sand in paving mixes are worth taking up. But beach Sand-Asphalt mix alone is not suitable for pavement construction, because of its low stability and high ...

  13. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Newton

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls. Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise

  14. The effects of sediment used in beach nourishment: Study case El Portet de Moraira beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva, L; Pagán, J I; López, I; Tenza-Abril, A J; Aragonés, L; Sánchez, I

    2018-02-08

    Actions taken to prevent or reduce coastal erosion often do not have the desired effect, leading to major problems instead of solving the original one. This research focuses on why a nourished beach- with borrowed sand and 0.05% of particles beach users as turbidity. This means that the colour of the water was not its characteristic blue, even with calm wave conditions. This research involved a shoreline evolution analysis and a sedimentological study of the sand from 1977 to 2017. The results show that the turbidity episodes that occurred after the beach fill of May 2017 do not coincide with major storms that affected the beach. Furthermore, prior to this beach nourishment, even after the most important storms turbidity was not so pronounced. However, when the pre-nourishment and post-nourishment sediment are compared and analysed in detail, by studying the microstructure and morphology of the sand particles, their composition and morphology were observed to be completely different. These differences are also reflected in the accelerated particle weathering test, with the post-nourishment particles showing greater dissolution of carbonates. From its mineralogy, the post-nourishment material presents a smaller proportion of quartz in its composition and a significant amount of particles (9.6%) formed by clusters of Calcium and Silicon. The separation of this mineralogical composition produced by waves explains the formation of particles measuring beach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dewatering Behaviour of Fine Oil Sands Tailings : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Oil sands tailings are a warm aqueous suspension of sand, silt, clay, residual bitumen and naphtha. The tailings are hydraulically transported and stored in tailing ponds where they segregate, with the sand settling from suspension forming beaches and the remaining tailings flowing to the middle of

  16. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes-Entering a new era of investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?

  17. Transport and distribution of bottom sediments at Pirita Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomere, Tarmo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic factors affecting sediment supply for and transport processes at Pirita Beach, a sandy section of the south­eastern coast of Tallinn Bay, are analysed. Observations of bathymetry, sediment properties and sources, sediment transport processes and their changes arising from coastal engineering activities are reported. The mean grain size is about 0.12 mm, with the fine sand fraction (0.063–0.125 mm accounting for about 77% of the sediments. Coarse sand dominates only along the waterline. The content of coarser sediments is greater in the northern part of the beach. A number of coastal engineering structures have blocked natural sediment supplies. The beach suffers from sediment deficit now and has lost about 400 m3 of sand annually from the dry beach between 1997 and 2005.

  18. Meiofauna of some sandy beaches of Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.

    Comparatively high meiofauna numbers were recorded from beaches having fine sand particles than those having coarse to medium sand particles The fauna was dominated mainly by nematodes (53.7%), harpacticoids (13.7%) and polychaetes (12.8%) On all...

  19. Can beaches survive climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Limber, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is driving sea level rise, leading to numerous impacts on the coastal zone, such as increased coastal flooding, beach erosion, cliff failure, saltwater intrusion in aquifers, and groundwater inundation. Many beaches around the world are currently experiencing chronic erosion as a result of gradual, present-day rates of sea level rise (about 3 mm/year) and human-driven restrictions in sand supply (e.g., harbor dredging and river damming). Accelerated sea level rise threatens to worsen coastal erosion and challenge the very existence of natural beaches throughout the world. Understanding and predicting the rates of sea level rise and coastal erosion depends on integrating data on natural systems with computer simulations. Although many computer modeling approaches are available to simulate shoreline change, few are capable of making reliable long-term predictions needed for full adaption or to enhance resilience. Recent advancements have allowed convincing decadal to centennial-scale predictions of shoreline evolution. For example, along 500 km of the Southern California coast, a new model featuring data assimilation predicts that up to 67% of beaches may completely erode by 2100 without large-scale human interventions. In spite of recent advancements, coastal evolution models must continue to improve in their theoretical framework, quantification of accuracy and uncertainty, computational efficiency, predictive capability, and integration with observed data, in order to meet the scientific and engineering challenges produced by a changing climate.

  20. Littoral Transport Modeling for Ocean Beach and San Francisco Bight, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    shape, and moisture content. The avalanche action redistributes the sand volume down the slipface. Dry beach and dune typically has an angle of...longshore ripples around it. The beach fill is clearly eroded more by the sand avalanche combined with wave asymmetry and undertow. COASTAL ENGINEERING...The modeling is conducted for the dune -only plan with approximately 300,000 cy of fine sand (0.2 mm) placement to a stretch of 1-km shoreline. The

  1. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  2. Sediment Transport and erosion modeling at Heaundae Beach in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, K.; Yoo, J.; McCall, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    The sand pocket beaches with two headlands are global features, but it's not easy to predict berm and dune erosion due to alongshore variation of water depth. This study investigates the sediment transport and morphological change using available wave and beach profile data, as well as to assess the applicability of the XBeach morphological model (Roelvink et al., 2009). The Haeundae is small pocket beach, 1.4 km long, located in the southern corner of the Korean Peninsula. The Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) measured beach profile along 27 survey lines. The beach profiles were surveyed five times from 17 June 2014 to 10 October 2014. For this duration, a wave gauge (AWAC) was installed at a depth about 23 m off the coast of Haeundae Beach. Severe four storms attacked Haeundae Beach for this duration and these storms lasted about 1 2 days with a peak significant wave height of 2.5 4.0 m. The placed sand is fairly sorted and its median diameter is 0.23 mm. 2DH coastal morphological model, XBeach developed to simulate dune erosion due to storm impacts. The model is based on the nonlinear shallow water equation and resolves nearshore hydrodynamics by employing a 2DH description of wave groups and infragravity motions. In this study, the numerical model XBeach was compared with the field data and used to estimate the sediment transport pattern on the sand pocket beach. The numerical model resulted in a comparable prediction in the west-part, but the east-part cannot reproduce the erosion and accretion of the sand, partly due to complex bathymetry and the lack of sediment. This limitation needs to be improved to use measured sand thickness data in future study

  3. Tar ball Monitoring Along the Kenyan Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Nguta, M.

    1993-01-01

    Observations and measurements of petroleum tar balls on a number of Kenyan beaches were carried out between 1979 and 1982. A large variation in the size and amount of tar deposit at the beaches was recorded. These values ranged from very small pebbles to large lumps of 30 cm in diameter, weighing up to 1.5 kg. The average tar loading during the sampling period ranged from 0-18 g/m2. Between 25-50% by weight of the tar lumps were shell fragments, sand and other nonpetroleum debris. The chemica...

  4. Human Health at the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Beaches Contact Us Share LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. ...

  5. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  6. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  7. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    ) minerals, rock fragments and shells. Car bonate reaches up 'to 97% (% wt). Introduction Beach rock is a friable to well-cemented rock con sisting of beach material such as calcareous debris, mineral grains, and rock fragments and its cemented by calcium...-10%), rock fragments (4 14%), shells (10-49%)· along with calcareous,;e menting material (calcite and aragonite) which coasts the sand grains and sometimes completely fills the po res. Quartz grains are vitreous, transparent with con choidal fractures...

  8. Applications of Dredging and Beach Fills in GenCade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the nourished beach and the natural beach berm height are identical. GenCade requires the modeler to input a beach fill as an added berm width...step in the simulation. A graphic of the volume of each shoal through time can be viewed by going to Display->Plot Wizard and selecting GenCade Inlet...Station. Kraus, N. C. 2002. Reservoir model for calculating natural sand bypassing and change in volume of ebb-tidal shoals, part I: Description. ERDC

  9. Deformation of textural characteristics and sedimentology along micro-tidal estuarine beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.

    to medium sand, moderately well sorted to moderately sorted, positive to negative skewed, and platykurtic to leptokurtic sediments. Spatio-temporal variation of mean grain size showed significant influence of breaking waves on beach sediments whereas sorting...

  10. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The SF and QS coastal dune sand samples are plotted in the recycled orogen and partly in craton interior fields suggesting recycled older sedimentary and partly metamorphic-plutonic sources. The high content of quartz with shell debris and carbonates in coastal dune sands support the recycled sedimentary beach and ...

  11. Calculation of Beach Change Under Interacting Cross-Shore and Longshore Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mathematicalmodeling of the fate of beach fill. In: Niemayer, H.D., van Overeem, J., van de Graaff , J. (Eds.), Artificial Beach Nourishments: Coastal Engineering, vol...Dunes are formed by wind-blown sand transport from the berm and foreshore. Psuty (1990) discusses dune transformation processes for the general area of...berm up to some distance over which equilibrium conditions have developed, implying that beyond equilibrium awider beach does not generate more

  12. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  13. Beach nourishment in the USA, the history, the impacts, and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert; Coburn, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Currently, the primary tool being used at the local, state, and federal level in the USA to adapt to rising sea level, and to reduce potential storm damage is the addition of sand to the coastal system in the form of engineered beaches and dunes (commonly referred to as beach nourishment or beach replenishment). At the Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines, we have built a comprehensive database of all beach dredge and fill projects in the USA. The database tracks a history of beach projects that date back to 1923 with continual updates as new projects are implemented today. The projects in the database represent the movement of over 950 million cubic meters of sand covering over 3700 km of shoreline. This massive program of shoreline stabilization is being carried out with little long-term vision or planning, and no consideration for the cumulative environmental impacts of mining and placing so much sand. It is no exaggeration to say that a significant portion of the US East and Gulf Coasts are now completely artificial constructs, with engineering replacing natural processes. Along many shorelines, beach nourishment has become unsustainable as sand sources diminish. In addition, the cost of moving the sand has increased dramatically as communities scramble to build beaches and dunes. This program is not sustainable into the future, but there has been no widespread recognition of this reality, nor any move towards sensible retreat from the coast.

  14. Process controlling beach nourishment performance at Delray Beach, Florida, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedet, L.

    2016-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem in the southeast coast of the State of Florida, where Delray Beach is located. To mitigate increasing erosion problems (subsequent) beach nourishment projects were constructed along the entire sandy coast of the state of Florida. At Delray Beach, the beach was

  15. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, Iris R; Dekker, Stefan C; Kanters, Tobias J; Wassen, Martin J; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-12-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of mobilisation of trace elements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Beach ridge sedimentology: field observation and palaeoenvironmental interpretation for Anegada Island, British Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescon, Anna Lisa; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.

    2014-05-01

    Beach ridge landforms have been observed in different environments and in settings that range from polar to tropical. Their stratigraphy and sedimentology has received a limited amount of discussion in the literature (Tamura, 2012). In coastal geomorphology a beach ridge can be seen as a transitional deposit between onshore and offshore environments. They are regarded as representing high level wave action along a coastline. In the Caribbean the origin of beach ridges has been variously attributed to one of three extreme wave events: extreme swell, extreme storm or tsunami waves. Beach ridges are arranged in beach ridge plains where there is succession of the landforms and can be several kilometres long. Beach ridge accumulation is not continuous and the coast shows alternating accretion and erosion periods. The use of beach ridges as palaeostorm archives is therefore not straightforward. The temporal continuity of beach ridge formation is being assessed on the beach ridge plains of Anegada, British Virgin Islands (Lesser Antilles). This carbonate platform surrounded by a fringing reef contains two beach ridge plains. There are more than 30 ridges in the Atlantic facing- coast and around 10 in the south, Caribbean- facing coast. The sediments of the modern beaches are dominated by the sand fraction and are 100% biogenic origin due to the isolation of Anegada from terrestrial sediment sources. The beach ridge sections have been studied in different area of Anegada beach ridge plains and present low angle seaward-dipping bedding. The sand fraction is dominant in the stratigraphy with a few intact shells. At only one site were coral pebbles deposited in association with the sand fraction. Aeolian deposits represent the upper part of the beach ridges and reflect the stabilization of the beach ridges with ongoing accretion. The sedimentology of the contemporary beach and dunes will be discussed in terms of their implications for understanding beach ridge genesis and its

  17. The effects of beach nourishment on benthic invertebrates in eastern Australia: impacts and variable recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Noriega, Rocio; Jones, Alan; Dye, Theresa

    2012-10-01

    Beach erosion is likely to accelerate, driven by predicted consequences of climate change and coastal development. Erosion is increasingly combated by beach nourishment, adding sand to eroding shores. Because a range of engineering techniques exists to nourish beaches, and because these techniques differ in their environmental effects, assessments of ecological impacts need to be tailored and specific. Here we report on impacts and recovery of benthic invertebrates impacted by beach nourishment operations undertaken at Palm Beach (SE Queensland, Australia). Assessments are made based on a beyond-BACI design, where samples were taken once before nourishment and twice afterwards at the impact and two control sites. Because almost all of the sand was deposited on the upper beach and later moved with bulldozers down-shore, we specifically examined whether the effects of nourishment varied at different heights of the beach-a little-studied question which has management implications. Impacts on the fauna were massive on the upper and middle levels of the beach: samples collected two days after the conclusion of nourishment were entirely devoid of all invertebrate life ('azoic'), whereas weaker effects of nourishment were detectable on the lower shore. Recovery after five months also varied between shore levels. The sediment of the upper level near the dunes remained azoic, the fauna of the middle shore had recovered partially, and the lower level had recovered in most respects. These findings indicate that the height and position of sand placement are important. For example, rather than depositing fill sand on the intertidal beach, it could be placed in the shallow subtidal zone, followed by slow up-shore accretion driven by hydrodynamic forces. Alternatively, techniques that spread the fill sand in thin layers (to minimize mortality by burial) and leave unfilled intertidal refuge islands (to provide colonists) may minimize the ecological impacts of beach nourishment

  18. Apparent Preferences of Beach Users at Virginia Beach Resort Zone

    OpenAIRE

    MacBean, Anna Ruth

    2013-01-01

    After compiling an appropriate list of beach criteria from established award programs and experts, the research landscape architect observed the Virginia Beach Resort Zone for areas of intense beach user activity.  The resulting analysis of these "hot-spots" indicated that urban resort beach users visiting the recreational beach during high-use times tended to gravitate toward locations on the resort beach which were close to three needs:  public parking, public restrooms, and inexpensive ref...

  19. An introduction to the Hele-Shaw beach experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Anthony; van der Horn, Bram; van der Meer, Devaraj; Zweers, Wout; Bokhove, Onno

    2012-11-01

    The sea, as well as being a destructive force can also be constructive and can move great quantities of sand often forming a beach. Waves can move material both up and down the beach, leading to the construction of sloping beaches. Wave-sand dynamics are studied via experiments. The tank is narrow, just over one-particle diameter wide, creating a quasi-2D set-up also geared towards mathematical modelling. There is strong two-way feedback between the free-surface waves and the beach morphology. The waves transport the particles, changing the basal topography, causing the waves to transform from rolling to breaking. ``All'' classical breaker types (plunging, collapsing, spilling and surging) are observed on a time-scale of about a second. Finally, on longer time-scales many steady beach morphologies are observed, including dry and wet beaches, dry berms/dunes, and bars. The highlight being dry dunes which have dynamic waves crashing on the seaward-side and quiescent water on the far side.

  20. Migrations of sandy beach meiofauna | McLachlan | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meiofauna at higher tide levels on a sheltered beach has been found to undergo vertical migrations correlated with the alternate drying and wetting of the sand during the tidal cycle. This movement may be modified by temperature differences between summer and winter and day and night. No major horizontal ...

  1. Pleistocene and holocene beaches and estuaries along the Southern Barrier of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Federico I.; Cortizo, Luis C.; Schnack, Enrique J.

    The Buenos Aires aggradation plain has a good record of Quaternary sea-level fluctuations. To the east of the Tandilia Range, the elevations of the Pleistocene beaches respond to the tectonic behaviour of the Salado Basin. Holocene beaches indicate a maximum transgression higher than 2 m. The low relief permitted an extended horizontal record of beach/chenier plains interfingered with estuarine environments (coastal lagoons, marshes) covered by a sandy (Eastern) barrier. Between the Tandilia and Ventania ranges, the location of Pleistocene and Holocene beaches are related to a former higher relief; i.e. they are attached to low-altitude cliffs and underneath cliff-top dunes composing the Southern Barrier. At Claromecó, Pleistocene gravel beaches, mostly composed of caliche pebbles, occur at heights between 4 and 7 m, and are overlying estuarine Pleistocene environments. Beaches of the same age are at a level of 10 m at Mar del Plata Harbour and Arroyo Sotelo (west of Mar Chiquita Lagoon). Holocene beaches found at Punta Mogotes and Costa Bonita are at higher altitudes than on the Eastern Barrier (ca. 2-4 m). The Holocene estuarine sequences are related laterally to present operating inlets (Las Brusquitas, La Ballenera, Quequén Grande, Claromecó, Quequén Salado). They are seldon thicker than 2.4 m, and comprise basal layers of black muds; towards the top, the layers are thinner, of coarser grain size and white colours. Grain-size analyses were performed comparatively on Pleistocene, mid-Holocene and present beaches. Sangamonian beaches aregravelly or coarser than medium sand (mean). Holocene beaches are usually coarser than medium sand, but dominantly shelly to the north of Mar del Plata, and composed of volcanic clasts to the south of this city. Modern beaches are dominated by fine sand, except at some erosive beaches between the Mar del Plata capes. They have a lesser content of shells than those of mid-Holocene.

  2. Assessment of the variation of natural radioactivity in sands of Camburi beach, Vitoria, Epirito Santo, Brazil with climatological and geological factors of the region; Avaliacao da variacao da radioatividade natural em areias da praia de Camburi, Vitoria, Epirito Santo com fatores climatologicos e geologicos da regiao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia Fernandes

    2013-07-01

    The main contribution to the external exposure to humans comes from gamma emitting radionuclides in soils, especially the {sup 40}K and {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. In this work, the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U series), {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in surface sand monthly collected at 11 sites along the Camburi beach during the year 2011, selected to cover the entire length of the beach, were determined. The samples were hermetically sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry, after a resting time of approximately 30 days, in order to attain the radioactive equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra was determined by the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, the activity concentration of {sup 232}Th by the weighted average concentrations of {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi and {sup 228}Ac. The activity of {sup 40}K was determined by its single transition of 1460,8 keV. For all samples the concentrations were corrected by self attenuation factors. From these concentrations, radiological indices like radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), activity concentration index (I{sub γ}), external exposure risk index (H{sub ext}), internal exposure risk index (H{sub int}), absorbed gamma dose rate in air (D) in nGy.h{sup -1} and annual effective dose (E) in mSv.y{sup -1} were evaluated. In the studied area it was realized an assessment of the correlation of the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K with the geological, geographical, climatological (rainfall and temperature) and oceanographic (tidal height variation) factors. Due to the strong presence of monazite, the concentration of {sup 232}Th is higher than the concentration of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K. The activity concentrations found ranged from 4 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 1380 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 9 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 7453 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 6 Bq.kg{sup -1

  3. Beachrock morphology and genesis on a paraglacial beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. A. G.; Green, A. N.; Wiles, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    Beachrock is present in deep, stable sections of a mixed sand and gravel beach at Whitepark Bay (55o14‧N) on the paraglacial coast of Northern Ireland. The beachrock was revealed following progressive and extreme beach erosion during two particularly stormy winters (2013/14 and 2014/15). It occurs as large (up to 1 m diameter, 0.2 m thick), rounded, disc-shaped concretions in which original beach bedding structures are preserved. Both sand and gravel beach facies are cemented. The cements are similar to those of tropical beachrocks and comprise an initial thin micrite rim, and subsequent grain rims of aragonitic needles. The cementation is attributed to saturation of beach groundwater with calcium carbonate sourced from adjacent Cretaceous chalk outcrop in cliffs behind the beach and dunes. The micrite rims suggest microbial activity in the initial cementation, possibly by scavenging from chalk and skeletal carbonate grains. Subsequent aragonite rims were formed through degassing of CO2 aided by tidal water level fluctuations. Despite similar cementation processes to low latitude beachrocks, only isolated concretions occur rather than extensive shore-parallel outcrops. Conditions necessary for cementation (and ultimately preservation) in this cold temperate and paraglacial setting include long-term beach stability, a carbonate source (in this case, adjacent chalk cliffs and stream sapping) and tidal water level fluctuations. Bacterial activity may initiate calcite precipitation. Following extreme storms and with progressive shoreline retreat prompted by rising sea levels, increased reporting of cold-water beachrocks is to be expected as formerly stable sections of beaches are exposed to wave action.

  4. Beach erosion control study at Pass Christian. [using remote sensors and satellite observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The methods of measuring the existence of erosion and the effects of sand stabilization control systems are described. The mechanics of sand movement, the nature of sand erosion, and the use of satellite data to measure these factors and their surrogates are discussed using the locational and control aspects of aeolian and litoral erosion zones along the sand beach of the Mississippi coast. The aeolian erosion is highlighted due to the redeposition of the sand which causes high cleanup costs, property damage, and safety and health hazards. The areas of differential erosion and the patterns of beach sand movement are illustrated and the use of remote sensing methods to identify the areas of erosion are evaluated.

  5. The Geomorphic System and the Effects of Human Interference at Gold Coast Beach in Tainan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    2017-04-01

    The Gold Coast beach in Tainan, Taiwan, located between Anping harbor and Ur-Jen river mouth, is the subject of this study, which characterizes the beach's geomorphic system through the analysis of information such as sediment grain size, mineral composition, and periodic measurements of morphological changes of the beach. Based upon such characterizations, further analysis is conducted on the effects that human activities of the last 15 years have upon the geomorphic changes within the Gold Coast beach. The study shows that the median grain size of the Gold Coast beach's sediment is medium sand. The mineral composition includes mainly slate fragments and quartz grains, with small amounts of feldspar, sandstone and shell fragments. Based on a comprehensive study of the longshore distribution of beach sediment size and mineral composition of southwestern coast of Taiwan, as well as, the long-term, monitored data of waves, tides, and currents in this region, we conclude that the main process responsible for the sand accumulation at Gold Coast beach is the prevailing longshore sand transport from south to north. The southern breakwater of Anping harbor plays a role in intercepting the longshore transport sand and helps form the beach. Since the Ur-Jen river flows through a mudstone region, the suspended sediment plume during the flood season does not provide much sediment source to the sandy beach. A monthly beach profile survey project conducted between the years 1999 to 2000 revealed that the beach elevation and width had experienced an obvious seasonal change. The beach widened during the winter, but narrowed in the summer due to typhoon wave erosion. When the subaerial beach was eroded, a submerged longshore bar that was oriented almost parallel to the shoreline had formed at a distance about 400-600 meter away. With this observation, we can conclude that beach morphology is also influenced by various seasonal wave actions that affect onshore and offshore sand

  6. Sand spit and shoreline dynamics near Terekhol river mouth, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasekaran, C.; Jayakumar, S.; Gowthaman, R.; Jishad, M.; Yadhunath, E.M.; Pednekar, P.S.

    Evolution of shoreline and sand spit at the mouth of the Terekhol River, near Keri beach, located in the Indian state of Goa has been investigated From the analysis of the data collected, the shoreline oscillation (accretion & erosion) is seasonal...

  7. Short- and medium-term response to storms on three Mediterranean coarse-grained beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Edoardo; Bertoni, Duccio; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The storm response of three Italian coarse-grained beaches was investigated to better understand the morphodynamics of coarse-clastic beaches in a microtidal context. Two of the studied sites are located on the eastern side of the country (Portonovo and Sirolo) and the third one (Marina di Pisa) is on the western side. Portonovo and Sirolo are mixed sand and gravel beaches where the storms approach from two main directions, SE and NE. Marina di Pisa is a coarse-grained, gravel-dominated beach, exposed to storms driven by SW winds. Gravel nourishments were undertaken in recent years on the three sites. Beach topography was monitored measuring the same network of cross sections at a monthly (i.e. short-term) to seasonal frequency (i.e. medium-term). Geomorphic changes were examined before and after storm occurrences by means of profile analyses and shoreline position evaluations. The beach orientation and the influence of hard structures are the main factors controlling the transport and accumulation of significant amount of sediments and the consequent high variability of beach morphology over the medium-term. For Marina di Pisa, storms tend to accumulate material towards the upper part of the beach with no shoreline rotation and no chance to recover the initial configuration. Sirolo and Portonovo showed a similar behaviour that is more typical of pocket beaches. Both beaches show shoreline rotation after storms in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction according to the incoming wave direction. The wider and longer beach at Sirolo allows the accumulation of a thin layer of sediment during storms, rather than at Portonovo where, given its longshore and landward boundaries, the beach material tends to accumulate in greater thickness. After storms, Sirolo and especially Portonovo can quickly recover the initial beach configuration, as soon as another storm of comparable energy approaches from the opposite direction of the previous one. Large morphological

  8. Reading Ombrone river delta evolution through beach ridges morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammi, Irene; Piccardi, Marco; Pranzini, Enzo; Rossi, Lorenzo

    2017-04-01

    The present study focuses on the evolution of the Ombrone River delta (Southern Tuscany, Italy) in the last five centuries, when fluvial sediment input was huge also as a consequence of the deforestation performed on the watershed. The aim of this study is to find a correlation between river input and beach ridges morphology and to explain the different distribution of wetlands and sand deposits on the two sides of the delta. Visible, NIR and TIR satellite images were processed to retrieve soil wetness associated to sand ridges and interdune silty deposits. High resolution LiDAR data were analysed using vegetation filter and GIS enhancement algorithms in order to highlight small morphological variations, especially in areas closer to the river where agriculture has almost deleted these morphologies. A topographic survey and a very high resolution 3D model obtained from a set of images acquired by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) were carried out in selected sites, both to calibrate satellite LiDAR 3D data, and to map low relief areas. Historical maps, aerial photography and written documents were analysed for dating ancient shorelines associated to specific beach ridges. Thus allowing the reconstruction of erosive and accretive phases of the delta. Seventy beach ridges were identified on the two wings of the delta. On the longer down-drift side (Northern wing) beach ridges are more spaced at the apex and gradually converge to the extremity, where the Bruna River runs and delimits the sub aerial depositional area of the Ombrone River. On the shorter up-drift lobe (Southern wing), beach ridges are closer, but run almost parallel each other. In this case, a rocky headland called Collelungo promontory closes and cuts the beach ridges sequence but shallow water depth allows sediment by pass. One kilometre to the south a more pronounced promontory encloses a small pocket beach (Cala di Forno) and identifies the limit of the subaerial depositionary area. Beach ridges

  9. National List of Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the...

  10. Beach Ball Coronagraph

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A precision formation flying coronagraph with an inflatable, passive ‘beach ball’ occulter has the chance to make possible the next generation of advances in coronal...

  11. Cigarette Waste in Popular Beaches in Thailand: High Densities that Demand Environmental Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipapun Kungskulniti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thailand, like all nations, has a responsibility to initiate environmental actions to preserve marine environments. Low- and middle-income countries face difficulties implementing feasible strategies to fulfill this ambitious goal. To contribute to the revitalization of Thailand’s marine ecosystems, we investigated the level of tobacco product waste (TPW on Thailand’s public beaches. We conducted a cross-sectional observational survey at two popular public beaches. Research staff collected cigarette butts over two eight-hour days walking over a one-kilometer stretch of beach. We also compiled and analyzed data on butts collected from sieved sand at 11 popular beaches throughout Thailand’s coast, with 10 samples of sieved sand collected per beach. Our survey at two beaches yielded 3067 butts in lounge areas, resulting in a mean butt density of 0.44/m2. At the 11 beaches, sieved sand samples yielded butt densities ranging from 0.25 to 13.3/m2, with a mean butt density of 2.26/m2 (SD = 3.78. These densities show that TPW has become a serious problem along Thailand’s coastline. Our findings are comparable with those in other countries. We report on government and civil society initiatives in Thailand that are beginning to address marine TPW. The solution will only happen when responsible parties, especially and primarily tobacco companies, undertake actions to eliminate TPW.

  12. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  13. A Conceptual Model for Spatial Grain Size Variability on the Surface of and within Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Gallagher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Grain size on the surface of natural beaches has been observed to vary spatially and temporally with morphology and wave energy. The stratigraphy of the beach at Duck, North Carolina, USA was examined using 36 vibracores (~1–1.5 m long collected along a cross-shore beach profile. Cores show that beach sediments are finer (~0.3 mm and more uniform high up on the beach. Lower on the beach, with more swash and wave action, the sand is reworked, segregated by size, and deposited in layers and patches. At the deepest measurement sites in the swash (~−1.4 to −1.6 m NAVD88, which are constantly being reworked by the energetic shore break, there is a thick layer (60–80 cm of very coarse sediment (~2 mm. Examination of two large trenches showed that continuous layers of coarse and fine sands comprise beach stratigraphy. Thicker coarse layers in the trenches (above mean sea level are likely owing to storm erosion and storm surge elevating the shore break and swash, which act to sort the sediment. Those layers are buried as water level retreats, accretion occurs and the beach recovers from the storm. Thinner coarse layers likely represent similar processes acting on smaller temporal scales.

  14. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir M Zaid

    2017-06-07

    Jun 7, 2017 ... The average CIA values in SF and QS coastal dune sands are low relative to the range of the PAAS, suggesting an arid .... Skewness (Ski) values of QS vary from 0.04 (near symmetrical) to –0.3 ϕ (coarse ...... Alfredo-Morales E and Santa-Cruz R L 2009 Beach sand composition and provenance in a sector ...

  15. Degradation of Deepwater Horizon oil buried in a Florida beach influenced by tidal pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettel, Markus; Overholt, Will A; Kostka, Joel E; Hagan, Christopher; Kaba, John; Wells, Wm Brian; Dudley, Stacia

    2018-01-01

    After Deepwater Horizon oil reached the Florida coast, oil was buried in Pensacola Beach (PB) sands to ~70cm depth, resulting in Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations up to ~2kg per meter of beach. This study followed the decomposition of the buried oil and the factors influencing its degradation. The abundance of bacteria in oiled sand increased by 2 orders of magnitude within one week after oil burial, while diversity decreased by ~50%. Half-lives of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons reached 25 and 22days, respectively. Aerobic microbial oil decomposition, promoted by tidal pumping, and human cleaning activities effectively removed oil from the beach. After one year, concentrations of GC-amenable hydrocarbons at PB were similar to those in the uncontaminated reference beach at St. George Island/FL, and microbial populations that disappeared after the oil contamination had reestablished. Yet, oxihydrocarbons can be found at PB to the present day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Summary of Annual Beach Notifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA gathers state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories. Between 1999 and...

  17. MODELING OF FLOW THROUGH A VERTICAL PERFORATED PIPE IN THE BEACH, AND THE MORPHODYNAMIC INTERPRETATION: THE PRESSURE EQUALIZATION MODULE SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that vertical perforated tubes placed below the beach surface will increase the drainage of the beach, and hence increase the deposition of sand on the beach. The system is called the PEM-system, Pressure Equalization System, and the Danish company SIC (www.shore.dk) is doing...... the marketing. Although it for a coastal engineer seems obvious that such a device can’t drain the beach (nearly no driving forces ), SIC has succeeded in installing the system in more than 75 locations around the world (according to the company). In Denmark a full scale experiment at the exposed west coast has...

  18. Assessment of natural radioactivity in the sea-beaches of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Shyamal Ranjan; Alam, Md. Kowsar

    2014-01-01

    The present research work was aimed to study the ambient radiation environment of the most popular sea-beaches of Bangladesh. The average activity concentrations of radioactive elements such as 232 Th, '2 38 U and 40 K of beach sand samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector and found to be higher than the internationally accepted values. The absorbed γ dose rate levels of the study areas are similar to other monazite sand-bearing high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of southern and southwestern coastal regions of India and of the world. The estimated values of the radiological parameters of the present study areas were also higher than the internationally accepted values. Hence, Cox's bazaar, Kuakata and Potenga sea-beach regions can be considered as HBRAs and potential zones for monazite like radioactive sand. (author)

  19. Monsoonal effects on beach and offshore sediments from kalbadevi bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra state, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Farnnades, D.

    DAV International Journal of Science Volume-3 Issue-1 2014 ISSN: 2277-5536 (Print); 2277-5641 (Online) 70 MONSOONAL EFFECTS ON BEACH AND OFFSHORE SEDIMENTS... in Ratnagiri to carry out `Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies for placer mining` under the ‘Capacity Building for Sand Mining, Network Program’ of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi. The beach sediment samples from...

  20. Sand moisture as a factor determining depth of burrowing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tylos granulatus, a sandy-beach isopod, prefers an environmental moisture range exceeding 3,4% but less than 13%. The depths to which the animals burrow are, at least partly, determined by the moisture gradient in the sand. They are, however, incapable of burrowing into lotally dry sand. Animals alter their position in ...

  1. The durban beach monitoring program: simple surveys speak volumes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Wet, p

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Conclusions ? CSIR 2010 Slide 2 Introduction ? Durban Port entrance channel deepening & widening (1903 ? ...) barb2right erosion of N.beaches ? sand pumping (1935 ? ... ), low-level groynes / piers (mid 1980s) ? eThekwini Municipality monitoring... scheme for more than 30 yrs barb2right responsible, sound coastal management ? identification of long-term trends, quantify pumping volumes ? observation data NB local, regional, national barb2right implications of ? CSIR 2010 Slide 3 Integrated...

  2. Simulating the influence of physicochemical parameters on subsurface oil on beaches: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, A M; Rey, D; Lago, A; Vilas, F

    2010-08-01

    Monitoring of sandy beaches after the Prestige oil spill revealed thick subsurface layers (up to 1m thick) of grey-coloured sand. These horizons were sometimes found under more than 3m of clean sand. Examination of the sand by electron microscopy confirmed that the colouring was due to oil-coated sand grains, and revealed a sequence of degradation of buried oil. Further analysis of the sand revealed high concentrations of hydrocarbon in the oil-coated sand and that the main biomarkers were indicative of biodegradation, even though the oil was buried. A set of experiments was designed to analyze the evolution of oil from tar balls to coatings. The results revealed that biodegradation is a secondary process in the changes that take place in the buried oil, and that water flow slows down the appearance of grey sand and that low salinity may hinder the oil degradation process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulating the influence of physicochemical parameters on subsurface oil on beaches: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, A.M.; Rey, D.; Lago, A.; Vilas, F.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of sandy beaches after the Prestige oil spill revealed thick subsurface layers (up to 1 m thick) of grey-coloured sand. These horizons were sometimes found under more than 3 m of clean sand. Examination of the sand by electron microscopy confirmed that the colouring was due to oil-coated sand grains, and revealed a sequence of degradation of buried oil. Further analysis of the sand revealed high concentrations of hydrocarbon in the oil-coated sand and that the main biomarkers were indicative of biodegradation, even though the oil was buried. A set of experiments was designed to analyze the evolution of oil from tar balls to coatings. The results revealed that biodegradation is a secondary process in the changes that take place in the buried oil, and that water flow slows down the appearance of grey sand and that low salinity may hinder the oil degradation process.

  4. Sedimentary characteristics of thick layer lacustrine beach-bars in the Cenozoic Banqiao Sag of the Bohai Bay Basin, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fan; Su, Nina; Yang, Shaochun; Yao, Ruixiang; Chu, Shumin

    2018-01-01

    Lacustrine beach-bar reservoirs have become important exploration targets in the Bohai Bay Basin in China, especially in the Banqiao Sag within the Huanghua Depression, where some typical thick layer beach-bar reservoirs have been discovered recently. The average single-layer thickness of the beach-bar sand bodies in the second member of the Paleogene Shahejie Formation within the sag is greater than 10 m and the cumulative thickness of these sands reach up to 100 m. The second member of the Shahejie Formation in the Banqiao Sag consists of a third-order sequence of three systems tracts-a lowstand systems tract, a transgressive systems tract, and a highstand systems tract. Beach-bar sand bodies were deposited widely in the sag in the lowstand systems tract, but were less deposited in the other systems tracts. The sedimentary characteristics, distribution patterns, and formation mechanisms of the beach-bar sand bodies in the lowstand systems tract of the second member of the Shahejie Formation were systemically studied using cores, wireline logs and 3D seismic data. The beach-bar was divided into five sedimentary microfacies, namely, sandy bar centre, sandy bar flank, interbar deposit, coastal beach, and infralittoral beach. Based on the integrated analysis of the paleostructure and sedimentary environment, it was inferred that the thick layer beach-bars in this area resulted from the combination and joint control of the sediment source system, hydrodynamic environment, lake level variations, and contemporaneous fault activity. Firstly, the sands in the braided river delta of the Beidagang buried hill structural belt served as the provenance that provided the material basis for the beach-bars in the Banqiao Sag. Secondly, the wave effects in the gentle-slope belt controlled the scale and distribution of the beach bars. Under the control of waves, various sedimentary microfacies were regularly distributed. In particular, the continuous activity of the contemporaneous

  5. Study of C13/C12 and O18/O16 variations on environments of beach rocks formation in Itaparica island - Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Calcium carbonate-cemented beach sands or beach rocks have been observed to occur in the inter tidal zone of many tropical beaches. Near Salvador (Brazil) occurrences are found in several locations on the island of Itaparica. A study of the stable isotope composition (C 13 / C 12 and O 18 / O 16 ) of the cement and the local groundwater was carried out to determine the origin of the carbonate cement. (author)

  6. Four-season variation of 2014 year in the surface sediments of the Gochang beach, southwestern coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kang, Sol-Ip

    2015-04-01

    The marco-tide, open-coast Gochang beach, located on the southwestern coast of Korea, was studied in terms of four season variations in surface sediment and sedimentary environment. During the four seasons of winter (February), spring (May), summer (August), and fall (November) in 2014 year, surface sediments of total 252 sites were sampled across three survey lines, consisting of 21 sites at 30 m intervals in each transverse line to the coast, respectively. The Gochang beach comprises the Dongho, Kwangseungri, and Myeongsasipri beaches from north to south. The pocket-type Dongho beach is mainly composed of very fine sands to very coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. The average of grain size is the coarsest in the winter. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel trend of fine and medium sands during the four seasons. During the winter, the upper tidal flat was dominated by medium sand, while the lower tidal flat was dominated by find sand. The surface sediments of the Kwangseungri beach are mainly composed of fine-grained sands, and the mean grain size is the coarsest in winter. Grain-size distribution shows a uni-mode pattern in the four seasons. Mud facies partly exist in spring and summer seasons, whereas it is rarely shown in autumn and winter. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel trend of fine to coarse sand during the four seasons. The Myeongsasipri beach is mainly composed of very fine sands to very coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. Grain-size distribution shows a weak bi-modal trend in the autumn and a uni-mode pattern in the spring, summer and winter. The mean grain size of the winter is the coarsest among those of four seasons. The spatial distribution of four seasons also shows a coast-parallel trend. During the four seasons of 2014 year in the Gochang beach, overall distribution of the grain sizes represents a fining trend from upper to lower tidal

  7. Effect of sillimanite beach sand composition on mullitization and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    would convert these minerals into value added products. (Banerjee 1998; Tripathi and Banerjee 1998, ... obtained from the Indian Aluminium Company Limited,. India. Batches were prepared with the above raw mate- rials as well as by the addition of Al2O3 to convert the. SiO2 available into mullite as shown in table 1.

  8. Effect of sillimanite beach sand composition on mullitization and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to measure Young's modulus, hardness and fracture tough- ness. Young's modulus was measured by nondestructive. Sonic method. Hardness and fracture toughness of sam- ples were measured through Vickers' indentation using a load of 49 N. X-ray powder diffraction pattern of the raw materials and fired products were ...

  9. Geochemistry of dark coastal heavy-mineral beaches sand (Annaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    majeurs, traces et Terre Rares dans le sable clair sont inférieures à celles du sable sombre. Par-contre la composition chimique des sables sombres des deux plages est similaire. Cette étude montre une forte corrélation positive entre la teneur en éléments majeurs, traces, terres rares et la concentration modale en ...

  10. Sand resistance of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Michael; Wood, Caryl; Martinez, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Like water resistance in sunscreens, sand resistance in sunscreens is the ability of the sunscreen to retain its effectiveness while undergoing sand treatment. The influence of the type of sand on the sand resistance of sunscreens has not been described. The sand resistance of a control standard sunscreen, P2, and data on three grades of Quickrete commercial grade sand, #1961, #1962, and #1152, are described. These sands represent a fine sand, a medium sand, and an all-purpose sand. Using the methodology described in the 2007 proposed amendment of the Final Monograph (1) with one exception, we obtained an SPF of 16.5 (1.6) for the control standard, compared to the expected SPF of 16.3 (3.4). After a five-minute treatment of sand #1961, #1962, or #1151, the SPF of the control standard was 18.3 (1.6), 18.4 (2.0), and 17.5 (2.2), respectively. Thus, all three sands exhibited a similar sand-resistance response. Thus, there was no significant difference in the average SPF with and without sand. The medium grade sand, Quickrete commercial grade #1962, was preferred for sand-resistance testing because the fine sand was difficult to remove from the subject's backs and the coarse sand was unpleasant to the subjects.

  11. 11 things a geologist thinks an engineer should know about carbonate beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Robert B.; Magoon, Orville T.; Robbins, Lisa L.; Ewing, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    This is a review of the geological aspects of carbonate beaches that a geologist thinks may be useful for an engineer. Classical geologic problems of carbonate beaches, for example how ancient examples are recognized in rock sequences, are of little interest to engineers. Geologists not involved in engineering problems may find it difficult to know what an engineer should understand about carbonate beaches. Nevertheless, there are at least eleven topics that are potentially very useful for engineers to keep in mind. These eleven are chosen with as much thought going into what has been omitted as has been given to the eleven included topics. Some qualifications are in order: First, this paper does not discuss certain kinds of carbonate shorelines that are beyond the scope of engineering issues. For example, this review does not discuss very high-energy carbonate boulder beaches. These beaches are comprised of pieces of carbonate material ganging in size from ten centimeters to meters. Typically, these are high-energy storm deposits formed from pieces of either eroded carbonate rock or other large carbonate pieces such as pieces of large corals. This paper focuses on sand-sized (0.0625–2.0 mm) coastal carbonate deposits. Second, offshore beaches will not be discussed. There are many carbonate beaches that form on banks or shoals exposed at low tide, but our discussion is confined to what most people think of when they go to some tropical island and/or resort and walk out to lay on the beach. Third, this paper does not consider mixed carbonate/quartz sand beaches. While mixed beaches are common, only the end member of purely carbonate sand beaches is considered. Fourth, there will be no order of preference of the eleven topics. And lastly, these eleven topics are not consensus items. These are simply one geologist s thoughts about the aspects of carbonate beaches that would be useful for engineering colleagues to keep in mind. Where possible, general reference is

  12. Response to storm conditions of two different beaches at the Mediterranean coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mrini, Aldelmounim; Anfuso, Giorgio; Nachite, Driss; Taaouati, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades the increased demand for the recreational use of beaches has resulted in the uptake of studies on the morphodynamic processes which are acting on beaches. This knowledge is fundamental for appropriate coastal erosion management, suitable tourist use of littoral and for the design and shape of human construction. The Mediterranean sectors of Moroccan littoral investigated in this study, Ksar Rimal and Cabo Negro beaches, are respectively located north and south of Cabo Negro promontory and, over recent years, have been subject to increasing tourist activity. This has consisted mainly of the construction of two tourist ports (Marina Smir and Kabila), residential developments, hotels and a motorway which runs parallel to the coast, affecting the dune ridges and two lagoons which are of great ecological interest. In detail, the dunes located in the backshore at Ksar Rimal beach, are nowadays occupied by summer houses threaten by coastal retreat. A wide, partially urbanized, backshore is observed at Cabo Negro beach. With the intention of characterize the morphodynamic and seasonal behavior and the response of the studied beaches to storm impact, a beach monitoring program was carried out in the period 2006-2008, with special attention to the February-March 2008 stormy period. On analyzing the information obtained, it was possible to characterize the morphology and sedimentology of the studied beaches, and to calculate beach volumetric variations. Ksar Rimal is an open, exposed beach characterized by an intermediate slope (tan β = 0.10) with medium-coarse sands. The beach showed a reflective beach state characterized by plunging breakers. Small morphological seasonal changes were observed, most important morphological and volumetric variations (about 20 m3/m) taking place after winter storms which usually gave rise to a more dissipative beach profile (tan β = 0.05) characterized by spilling breakers. Beach recovery was quite rapid, usually lasting 2

  13. Morphodynamic evolution of Laida beach (Oka estuary, Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve, southeastern Bay of Biscay) in response to supratidal beach nourishment actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Ganuzas, M.; Gainza, J.; Liria, P.; Epelde, I.; Uriarte, A.; Garnier, R.; González, M.; Nuñez, P.; Jaramillo, C.; Medina, R.

    2017-12-01

    Laida beach, located at the Oka estuary mouth (Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve) in the southeastern region of the Bay of Biscay, suffered the impact of a severe succession of storms during the first months of 2014. As a result of the erosion induced by these events, the beach lost its supratidal zone almost completely. The absence of a supratidal beach generated an impact on the recreational use of the beach during the summer 2014, and represented a potential impact for the coming summer 2015. Furthermore, it resulted in an overexposure and damage of adjacent infrastructures due to impinging strong waves. Therefore, the competent authorities, in coordination, decided to take action in order to nourish the supratidal zone of this beach. The solution adopted combined two different actions. The first one accomplished in spring of 2015, consisted in the mobilization of 44,800 m3 of sand from an area of 35,200 m2 equal to the 7% of the intertidal zone of Laida beach interpreted as the existing surface between the average low and high tidal limits, to the zone next to the eastern rocky beach contour. This action successfully resulted in an increase of the supratidal beach for the entire summer 2015 without negatively perturbing the morphological system. The second action was somewhat experimental and consisted in the mechanical plough of the previously existing intertidal low-amplitude ridges with the aim of increasing the sand transport toward the supratidal beach. Although this action did not lead to the increase of the supratidal beach, it seems to have resulted in an acceleration of the natural onshore migration of the bars. The objective of this contribution is to describe the morphodynamical response of the estuarine mouth after the performed actions with special emphasis on the evolution of extracted sites and the supratidal Laida beach area. The information here presented represents an innovative step in the understanding of the complex mechanisms driving the

  14. Recent morphodynamics of a chenier beach in the Amazon-influenced mud-bank setting of Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward; Brunier, Guillaume; Hiwat, Micheal; Bilo, Karin

    2017-04-01

    The 350-km long coast of Suriname is part of a unique system in the world characterized by large-scale muddy sedimentation and chenier development. The mud is organized into discrete banks migrating alongshore under the influence of waves and currents, separated by 'inter-bank' zones, where cheniers commonly form. Braamspunt beach is a fine example of an open-coast chenier between the mouths of the Maroni and the Suriname Rivers. The former is the primary sand source for the beach, whereas the latter, near which the presently subsisting remnant of the beach is situated, forms a downdrift sink zone for this chenier. Satellite images between 1987 and 2016 shows that Braamspunt beach has significantly shortened over this period. This process has resulted from much of the sand supply coming from updrift (the Maroni) being integrated into a chenier driven landward by waves over mangroves and becoming overwhelmed by a mud bank migrating between the Maroni and Suriname Rivers. Two ground (hydrodynamics, GPS) and drone-photogrammetry surveys in 2016 show that Braamspunt beach is characterized by clear-cut longshore morphodynamic variations reflecting between the 'source' and the 'sink' zones. This gradient is related to different updrift (approaching mud bank) and downdrift (approaches to the Suriname estuary) contexts. The northern sector comprised two elements: the leading edge of the mud bank where the existing chenier (former open beach) has been isolated from the sea by mud and fossilized inland, and the 'terrestrial' shoreline junction with the leading edge of the mud bank. The latter segment consisted of a narrow 150 m-long sandy chenier migrating landward as mud has gained ground, resulting in shortening of the beach. As the chenier migrated inland over back-beach stands of Avicennia germinans mangroves, it left in its wake a muddy foreshore with subsisting mangroves that were part of the muddy mangrove-colonized muddy plain. The southern sector also comprised two

  15. Mapping of environmental radioactivity in sandy beaches of Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Mapeamento da radioatividade ambiental em praias arenosas da Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Alexandre Santos de

    2003-08-15

    In determining reference levels of environmental radioactivity in ten beaches of Ilha Grande-R J, one used the measurement of gamma dose rates in situ (n Gy h{sup -1}) and the conversion of activity concentration of natural radionuclides {sup 238}Th, {sup 232}U and {sup 40}K (344/Kg) in samples from 0-10 cm sand profile, into gamma dose rate. Besides, the activity concentrations of studied radionuclides in the 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm sand profiles were determined, in order to analyse their process of vertical migration. Among the studied beaches, Preta Beach and Dois Rios Beach were selected to carry out a study of the gamma dose rates variation, during a period of twelve months. The annual absorbed dose rate at 1 m above ground level in the sand area was determined through the measurements of gamma dose rate carried out in situ on the beaches. The mean values of gamma dose rate in situ (n Gy h{sup -1}) in the analysed beaches ranged of 62 +- 7 in Dois Rios Beach to 126 +- 24 in Preta Beach. The primordial radionuclide {sup 40}K was the first contributor for the local gamma dose rate in eight studied beaches. None of studied beaches were considered a radiological risk. Sand features, such as porosity and density contribute to modulate the local environmental radiation levels. The comparison of gamma dose rate values from ten studied beaches, obtained through the two different techniques, showed high similarity between the results (R = 0.85). During the period of study in both analysed beaches, Preta and Dois Rios beaches, there was no variation statistically significant in the terrestrial gamma dose rate measured in situ. The higher annual absorbed dose rates were found in Preta Beach and in Caxadaco Beach, with 0.15 +- 0.03 mSv y{sup -1} and 0.10 +- 0.02 mSv{sup -1} respectively; while in the others beaches the mean value of gamma dose rate was 0.08 mSv y{sup -1}. The values of annual absorbed dose rate shown in this work are below that the values found in some

  16. Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a subtropical recreational marine beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of Staphylococcus aureus detected in marine environments have occurred since the early 1990’s. This investigation sought to isolate and characterize S. aureus from marine waters and sand at a subtropical recreational beach, with and without bathers present, in order to investigate possible s...

  17. Studies on nearshore processes at Yarada beach (South of Visakhapatnam harbour) east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rao, D.P.; Rao, B.P.

    induced longshore currents and visual observations on breaker heights and breaker angles were made at 8 stations from January 1978 to January 1979. There was accretion in Yarads Beach with a net addition of about 12,000 m super(3) of sand during the study...

  18. Plastic debris in the coastal environment: The invincible threat? Abundance of buried plastic debris on Malaysian beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Liyana, I A; Agamuthu, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies on marine debris have gained worldwide attention since many types of debris have found their way into the food chain of higher organisms. Thus, it is crucial that more focus is given to this area in order to curb contaminations in sea food. This study was conducted to quantify plastic debris buried in sand at selected beaches in Malaysia. Marine debris was identified according to size range and distribution, and this information was related to preventive actions to improve marine waste issues. For the purpose of this study, comparison of plastic waste abundance between a recreational beach and fish-landing beaches was also carried out, since the different beach types represent different activities that produce debris. Six beaches along the Malaysian coastline were selected for this study. The plastic types in this study were related to the functions of the beach. While recreational beaches have abundant quantities of plastic film, foamed plastic including polystyrene, and plastic fragment, fish-landing beaches accumulated line and foamed plastic. A total of 2542 pieces (265.30 g m(-2)) of small plastic debris were collected from all six beaches, with the highest number from Kuala Terengganu, at 879 items m(-2) on Seberang Takir Beach, followed by Batu Burok Beach with 780 items m(-2). Findings from studies of Malaysian beaches have provided a clearer understanding of the distribution of plastic debris. This demonstrates that commitments and actions, such as practices of the 'reduce, reuse, recycle' (3R) approach, supporting public awareness programmes and beach clean-up activities, are essential in order to reduce and prevent plastic debris pollution. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Biorock Electric Reefs Grow Back Severely Eroded Beaches in Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. F. Goreau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Severely eroded beaches on low lying islands in Indonesia were grown back in a few months—believed to be a record—using an innovative method of shore protection, Biorock electric reef technology. Biorock shore protection reefs are growing limestone structures that get stronger with age and repair themselves, are cheaper than concrete or rock sea walls and breakwaters, and are much more effective at shore protection and beach growth. Biorock reefs are permeable, porous, growing, self-repairing structures of any size or shape, which dissipate wave energy by internal refraction, diffraction, and frictional dissipation. They do not cause reflection of waves like hard sea walls and breakwaters, which erodes the sand in front of, and then underneath, such structures, until they collapse. Biorock reefs stimulate settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to the environmental stress of all forms of marine life, restoring coral reefs, sea grasses, biological sand production, and fisheries habitat. Biorock reefs can grow back eroded beaches and islands faster than the rate of sea level rise, and are the most cost-effective method of shore protection and adaptation to global sea level rise for low lying islands and coasts.

  20. Preliminary Assessment of Bioaccumulation of Metals and Organic Contaminants at the Times Beach Confined Disposal Site, Buffalo, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The WES earthworm bioassay container ............................... 13 4 A transect through Times Beach confined disposal site diagramming the...a successional stage of development, a high diversity was noted for both floral and faunal components. 30. Compared with the situation in 1981 when...MOS T TO F INE SANDS B BLACKE - OILY Sl -I 84 AA 2 Figur.e 4. A transect through Times Beach confined disposal site diagramming the profiles in

  1. The Effects of Nourishments Using the Grain-Size Trend Analysis on the Intertidal Zone at a Sandy Macrotidal Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J. Y.; Park, J. Y.; Choi, J. H.; Choi, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    Byeonsan Beach is one of the typical macro-tidal beach on the west coast of South Korea, that has been eroded continuously over the past decade, especially after the construction of Seamangum Dike. Starting from 2011, artificial nourishment was conducted on Byeonsan Beach every year, with nearly 8 × 103 m3of well sorted medium sands over the intertidal flat area. Primary purposes of the present study are to understand the pattern of sediment transport using the grain-size trend analysis (GSTA) proposed by Gao and Collins (1992), and to evaluate the effect of nourishment procedures. Because of the monsoonal climate, nourishments are carried out just before the rainy summer season between late May and early Jun. More than 120 surface sediments are collected carefully each times in March before nourishment and also in September about 3-month after nourishment, and the results are considered as representing the equilibrium status of transport pattern in the previous winter season and during summer after nourishment, respectively. Beach morphology was also made monthly by using RTK-GPS system. The result showed that most of the nourished sands remained within the tidalflat-beach system, and thus the nourishment procedures conducted on Byeonsan Beach are considered as successful. Surficial sediments were transported dominantly landward direction from intertidal zone of nourished area, resulting the 20 cm increase in mean elevation along the upper sand beach (Figure 1). Subsequent amounts of nourished sand are considered to be transported seaward direction showing different transport patterns between 2013 and 2014, especially at the northern and southern part of the beach. Local factors influencing the transport pattern are the amount of rainfalls and the resulting outflows from the sluice gates, and the climatic conditions such as strong typhoons in summer and the northwester during winter.

  2. Effects of Fishing and Fishing Closures on Beach Clams: Experimental Evaluation across Commercially Fished and Non-Fished Beaches before and during Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Management responses to reconcile declining fisheries typically include closed areas and times to fishing. This study evaluated this strategy for a beach clam fishery by testing the hypothesis that changes in the densities and size compositions of clams from before to during harvesting would differ between commercially fished and non-fished beaches. Sampling was spatially stratified across the swash and dry sand habitats on each of two commercially fished and two non-fished beaches, and temporally stratified across three six-week blocks: before, early and late harvesting. Small-scale spatio-temporal variability in the densities and sizes of clams was prevalent across both habitats and the components of variation were generally greatest at the lowest levels examined. Despite this, differences in the densities and sizes of clams among individual beaches were evident, but there were few significant differences across the commercially fished versus non-fished beaches from before to during harvesting. There was no evidence of reduced densities or truncated size compositions of clams on fished compared to non-fished beaches, contrasting reports of some other organisms in protected areas. This was probably due to a combination of factors, including the current levels of commercial harvests, the movements and other local-scale responses of clams to ecological processes acting independently across individual beaches. The results identify the difficulties in detecting fishing-related impacts against inherent levels of variability in clam populations. Nevertheless, continued experimental studies that test alternate management arrangements may help refine and determine the most suitable strategies for the sustainable harvesting of beach clams, ultimately enhancing the management of sandy beaches.

  3. BeachWin: Modelling groundwater effects on swash sediment transport and beach profile changes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, L.; Barry, D. A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Masselink, G.

    2002-01-01

    Field and laboratory observations have shown that a relatively low beach groundwater table enhances beach accretion. These observations have led to the beach dewatering technique (artificially lowering the beach water table) for combating beach erosion. Here we present a process-based numerical model that simulates the interacting wave motion on the beach, coastal groundwater flow, swash sediment transport and beach profile changes. Results of model...

  4. Study of Goa and its environment from space: A report on coastal sand dune ecosystems of Goa: Siginficance, uses and anthropogenic impacts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    are now flat, bare and devoid of vegetation (January 1998). Figure 12: Calangute - A clear example of how sand dunes are simply flattened and removed, in this case to create an access to the beach for tourists (December 1997). Figure 13: Miramar - A site... forms (Wagle, 1982); temporal variations in the geometric form of beaches over different time scales in response to wind and wave climate by measuring beach profile configurations (Murty et al., 1982); studies on a organic sediment deposit stratified...

  5. PAH concentrations in Coquina (Donax spp.) on a sandy beach shoreline impacted by a marine oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Richard A; Vestal, Alexandra; Welch, Christina; Barnes, Gracie; Pelot, Robert; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick

    2014-06-15

    The BP MC252 well failure in the Gulf of Mexico, April 2010 caused concern for crude oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) exposure along the sandy beaches of the Florida Panhandle. We began collections of Coquina clams (Donax spp.) from the surf zone of Florida Panhandle beaches to monitor PAH contamination to compliment analysis of surf zone sand samples. These clams had higher levels of PAHs relative to ambient sand, and this allowed us to continue to monitor PAH levels after sand concentrations fell below limits of detection. PAH levels in the Coquina tissues were highly variable, perhaps indicative of the heterogeneous distribution of oil and tar on the beaches and exposure to tar particles. Overall, PAH levels decreased continuously in both sand and Coquina tissues, reaching limits of detection within one and two years respectively after oil landed on Florida Panhandle beaches. Our work suggests these surf zone molluscs may be used to monitor pollutant exposure along high energy sandy beach shorelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. APPLYING UAV AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TO MONITOR THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES ALONG THE BEACH IN PENGHU ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-H. Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penghu islands, in the southern Taiwan Strait, is a remnant of a middle-late Miocene basaltic shield volcano. We present a procedure to use UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to perform photogrammetry survey and monitoring analysis in beach evolution scenarios. The aim of this study is to understand spatial-temporal change along the sandy beach in Penghu islands, especially as for the effects of typhoon and coastal structures. According to the study result, this example of application is provided to show the results and the potential of this methodology in real beach changes. In addition, we found the typhoon and coastal structures play important roles to shape the beach morphology and its evolution. The result of beach monitoring reveals that the reduction and change of sand volume in Shanshui beach resulted from the placement of detached breakwater complexes. This coastal structure likely resulted in the development of tombolo and therefor make the beach unstable and subject to conduct rip current and more erosion.

  7. Novel foraging in the swash zone on Pacific sand crabs (Emerita analoga, Hippidae) by mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been observed foraging on intertidal Pacific sand crabs (Hippidae, Emerita analoga) in the swash zone of sandy beaches around Coal Oil Point Reserve, California, and several other beaches on the west coast since at least November 2010. Unlike foraging shorebirds, Mallards do not avoid incoming swashes. Instead, the incoming swash lifts and deposits them down the beach. Shorebirds and diving ducks commonly feed on sand crabs, but sand crabs appear to be a novel behavior and food source for Mallards. Previous surveys of beaches did not report foraging Mallards on regional beaches, whereas foraging Mallards were common in contemporary (recent) surveys and anecdotal reports. Observations of this potentially new behavior were separated by as much as 1,300 km, indicating that this was not a local phenomenon. Mallards foraged singly, in pairs, and in flocks. An expansion of diet to sand crabs carries risks of exposure to surf, human disturbance, high salt intake, and transmission of acanthocephalan and trematode parasites for Mallards but has the benefit of providing a dependable source of animal protein.

  8. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised...

  9. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon...

  10. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon...

  11. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers. The event is scheduled to...

  12. Governance in a beach seine fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medard, Modesta; Dijk, Van Han; Hebinck, Paul; Geheb, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Beach seine gear is one of the prominent fishing gears in Nile Perch fishery. Before Nile Perch was introduced to the lake, beach seines the species targeted with beach seine were Tilapia, Bagrus, Haplochromis, Protopterus and Labeo. In 1994, beach seines were banned in Tanzania and by 2004, this

  13. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics L...

  14. Beach Resilience to Coastal Structures on a Natural Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Medellín, G.; Hofman, A.; Tereszkiewicz, P.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; López-González, J.

    2016-12-01

    Beach resilience plays an important role on reducing coastal risk associated to either natural or human induced perturbations affecting the coast. Field experiments were conducted in order to investigate beach resilience in Sisal, Yucatán. Both impermeable and permeable 14-m groins were designed to asses the impact of coastal structures on the beach morphology during a 24-hour period. The experiments were conducted in the spring of 2015 and 2016, allowing the assessment of both structures under similar forcing conditions. Intense sea breeze events (W>12 m/s) generated high-angle short-waves, driving alongshore transport in the swash zone. Wind, waves, tides, and currents were measured concurrently and are correlated with beach morphology evolution data derived from intense monitoring conducted during the structure deployment. The impermeable structure induced a significant beach accretion (>60 m3/day) in the updrift side of the structure causing a tremendous impact downdrift. On the other hand, the permeable groin induced a smaller but still significant accretion (40 m3/day), allowing sediment bypass throughout the structure. Furthermore, the beach surveying continued after structures removal in order to estimate the beach recovery capability. Field observations show that the impact of the structure on the morphology is negligible six days after structure removal for the impermeable groin and only one day for the permeable structure. The latter suggests the high beach resilience of the study area. We acknowledge field support provided by researchers and students at the LIPC-UNAM. Financial support was provided by CONACYT (Projects LN271544 and Cátedras 1146), DGAPA-UNAM (PAPIIT-IN107315) and Grupo BARI.

  15. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar an...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development of the theory of building up pore pressure in sand....

  16. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...

  17. Beach Soccer Injuries During the Japanese National Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Tomoyuki; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Kawasoe, Yoko; Yoshimura, Kouji; Chinen, Yuma; Eimon, Kazuya; Chibana, Wataru; Shirota, Shinichi; Kadekawa, Kei; Bahr, Roald; Uezato, Tomomi; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The frequency and severity of injury in beach soccer are unknown. To estimate the incidence rates, characteristics, and risk factors for injuries associated with beach soccer. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The same sports physician examined and recorded injuries incurred during the Japanese National Beach Soccer Championships in 2013 and 2014. Posttournament follow-up was made for all injuries. Match exposure for each player was recorded through video review to examine individual risk factors. A total of 58 injuries were recorded during 54 matches. The overall injury rate was 179.0 (95% CI, 138.4-231.6), and the time-loss injury rate was 28.2 (95% CI, 14.7-54.1) per 1000 player-hours. The foot/toe (34.9%) was the most frequently injured area, followed by the lower leg (22.2%) and thigh (11.1%). There was only 1 ankle injury (1.6%). The most frequent injury type was contusions (60.3%), followed by lacerations/abrasions (14.3%) and sprains/ligament injuries (6.3%). Only 4 injuries resulted in ≥30 days of time-loss (7.4%). After adjusting for age, a previous history of severe injury and longer experience of beach soccer were significantly associated with injury risk. The time-loss injury rate in this study was comparable to the rates reported during the matches of soccer or futsal tournaments. However, a greater incidence of foot/toe injury and lacerations/abrasions as well as a lower incidence of ankle injury distinguished beach soccer from soccer and futsal, possibly related to the specific playing conditions of being barefoot on a sand surface.

  18. Abundancias poblacionales, crecimiento y mortalidad natural de la macroinfauna de crustáceos en dos tipos morfodinámicos de playas arenosas del sur de Chile Population abundances, growth and natural mortality of the crustacean macroinfauna at two sand beach morphodynamic types in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERALDO CONTRERAS

    2003-12-01

    íodo primavera-verano; durante el segundo, mostraron sus máximas abundancias durante octubre en ambas playas. Las curvas de crecimiento y parámetros de crecimiento de O. tuberculata, E. braziliensis y E. hirsuticauda no difirieron significativamente entre playas, aun cuando O. tuberculata tendió a crecer más rápido en Calfuco. Las curvas de crecimiento y parámetros de crecimiento de E. analoga fueron diferentes solo para las hembras, las que tuvieron mayor crecimiento en el sitio disipativo. Las mortalidades naturales de las cuatro especies no difirieron significativamente entre playas. Así, la mayoría de nuestros resultados no soportan nuestra hipótesis, sugiriendo que otros factores, aparte de las morfodinámica de la playa, son importantes en explicar la variabilidad espacial en las abundancias poblacionales y biología poblacional de la macroinfauna de playas arenosasMonthly samplings were carried out during 1994-1996 at an intermediate and at a dissipative sandy beaches of southern Chile (Calfuco and Mehuín, respectively; ca. 39º S, to evaluate the predictions of the swash exclusion hypothesis on the population abundances and life history of the crustacean macroinfauna inhabiting the intertidal of that beaches. It is hypothesized that only true intertidal species (i.e., that directly affected by the swash will be affected by differences in beach morphodynamic types. That species were the cirolanid isopods Excirolana braziliensis and Excirolana hirsuticauda and the anomuran crab Emerita analoga. On the other hand, the almost supralittoral amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata should not be affected by differences in beach morphodynamic types. The total population abundances of O. tuberculata and E. analoga were significantly higher at the intermediate beach of Calfuco, that of E. braziliensis and E. hirsuticauda at the dissipative beach of Mehuín. While the abundances of ovigerous females of O. tuberculata and E. analoga were higher at Calfuco, that of the ovigerous

  19. Feeding ecology of the beach silverside Atherinella blackburni (Atherinopsidae in a tropical sandy beach, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Guazzelli Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Abstract The feeding ecology of the beach silverside (Atherinella blackburni in the surf zone of a tropical sand beach, located in the southeastern Brazil, was accessed through the gut content analysis of 198 fish. Factors such as fish's size, season and day period were analysed to understand how these variables affect the diet composition of the species. Results show that A. blackburni is a coastal neritic fish with a broad feeding niche. Most recurrent prey were zooplanktonic crustaceans, insects and benthic molluscs, in which Copepoda crustaceans were the dominant dietary item in occurrence and abundance. A. blackburni appears to have a slight ontogenetic shift in its diet, changing from benthic molluscs to crustaceans and insects along its life cycle. The diel activity also reveals to be an important factor to the A. blackburni feeding ecology. The predominant occurrence of small fish during the morning, along with the main preys for this size class, suggests that small individuals use shallower waters as feeding grounds during the morning and, during the night, they move to deeper waters for protection against predators.

  20. Aeolian transport of seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica ) beach-cast to terrestrial systems

    KAUST Repository

    Jiménez, Maria A.

    2017-06-29

    The annual export of the Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) litter to adjacent beaches and coastal dunes was quantified by examining the fortnight evolution of seagrass beach-cast volume on two beaches in the NW Mediterranean (Son Real and Es Trenc, Mallorca Island, Spain) for two years and analyzing the wind speed and direction obtained from the closest Meteorological Spanish Agency surface weather stations. The decomposition stage of the deposits was examined by analyzing the total hydrolysable amino acids, its percentage distribution and derived degradation indexes. Prevalent winds exceeding 6 m s−1, the coastline morphology and type of terrestrial vegetation determine the annual dynamics of the seagrass beach-cast. In the most protected beach (Son Real) the seagrass beach-cast remained nearly stationary during the two studied years while it exhibited wide annual fluctuations in the less protected one (Es Trenc). The amounts of P. oceanica wrack washed on Son Real and Es Trenc beaches, respectively, were estimated at 309 kg DW m coastline−1 yr−1 and 1359 kg DW m coastline−1 yr−1. They supplied between 20 kg CaCO3 m coastline−1 yr−1 and 47 kg CaCO3 m coastline−1 yr−1. Between 54% (Son Real) and 70% (Es Trenc) of seagrass beach-cast, respectively accounting for 1.5 kg N m coastline−1 yr−1 and 8.6 kg N m coastline−1 yr−1, were annually exported from the beaches to adjacent dune systems. Our results reveal that Mediterranean seagrass meadows might be an important source of materials, including sand and nutrients, for adjacent terrestrial systems, able to support their functioning.

  1. The effect of beach volleyball training on muscle performance of indoor volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasas, Dimitrios G; Christoulas, Kosmas; Stefanidis, Panagiotis; Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Bampouras, Theodoros M

    2017-05-30

    Beach volleyball is frequently used as a conditioning activity for indoor volleyball players, but little information exists regarding any performance benefits when transitioning from sand to hard court. The present study examined the effect of 12 weeks beach volleyball training on muscle performance of indoor volleyball players. Eleven athletes who completed an indoor volleyball season and were willing to train and compete at beach volleyball, participated in the study. Muscle endurance of knee extensors and plantar flexors (torque at 120°·s-1 following 40 contractions), muscle strength of knee extensors/ flexors (60, 180, 300°·s-1), dorsi/ plantar flexors (torque at 60, 120, 180°·s-1) trunk flexors (60, 90, 180°·s-1) and power (squat (SJ) and countermovement (CMJ) jumps performed on sand and hard court surfaces) were assessed pre- and post-12 weeks of beach volleyball training. Knee extensors and plantar flexors endurance was higher post-12 weeks, as less torque decrease was found after 40 contractions for both muscle groups at post-12 weeks time points. Knee extensors strength was higher post-12 weeks for 60 and 300°·s-1, while dorsi flexors strength was higher post-12 weeks for all speeds. SJ and CMJ vertical jump height was improved when measured on sand and on hard court. Twelve weeks of systematic training and competition at beach volleyball can improve muscular endurance of lower limbs and jumping height in indoor volleyball players. More importantly, these improvements are transferrable to hard court, making beach volleyball a very attractive alternative for conditioning indoor volleyball players during the off-indoor volleyball season.

  2. Human or natural forcing in the geo morphological process in Pocitos and Ramirez beaches. 80 years of aero photographic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, O.; Panario, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about the Ramirez and Pocitos sand-beaches evolution (Montevideo), in order to know their tendencies and the natural or anthropogenic forcing s. For this analysis were used multi temporal remote sensing, GIS (sand cycle) and historical background techniques. The data were processed by statistics, various shoreline proxy records as well as the correlations with climatic variables (precipitation, wind patterns) and Parana and Uruguay rivers flooding

  3. Sand Needs and Resources Offshore New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, J. M.; Flood, R. D.; White, M.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Hinrichs, C.; Wilson, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    "Superstorm" Sandy (October, 2012) accentuated the persistent problem of coastal erosion on New York's ocean coast. The New York state Department of State in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has initiated further identification and assessment of marine sand reserves required to improve the resiliency of coastal communities and the maintenance of coastal habitats. The historical demand for beach nourishment has been about 1.5 million cubic meters per year, but sea level rise and the occurrence of extreme conditions may increase the demand to over 5 million cubic meters annually. Forty-four historical and proposed borrow sites have been delineated. This inner shelf is both sand rich and data rich. Geophysical and geological data has been compiled and reassessed to support identification, characterization, and delineation of sand resources for potential use in future coastal restoration, beach nourishment, and/or wetland restoration efforts. The South Shore of Long Island is composed in part by the Fire Island National Seashore. Holocene sand ridges extending at an oblique angle to the cross shore in the seaward direction. Borrow pits among the sand ridges, excavated were apparent in the most recent surveys and it appears that natural replenishment of offshore borrow areas has been occurring although the rates need to be determined in order to assess their sustainability. Not only is the area one of intense societal attention, but the use of this resource for coastal resilience must fit into a diverse framework marine spatial planning including not only traditional components, like commercial fishing, but also new factors like the siting of offshore wind-farms. To extend this assessment will include a recent survey, sponsored by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the New York Department of State, providing approximately 700 km of geophysical survey lines located between 3 and 9 nautical miles offshore, and 46 geotechnical samples

  4. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  5. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Summers Engel

    Full Text Available Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales. Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales. These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment

  6. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Carracher, Lucy K; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M; Olds, Andrew D; Gilby, Ben L; Ekanayake, Kasun B; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories.

  7. Groundwater flow due to a nonlinear wave set-up on a permeable beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Przyborska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water flow through the beach body plays an important role in the biological status of the organisms inhabiting the beach sand. For tideless seas, the groundwater flow in shallow water is governed entirely by the surface wave dynamics on the beach. As waves propagate towards the shore, they become steeper owing to the decreasing water depth and at some depth, the waves lose their stability and start to break. When waves break, their energy is dissipated and the spatial changes of the radiation stress give rise to changes in the mean sea level, known as the set-up. The mean shore pressure gradient due to the wave set-up drives the groundwater circulation within the beach zone. This paper discusses the circulation of groundwater resulting from a nonlinear set-up. The circulation of flow is compared with the classic Longuet-Higgins (1983 solution and the time series of the set-up is considered for a 24 h storm. Water infiltrates into the coastal aquifer on the upper part of the beach near the maximum run-up and exfiltration occurs on the lower part of the beach face near the breaking point.

  8. Faunistic assemblages of a sublittoral coarse sand habitat of the northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pubill

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The sublittoral megabenthic assemblages of a northwestern Mediterranean coarse sandy beach exploited for the bivalve Callista chione were studied. The spatial and bathymetric variability of its distinctive faunal assemblages was characterised by quantitative sampling performed with a clam dredge. The taxa studied were Mollusca Bivalvia and Gastropoda, Crustacea Decapoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, which accounted for over 99% of the total biomass. Three well-differentiated species assemblages were identified: (1 assemblage MSS (Medium Sand Shallow in medium sand (D50=0.37 mm and shallow waters (mean depth =6.5 m, (2 assemblage CSS (Coarse Sand Shallow in coarse sand (D50=0.62 mm in shallow waters (mean depth =6.7 m, and (3 assemblage CSD (Coarse Sand Deep in coarse sand (D50=0.64 mm in deeper waters (mean depth =16.2 m. Assemblage MSS was characterised by the codominance of the bivalves Mactra stultorum and Acanthocardia tuberculata. C. chione was dominant in both density and biomass in assemblages CSS and CSD. The occurrence of the crab Thia scutellata also characterised assemblage CSS, whereas the occurrence of the sea urchin Echinocardium mediterraneum characterised assemblage CSD. A depth breaking point of around 10 m determined the discontinuity between assemblages CSS and CSD, which was related to the closure depth of the beaches in the study area. Species richness was highest in the coarse sand communities; however, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou equitability indexes were higher in the shallow fine sand community.

  9. Varadero Beach, Hicacos Península, Cuba: relief génesis and evolution, and environmental experience linked to its artificial regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Hernández Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The coastal system constitutes one of the most fragüe systems of the Earth's surface, specially in cumulative áreas such as beaches. Dumping sand is one of the main ways to artificially promote the sedimentary enrichment and temporary stability of beaches, thus contributing to their environmental protection and sustainable development. The present work improves our knowledge on the structure, morphology, génesis and dynamícs of the peninsular relief of Hicacos, Cuba, fundamentally at its northern sector, focusing on its use and optimized management. The study proposes an evolutionary model for its geomorphological consolidation; it describes the environmental experiences related to dumping sand in Varadero beach in 1998 as a beach-recovering measure, and suggests a number of preventive and corrective measures that favor geomorphic stability, in harmony with current and projected resorts and services.

  10. Plant-feeding nematodes in coastal sand dunes: occurrence, host specificity and effects on plant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, E.P.; Duyts, Henk; Karssen, G.; Van der Stoel, C.D.; Van der Putten, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Coastal sand dunes have a well-established abiotic gradient from beach to land and a corresponding spatial gradient of plant species representing succession in time. Here, we relate the distribution of plant-feeding nematodes with dominant plant species in the field to host specialization and

  11. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  12. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August 24-25...

  13. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  14. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Beach, VA to support the Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show. This action is necessary to provide for the...

  15. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Beaches 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...

  16. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Beaches 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...

  17. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in tropical sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...

  18. Lake Beach Monitoring Locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...

  19. Distribution and quantity of microplastic on sandy beaches along the northern coast of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Alexander; Walther, Bruno A; Löwemark, Ludvig; Lee, Yao-Chang

    2016-10-15

    Plastic pollution is now ubiquitous in the world's oceans, and studies have shown macroplastic and microplastic pollution of beaches in several East Asian countries. However, to our knowledge, no study of microplastic pollution has been conducted in Taiwan yet. Therefore, we collected sand samples from four beaches along the northern coast of Taiwan in 2015 and extracted microplastic particles using a saturated NaCl solution. Microplastic particles were identified using synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy. We recovered 4 to 532 particles from eight 0.0125m(3) samples, with a total of 1097 particles weighing 0.771g. A negative trend between the size of the particles and their numbers was documented. We thus established that microplastic pollution was ubiquitous along Taiwan's northern coast. Future research should more comprehensively sample beaches around the entirety of Taiwan's coast, and special emphasis should be placed on identifying different sources and movements of microplastic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seaweeds and plastic debris can influence the survival of faecal indicator organisms in beach environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jamieson, Julie; Oliver, David M

    2014-07-15

    The revised Bathing Water Directive (rBWD) introduces more stringent standards for microbial water quality and promotes more pro-active management of the beach environment through the production of a bathing water profile (BWP). The aim of this study was to determine whether living seaweeds in the littoral zone are colonised by faecal indicator organisms (FIOs), and to quantify the survival dynamics of waterborne Escherichia coli in microcosms containing senescing seaweeds. Living seaweed (Fucus spiralis) was not associated with FIO colonisation, although could be providing a protected environment in the underlying sand. Senescing seaweeds enhanced waterborne E. coli survival compared to plastic debris, with the brown seaweed Laminaria saccharina facilitating greater E. coli persistence than either Chondrus crispus or Ulva lactuca. This has important implications for FIO survival on bathing beaches as the majority of beach-cast biomass is composed of brown seaweeds, which could support significant levels of FIOs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The origin and destruction of beach ridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeglas, D.J.

    1955-01-01

    During the Fall of 1945 the author measured daily the micro-topography of a beach profile at Zandvoort, the Netherlands. The daily changes and the movements of the beach ridges have been determined. Several beach ridges came into being and were destroyed during storms. The structure of the deposits

  2. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  3. The ecology of sandy beaches in Transkei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of sandy beaches in Transkei. T. Wooldridge, A.H. Dye and A. Mclachlan. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. Data from an ecological survey of three sandy beaches in. Transkei and from Gulu beach on the eastern Cape coast,. South Africa, are presented. Physical parameters ...

  4. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  5. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  6. The Utility of Using a Near-Infrared (NIR) Camera to Measure Beach Surface Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.; Schmutz, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Surface moisture content is an important factor that must be considered when studying aeolian sediment transport in a beach environment. A few different instruments and procedures are available for measuring surface moisture content (i.e. moisture probes, LiDAR, and gravimetric moisture data from surface scrapings); however, these methods can be inaccurate, costly, and inapplicable, particularly in the field. Near-infrared (NIR) spectral band imagery is another technique used to obtain moisture data. NIR imagery has been predominately used through remote sensing and has yet to be used for ground-based measurements. Dry sand reflects infrared radiation given off by the sun and wet sand absorbs IR radiation. All things considered, this study assesses the utility of measuring surface moisture content of beach sand with a modified NIR camera. A traditional point and shoot digital camera was internally modified with the placement of a visible light-blocking filter. Images were taken of three different types of beach sand at controlled moisture content values, with sunlight as the source of infrared radiation. A technique was established through trial and error by comparing resultant histogram values using Adobe Photoshop with the various moisture conditions. The resultant IR absorption histogram values were calibrated to actual gravimetric moisture content from surface scrapings of the samples. Overall, the results illustrate that the NIR spectrum modified camera does not provide the ability to adequately measure beach surface moisture content. However, there were noted differences in IR absorption histogram values among the different sediment types. Sediment with darker quartz mineralogy provided larger variations in histogram values, but the technique is not sensitive enough to accurately represent low moisture percentages, which are of most importance when studying aeolian sediment transport.

  7. The enhancement of biological ocular UV radiation on beaches compared to the radiation on grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Cong; Wang, Fang; Gao, Yan-Yan; Yang, Zheng; Hu, Li-Wen; Gao, Qian; Ri, Jun-Chol; Liu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    The influence of albedo on ocular UV exposure has seldom been reported. This paper aimed to explore the enhancement effect on measured ocular UV radiation due to a sand surface compared to measured ocular UV radiation due to a grass surface. We measured ambient and ocular UV radiation over the beach and grass surface in Sanya City of China (18.4°N, 109.7°E). The experimental apparatus was composed of a manikin and a dual-detector spectrometer. Integration of both UVA and UVB radiation was used to denote UV radiation. Then biologically effective ocular UVB radiation (UVBE) and the ratios of UVBE of two surfaces were calculated. Maximum of ocular UV radiation versus time over the two surfaces is bimodal. UVBE on the beach is significantly larger than UVBE on the sand, and UVBE peaked at different solar elevation angle (SEA) over the two surfaces (about 53° and 40° on the beach and grass, respectively, according to Bayesian regression). The maximum of ocular UVBE ratios is greater than two, which peaked SEA was about 50°. One hour's cumulative radiation under sunny weather exceeds thresholds for photokeratitis, conjunctivitis and lens damage. Higher albedo significantly increased biological ocular UV radiation. Tourists on tropical beaches should take protective measures and avoid facing the sun directly, especially when SEA is around 50°. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dark grains of sand: a geological storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Maresca, Magda

    2017-04-01

    In the secondary Italian school the Earth science learning begins at first year, in synergy with other natural science subjects such as Astronomy, Chemistry and Biology. Italian teachers have to focus on the landscape geomorphological aspects and often Earth processes are difficult to display since they are related to certain phenomena happened during the past and often far from the involved country. In order to better understand the environment surrounding us, very simple and poor materials, like sands, allow the teachers to create attractive lab experiences. According to the IBSE (Inquiry Based Science Education) approach, a learning unit has been implemented starting from a walking along the light carbonate beaches of the Adriatic sea: a smart look to the sands ("engage step"), stroke the students fantasy pushing them to explore some strange black grains on the sands. Dirty sands? Or rock landscape, soil degradation and Ofanto river and coastal processes (erosion, transportation and deposition)? This was the teaching challenge. Due to the youngest age, a third level, guided inquiry, was adopted so the teacher is the "guide of inquiry" encouraging the students using the research question ("Why is the sand dark?", "Do all sands look the same?", "Where does it come from?") and driving the students around their investigation plans ("How can I measure grain size?"). A procedure to answer the above questions and validate the results and explanations has been implemented to allow the students to be proactive in their study. During the learning activities will be the students to ask for field trip to elaborate their new knowledge, verify and visualize the speculated processes. The teaching skills allow to address several geosciences domains such as mineralogy, petrology, regional geology and geodynamics as well as other scientific disciplines such as mathematics (more specifically statistics), forensic science and even life sciences (the presence of bioclasts might

  9. Seasonal movement change of sediments using RFID tracer monitoring in composite gravel beach, west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M.; Yu, J.; Yang, D. Y.; Kim, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate seasonal movement patterns of gravel movements on the west coast of Korean peninsula. This study aims improve understanding of the process of coastal sediments movement and contribute to coastal erosion management. The study site is Taean Bangpo Beach, which is characterized by its macro tide and composite gravel beach (CGB). In this study, we carried out a radio frequency identifier (RFID) tracer movement monitoring experiment. Four hundred tracers, similar in size and shape to beach sediment, were inserted into the beach in February and December 2015. From the results, it was confirmed that generally, gravel moved southward in the winter and northward in the summer. It was also confirmed that the gravel moved long distances in the summer and winter, but much shorter distances in the spring. At the end of the results, it is confirmed that the tracer recovery rate in summer is lower than in winter. Bangpo Beach was influenced by strong wind and wave energy driven by the East Asian winter monsoon, and by normal tidal energy during the other seasons. It means that seasonal variation of gravel movement in the beach is attributed to the difference of seasonal energy conditions. In addition, it is interpreted that the sand at the intertidal zone cannot be removed in the summer when the wave energy is weak, causing the tracer to be buried. This study is expected to contribute to the study of composite gravel beach and coastal coarse sediment movement which have been lacking in research.

  10. Singing Sand Dunes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ble low-frequency (s. 75–105 Hz), that can some- times be heard up to 10 km away. Scientific in- vestigations suggest that the sustained low fre- quency sound of sand dunes that resembles a pure note from a musical instrument, is due to the synchronized motion of well-sorted dry sand grains when they spontaneously ...

  11. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-01-01

    Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process...

  12. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    Beach rock is a common rock type in many parts of the southern hemisphere and also some areas north of the equator. Its distribution particularly in the Indian Ocean islands and atolls and coasts of India is reviewed. The mineralogic and faunal...

  13. Dosimetry evaluation of the potential exposure bound to uranium and thorium natural accumulation in the sand of some beaches of the Camargue littoral; Evaluations dosimetriques de l'exposition potentielle liee a l'accumulation naturelle d'uranium et de thorium dans les sables de certaines plages du littoral de Camargue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this report is the assessment of potential exposure to radioactive sands discovered in 2000 in two points of the coast of the Camargue (East of Beauduc and Espiguette lighthouses), where specific activity can reach up several thousands of Bq.kg{sup -1} for radionuclides of U{sup 238} and Th{sup 232} radioactive families, and environmental dose rate up to ten times of usual natural background. The excess of radioactivity is carried by small particles of sand (apatites and zircons less than 100 {mu}m). First chapter focuses on radioactivity of the coast of the Golfe du lion and of the Camargue, and more particularly on these two points (cartography, measure, radionuclide identification, mineralogical characterization of particles). This chapter concludes the excess of radioactivity is natural; particles come from several massifs of the Rhone basin, transported by the river and re-distributed on the coast. Second chapter focuses on dosimetric assessment, using reasonable scenarios for the frequenting of these sites by persons of the public in one hand, and drawing up the sizing of the sands and their solubility in gastric and intestinal fluids in an other hand. the annual effective dose, carefully calculated, is about 1 mSv, mainly due to external exposure to gamma rays. such a dose, of same levels as the dose received for 17 months of residence in Paris for example, does not involve any particular action. (authors)

  14. Age and morphodynamics of a sandy beach fronted by a macrotidal mud flat along the west coast of Korea: a lateral headland bypass model for beach-dune formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Choi, Jeong-Heon

    2017-08-01

    The Dasari beach-dune system fronted by an intertidal mud flat is a typical example of numerous small beaches found both in embayments and along the open macrotidal west coast of Korea. The beach is frequently exposed to energetic wave action at high tide in winter. Although this coastal dune-sandy beach-intertidal mud flat system has previously been described, its origin and morphodynamic behavior has to date not been firmly established. To clarify these issues, elevation profiles and surficial sediment samples were collected seasonally along five monitoring transects across the tidal flat. In addition, box-cores as well as vibro- and drill-cores were acquired along the middle transect. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C- AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) dating methods were applied to determine the age of the tidal flat, the beach and the dune deposits. The results show that Dasari beach is topographically composed of two distinct morphological and sedimentological sectors, comprising a high-tide sandy beach that merges seaward into an extensive low-tide tidal flat composed of mud. The transition between the two sectors is marked by a sharp break in slope and change in internal sedimentary structures. At the boundary, the subtle shoreward fining trend in mean grain size on the intertidal flat switches to a pronounced shoreward coarsening trend. Near the transition, mixing between the beach sand and the mud is observed. Another striking feature is a seasonal rotation of the beach system centered on the middle sector, with the northern sector eroding in winter and accreting in summer, and the southern sector accreting in winter and eroding in summer. The spatial grain-size pattern reveals that the beach is fed from the neighboring beach in the north by lateral headland bypassing, rather than onshore transport across the tidal flat, the intermittent lateral supply of sand explaining the seasonal rotation of the beach. Stratigraphically, the beach

  15. Petrochemicals from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, M.P.; McCann, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The petrochemical industry in Alberta developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s. However, projected diminishing gas production from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has raised concerns about the future growth of the industry in Alberta. A joint industry/government study has been conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. Having both gas and oil sands feedstock options should increase the long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry.This paper presents a framework for evaluating and optimizing schemes for helping Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development from 2005 to 2020. The paper places emphasis on specific locations and market conditions. It demonstrates that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals, assuming a new pipeline is built between Edmonton and Vancouver. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical cluster. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants within the next 5 to 10 years. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  16. Spatial distributions of biogeochemical reactions in freshwater-saltwater mixing zones of sandy beach aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Michael, H. A.; Ullman, W. J.; Cai, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Beach aquifers host biogeochemically dynamic mixing zones between fresh and saline groundwaters of contrasting origins, histories, and compositions. Seawater, driven up the beachface by waves and tides, infiltrates into the sand and meets the seaward-discharging fresh groundwater, creating and maintaining a highly reactive intertidal circulation cell well-defined by salinity. Seawater supplies oxygen and reactive carbon to the circulation cell, supporting biogeochemical reactions within the cell that transform and attenuate dissolved nutrient fluxes from terrestrial sources. We investigated the spatial distribution of chemical reaction zones within the intertidal circulation cell at Cape Shores, Lewes, Delaware. Porewater samples were collected from multi-level wells along a beach-perpendicular transect. Samples were analyzed for particulate carbon and reactive solutes, and incubated to obtain rates of oxic respiration and denitrification. High rates of oxic respiration were observed higher on the beach, in the landward freshwater-saline water mixing zone, where dissolved oxygen availability was high. Denitrification was dominant in lower areas of the beach, below the intertidal discharge point. High respiration rates did not correlate with particulate carbon concentrations entrained within porewater, suggesting that dissolved organic carbon or immobile particulate carbon trapped within the sediment can contribute to and alter bulk reactivity. A better understanding of the sources and sinks of carbon within the beach will improve our ability to predict nutrient fluxes to estuaries and oceans, aiding the management of coastal environments and ecosystems.

  17. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Krantz, David E.; Castaneda, Mario R.; Loope, Walter L.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Higley, Melinda C.; DeWald, Samantha; Hansen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sand Point is a small cuspate foreland located along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore near Munising, Michigan. Park managers’ concerns for the integrity of historic buildings at the northern periphery of the point during the rising lake levels in the mid-1980s greatly elevated the priority of research into the geomorphic history and age of Sand Point. To pursue this priority, we recovered sediment cores from four ponds on Sand Point, assessed subsurface stratigraphy onshore and offshore using geophysical techniques, and interpreted the chronology of events using radiocarbon and luminescence dating. Sand Point formed at the southwest edge of a subaqueous platform whose base is probably constructed of glacial diamicton and outwash. During the post-glacial Nipissing Transgression, the base was mantled with sand derived from erosion of adjacent sandstone cliffs. An aerial photograph time sequence, 1939–present, shows that the periphery of the platform has evolved considerably during historical time, infl uenced by transport of sediment into adjacent South Bay. Shallow seismic refl ections suggest slump blocks along the leading edge of the platform. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and shallow seismic refl ections to the northwest of the platform reveal large sand waves within a deep (12 m) channel produced by currents fl owing episodically to the northeast into Lake Superior. Ground-penetrating radar profi les show transport and deposition of sand across the upper surface of the platform. Basal radiocarbon dates from ponds between subaerial beach ridges range in age from 540 to 910 cal yr B.P., suggesting that Sand Point became emergent during the last ~1000 years, upon the separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Huron and Michigan. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the beach ridges were two to three times as old as the radiocarbon ages, implying that emergence of Sand Point may have begun

  18. Physical and technical demands of elite beach volleyball according to playing position and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Simone; Ferioli, Davide; LA Torre, Antonio; Bonato, Matteo

    2017-12-01

    Beach volleyball is a team sport played by two teams of two players on a sand court divided by a net. To date, research has mainly focused on male beach volleyball players. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess work-rest ratio and physical actions between males and females according to their role. Forty-two elite beach volley players (24 males and 18 females) were filmed during 12 beach volleyball matches of the Swatch Major Series 2016 of the beach volleyball World Tour in Poreč in (Croatia). Duration of point rallies, work rest ratio and the number of jumps and hits performed by the players according to their role (blockers and defenders) were recorded. Twenty-one teams (12 males and 9 females) were recorded during a total of 12 matches comprising 11 sets for males and 9 sets for females. Males scored a total of 428 points whereas females scored 440 points. Un-paired t-test did not show significant differences between males and females. Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant difference in the jumps performed between blockers and defenders and not between males and females. No significant differences in the other variables were detected. The present study provides new inside into female beach volleyball matches, giving preliminary normative data. Technical and physical aspects of beach volleyball performance appear not to be influenced by gender and to be only partially different according to playing positions. These results should be considered during the daily training scheduling.

  19. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  20. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  1. 75 FR 1373 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... Act Grants. SUMMARY: Section 406(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches...? The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act... statutory authority for BEACH Act grants is section 406(b) of the Clean Water Act, as amended by the BEACH...

  2. Recharge into a shingle beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  3. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  4. Beach profiling studies at Yarada beach, Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.; Raju, N.S.N.

    Seasonal morphological variations and effect of oceanographic processes such as erosion or accreation along beaches are important to understand the nature of the beach and the cyclic changes occurring during different seasons. Detailed...

  5. The response and recovery of coastal beach-dune systems to storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Eugene; Lynch, Kevin; Wilkes Orozco, Sinead; Castro Camba, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    This two year field monitoring project examines the response and recovery of a coastal beach-dune system in the west coast of Ireland (The Maharees, Co. Kerry) to storms. Historic analyses were completed using maps, aerial photography, and DGPS surveys with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System. The results establish that the average shoreline recession along the 1.2 km site is 72 m during the past 115 years. The coastal monitoring experiment aims to link micro-scale aeolian processes and meso-scale beach-dune behaviour to identify and quantify sediment exchange between the beach and dune under different meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions. Geomorphological changes on the beach and near-shore bar migration were monitored using repeated monthly DGPS surveys and drone technology. Topographical data were correlated with atmospheric data obtained from a locally installed Campbell Scientific automatic weather station, oceanographic data from secondary sources, and photogrammetry using a camera installed at the site collecting pictures every 10 minutes during daylight hours. Changes in surface elevation on the top of the foredune caused by aeolian processes are measured using erosion pin transects. The preliminary results illustrate that natural beach building processes initiate system recovery post storms including elevated foreshores and backshores and nearshore sand bar migration across the entire 1.2 km stretch of coastline. In parallel with the scientific work, the local community have mobilized and are working closely with the lead scientists to implement short term coastal management strategies such as signage, information booklets, sand trap fencing, walkways, wooden revetments, dune planting in order to support the end goal of obtaining financial support from government for a larger, long term coastal protection plan.

  6. Observations of Beach-Dune Interaction in Man-Made Trough Blowouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruessink, G.; Arens, B.; Kuipers, M.; Van Onselen, E.; Donker, J.

    2016-02-01

    Dunes act as an indispensable natural safety barrier against marine flooding, are valuable natural environments, serve for the production of drinking water, and offer recreational opportunities. The safety function has dominated dune management in the Netherlands, as well as on other developed shores, for decades. Measures to minimize the seaward loss of foredune sand under storm wave attack have resulted in over-stabilized foredunes and, accordingly, have impoverished natural beauty and degraded biodiversity. Stabilized foredunes are nowadays increasingly reactivated by removing vegetation and by digging trenches that resemble natural trough blowouts as corridors for aeolian transport from the beach into the backdunes. Crucially, such measures see the beach-dune system as an integrated landscape, reconnecting the beach, foredune and backdunes through aeolian transport. This raises questions on how much sand is actually blown into the dunes, which factors affect this amount, and how effective the large-scale dune-restoration measures are. This contribution addresses the evolution of five trenches that were dug through the 20-m high foredune at the Dutch National Park Zuid-Kennemerland. The width of the trenches was 50 - 100 m, their cross-dune length was 60 - 100 m, and the heighest part of the valley floor was 9 m above mean sea level. Since their construction in the 2012/2013 winter the trenches have been surveyed approximately 3 times per year using airborne laser scanning or UAV photography, resulting in a multi-temporal data set of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with a 1x1 m resolution. Difference maps illustrate that the sidewalls of the trenches have steepened during the first two years after construction, but that their width and the height of the valley floor have remained largely unaltered. Landward of the trenches large sedimentation lobes have formed, which with time have grown both laterally and vertically. Locally, the lobe thickness now exceeds 5 m

  7. Avaliação da qualidade ambiental das praias da ilha de Itaparica, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia / Environmental quality of the beaches of the island of Itaparica, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Lopes de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental quality of a beach represents one of the main factors for its attractiveness for recreational purposes. The present study had the main objective of evaluating the environmental quality of some of the most frequented beaches in the island of Itaparica, based on analyses of their balneability, sand quality and occurrence of marine litter. The Thermotolerant and Total Coliforms analyses during both periods characterized the beaches of Ponta de Itaparica, Ponta de Areia, Mar Grande andConceiçãoas adequate for primary contact recreation, while the Barra Grande beach was only considered adequate during the low season. When considering the analysis of these parameters for the sand, all beaches during the high season were adequate for primary contact activities, however, during the low season, only Barra Grande beach obtained a satisfactory result. A large amount of litter was found in the beaches sampled, particularly during the high season. Among the residues, plastic items predominated. The results indicate that the deficiency in the environmental sanitation infrastructure and disorderly use of the coast are the main responsible factors for the compromised environmental quality of the beaches of the island of Itaparica.

  8. Classification of beach response to extreme storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burvingt, Olivier; Masselink, Gerd; Russell, Paul; Scott, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Extreme storms are responsible for rapid changes to coastlines worldwide. During the 2013/14 winter, the west coast of Europe experienced a sequence of large, storm-induced wave events, representing the most energetic period of waves in the last 60 years. The southwest coast of England underwent significant geomorphological change during that period, but exhibited a range of spatially variable and complex morphological responses, despite being subjected to the same storm sequence. Here, we use the 2013/14 storm response along the southwest coast of England as a natural field laboratory and explain this variability in storm response through the introduction and evaluation of a new classification of how sandy and gravel beaches respond to extreme storms. Cluster analysis was conducted using an unique data set of pre- and post-storm airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data from 157 beach sites based on the net volumetric change (dQnet) and a novel parameter, the longshore variation index (LVI) which quantifies the alongshore morphological variability in beach response. Four main beach response types were identified: (1) fully exposed beaches that experienced large and alongshore uniform sediment losses (dQnet ≈ 100 m3·m- 1); (2) semi-exposed beaches that experienced medium alongshore uniform sediment losses (dQnet ≈ 50 m3·m- 1); (3) sheltered short beaches that experienced limited net sediment change and alongshore variability in beach response; and (4) sheltered long beaches that experienced considerable alongshore variability in beach response and large gross sediment change, but limited net sediment change. The key factors in determining the type of beach response are: exposure to the storm waves, angle of storm wave approach and the degree to which the beach is embayed. These factors are universally applicable on many exposed coastlines worldwide, so the response classification presented here is expected to be widely applicable.

  9. Spatial-temporal analysis of marine debris on beaches of Niterói, RJ, Brazil: Itaipu and Itacoatiara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Melanie Lopes da; Araújo, Fábio Vieira de; Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Sales, Alessandro Souza

    2015-03-15

    In many areas of the world, studies of marine debris are conducted with an emphasis on analyzing their composition, quantification and distribution on sandy beaches. However, in Brazil, studies are still restricted to some areas of the coast, and the quantities and the spatial and temporal patterns are unknown. To enhance the marine debris information in these areas, we selected the Itaipu and Itacoatiara beaches in Niterói, RJ, to collect, quantify and qualify the solid residues present in their sands. We collected 12 samples and recorded 118.39 kg of residues in Itaipu and 62.94 kg in Itacoatiara. At both beaches, the largest portion of debris was located on the upper part of the beach. Several debris items were related to food and drink consumption on the beaches, which indicated the contribution of beach users to pollution. Most of the debris was plastic. The greatest amount of debris was found at Itaipu in January and February and at Itacoatiara in January and March, months related to both the holiday season and abundant rainfall. The results demonstrated the necessity to implement an Environmental Education project for these areas to reduce its degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  11. Beach Observations using Quadcopter Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Chung; Wang, Hsing-Yu; Fang, Hui-Ming; Hsiao, Sung-Shan; Tsai, Cheng-Han

    2017-04-01

    Beaches are the places where the interaction of the land and sea takes place, and it is under the influence of many environmental factors, including meteorological and oceanic ones. To understand the evolution or changes of beaches, it may require constant monitoring. One way to monitor the beach changes is to use optical cameras. With careful placements of ground control points, land-based optical cameras, which are inexpensive compared to other remote sensing apparatuses, can be used to survey a relatively large area in a short time. For example, we have used terrestrial optical cameras incorporated with ground control points to monitor beaches. The images from the cameras were calibrated by applying the direct linear transformation, projective transformation, and Sobel edge detector to locate the shoreline. The terrestrial optical cameras can record the beach images continuous, and the shorelines can be satisfactorily identified. However, the terrestrial cameras have some limitations. First, the camera system set a sufficiently high level so that the camera can cover the whole area that is of interest; such a location may not be available. The second limitation is that objects in the image have a different resolution, depending on the distance of objects from the cameras. To overcome these limitations, the present study tested a quadcopter equipped with a down-looking camera to record video and still images of a beach. The quadcopter can be controlled to hover at one location. However, the hovering of the quadcopter can be affected by the wind, since it is not positively anchored to a structure. Although the quadcopter has a gimbal mechanism to damp out tiny shakings of the copter, it will not completely counter movements due to the wind. In our preliminary tests, we have flown the quadcopter up to 500 m high to record 10-minnte video. We then took a 10-minute average of the video data. The averaged image of the coast was blurred because of the time duration of

  12. A hybrid beach morphology model applied to a high energy sandy beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karunarathna, Harshinie; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the application of a hybrid coastal morphodynamic model to forecast inter-annual beach change is discussed through the prediction of beach change in a high energy sandy beach over a period of 5 years. The modelling approach combines a ‘reduced-physics’ formulation with a data-driven

  13. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Virginia Beach, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during...

  14. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  15. Topographic changes of the beach at Valiathura, Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Studies on the topography of the beach and the inshore reaches at Valiathura, near Trivandrum reveal that the beach is in a stable equilibrium and presents well defined cyclicity in accretion and erosion every year. During 1 year, the beach...

  16. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  17. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  18. Aeolian vertical mass flux profiles above dry and moist sandy beach surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotnicka, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    The vertical distribution of aeolian mass flux was investigated in a natural beach environment. Field experiments conducted on the beach of the Łeba Barrier, southern Baltic coast, Poland, measured the sand transport rate and the vertical mass flux distribution above dry rippled sand and a moist flat sandy surface. The experiments were intended to show the changes in the vertical distribution of sand with changing wind speed. All the data represent saturated flux conditions. Sand transport was measured using 0.5 m-high vertically segmented passive sand traps, while the wind speed and direction were monitored at 1 m elevation. The obtained dataset comprises 65 measurements on dry surfaces and 51 measurements on moist sandy surfaces. The sand transport rate above the moist surface was up to 90% higher than above the dry surface for wind speeds of 7-11 m/s, but higher velocities gave smaller differences between the surfaces. The saltation layer was thicker above the moist surface than above the dry surface. All the vertical sand flux profiles are best described by exponential decay functions. Analysis of the normalised flux profiles grouped by wind velocity shows that the fitted curves are less inclined for moist surfaces than dry surfaces. Moreover, the regression coefficients depict a marked trend in which the intercept decreases and the slope increases with increasing wind speed; this indicates that more sand is transported at higher elevations above the bed and less at lower elevations. The proportion of total transport seems to be independent of wind speed at elevations of approximately 35 mm and 50 mm above the dry and moist surfaces, respectively. Differences between the measured- and exponential-fit values of mass flux are particularly distinct close to the bed, where the exponential fit either over- or under-predicts the measured values. Over-predictions occur in weaker winds (up to 6-7 m/s), whereas under-predictions become more pronounced as the wind

  19. Semi-Automated Monitoring of a Mega-Scale Beach Nourishment Using High-Resolution TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebroek, Elena; Lindenbergh, R.C.; van Leijen, F.J.; de Schipper, M.A.; de Vries, S.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-automated approach to detecting coastal shoreline change with high spatial- and temporal-resolution using X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The method was applied at the Sand Motor, a “mega-scale” beach nourishment project in the Netherlands. Natural processes,

  20. Close-range airborne Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry for high-resolution beach morphometric surveys: Examples from an embayed rotating beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Fleury, Jules; Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Dussouillez, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    points, we obtained a mean vertical accuracy less than ± 10 cm, with a maximum of 20 cm in marginal sectors with sparse vegetation and in the lower intertidal zone where water-saturated surfaces generated lower-resolution data as a result of a lack of coherence between photographs. The overall results show that SfM photogrammetry is a robust tool for beach morphological and sediment budget surveys. Our SfM workflow enabled the discrimination of beach surface features at a scale of a few tens of centimetres despite the low textural contrasts exhibited by the quartz beach sand and the relatively uniform upper beach topography, as well as the calculation of beach sediment budgets. 66,000 m³ of sand were removed from the northern sector of the beach, of which 22,000 m³ were transferred to the southern sector in the course of rotation. Finally, we briefly highlight: (1) the advantages of SfM photogrammetry compared to other high-resolution survey methods, (2) the advantages and disadvantages of, respectively, a microlight aircraft and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in undertaking SfM photogrammetry, and (3) areas of potential future improvement of the SfM workflow technique. These concern more extensive cross-shore deployment of ground control points to reduce possible tilt, and oblique cross-shore photography to improve parallax.

  1. Windblown Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-557, 27 November 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows sand dunes and large ripples in a crater in the Hellespontus region of Mars. The winds that formed these dunes generally blew from the left/lower-left (west/southwest). Unlike the majority of dunes on Earth, sand dunes on Mars are mostly made up of dark, rather than light, grains. This scene is located near 50.3oS, 327.5oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide, and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  2. Feasibility Study for Utilizing Dredged Material from Norfolk Harbor Deepening for Beach Fill: Fort Story at Cape Henry, Virginia Beach, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    25 percent of the core length above -55 feet MLW. Fine sediments ( clay ~and silt) are predominant, but sands occur over an extensive and contiguous...appreciably coarser, but overdredging would provide undesirable silt and clay in the region of the extension. 68 TABSLO PM- C0MpOTAwnarJS iqtrDN4q...50,000 FZE7 /-’~76 ,f7 AAIP PFE -/C/o 86 APPENDIX D DESIGN OF BEACH FILL AT FORT STORY The purpose of this section is to present the prelimn- inary design

  3. The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meiofauna are regarded as being both qualitatively and quantitatively significant on sandy beaches (McLachlan 1977c) and ecological studies of such systems should take this into account. Some work has also been done on the chemistry, pollution and meiofauna of Natal beaches (Oliff, Ber- risford, Turner & Ballard 1967).

  4. Differentiating experts’ anticipatory skills in beach volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; Mooren, M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants

  5. Stability and safety of Anjuna beach, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Studies on the Anjuna Beach, Goa, India, from March to December, 1975, show that it is fairly stable though it undergoes seasonal changes and a series of short-term cuts and fills. The beach appears to be quite safe as the longshore currents...

  6. RIVER SAND AND SEA SAND MINING INDUSTRIES IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    M. Darshana*1 & S. P. R. Samanthika2

    2017-01-01

    This report has been discussed sea sand and river sand mining in Sri Lanka. To find out the consequences of the present situation regarding sand market and problems arise due to high demand. Currently, Sri lanka is facing sever environmental problems due to sand mining such as river bank erosion, saline water intrusion, destroying of coastal, loss of land and loss of live hood due to flooding. Beside all there are production related problems and marketing problems also can be seen in thi...

  7. The effect of sand composition on the degradation of buried oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, Sandra; Bernabeu, Ana M; Rey, Daniel; Mucha, Ana P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Bouchette, Frédéric

    2014-09-15

    The potential effects of the mineralogical composition of sediment on the degradation of oil buried on sandy beaches were investigated. Toward that purpose, a laboratory experiment was carried out with sandy sediment collected along NW Iberian Peninsula beaches, tar-balls from the Prestige oil spill (NW Spain) and seawater. The results indicate that the mineralogical composition is important for the physical appearance of the oil (tar-balls or oil coatings). This finding prompted a reassessment of the current sequence of degradation for buried oil based on compositional factors. Moreover, the halo development of the oil coatings might be enhanced by the carbonate concentration of the sand. These findings open new prospects for future monitoring and management programs for oiled sandy beaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Shoulder Arthroscopy in the Beach Chair Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John D; Frank, Rachel M; Hamamoto, Jason T; Provencher, Matthew T; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-08-01

    Arthroscopic shoulder surgery can be performed in both the beach chair and lateral decubitus positions. The beach chair position is a reliable, safe, and effective position to perform nearly all types of shoulder arthroscopic procedures. The advantages of the beach chair position include the ease of setup, limited brachial plexus stress, increased glenohumeral and subacromial visualization, anesthesia flexibility, and the ability to easily convert to an open procedure. This position is most commonly used for rotator cuff repair, subacromial decompression, and superior labrum anterior-to-posterior repair procedures. To perform arthroscopy surgery in the beach chair position successfully, meticulous care during patient positioning and setup must be taken. In this Technical Note, we describe the necessary steps to safely and efficiently prepare patients in the beach chair position for arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  9. Sandy beaches in a coastline vulnerable to erosion in Atlantic Canada: Macrobenthic community structure in relation to backshore and physical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Mitchell R.; Duarte, Cristian; Quijón, Pedro A.

    2017-07-01

    Most literature suggests that sandy beach macrobenthic communities are structured by physical factors. However, an aspect that has not been studied in detail is whether those physical factors change with erosion or the association of beaches to backshore features like sand dunes, till bluffs, and sandstone cliffs. We addressed this question by sampling 14 sandy beaches on the north shore of Prince Edward Island, Atlantic Canada. Two null hypotheses were tested: first, there is no relationship between physical factors and community descriptors across sandy beaches, and second, there is no difference among beaches associated with distinct backshore features both in terms of physical factors and community descriptors. In order to test these hypotheses, samples of macrobenthic organisms and measurements of grain size, slope, beach deposit index and erosion rates were obtained. Our surveys collected a total of 14 taxa numerically dominated by the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata. With regards to the first hypothesis, regression analyses showed that community descriptors were all positively related to erosion rates while unrelated to the variation in grain size, slope and beach deposit index. As for the second hypothesis, erosion rates were significantly different among beaches associated to till bluffs (highest), dunes and sandstone cliffs (lowest). Meanwhile, the other physical factors did not significantly differ among backshore features. Species richness was highest in beaches associated to till bluffs and lowest in those associated to sandstone cliffs. Abundance values were also lowest in beaches associated to sandstone cliffs, and their community composition was significantly different to those associated to dunes and till bluffs. We suggest that the relationship between erosion rates and community descriptors is complex and may be mediated by the availability of nutrients: higher erosion levels might account for higher concentrations of nutrients for

  10. Sand Pine Symposium Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station

    1973-01-01

    Sand pine, a species well suited to the excessively drained soils common to several million acres in the Southeast, was the subject of this well-attended 3-day meeting. Papers presented included a review of the literature plus results of current research related to this species. Subjects covered ranged from seeds and seedlings to final harvest and conversion...

  11. Sand fences: An environment-friendly technique to restore degraded coastal dunes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    , children’s park and the local school is degraded. However, the problematic part is the large open patch west of the circle (Fig.1). The experimental site comprises a total of ~37200 m2 of beach space from the low water line up to the road. Within this area.... Wind speeds crossed 36 km/h (IMD, on phone). Sand blown landwards got trapped wherever obstructions such as pillars, benches or road dividers were encountered. By estimating the approximate volume of each sand mound, and comparing it with the amount...

  12. Morphodynamic rotation of an embayed sandy beach in a mud-dominated setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Anthony, Edward; Gardel, Antoine; Millet, Bertrand; Fleury, Jules; Dussouillez, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The morphodynamics of beaches between bedrock headlands along the muddy French Guiana coast in South America are controlled by rotation induced by the alongshore migration of mud banks from the mouths of the Amazon River. As they migrate alongshore, these mud banks generate changes in shore-incident wave angles, resulting in reversals in longshore drift. A poor appreciation of the problems caused by this process has resulted in the past in damages to the highly urbanized sea-fronts on these beaches, including erosion and flooding. This work enhances our understanding of this rather unusual type of mud-induced rotation based on surveys of the 4 km-long Montjoly beach near Cayenne, in French Guiana, in the course of an approaching mud bank between October 2013 and October 2014. Our method was based on innovative high-resolution topographic surveys from airborne Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry over the beach in October 2013, March 2014 and October 2014. We produced digital surface models (DSM) with a resolution of 10 cm/pixel and an accuracy less than 10 cm from RTK-GPS measurements. We further measured incident wave heights from pressure sensors and conducted a bathymetric survey of the nearshore zone in October 2014. We also modelled high-tide wave propagation over the bathymetry using the REF/DIF v2.5 model. The results show the transfer of sand from the northern part of beach to the south between October 2013 and March 2014. The October 2013 DSM shows a reflective beach in the north indicative of erosion, with a narrow 50 m-wide upper beach. The southern sector was smoother and up to 90 m-wide. Between October 2013 and March 2014, the beach rotated under the influence of a mud bank, with a 30-m retreat of the berm in the north and an advance of 40 m in the south. We quantified a loss of ≈66,000 m³ of sand in the north and a gain of ≈22,000 m³ in the south over this six-month period. The October 2014 DSM shows minor morphological changes, thus

  13. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  14. Dosimetric properties of commercial glasses and sand for high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Maria Ines

    2004-01-01

    Commercial glasses (transparent and colored) produced by Cebrace, Brazil, Sao Paulo, and sand samples of different Brazilian beaches were studied, due to their low cost and easy handling, to verify the possibility of their use in high dose dosimetry. The main dosimetric characteristics were determined using a densitometer, a spectrophotometer, a thermoluminescent (TL) reader and an electronic paramagnetic resonance system. The gamma irradiations were carried out using a Gamma-Cell 220 and a panoramic source ( 60 Co) of IPEN. An optical absorption band was observed at 420 nm in the glass samples. The TL glow curves presented peaks at 205 deg C, 135 deg C, 150 deg C and 145 deg C for the transparent, bronze, brown and green glass samples, respectively. All EPR spectra of the glasses showed Fe 3+ characteristic signals at g = 4.27 and 2.01. The gamma irradiated sand samples presented two peaks at 110 deg C and 170 deg C and an EPR signal at g= 1.999. However, these materials present a pronounced thermal fading at room temperature after irradiation. With the objective to minimize this thermal fading, both glass and sand samples were submitted to different pre- and post-irradiation thermal treatments. The glass and sand samples showed the possibility of utilization for high dose dosimetry and as Yes/No irradiation detectors. (author)

  15. Yearly to decennial beach morphodynamics south the Arcachon inlet, France from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouck, Aurelie; Sénéchal, Nadia; Lafon, Virginie; Almar, Rafael; Castelle, Bruno; Froidefond, Jean-Marie

    2010-05-01

    shallow waters off the sandy beaches (Dehouck et al., 2008). Validation showed that the underwater morphology was perfectly reproduced up to 6-7 m deep and retrieved depths were accurate to 0.4 m (Dehouck et al., 2009). Annual bathymetric maps of the area were produced from twelve SPOT scenes spanning from 1997 to 2009 and used to analyze nearshore sandbar evolution. Sandbar morphology is a good proxy of the magnitude of sand supply along the south Gironde coast, with sandbar growth enhancing natural beach protection against severe storm waves, while sandbar deepening/narrowening is more likely conjugated to potential areas of beaches at risk. From the satellite observation timeseries, we found evidence for : (1) Repeted events of breaching of the Arguin sandbank causing sandbank disconnection from its main body and their travelling through the southern tidal channel until merging and feeding the Pineau Bank located along the southern coast. The Pineau Bank acts as the main ‘source' of sediment for the downdrift coast, giving birth to a remarkable alongshore sandbar in 1997 that migrated south by 1400 m a year and then up to 400 m/yr until 2003, and feeding durably the downdrift nearshore sandbars over the period of observation; (2) an inhibation process causing rhythmic crescentic patterns to only appear at the southern end of the Pineau sandbar where wave-induced circulation patterns can self-organize again properly; (3) an intriguing event of nearshore sandbar merging during February 2006 storm, leading to a continuous, quasi-rectilinear nearshore sandbar from north to south, this one benefited from a strong littoral drift over the last three years explaining its persistance and growth ; (4) the presence of two shallow south-propagating sandy bodies almost welded to the beachface, one of them migrating along Biscarrosse Beach in the video cams field of view between 2007 and 2009, thus only provoking occasional perturbations within outer-bar dynamics.

  16. The Ecological Impact of Beach Nourishment with Dredged Materials on the Intertidal Zone at Bogue Banks, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    and birds visit the area in search of food. (c) Wet Zone - The area between the high tide drift line and the saturated zone where the sand remains...burrowing amphipod that normally inhabits wetter parts of the beach. Unlike the invertebrates previously mentioned, the H. canadensis broods its eggs and...Donax spp. If this is so the LoveneZla sp. and Don= spp. asso- ciation is parasitic . Lovenella sp. was always low in colony number and, due to its

  17. Pond 1 : closure of the first oil sands tailings pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.B.; Wells, P.S.; Cox, L. [Suncor Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described the evolution of reclamation goals and practices that followed the 40-year operating life and closure of an oil sands tailings pond in northeastern Alberta. Pond 1 and the associated containment dyke were first developed without any reclamation goals. The first reclamation practices evolved from a need to prevent erosion to the containment dyke. Reclamation practices developed from research and operational trials seeking to meet increasingly sophisticated reclamation goals, including species selection, propagation techniques, and pest control. The goal became to reclaim developed lands to viable ecosystems compatible with pre-development, changing the focus to the infilling and reclamation of the pond interior. To reduce the reclamation time frame, the Mature Fine Tailings were removed for treatment and replaced with sand beaches to create a trafficable surface and minimize environmental impacts. For reclaiming the pond surface, the landform design objectives were to create a geotechnically stable landscape, reduce the infiltration of precipitation into the beach, create a revegetated landscape to support wildlife and traditional land uses, and create a small wetland without affecting geotechnical stability. The reclamation soil cover design, wildlife enhancement features, wetland design, and revegetation prescriptions were described. In contrast to when the pond began operation, the pond closure was undertaken in a highly regulated environment with a substantial foundation of reclamation knowledge and clearly defined reclamation and end land-use goals. The pond was infilled in 2009, and surface landforming and revegetation were scheduled for completion by the fall 2010. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  18. Capture of Caliptrate flies with different breeding substrates on beaches in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mário D'Almeida

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscidae flies belonging to four Familia and 13 species in a total number of 3.652 specimens were collected from beaches at Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using different breeding substrates, and subsequently bred in the laboratory. Captures were done from April to November 1989, using in a first phase different substrates: fruits (banana and papaya, vegtable (tomato, animal viscera (bovine liver, marine animals (fish, crab, shrimp, squid, mouse carcass and feaces (human and canine. The species collected more often were: Fannia sp. (subgroup pusio, Chrysomya megacephala, Phaenicia eximia, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Peckya chrysostoma, Musca domestica and Atherigona orientalis. In a later phase, only fish was used, as bait and placed directly on the beach sand. From a total of 189 pupae, the following adult specimen were obtained: Peckia chrysostoma (58.06%, Chrysomya megacephala (30.64% and in lesser numbers Synthesiomyia nudiseta and Phaenicia eximia.

  19. Indications of a positive feedback between coastal development and beach nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick W.; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Beach nourishment, a method for mitigating coastal storm damage or chronic erosion by deliberately replacing sand on an eroded beach, has been the leading form of coastal protection in the U.S. for four decades. However, investment in hazard protection can have the unintended consequence of encouraging development in places especially vulnerable to damage. In a comprehensive, parcel-scale analysis of all shorefront single-family homes in the state of Florida, we find that houses in nourishing zones are significantly larger and more numerous than in non-nourishing zones. The predominance of larger homes in nourishing zones suggests a positive feedback between nourishment and development that is compounding coastal risk in zones already characterized by high vulnerability.

  20. 13C/12C and 18O/16O in calcium carbonate-cemented beach sands ('beach rocks')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, H.S.; Sweeney, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the stable isotope composition (C 13 /C 12 and O 18 /O 16 ) of the cement and the local groundwater in Itaparica Island (Salvador-Brazil) is carried out to determine the origin of the carbonate cement. For area A, the cement has Δ13C = 9% showing that CO2 in groundwater charged by decay of organic material is the source of carbonate in the cement. Probably comentation occurs during loss of excess CO2 from groundwater as comes into an environment where loss of CO2 is possible . In area B, where the cements contain, on the average Δ 18 O v=1,3%, the cement is formed from carbonate typical of sea water or a mixture of sea water and fresh water. (Autor) [pt

  1. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  2. Critical Beach Habitat for Hawaiian Green Sea Turtle Endangered Before Mid-Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, J. T.; Fletcher, C. H., III; Dominique Tavares, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many Hawaiian beaches provide critical habitat for the Hawaiian Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia Mydas). However, sea level rise drives beaches and dunes to migrate landward where they may encounter roads and other types of developed lands. Where developed lands are threatened by coastal erosion, defined as a distance of 20 ft (6.1 m) by state rules, property owners are eligible to apply for an emergency permit. These have historically led to coastal armoring. Seawalls and revetments on chronically receding shorelines cause permanent beach loss by restricting sand supply to the beach in front of the sea wall, as well as to beaches adjacent to the restrictive structure (flanking). This study focuses on four primary beach habitats along the North Shore of Oahu, Hawai'i: Waimea, Haleiwa, Kawailoa, and Mokuleia. We utilize GIS techniques to apply spatial analysis of nesting and basking locations collected from the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). We then estimate the number of homes and the length of shoreline threatened by coastal armoring for 0 m, 0.17 m, 0.32 m, 0.60 m, and 0.98 m of sea-level rise. We demonstrate that 0.17 m of sea level rise impacts 31% of all beach front homes, and 4.6 km of shoreline, or 21% of the total shoreline. An increase to 0.32 m of sea level rise impacts 42% of all beach front homes, and 5.8 km of shoreline, or 31% of the total shoreline. The upper bound of the most recent sea level rise projection by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC RCP 8.5) affirms that 0.17 m of sea level rise may be reached by 2030, and 0.32 m by 2050. This sea level projection is a "worst-case" under IPCC-AR5, however, Sweet et al. (2017) depicts this as an "Intermediate" scenario on the basis of faster than expected mass loss by Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, and rapid heat uptake and thermal expansion by the world's oceans. We conclude that the impacts of sea level rise and reactive coastal armoring currently endanger critical

  3. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The middle shore is primarily occupied by cirolanids and bivalves, and hippid crabs, bivalves and amphipods dominate the lower beach. Generally, species richness increases from upper to lower beach levels. Studies carried out on exposed sandy beaches of south-central Chile (ca. 40°S) show that different beach states ...

  4. 75 FR 82382 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Act Grants. SUMMARY: Section 406(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches... Clean Water Act to better protect public health at our nation's beaches through improved water quality... statutory authority for BEACH Act grants is section 406(b) of the Clean Water Act, as amended by the BEACH...

  5. Geologic records of Pleistocene, Holocene and Anthropocene beach profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Amy; Choi, Jeong-Heon; Dosseto, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    morphodynamics to interpret paleoenvironmental histories. Data from prograded barriers in North America, New Zealand and Australia are used to illustrate the potential of utilizing GPR, OSL, and LiDAR. Exploiting the fundamental link between paleo-beachfaces and past ocean levels, new sea level curves were constructed by mapping their height over time. Examples from far-field sites capture Eemian and mid-Holocene highstands with a subsequent fall indicating a non-linear nature. The geometry of paleo-beachfaces, intrinsically linked to wave-energy, were analyzed in comparison to present-day beach profile data to extract storm records. The results yielded recurrence intervals with differing coastal impacts, which indicated storm intensity increased as frequency decreased. Volumes of the barrier lithesome were quantified to provide insight on sediment supply and accommodation space over time. Findings show sand supply increased drastically starting in the mid-19th century causing a shift in foredune evolution from previous millennia. Do anomalous foredunes define Anthropocene coastal barriers in the geologic record? Global stratigraphic signatures, distinct from Holocene deposits, are needed to formally establish this 'Human' Epoch. Applying this novel methodology to the more than 300 prograded barriers around the world, including 50+ in Europe, can: 1) augment traditional proxy from ice and sediment cores to help delineate the Anthropocene, 2) determine changes in coastlines since the onset of global warming, and 3) provide insight, and input to forecasting models, needed to mitigate and manage future impacts of climate change.

  6. Combining remote sensing with an inverse Bruun Rule for the analysis and management of almost equilibrium beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo; Männikus, Rain

    2016-04-01

    The management of beaches that suffer from sediment deficit and construction of nearshore infrastructure in locations with intense sediment transit require adequate predictions of the future of the relevant sedimentary systems. To a large extent, this task can be accomplished by using jointly the information about sediment texture and long-term changes in the dry beach volume and the location of the waterline. It is straightforward to evaluate relative changes in the dry beach volume from a succession of airborne laser scanning (ALS) surveys. We use in addition terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technique to reduce ALS surveys performed with different devices and from different height to the same absolute height. This is accomplished using a TLS survey of a large horizontal surface of constant elevation within ALS snapshots. The most complicated, time-consuming and expensive task in beach management and planning of nearshore infrastructure is to get an adequate picture of the intensity and direction of underwater sediment transport processes. We demonstrate how a simple application of so-called inverse Bruun Rule makes it possible to evaluate the underwater volumetric changes for almost equilibrium beaches. The approach requires three data sets: wave statistics, sediment texture and changes in the average position of the waterline. The main properties of the wave climate, closure depths, magnitude and direction of wave-driven alongshore transport near the test areas are established using a triple nested high-resolution version of the wave model WAM that is forced for 34 years by high-quality marine winds. The relocation of the waterline is extracted from the ALS scanning of elevation isolines of 0.4-0.7 m on the subaerial beach. The technique has been applied to two basically different sections of Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea. Pirita Beach is gradually losing sand and requires beach refill while a moderate reclamation action is planned in the vicinity of gradually

  7. Dark Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    13 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. The dominant winds responsible for these dunes blew from the lower left (southwest). They are located near 76.6oN, 257.2oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper right.

  8. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T.

    1991-01-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches

  9. Indicators of microbial beach water quality: preliminary findings from Teluk Kemang beach, Port Dickson (Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Chen, Kwan Soo; Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed

    2013-11-15

    This study aims to determine the concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in beach water, Teluk Kemang beach. This study was also aimed to determine relationship between total coliforms, E. coli and physicochemical parameters. As perceived health symptoms among beach visitors are rarely incorporated in beach water studies, this element was also assessed in this study. A total of eight water sampling points were selected randomly along Teluk Kemang beach. Total coliforms concentrations were found between 20 and 1940 cfu/100ml. E. coli concentrations were between 0 and 90 cfu/100ml. Significant correlations were found between total coliforms and E. coli with pH, temperature and oxidation reduction potential. Skin and eyes symptoms were the highest reported though in small numbers. Microbiological water quality in Teluk Kemang public beach was generally safe for recreational activities except sampling location near with sewage outfall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aeolian vertical mass flux profiles above a dry and moist sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotnicka, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    The vertical distribution of aeolian mass flux was investigated in a natural beach environment. Field experiments conducted on the beach of the Łeba Barrier, southern Baltic coast, Poland, measured the sand transport rate and the vertical mass flux distribution above dry rippled sand and a moist flat sandy surface. The experiments were intended to show the changes in the vertical distribution of sand with changing wind speed. All the data represent maximum flux conditions achieved during alongshore winds. Sand transport was measured using 0.5 m-high vertically segmented sand traps, the wind speed and direction were monitored at 1 m elevation. The obtained dataset comprises 65 measurements on dry surfaces and 51 measurements on moist sandy surfaces. The sand transport rate above the moist surface was higher than above the dry surface, but higher velocities gave smaller differences between the surfaces. The saltation layer was thicker above the moist surface than above the dry surface. All the vertical sand flux profiles are best described by exponential decay functions. Analysis of the normalised flux profiles grouped by wind velocity shows that the fitted curves are less inclined for moist surfaces than dry surfaces.The regression coefficients depict a marked trend in which the intercept decreases and the slope increases with increasing wind speed; this indicates that more sand is transported at higher elevations above the bed and less at lower elevations. The proportion of total transport seems to be independent of wind speed at elevations of approximately 35 mm and 50 mm above the dry and moist surfaces, respectively. Differences between the measured- and exponential-fit values of mass flux are particularly distinct close to the bed, where the exponential fit either over- or under-predicts the measured values. Over-predictions occur in weaker winds, whereas under-predictions become more pronounced as the wind becomes stronger and when the layer in which the

  11. 75 FR 65581 - Proposed Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace, Vero Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... surface area at Vero Beach Municipal Airport, Vero Beach, FL. The Vero Beach Non- Directional Beacon (NDB... reference to the decommissioned Vero Beach NDB at Vero Beach Municipal Airport, Vero Beach, FL. This action...

  12. Sand Dune Albedo Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Ashkenazy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sand dunes cover substantial parts of desert areas. Fully active dunes are bare, while fixed dunes are stabilized by vegetation and biogenic crust, and the dune activity is affected by the wind. Here we suggest the following atmosphere-sand dune feedback: spatial differences in the dunes’ vegetation and biogenic crust cover lead to differences in albedo as the albedo of bare sand is larger than that of vegetation and biogenic crust. This leads to a higher temperature over the vegetated area, resulting in air flow from the bare dune area to the vegetated dune area, thus increasing the wind activity over the vegetated dune area. In turn, this leads to enhanced stress on the vegetation and enhanced dune activity and thus to a decrease in vegetation. These changes in vegetation cover affect the surface albedo, leading to a change in wind activity. We examined this feedback using an atmospheric general circulation model, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, in selected regions of the northwestern Negev Desert and the Sahara/Sahel region, and we show that changes in surface albedo do indeed lead to significantly enhanced wind activity over the lower albedo region. We then incorporated this feedback into a simple vegetated dune model, showing that the multiple states associated with active and fixed dunes can be obtained for a larger range of parameters and that the stables states become more extreme (i.e., the fixed dune state becomes more vegetated and the active dune state becomes less vegetated.

  13. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

  14. Gone to the Beach — Using GIS to infer how people value different beaches for salt water recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating the non-market value of beaches for saltwater recreation is complex. An individual’s preference for a beach depends on their perception of beach characteristics. When choosing one beach over another, an individual balances these personal preferences with any addi...

  15. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  16. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  17. Inference of coastal submergence from the study of beach rock off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Rao, K.M.; Rao, T.C.S.

    influence in the tidal and sub..;.tidal zones. The occurrence of low-magnesium calcite as the cementing material in the present case .clearly 'aids the inference of the influence of fresh water and,the calcite present in the inland sands as the aragonite...) Geohydrological and Geo physical investigations along Visakhapatnam-Bhimuni patnam Coast, Ph.D., Thesis, Andhra University, Waltair. Russel, R.J., and McInti're, W.G., (1965) Southern Hemi sphere beach rock, Tech.. Rep. No. 15, Part G. Geogl. Rev., V. 55, pp...

  18. Feasibility Report on Navigation Improvements for Mexico Beach Inlet, Mexico Beach, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Inlet March 1989 Mexico Beach, Florida S. PERFORMING Ono. REPORT NUNSCR 7. AtjTHOR(s) 11- CONTRACT Oft GRANT NUMB5ER(.) Halter W. Burdin Kenneth P...seemed to offer a solution to some of the problems at Mexico Beach inlet. Preliminary design was performed using the principles of good jetty design...COESAM/PDFC-89/02 FEASIBILITY REPORT ON NAVIGATION IMPROVEMENTS 6.4 FOR MEXICO BEACH INLET MEXICO BEACH, FLORIDA %1 4Y 2 1 US Army Corps AMRH18 of

  19. Beach Nourishment History (1920s to 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...

  20. March 1933 Long Beach, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 5 kilometers southwest of Newport Beach. Seriously affected area: 1,200 square kilometers. Damage: $40 million. Schools were among the buildings most severely...

  1. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on beach changes at Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rao, D.P.

    experiences erosion during southwest monsoon and deposition during northeast monsoon and calm weather period. The annual sediment loss of about 75,000 cubic metres during the study period indicates the net erosional trend of the Visakhapatnam Beach and also...

  3. Cerebral oxygen desaturation during beach chair position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, Annelies T.; de Hert, Stefan G.; Jacobs, Tom F.; de Wilde, Lieven F.; Wouters, Patrick F.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of ischaemic brain damage have been reported in relatively healthy patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. Unrecognised cerebral hypoperfusion may have contributed to these catastrophic events, indicating that routine anaesthesia monitoring may not suffice.

  4. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... no freshwater drainage occurred from the land. Meiofauna: Taxonomic composition. Eight meiofaunal taxa were identified on each beach viz. nematodes, harpacticoid copepods, mystacocarids,. 21 archiannelids, polychaetes, turbellarians, gastrotrichs and oligochaetes. The mean densities of the major.

  5. The beach ridges of India: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    are distinguished into 4 genetic classes. Finally the utilization of beach ridges in the reconstruction of sea level curve, palaeo-climate and sediment budget histories has been highlighted and scope for future study is discussed...

  6. Beach Nourishment History (1920s to 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...

  7. Beach and Morphology Change Using Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    bathymetric data sets are synoptic , whereby sediment mass across the region can be conserved. Issues can arise using disparate beach profile surveys that...SAJ sought a method for calculating the change in beach volume density for the entire region for the post-hurricane epoch of 2006–2010. Synoptically ...using the Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) (Aquaveo 2013) software for Pinellas, Manatee/Sarasota, and south Sarasota Counties ( Table 1). Lidar data

  8. Comunidade de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea em ecossistema de dunas na Praia de Panaquatira, São José de Ribamar, Maranhão, Brasil Community of bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea in the coastal sand dunes at Panaquatira beach, São José de Ribamar, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S. Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    abundance pattern and the richness were very similar to other sand dunes habitats in northeast Brazil. Of the total of bees sampled, 61% were represented by less than 36 individuals. The five most abundant species (more than 177 indivuduals were: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, Centris (Centris leprieuri Spinola, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, Eufriesea surinamensis Linnaeus and Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa cearensis Ducke. Bees were active throughout the year, with abundance peaks in the highest rainfall periods. Daily activity was greatest between 06:00 and 11:00 a.m., when relative humidity decreased and the temperature increased.

  9. Long-term Variability of Beach Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianca, C.; Holman, R. A.; Siegle, E.

    2016-02-01

    The most curious morphological features observed on beaches are the cusps. Due to their rhythmic spacing, beach cusps have attracted many observers and many, often contradictory, theories as to their form. Moreover, most of the research about beach cusps has focused on their formation. Few had available long time series to study such things as the variability of alongshore and cross-shore position and spacing on the cusp field, the presence, longevity and interactions between higher and lower sets of cusps, and the processes by which cusp fields extend, shrink or change length scale. The purpose of this work is to use long-term data sets of video images from two study sites, an intermediate (Duck, USA, 26 years) and a reflective beach (Massaguaçu, Brazil, 3 years), to investigate the temporal and spatial changes of cusps conditions. Time-evolving shoreline data were first extracted using an algorithm called ASLIM (Pianca et al 2015). Cusps were then identified based on the band-passed variability of time exposure image data about this shoreline as a function of elevation relative to MSL. The identified beaches cusps will be analyzed for cusp spacing, positions (upper or lower cusps), alongshore variability, merging events, percentage of cusp events, patterns of the events and time scales of variability. Finally, the relationship of these characteristics to environmental conditions (wave, tides, beach conditions) will be studied.

  10. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  11. Defrosting Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-434, 27 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows retreating patches of frost on a field of large, dark sand dunes in the Noachis region of Mars. Large, windblown ripples of coarse sediment are also seen on some of the dunes. This dune field is located in a crater at 47.5oS, 326.3oW. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  12. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  13. Sand fly-borne viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Nedvědová Cvanová, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important vectors of protozoan, bacterial and viral patogens causing diseases in humans and domestic animals. This thesis summarizes the current knowledge on sand fly-born viruses, their distribution in the World, infection symptoms and life cycle in the nature. These viruses are transmitted by sand flies of genera Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia and Sergentomyia and they can be found on every continent except for Antarctica. They belong into four families, Bunyav...

  14. 77 FR 5793 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act; Availability of BEACH Act Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: Section 406(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches... Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act (CWA) to better protect public health at our... Clean Water Act to include the Great Lakes and marine coastal waters (including coastal estuaries) that...

  15. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  16. Modelling beach profile response during a storm in Praia de Faro, Portugal: Comparison of three beach profile models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdoukas, M. I.; Almeida, L. M.; Ferreira; Karambas, T. V.

    2009-12-01

    presence of structures at the backshore; and even preventive sand supply/rearrangement by the local authorities. The above may explain also that model performance was improved on the more remote and ‘natural’ eastern profile; in which however, unrealistic berm erosion and scarp formation were also shown by the models. The preliminary results presented are part of an on-going effort to develop modelling tools for storm impact prediction/monitoring in the area and model testing/calibration, incorporating results from beach profile monitoring. Model run results comparison for the eastern, milder sloped profile of Praia de Faro

  17. Sand Impact Tests of a Half-Scale Crew Module Boilerplate Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Hardy, Robin C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is being designed primarily for water landings, a further investigation of launch abort scenarios reveals the possibility of an onshore landing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). To gather data for correlation against simulations of beach landing impacts, a series of sand impact tests were conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Both vertical drop tests and swing tests with combined vertical and horizontal velocity were performed onto beds of common construction-grade sand using a geometrically scaled crew module boilerplate test article. The tests were simulated using the explicit, nonlinear, transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA. The material models for the sand utilized in the simulations were based on tests of sand specimens. Although the LSDYNA models provided reasonable predictions for peak accelerations, they were not always able to track the response through the duration of the impact. Further improvements to the material model used for the sand were identified based on results from the sand specimen tests.

  18. Recent deep-seated coastal landsliding at San Onofre State Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne LiDAR collected during the period 1998-2010 and differential GPS surveys conducted over 2008-2013 show recent reactivation and movement of a large deep-seated coastal landslide at San Onofre State Beach, San Diego County, California. The overall slide complex extends about 700 m alongshore, 150 m inland, and an unknown distance offshore. Differencing digital elevation models and tracking field monuments (benchmarks) provide time series of quantitative topographic landslide changes and new insight in to the slide motion sequences and mechanics. The slide contains several distinct primary and secondary regions moving and deforming at different rates. Primary slide motion includes slow seaward translational motion, rotational slipping, and upward offshore movement. Secondary processes of basal wave erosion and new inland cliffline failures contribute to primary landslide destabilization. The landslide exhibits lithologic and structural controls, is driven by a combination of marine and subaerial processes, influences local beach morphology, and deviates from typical southern California coastal cliff processes which mostly involve shallow landslides and topples. Large-scale, cross-shore slide rotation has recently created new nearshore reefs. Eroded cliff sediments provide a local beach sand source and probably influence local nearshore ecosystems. All known time periods of major historical landslide activity were preceded by elevated seasonal rainfall and analysis suggests elevated rainfall generated primary slide motion as opposed to wave action. As of spring 2013, landslide activity has slowed, but continued positive feedbacks including toe removal by wave activity suggest that future landsliding will probably threaten coastal infrastructure.

  19. Impacts of Hurricane Ike on the beaches of the Bolivar Peninsula, TX, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Douglas J.; Hales, Billy U.; Potts, Michael K.; Ellis, Jean T.; Liu, Hongxing; Houser, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Hurricane Ike caused substantial beach erosion along the coast of the Bolivar Peninsula, TX. Much of the erosion was caused by the offshore (ebb) flow of the ca. 5 m storm surge that formed spatially discrete scour features. Using aerial photography and repeat LiDAR data, we identify five types of scour features and describe the alongshore distribution in four flow environments. Type 1 scours are relatively small and compact features associated mainly with flow off a wide, vegetated (grasses, shrubs, trees) surface across a wide beach. Type 2 scours are large and branching forms associated mainly with flow that was channeled by streets or gaps between structures. Type 3 scours are large and blocky features associated with flow off a marsh surface, across a highway, which removed almost all beach sands from the surface. Type 4 scours are elongated, shore perpendicular channels associated with the same flow characteristics as Type 3 scours. Type 5 scours are elongated, shore-perpendicular features, sometimes branching, associated with flow through gaps in a destroyed shore protection structure. Repeat imagery indicates that many of the features persisted for at least seven months. Recent aerial photography indicates that aspects of some features remained evident more than three years after Ike's landfall.

  20. Monitoring beach evolution using low-altitude aerial photogrammetry and UAV drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Vacchi, Matteo; Mucerino, Luigi; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Beach monitoring is essential in order to understand the mechanisms of evolution of soft coasts, and the rates of erosion. Traditional beach monitoring techniques involve topographic and bathymetric surveys of the beach, and/or aerial photos repeated in time and compared through geographical information systems. A major problem of this kind of approach is the high economic cost. This often leads to increase the time lag between successive monitoring campaigns to reduce survey costs, with the consequence of fragmenting the information available for coastal zone management. MIRAMar is a project funded by Regione Liguria through the PO CRO European Social Fund, and has two main objectives: i) to study and develop an innovative technique, relatively low-cost, to monitor the evolution of the shoreline using low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry; ii) to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion using also the data collected by the UAV instrument. To achieve these aims we use a drone with its hardware and software suit, traditional survey techniques (bathymetric surveys, topographic GPS surveys and GIS techniques) and we implement a numerical modeling chain (coupling hydrodynamic, wave and sand transport modules) in order to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion.

  1. Radiological safety and environmental implications in beach mineral industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, P.M.B.; Haridasan, P.P.; Maniyan, C.G.; Khan, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of monazite (primary ore of Thorium) along with ilmenite and other minerals in the beach sand deposits of coastal regions of South India has made some of these coastal areas prominent among Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) in the world. The beach mineral industries are situated in populated areas in these NHBRAs. The radiation background prevailing in these areas due to the presence of the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) Thorium with traces of Uranium and their decay products had been found to result in estimated percaput annual external exposures ranging from 3 to 25 mSv to the population at NHBRA depending on the monazite content of the soil in the area. The internal exposures estimated are of the order of 1 to 2 mSv per year. The mining of minerals and refilling of the mined out areas with mineral free sand and rehabilitation of the area is found to reduce the external radiation fields by a factor of 3. The notional environmental external radiation exposures to the population occupying this modified NHBRA also reduce correspondingly. (author)

  2. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...

  3. Triaxial tests in Fontainebleau sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note...... that the testing procedure and the data processing were carried out according to the specifications of ETCS-F1.97....

  4. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  5. RIP current zones along beaches in Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jena, B.K.

    . Parts of stations 5 and 6 in Harmal Beach, 16 at Vagator Beach, 51-54 at Miramar Beach, 75 and 76 at Valsao Beach, 84 at Majorda Beach, and 116 at Palolem Beach are observed to have the risk of permanent rip current zones; and they are unsafe places...

  6. Bare Beach Logistics Over-the-Shore: An Outdated Concept?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pehrson, Christopher J

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of bare beach logistics over-the-shore (LOTS) operations. It examines the utility of the bare beach and asks if this method of LOTS is still viable for today's military...

  7. Beach processes between Mulgund and Shiroda, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Sanilkumar, V.; Pathak, K.C.

    Study on beach processes for an year shows seasonal changes without annual net erosion. The beaches are stable and regain the maximum profiles during February to April. Distribution of longshore current direction is not uniform along the study...

  8. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  9. Climate induced changes in beach morphology and sediment dynamics, Machilipatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    The wave climate, littoral current patterns, monthly and seasonal longshore drift rates, beach profile changes, and sediment budget of the beach sediments were determined along Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India) for the NE, SW monsoons...

  10. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  11. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches PRAWN Attribute Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  12. Spatial and depth variation of 210Po and 210Pb in monazite sand along HBRA of coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cunha, Primal; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The samples collected from high background radiation area were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in order to understand their distribution, enrichment and depth profile in the beach sand. The 210 Po and 210 Pb activities vary from 1.85 to 31.27 Bq kg -1 and 9.77 to 132.30 Bq kg -1 respectively. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb indicate that the radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb are not in equilibrium and the accumulation of 210 Pb in sand is greater than for 210 Po. The spatial variations of 210 Po and 210 Pb activities were studied in detail. (author)

  13. Water Exclosure Treatment System (WETS): An innovative device for minimizing beach closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, John R; Wu, Chin H; Sorsa, Kirsti K

    2018-06-01

    A Water Exclosure Treatment System (WETS) is developed and installed to minimize the occurrence of beach closures due to algae and Escherchia coli (E. coli) in an inland lake. WETS consists of an "exclosure" sub-system with a five-sided polypropylene, barrier that excludes offshore lake contaminated water from the swimming area. Inside the exclosure, water is pumped to a portable filtration-ultraviolet treatment sub-system with three components. First, heavy debris like aquatic plants are removed through a strainer. Second, fine particles are removed through a sand filter and backwashing is automated through a program logic controller triggered by pressure sensor readings. Third, pathogens, algae, bacteria, and viruses are inactivated through ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. To determine sizing of sand filters and evaluation of efficiency of UV disinfection and aid in the design of the inlet and outlet locations for the pump system, computational fluid dynamics modeling with a Lagrangian particle-tracking method are employed. Flushing time is determined to range from 0.67 to 1.89days. Residence time maps reveal inlet and outlet locations play an important role in depicting the duration of particles within the swimming area. Comprehensive water quality sampling is conducted and analyzed with ANOVA testing reveal that water quality parameters inside the exclosure are significantly different than those outside. There have been no beach closures issued since deployment of WETS. Overall, WETS, an innovative Water Exclosure Treatment System, provides safe, clean water inside the exclosure for minimizing beach closure. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Morphological change on a wadi-influenced beach: Essaouira, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Elmimouni, Abdelhadi; Daoudi, Lahcen; Anthony, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Field topographic surveys were conducted at intervals of months from 2004 to 2006 in order to highlight the sediment circulation patterns of the embayed beach of Essaouira, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, especially under the influence of a nearby wadi, the Ksob, which is the main sediment purveyor of the beach, notably via flash floods. The profile data highlight longshore and cross-shore variations in beach morphology. Constant winds from the north rework the upper beach to form barchans ...

  15. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Laboratory Observations of Artificial Sand and Oil Agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, III, Robert L.; Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Allison Penko,; Long, Joseph W.

    2018-04-27

    Sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) form when weathered oil reaches the surf zone and combines with suspended sediments. The presence of large SOAs in the form of thick mats (up to 10 centimeters [cm] in height and up to 10 square meters [m2] in area) and smaller SOAs, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), may lead to the re-oiling of beaches previously affected by an oil spill. A limited number of numerical modeling and field studies exist on the transport and dynamics of centimeter-scale SOAs and their interaction with the sea floor. Numerical models used to study SOAs have relied on shear-stress formulations to predict incipient motion. However, uncertainty exists as to the accuracy of applying these formulations, originally developed for sand grains in a uniformly sorted sediment bed, to larger, nonspherical SOAs. In the current effort, artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) created with the size, density, and shape characteristics of SOAs were studied in a small-oscillatory flow tunnel. These experiments expanded the available data on SOA motion and interaction with the sea floor and were used to examine the applicability of shear-stress formulations to predict SOA mobility. Data collected during these two sets of experiments, including photographs, video, and flow velocity, are presented in this report, along with an analysis of shear-stress-based formulations for incipient motion. The results showed that shear-stress thresholds for typical quartz sand predicted the incipient motion of aSOAs with 0.5–1.0-cm diameters, but were inaccurate for aSOAs with larger diameters (>2.5 cm). This finding implies that modified parameterizations of incipient motion may be necessary under certain combinations of aSOA characteristics and environmental conditions.

  17. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  18. An evaluation of beached bird monitoring approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Jan; Offringa, Henk; Van Waeyenberge, Jeroen; Meire, Patrick; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2002-04-01

    Oil-pollution monitoring at sea through beach bird surveying would undoubtedly benefit from a further standardisation of methods, enhancing the efficiency of data collection. In order to come up with useful recommendations, we evaluated various approaches of beached bird collection at the Belgian coast during seven winters (1993-1999). Data received in a passive way by one major rehabilitation centre were compared to the results of targeted beach surveys carried out at different scales by trained ornithologists: 'weekly' surveys - with a mean interval of 9 days - restricted to a fixed 16.7 km beach stretch, 'monthly' surveys over the entire coastline (62.1 km) and an annual 'international' survey in Belgium over the same distance at the end of February. Data collected through Belgian rehabilitation centres concern injured, living birds collected in a non-systematical way. Oil rates derived from these centres appear to be strongly biased to oiled auks and inshore bird species, and are hence of little use in assessing the extent of oil pollution at sea. The major asset of rehabilitation centres in terms of data collection seems to be their continuous warning function for events of mass mortality. Weekly surveys on a representative and large enough section rendered reliable data on oil rates, estimates of total number of bird victims, representation of various taxonomic groups and species-richness and were most sensitive in detecting events quickly (wrecks, oil-slicks, severe winter mortality, etc.). Monthly surveys gave comparable results, although they overlooked some important beaching events and demonstrated slightly higher oil rates, probably due to the higher chance to miss short-lasting wrecks of auks. Since the monthly surveys in Belgium were carried out by a network of volunteers and were spread over a larger beach section, they should be considered as best performing. Single 'international beached bird surveys' in February gave reliable data on total victim

  19. Daily beach profiles and littoral environmental observations off Baga, Calangute and Miramar beaches during November-December 1999

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Raju, N.S.N.; Gowthaman, R.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    16th November-15th December 1999, are as follows: (1) daily beach profiles, (2) daily littoral environmental observations and (3) beach sediment samples for grain size distribution. Longshore sediment transport rate is estimated theoretically based...

  20. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  1. Intertidal beach slope predictions compared to field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium

  2. Beachwatch : The effect of daily morphodynamics on seasonal beach evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Not only the storm intensity, but also the capacity of the beach to recover during fair weather conditions, influences the erosion trends of beaches. Susanne Quartel concludes this in her thesis in which the daily changes of the intertidal beach of Noordwijk aan Zee, the Netherlands, are described.

  3. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  4. The environmental impacts of beach sport tourism events: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durban has several established beach sport events. One of the many events is the Mr Price Pro, an internationally recognised surfi ng event, which takes place during the Vodacom Beach Africa festival, held annually during the July holiday season. This article examines the environmental impact of beach tourism events by ...

  5. Fine particle deposition at Vainguinim tourist beach, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Jayakumar, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Ilangovan, D

    . The beach sediments consist primarily shell fragments and quartz, with heavy mineral composed of ilmenits, magnetite and manganese. The black stain of the fine-grained heavy minerals deposited on the beach face reduces the aesthetics of the beach. This paper...

  6. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  7. Measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.; Verheijen, A.H.; Hoonhout, B.M.; Vos, S.E.; Cohn, Nicholas; Ruggiero, P; Aagaard, T.; Deigaard, R.; Fuhrman, D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the first results of measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes during the recently conducted SEDEX2 field experiment at Long Beach, Washington, U.S.A.. Beach erosion and sedimentation were derived using series of detailed terrestrial LIDAR measurements

  8. Breeding biology of the intertidal sand crab, Emerita (Decapoda: Anomura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoniam, T; Gunamalai, V

    2003-01-01

    Emerita is a burrowing mole crab or sand crab, adapted to life in wave-washed sandy beaches of temperate and tropical seas. The reproductive biology of this anomuran crab presents several peculiarities, all contributing to its adaptation to this harsh environmental niche. We discuss the following aspects: 1) sex ratio and size at sexual maturity, 2) neoteny and protandric hermaphroditism, 3) mating behaviour and sperm transfer strategy, 4) synchronisation of moulting and reproduction, 5) environmental impact on reproductive cycle and egg production, 6) biochemistry of yolk utilisation and energetics, 7) larval development, dispersal and settlement and 8) the value of Emerita as indicator species. These aspects are discussed in the light of the life history pattern, comprising a sedentary adult and pelagic larval phases. The successful colonisation of the physically challenging habitat of the sandy beach by Emerita is attributable largely to reproductive strategy and the larval developmental and recruitment pattern. Sensitivity to changing environmental conditions, including pollution, make this intertidal crab an indicator species for monitoring anthropogenic impact.

  9. Southwest Washington littoral drift restoration—Beach and nearshore morphological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M.

    2012-01-01

    A morphological monitoring program has documented the placement and initial dispersal of beach nourishment material (280,000 m3) placed between the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) North Jetty and North Head, at the southern end of the Long Beach Peninsula in southwestern Washington State. A total of 21 topographic surveys and 8 nearshore bathymetric surveys were performed between July 11, 2010, and November 4, 2011. During placement, southerly alongshore transport resulted in movement of nourishment material to the south towards the MCR North Jetty. Moderate wave conditions (significant wave height around 4 m) following the completion of the nourishment resulted in cross-shore sediment transport, with most of the nourishment material transported into the nearshore bars. The nourishment acted as a buffer to the more severe erosion, including dune overtopping and retreat, that was observed at the northern end of the study area throughout the winter. One year after placement of the nourishment, onshore transport and beach recovery were most pronounced within the permit area and to the south toward the MCR North Jetty. This suggests that there is some long-term benefit of the nourishment for reducing erosion rates locally, although the enhanced recovery also could be due to natural gradients in alongshore transport causing net movement of the sediment from north to south. Measurements made during the morphological monitoring program documented the seasonal movement and decay of nearshore sand bars. Low-energy conditions in late summer resulted in onshore bar migration early in the monitoring program. Moderate wave conditions in the autumn resulted in offshore movement of the middle bar and continued onshore migration of the outer bar. High-energy wave conditions early in the winter resulted in strong cross-shore transport and creation of a 3-bar system along portions of the coast. More southerly wave events occurred later in the winter and early spring and coincided

  10. Coastal eolian sand-ramp development related to paleo-sea-level changes during the Latest Pleistocene and Holocene (21–0 ka) in San Miguel Island, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Stock, Errol; Hostetler, Steven W.; Price, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal eolian sand ramps (5–130 m elevation) on the northern slope (windward) side of the small San Miguel Island (13 km in W-E length) range in age from late Pleistocene to modern time, though a major hiatus in sand-ramp growth occurred during the early Holocene marine transgression (16–9 ka). The Holocene sand ramps (1–5 m measured thicknesses) currently lack large dune forms, thereby representing deflated erosional remnants, locally covering thicker late Pleistocene sand-ramp deposits. The ramp sand was initially supplied from the adjacent island-shelf platform, extending about 20 km north of the present coastline. The sand-ramp deposits and interbedded loess soils were 14C dated using 112 samples from 32 archaeological sites and other geologic sections. Latest Pleistocene sand ramps (66–18 ka) were derived from across-shelf eolian sand transport during marine low stands. Shoreward wave transport supplied remobilized late Pleistocene sand from the inner shelf to Holocene beaches, where dominant NW winds supplied sand to the sand ramps. The onset dates of the sand-ramp deposition in San Miguel are 7.2 ± 1.5 ka (sample n = 14). The internal strata dates in the vertically accreting sand ramps are 3.4 ± 1.7 ka (n = 34). The sand ramps in San Miguel show wide-scale termination of sand supply in the latest Holocene time. The sand-ramp top dates or burial dates are 1.7 ± 0.9 ka (n = 28). The latest Holocene sand ramps are truncated along most of the island's northern coastline, indicating recent losses of nearshore sand reserves to onshore, alongshore, and, possibly, offshore sand sinks. The truncated sand ramps in San Miguel Island and in other sand-depleted marine coastlines provide warnings about future beach erosion and/or shoreline retreat from accelerated sea-level rise accompanying predicted global warming.

  11. Sand engine quells the coast's hunger for sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2012-01-01

    An artificial peninsula at Ter Heijde is designed to feed the coast with sediment. Scientists are investigating whether this kind of sand engine could be the Netherlands’ answer to rising sea levels.

  12. Headland sediment bypassing and beach rotation in a rocky coast: an example at the western Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mónica; Taborda, Rui; Lira, Cristina; Bizarro, Aurora; Oliveira, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    Headland sediment bypassing plays a major role in definition of coastal sedimentary budget and consequently in coastal management. This process is particularity important at headland-bay beaches on rocky coasts. However, headland-bay beach research is usually focused on the beach rotation since these beaches are generally regarded as closed systems. The sediment bypassing mechanisms have been extensively studied in the context of artificial structures (e.g. groins and jetties) but studies of natural headland sediment bypassing are scarce and usually applied to decadal time scales. This work aims to contribute to the understanding of headland sediment bypassing processes in non-artificial environments, taking as a case study a natural coastal stretch at the Portuguese west coast. The study is supported on the analysis of planform beach changes using Landsat satellite images (with an acquisition frequency of 16 days) complemented with field surveys with DGPS-RTK and ground-based photographic monitoring. The study area can be described as a cliffed rocky coast that accommodates a series of headland-bay beaches with different geometries: some are encased in the dependence of fluvial streams, while others correspond to a narrow and elongated thin sand strip that covers a rocky shore platform. This coast is generally characterized by a weak, but active, sediment supply and high levels of wave energy due to the exposure to the swells generated in the North Atlantic. The long-term stability of the beaches in conjunction with active sediment supply along the study area (from streams and cliff erosion) and a sink at the downdrift end of this coastal stretch (an active dune system) support the existence of headland sediment bypassing. The analysis of planform beach changes show a coherent signal in time but with a range that depends on the orientation of the stretch where each beach is included. In general, beaches displays a clockwise rotation during summer related to the NW

  13. Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Budi Sulistyo; Pristi Hartati; Sunardjo

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

  14. Infralittoral-sublittoral (submerged zone) macroinfauna community structure of high-impact, medium-impact and non-impact beaches on the Gulf of Cádiz coast (SW Spain). Evaluation of anthropogenic alterations: Nourishments, human impact and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Lechuga, R; Gutiérrez-Martínez, M; Sanz-Fernández, V; Gómez-Cabeza, A; Cabrera-Castro, R

    2018-02-01

    Beaches are dynamic transitional environments subject to numerous natural and anthropic alterations. In these ecosystems, the infralittoral-sublittoral macrofauna communities play a key role in the food web. The objective of this study was to compare macrofauna communities on six beaches on the Gulf of Cádiz coast, which were classified according to the anthropic alterations they support, and evaluate the influence of abiotic factors on the species distribution. Sampling was done in the infralittoral-sublittoral zone of each beach using a modified manual dredge. Five perpendicular transects of 25 m, each separated by 10 m, were performed per beach, with a total sample area of 43.75 m 2 per beach. A total of 27 species were found, of which Donax trunculus, Diogenes pugilator, and Tritia grana were the most abundant. Anthropogenic effects are appreciable in the infralittoral-sublittoral although they are areas that are permanently submerged and less exposed than the intertidal. Beach nourishments carried out with large volumes of sand can alter the grain size, the most influential parameter on the distribution of the species, and consequently, affect the macrofauna community that inhabits these beaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Air Show at Jones Beach State Park in Wantagh, New York. This proposed safety zone is necessary to...

  16. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  17. Distribution and enzymatic activity of heterotrophic bacteria decomposing selected macromolecular compounds in a Baltic Sea sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórska, B.; Mudryk, Z. J.

    2003-03-01

    The potential capability to decompose macromolecular compounds, and the level of extracellular enzyme activities were determined in heterotrophic bacteria isolated from a sandy beach in Sopot on the Southern Baltic Sea coast. Individual isolates were capable of hydrolysing a wide spectrum of organic macromolecular compounds. Lipids, gelatine, and DNA were hydrolyzed most efficiently. Only a very small percentage of strains were able to decompose cellulose, and no pectinolytic bacteria were found. Except for starch-hydrolysis, no significant differences in the intensity of organic compound decomposition were recorded between horizontal and vertical profiles of the studied beach. Of all the studied extracellular enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, esterase lipase, and leucine acrylaminidase were most active; in contrast, the activity α-fucosidase, α-galactosidase and β-glucouronidase was the weakest. The level of extracellular enzyme activity was similar in both sand layers.

  18. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  19. Measurement of biological oxygen demand sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of biological oxygen demand in a sandy beach using conventional in situ techniques are compared with laboratory measurements of interstitial oxygen changes in intact cores. Oxygen uptake as measured in the laboratory was approximately three times that measured in the field despite the fact that the.

  20. Morphological changes of the beaches of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    with the onset of the southwest monsoon wind and wave conditions followed by slower rates during the subsequent period of the monsoon. This continues till August when the beaches have minimum sediment storage. The wave climates during the postmonsoon and winter...

  1. Natural radioactivity of beach sand samples in Port Sudan, red sea state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambal, Wala Haider Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Natural radioactivity is a source of continuous exposure to human beings. In Port Sudan city, the main port of Sudan, data on the levels of natural radioactivity in soil is required. The aim of this study was to measure the activity concentration as well as the absorbed dose and annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in soil samples collected from different locations around Red Sea costa areas in Port Sudan city. Activity concentrations were measured using gamma ray spectrometry (Nal) detector. Results showed that the average activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were found to be 21.86, 17.55, 85.50 Bqkg 1 , respectively, with an average absorbed dose of 10.42, 9.40 and 3.57 nGyh 1 , respectively. The average annual effective dose values were found to be 11.89, 11.54 and 4.37 μSvy 1 for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The measured values were comparable with other global radioactivity measurements and found to be safe for public and environment.(Author)

  2. Pore water chemistry in the beach sands of central Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandrasekar, N.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Moscow, S.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Sudha, V.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.

    of 35 km from Poompuhar to Nagoor, Central Tamil Nadu, India. The parameters such as pH, conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, lithium, aluminium, copper, manganese, iron, zinc, lead, cobalt, chromium, nickel and molybdenum have been analysed. During...

  3. Restoration of sand dunes along human-altered coasts: a scheme for Miramar beach, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    coastal tourism, competition between developed and promoters of real estate and coastal resorts to utilize coastal spaces, and rapid migration of population towards the coasts, extensive use of coasts for recreation has resulted in a dramatic...

  4. Potential impact of sand mining on macrobenthic community at Kalbadevi Beach, Ratnagiri, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Sautye, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    of recruits (Hall, 1994). Macrobenthic recruitment at Kalbadevi takes place during the post- monsoon, therefore, long term study could be required to get a clear idea of recolonization. The fast recovery observed for some of the species could be due... the disturbances was on a small-scale, the disturbed site did not show much variation in the sediment granulometry, or result in hypoxia or anoxic conditions which may have resulted in the fast recovery of the macrofaunal community. However, the nature...

  5. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  6. Environmental release of dioxins from reservoir sources during beach nourishment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, Yves; Vining, Bryan; Mace, Kimberly; Mills, William; Hart, Jerry

    2012-07-01

    In late 1990s, USEPA/FDA made an important connection regarding the presence of elevated levels of dioxins (e.g., 1500 ng kg(-1) TEQ) in ball clays mined in Mississippi (USA) from a geological deposit dated to ~40 million years (Mississippi Embayment) that stretches over several states (northern part of Mississippi to Kentucky) and levels of dioxins in selected animal food sources. Following a recent beach nourishment program along the mid-Atlantic coast of the US, a number of dark gray, blue tinted nuggets of varying sizes were found on beach strands and near the shoreline. Using the presence of these balls of clay (shape, color, and knowledge regarding their use in pottery) on the beach, together with our direct experience analyzing ball clays for dioxins, we made a possible association between these clays and elevated dioxins. Concerns regarding the potential of nourishment programs to cause severe damage to our beaches drove us to test the dioxin content of nourishment exposed clays. A number of the nuggets, along with freshly dredged and deposited sand (collected the morning after nourishment) with the same coloration, and others (sun-bleached), collected approximately 2 weeks after the completion of the nourishment efforts, were analyzed for the presence of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and selected semi-volatile chlorinated organics. The clay PCDD/F WHO2005-TEQs (dry weight; ND=DL; EMPC=EMPC) ranged from 0.41 to 5.78 ng kg(-1) with an average of 2.64 ng kg(-1), whereas the sand sample's TEQs ranged from 0.18 to 0.31 ng kg(-1) PCDD/F WHO-2005, with an average of 0.22 ng kg(-1). The average total tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin concentration was 2700 ng kg(-1) (with a maximum of 5800 ng kg(-1)) for the clays and 8.5 ng kg(-1) (with a maximum of 16.8 ng kg(-1)) for the sand samples. The congener 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TEF=1) was detected in half of the clay samples (0.11-0.77 ng kg(-1)). All of the clay and sand samples displayed an unambiguous and dominating 1

  7. Effect of beach management policies on recreational water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elizabeth A; Feng, Zhixuan; Gidley, Maribeth L; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Kumar, Naresh; Donahue, Allison G; Reniers, Adrianus J H M; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2018-04-15

    When beach water monitoring programs identify poor water quality, the causes are frequently unknown. We hypothesize that management policies play an important role in the frequency of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) exceedances (enterococci and fecal coliform) at recreational beaches. To test this hypothesis we implemented an innovative approach utilizing large amounts of monitoring data (n > 150,000 measurements per FIB) to determine associations between the frequency of contaminant exceedances and beach management practices. The large FIB database was augmented with results from a survey designed to assess management policies for 316 beaches throughout the state of Florida. The FIB and survey data were analyzed using t-tests, ANOVA, factor analysis, and linear regression. Results show that beach geomorphology (beach type) was highly associated with exceedance of regulatory standards. Low enterococci exceedances were associated with open coast beaches (n = 211) that have sparse human densities, no homeless populations, low densities of dogs and birds, bird management policies, low densities of seaweed, beach renourishment, charge access fees, employ lifeguards, without nearby marinas, and those that manage storm water. Factor analysis and a linear regression confirmed beach type as the predominant factor with secondary influences from grooming activities (including seaweed densities and beach renourishment) and beach access (including charging fees, employing lifeguards, and without nearby marinas). Our results were observable primarily because of the very large public FIB database available for analyses; similar approaches can be adopted at other beaches. The findings of this research have important policy implications because the selected beach management practices that were associated with low levels of FIB can be implemented in other parts of the US and around the world to improve recreational beach water quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Final report, February 24, 1992--September 18, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, V.J.

    1995-09-18

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the utility of a device called the {open_quotes}beach cone{close_quotes} in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. Findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island, and they might have been instrumental in repairing an approximately 200 meter gap in the island. At the eighth installation the amount of accreted material was measured by surveys to be 2200 cubic meters (2900 cubic yards) in February of 1993, when the cones were found to have been completely covered by the material. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. The cost of sediment accretion using beach cones was found to be about $13.72 per cubic yard, which would be much lower if the cones were mass produced (on the order of $3.00 per cubic yard). The survival of the cones through the fringes of Hurricane Andrew indicates that they can be anchored sufficiently to survive significant storms. The measurements of the cones settling rates indicate that this effect is not significant enough to hinder their effectiveness. A subcontract to Xavier University to assess the ecological quality of the experimental sites involved the study of the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals. The highest concentration of heavy metals were near a fishing camp while the lowest levels were in the beach sand of a barrier island. This suggests that the metals do not occur naturally in these areas, but have been placed in the sediments by man`s activities.

  9. Mesoscale Morphological Change, Beach Rotation and Storm Climate Influences along a Macrotidal Embayed Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shore profiles and environmental forcing were used to analyse morphological change of a headland bay beach: Tenby, West Wales (51.66 N; −4.71 W over a mesoscale timeframe (1996–2013. Beach profile variations were attuned with longer term shoreline change identified by previous research showing southern erosion and northern accretion within the subaerial zone and were statistically significant in both sectors although centrally there was little or no significance. Conversely a statistically significant volume loss was shown at all profile locations within the intertidal zone. There were negative phase relationships between volume changes at the beach extremities, indicative of beach rotation and results were statistically significant (p < 0.01 within both subaerial (R2 = 0.59 and intertidal (R2 = 0.70 zones. This was confirmed qualitatively by time-series analysis and further cross correlation analysis showed trend reversal time-lagged associations between sediment exchanges at either end of the beach. Wave height and storm events displayed summer/winter trends which explained longer term one directional rotation at this location. In line with previous regional research, environmental forcing suggests that imposed changes are influenced by variations in southwesterly wind regimes. Winter storms are generated by Atlantic southwesterly winds and cause a south toward north sediment exchange, while southeasterly conditions that cause a trend reversal are generally limited to the summer period when waves are less energetic. Natural and man-made embayed beaches are a common coastal feature and many experience shoreline changes, jeopardising protective and recreational beach functions. In order to facilitate effective and sustainable coastal zone management strategies, an understanding of the morphological variability of these systems is needed. Therefore, this macrotidal research dealing with rotational processes across the entire intertidal

  10. Coastal monitoring solutions of the geomorphological response of beach-dune systems using multi-temporal LiDAR datasets (Vendée coast, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mauff, Baptiste; Juigner, Martin; Ba, Antoine; Robin, Marc; Launeau, Patrick; Fattal, Paul

    2018-03-01

    sites, explained mainly by beach orientation and local factors. Despite variable site-specific mechanisms, the recovery processes redistribute the available sand more on the upper parts of the beach, producing significant deposition generally in the form of embryo dunes. The monitoring of the beach and dune systems with airborne LiDAR datasets reveals that the three study sites show diverse behaviours during the first period likely associated with storms, while the analysis show more homogenous beach responses during the second period likely associated with a recovery phase.

  11. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  12. Beach erosion and nest site selection by the leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines: Dermochelyidae and implications for management practices at Playa Gandoca, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Spanier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea nest on dynamic, erosion-prone beaches. Erosive processes and resulting nest loss have long been presumed to be a hindrance to clutch survival. In order to better understand how leatherbacks cope with unstable nesting beaches, I investigated the role of beach erosion in leatherback nest site selection at Playa Gandoca, Costa Rica. I also examined the potential effect of nest relocation, a conservation strategy in place at Playa Gandoca to prevent nest loss to erosion, on the temperature of incubating clutches. I monitored changes in beach structure as a result of erosion at natural nest sites during the time the nest was laid, as well as in subsequent weeks. To investigate slope as a cue for nest site selection, I measured the slope of the beach where turtles ascended from the sea to nest, as well as the slopes at other random locations on the beach for comparison. I examined temperature differences between natural and relocated nest sites with thermocouples placed in the sand at depths typical of leatherback nests. Nests were distributed non-randomly in a clumped distribution along the length of the beach and laid at locations that were not undergoing erosion. The slope at nest sites was significantly different than at randomly chosen locations on the beach. The sand temperature at nest depths was significantly warmer at natural nest sites than at locations of relocated nests. The findings of this study suggest leatherbacks actively select nest sites that are not undergoing erosive processes, with slope potentially being used as a cue for site selection. The relocation of nests appears to be inadvertently cooling the nest environment. Due to the fact that leatherback clutches undergo temperaturedependent sex determination, the relocation of nests may be producing an unnatural male biasing of hatchlings. The results of this study suggest that the necessity of relocation practices, largely in place to

  13. Interaction between Posidonia oceanica meadows upper limit and hydrodynamics of four Mediterranean beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Ruju, Andrea; Buosi, Carla; Porta, Marco; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2017-04-01

    retained for analysis only the most energetic sectors. Successively, we identify extreme wave conditions using a statistical approach. Delft 3D is used to propagate these wave conditions towards the shore and then reconstruct the main hydrodynamic patterns in order to study its effects on the extension of P. oceanica. Preliminary results show that in all investigated beach systems the meadow interruptions were found where intense (rip and longshore) currents occur as a result of all simulated storm directions; and the P. oceanica meadow leaves space for sand-dominated substrate. In conclusion, the new approach presented here is a useful tool to estimate the location of the P. oceanica upper limit induced by hydrodynamics and it has important consequences for coastal zone management, as P. oceanica meadow is protected by EU legislation including the Habitat Directive and the Water Framework Directive. References De Muro et al. (2016). Journal of Maps 12, 558-572. De Muro et al. (2017). Journal of Maps 13(2), 74-85. Infantes et al. (2009). Botanica Marina 52, 419-427. Vacchi et al. (2014). Marine Pollution Bulletin 83, 458-466.

  14. Geotechnical properties of the Cassino Beach mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cláudio R. R.; Alves, Antonio M. L.

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of the marine soils properties, together with hydrodynamic and climatic data, plays an important role for a better understanding of the dynamic behavior of sandy and muddy coasts. This paper deals with reporting and basic interpretation of two campaigns of exploration and characterization of the mud of Cassino Beach, southern Brazil, carried out during the years of 2004 and 2005. Samples were obtained by means of cores collected at some locations offshore, and were submitted to various laboratory geotechnical tests, including determination of the physical index, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, and shear resistance by both triaxial and shear vane tests. Results confirm the existence of a very soft soil deposit offshore Cassino Beach, highly plastic, compressible, and viscous, forming an important database for further studies.

  15. Virginia Beach search and rescue experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham

    2000-08-01

    In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.

  16. Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P Soupy; Long, Joseph W; Plant, Nathaniel G; Thompson, David M

    2014-03-15

    Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these "surface residual balls" (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joesph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3 years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these “surface residual balls” (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results.

  18. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Minal Joshi,1 Ruth Cheng,2 Hattiyangadi Kamath,1 Joel Yarmush1 1Department of Anesthesiology, New York Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2School of Medicine, St. George’s University, Grenada, West Indies Abstract: Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently. Keywords: neuropraxia, anesthesia, arthroscopy, great auricular nerve

  19. Internal wave turbulence near a Texel beach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Haren

    Full Text Available A summer bather entering a calm sea from the beach may sense alternating warm and cold water. This can be felt when moving forward into the sea ('vertically homogeneous' and 'horizontally different', but also when standing still between one's feet and body ('vertically different'. On a calm summer-day, an array of high-precision sensors has measured fast temperature-changes up to 1 °C near a Texel-island (NL beach. The measurements show that sensed variations are in fact internal waves, fronts and turbulence, supported in part by vertical stable stratification in density (temperature. Such motions are common in the deep ocean, but generally not in shallow seas where turbulent mixing is expected strong enough to homogenize. The internal beach-waves have amplitudes ten-times larger than those of the small surface wind waves. Quantifying their turbulent mixing gives diffusivity estimates of 10(-4-10(-3 m(2 s(-1, which are larger than found in open-ocean but smaller than wave breaking above deep sloping topography.

  20. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  1. Health risks from radioactive objects on beaches in the vicinity of the Sellafield site in west Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Joanne; Etherington, George; Pellow, Peter [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    A programme of monitoring carried out since 2006 has found radioactive objects on beaches near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in West Cumbria. These objects comprised particles with sizes smaller than or similar to grains of sand (less than 2 mm) and contaminated pebbles and stones. Public Health England has undertaken an assessment of the health risks to people using the beaches along the Cumbrian coast from these contaminated objects. The assessment has addressed two key aspects. Firstly, estimates have been made of the likelihood that people using the beaches for various activities could come into contact with a radioactive object. Secondly, for the unlikely event that an individual does come into contact with such an object, the resulting radiation doses and associated health risks have been assessed. The ingestion of an 'alpha-rich' particle (a particle for which the content of the alpha-emitting radionuclide americium-241 exceeds the content of caesium-137) has the greatest potential to give rise to significant health risks. The intestinal absorption of a range of particles recovered from West Cumbrian beaches was quantified by means of in vivo uptake studies using laboratory rats, and the results were used to predict doses that would result from the ingestion of a single particle. The conclusion of the assessment, based on the currently available information, is that the overall health risks to beach users are very low and significantly lower than other risks that people accept when using the beaches. The highest calculated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer are of the order of one hundred thousand times smaller than the level of risk that the UK Health and Safety Executive considers to be the upper limit for an acceptable level of risk (1 in a million) for members of the public and workers. The exposure route with the greatest potential for deterministic effects, such as localised skin ulceration, is direct irradiation of

  2. Use of beach galleries as an intake for future seawater desalination facilities in Florida and globally similar areas

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-06-17

    the shoreline. A comprehensive study of the grain size characteristics of Florida beaches has allowed an assessment to be made of the hydraulic conductivities of the Florida beach sands. Hydraulic conductivity values generally range from 1.8 to 24 m/day, which is more than sufficient to allow the design and construction of high-capacity galleries at a reasonable cost. This type of intake is particularly relevant to the northeast Florida shoreline adjacent to an area being considered for development of a large-capacity seawater desalination system. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  3. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  4. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pink Water: Surfzone Dye Measurements at Huntington Beach, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. B.; Woodward, B.; Boyd, W. A.; Feddersen, F.; Guza, R. T.

    2006-12-01

    Mixing in the surfzone controls the dispersal and transport of pollution, bacteria, and other tracers near the shoreline. However, the difficulty of measuring tracer concentrations in breaking waves has limited studies of surfzone mixing. Surfzone turbulent length scales range from sub-meter in the bores of broken waves to 100's of meters in shear waves, and the mechanisms primarily responsible for tracer dispersion are unclear. Dye tracer experiments will be part of HB06, a multi-institutional study at Huntington Beach, California in Fall 2006. Waves, currents and temperature will be measured simultaneously at seven cross-shore and four alongshore locations in the surfzone. Fluorescent Rhodamine-WT dye will be measured using in-situ fluorometers, bottle samples, and a novel GPS tracked jetski platform. Onboard, flow-through fluorescence and turbidity measurements will be made 20 cm below the surface at an effective sample rate of 0.5 Hz, as the jetski crosses the surfzone at about 4 m/s. Five fixed fluorometers on the cross-shore transect will record dye fluorescence and turbidity approximately 50 cm from the bottom, and shoreline bottle samples will determine dye concentration in water too shallow for the jetski. Measured in-situ Rhodamine-WT fluorescence is reduced by the presence of sand and bubbles. Laboratory tests simulating average surfzone conditions have found that this corresponds to a 10-20% reduction in measured dye concentration. While this creates noise in the signal, dye concentrations usually vary over 1-2 orders of magnitude and observations are still useable. Both patch and continuous releases of dye will be used to infer dispersion statistics, and preliminary results will be reported. This research was supported by the California Coastal Conservancy, Sea Grant, and ONR.

  6. Origin and prospectivity of heavy mineral enriched sand deposits along the Somaliland coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Hibberd, P.; Stoikovich, B.

    2018-04-01

    Sixty-one heavy mineral enriched samples along the Somaliland coast from Eil Sheikh to Ras Khatib, a distance of about 130 km, were analyzed using X-ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction and SEM-EDS techniques. This study reveals that a considerable amount of heavy minerals is present along the Somaliland coast and confirms the presence of high concentration titanium and iron bearing minerals. However, the backshore deposits in the mouths of Waaheen and Biyo Gure ephemeral rivers as well as raised paleo-beaches in the east of port city of Berbera demonstrate the highest level of titaniferous heavy minerals with most samples showing concentration greater than 50 wt %. The titanium detected in geochemical analysis occurs in the form of ilmenite, rutile, titanite and titaniferous magnetite. Also, present in minor or trace amounts, are garnet, zircon and monazite. Heavy mineral accumulations in the east and west of Berbera have different mineralogical assemblages. The east of Berbera is dominated by quartz with moderate concentration of plagioclase, K-feldspar, magnetite, hematite and titanium bearing minerals, whereas in the west of Berbera, the dominant minerals are quartz, K-feldspar and plagioclase with variable proportions of ilmenite, rutile, mica, amphibole and pyroxene. These variations in mineral assemblages suggest different composition of the catchment areas that supply sediment to these deposits. The catchment area in the east of Berbera consists mainly of Proterozoic crystalline basement of the Qabri Bahar complex, Gabbro-Synenite belt and granitic intrusions that outcrop in Hudiso, Tulo Dibijo and surrounding areas. The primary sources of heavy minerals in the west of Berbera comprise of high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Mora and Qabri Bahar complexes as well as the Miocene volcanics that outcrop in Laferug and Hagabo areas. The heavy mineral sand deposits observed along the Somaliland coast have the potential to provide commercially important heavy

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of a Nigerian standard sand: Igbokoda sand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojuri, OO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the Nigerian Igbokoda Standard Sand was performed by X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman Spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The principal reflections occurring at the d-Spacings of 4.25745, 3.34359, 2...

  8. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  9. Separation and microdetermination of Sm, Eu and Gd from egyptian beach monazite using solvent extraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.M.; Baky, K.A.; Aly, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Lanthanide hydrous oxides concentrate produced from monazite mineral of the Egyptian beach black sand deposits contains a considerable percent of samarium, europium and gadolinium as a group, which in turn represents a valuable concentration with respect to their international prices due to their scarcity and wide demand in modern industries. The rare earth elements, being chemically similar to one another, invariably occur together in the source minerals and behaves as a single chemical entity. The problem of separating them one from another for scientific purposes or industrial use has been one of the most challenging tasks of rare earth technology. The present work is directed to microdetermination of Sm, Eu and Gd in their acid solutions after complete separation and recovery using di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid diluted with kerosene (D2EHPA/KX) as a solvent for the extraction processes. Different acid solutions with different pH values for their stripping were utilised

  10. Chenang Beach and its Crowding Capacity: A Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This working paper focuses in enjoyment factors, specifically: number of beach users, perceived maximum number of beach users accepted, perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the tourism experience and perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the beach quality. At a deeper extent, the evaluation is categorized by number of visitation, visitation motivations, and Chenang Island’s push and pull factors. Relationships between variables were assessed using a two-phase evaluation framework where interestingly, only one demographic factor works with all the studied independent variables. It is also learned that the density of an area number of people seen is considered as a n accepted crowding factor, as opposed to this working paper scope experienced crowding . A unique relationship was observed for crowding level, and visitation satisfaction level and overall evaluation of Chenang beach quality. This working paper further supports the previous literature on the significance of beach carrying capacity management and it is learned that the idea of crowding standard is interlinks with ‘gender, ‘time spend’ and ‘number of boaters’. From findings, this working paper envisages the preferences polar exchange where this should be of interest to tourism-related personnel. It is within this working paper interest to highlight the pressing need in brandishing the image of Chenang Beach. This is to ensure that Chenang Beach, as a field, is maintaining its importance and popularity.

  11. Can Beach Cleans Do More Than Clean-Up Litter? Comparing Beach Cleans to Other Coastal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Kayleigh J; Pahl, Sabine; Holland, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C

    2017-06-01

    Coastal visits not only provide psychological benefits but can also contribute to the accumulation of rubbish. Volunteer beach cleans help address this issue, but may only have limited, local impact. Consequently, it is important to study any broader benefits associated with beach cleans. This article examines the well-being and educational value of beach cleans, as well as their impacts on individuals' behavioral intentions. We conducted an experimental study that allocated students ( n = 90) to a beach cleaning, rock pooling, or walking activity. All three coastal activities were associated with positive mood and pro-environmental intentions. Beach cleaning and rock pooling were associated with higher marine awareness. The unique impacts of beach cleaning were that they were rated as most meaningful but linked to lower restorativeness ratings of the environment compared with the other activities. This research highlights the interplay between environment and activities, raising questions for future research on the complexities of person-environment interactions.

  12. The Purisima Formation at Capitola Beach, Santa Cruz County, CA: A Deeper Examination of Pliocene Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. D.; Brooks, K.; Chen, R.; Chen, T.; James, T.; Gonzales, J.; Schumaker, D.; Williams, D.

    2005-12-01

    Fossil samples from the Pliocene Purisima Formation at Capitola Beach in Santa Cruz County, CA were collected in July-August 2005. The Purisima Formation composes the bulk of the cliffs exposed at Capitola Beach and a rich assemblage of well-preserved fossils occur in gray to brown sandstone and siltstone. Erosion of the cliff face averages 0.3 meter/year and fresh cliff falls in the winter and spring months of 2005 provided an excellent opportunity to resample the Capitola Beach section of the Purisima Formation previously documented by Perry (1988). Organisms were identified from information in Perry (1988) and were compared with collections at the California Academy of Sciences. The most abundant fossils found are from the phylum Mollusca, classes Bivalvia and Gastropoda. Abundant bivalve taxa are: Anadara trilineata, Clinocardium meekianum, Macoma sp., Protothaca staleyi, and Tresus pajaroanus. Also common are the gastropods, Calyptraea fastigata, Crepdiula princeps, Mitrella gausapata, Nassarius grammatus, Nassarius californianus, Natica clausa, and Olivella pedroana. Less common invertebrate fossils are from the phylum Echinodermata ( Dendraster sp., the extinct fossil sand dollar) and from the phylum Arthropoda ( Crustacea), crab fragments ( Cancer) and barnacles ( Balanus). Because numerous fossils are concentrated as fragments in shell beds, Norris (1986) and Perry (1988) believe many were redeposited as storm beds during strong current events that promoted rapid burial. In contrast, whale and other vertebrate bones are common in certain horizons and their presence may be related to the conditions that promoted phosphate mineralization, such as episodes of low sedimentation rates and prolonged exposure on the seafloor (Föllmi and Garrison, 1991). The bone beds, together with the rich infaunal and epifaunal invertebrate assemblages, represent a community of invertebrate organisms that thrived in a shallow marine sea during the Pliocene epoch, approximately

  13. A proxy late Holocene climatic record deduced from northwest Alaskan beach ridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, O.K.; Jordan, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A climatically-sensitive, oscillatory pattern of progradation and erosion is revealed in late Holocene accretionary sand ridge and barrier island complexes of Seward Peninsula, northwest Alaska. Archaeological and geological radiocarbon dates constrain the authors chronology for the Cape Espenberg beach ridge plain and the Shishmaref barrier islands, 50 km to the southwest. Cape Espenberg, acts as the depositional sink for the northeastward longshore transport system and contains the oldest sedimentary deposits: based on 3700±90 B.P. (β-23170) old grass from a paleosol capping a low dune facies. The oldest date on the Shishmaref barrier islands is 1550±70 B.P. (β-23183) and implies that the modem barrier is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Late Holocene sedimentation varies between intervals of erosion and rapid progradation. During erosional periods higher dunes are built atop beach ridges: as between 3000-2000 yrs. BP and intermittently from 1000 BP to the present. At other times, rapid progradation predominated, generating wide swales and low beach ridges without dunes. Tentatively, dune formation is correlative with the Neo-glacial and Little Ice Age glacial advances and increased alluviation in north Alaska. Rapid progradation is contemporaneous with warmer intervals of soil and peat formation atop alluvial terraces, dated to ca. 4000-3500 and 2000-1000 yrs. B.P. In the record of the last 1000 years, dune building is correlative with heightened storminess, as reflected in northwest Alaska tree-ring chronologies and weather anomalies such as spring dust storms and winter thunderstorms in East Asian locations

  14. 75 FR 23588 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Riviera Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ..., Riviera Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations..., at Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida. The deviation is necessary to allow timely bridge...

  15. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  16. Wave refraction in relation to beach stability along the coast from Cape Ramas to Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gouveia, A.D.; Joseph, P.S.; Kurup, P.G.

    Results of wave refraction and beach profile studies are presented for a stretch of 35 km shore line comprising of Loliem Beach, Karwar, Karnataka, India which is separated by rock promontories from comparatively stable beaches on either side of it...

  17. Beach changes at Visakhapatnam due to the cyclone of May 1979

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, B.P.

    The impact of the May, 1979 cyclonic storm on Visakhapatnam beach, India and the observations made on beach profiles, waves and littoral currents prior to and during the storm are discussed. In general, at Visakhapatnam beach accretion trend starts...

  18. Provenance of Holocene calcareous beach-dune sediments, Western Eyre Peninsula, Great Australian Bight, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Bone, Yvonne

    2017-07-01

    Much of western Eyre Peninsula adjacent to the Great Australian Bight is veneered with siliceous and calcareous Quaternary aeolian dunes. The lengthy coastline adjacent to this cool-water carbonate factory is a series of Precambrian crystalline bedrock-Pleistocene aeolianite headlands that separate many long, sweeping, Holocene carbonate sand beaches and their backbeach dunes. Incessant SW waves, rolling swells, and onshore winds have resulted in > 350 km of semi-continuous calcareous strandline aeolian sands. The sediment is composed of quartz grains, Cenozoic limestone clasts, and relict particles (extraclasts) but the deposits are overwhelmingly dominated by contemporaneous biofragments from offshore. These skeletal grains are, in order of relative abundance, molluscs > benthic foraminifers > coralline algae > bryozoans, and echinoids. Benthic foraminifers are mostly small (especially rotaliids and miliolids) but the large relict symbiont-bearing protistMarginopora vertebralis, which grew in the latter stages of MIS 2, is present locally. There are no significant onshore-offshore trends within individual beach-dune complexes. There is, however, a prominent spatial partitioning, with extraclast-rich sediments in the north and biofragment-rich deposits in the south. This areal trend is interpreted to result from more active seafloor carbonate production in the south, an area of conspicuous seasonal nutrient upwelling and profound nektic and benthic biological productivity. The overall system is strikingly similar to Holocene and Pleistocene aeolianites along the inboard margin of the Lacepede Shelf and Bonney Coast some 500 km to the southeast, implying a potential universality to the nature of cool-water carbonate aeolianite deposition. The composition of these cool-water aeolianites is more multifaceted than those formed on warm-water, shallow flat-topped platforms, largely because of the comparatively deep, temperate shelf, the high-energy wave and swell

  19. Adaptive variation in beach mice produced by two interacting pigmentation genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia C Steiner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the genetic basis of ecologically important morphological variation such as the diverse color patterns of mammals. Here we identify genetic changes contributing to an adaptive difference in color pattern between two subspecies of oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus. One mainland subspecies has a cryptic dark brown dorsal coat, while a younger beach-dwelling subspecies has a lighter coat produced by natural selection for camouflage on pale coastal sand dunes. Using genome-wide linkage mapping, we identified three chromosomal regions (two of major and one of minor effect associated with differences in pigmentation traits. Two candidate genes, the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r and its antagonist, the Agouti signaling protein (Agouti, map to independent regions that together are responsible for most of the difference in pigmentation between subspecies. A derived mutation in the coding region of Mc1r, rather than change in its expression level, contributes to light pigmentation. Conversely, beach mice have a derived increase in Agouti mRNA expression but no changes in protein sequence. These two genes also interact epistatically: the phenotypic effects of Mc1r are visible only in genetic backgrounds containing the derived Agouti allele. These results demonstrate that cryptic coloration can be based largely on a few interacting genes of major effect.

  20. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from crude oil in sandy-beach microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepo, J.E.; Cripe, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using triplicate microcosm chambers for each treatment of a simulated oil spill on a beach. The treatments were sterile control, 10 ppm of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant added to the seawater and bi-weekly inoculation of the microcosms with two marine bacteria that produce biosurfactants but degrade only n-alkanes. The results showed that raw seawater cycled through the microcosms over a 30-day period led to a substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, and other polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It was not possible to detect PAH in pooled test system effluents. The oiled-beach microcosms were run with sterile synthetic seawater to differentiate between wash out and degradation. Depletion of n-alkanes was noticed in the systems inoculated with the alkane-degrading microbes and virtually all the aromatic analytes were recoverable from the oiled sand. The other two treatments permitted the recovery of all the analytes (PAH or alkanes). Under aerobic conditions, the biodegradation by microorganisms indigenous to natural seawater supported that lower molecular weight PAH were substantially depleted, but not the n-alkanes under similar conditions. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Climate change-driven cliff and beach evolution at decadal to centennial time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li; O'Neill, Andrea; Barnard, Patrick; Vitousek, Sean; Limber, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Here we develop a computationally efficient method that evolves cross-shore profiles of sand beaches with or without cliffs along natural and urban coastal environments and across expansive geographic areas at decadal to centennial time-scales driven by 21st century climate change projections. The model requires projected sea level rise rates, extrema of nearshore wave conditions, bluff recession and shoreline change rates, and cross-shore profiles representing present-day conditions. The model is applied to the ~470-km long coast of the Southern California Bight, USA, using recently available projected nearshore waves and bluff recession and shoreline change rates. The results indicate that eroded cliff material, from unarmored cliffs, contribute 11% to 26% to the total sediment budget. Historical beach nourishment rates will need to increase by more than 30% for a 0.25 m sea level rise (~2044) and by at least 75% by the year 2100 for a 1 m sea level rise, if evolution of the shoreline is to keep pace with rising sea levels.

  2. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  3. V-2 at White Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    A V-2 rocket is hoisted into a static test facility at White Sands, New Mexico. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s.

  4. Assessment of the solubility of thorium and uranium from black sand of Camargue in both simulated lung and gut fluids for dose calculation after internal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frelon, S.; Chazel, V.; Tourlonias, E.; Paquet, F. [IRSN/ DRPH/ SRBE, LRTOX, BP 166, 26702 Pierrelatte Cedex (France); Blanchardon, E. [IRSN/ DRPH/ SDI, LEDI, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay Aux Roses Cedex (France); Bouisset, P. [IRSN/ DEI/ STEME, LMRE, Bois des rames, 91400 Orsay (France); Pourcelot, L. [IRSN/ DEI/ SESURE, LERCM, BP3, 13 115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the south of France, some beaches of Camargue present a high rate of natural radioactivity due to thorium and uranium from zircon and apatite heavy minerals present in the so-called black sand. These radionuclides may lead to internal exposure consecutive to inhalation or ingestion of this sand. The accurate assessment of radiological risk after internal exposure of public frequenting these beaches requires some information on the human bioavailability of U and Th from the sand. Both routes of intake were studied in this work and the consecutive dose delivered was calculated under two different scenarios for each type of exposure. As far as inhalation is concerned, the first important conclusion is that the inhalable fraction, i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameters below 50 {mu}m, was tiny (0.002%) in this sample of sand. Moreover in vitro assays of solubility were performed for this fraction and showed that U and Th as well as their progeny presented moderate solubility. Then effective doses under several scenarios were calculated and seem to demonstrate a very poor risk of exposure after inhalation. Indeed, a dose of 1 mSv would be received by a babies after inhalation of about 40 Kg of sand, that is impossible, whereas a more realistic scenario of chronic exposure only reached 31 {mu} Sv. In case of ingestion, the solubility of Th and U in the gastrointestinal fluids was found to be very low with a maximum solubility of 0.5% of the initial mass of radioelement in the sample of sand. Then the worst hypothesis studied yields an effective dose of 0.018 mSv./(g-swallowed sand) that is roughly 50 times less than the legal annual dose limit for members of the public. as a conclusion, the possible internal dose after exposure by inhalation or ingestion of black sand of Camargue seems to be very low under the conditions of this study. (N.C.)

  5. Assessment of the solubility of thorium and uranium from black sand of Camargue in both simulated lung and gut fluids for dose calculation after internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frelon, S.; Chazel, V.; Tourlonias, E.; Paquet, F.; Blanchardon, E.; Bouisset, P.; Pourcelot, L.

    2006-01-01

    In the south of France, some beaches of Camargue present a high rate of natural radioactivity due to thorium and uranium from zircon and apatite heavy minerals present in the so-called black sand. These radionuclides may lead to internal exposure consecutive to inhalation or ingestion of this sand. The accurate assessment of radiological risk after internal exposure of public frequenting these beaches requires some information on the human bioavailability of U and Th from the sand. Both routes of intake were studied in this work and the consecutive dose delivered was calculated under two different scenarios for each type of exposure. As far as inhalation is concerned, the first important conclusion is that the inhalable fraction, i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameters below 50 μm, was tiny (0.002%) in this sample of sand. Moreover in vitro assays of solubility were performed for this fraction and showed that U and Th as well as their progeny presented moderate solubility. Then effective doses under several scenarios were calculated and seem to demonstrate a very poor risk of exposure after inhalation. Indeed, a dose of 1 mSv would be received by a babies after inhalation of about 40 Kg of sand, that is impossible, whereas a more realistic scenario of chronic exposure only reached 31 μ Sv. In case of ingestion, the solubility of Th and U in the gastrointestinal fluids was found to be very low with a maximum solubility of 0.5% of the initial mass of radioelement in the sample of sand. Then the worst hypothesis studied yields an effective dose of 0.018 mSv./(g-swallowed sand) that is roughly 50 times less than the legal annual dose limit for members of the public. as a conclusion, the possible internal dose after exposure by inhalation or ingestion of black sand of Camargue seems to be very low under the conditions of this study. (N.C.)

  6. APPLICATION OF HEATING MICROSCOPY ON SINTERING AND MELTING BEHAVIOUR OF NATURAL SANDS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanari F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In antiquity, beach sand was one of the main raw materials for glass-making and for the production of other vitreous materials, like Egyptian blue and faience. During the 1st century AD, glass and pigments manufacturing industry was active along the Gulf of Naples, Italy, where we sampled four littoral sands. Samples were analyzed with different techniques: chemical analysis was performed by means of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF and mineralogical analyses with X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD and Raman Spectroscopy. The complete sintering to melting thermal behaviour of the four sands was studied by heating microscopy or hot-stage microscope (HSM equipped with an high resolution camera capable to collect sample profile during heating. The effect of the grain size on the sintering curves, which were automatically elaborated by specimen profile transformation, was also investigated. Finally, some deductions about the granulometry effect and the presence of alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides on sintering and melting behaviour were drawn. All the four sands were found suitable for highly sintered manufacts rather than glasses, to reach complete amorphous materials the addition of fluxes was necessary.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the physical impacts of a nearshore sand extraction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anctil, F.; Ouellet, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the potential physical impacts of a nearshore sand extraction project in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In Canada, sand extraction is mainly limited to the Beaufort Sea area, where in 1982 alone 15 million tonnes of aggregate was dredged to satisfy the requirements of offshore petroleum exploration; but there is much experience in nearshore dredging in Europe. Criteria related to impacts, developed for conditions prevailing in the North Sea (England) and the Gulf of Gascogne (France) are adapted to meet the more moderate hydrodynamic impacts of an extraction project in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Potential impacts of extraction projects include destruction of sand bars or dunes, direct erosion resulting from beach drawdown or sedimentation interference, and impacts on littoral drift due to modified wave refraction patterns. Three schemes for the sand extraction are considered, and from the results, a fourth scheme is elaborated in such a way as to limit the negative impacts to the minor category. 17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Effects of pipe orientation on sand transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Osho, Adeyemi Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sand transport in hilly terrain geometry is different and complex to understand compared to horizontal pipeline, due to the influence of the geometry that greatly affect multiphase flow and sand behaviour at the dip. The overall aim of this research work is to use experimental method to investigate the effects of multiphase flow behaviour on sand transport in a dip configuration. Experimental work was carried out to understand the complex dynamic mechanisms that exist during sand multipha...

  9. 75 FR 70351 - Termination of Environmental Review Process Cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Termination of environmental... the Cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach, Virginia, is terminated. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  10. Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Hatching Success as a Function of Microbial Abundance and the Microenvironment of In Situ Nest Sand at Ostional, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Bézy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtle hatching success at mass nesting beaches is typically lower than at solitary nesting beaches, presumably due in part to high rates of microbial metabolism resulting from the large input of organic matter from turtle eggs. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that hatching success varies across areas of the beach in conjunction with differences in the physical nest environment and microbial abundance of in situ olive ridley sea turtle nests at Ostional, Costa Rica. We marked natural nests in high-density, low-density, and tidal-wash nesting areas of the beach and monitored clutch pO2 and temperature throughout the incubation period. We quantified hatching success and collected samples of nest sand during nest excavations. We quantified microbial abundance (bacteria and fungi with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR analysis. Hatching success was lower in nests with lower pO2, higher temperatures, higher organic matter content, and higher microbial abundance. Our results suggest that the lower oxygen within the nest environment is likely a result of the high microbial abundance and rates of decomposition in the nest sand and that these factors, along with increased temperature of clutches in the high-density nesting area, are collectively responsible for the low hatching success at Ostional.

  11. Laminae and grain-size measures in beach sediments, east coast beaches, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    in micro-layer structure of beach sediments at berm/backshore, foreshore and offshore regions. The sediments from the 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0-cm layers as well as from the full core show effects of mixing of the individual micro-layers. The degree...

  12. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    mation with some appreciable sand content. This field suffers a continuous sand produc- tion problem. Therefore, a complete research plan was proposed to choose the best sand control method to be applied to the oil field under consideration. The main objective of the plan is presented below. It consists of the following:.

  13. Wildlife, urban inputs, and landscape configuration are responsible for degraded swimming water quality at an embayed beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Nevers, Meredith; Whitman, Richard L.; Ge, Zhongfu; Shively, Dawn A.; Spoljaric, Ashley; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Jeorse Park Beach, on southern Lake Michigan, experiences frequent closures due to high Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels since regular monitoring was implemented in 2005. During the summer of 2010, contaminant source tracking techniques, such as the conventional microbial and physical surveys and hydrodynamic models, were used to determine the reasons for poor water quality at Jeorse Park. Fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) were high throughout the season, with densities ranging from 12–2419 (culturable E. coli) and 1–2550 and < 1–5831 (culturable and qPCR enterococci, respectively). Genetic markers for human (Bacteroides HF183) and gull (Catellicoccus marimammalium) fecal contamination were found in 15% and 37% of the samples indicating multiple sources contributing to poor water quality. Nesting colonies of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have steadily increased since 2005, coinciding with high E. colilevels. A hydrodynamic model indicated that limited circulation allows bacteria entering the embayed area to be retained in nearshore areas; and bacterial resuspension from sand and stranded beach wrack during storm events compounds the problem. The integration of hydrodynamics, expanded use of chemical and biological markers, as well as more complex statistical multivariate techniques can improve microbial source tracking, informing management actions to improve recreational water quality. Alterations to embayed structures to improve circulation and reduce nuisance algae as well as growing native plants to retain sand to improve beach morphometry are among some of the restoration strategies under consideration in ongoing multi-agency collaborations.

  14. Human impact on the benthic macrofauna of two beach environments with different morphodynamic characteristics in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenyffer Vierheller Vieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollution, exploitation of resources, erosion and recreational activities produce the most common impacts that somehow alter the natural balance of beach ecosystems. The aim of this study was to compare the richness and abundance of the benthic macrofauna of two sectors, one non-urbanized and the other urbanized, on each of two morphodynamically different beaches. Sectors of each beach were analyzed taking into account morphodynamic, anthropogenic (recreational activities and ecological aspects. Morphodynamically, one of the beaches presented sediment formed of fine sand with a gentle slope and morphodynamism with dissipative characteristics. The other was of sediment formed of medium sand with a steep profile and of intermediate to reflective morphodynamic characteristics. On both beaches during the summer, the urbanized sector was frequented by a greater number of users than the non-urbanized sector. On the beach with dissipative morphodynamism, negative relationships were observed between user abundance and the species Bledius bonariensis, Donax hanleyanus, Thoracophelia furcifera, Excirolana armata, Phoxocephalopsis sp. and Tholozodium rhombofrontalis. On the beach with intermediate to reflective morphodynamics, low abundances of Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis and Excirolana braziliensis were recorded in the urbanized sector. Thus the results of this study suggest the use of certain species as indicators of human impacts on beach ecosystems.Poluição, exploração de recursos, erosão e atividades recreativas são os impactos mais comuns que de alguma forma alteram o equilíbrio natural do ecossistema praial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a riqueza e a abundância da macrofauna bentônica entre um setor não urbanizado e outro urbanizado de duas praias morfodinamicamente distintas. Os setores de cada praia foram analisados levando em consideração aspectos morfodinâmicos, antrópicos (atividades recreativas e ecol

  15. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation…

  16. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches | McGwynne | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interstitial meiofauna were sampled across the intertidal zone and into the sublittoral region on two exposed sandy beaches on the Namibian coast, Langstrand and Cape Cross. A transverse barrip beach configuration at Langstrand allowed a comparison between the distribution and abundance patterns at the horn and ...

  17. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point...

  18. Automated mapping of the intertidal beach from video images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uunk, L.; Uunk, L.; Wijnberg, Kathelijne Mariken; Morelissen, R.; Morelissen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fully automated procedure to derive the intertidal beach bathymetry on a daily basis from video images of low-sloping beaches that are characterised by the intermittent emergence of intertidal bars. Bathymetry data are obtained by automated and repeated mapping of shorelines

  19. Dynamics of the Pebble Beach in the Protected Water Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay K. Makarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of the dynamics of the pebble beach in the area of artificial cape, performed in programs designed with the participation of the author, and included a calculation of the diffraction, refraction, transformation, and waves breaking, sediment transport and dynamics of the beach. By results of modeling the optimum configuration of protective constructions is offered.

  20. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from ...

  1. Influence of Tourist Pressure on Beach Litter and Microbial Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims at determining how the degree of human pressure at the La and Korle Beach resorts in Accra, Ghana, which serve different social communities, contributes to beach degradation. A weekly collection of fresh ... The implications for leisure activity like swimming at both sites has minimal health risks since the ...

  2. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  3. Observations of shoreline-sandbar coupling on an embayed beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W.I.; Bryan, K.R.; Coco, G.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a seven-year dataset (1999–2005) of shoreline and sandbar variations derived from video observations at the embayed Tairua Beach, New Zealand, to explore sandbar–shoreline coupling and to determine how this coupling is related to alongshore-averaged sandbar–shoreline separation and beach

  4. Modelling wind forced bedforms on a sandy beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to conceptually simulate observed spatial and temporal variability in aeolian sediment transport rates, erosion and deposition on a beach. Traditional strategies of modeling aeolian sediment transport rates do not account for supply limitations that are common on natural beaches. A

  5. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind ... temporal variation of the foreshore environment. Many researchers ... Keywords. Sediment transport; placer deposits; heavy minerals; beach profile; morphodynamic state; India. J. Earth Syst.

  6. Revisiting Hele-Shaw dynamics to better understand beach evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; van der Horn, Avraham/Bram; van der Horn, A.J.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Gagarina, Elena; Zweers, W.; Thornton, Anthony Richard

    Wave action, particularly during storms, drives the evo lution of beaches. Beach evolution by non-linear break ing waves is poorly understood due to its three-dimensional character, the range of scales involved, and our limited understanding of particle-wave interactions. We show how a novel,

  7. Detrital minerals from source to sink : tracing Orange River sand from Lesotho to Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Lustrino, Michele; Padoan, Marta; Pereira, Alcides

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative provenance analysis based on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral data on beach and dune sands, integrated with detrital-zircon geochronology and chemical analyses of pyroxene, garnet and staurolite, demonstrates that sand carried by the Orange River and derived from Lesotho and South Africa is carried by powerful and persistent longshore currents as far as southern Angola (Garzanti et al., 2014a). This is the longest cell of littoral sand transport documented so far on Earth, and a great test case for investigating physical controls on sand texture and composition. We have monitored textural, mineralogical and geochemical variability of beach and eolian-dune sands along a 1750 km stretch of the Atlantic coast of southern Africa by using an integrated set of techniques, including image analysis, laser granulometry, optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and bulk-sediment geochemistry (Garzanti et al., 2014b). Our results contrast with previous reports that feldspars and volcanic detritus break down during transport, that sand grains are rounded rapidly in shallow-marine environments, and that quartzose sands may be produced by physical processes alone. We demonstrate that basaltic rock fragments and pyroxenes, traditionally believed to be rapidly destroyed, survive healthily the 4000 km-long multistep hazardous journey from Lesotho volcanic highlands to Angola. Feldspar abundance remains remarkably constant from the Orange mouth to southern Angola, and quartz increases only very slightly, possibly as a result of local recycling. Among sedimentary and metasedimentary rock fragments, unconsolidated or strongly foliated types are readily comminuted when they enter the high-energy marine environment, but cemented sandstone/siltstone grains can survive the travel from the Karoo Basin of South Africa to northern Namibia and beyond. No detrital mineral displays a significant increase in grain roundness after 300-350 km of longshore transport in

  8. Diversity and Abundance of Sand Crabs on the South Coast of Central Java (Diversitas dan Kelimpahan Kepiting Pasir di Pantai Selatan Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mashar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kepiting pasir atau undur-undur laut merupakan biota bentik yang hidup di pantai berpasir yang mempunyai nilai ekologi dan nilai ekonomi cukup penting. Adanya tekanan penangkapan mengharuskan adanya pengelolaan yang bijak yang disesuaikan dengan karakteristik populasi kepiting pasir. Informasi tentang jenis dan kelimpahan kepiting pasir penting untuk diketahui terlebih dahulu sebagai langkah awal upaya pengelolaan lestari kepiting pasir. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi jenis dan kelimpahan setiap jenis kepiting pasir yang terdapat di dua lokasi penelitian, yaitu pantai Bocor, Kabupaten Kebumen, dan pantai Bunton, Kabupaten Cilacap. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di kedua lokasi penelitian ditemukan tiga jenis kepiting pasir, yaitu Emerita emeritus, Hippa adactyla, dan Albunea symmysta. Kepiting pasir E. emerita ditemukan dengan persentase komposisi paling besar, 70,5%-75,3%; disusul H. adactyla 22,5%-24,7%; dan A. symmysta 2,2%-4,8%. Kepiting pasir betina dijumpai dengan persentase komposisi paling tinggi, yaitu 78,2% hingga 92,8%. Kepiting pasir E. emeritus juga ditemukan dengan kelimpahan rata-rata paling tinggi di kedua lokasi penelitian, yaitu 5 dan 34 ekor/100m2. Kepiting pasir E. emeritus dan H. adactyla yang ditemukan di pantai Bunton, Cilacap mempunyai kelimpahan lebih tinggi dari yang ditemukan di pantai Bocor, Kebumen, adapun kelimpahan rata-rata Albunea symmysta relatif sama di kedua lokasi penelitian, yaitu sekitar 1 ekor/100m2. Implikasi dari hasil penelitian ini adalah diversitas kepiting pasir di pesisir selatan Jawa Tengah relatif tinggi dengan kelimpahan yang berbeda-beda yang dipengaruhi oleh intensitas aktivitas manusia di wilayah pantai berpasir. Kata kunci: Albunea symmysta, Emerita emeritus, Hippa adactyla, kelimpahan, kepiting pasir, komposisi jenis   Sand crabs or mole crabs are benthic fauna that live in the sandy beaches. They have ecological and economic value. Because of fishing pressure to

  9. Outer Continental Shelf Stratigraphic Development and Sand Resource Potential: Integration of New and Legacy Geologic Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M.; Harris, S.; Luciano, K. E.; Alexander, C. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Following the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the U.S. Atlantic coast in 2012 the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), in cooperation with state partners, instituted several regional offshore resource studies for the near outer continental shelf (OCS) on the US East Coast. This study focuses on a portion of this region, offshore of South Carolina and Georgia, with a primary goal of identifying beach renourishment sands and wind-tower placement locations, and creating a conceptual model of the evolution of the shelf in these areas. New and previously collected data are being used to identify sediment distribution patterns, paleolandscapes, sand resources for beach renourishment projects, and feasible locations for offshore wind installations. New chirp subbottom profiler data ( 1000 km), sidescan sonar data ( 7900km2), magnetometer data ( 1700 km), and multibeam bathymetry data ( 430km2) have been processed and interpreted at the University of Charleston using SonarWiz7, QPS-Qimera and QPS-Fledermaus software suites. Areas of focus for the Atlantic Sand Assessment Program (ASAP) data collection along the SC and GA coast are located within the 3 to 8 nautical mile (nm) OCS offshore of (North to South) Little River, Cape Romain, Folly Beach, Hilton Head, Wassaw, Ossabaw, Jekyll, St. Simons, and Cumberland islands. Ravinement, pre-Holocene, and other seismic surfaces, along with internal geometries, were mapped in these distinctly different tidal and wave regimes. Holocene sediment thickness gradually increases to the south with several sediment wedges in excess of 40 meters thickness. Where mapped, subsurface paleochannels/valleys were identified and analyzed for their orientation and complexity, as well as their size and distribution. These paleochannels are more numerous and increasingly complex in the southern survey areas. The channels are possibly related to transgressive channeling, Pleistocene low-stand river channeling, and braided stream formation during

  10. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A

    2012-01-01

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  11. Thermal Properties of oil sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

  12. Sea sand for reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Ordonez R, En.

    2002-01-01

    Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO 4 ) 2H 2 O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

  13. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17.

  14. Galveston Island, Texas, Sand Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    years1. This means the GPB has close to $2,000,000 available for beach nourishment. As of late 2014, the Galveston Industrial Development ... tourism , Galveston’s number-one industry . As part of a beach management strategy, there are certain steps the GPB should take to meet their mission. By...Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil

  15. Rheological Characterization of Green Sand Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to characterize experimentally the flow behaviour of the green sand that is used for casting of sand moulds. After the sand casting process is performed, the sand moulds are used for metal castings. The rheological properties of the green sand is important to quantify...... module for characterizing granular materials. The new module enables viscosity measurements of the green sand as function of the shear rate at different flow rates, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15 L/min. The results show generally that the viscosity decreases with both the shear- and flow rate....... In addition, the measurements show that the green sand flow follows a shear-thinning behaviour even after the full fluidization point....

  16. Monmouth Beach, New Jersey: Beach-Fill "Hot Spot" Erosion Evaluation. Report 2. Functional Design of Shore-Protection Alternatives for Beach-Fill Longevity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, S

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Army Engineer District, New York, is constructing Section I-Sea Bright to Ocean Township, New Jersey, of the Atlantic Coast of New Jersey - Sandy Hook to Barnegat Inlet Beach Erosion Control Project...

  17. Gleaning and Dreaming on Car Park Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Croft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores beachcombing and gleaning as practices that combine mobility with daydreaming and which allow us to experience our environment with the perception of ‘tactile nearness’ (Benjamin. Through eco-poetics shaped by ‘inconceivable analogies and connections’ (Benjamin, the author re-imagines a neglected space used as a short-cut on the way to work—the Liverpool Adelphi car park in Liverpool—as “Car Park Beach”. Inspired by the situationists’ slogan ‘Sous les pavés, la plage’, the author argues that Car Park Beach opens up imaginative possibilities for a different form of ecological encounter with our own precarity, one ushered in by a ‘close-up’ awareness of how waste transforms our world. Car Park Beach is a site that the author associates with the drift-like, distracted movements of both people and matter, and this article therefore attempts to deploy an equivalent method of analysis. Drawing on her own practice of gleaning photos and objects on the way to work, the author places a vocabulary of flotsam and jetsam at the axis of her discussion. Allusive, often layered, connections are followed between a diverse range of sources including beachcombing guides, literary memoirs, documentary films, eco-criticism, and auto-ethnography.

  18. Application of GIS in Beach Placer Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in beach placer exploration combines the activities of data collection, organisation, visualisation, query, analysis and prediction. GIS has the potential to enhance the capability for creative data analysis, modelling and interpretation. Exploration software and GIS are essential tools for geoscientists searching for mineral deposits. GIS technology has come a long way in the past fifteen years, especially in data handling, analysis, visualization etc. Modern technology and solutions are now evolving to allow geoscientists to share data easily between mapping platforms and enterprise level GIS environments. In beach placer exploration programme, data handling and processing are the main challenging tasks due to generation and processing of large volume of field and laboratory data of the areas under investigation. Though there are limitations in visualising map data as a single map on a screen, due to its non-proportionate lengths and widths, a GIS can very well handle all these varied datasets to demarcate highly potential zones within a narrow coastal strip. Generally these datasets contain information from thousands of drillholes about their location co-ordinates, depth, height, description and thickness of lithounits, water table level, radioactivity and other pertinent subsurface properties. Field data collection can be efficiently done using a hand held global positioning system (GPS) installed with mobile-GIS application and data handling software

  19. Beach safety education for primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Jeff; Kanasa, Harry; Pendergast, Donna; Clark, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Childhood drowning remains a serious public health problem worldwide. The Australian Water Safety Council has set as one of its highest priorities the reduction of drowning deaths in children aged 0-14 years. However, concerns have recently been raised that many students completing primary school still lack the ability to recognize potential aquatic risks, cope with emergencies or assist someone else in danger. In this study, 107 primary school children aged 11-12 completed a one day training programme led by surf lifesaving instructors. Pre, post and eight week follow-up measures showed statistically significant improvements in recognition of the red 'beach closed' flag, aquatic safety signs, how to identify a rip current and choosing the safest place to swim at a beach that included a rip current in the picture. Following training students were more willing to provide first aid assistance to family members and friends in an emergency situation. Findings reinforce the value of school-based training that provides a general foundation for aquatic safety, with the caveat that current programmes must be evaluated to ensure their content has a robust prevention focus.

  20. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background... letter from R. W. Borchardt (NRC) to M. S. Fertel (Nuclear Energy Institute) dated June 4, 2009. The...

  1. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear...

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Superhydrophobic Sands in Desert Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Reihmer, Joel W.

    2017-04-01

    A sustainable supply of fresh water for the human population is a global concern. Intriguingly, about 70% of the total fresh water consumed in the world annually is claimed by agriculture alone; this fraction is even higher in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where natural regeneration of groundwater is the slowest. Thus, there is a serious need for innovative materials and technologies to enhance the efficiency water usage in agriculture. To this end, plastic mulches have been employed across the developed world to minimize evaporative loss of water from top-soils. While plastic mulches are inexpensive, they do require specialized farm machinery for installation and long processing times. On one hand, plastic mulches have proven to increase crop yields, but on the other their non-biodegradability poses serious environmental concerns. In response, development of low-cost bio-/photo-degradable artificial mulches remains an area of intense research. In this thesis, we report on a novel superhydrophobic material exploiting inexpensive simple components to reduce the amount of water required for irrigation in agriculture by suppressing evaporative losses from the top-soil. Our material consists of ordinary beach sand coated with < 20 nm thick layer of paraffin wax. We synthesized and extensively characterized our material and applied them as mulches for tomato and barley plants at the KAUST greenhouse. We found that when a ~5 mm thick layer of superhydrophobic sand was placed onto the top-soil in pots, it dramatically suppressed evaporative losses and significantly enhanced the yields. Our preliminary field-scale experiments with tomatoes and barley crops at the Hada Al Sham site corroborate these results. Our approach might find applications in desert agriculture and other fields and alleviate water stress in the MENA region.

  3. The sea-finding behavior of hatchling olive ridley sea turtles, Lepidochelys olivacea, at the beach of San Miguel (Costa Rica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapput, Katrin; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    Newly hatched olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) were tested for their directional preferences in a sand-filled circular arena in total darkness. Hatchlings that had crawled about 5 m on the beach, toward the sea preferred the southwesterly direction that would have brought them to the water line, whereas hatchlings that had been denied this experience headed eastward, a direction of unclear origin. These data suggest that a short crawl across the natural beach can set the direction in which the young turtles subsequently move. The crawling experience was sufficient to acquire the compass course that they later follow, probably with the help of a magnetic compass, not only in the water, but already while still on land.

  4. The sea-finding behavior of hatchling olive ridley sea turtles, Lepidochelys olivacea, at the beach of San Miguel (Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapput, Katrin; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    Newly hatched olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) were tested for their directional preferences in a sand-filled circular arena in total darkness. Hatchlings that had crawled about 5 m on the beach, toward the sea preferred the southwesterly direction that would have brought them to the water line, whereas hatchlings that had been denied this experience headed eastward, a direction of unclear origin. These data suggest that a short crawl across the natural beach can set the direction in which the young turtles subsequently move. The crawling experience was sufficient to acquire the compass course that they later follow, probably with the help of a magnetic compass, not only in the water, but already while still on land.

  5. Evaluation of Durability Parameters of Concrete with Manufacture Sand and River Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangoju, Bhaskar; Ramesh, G.; Bharatkumar, B. H.; Ramanjaneyulu, K.

    2017-09-01

    Most of the states in our country have banned sand quarrying from the river beds, causing a scarcity of natural river sand for the construction sector. Manufacture sand (M-sand) is one of the alternate solutions to replace the river sand (R-sand) in concrete. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the durability parameters of concrete with M-sand when compared to that of concrete with R-sand. Corrosion of reinforcement is one of the main deteriorating mechanisms of reinforced concrete due to the ingress of chloride ions or carbon-di-oxide. For comparative evaluation of durability parameters, accelerated tests such as Rapid Chloride Permeability Test, Rapid Chloride Migration Test and accelerated carbonation test were carried out on specimens of R-sand and M-sand. All tests were carried out after 90 days of casting. Test results reveal that the durability parameters of the concrete with M-sand in chloride induced environment is relatively better than that of concrete with R-sand and hence is recommended to use M-sand as a replacement to R-sand.

  6. [Environmental toxicity of waste foundry sand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Yu-Jue; Wang, Jin-Lin; Huang, Tian-You; Xiong, Ying

    2013-03-01

    The metal leaching characteristics and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of five different types of waste foundry sands were analyzed with the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and head space-gas chromatography (HS-GC). Microtox and soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) tests were then used to evaluate the bio-effects of these waste sands. The results showed that due to the different metals poured and casting materials used to make the sand molds, there was significant difference among the five waste foundry sands in the compositions and concentrations of metal and organic pollutants. The concentrations of Fe in the leachates of iron and steel casting waste foundry sand exceeded the maximal allowable concentrations specified in the National Standard of Drinking Water Quality, whereas the As concentration in the leachate of aluminum casting waste foundry sand exceeded the standard. The five waste foundry sands had quite different compositions and levels of VOCs, which resulted in different levels of inhibition effects on the luminescent bacteria (30% and 95%). Additionally, the soil DHA tests suggested that metal pollutants in waste foundry sands may inhibit the soil microbial activity, whereas organics in the sands may slightly promote the microbial activity. The results of this study indicated that the waste foundry sands may pose considerable threat to the environment when improperly disposed.

  7. Sand sources and transport pathways for the San Francisco Bay coastal system, based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Mizell, Kira; Barnard, Patrick L.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The mineralogical compositions of 119 samples collected from throughout the San Francisco Bay coastal system, including bayfloor and seafloor, area beaches, cliff outcrops, and major drainages, were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Comparison of the mineral concentrations and application of statistical cluster analysis of XRD spectra allowed for the determination of provenances and transport pathways. The use of XRD mineral identifications provides semi-quantitative compositions needed for comparisons of beach and offshore sands with potential cliff and river sources, but the innovative cluster analysis of XRD diffraction spectra provides a unique visualization of how groups of samples within the San Francisco Bay coastal system are related so that sand-sized sediment transport pathways can be inferred. The main vector for sediment transport as defined by the XRD analysis is from San Francisco Bay to the outer coast, where the sand then accumulates on the ebb tidal delta and also moves alongshore. This mineralogical link defines a critical pathway because large volumes of sediment have been removed from the Bay over the last century via channel dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining, with comparable volumes of erosion from the ebb tidal delta over the same period, in addition to high rates of shoreline retreat along the adjacent, open-coast beaches. Therefore, while previously only a temporal relationship was established, the transport pathway defined by mineralogical and geochemical tracers support the link between anthropogenic activities in the Bay and widespread erosion outside the Bay. The XRD results also establish the regional and local importance of sediment derived from cliff erosion, as well as both proximal and distal fluvial sources. This research is an important contribution to a broader provenance study aimed at identifying the driving forces for widespread geomorphic change in a heavily urbanized coastal-estuarine system.

  8. 75 FR 79293 - Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach... removes Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach Municipal Airport, Vero Beach, FL. The Vero Beach Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new...

  9. 77 FR 5184 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ..., Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations... Wrightsville Beach, NC. This deviation is necessary to accommodate the Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and Half Marathon committee...

  10. 78 FR 669 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ..., Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations... Wrightsville Beach, NC. This deviation is necessary to accommodate the 2013 Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and Half Marathon...

  11. 76 FR 1359 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ..., Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Temporary Deviation from regulations... Wrightsville Beach, NC. The deviation is necessary because participants in the 2011 Wrightsville Beach... remain in the closed position for two hours to accommodate the 2011 Wrightsville Beach/Quintiles Marathon...

  12. Governance in a beach seine fishery : a case study from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medard, M.; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Hebinck, P.; Geheb, K.

    2016-01-01

    Beach seine gear is one of the prominent fishing gears in Nile Perch fishery. Before Nile Perch was introduced to the lake, beach seines the species targeted with beach seine were Tilapia, Bagrus, Haplochromis, Protopterus and Labeo. In 1994, beach seines were banned in Tanzania and by 2004, this

  13. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013...

  14. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  15. Synthesis study of an erosion hot spot, Ocean Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7 years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.

  16. Nearshore dynamics of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; McLaughlin, Molly R.

    2015-01-01

    Weathered oil can mix with sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) that can cause beach re-oiling for years after a spill. Few studies have focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. In this study, artificial SOAs (aSOAs) were created and deployed in the nearshore, and shear stress-based mobility formulations were assessed to predict SOA response. Prediction sensitivity to uncertainty in hydrodynamic conditions and shear stress parameterizations were explored. Critical stress estimates accounting for large particle exposure in a mixed bed gave the best predictions of mobility under shoaling and breaking waves. In the surf zone, the 10-cm aSOA was immobile and began to bury in the seafloor while smaller size classes dispersed alongshore. aSOAs up to 5 cm in diameter were frequently mobilized in the swash zone. The uncertainty in predicting aSOA dynamics reflects a broader uncertainty in applying mobility and transport formulations to cm-sized particles.

  17. Geophysical features influence the accumulation of beach debris on Caribbean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Alexandra M; Lavers, Jennifer L; Stuckenbrock, Silke; Sharp, Paul B; Bond, Alexander L

    2017-08-15

    Anthropogenic beach debris was recorded during beach surveys of 24 Caribbean islands during April 2014-April 2016. Beach debris was classified according to material type (e.g., polystyrene) and item use (e.g., fishing). Geophysical features (substrate type, beach direction, and human accessibility) of sample sites were recorded in order to investigate their relationship with debris density. Results suggest the density of macro debris (items >5mm) is highest on uninhabited, sandy beaches facing a leeward direction. Higher debris quantities on inaccessible beaches may be due to less frequent beach clean ups. Frequently accessed beaches exhibited lower macro, but higher micro debris (items 1-5mm) densities, possibly due to removal of macro debris during frequent beach clean ups. This suggests that while geophysical features have some influence on anthropogenic debris densities, high debris densities are occurring on all islands within the Caribbean region regardless of substrate, beach direction, or human accessibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cranial nerves neuropraxia after shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, A; Boyer, P; Soubeyrand, M; Hamida, F Ben; Vannier, J-L; Massin, P

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of neuropraxia of the 9th, 10th and 12th cranial nerve pairs after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the beach chair position. The elements in the medical file seem to exclude an intracranial cause of the lesions and support a mechanical, extracranial cause due to intubation and/or the beach chair position. This clinical case report shows the neurological risks of the beach chair position during arthroscopic shoulder surgery and presents the essential safety measures to prevent these risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  20. Morphological changes, beach inundation and overwash caused by an extreme storm on a low-lying embayed beach bounded by a dune system (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Ruth; Guillén, Jorge; Ruiz, Antonio; Jiménez, José A.; Sagristà, Enric

    2016-12-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a low-lying, micro-tidal sandy beach in the western Mediterranean, Pals beach, was characterized using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Data were collected in prior to and six months after the impact of an extreme storm with a return period of approx. 50 years, with the aim of characterizing the beach's response to the storm. The use of repeated high-resolution topographic data to quantify beach geomorphic changes has allowed assessment of the accuracy of different proxies for estimating beach volume changes. Results revealed that changes in the shoreline position cannot accurately reproduce beach volume changes on low-lying beaches where overwash processes are significant. Observations also suggested that volume estimations from beach profiles do not accurately represent subaerial volume changes at large profile distances on beaches with significant alongshore geomorphological variability. Accordingly, the segmentation of the beach into regularly spaced bins is proposed to assess alongshore variations in the beach volume with the accuracy of the topographic data. The morphological evolution of Pals beach during the study period showed a net shoreline retreat (- 4 m) and a significant sediment gain on the subaerial beach (+ 7.5 m3/m). The net gain of sediment is mostly due to the impact of the extreme storm, driving significant overwash processes that transport sediment landwards, increasing volume on the backshore and dunes. The increase of volume on the foreshore and the presence of cuspate morphologies along the shoreline also evidence post-storm beach recovery. Observed morphological changes exhibit a high variability along the beach related to variations in beach morphology. Changes in the morphology and migration of megacusps result in a high variability in the shoreline position and foreshore volume changes. On the other hand, larger morphological changes on the backshore and larger inundation distances

  1. Assessment of Mud-Capped Dredge Pit Evolution Offshore Louisiana: Implications to Sand Excavation and Coastal Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K.; Miner, M. D.; Bentley, S. J.; Li, C.; Obelcz, J.; O'Connor, M. C.

    2016-02-01

    The shelf offshore Louisiana is characterized by a dominantly muddy seafloor with a paucity of restoration-quality sand proximal to shore. Discrete sand deposits associated with ancient rivers that incised the shelf during lower sea-level positions occur close to shore. These shelf channel sands have been targeted for coastal restoration projects resulting in significant cost savings over more distal deposits. Several recent projects targeted shelf paleo-fluvial deposits comprising relatively deep (10 m) channel sands underlying a muddy overburden. Because of contrasting characteristics of cohesive mud vs. non-cohesive sand and potential modern fluvial mud supply from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, long term pit evolution is poorly understood relative to their more common sand-only counterparts. Alterations to seafloor topography from dredging shelf sediment resources can potentially affect oil and gas infrastructure or other resources of concern (i.e. historic shipwrecks) located proximal to dredge pits. Site-specific data required to make accurate predictions and empirical measurements to test and validate predictive models were only available for Peveto Channel offshore Holly Beach, Louisiana. Here we present new geophysical and geological data (bathymetry, sidescan, subbottom, and radionuclide of sediment cores) and physical oceanographic observations (hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics) collected at Raccoon Island (dredged in 2013) dredge pit in Louisiana. These field data collections along with pre-existing data provide a time-series to capture evolution at Raccoon Island post-excavation. Conceptual morphological models will be developed for dredge pit evolution and testing effectiveness of setback buffers protecting pipelines, habitats, and cultural resources. Our results will increase decision making ability regarding safety and protecting environmental and cultural resources, and better management of valuable sand resources.

  2. Faunistic diversity of Maltese pocket sandy and shingle beaches: are these of conservation value?

    OpenAIRE

    Marika J. Gauci; Alan Deidun; Patrick J. Schembri

    2005-01-01

    The littoral fauna of Maltese sandy and shingle beaches is generally regarded as impoverished and consequently of little conservation interest. The fauna of three sandy and three shingle beaches was systematically sampled by coring, standardised searching and pitfall traps. Diversity and population density were highest at the surface for sandy beaches, but were highest below the surface for shingle. The two beach types had distinct suites of species and individual beaches were faunistically d...

  3. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  4. Sand Dunes in Kaiser Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Full size (780 KBytes) This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows a field of dark sand dunes on the floor of Kaiser Crater in southeastern Noachis Terra. The steepest slopes on each dune, the slip faces, point toward the east, indicating that the strongest winds that blow across the floor of Kaiser move sand in this direction. Wind features of three different scales are visible in this image: the largest (the dunes) are moving across a hard surface (light tone) that is itself partially covered by large ripples. These large ripples appear not to be moving--the dunes are burying some and revealing others. Another type of ripple pattern is seen on the margins of the dunes and where dunes coalesce. They are smaller (both in their height and in their separation) than the large ripples. These are probably coarse sediments that are moving with the dunes. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the upper left.

  5. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  6. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilik, Julyus-Melvin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Hassan, Ruhana

    2016-01-01

    Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km) found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  7. Observation on foreshore morphodynamics of microtidal sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.

    cycles at these two loca- tions. In this context, our study aims to observe the foreshore sediment accretion and erosion processes in Figure 1. Study area covering two microtidal sandy beaches (Kunda- pura and Padukare) along Karnataka...

  8. Beach morphological variations over micro-time scales

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.; Sastry, J.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    formation, variations in the profiles show anomalous behaviour. The differences in grain-size distribution of the sediments of these 2 beaches are attributed to the available wave energies at these 2 locations...

  9. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  10. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  11. Wave refraction and littoral currents off Colva Beach, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Wave refraction studies have been carried out for waves of different periods approaching the coast at Colva, with directions of approach lying between180 degrees and 340 degrees, to obtain a qualitative picture of littoral flows along the beach...

  12. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Rokade, M.A.

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  13. Virginia Beach Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Beach, Virginia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  14. A holistic evaluation of a typical beach nourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    The coastal landscape in Denmark is characterized by multiple areas of geologic, biologic and recreational interests both at a national and international level. In the later years several guidelines have been set up in the coastal protection area. Recognizing the value of the healthy natural...... environment, the aims for the future are to ensure the presence of naturally shaped beaches and at the same time to reduce the risk of erosion. For this reason beach nourishment is used widely along the Danish North Sea coast and this method is preferred to solid constructions. Beach Nourishment...... is the primary method used by the Danish Coastal Authority for coastal protection and represents a management tool which serves a dual purpose. Beach Nourishment is protecting coastal lands as well as backshore properties (infrastructures, buildings etc.) and preserving natural heritages. Nevertheless, more...

  15. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyus-Melvin Mobilik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  16. Daytona Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Daytona Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  17. Medium-term dynamics of a middle Adriatic barred beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Postacchini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been paid to beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscape feature and around 70 % of the Marche region's coast (central Adriatic is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the region includes the beach of Senigallia, frequently monitored in the last decades and characterized by a multiple bar system, which represents a natural beach defense. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show long-term stability, confirmed by a good adaptation of an analyzed stretch of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short- to medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. The medium-term dynamics of the beach, which deal with the evolution of submerged bars and are of the order of years or seasons, have been related to the wave climate collected, during the analyzed temporal windows, by a wave buoy located about 40 km off Senigallia. An overall interpretation of the hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and seabed morphology suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term. These medium-term time ranges during which waves mainly come from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and by a larger/smaller relative wave height, and seem to induce seaward/shoreward bar migration as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southeastward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile shape suggests the adaptation to a decreasing sediment size in the submerged beach. This is probably due to the presence of both the harbor jetty and river mouth north of the investigated area.

  18. Engineering Analysis of Beach Erosion at Homer Spit, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    SPIT, ALASKA Nby (V) Orson P. Smith, Jane M. Smith, Mary A. Cialone Joan Pope, Todd L. Walton Coastal Engineering Research Center CD DEPARTMENT OF THE...BEACH EROSION AT HOMER Final report SPIT, ALASKA 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(.) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(.) Orson P. Smith, Jane M...preventing offshore losses and beach profile recession as well as protecting the roadway. I Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE MWhen Data

  19. Strength and power characteristics of elite South African beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the strength and power characteristics of 13 elite South African male beach volleyball players. The results indicate that elite beach volleyball players have a mean stature of 185.28 cm (";7.2), mean mass of 82.01 kg (";9.7) and percentage body fat of 13.12% (";2.4). Mean isokinetic peak torque values ...

  20. Miramar (Goa) Beach Management Project: An Oceanographic Evaluation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Ingole, B.S.

    Infrastructure Development Corporation (GSIDC) had therefore decided to develop infrastructure for the convenience of beach users by proposing a Miramar beach management project (MBMP) that was to be administered by In "Coastal environments: Problems...; (2) formulate state policies on privatization and infrastructure development on the basis of the India infrastructure report 2002; (3) enact Goa infrastructure development act on the model of Gujarat development act to provide support to developmental...