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Sample records for beach rock samples

  1. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    Beach rock is a common rock type in many parts of the southern hemisphere and also some areas north of the equator. Its distribution particularly in the Indian Ocean islands and atolls and coasts of India is reviewed. The mineralogic and faunal...

  2. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    ) minerals, rock fragments and shells. Car bonate reaches up 'to 97% (% wt). Introduction Beach rock is a friable to well-cemented rock con sisting of beach material such as calcareous debris, mineral grains, and rock fragments and its cemented by calcium...-10%), rock fragments (4 14%), shells (10-49%)· along with calcareous,;e menting material (calcite and aragonite) which coasts the sand grains and sometimes completely fills the po res. Quartz grains are vitreous, transparent with con choidal fractures...

  3. 77 FR 2966 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14345-000] Rock River Beach.... c. Filing Date: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock River, in the Township of Onota, Alger County...

  4. 77 FR 73636 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14345-001] Rock River Beach.... c. Date filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock River, in the Town of Onota, Alger County...

  5. Mixed oceanic and freshwater depositional conditions for beach rocks of NE Brazil: Evidence from C and O isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Nubia S.; Kiang, Chang H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Beach rocks, a common feature of northeastern coastline of Brazil are formed in the inter tidal zone, considered as ancient coastal line, cemented by CaCO 3 which have variable extension. They occur parallel to the coastline as linear ridges. Beach rocks are sub horizontally disposed and surfaces are irregular, displacing potholes due to differential erosion, perforations by organisms, diaclasis, cross stratification and rare laminations. The dominant detrital components are quartz and minor fractions of feldspars and rock fragments. Zircon, epi dote, hornblende, garnet, muscovite, rutile, opaque and sillimanite are present in trace quantity. Bivalves, mollusks, gastropods, halimeda, corals, pelecipods and equinoids, constitute the biotic components. Beach rocks cement vary from aragonite to Mg-calcite. The dominant micro facies, consists of isopach crystals of aragonite, enclosing bioclastic and/or clastic grains forming uniform fringe formed in the marine phreatic zone. The second is represented by cryptocrystalline inter-granulate cement like micritic envelop formed in meteoric phreatic environment (Moore 1971). The third is formed by inter granulate cryptocrystalline cement, filling the pores. Beach rock samples locate in the coastal zone show an interval with depleted C and O ratios (average δ 13 C = -1.3%0, δ 18 O = -2.1%0) and an interval of enriched isotopic ratios (average δ 13 C = +3.5%0, δ 18 O +1.2%0). Depleted oxygen isotope values considered to be indicative of meteoric diagenesis with minor freshwater influx (Allan and Mattew 1982). (author)

  6. Sedimentology, geochemistry and rock magnetic properties of beach sands in Galapagos Islands - implications for nesting marine turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Vazquez-Gutierrez, F.; Carranza-Edwards, A.

    2007-12-01

    Marine turtles are well known for their navigation ability in the open ocean and fidelity to nesting beaches. Green turtle adult females migrate from foraging areas to island nesting beaches, traveling hundreds or thousands of kilometers each way. The marine turtle breeding in the Galapagos Islands is the Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas agassisi); fairly common throughout the islands but with nesting sites located at Las Bachas (Santa Cruz), Barahona and Quinta Playa (Isabela), Salinas (Baltra), Gardner Bay (Española) and Bartolomé Islet. In order to characterize and to identify the geochemical signature of nesting marine turtle beaches in Galapagos Islands, sedimentological, geochemical and rock magnetic parameters are used. A total of one hundred and twenty sand samples were collected in four beaches to relate compositional characteristics between equivalent areas, these are: Las Bachas, Salinas, Barahona and Quinta Playa. Grain size is evaluated using laser particle analysis (Model Coulter LS 230). Bulk ICP-MS geochemical analysis is performed, following trace elements are analyzed: Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ba, Pb, Fe, Mn, K, Na, Mg, Sr, Ca and Hg; and low-field magnetic susceptibility is measured in all samples at low and high frequencies. Granulometric analysis showed that Barahona and Quinta Playa are characterized for fine grained sands. In contrast, Salinas and Las Bachas exhibit medium to coarse sands. Trace metals concentrations and magnetic susceptibility show different distribution patterns in the beach sands. Calcium is the most abundant element in the samples. In particular, Co, K, and Na show similar concentrations in the four beaches. Las Bachas beach shows highest concentrations of Pb and Hg (maximum values 101.1 and 118.5 mg/kg, respectively), we suggest that the enrichment corresponds to an anthropogenic signal. Salinas beach samples show high concentrations of Fe, V, Cr, Zn, Mn and the highest values of magnetic susceptibility (maximum

  7. Isotopic studies of beach rock carbonates from Konkan, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, B.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    .7% (PDB) and delta sup(18)O signatures lie in a narrow range of +27.5 to +28.6% (SMOW), respectively. Isotopic data obtained in this study show that cementation of beach rock carbonates might have taken place in a shallow vadose zone. The large variations...

  8. Inference of coastal submergence from the study of beach rock off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Rao, K.M.; Rao, T.C.S.

    influence in the tidal and sub..;.tidal zones. The occurrence of low-magnesium calcite as the cementing material in the present case .clearly 'aids the inference of the influence of fresh water and,the calcite present in the inland sands as the aragonite...) Geohydrological and Geo physical investigations along Visakhapatnam-Bhimuni patnam Coast, Ph.D., Thesis, Andhra University, Waltair. Russel, R.J., and McInti're, W.G., (1965) Southern Hemi sphere beach rock, Tech.. Rep. No. 15, Part G. Geogl. Rev., V. 55, pp...

  9. Who are the important predators of sea turtle nests at Wreck Rock beach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Juan; Booth, David T

    2017-01-01

    Excessive sea turtle nest predation is a problem for conservation management of sea turtle populations. This study assessed predation on nests of the endangered loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta ) at Wreck Rock beach adjacent to Deepwater National Park in Southeast Queensland, Australia after a control program for feral foxes was instigated. The presence of predators on the nesting dune was evaluated by tracking plots (2 × 1 m) every 100 m along the dune front. There were 21 (2014-2015) and 41 (2015-2016) plots established along the dune, and these were monitored for predator tracks daily over three consecutive months in both nesting seasons. Predator activities at nests were also recorded by the presence of tracks on top of nests until hatchlings emerged. In addition, camera traps were set to record the predator activity around selected nests. The tracks of the fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) and goanna ( Varanus spp ) were found on tracking plots. Tracking plots, nest tracks and camera traps indicated goanna abundance varied strongly between years. Goannas were widely distributed along the beach and had a Passive Activity Index (PAI) (0.31 in 2014-2015 and 0.16 in 2015-2016) approximately seven times higher than that of foxes (PAI 0.04 in 2014-2015 and 0.02 in 2015-2016). Five hundred and twenty goanna nest visitation events were recorded by tracks but no fox tracks were found at turtle nests. Camera trap data indicated that yellow-spotted goannas ( Varanus panoptes ) appeared at loggerhead turtle nests more frequently than lace monitors ( V. varius ) did, and further that lace monitors only predated nests previously opened by yellow-spotted goannas. No foxes were recorded at nests with camera traps. This study suggests that large male yellow-spotted goannas are the major predator of sea turtle nests at the Wreck Rock beach nesting aggregation and that goanna activity varies between years.

  10. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure of beach sands in highly touristic areas associated with plutonic rocks of the Atticocycladic zone (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, A; Koroneos, A; Christofides, G; Papadopoulou, L; Tzifas, I; Stoulos, S

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 228 Th and 40 K along beaches close to the plutonic rocks of the Atticocycladic zone that ranged from 15 to 628, 12-2292, 16-10,143, 14-9953 and 191-1192 Bq/kg respectively. A sample from island of Mykonos contained the highest 232 Th content measured in sediments of Greece. The heavy magnetic fraction and the heavy non-magnetic fraction as well as the total heavy fraction, were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238 U and 232 Th mineral carrier. Similar correlations have been found between 238 U, 232 Th content and rare earth elements concentrations. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which at least in most cases are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. Since the Greek beaches are among the most popular worldwide the annual effective dose equivalent received due to sand exposure has been estimated and found to vary between 0.002 and 0.379 mSv y -1 for tourists and from 0.018 to 3.164 mSv y -1 for local people working on the beach. The values corresponding to ordinary sand samples are orders of magnitude lower than the limit of 1 mSv y -1 , only in the case of heavy minerals-rich sands the dose could reach or exceed the recommended maximum limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled sample program publication No. 1: characterization of rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, L.L.

    1978-10-01

    A description is presented of the methodology used and the geologic parameters measured on several rocks which are being used in round-robin laboratory and nuclide adsorption methodology experiments. Presently investigators from various laboratories are determining nuclide distribution coefficients utilizing numerous experimental techniques. Unfortunately, it appears that often the resultant data are dependent not only on the type of groundwater and rock utilized, but also on the experimentor or method used. The Controlled Sample Program is a WISAP (Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program) attempt to resolve the apparent method and dependencies and to identify individual experimenter's bias. The rock samples characterized in an interlaboratory Kd methodology comparison program include Westerly granite, Argillaceous shale, Oolitic limestone, Sentinel Gap basalt, Conasauga shale, Climax Stock granite, anhydrite, Magenta dolomite and Culebra dolomite. Techniques used in the characterization include whole rock chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical examination, electron microprobe elemental mapping, and chemical analysis of specific mineral phases. Surface areas were determined by the B.E.T. and ethylene glycol sorption methods. Cation exchange capacities were determined with 85 Sr, but were of questionable value for the high calcium rocks. A quantitative mineralogy was also estimated for each rock. Characteristics which have the potential of strongly affecting radionuclide Kd values such as the presence of sulfides, water-soluble, pH-buffering carbonates, glass, and ferrous iron were listed for each rock sample

  12. Study of C13/C12 and O18/O16 variations on environments of beach rocks formation in Itaparica island - Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Calcium carbonate-cemented beach sands or beach rocks have been observed to occur in the inter tidal zone of many tropical beaches. Near Salvador (Brazil) occurrences are found in several locations on the island of Itaparica. A study of the stable isotope composition (C 13 / C 12 and O 18 / O 16 ) of the cement and the local groundwater was carried out to determine the origin of the carbonate cement. (author)

  13. A standardized method for sampling and extraction methods for quantifying microplastics in beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, Aiken; Vijver, Martina G; Behrens, Paul; Bosker, Thijs

    2017-01-15

    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the environment, are frequently ingested by organisms, and may potentially cause harm. A range of studies have found significant levels of microplastics in beach sand. However, there is a considerable amount of methodological variability among these studies. Methodological variation currently limits comparisons as there is no standard procedure for sampling or extraction of microplastics. We identify key sampling and extraction procedures across the literature through a detailed review. We find that sampling depth, sampling location, number of repeat extractions, and settling times are the critical parameters of variation. Next, using a case-study we determine whether and to what extent these differences impact study outcomes. By investigating the common practices identified in the literature with the case-study, we provide a standard operating procedure for sampling and extracting microplastics from beach sand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis and radiological assessment of survey results and samples from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Fry, F.A.

    1983-12-01

    After radioactive sea debris had been found on beaches near the BNFL, Sellafield, plant, NRPB was asked by the Department of the Environment to analyse some of the samples collected and to assess the radiological hazard to members of the public. A report is presented containing an analysis of survey reports for the period 19 November - 4 December 1983 and preliminary results of the analysis of all samples received, together with the Board's recommendations. (author)

  15. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  16. Characterization of rock samples and mineralogical controls on leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Jackson, John C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Brady, Keith B.C.

    2009-01-01

    Rocks associated with coal beds typically include shale, sandstone, and (or) limestone. In addition to common rock-forming minerals, all of these rock types may contain sulfide and sulfate minerals, various carbonate minerals, and organic material. These different minerals have inherently different solubility characteristics, as well as different acid-generating or acid-neutralizing potentials. The abundance and composition of sulfur- and carbonate-bearing minerals are of particular interest in interpreting the leaching column data because (1) pyrite and carbonate minerals are the primary controls on the acid-base account of a sample, (2) these minerals incorporate trace metals that can be released during weathering, and (3) these minerals readily react during weathering due to mineral dissolution and oxidation of iron.Rock samples were collected by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) from five different sites to assess the draft standardized leaching column method (ADTI-WP2) for the prediction of weathering rates and water quality at coal mines. Samples were sent to USGS laboratories for mineralogical characterization and to ActLabs for chemical analysis. The samples represent a variety of rock types (shales, sandstones, and coal refuse) that are typical of coal overburden in the eastern United States. These particular samples were chosen for testing the weathering protocols because they represent a range of geochemical and lithologic characteristics, sulfur contents, and acid-base accounting characteristics (Hornberger et al., 2003). The rocks contain variable amounts of pyrite and carbonate minerals and vary in texture.This chapter includes bulk rock chemical data and detailed mineralogical and textural data for unweathered starting materials used in the interlaboratory validation study, and for two samples used in the early phases of leaching column tests (Wadesville Sandstone, Leechburg Coal Refuse). We also characterize some of the

  17. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples from Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özmen, S.F.; Cesur, A.; Boztosun, I.; Yavuz, M.

    2014-01-01

    Following Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a huge amount of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. It's impact on the environment is of great concern to the good of the public at large. In this regard environmental radioactivity monitoring such as external dose rate and radioactivity measurements in environmental samples has been carried out. For this purpose, several beach sand samples were collected from south coast of the Turkey in September 2011 and radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra ( 238 U), 228 Ac ( 232 Th), 40 K, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using a high-purity Germanium detector. The measured activity concentrations in beach sand samples ranged from 4.0±0.5 to 21.5±1.8 Bq/kg, 1.8±0.4 to 27.9±2.4 Bq/kg, 19.0±2.2 to 590.3±28.6 Bq/kg and 0.1±0.0 to 1.0±0.1 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs, respectively. However there was no sign of 134 Cs in the sample spectrum after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Hence we can safely conclude that there was no significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. The other activities are in good agreement with the published results of neighboring areas. The absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and the annual effective dose (AED) of beach sand samples were below the world wide average implying that the radiation hazard is insignificant. The data presented in this study would also be very useful to determine the possible future effects of the nuclear power plant to the environment. - Highlights: • Activity values of all samples are lower than the world wide average values. • Gamma dose rates of beach sand samples are in the range of 10–200 nGy/h. • Ra eq activity and AED values of samples are less than world wide average values. • No significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. • Strong correlations detected in between elemental and radioactivity concentration

  18. Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, R.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W.; Tuniz, C.; Lawson, E.; Jacobsen, G.; Hua, G.

    1997-01-01

    Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO 2 through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing 14 C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented

  19. Ultra sound absorption measurements in rock samples at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghaus, C.; Berckhemer, H.

    1974-01-01

    A new technique, comparable with the reverberation method in room acoustics, is described. It allows Q-measurements at rock samples of arbitrary shape in the frequency range of 50 to 600 kHz in vacuum (.1 mtorr) and at low temperatures (+20 to -180 C). The method was developed in particular to investigate rock samples under lunar conditions. Ultrasound absorption has been measured at volcanics, breccia, gabbros, feldspar and quartz of different grain size and texture yielding the following results: evacuation raises Q mainly through lowering the humidity in the rock. In a dry compact rock, the effect of evacuation is small. With decreasing temperature, Q generally increases. Between +20 and -30 C, Q does not change much. With further decrease of temperature in many cases distinct anomalies appear, where Q becomes frequency dependent.

  20. Diffuse pollution by persistent organic pollutants as measured in plastic pellets sampled from various beaches in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagioti, H K; Endo, S; Ogata, Y; Takada, H

    2011-02-01

    Plastic pellets found stranded on beaches are hydrophobic organic materials and thus, they are a favourable medium for persistent organic pollutants to absorb to. In the present study, plastic pellets are used to determine the diffuse pollution of selected Greek beaches. Samples of pellets were taken from these beaches and were analyzed for PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and PAHs. The observed differences among pellets from various sampling sites are related to the pollution occurring at each site. Plastic pellets collected in Saronikos Gulf beaches demonstrate much higher pollutant loading than the ones collected in a remote island or close to an agricultural area. Based on data collected in this study and the International Pellet Watch program, pollution in Saronikos Gulf, Greece, is comparable to other heavily industrialized places of the world. The present study demonstrates the potential of pellet watch to be utilized as a detailed-scale monitoring tool within a single country. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimates of marine debris accumulation on beaches are strongly affected by the temporal scale of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen D A; Markic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Marine debris is a global issue with impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics and economies. Consequently, there is increasing interest in quantifying the scale of the problem. Accumulation rates of debris on beaches have been advocated as a useful proxy for at-sea debris loads. However, here we show that past studies may have vastly underestimated the quantity of available debris because sampling was too infrequent. Our study of debris on a small beach in eastern Australia indicates that estimated daily accumulation rates decrease rapidly with increasing intervals between surveys, and the quantity of available debris is underestimated by 50% after only 3 days and by an order of magnitude after 1 month. As few past studies report sampling frequencies of less than a month, estimates of the scale of the marine debris problem need to be critically re-examined and scaled-up accordingly. These results reinforce similar, recent work advocating daily sampling as a standard approach for accurate quantification of available debris in coastal habitats. We outline an alternative approach whereby site-specific accumulation models are generated to correct bias when daily sampling is impractical.

  2. Determination of thermal conductivity of rocks samples using fabricated equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasunwon Olusola O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to describe how inexpensive/simple physics equipment was fabricated and used in the determination of thermal conductivity of rock samples. We used the experimental techniques known as transient method of measuring thermal properties of rock samples at ambient temperature. We investigated samples found in five locations/region (Ewekoro, Ile-Ife, Igara, Ago-Iwoye, Abeokuta in South western Nigeria. Those samples are limestone, dolerite, marble, gneiss, and granite. Although the samples are multi-mineral as revealed by photomicrograph, the thermal conductivity results obtained 1.40, 1.50, 1.57, 1.75, and 2.94 W/m°C, respectively, are found to be consistent with the ones in literature where highly expensive and sophisticated (not easily affordable in developing nation equipment are used. .

  3. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  4. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. The {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the {sup 40}K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 222} Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 1074 Bq.kg{sup -'}1 for {sup 232}Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For {sup 40}K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 179 Bq.kg{sup -1} and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  5. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  6. Research on pathogens at Great Lakes beaches: sampling, influential factors, and potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the USGS Beach Health Initiative Mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for the pathogens and source tracking topic is described in this fact sheet.

  7. Ti-Zr placer mineralization in Neoproterozoic (Uppe r Riphean rocks of Kildin Formation and in contemporary beach sands of Sredny and Rybachy Peninsulas, Kola Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chickiryov I. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentration mechanisms of titanium-zirconium placer mineralizat ion in Neoproterozoic terrigenous rocks of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation, Kildin Group, and in contempo rary beach deposits from Sredny Peninsula and Motka Cape from Rybachy Peninsula (Kola region have been considered i n the paper. It has been shown that the rocks of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation are facially variable. The shallow littoral facies are confined to the western and central parts of Sredny Peninsula, the deeper sublitt oral facies are confined to the eastern part of Sredny Peninsula and to Motka Cape of Rybachy Peninsula. It has b een established that lenses and beds with titanium-zirconium placer mineralization occur solely in littoral facies. The ore minerals in aleurite-psamite of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation are represented by leucoxene, rutile and zircon, and in contemporary beach deposits – by ilmenite, rutile and minor zircon. Paleogeograp hic reconstruction indicates that almost all deposits of Neoproterozoic (Upper Riphean Kildin Group were accumulated in shallow (littoral and sublittoral environment during dominant humid climate and intense weat hering of source area. Thus, not only deposits of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation, but also the whole succession of Kildin Group can be regarded perspective for placers' accumulation. The low grade of heavy minerals (mainly Ti an d Zr minerals in contemporary beach deposits from Sredny Peninsula and Motka Cape from Rybachy Peninsu la is related to weak weathering of the Baltic Shield during Quaternary and to accumulation of coarse debris in littoral zone, preventing the differentiation of sand by wave action.

  8. Lattice strain measurement in rock sample by neutron diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Jun; Ito, Takayoshi; Sekine, Kotaro; Harjo, Stefanus; Aizawa, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Strain gauge and mechanical extensometers are commonly used to measure strain in rock samples. In recent years, diffraction techniques with X-rays and neutrons for investigating strain in engineering materials have been developed. Strain measurements using diffraction technique are based on Bragg's law. Lattice spacing changes with strain, which induces peak shift of Bragg peak. Strain value can be estimated from this peak shift value. Strain measurements using the world's highest intensity neutron beam can be performed at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) constructed at Tokai in Ibaraki. Neutron powder diffractometer dedicating to investigate strain state in engineering materials has been constructed at BL19 in J-PARC, which is named as The Engineering Materials Diffractometer 'TAKUMI'. In order to examine applicability of the diffractometer to rock materials, in situ neutron diffraction experiments on rock samples under uni-axial compression have been performed. Higher resolution strain data has been obtained in shorter time compared to other diffractometers. In addition, neutron diffraction peaks of not only major component, such as quartz, but also minor components, such as feldspars, could be observed. Anisotropy of strain with respect to the quartz crystal orientation and discrepancy between macroscopic strain (measured by strain gauge) and lattice strain (measured by neutron diffraction) were also recognized. Change in peak width with respect to stress magnitude showed a different behavior depending on rock type. Strain measurements using neutron diffraction technique give us new insight in rock deformation which cannot be obtained by common technique. (author)

  9. Gamma-ray spectrometric analyses of some Nigerian rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwah, E.J.; Ajakaiye, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Approximate uranium concentrations in rock samples from the Sokoto Basin of Nigeria were predicted from γ-equivalent uranium and thorium (eU and eTh) measurements which made use of similar rock samples, previously analyzed by delayed neutron counting (DNC) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques, as reference materials. Comparison of the results of the 3 techniques shows that the eU values approximate the DNC results more than the XRF results do, with standard error of estimate of ±6.68 ppm eU and correlation coefficient of 0.984. Corresponding values for XRF analyses are ±32.53 ppm U and 0.730, respectively. (author)

  10. Frequency distribution of specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in surface beach sand samples collected in Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changkit, N.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Youngchauy, U.; Polthum, S.; Kessaratikoon, P.

    2017-09-01

    The specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) in 50 surface beach sand samples collected from Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province in the easthern region of Thailand, were measured and evaluated. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system in the special laboratory at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization). The IAEA-SOIL-375 reference material was used to analyze the concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in all samples. It was found that the specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were ranged from 510.85 - 771.35, 8.17 - 17.06 and 4.25 - 15.68 Bq/kg. Furthermore, frequency distribution of the specific activities were studied, analyzed and found to be the asymmetrical distribution by using a statistical computer program. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the investigated area were also calculated by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The results were also compared with the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) annual report data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurement and evaluations.

  11. Geoconservation and scientific rock sampling: Call for geoethical education strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druguet, Elena; Passchier, Cees W.; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Carreras, Jordi

    2013-04-01

    Some geological outcrops have a special scientific or educational value, represent a geological type locality and/or have a considerable aesthetical/photographic value. Such important outcrops require appropriate management to safeguard them from potentially damaging and destructive activities. Damage done to such rock exposures can include drill sampling by geologist undertaken in the name of scientific advancement. In order to illustrate the serious damage scientific sampling can do, we give some examples of outcrops from Western Europe, North America and South Africa, important to structural geology and petrology, where sampling was undertaken by means of drilling methods without any protective measures. After the rock coring, the aesthetic and photographic value of these delicate outcrops has decreased considerably. Unfortunately, regulation and protection mechanisms and codes of conduct can be ineffective. The many resources of geological information available to the geoscientist community (e.g. via Internet, such as outcrops stored in websites like "Outcropedia") promote access to sites of geological interest, but can also have a negative effect on their conservation. Geoethical education on rock sampling is therefore critical for conservation of the geological heritage. Geoethical principles and educational actions are aimed to be promoted at different levels to improve geological sciences development and to enhance conservation of important geological sites. Ethical protocols and codes of conduct should include geoconservation issues, being explicit about responsible sampling. Guided and inspired by the UK Geologists's Association "Code of Conduct for Rock Coring" (MacFadyen, 2010), we present a tentative outline requesting responsible behaviour: » Drill sampling is particularly threatening because it has a negative visual impact, whilst it is often unnecessary. Before sampling, geologists should think about the question "is drill sampling necessary for

  12. Innovaciones tecnológicas en la atención al cliente: Ushuaïa Ibiza Beach Hotel y Hard Rock Hotel Ibiza

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Cardona, José; Jiménez Caballero, José Luis (Coordinador)

    2016-01-01

    Palladium Hotel Group es la octava cadena hotelera de España y ha centrado sus objetivos en generar valor añadido para los clientes, siendo la experiencia emocional la línea central de su producto. El Ushuaïa Ibiza Beach Hotel y el Hard Rock Hotel Ibiza han sido el campo de pruebas de varias innovaciones tecnológicas para la atención al cliente: integración de las redes sociales en la experiencia del cliente (Social Presence); implantación de tecnología biométrica; uso de ...

  13. Mineralogical, chemical, and petrographic analysis of selected rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    I. The majority of rocks examined from the NTS were found to be siltstones, varying from coarse into the very fine siltstone range, and containing > 60% quartz, usually much higher. Samples of the UEIL series of cores, in contrast, had a large clay mineral fraction, as well as some carbonate present. A few were intermediate silty claystones or argillites. Microphotographs are included to illustrate the variations in texture observed, while most of the data obtained are summarized in tabular form. II. Seven Michigan Salina evaporite specimens were analyzed

  14. Rock samples from LEP/LHC tunnel excavation

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    Rock samples taken from 0 to 170 m below ground on the CERN site when the LEP (Large Electron Positron collider) pit number 6 was drilled in Bois-chatton (Versonnex). The challenges of LHC civil engineering: A mosaic of works, structures and workers of differents crafts and origins. Three consulting consortia for the engineering and the follow-up of the works. Four industrial consortia for doing the job. A young team of 25 CERN staff, 30 surface buildings, 32 caverns of all sizes, 170 000 m3 of concrete, 420 000 m3 excavated. 1998-2004 : six years of work and 340 millions Swiss Francs.

  15. Ultrasonic rock sampling using longitudinal-torsional vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoni, Andrea; Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret

    2010-04-01

    In the last years several European and US space projects have been focused on the development of surface rovers for planetary missions, such as ExoMars and Mars Exploration Rovers. The main function of these vehicles consists of moving across planet surfaces, and drilling and retrieving samples for in situ analysis. Recent research has shown that drilling of rock materials can be achieved using axially oscillating tuned devices which, compared with conventional rotary drills, operate at lower power and highly reduced preload requirements. As a result, at present, ultrasonics is considered a very promising technology for exobiological prospecting. In this work, two novel ultrasonic rock samplers, both operating in a longitudinal-torsional composite mode, are proposed along with the conceptual design of a full coring apparatus, for preload delivery and core removal. To assess the penetration capability of the excited composite vibrations, preliminary drilling trials were conducted. Since sand constitutes a significant portion of the Martian surface, sandstone was used in the trials. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis in sand samples from some beaches of Great Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Reginaldo R.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The natural radioactivity in superficial beach sand samples of 7 beaches of Great Vitoria, metropolitan region of the State of Espirito Santo, southeast Brazil, was determined from the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 4 0 K contents. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos, Camburi, Praia do Canto, Curva da Jurema, Itapua, Setibao and Areia Preta. Three samples of each beach were sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and stored in order to obtain secular equilibrium in the 238 U and 232 Th series. All samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra were analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The 232 Th concentration was determined from the average concentrations of 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi and the 226 Ra concentration was determined from the average concentrations of 214 Pb and 214 Bi. Preliminary results show concentrations varying from 9 Bq.kg -1 to 6035 Bq.kg -1 for 232 Th, from 4 Bq.kg -1 to 575 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra and from 13 Bq.kg -1 to 142 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. Areia Preta beach shows the highest values for 232 Th, while the highest value for 226 Ra was observed for Camburi beach. High values of 40 K were observed for Curva da Jurema beach. (author)

  17. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K analysis in sand samples from some beaches of Great Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo R.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes

    2009-07-01

    The natural radioactivity in superficial beach sand samples of 7 beaches of Great Vitoria, metropolitan region of the State of Espirito Santo, southeast Brazil, was determined from the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}0{sup K} contents. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos, Camburi, Praia do Canto, Curva da Jurema, Itapua, Setibao and Areia Preta. Three samples of each beach were sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and stored in order to obtain secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. All samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra were analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. Preliminary results show concentrations varying from 9 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 6035 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, from 4 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 575 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 13 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 142 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Areia Preta beach shows the highest values for {sup 232}Th, while the highest value for {sup 226}Ra was observed for Camburi beach. High values of {sup 40}K were observed for Curva da Jurema beach. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Ra, Th, K and radium equivalent activity in sand samples from Camburi Beach, Vitoria, Espirito Santos, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Camburi beach, in the city of Vitoria, Espirito Santo State. Brazil, is a naturally high background region in Brazil. The beach sands contain monazite, ilmenite and other accessory minerals rich in {sup 226}Ra, {sup 23}'2Th and {sup 40}K. As these radionuclides are the main natural contributors to external exposure from gamma rays, the knowledge of the sands radioactivity content plays an important role in radiation protection. In this work, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities concentrations, together with the radium equivalent activity, Ra{sub eq.} were determined in some selected sand samples from a single location at Camburi beach, known for the high level of radioactivity. The sand samples collected monthly from January to December 2011, were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL HPDE polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma-spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 23}'2Th series. Preliminary results, without considering samples self-attenuation, show activities concentrations in the range from 12 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 1022 {+-} 30 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 35 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 5731 {+-} 134 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 18 {+-} 4 Bqkg{sup -1} to 430 {+-} 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The Ra{sub eq}, presented values ranging from 63 Bq kg{sup -1} to 9250 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  19. Microstructural controls on the macroscopic behavior of geo-architected rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Reservoir caprocks, are known to span a range of mechanical behavior from elastic granitic units to visco-elastic shale units. Whether a rock will behave elastically, visco-elastically or plastically depends on both the compositional and textural or microsctructural components of the rock, and how these components are spatially distributed. In this study, geo-architected caprock fabrication was performed to develop synthetic rock to study the role of rock rheology on fracture deformations, fluid flow and geochemical alterations. Samples were geo-architected with Portland Type II cement, Ottawa sand, and different clays (kaolinite, illite, and Montmorillonite). The relative percentages of these mineral components are manipulated to generate different rock types. With set protocols, the mineralogical content, texture, and certain structural aspects of the rock were controlled. These protocols ensure that identical samples with the same morphological and mechanical characteristics are constructed, thus overcoming issues that may arise in the presence of heterogeneity and high anisotropy from natural rock samples. Several types of homogeneous geo-architected rock samples were created, and in some cases the methods were varied to manipulate the physical parameters of the rocks. Characterization of rocks that the samples exhibit good repeatability. Rocks with the same mineralogical content generally yielded similar compressional and shear wave velocities, UCS and densities. Geo-architected rocks with 10% clay in the matrix had lower moisture content and effective porosities than rocks with no clay. The process by which clay is added to the matrix can strongly affect the resulting compressive strength and physical properties of the geo-architected sample. Acknowledgment: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Geosciences Research Program under Award Number (DE-FG02-09ER16022).

  20. Molecular and culture dependent characterization of endolithic bacteria in two beach sand samples and description of Rhizobium endolithicum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, B; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2013-12-01

    Endolithic metagenome analysis of two beach samples collected form Chilika, Odisha, India indicated rich bacterial diversity. While the metagenome analysis of sample one yielded 16S rRNA gene sequences which represent six phyla and 16 genera, sample two yielded very rich diversity representing 17 phyla and 286 genera. Six species of bacteria were isolated from the endolithic enrichments and most of them have 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of >99 % with known taxa, except for strain JC140(T) having Rhizobium yanglingense SH22623(T) (96.8 %), R. alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T) (96.3 %), R. vignae CCBAU 05176(T) (96.2 %), R. mesosinicum CCBAU 25010(T) (96.1 %) and other members of the genus Rhizobium with Rhizobium for which, the name R. endolithicum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC140(T) (= KCTC32077(T) = CCUG64352(T) = MTCC11723(T) = HAMBI 2447(T)).

  1. Correlations fo Sc, rare earths and other elements in selected rock samples from Arrua-i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti, J.F.; Prats, M.

    1972-01-01

    The Sc and Eu contents in selected rocks samples from the stock of Arrua-i have been determined and correlations established with other elements and with the relative amount of some rare earths. These correlations suggest metasomatic phenomena for the formation of the rock samples

  2. Metal concentration in the tourist beaches of South Durban: An industrial hub of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrimurugan, E; Shruti, V C; Jonathan, M P; Roy, Priyadarsi D; Kunene, N W; Villegas, Lorena Elizabeth Campos

    2017-04-15

    South Durban basin of South Africa has witnessed tremendous urban, industrial expansion and mass tourism impacts exerting significant pressure over marine environments. 43 sediment samples from 7 different beaches (Bluff beach; Ansteys beach; Brighton beach; Cutting beach; Isipingo beach; Tiger Rocks beach; Amanzimtoti beach) were analyzed for acid leachable metals (ALMs) Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd, Zn and Hg. The metal concentrations found in all the beaches were higher than the background reference values (avg. in μgg -1 ) for Cr (223-352), Cu (27.67-42.10), Mo (3.11-4.70), Ni (93-118), Co (45.52-52.44), Zn (31.26-57.01) and Hg (1.13-2.36) suggesting the influence of industrial effluents and harbor activities in this region. Calculated geochemical indexes revealed that extreme contamination of Cr and Hg in all the beach sediments and high Cr and Ni levels poses adverse biological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement and Analysis of Specific Activities of Natural Radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) in Beach Sand Samples from Talo Kapo Beach of Yaring District in Pattani Province using Gamma Ray Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoh, M.; Masae, R. N.; Po-oh, S.; Boonkrongcheep; Kessaratikoon, P.

    2017-09-01

    The Specific Activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were studied and determinate for 30 beach sand samples collected from Talo Kapo beach of Yaring district in Pattani province. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system. The IAEA-SOIL-6 reference materials obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency were also used to analyze and compute the 40K, 226Ra and 232Th specific activity in all 30 beach sand samples. The measuring time of each sample is 10,000 seconds. It was found that specific activity range from 1805.37 – 3323.05, 40.96 – 2137.36 38.63 – 4329.28 Bq/kg for with mean values of 2242.79 ± 117.40, 250.18 ± 8.21 and 458.42 ± 7.68 Bq/kg for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th, respectively. Moreover, the results were also compared with research data in the south of Thailand, the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) annual report data and the recommended values which were proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR,)

  4. Wave refraction in relation to beach stability along the coast from Cape Ramas to Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gouveia, A.D.; Joseph, P.S.; Kurup, P.G.

    Results of wave refraction and beach profile studies are presented for a stretch of 35 km shore line comprising of Loliem Beach, Karwar, Karnataka, India which is separated by rock promontories from comparatively stable beaches on either side of it...

  5. Electromagnetic Radiation Generated by Acoustic Excitation of Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorovich, Lyudmila V.; Bespalko, Anatolii A.; Fedotov, Pavel I.; Baksht, Rina B.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents an experiment on acoustic excitation of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) signals in skarn, sandstone, and magnetite ore samples. For the skarn and sandstone samples, the EMR signal amplitude was observed to decrease with increasing ultimate strength. Supposedly, this effect can be explained by assuming that EMR is generated when an acoustic wave propagates through an electrical double layer. The presence of piezoelectric inclusions ( e.g., quartz) in the magnetite ore enhances the analog EMR signal and its spectral components.

  6. Rock Gripper for Sampling, Mobility, Anchoring, and Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    A new gripper mechanism can be used as an end effector for a long arm that reaches out from a nearby spacecraft for a touch-and-go type of mission. The gripper would stabilize the arm and allow samples to be collected and in situ science to be done from a fixed platform. In the long term, this style of gripper could even be used as handholds for astronauts trying to move about on/near small asteroids. The prototype developed has demonstrated a 120 N gripping force, and improvements continue to be made.

  7. Modified sampling design for age-0 fish electrofishing at beach habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2010), s. 1210-1220 ISSN 0275-5947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : young-of-the-year * electrofishing * sampling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.203, year: 2010

  8. An axisymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M; Hiratsuka, T; Ito, K; Finsterle, S

    2011-04-25

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an

  9. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an

  10. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  11. Quality of Tourist Beaches in Huatulco, SW of Mexico: Multiproxy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retama, I.; Jonathan, M. P.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    40 beach water and sediment samples were collected from the inter-tidal zones of tourist beaches of Huatulco in the State of Oaxaca, South Western part of Mexico. The samples were collected in an aim to know the concentration pattern of metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, As, Hg) in sediments and microplastics. Physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solids, salinity and redox potential. Collection of samples was done during the peak season in April 2013. Our results from water samples indicate that the physico-chemical conditions of the beach water have been altered due to human activities in large numbers. The bioavailable metal concentrations indicate that enrichment of Pb, Cd, Cr and As and it is also supported by the higher values observed from the calculation of enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index. The higher values in the sediments is either due to natural sources like chemical weathering of rocks and external sources, which points to high tourism, agricultural activities in the region. Identification of micro-plastics was done through SEM photographs, indicating the type of plastic wastes deposited into the beach regions which can indicate the density, durability and the persistence level in the sediments. Eventhough the enrichment of metals and modification of beach water quality is observed, care need to be taken to avoid further damage to the coastal ecosystem. Keywords: Tourism, Beach sediments, Beach water, Micro plastics, Trace metals, Contamination indices, Huatulco, Mexico.

  12. Natural radioactivity of beach sand samples in Port Sudan, red sea state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambal, Wala Haider Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Natural radioactivity is a source of continuous exposure to human beings. In Port Sudan city, the main port of Sudan, data on the levels of natural radioactivity in soil is required. The aim of this study was to measure the activity concentration as well as the absorbed dose and annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in soil samples collected from different locations around Red Sea costa areas in Port Sudan city. Activity concentrations were measured using gamma ray spectrometry (Nal) detector. Results showed that the average activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were found to be 21.86, 17.55, 85.50 Bqkg 1 , respectively, with an average absorbed dose of 10.42, 9.40 and 3.57 nGyh 1 , respectively. The average annual effective dose values were found to be 11.89, 11.54 and 4.37 μSvy 1 for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The measured values were comparable with other global radioactivity measurements and found to be safe for public and environment.(Author)

  13. Lake Beach Monitoring Locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...

  14. Determination of uranium and thorium in rock samples from Harargaj Anticline by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Molla, N.I.; Sharif, A.K.M.; Basunia, S.; Islam, S.; Miah, R.U.; Hossain, S.M.; Chowdhury, M.I.; Bhuiyan, A.D.; Stegnar, P.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium and thorium were determined in geological materials such as radioactive rock samples collected from the Harargaj Anticline in Moulavi Bazar. The pure instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used in qualitative and quantitative analysis of the rock samples for U and Th. The samples were properly prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of the order of 10 12 n*cm -2 *s -1 using the TRIGA MARK II research reactor facility at the AERE, Savar, Dhaka. After activation the samples were subjected to γ-ray spectrometry using a high purity germanium detection system. As a result of the analysis, U and Th could be determined. The data are consistent with the values reported by the ground radiometric survey group for some of the samples. (author) 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  15. Data Validation Package September 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nguyen, Jason [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-01-04

    The Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites are referred to as the Slick Rock West Processing Site (SRK05) and the Slick Rock East Processing Site (SRK06). This annual event involved sampling both sites for a total of 16 monitoring wells and 6 surface water locations as required by the 2006 Draft Final Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites (GCAP). A domestic well was also sampled at a property adjacent to the Slick Rock East site at the request of the landowner.

  16. Performance improvement of ionic surfactant flooding in carbonate rock samples by use of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various surfactants have been used in upstream petroleum processes like chemical flooding. Ultimately, the performance of these surfactants depends on their ability to reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water. The surfactant concentration in the aqueous solution decreases owing to the loss of the surfactant on the rock surface in the injection process. The main objective of this paper is to inhibit the surfactant loss by means of adding nanoparticles. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and silica nanoparticles were used as ionic surfactant and nanoparticles in our experiments, respectively. AEROSIL® 816 and AEROSIL® 200 are hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanoparticles. To determine the adsorption loss of the surfactant onto rock samples, a conductivity approach was used. Real carbonate rock samples were used as the solid phase in adsorption experiments. It should be noted that the rock samples were water wet. This paper describes how equilibrium adsorption was investigated by examining adsorption behavior in a system of carbonate sample (solid phase and surfactant solution (aqueous phase. The initial surfactant and nanoparticle concentrations were 500–5000 and 500–2000 ppm, respectively. The rate of surfactant losses was extremely dependent on the concentration of the surfactant in the system, and the adsorption of the surfactant decreased with an increase in the nanoparticle concentration. Also, the hydrophilic nanoparticles are more effective than the hydrophobic nanoparticles.

  17. Acoustic emission of quasi-isotropic rock samples initiated by temperature gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vasin, R.N.; Nikitin, A. N.; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Rudajev, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2006), s. 815-823 ISSN 1069-3513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : seismoacoustic emission * rock sample * temperature gradient Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.092, year: 2006

  18. Laboratory measurement of dielectric constant and loss tangent of Indian rock samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHANDRA P. SINGH

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The data on dielectric properties of Indian rock samples are very
    sparsely reported in the literature. Keeping this in view, we have carried
    out laboratory measurements of the dielectric constant and loss tangents
    of some samples of sandstone, quartzite, limestone, marble, dolerite and
    basalt. LCR bridge and Q-meter have been employed for measurements
    in the frequency range 10 - 10' Hz. The results have been presented in the
    form of variation of these parameters with frequency which show characteristic
    features. Observations on the effect of moisture content of these
    samples on the dielectric properties have also been reported. Further,
    correlation of petrographic studies of rock samples with measured variations
    of dielectric properties has been attempted.

  19. GANSEKI: JAMSTEC Deep Seafloor Rock Sample Database Emerging to the New Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, T.; Ichiyama, Y.; Horikawa, H.; Sato, Y.; Soma, S.; Hanafusa, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) collects a lot of substantial samples as well as various geophysical data using its research vessels and submersibles. These samples and data, which are obtained by spending large amounts of human and physical resources, are precious wealth of the world scientific community. For the better use of these samples and data, it is important that they are utilized not only for initial purpose of each cruse but also for other general scientific and educational purposes of second-hand users. Based on the JAMSTEC data and sample handling policies [1], JAMSTEC has systematically stored samples and data obtained during research cruises, and provided them to domestic/foreign activities on research, education, and public relation. Being highly valued for second-hand usability, deep seafloor rock samples are one of the most important types of samples obtained by JAMSTEC, as oceanic biological samples and sediment core samples are. Rock samples can be utilized for natural history sciences and other various purposes; some of these purposes are connected to socially important issues such as earthquake mechanisms and mineral resource developments. Researchers and educators can access to JAMSTEC rock samples and associated data through 'GANSEKI [2]', the JAMSTEC Deep Seafloor Rock Sample Database. GANSEKI was established on the Internet in 2006 and its contents and functions have been continuously enriched and upgraded since then. GANSEKI currently provides 19 thousands of sample metadata, 9 thousands of collection inventory data and 18 thousands of geochemical data. Most of these samples are recovered from the North-western Pacific Ocean, although samples from other area are also included. The major update of GANSEKI held in May 2013 involved a replacement of database core system and a redesign of user interface. In the new GANSEKI, users can select samples easily and precisely using multi-index search, numerical

  20. Porosity, permeability and 3D fracture network characterisation of dolomite reservoir rock samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorn, Maarten; Exner, Ulrike; Barnhoorn, Auke; Baud, Patrick; Reuschlé, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    With fractured rocks making up an important part of hydrocarbon reservoirs worldwide, detailed analysis of fractures and fracture networks is essential. However, common analyses on drill core and plug samples taken from such reservoirs (including hand specimen analysis, thin section analysis and laboratory porosity and permeability determination) however suffer from various problems, such as having a limited resolution, providing only 2D and no internal structure information, being destructive on the samples and/or not being representative for full fracture networks. In this paper, we therefore explore the use of an additional method - non-destructive 3D X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) - to obtain more information on such fractured samples. Seven plug-sized samples were selected from narrowly fractured rocks of the Hauptdolomit formation, taken from wellbores in the Vienna basin, Austria. These samples span a range of different fault rocks in a fault zone interpretation, from damage zone to fault core. We process the 3D μCT data in this study by a Hessian-based fracture filtering routine and can successfully extract porosity, fracture aperture, fracture density and fracture orientations - in bulk as well as locally. Additionally, thin sections made from selected plug samples provide 2D information with a much higher detail than the μCT data. Finally, gas- and water permeability measurements under confining pressure provide an important link (at least in order of magnitude) towards more realistic reservoir conditions. This study shows that 3D μCT can be applied efficiently on plug-sized samples of naturally fractured rocks, and that although there are limitations, several important parameters can be extracted. μCT can therefore be a useful addition to studies on such reservoir rocks, and provide valuable input for modelling and simulations. Also permeability experiments under confining pressure provide important additional insights. Combining these and

  1. Porosity, permeability and 3D fracture network characterisation of dolomite reservoir rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorn, Maarten; Exner, Ulrike; Barnhoorn, Auke; Baud, Patrick; Reuschlé, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    With fractured rocks making up an important part of hydrocarbon reservoirs worldwide, detailed analysis of fractures and fracture networks is essential. However, common analyses on drill core and plug samples taken from such reservoirs (including hand specimen analysis, thin section analysis and laboratory porosity and permeability determination) however suffer from various problems, such as having a limited resolution, providing only 2D and no internal structure information, being destructive on the samples and/or not being representative for full fracture networks. In this paper, we therefore explore the use of an additional method – non-destructive 3D X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) – to obtain more information on such fractured samples. Seven plug-sized samples were selected from narrowly fractured rocks of the Hauptdolomit formation, taken from wellbores in the Vienna basin, Austria. These samples span a range of different fault rocks in a fault zone interpretation, from damage zone to fault core. We process the 3D μCT data in this study by a Hessian-based fracture filtering routine and can successfully extract porosity, fracture aperture, fracture density and fracture orientations – in bulk as well as locally. Additionally, thin sections made from selected plug samples provide 2D information with a much higher detail than the μCT data. Finally, gas- and water permeability measurements under confining pressure provide an important link (at least in order of magnitude) towards more realistic reservoir conditions. This study shows that 3D μCT can be applied efficiently on plug-sized samples of naturally fractured rocks, and that although there are limitations, several important parameters can be extracted. μCT can therefore be a useful addition to studies on such reservoir rocks, and provide valuable input for modelling and simulations. Also permeability experiments under confining pressure provide important additional insights. Combining these

  2. Physical and hydrologic properties of rock outcrop samples at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Rautman, C.A.; Istok, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Studies are underway at Yucca Mountain to characterize physical and hydrologic conditions for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Site characterization requires the development of three- dimensional models describing hydrogeologic units in terms of inputs for numerical models. It is also important to understand the spatial distribution of these properties, vertical and horizontally, in order to estimate values at unmeasured points. Deterministic processes of volcanism caused the initial formation of the rock units, and it is useful to be able to correlate rock properties with the more qualitative descriptions of rock lithology that occur on a larger scale. Preliminary data were collected to develop methods and evaluate spatial relations to determine sampling frequency. In addition, a data base was developed to provide some of the parameters needed for preliminary flow-modeling exercises. Surface transects of rock outcrops facilitated rapid collection of closely spaced samples of all units exposed at and around Yucca Mountain. This report presents the data collected, descriptive statistics for various units, preliminary hydrogeologic units, and analyses of porosity compared with flow properties

  3. Mineralogy, petrology and whole-rock chemistry data compilation for selected samples of Yucca Mountain tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, J.R.

    1991-12-01

    Petrologic, bulk chemical, and mineralogic data are presented for 49 samples of tuffaceous rocks from core holes USW G-1 and UE-25a number-sign 1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Included, in descending stratigraphic order, are 11 samples from the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, 12 samples from the Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills, 3 samples from the Prow Pass Member of the Crater Flat Tuff, 20 samples from the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff and 3 samples from the Tram Member of the Crater Flat Tuff. The suite of samples contains a wide variety of petrologic types, including zeolitized, glassy, and devitrified tuffs. Data vary considerably between groups of samples, and include thin section descriptions (some with modal analyses for which uncertainties are estimated), electron microprobe analyses of mineral phases and matrix, mineral identifications by X-ray diffraction, and major element analyses with uncertainty estimates

  4. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  5. Analysis of Precious Stones Deposited in Various Rock Samples of Mogok Region by energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyi Kyi San; Soe Lwin; Win Win Thar; Sein Htoon

    2004-06-01

    The analysis of precious stones deposited in various rock samples of Mogok region were investigated by the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. The x-ray machine with Rh target was used to excite the characteristic x-ray from the sample. X-rays emitted from the sample were measured by a high resolution, cooled Si (Li) detector. The calibration was made by the measurement of minerals which composed in each kind of precious stones. The kind of precious stone deposited in the rocks sample was determined by the measurement of minerals from the rock samples compared with those obtained from each kind of precious stones

  6. Standard characterization of phosphate rock samples from the FAO/IAEA phosphate project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, Truong; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphate rocks (PR) are phosphate-bearing minerals that vary widely in their inherent characteristics and consequently their agronomic potential. In the framework of a FAO/IAEA networked research project, the evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified PR products under a variety of soil climate and crop management conditions was carried out. The characterization of phosphate rocks is the first and essential step in evaluating their suitability for direct application. If several PR sources are utilized, standardized methods should be used for comparison purposes to determine their agronomic potential. This paper describes the standard characterization of phosphate rock products utilized in the project, in particular the mineralogical and crystallographic analyses, physical analyses, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents. A total of 28 phosphate rock samples from 15 countries were collected and analyzed in specialized laboratories. The data on mineralogy, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents are closely interrelated. An arbitrary classification of the reactivity of the PR samples was made based on the solubility indices in conventional reagents. On another hand, the results of the crystallographic parameters, calculated indices of absolute solubility, specific surface and porosity reflect the variability of the physical state and the sample pre-conditioning treatment of the analyzed products. A proper characterization of phosphate rock samples should provide the maximum of basic information that can be obtained in a cost-effective manner in normal chemical laboratories. Based on the results of this characterization, the following determinations are recommended: a description of the sample, major elemental (total P, Ca, Mg) composition, solubility in conventional reagents (neutral ammonium citrate, citric and formic acid) and particle size analysis. The classification of PR samples for direct

  7. Specificities of an Intercomparison on a Rock Sample from the Island of Jabuka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, D.; Petrinec, B.; Sostaric, M.; Zorko, B.

    2013-01-01

    We carried out an interlaboratory comparison in gamaspectrometric determination of the radionuclide activity concentrations in a sample of superficial rocks from the island of Jabuka. Samples in a cylindrical 100 ml geometry and in a 1 l Marinelli beakers were used to measure the activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra, 228Ra, 238U, 235U, and 210Pb. The rock sample has specific characteristic when compared with samples of water, food, or sediments, which are usually used in intercomparisons, and this consequently affects its use in gammaspectrometry. Therefore, we especially paid attention to sample preparation. The material was homogenised by grinding in a geological mill down to the grain size of 2 mm, and subsequently it rested in order to obtain equilibrium of naturally occurring radionuclides. In addition to exhibiting enhanced natural radioactivity, this sample was special by its high density which significantly influenced the attenuation of gamma radiation, hence imposing the necessity of correcting measured activity concentrations. These corrections were especially important at low energies (below 100 keV), i.e., for gamma rays emitted by 210Pb and 234Th.(author)

  8. Geophysical, geochemical, mineralogical, and enivronmental data for rock samples collected in a mineralized volcanic environment, upper Animas River watershed, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, A.E.; Horton, R.J.; Stanton, M.R.; McDougal, R.R.; Fey, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides analyses of 90 rock samples collected in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colo., from 2001 to 2007. The samples are analyzed for geophysical, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental rock properties of acid neutralizing capacity and net acid production. The database is derived from both published (n=68) and unpublished (n=32) data. New for all samples are geophysical measurements of electrical resistivity, density, and porosity. Rock samples were acquired from 12 geologic units that include key Tertiary volcanic and plutonic lithologies, all with varying degrees of alteration.

  9. The results of experimental studies of VLF–ULF electromagnetic emission by rock samples due to mechanical action

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Panfilov

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory experiments on electromagnetic emission excitation (electric component of electromagnetic field) by rock samples due to different forms of mechanical stress applications. It was shown that samples generate electric impulses with different spectra when the impact action, gradual loading or dynamic friction is applied. It was ascertained that level and spectral compositions of signals, generated by rock samples, cha...

  10. Analysis of phosphate rock samples for vanadium using accelerator-based thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khiari, F.Z.; Aksoy, A.; Sahin, A.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive sedimentary phosphate deposits exist in the Sirhan-Turayf basin in northwestern Saudi Arabia containing significant amounts of uranium, thorium, vanadium and rare earth elements. The determination of the concentration and pattern of distribution of some of these elements is essential for economic aspects. Analysis of vanadium in selected phosphate rock samples from the basin using accelerator-based thermal neutrons activation analysis (TNAA) is reported. Samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 2.5 x 10 6 n x cm -2 x s -1 . The induced activity was measured with a HP-GMX detector coupled to a PC-based data acquisition and analysis system. The facility was calibrated using certified standards of vanadium. The minimum detection limit of vanadium was about 1 mg. Three independent measurements on each sample yielded comparable results indicating the reliability of the technique. The vanadium concentrations in the samples vary from 23 to 457 ppm. (author)

  11. A Procedure to Determine the Optimal Sensor Positions for Locating AE Sources in Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, S.; Occhiena, C.; Sambuelli, L.

    2015-03-01

    Within a research work aimed to better understand frost weathering mechanisms of rocks, laboratory tests have been designed to specifically assess a theoretical model of crack propagation due to ice segregation process in water-saturated and thermally microcracked cubic samples of Arolla gneiss. As the formation and growth of microcracks during freezing tests on rock material is accompanied by a sudden release of stored elastic energy, the propagation of elastic waves can be detected, at the laboratory scale, by acoustic emission (AE) sensors. The AE receiver array geometry is a sensitive factor influencing source location errors, for it can greatly amplify the effect of small measurement errors. Despite the large literature on the AE source location, little attention, to our knowledge, has been paid to the description of the experimental design phase. As a consequence, the criteria for sensor positioning are often not declared and not related to location accuracy. In the present paper, a tool for the identification of the optimal sensor position on a cubic shape rock specimen is presented. The optimal receiver configuration is chosen by studying the condition numbers of each of the kernel matrices, used for inverting the arrival time and finding the source location, and obtained for properly selected combinations between sensors and sources positions.

  12. Determination of uranium, thorium and potassium contents of rock samples in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulrahman Abdul-Hadi; Wedad Al-Qadhi; Enayat El-Zeen

    2011-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium contents in 16 different rock samples from various sites in Republic of Yemen were determined using three different techniques of analysis: γ-spectrometry, Instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The concentration range for thorium, uranium and potassium were found to be from 9,810 ± 272 to 3.6 ± 1.3 ppm, 1,072 ± 40 to 1.2 ± 0.7 ppm and 11 ± 1 to 0.26 ± 0.05%, respectively. (author)

  13. Diffusion coefficients of some cations in a mud rock sample from the Bure site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melkior, T.; Yahiaoui, S.; Thoby, D.; Barthes, V. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France)

    2005-07-01

    Clayey materials exhibit attractive features as barrier for radioactive waste confinement, such as low permeability, high retention capacity, long-term stability, etc. The low permeability of such materials often makes diffusion the principal mechanism for migration of radionuclides potentially released from waste canisters. Therefore, diffusion of dissolved species has been extensively investigated in clay-based porous media. The purpose of this work is to investigate the diffusion of alkaline cations (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +}) in a mud-rock sample from the Bure site (Meuse/Haute-Marne, France). (authors)

  14. Environmental impacts of waste produced from processing of different uraniferous rock samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim E. El Aassy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Radon exhalation rates from five studied laboratory waste samples resulted from five different sedimentary rock types named sandy dolostone, siltstone –two samples-, marly claystone and black shale were measured using ‘‘Sealed Can technique”. These rates were found to vary between 0.005 and 0.015 Bq m−2 h−1. A positive correlation was found between the radon exhalation rates and the radium activities. The emanation coefficients were calculated for these laboratory waste samples which varied between 0.0004 and 0.0007 according to the physical and chemical characterize of the wastes. These results are partially in accordance with autonite acid leached tailings on laboratory scale (USA. These results led us to pay attention about the effect and impact of these wastes on the environment.

  15. Specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in beach sand samples in Songkhla province, Thailand after Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessaratikoon, P.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Choosiri, N.; Daoh, M.; Udomsomporn, S.

    2017-06-01

    According to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, specific activities of natural (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 210 beach sand samples which were collected from Maharat, Sai Kaew, Samila, Chalatat, Na Thab, Sakom and Soi Sawan beaches in Songkhla Province along the eastern coast of Thailand, have been studied and evaluated. The specific activity levels of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs in the area were found in the range 110.13 - 4574.12, 6.99 - 451.87, 3.75 - 665.76 and 0.58- 9.91 Bq/Kg, respectively. Furthermore, the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were calculated and compared with other research data in Thailand as well as global measurements and evaluations. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the studied area were also assessed by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th.

  16. Physical properties and petrologic description of rock samples from an IOCG mineralized area in the northern Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrin, Alessandro; Edfelt, Å.; Waight, Tod Earle

    2009-01-01

    magnetization, variation of magnetic susceptibility with temperature, Curie temperature and density). The major Cu-prospect in the area has been studied by magnetic and electron microprobe analyses of four selected rock samples. The samples are from an exploration well that intersects the main Cu mineralized......, microprobe observations indicate that Fe-sulfides are present in negligible amounts in the samples from the Tjårrojåkka area. The strong spatial relationship of Cu-minerals (e.g., chalcopyrite) and the oxidation of magnetite to hematite suggest that the presence of rocks with low magnetic susceptibility......The Tjårrojåkka Fe-Cu prospect in northern Sweden is considered an example of a Fe-oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) deposit and is hosted in metamorphosed Paleoproterozoic volcanic and intrusive rocks. Rock samples from 24 outcrops were collected for petrophysical analysis (magnetic susceptibility, remanent...

  17. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  18. Super resolution reconstruction of μ-CT image of rock sample using neighbour embedding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuzhu; Rahman, Sheik S.; Arns, Christoph H.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray computed tomography (μ-CT) is considered to be the most effective way to obtain the inner structure of rock sample without destructions. However, its limited resolution hampers its ability to probe sub-micro structures which is critical for flow transportation of rock sample. In this study, we propose an innovative methodology to improve the resolution of μ-CT image using neighbour embedding algorithm where low frequency information is provided by μ-CT image itself while high frequency information is supplemented by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image. In order to obtain prior for reconstruction, a large number of image patch pairs contain high- and low- image patches are extracted from the Gaussian image pyramid generated by SEM image. These image patch pairs contain abundant information about tomographic evolution of local porous structures under different resolution spaces. Relying on the assumption of self-similarity of porous structure, this prior information can be used to supervise the reconstruction of high resolution μ-CT image effectively. The experimental results show that the proposed method is able to achieve the state-of-the-art performance.

  19. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Torri, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    A new method has been developed for determination of 21 Pb and 21 Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices. The samples were first fused with Na 2 CO 3 and Na 2 O 2 at 600 o C for pre-treatment and then 210 Pb and 210 Po were sequentially leached out at 200-250 o C with HNO 3 +HF, HClO 4 and HCl. About 10% of the leaching solution was used for 21 Po determination, carried out by spontaneous deposition of polonium on a silver disc from a weakly acidic solution that contained hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium citrate and 209 Po tracer, measurement being made by α-spectrometry. The remains of the leaching solution were used for determination of 21 Pb, conducted by precipitation as sulphate, purification with Na 2 S as PbS in 6 M ammonium acetate, separation from α-emitters by an anion-exchange resin column, source preparation as PbSO 4 , and measurement with a β-counter. The procedure has been checked with two certified IAEA reference materials, showing good agreement with the recommended values. The lower limits of detection for 1 g of analysed soil or rock samples were found to be 0.75 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po and 2.2 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb. A variety of solid sample species analysed through use of the procedure gave average yields of 90.0±9.8% for 210 Po and 88.4±7.1% for 210 Pb

  20. The Importance of Sample Processing in Analysis of Asbestos Content in Rocks and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, R. D.; Wright, J.

    2012-12-01

    Analysis of asbestos content in rocks and soils using Air Resources Board (ARB) Test Method 435 (M435) involves the processing of samples for subsequent analysis by polarized light microscopy (PLM). The use of different equipment and procedures by commercial laboratories to pulverize rock and soil samples could result in different particle size distributions. It has long been theorized that asbestos-containing samples can be over-pulverized to the point where the particle dimensions of the asbestos no longer meet the required 3:1 length-to-width aspect ratio or the particles become so small that they no longer can be tested for optical characteristics using PLM where maximum PLM magnification is typically 400X. Recent work has shed some light on this issue. ARB staff conducted an interlaboratory study to investigate variability in preparation and analytical procedures used by laboratories performing M435 analysis. With regard to sample processing, ARB staff found that different pulverization equipment and processing procedures produced powders that have varying particle size distributions. PLM analysis of the finest powders produced by one laboratory showed all but one of the 12 samples were non-detect or below the PLM reporting limit; in contrast to the other 36 coarser samples from the same field sample and processed by three other laboratories where 21 samples were above the reporting limit. The set of 12, exceptionally fine powder samples produced by the same laboratory was re-analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and results showed that these samples contained asbestos above the TEM reporting limit. However, the use of TEM as a stand-alone analytical procedure, usually performed at magnifications between 3,000 to 20,000X, also has its drawbacks because of the miniscule mass of sample that this method examines. The small amount of powder analyzed by TEM may not be representative of the field sample. The actual mass of the sample powder analyzed by

  1. Supplement to the UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado. The initial WSAP was finalized in August 1994 and will be completely revised in accordance with the WSAP guidance document (DOE, 1995) in late 1996. This version supplements the initial WSAP, reflects only minor changes in sampling that occurred in 1995, covers sampling scheduled for early 1996, and provides a preliminary projection of the next 5 years of sampling and monitoring activities. Once surface remedial action is completed at the former processing sites, additional and more detailed hydrogeologic characterization may be needed to develop the Ground Water Program conceptual ground water model and proposed compliance strategy. In addition, background ground water quality needs to be clearly defined to ensure that the baseline risk assessment accurately estimated risks from the contaminants of potential concern in contaminated ground water at the UC and NC sites

  2. Small population size of Pribilof Rock Sandpipers confirmed through distance-sampling surveys in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.

  3. Three-Dimensional SIP Imaging of Rock Core Sample: Numerical Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, J.; Kim, J.; Yi, M.

    2007-12-01

    SIP (spectral IP) method is known as complex resistivity method because it measures and uses both the magnitude and the phases. SIP method had been mainly used in the field of mineral explorations, but recently SIP method extended its application to the environmental problem, because the real and imaginary components of interpreted complex resistivity are related to the hydraulic property of subsurface. In this study, we used the SIP method to monitor the physical property change during injection of CO2 gas into a rock sample in the laboratory experiments. For this purpose, we developed three-dimensional SIP modeling and inversion algorithm based on the complex resistivity. We chose the FEM (finite element method) in the modeling algorithm, and we deformed a rectangular grid to a cylinder shape to build the cylinder model, like core samples. To verify the SIP modeling algorithm, we tested our algorithm to a simple isolated block model in homogeneous half space and compare its results with those from three-dimensional integral equation method. Results from the different two methods are quite well matched. To verify the inversion algorithm developed, we applied it to the simple isolated earth model and compared its inversion result with true model. Inverted result shows smoother distribution of conductivity and phase than true model due to the smoothness constraints which are necessary for the stability of inversion. Although the values of conductivity and phase are somewhat underestimated than true value and its distribution is smoother than the given model, we can clearly see the location of conductive anomaly. We could confirm the validity of developed inversion algorithm from these results. After finishing the verification, we applied the developed algorithm to imaging of a rock core model. The core model has conductive and reactive anomalous body at the center of the model. We simulate the SIP survey using 16 electrodes on the surface of the model, and then

  4. Stress Drop as a Result of Splitting, Brittle and Transitional Faulting of Rock Samples in Uniaxial and Triaxial Compression Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Jerzy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rock samples can behave brittle, transitional or ductile depending on test pressure, rate of loading and temperature. Axial stiffness and its changes, relative and absolute dilatancy, yield, and fracture thresholds, residual strength are strongly pressure dependent. In this paper the stress drop as an effect of rock sample strength loss due to failure was analyzed. Uniaxial and triaxial experiments on three types of rock were performed to investigate the stress drop phenomenon. The paper first introduces short background on rock behavior and parameters defining a failure process under uniaxial and triaxial loading conditions. Stress drop data collected with experiments are analyzed and its pressure dependence phenomenon is described. Two methods for evaluation of stress drop value are presented.

  5. The presence of radioactive materials in soil, sand and sediment samples of Potenga sea beach area, Chittagong, Bangladesh: Geological characteristics and environmental implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Sabina; Barua, Bijoy Sonker; Uddin Khandaker, Mayeen; Kamal, Masud; Abdur Rashid, Md.; Abdul Sani, S. F.; Ahmed, H.; Nikouravan, Bijan; Bradley, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Accurate quantification of naturally occurring radioactive materials in soil provides information on geological characteristics, possibility of petroleum and mineral exploration, radiation hazards to the dwelling populace etc. Of practical significance, the earth surface media (soil, sand and sediment) collected from the densely populated coastal area of Chittagong city, Bangladesh were analysed using a high purity germanium γ-ray spectrometer with low background radiation environment. The mean activities of 226Ra (238U), 232Th and 40K in the studied materials show higher values than the respective world average of 33, 36 and 474 Bq/kg reported by the UNSCEAR (2000). The deduced mass concentrations of the primordial radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in the investigated samples are corresponding to the granite rocks, crustal minerals and typical rocks respectively. The estimated mean value of 232Th/238U for soil (3.98) and sediment (3.94) are in-line with the continental crustal average concentration of 3.82 for typical rock range reported by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). But the tonalites and more silicic rocks elevate the mean value of 232Th/238U for sand samples amounting to 4.69. This indicates a significant fractionation during weathering or associated with the metasomatic activity in the investigated area of sand collection.

  6. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  7. Radioactivity And Dose Assessment Of Rock And Soil Samples From Homa Mountain, Homa Bay County, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otwoma, D.; Patel, J.P.; Bartilol, S.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2013-01-01

    The in situ measured average outdoor absorbed dose rate in air was found to vary from 108.4 to 1596.4 n Gy h -1 at Homa Mountain area in southwestern Kenya. Rock and soil samples collected gave average values of the radioactivity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th of 915.6, 195.3 and 409.5 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The range of the annual effective dose for a person living in Homa Mountain area calculated varied from 28.6 to 1681.2, with a mean of 470.4 μSv. These results imply Homa Mountain have elevated levels of natural radioactivity thus the region is a high background radiation area

  8. Can Beach Cleans Do More Than Clean-Up Litter? Comparing Beach Cleans to Other Coastal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Kayleigh J; Pahl, Sabine; Holland, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C

    2017-06-01

    Coastal visits not only provide psychological benefits but can also contribute to the accumulation of rubbish. Volunteer beach cleans help address this issue, but may only have limited, local impact. Consequently, it is important to study any broader benefits associated with beach cleans. This article examines the well-being and educational value of beach cleans, as well as their impacts on individuals' behavioral intentions. We conducted an experimental study that allocated students ( n = 90) to a beach cleaning, rock pooling, or walking activity. All three coastal activities were associated with positive mood and pro-environmental intentions. Beach cleaning and rock pooling were associated with higher marine awareness. The unique impacts of beach cleaning were that they were rated as most meaningful but linked to lower restorativeness ratings of the environment compared with the other activities. This research highlights the interplay between environment and activities, raising questions for future research on the complexities of person-environment interactions.

  9. Daily beach profiles and littoral environmental observations off Baga, Calangute and Miramar beaches during November-December 1999

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Raju, N.S.N.; Gowthaman, R.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    16th November-15th December 1999, are as follows: (1) daily beach profiles, (2) daily littoral environmental observations and (3) beach sediment samples for grain size distribution. Longshore sediment transport rate is estimated theoretically based...

  10. Evaluation of stress and saturation effects on seismic velocity and electrical resistivity - laboratory testing of rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    Repository, located in a deep geological formation, is today considered the most suitable solution for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The geological formations, in combination with an engineered barrier system, should ensure isolation of the waste from the environment for thousands of years. For long-term monitoring of such underground excavations special monitoring systems are developed. In our research we developed and tested monitoring system based on repeated ultrasonic time of flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). As a test site Bedřichov gallery in the northern Bohemia was selected. This underground gallery in granitic rock was excavated using Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). The seismic high-frequency measurements are performed by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock wall using one seismic source and three receivers in the distances of 1, 2 and 3 m. The ERT measurement is performed also on the rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes is 20 centimeters. An analysis of relation of seismic velocity and electrical resistivity on water saturation and stress state of the granitic rock is necessary for the interpretation of both seismic monitoring and ERT. Laboratory seismic and resistivity measurements were performed. One series of experiments was based on uniaxial loading of dry and saturated granitic samples. The relation between stress state and ultrasonic wave velocities was tested separately for dry and saturated rock samples. Other experiments were focused on the relation between electrical resistivity of the rock sample and its saturation level. Rock samples with different porosities were tested. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA 0302408

  11. Determination of the thermal neutron absorption cross section for rock samples by a single measurement of the time decay constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krynicka, E.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for the determination of the thermal neutron macroscopic mass absorption cross section for rock samples is presented. The standard deviation of the final results is discussed in detail. A big advantage of the presented method is that the calibration curves have been found using the results obtained for a variety of natural rock samples of different stratigraphies and lithologies measured by Czubek's methods. An important part of the paper is a through analysis of the standard deviation of the final result. (author). 13 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs

  12. A new method for determining the uranium and thorium distribution in volcanic rock samples using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Bakhchi, A.; Ktata, A.; Koutit, A.; Lamine, J.; Ait nouh, F.; Oufni, L.

    2000-01-01

    A method based on using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) CR- 39 and LR-115 type II and calculating the probabilities for the alpha particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on these films was utilized for uranium and thorium contents determination in various geological samples. The distribution of uranium and thorium in different volcanic rocks has been investigated using the track fission method. In this work, the uranium and thorium contents have been determined in different volcanic rock samples by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The mean critical angles of etching of the solid state nuclear track detectors utilized have been calculated. A petrographical study of the volcanic rock thin layers studied has been conducted. The uranium and thorium distribution inside different rock thin layers has been studied. The mechanism of inclusion of the uranium and thorium nuclei inside the volcanic rock samples studied has been investigated. (author)

  13. Small Population Size of the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper Confirmed through Distance-Sampling Surveys in Alaska

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruthrauff, D.R.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Gill, R.E.; Dementyev, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to

  14. Post tsunami rebuilding of beaches and the texture of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.; Sudha, V.; Sunderasen, D.

    and textural statistic studies. In view of the presence tsunami in between, the beach sand composition and texture have been drastically changed, the studies on beach re-building effort has been initiated in continuing the beach sand sample collection to 2006...

  15. Fault rocks from the SAFOD core samples : implications for weakening at shallow depths along the San Andreas Fault, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holdsworth, R.E.; van Diggelen, E.W.E.; Spiers, C.J.; Bresser, J.H.P. de; Walker, R.J.; Bown, L.

    2011-01-01

    The drilling of a deep borehole across the actively creeping Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ), California, and collection of core materials permit direct geological study of fault zone processes at 2–3 km depth. The three drill cores sample both host and fault rocks and pass

  16. Indicators of microbial beach water quality: preliminary findings from Teluk Kemang beach, Port Dickson (Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Chen, Kwan Soo; Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed

    2013-11-15

    This study aims to determine the concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in beach water, Teluk Kemang beach. This study was also aimed to determine relationship between total coliforms, E. coli and physicochemical parameters. As perceived health symptoms among beach visitors are rarely incorporated in beach water studies, this element was also assessed in this study. A total of eight water sampling points were selected randomly along Teluk Kemang beach. Total coliforms concentrations were found between 20 and 1940 cfu/100ml. E. coli concentrations were between 0 and 90 cfu/100ml. Significant correlations were found between total coliforms and E. coli with pH, temperature and oxidation reduction potential. Skin and eyes symptoms were the highest reported though in small numbers. Microbiological water quality in Teluk Kemang public beach was generally safe for recreational activities except sampling location near with sewage outfall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Health at the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Beaches Contact Us Share LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. ...

  18. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  19. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  20. Characterization of rock samples localized in some sites of the Mexican Pacific coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Torre, J. de la; Falcon, T.; Segovia, N.; Azorin, J.

    1999-01-01

    Geophysical studies in zones of high seismicity have showed differences in the content of radioactive material that is used in the study of the geochemical behavior of the subsoil. In an emanometric mapping of radon in soil realized in the Mexican Pacific coast were finding distinct levels in zones with different lithology. With the finality to know the mineralization types in two zones of study which are localized in the Guerrero coast and they belonging to terrains named Guerrero and Xolapa it was determined the mineralogic characteristics in two types of rocks. The identification of the rocks was realized by X-ray diffraction and was determined the elemental chemical composition using a scanning electron microscope. It was indicated in the results obtained that in the two types of rocks were found minerals such as: quartz, albite, microcline anortite, ferroactinolite and biotite. However, it was found differences between them by the presence of their mineralogic compounds because in the rock belonging to Xolapa terrain were presented whereas in the rock localized in the Guerrero terrain were presented sodic and potassic feldspars. The analysis by the Elemental Chemical Composition technique (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) corroborated the results obtained by the X-ray diffraction technique. (Author)

  1. Molecular diversity of bacterial communities from subseafloor rock samples in a deep-water production basin in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Weid, Irene; Korenblum, Elisa; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Dino, Rodolfo; Sebastian, Gina Vasquez; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    The deep subseafloor rock in oil reservoirs represents a unique environment in which a high oilcontamination and very low biomass can be observed. Sampling this environment has been a challenge owing to the techniques used for drilling and coring. In this study, the facilities developed by the Brazilian oil company PETROBRAS for accessing deep subsurface oil reservoirs were used to obtain rock samples at 2,822-2,828 m below the ocean floor surface from a virgin field located in the Atlantic Ocean, Rio de Janeiro. To address the bacterial diversity of these rock samples, PCR amplicons were obtained using the DNA from four core sections and universal primers for 16S rRNA and for APS reductase (aps) genes. Clone libraries were generated from these PCR fragments and 87 clones were sequenced. The phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA clone libraries showed a wide distribution of types in the domain bacteria in the four core samples, and the majority of the clones were identified as belonging to Betaproteobacteria. The sulfate-reducing bacteria community could only be amplified by PCR in one sample, and all clones were identified as belonging to Gammaproteobacteria. For the first time, the bacterial community was assessed in such deep subsurface environment.

  2. A simple source preparation method for alpha-ray spectrometry of volcanic rock sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaomi; Kurihara, Yuichi; Sato, Jun

    2006-01-01

    A simple source preparation method was developed for the alpha-ray spectrometry to determine U and Th in volcanic rockes. Isolation of U and Th from volcanic rocks was made by use of UTEVA-Spec. resin, extraction chromatograph material. U and Th were extracted by TTA-benzene solution and organic phase was evaporated drop by drop on a hot stainless steel planchet to dryness. This method was found to be effective for the preparation of sources for alpha-ray spectrometry. (author)

  3. Locomotor behavior of nocturnal ghost crabs on the beach: focal animal sampling and instantaneous velocity from three-dimensional motion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, R B

    1995-04-01

    Previous laboratory measurements of the energetics and biomechanics of locomotion have defined performance limits for the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata. To discover whether these animals naturally operate within these limits, a novel infrared videotaping system was used to observe nocturnally active ghost crabs in the field for three-dimensional motion analysis (N = 27) and focal animal sampling (N = 24). Instantaneous movement velocity, movement duration, pause duration and stride frequency were determined from video tapes. Voluntarily active crabs moved at a mean instantaneous velocity of 8 cm s-1. Stressed crabs (i.e. those captured and released into the field site) moved at a mean velocity of 83 cm s-1. The mean movement and pause period durations of voluntarily active animals moving along the beach were 11.2 and 23.4 s, respectively. Stressed crabs had much shorter movement (1.4 s) and pause (7.6 s) durations. Despite the differences in mean movement and pause duration, both voluntarily active and stressed crabs moved for an average of approximately 30% of the observation period. These data indicate that voluntarily active ghost crabs primarily move at velocities that can be sustained aerobically and that their performance is not likely to be altered by moving intermittently. By contrast, stressed crabs move at faster speeds that are closer to the limits of their continuous locomotor performance (e.g. escape behavior and aggressive encounters). In the laboratory, the endurance capacity of crabs moving continuously at these rapid speeds is only a few seconds. However, in the field, the stressed crabs are able to move intermittently for more than a few seconds, yet they do not fatigue. These observations suggest that the performance limits of the stressed crabs are increased by moving intermittently.

  4. Quantitative determination of uranium and thorum contents of some rock samples in Nigeria using natural calibration sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwah, E.J.; Ajakaiye, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Three natural multiple-source standards were used to estimate eU and eTh concentrations in rock samples collected during in-situ reconnaissance surveys in the Sokoto Basin of Nigeria. The standards were those previously analyzed by Delayed neutron counting (DNC) and X0ray Fluoresence (DRF) techniques (Uwah and Ajakaiye, 1986). Regression analysis of the data from twelve of the samples analyzed by DNC and XRF techniques enabled a quick approximate determination of eU and eTh in many samples in the survey area, containing about 50 ppm U and above

  5. Study on the application of crown ether for neutron activation analysis of rubidium and rhenium in rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei; Liu Yinong; Xiong Zonghua; Hao Fanhua

    1996-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of rubidium and rhenium with 18-crown-6 (18C6) and benzo-15-crown-5 (B15C5) in nitrobenzene from picric acid or potassium hydroxide solution are studied and methods for separation and determination are developed. The molar ratio of 18C6 to Rb and B15C5 to Re in the extracted species is probably 2:1. Rubidium and rhenium in rock samples are satisfactorily determined by neutron activation method

  6. Correlation Analysis of the Ultrasonic Emission from Loaded Rock Samples – the Study of Interaction of Microcracking Nucleation Centres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilhelm, J.; Rudajev, Vladimír; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Veverka, Ján

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 5 (2008), s. 695-714 ISSN 0723-2632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0088; GA ČR GA205/06/0906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rock sample * ultrasonic emission * cracks nucleation * autocorrelation analysis * laboratory loading Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2008

  7. Laboratory measurement of elastic anisotropy on spherical rock samples by longitudinal and transverse sounding under confining pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokajíček, Tomáš; Svitek, Tomáš

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of shear wave velocities in loaded rocks is important in describing elastic anisotropy. A new high-pressure measuring head was designed and constructed for longitudinal and traversal ultrasonic sounding of spherical rock samples in 132 independent directions under hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa. The velocity is measured using a pair of P-wave sensors and two pairs of S-wave sensors (TV/RV and TH/RH) with perpendicular polarization. An isotropic glass sphere was used to calibrate the experimental setup. A fine-grained anisotropic quartzite sample was examined using the P- and S-wave ultrasonic sounding. Waveforms are recorded by pairs of TP/RP, TV/RV and TH/RH transducers in a range of confining pressure between 0.1 and 60 MPa. The recorded data showed a shear wave splitting in three basic structural directions of the sample. The measurements proved to be useful in investigating oriented micro-cracks, lattice (LPO) and shape-preferred orientation (SPO) for the bulk elastic anisotropy of anisotropic rocks subjected to hydrostatic pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal neutron absorption cross-section measured on rock samples and brines in the Institute of Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.; Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.; Igielski, A.; Woznicka, U.

    1983-01-01

    In consecutive measurements the rock sample (having a fixed and well known shape -in our case it is a sphere or a cylinder and the sample is powdered or liquid) is enveloped in shells of a plexiglass moderator (the neutron parameters of which are known) of variable thickness and irradiated with the pulsed beam of fast neutrons. The die-away rate of thermal neutrons escaping from the whole system is measured. The absorption cross-section of the sample is found as the intersection of the experimental curve (i.e. die -away rate vs thickness of the moderator) with the theoretical one. The theoretical curve is calculated for a given moderator under the assumption of a constant value of the neutron flux inside the sample. This method is independent of the value of the transport cross-section of the sample. It has been checked on artificial materials with a well known elemental composition (liquid or solid) and on the natural brines and rock samples (basalts and dolomite). A special method of calculation of the variance of the measurement has been established. It is based on the multiple computer simulations of all experimental data used in the computation. The one standard deviation of our methods is of the order of 1 up to 3 capture units (1 c.u. = 10 -3 cm -1 ). The volume of the sample needed is of the order of 500ccm. (author)

  9. Process controlling beach nourishment performance at Delray Beach, Florida, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedet, L.

    2016-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem in the southeast coast of the State of Florida, where Delray Beach is located. To mitigate increasing erosion problems (subsequent) beach nourishment projects were constructed along the entire sandy coast of the state of Florida. At Delray Beach, the beach was

  10. Study of uranium mineralization in rock samples from marwat range bannu basin by fission track analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.Z.; Ullah, K.; Ullah, N.; Akram, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Geophysics Division, Atomic Energy Minerals Centre (AEMC), Lahore has planned a uranium exploration program in Marwat Range, Bannu Basin. In this connection 30 thin sections of rock samples, collected from four areas; namely, Darra Tang, Simukili, Karkanwal and Sheikhillah from Marwat Range, and one from Salt Range were provided to Nuclear Geology Group of Physics Research Division, PINSTECH for the study of nature and mechanism of uranium mineralization These studies are aimed to help in designing uranium exploration strategy by providing the loci of uranium sources in the Marwat and Salt Ranges. The samples have been studied using fission track analysis technique. (author)

  11. Faunistic diversity of Maltese pocket sandy and shingle beaches: are these of conservation value?

    OpenAIRE

    Marika J. Gauci; Alan Deidun; Patrick J. Schembri

    2005-01-01

    The littoral fauna of Maltese sandy and shingle beaches is generally regarded as impoverished and consequently of little conservation interest. The fauna of three sandy and three shingle beaches was systematically sampled by coring, standardised searching and pitfall traps. Diversity and population density were highest at the surface for sandy beaches, but were highest below the surface for shingle. The two beach types had distinct suites of species and individual beaches were faunistically d...

  12. Hydrothermal frictional strengths of rock and mineral samples relevant to the creeping section of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.; Hickman, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    We compare frictional strengths in the temperature range 25–250 °C of fault gouge from SAFOD (CDZ and SDZ) with quartzofeldspathic wall rocks typical of the central creeping section of the San Andreas Fault (Great Valley sequence and Franciscan Complex). The Great Valley and Franciscan samples have coefficients of friction, μ > 0.35 at all experimental conditions. Strength is unchanged between 25° and 150 °C, but μ increases at higher temperatures, exceeding 0.50 at 250 °C. Both samples are velocity strengthening at room temperature but show velocity-weakening behavior beginning at 150 °C and stick-slip motion at 250 °C. These rocks, therefore, have the potential for unstable seismic slip at depth. The CDZ gouge, with a high saponite content, is weak (μ = 0.09–0.17) and velocity strengthening in all experiments, and μ decreases at temperatures above 150 °C. Behavior of the SDZ is intermediate between the CDZ and wall rocks: μ < 0.2 and does not vary with temperature. Although saponite is probably not stable at depths greater than ∼3 km, substitution of the frictionally similar minerals talc and Mg-rich chlorite for saponite at higher temperatures could potentially extend the range of low strength and stable slip down to the base of the seismogenic zone.

  13. Evaluation of Rock Powdering Methods to Obtain Fine-grained Samples for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; Feldman, S.; Blake, D. F.; Bearman, G.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature XRD/XRF (X-ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument, CHEMIN, is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed to enable remote XRD analysis is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For powder XRD analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a two-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results even with poorly prepared powder, the quality of the data will improve and the time required for data collection will be reduced if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. A variety of methods have been proposed for XRD sample preparation. Chipera et al. presented grain size distributions and XRD results from powders generated with an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL. The USDC was shown to be an effective instrument for sampling rock to produce powder suitable for XRD. In this paper, we compare powder prepared using the USDC with powder obtained with a miniaturized rock crusher developed at JPL and with powder obtained with a rotary tungsten carbide bit to powders obtained from a laboratory bench-scale Retsch mill (provides benchmark mineralogical data). These comparisons will allow assessment of the suitability of these methods for analysis by an XRD/XRF instrument such as CHEMIN.

  14. Apparent Preferences of Beach Users at Virginia Beach Resort Zone

    OpenAIRE

    MacBean, Anna Ruth

    2013-01-01

    After compiling an appropriate list of beach criteria from established award programs and experts, the research landscape architect observed the Virginia Beach Resort Zone for areas of intense beach user activity.  The resulting analysis of these "hot-spots" indicated that urban resort beach users visiting the recreational beach during high-use times tended to gravitate toward locations on the resort beach which were close to three needs:  public parking, public restrooms, and inexpensive ref...

  15. Geophysical features influence the accumulation of beach debris on Caribbean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Alexandra M; Lavers, Jennifer L; Stuckenbrock, Silke; Sharp, Paul B; Bond, Alexander L

    2017-08-15

    Anthropogenic beach debris was recorded during beach surveys of 24 Caribbean islands during April 2014-April 2016. Beach debris was classified according to material type (e.g., polystyrene) and item use (e.g., fishing). Geophysical features (substrate type, beach direction, and human accessibility) of sample sites were recorded in order to investigate their relationship with debris density. Results suggest the density of macro debris (items >5mm) is highest on uninhabited, sandy beaches facing a leeward direction. Higher debris quantities on inaccessible beaches may be due to less frequent beach clean ups. Frequently accessed beaches exhibited lower macro, but higher micro debris (items 1-5mm) densities, possibly due to removal of macro debris during frequent beach clean ups. This suggests that while geophysical features have some influence on anthropogenic debris densities, high debris densities are occurring on all islands within the Caribbean region regardless of substrate, beach direction, or human accessibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radon emanation of rock and soil samples: A tool for stratigraphy, geology, geophysical modelling and radon health hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Frédéric; Koirala, Bharat P.; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Rajaure, Sudhir; Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frédéric

    2010-05-01

    Radium-226, the mother of radon-222, with a half-life of 1600 years, is intrinsically present in all the rocks and soils in variable amount. However, a small part only of the radium atoms is able to produce radon atoms in the porous media of the rock allowing this radon to escape the rock media through the pore space. This fraction of radium is referred to as the radon source term in rocks or soils, and is usually called the effective radium concentration (ECRa). This parameter is expressed in Bq kg-1, where CRa is the radium-226 concentration and E the emanation coefficient. Considering a sample, it is not possible to estimate its ECRa value a priori. Therefore, this parameter has to be measured in the laboratory. The method in the laboratory to obtain ECRa values is based on the measurement of the concentration of radon in the inner air of a hermetically sealed container in which one rock or one soil sample was previously placed. In order to measure this radon concentration, Lucas scintillation flasks were used, and their radon content counted by a photomultiplier (Stoulos et al., Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2003). This method was compared in detail with another method using SSNTD (Solid-State Nuclear Track Detector). Detailed investigations have been carried out, including systematic effects such as the shape or volume of container, mass and preparation method of the sample, using a large number of rock, soil and building material samples (more than 800) collected in France and Nepal. Preliminary results will be given based on this data set. With such a large sample, some effects of intrinsic and external factors on the measurement technique and on the obtained results could also be accurately studied: the effect of atmospheric pressure, of the ambient temperature, or of the water content of the sample. ECRa measurements appear to be particularly useful for human health hazards study on a considered natural site, as well as for other applications

  17. Measurement of radioactivity concentration in soil samples around phosphate rock storage facility in Richards Bay, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.B. Masok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining, mineral processing and industrial activities have long been linked to increased levels of radioanuclides in soil in their vicinity. In this work, concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples collected around a rock phosphate storage facility in Richards Bay in South Africa were determined. A total of 90 soil samples were collected and analyzed for 238U and 232Th using neutron activation analysis and 226Ra and 4 K using a HPGe detector. The results revealed the average radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 4 K in soil samples collected around the rock phosphate storage area were 28.26 ± 11.40, 29.64 ± 11.50, 32.18 ± 11.50 and 146.77 ± 63.30 Bq. kg−1, respectively, which are higher than the corresponding values of 22.26 ± 8.60, 23.09 ± 9.80, 26.52 ± 11.50 and 117.82 ± 10.04 Bq. kg−1 in soil samples from the control area about 2.0 km–4.5 km away from the rock phosphate storage facility. Furthermore, the all radiological hazard parameters (i.e annual effective dose equivalent, annual gonadal dose equivalent, the absorbed dose rate in air, the radium equivalent activity and the external Hazard Index investigated in this study were below the maximum recommended safety limit. The observed 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 4 K levels indicate contributions from anthropogenic activities with no significant health risks to humans or to the environment. Hence, in terms of terrestrial gamma radiation from soil, rock phosphate storage within this area does not pose any significant radiation hazard to the workers and dwellers.

  18. Non-destructive sampling of rock-dwelling microbial communities using sterile adhesive tape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Nick A; Oliver, Anna E; Viles, Heather A; Whiteley, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Building stone provides a habitat for an array of microorganisms, many of which have been demonstrated to have a deleterious effect on the appearance and/or structural integrity of stone masonry. It is essential to understand the composition and structure of stone-dwelling (lithobiontic) microbial communities if successful stone conservation strategies are to be applied, particularly in the face of global environmental change. Ideally, the techniques used to sample such assemblages should be non-destructive due to the sensitive conservation status of many stone buildings. This paper quantitatively assesses the performance of sterile adhesive tape as a non-destructive sampling technique and compares the results of tape sampling with an alternative, destructive, sampling method. We used DNA fingerprinting (TRFLP) to characterise the algal, fungal and bacterial communities living on a stone slab. Our results demonstrate that tape sampling may be used to collect viable quantities of microbial DNA from environmental samples. This technique is ideally suited to the sampling of microbial biofilms, particularly when these communities are dominated by green algae. It provides a good approximation of total community diversity (i.e. the aggregate diversity of epilithic and endolithic communities). Tape sampling is straightforward, rapid and cost effective. When combined with molecular analytical techniques, this sampling method has the potential to make a major contribution to efforts to understand the structure of lithobiontic microbial communities and our ability to predict the response of such communities to future environmental change. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatty Acid Detection in Mars-Analogous Rock Samples with the TMAH Wet Chemistry Experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. J.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Wilhelm, M. B.; Johnson, S. S.; Craft, K.; O'Reilly, S.; Lewis, J. M. T.; Williams, R.; Summons, R. E.; Benison, K. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Curiosity rover is exploring sedimentary rock sequences in Gale Crater for evidence of habitability and searching for organic compounds using the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. SAM includes a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and pyrolysis ovens. SAM has the ability to perform wet chemistry experiments, one of which uses tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis to liberate bound lipids, making them sufficiently volatile for detection by GC-MS. To determine the effectiveness of the SAM-like TMAH experiment on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarker identification, rock and sediment samples were collected from a variety of Mars analog environments including iron oxides from a modern mineral precipitate and older surface gossan at Iron Mountain, CA, as well as modern acid salt and neutral lake sediments with mixed iron oxides and clays from Western Australia; siliceous sinter from recently inactive and modern near-vent Icelandic hot springs deposits; modern carbonate ooids from The Bahamas, and organic-rich shale from Germany. Samples underwent pyrolysis with TMAH. Fatty acids were analyzed by pyro-GC-MS using a SAM-like heating ramp (35°C/min) as well as a 500°C flash on a Frontier pyrolyzer and Agilent GC-MS instrument. Results reveal that FAMEs were detectable with the TMAH experiment in nearly all samples. Low molecular weight (MW) C6:0-C10:0 FAMEs were present in all samples, medium MW C11:0-C18:2 FAMEs were present in select samples, and high MW (HMW) C20:0-C30:0 FAMEs were present in the shale sample. Many of these samples exhibited an even-over-odd carbon number preference, indicating biological production. These experiments demonstrate that TMAH thermochemolysis with SAM-like pyro-GC-MS is effective in fatty acid analysis from natural Mars-analog samples that vary in mineralogy, age, and microbial community input. HMW FAMEs are not detected in iron-dominated samples, and may not be detectable at low

  20. Investigating the resetting of OSL signals in rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    signals in grains and slices from five different cobbles/boulders collected from a modern beach is investigated. All the rock surfaces are presumed to have been exposed to daylight for a prolonged period of time (weeks to years). Feldspar was identified as the preferred dosimeter because quartz extracts...... factors were derived for two samples. These indicate that, for instance, bleaching at a depth of 2 mm into these samples occurs at about ∼28% of the rate at the surface. We conclude that it should be possible to derive meaningful burial doses of >1 Gy from such cobbles; younger samples would probably...

  1. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. The...

  2. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. Phase 1...

  3. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. The...

  4. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. Phase 1...

  5. Faunistic diversity of Maltese pocket sandy and shingle beaches: are these of conservation value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika J. Gauci

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The littoral fauna of Maltese sandy and shingle beaches is generally regarded as impoverished and consequently of little conservation interest. The fauna of three sandy and three shingle beaches was systematically sampled by coring, standardised searching and pitfall traps. Diversity and population density were highest at the surface for sandy beaches, but were highest below the surface for shingle. The two beach types had distinct suites of species and individual beaches were faunistically distinct. Maltese sandy and shingle beaches are of conservation importance for their habitat-restricted species, some of which have limited local and regional distributions, and are internationally protected.

  6. The correlations between natural elements (K, U, Th) concentrations and thermal neutron absorption cross-section value (Σa) for rock samples of Carpatia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swakon, J.; Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Drozdowicz, E.; Gabanska, B.; Loskiewicz, J.; Woznicka, U.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a study of correlations between concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and thermal neutron absorption cross section in rock samples. This knowledge of correlation should help in recognizing the expansion ways and accumulation places of the elements responsible of high thermal neutron absorption cross section in some geological environments. The correlations show the existence of connections between the thermal neutron absorption cross section value and natural radioactivity elements concentration in rocks. The results confirm the existence of correlations between natural radioactive elements concentrations (particularly thorium) and thermal neutron absorption cross - section value in some rocks. (author). 12 refs, 23 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Hydraulic Properties of Fractured Rock Samples at In-Situ Conditions - Insights from Lab Experiments Using X-Ray Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehler, Mathias; Stöckhert, Ferdinand; Duda, Mandy; Renner, Jörg; Bracke, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    The hydraulic properties of low-porosity rock formations are controlled by the geometry of open fractures, joints and faults. Aperture, surface roughness, accessible length, and thus, the volume available for fluids associated of such interfaces are strongly affected by their state of stress. Moreover, these properties may evolve with time in particular due to processes involving chemically active fluids. Understanding the physico-chemical interactions of rocks with fluids at reservoir conditions will help to predict the long-term reservoir development and to increase the efficiency of geothermal power plants. We designed an x-ray transparent flow-through cell. Confining pressure can be up to 50 MPa and pore fluid can currently be circulated through the sample with pressures of up to 25 MPa. All wetted parts are made of PEEK to avoid corrosion when using highly saline fluids. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate hydraulic properties of fractured low-porosity samples under reservoir conditions while x-rays transmit the sample. The cell is placed inside a µCT scanner with a 225 kV multifocal x-ray tube for high resolution x-ray tomography. Samples measure 10 mm in diameter and 25 mm in length resulting in a voxel resolution of approximately 10 µm. Samples with single natural as well as artificial fractures were subjected to various confining pressures ranging from 2.5 MPa to 25 MPa. At each pressure level, effective permeability was determined from steady-state flow relying on Darcy's law. In addition, a full 3D image was recorded by the µCT scanner to gain information on the fracture aperture and geometry. Subvolumes (400x400x400 voxels) of the images were analyzed to reduce computational cost. The subvolumes were filtered in 3D with an edge preserving non-local means filter. Further quantification algorithms were implemented in Matlab. Segmentation into pore space and minerals was done automatically for all datasets by a peak finder algorithm

  8. Comparison of lunar ultraviolet reflectivity with that of terrestrial rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, J.H.; Horton, B.H.; McCoy, D.G.; O'Brien, R.S.; Sandercock, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    The ultraviolet and visible albedos of a number of terrestrial basalts, gabbros and anorthosites have been investigated over the wavelength range 800 A to 8000 A and compared with previously reported measurements of the lunar albedo. For most of the terrestrial samples the albedo changed only slightly between visible and middle ultraviolet wavelengths in striking contrast to the Moon where the ultraviolet albedo is about a factor of five or ten less than it is in the visible. Some of the lighter coloured terrestrial anorthositic samples were however found to have albedo curves that fairly closely approximate the ultraviolet darkening of the Moon. The general shape of the lunar ultraviolet albedo may be caused by a layer of anorthositic fragments on the Moon such as have been found to be a very abundant component of the Apollo 'coarse-fines'. (Auth.)

  9. Digitally available interval-specific rock-sample data compiled from historical records, Nevada National Security Site and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David B.

    2007-11-01

    Between 1951 and 1992, 828 underground tests were conducted on the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada National Security Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples can not be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  10. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Wood

    2009-10-08

    Between 1951 and 1992, underground nuclear weapons testing was conducted at 828 sites on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  11. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Wood

    2007-10-24

    Between 1951 and 1992, 828 underground tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  12. An integrated rock magnetic and EPR study in soil samples from a hydrocarbon prospective area

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, F.; Aldana, M.; Costanzo-Álvarez, V.; Díaz, M.; Romero, I.

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) and organic matter free radical concentration (OMFRC) determined by electron paramagnetic resonance, have been measured in soil samples (≈1.5 m depth) from an oil prospective area located at the southern flank of the Venezuelan Andean Range. S-ratios close to 1, as well as high temperature susceptibility analyses, reveal magnetite as the chief magnetic phase in most of these samples. Ethane concentrations, MS and OMFRC normalized data have been plotted against the relative position of 22 sampling sites sequentially arranged from north to south. Although there is not a linear correlation between MS and OMFRC data, these two profiles seem to vary in like fashion. A MS and OMFRC southern anomaly coincides with the zone of highest ethane concentration that overlies a “Cretaceous kitchen”. OMFRC highs could be linked to the degradation or alteration of organic matter, the possible result of hydrocarbon gas leakage, whose surface expression is the stressed fern observed by remote sensing studies previously performed in the area. Ethane anomalies are associated to this seepage that also produces changes in the magnetic mineralogies detected as MS positive anomalies.

  13. National List of Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the...

  14. Beach Ball Coronagraph

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A precision formation flying coronagraph with an inflatable, passive ‘beach ball’ occulter has the chance to make possible the next generation of advances in coronal...

  15. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  16. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content. (auth)

  17. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches | McGwynne | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interstitial meiofauna were sampled across the intertidal zone and into the sublittoral region on two exposed sandy beaches on the Namibian coast, Langstrand and Cape Cross. A transverse barrip beach configuration at Langstrand allowed a comparison between the distribution and abundance patterns at the horn and ...

  18. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  19. New color-photographic observation of thermoluminescence from sliced rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Kimura, Kenichi; Koyanagi, Akira; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Sotobayashi, Takeshi

    1983-01-01

    New observation technique has been established for the thermoluminescence photography using extremely high-sensitive color films. Considering future application to the geological fields, a granite was selected as a testing material. The sliced specimens (0.5--0.7 mm in thickness), which were irradiated with a 60 Co source, were mounted on the heater attached with a thermocouple, which was connected to a microcomputer for measuring the temperature. The samples were heated in the temperature range of 80--400 0 C by operating the camera-shutter controlled with the microcomputer. Four commercially available films (Kodak-1000(ASA), -400, Sakura-400, Fuji-400) could give apparently detectable color-images of artificial thermoluminescence above a total absorbed dose of 880 Gy(88 krad). The specimens, irradiated upto 8.4 kGy(840krad), allowed easily to distinguish the distinct appearance of the thermoluminescence images depending on kinds of white mineral constituents. Moreover, such color images were changeable with the heating temperature. Sakura-400 film has proved the most colorful images from aspects of color tone although Kodak-1000 film showed the highest sensitivity. By applying this Kodak-1000, it was found that the characteristic color image due to natural thermoluminescence was significantly observed on the Precambrian granite which was exposed with natural radiation alone since its formation. This simple and interesting technique, obtainable surface information reflecting impurities and local crystal defects in addition to small mineral constituents, was named as the thermoluminescence color imaging (abbreviated to TLCI) technique by the authors and its versatile applications were discussed. (author)

  20. Detection and cultivation of indigenous microorganisms in Mesozoic claystone core samples from the Opalinus Clay Formation (Mont Terri Rock Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauclaire, L.; McKenzie, J. A.; Schwyn, B.; Bossart, P.

    Although microorganisms have been isolated from various deep-subsurface environments, the persistence of microbial activity in claystones buried to great depths and on geological time scales has been poorly studied. The presence of in-situ microbial life in the Opalinus Clay Formation (Mesozoic claystone, 170 million years old) at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, Canton Jura, Switzerland was investigated. Opalinus Clay is a host rock candidate for a radioactive waste repository. Particle tracer tests demonstrated the uncontaminated nature of the cored samples, showing their suitability for microbiological investigations. To determine whether microorganisms are a consistent and characteristic component of the Opalinus Clay Formation, two approaches were used: (i) the cultivation of indigenous micoorganisms focusing mainly on the cultivation of sulfate-reducing bacteria, and (ii) the direct detection of molecular biomarkers of bacteria. The goal of the first set of experiments was to assess the presence of cultivable microorganisms within the Opalinus Clay Formation. After few months of incubation, the number of cell ranged from 0.1 to 2 × 10 3 cells ml -1 media. The microorganisms were actively growing as confirmed by the observation of dividing cells, and detection of traces of sulfide. To avoid cultivation bias, quantification of molecular biomarkers (phospholipid fatty acids) was used to assess the presence of autochthonous microorganisms. These molecules are good indicators of the presence of living cells. The Opalinus Clay contained on average 64 ng of PLFA g -1 dry claystone. The detected microbial community comprises mainly Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria as indicated by the ratio of iso/anteiso phospholipids (about 2) and the detection of large amount of β-hydroxy substituted fatty acids. The PLFA composition reveals the presence of specific functional groups of microorganisms in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria ( Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and

  1. Solubility and sorption characteristics of uranium(VI) associated with rock samples and brines/groundwaters from WIPP and NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solubility measurements for U(VI) in WIPP-related brines/groundwaters were made using initial U(VI) concentrations in the range of 1 to 50 μg/ml. Distribution coefficients (Kd) for U(VI) were determined for Culebra and Magenta dolomites using four different brine/groundwater compositions and for argillaceous shale and hornfels samples from the Eleana and Calico Hills Formation on NTS using a groundwater simulant typical of that area. The Kd's were evaluated as functions of: (1) U(VI) concentration (1.4 x 10 -4 to 1.4 μg/ml); (2) solution volume-to-rock mass ratios used in the measurements (5 to 100 ml/g), and for WIPP material only; (3) water composition (0 to 100% brine in groundwater); and (4) sample location in the Culebra and Magenta dolomite members of the Rustler Formation. The results indicate that if groundwater intrudes into a repository and leaches a waste form, significant concentrations of dissolved or colloidal U(VI) could be maintained in the liquid phase. Should these solutions enter an aquifer system, there are reasonable sets of conditions which could lead to subsequent migration of U(VI) away from the repository site

  2. Hydrogeologic applications for historical records and images from rock samples collected at the Nevada National Security Site and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada - A supplement to Data Series 297

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David B.

    2018-03-14

    Rock samples have been collected, analyzed, and interpreted from drilling and mining operations at the Nevada National Security Site for over one-half of a century. Records containing geologic and hydrologic analyses and interpretations have been compiled into a series of databases. Rock samples have been photographed and thin sections scanned. Records and images are preserved and available for public viewing and downloading at the U.S. Geological Survey ScienceBase, Mercury Core Library and Data Center Web site at https://www.sciencebase.gov/mercury/ and documented in U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 297. Example applications of these data and images are provided in this report.

  3. Sorption and diffusion of radionuclides (C, Tc, U, Pu, Np) in rock samples under oxic and anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suksi, S.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Hoelttae, P.; Jaakkola, T.; Lindberg, A.

    1989-11-01

    Interactions of redox sensitive elements with common Finnish rocks were studied in the laboratory under oxic and anoxic conditions. Sorption and diffusion of technetium, uranium, plutonium and neptunium were studied in drill cores of granites and gneiss. Also carbon was studied under oxic conditions. Cylindrical drill core cup samples and plane surfaces sawed from drill cores were exposed for periods from six to eighteen months to synthetic ground water to which Tc-99, U-233, Pu-236, Np-237 or C-14 as H 14 CO 3 - had been added. Synthetic granitic ground water was used in all experiments. In comparative studies for uranium also carbonate rich synthetic bentonite water was used under anoxic conditions. Technetium, uranium and neptunium were transported effectively under both oxic and anoxic conditions. Transported species of these elements were found throughout the rock matrices investigated. The measured apparent diffusivities for neptinium under oxic conditions were 2.7 x 10 14- m 2 /S for tonalite and 3.0 x 10 -13 m 2 /S for rapakivi granite. The range of D a -values for neptunium under anoxic conditions was (1.4-9.6) x 10 -14 m 2 /S. For uranium the range of D a -values under oxic conditions was (3.6-5.7) x 10 -14 m 2 /S; under anoxic conditions it was (1.1-4.3) x 10 -14 m 2 /S in granite ground water and (1.8-5.3) x 10 -14 m 2 /S in bentonite water. The ranges of measured D a -values for technetium varied 1.8x10 -15 -2.3x10 -13 m 2 /S under oxic conditions and 2.3x10 -15 -2.3x10 -14 m 2 /S under anoxic conditions. The migration of plutonium was slow in all samples. The range of measured apparent diffusivities of plutonium under oxic conditions was from 2.7x10 -15 to 2.4x10 -14 m 2 /S. Under anoxic conditions the measured D a -values were 2.7x10 -15 m 2 /S for rapakivi granite and 3.5x10 -15 m 2 /S for tonalite

  4. Summary of Annual Beach Notifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA gathers state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories. Between 1999 and...

  5. Dose rates of beach sands along the Enshu-nada coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Susumu; Shimo, Michikuni

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanism of beach-to-beach variations in dose rates, measurements at 35 sand beaches were carried out along the Enshu-nada coast (a total of 140km). The sand samples were collected at 10 beaches to obtain the concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium by means of Ge(Li) spectroscopy. Factors affecting the variation in dose rates were discussed, incorporating these data with data of coastal sea-bottom sediments taken by the Geological Survey of Japan. Two-dimensional measurements were performed at 50 locations each in two beaches near the Tenryu river mouth to know within-beach variations in detail. Contour maps of the data revealed a considerable regularity. It was found from simple analyses of the data collected in this work that the dose rate levels at beaches are affected by the distance from the river mouth, erosion or sedimentation of beach, and depth distribution of seawater. (author)

  6. Tar ball Monitoring Along the Kenyan Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Nguta, M.

    1993-01-01

    Observations and measurements of petroleum tar balls on a number of Kenyan beaches were carried out between 1979 and 1982. A large variation in the size and amount of tar deposit at the beaches was recorded. These values ranged from very small pebbles to large lumps of 30 cm in diameter, weighing up to 1.5 kg. The average tar loading during the sampling period ranged from 0-18 g/m2. Between 25-50% by weight of the tar lumps were shell fragments, sand and other nonpetroleum debris. The chemica...

  7. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Niña event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study

  8. If an antelope is a document, then a rock is data: preserving earth science samples for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdeen, S.

    2015-12-01

    As discussed in seminal works by Briet (1951) and Buckland (1998), physical objects can be considered documents when given specific context. In the case of an antelope, in the wild it's an animal, in a zoo it's a document. It is the primary source of information, specifically when it is made an object of study. When discussing earth science data, we may think about numbers in a spreadsheet or verbal descriptions of a rock. But what about physical materials such as cores, cuttings, fossils, and other tangible objects? The most recent version of the American Geophysical Union's data position statement states data preservation and management policies should apply to both "digital data and physical objects"[1]. If an antelope is a document, than isn't a rock a form of data? Like books in a library or items in a museum, these objects require surrogates (digital or analog) that allow researchers to access and retrieve them. Once these scientific objects are acquired, researchers can process the information they contain. Unlike books, and some museum materials, most earth science objects cannot yet be completely replaced by digital surrogates. A fossil may be scanned, but the original is needed for chemical testing and ultimately for 'not yet developed' processes of scientific analysis. These objects along with their metadata or other documentation become scientific data when they are used in research. Without documentation of key information (i.e. the location where it was collected) these objects may lose their scientific value. This creates a complex situation where we must preserve the object, its metadata, and the connection between them. These factors are important as we consider the future of earth science data, our definitions of what constitutes scientific data, as well as our data preservation and management practices. This talk will discuss current initiatives within the earth science communities (EarthCube's EC3 and iSamples; USGS's data preservation program

  9. Morphology and grain-size characteristics of a log-spiral beach at Nagwa (Diu), west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Murty, C.S.

    Sediment samples collected along 6 beach profiles of a log-spiral shaped beach and nearby dunes have been studied for particle size distribution in relation to wave refraction patterns. The results reveal that the foreshore sediments...

  10. Relationships between data from Rock-Eval pyrolysis and proximate, ultimate, petrographic, and physical analyses of 142 diverse U.S. coal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, N.H.; Daws, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    Basic research on coal and oil shale led to automated pyrolysis analysis of petroleum source rocks; most widely used is the Rock-Eval equipment. In order to interpret Rock-Eval analyses in relation to traditional coal data, we analyzed 142 commercial coals with diverse rank, age, maceral and sulfur contents, for most regions of the United States. We compared the Rock-Eval data with traditional industrial coal data, including volatile matter, calorific value, hydrogen and oxygen content, free swelling index, and vitrinite reflectance. We found: (1) there is a close relationship between Tmax and vitrinite reflectance in the ranges 420-590??C Tmax and 0.4-3%Romax of most coals. (2) A close relationship between Tmax and volatile matter (%VM) extends through the entire sample range, including low-rank samples with 35-70% VM, a range where %VM is not considered to be a useful rank parameter. (3) TOC of medium- and high-rank coals is seriously under-measured by Rock-Eval; TOC of low-rank coals (less than 0.8%Romax) is close to "dry basis" carbon from ultimate analysis. (4) The direct relationships between oxygen index (OI) and %O and between hydrogen index (HI) and %H are clear, though only broadly defined. However, there is virtually no band of concentrated data points on the HI versus OI pseudo-Van Krevelen diagram comparable to the "development line" on the H/C versus O/C diagram. (5) There are systematic relationships between Rock-Eval and industrial coal parameters such as calorific value and FSI, but much standardization would be needed before Rock-Eval could find a place in the coal industry. Tests with blends of coal and quartz sand and with various loads of coal alone showed that the amount of organic matter in the Rock-Eval load greatly influences results. Total load in the crucible, if largely inert, plays a small role, however. Increasing absolute or relative coal content causes under-evaluation of Rock-Eval TOC and over-rating of hydrogen. Blends of several

  11. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Rokade, M.A.

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  12. High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: depth- and strata-dependent spatial variability from rock-core sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently

  13. High Precision 142Nd/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd Isotope Ratio Measurements in Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Srinivasan, G.

    2009-05-01

    The long-lived 147Sm-143Nd system with a half-life (T1/2) of 106 Gyr is generally used for geochronology. The short-lived 146Sm-142Nd system (T1/2= 103 Myr) is used as a geological tracer to track early (˜500 Ma) silicate differentiation [1] events in different planetary bodies. The isotope composition measurements by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) require purification of Nd using chemical separation methods. This is important as an impure sample will give both a very poor ion yield and cause beam instability in the mass spectrometer, potentially resulting in a poor analysis [2]. The separation of Nd for 143Nd isotope measurement is, fairly straightforward because there is no isobaric interference of any other REE. While 142Nd isotope analysis needs chemically separated Nd fraction to be ˜100% Ce-free as latter is composed of a substantial amount of 142Ce isotope. A 4-steps technique, modified from Caro et al., [3], for the separation of Nd is established at the Cosmochemistry Laboratory of University of Toronto, Canada and applied to the measurement of Nd isotope ratios in geological reference sample BCR-2 (USGS, Columbia River basalt) using TIMS. Results of the isotopic ratios obtained for BCR-2 are in good agreement with published values [e.g., 4]. Analytical work on the samples discovered as the oldest rocks on Earth [5] from Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt in Québec, Canada and various meteorites is in progress. An account of the procedures involved is briefly described here. All working solutions and acids were prepared using >18.2 MΩ.cm-1 H2O from a Milli-Q water system. Experiments were performed under Class 100 clean work bench with acid-cleaned apparatus and plastic-ware. The whole rock powders were weighed (20-30 mg) and dissolved in a mixture of HF and HNO3 using PFA vials and heated at 110°C. Further decomposition was done in Teflon bomb in the oven at 205°C. Later on contents of the Teflon bomb were transferred to vials and fluorides

  14. Integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling for assessing the provenance of beach sand in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hein, James R.; McGann, Mary; Mizell, Kira; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Takesue, Renee K.; Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Over 150 million m3 of sand-sized sediment has disappeared from the central region of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half century. This enormous loss may reflect numerous anthropogenic influences, such as watershed damming, bay-fill development, aggregate mining, and dredging. The reduction in Bay sediment also appears to be linked to a reduction in sediment supply and recent widespread erosion of adjacent beaches, wetlands, and submarine environments. A unique, multi-faceted provenance study was performed to definitively establish the primary sources, sinks, and transport pathways of beach-sized sand in the region, thereby identifying the activities and processes that directly limit supply to the outer coast. This integrative program is based on comprehensive surficial sediment sampling of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, including the seabed, Bay floor, area beaches, adjacent rock units, and major drainages. Analyses of sample morphometrics and biological composition (e.g., Foraminifera) were then integrated with a suite of tracers including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopes, rare earth elements, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogy, and heavy minerals, and with process-based numerical modeling, in situ current measurements, and bedform asymmetry to robustly determine the provenance of beach-sized sand in the region.

  15. An evaluation of beached bird monitoring approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Jan; Offringa, Henk; Van Waeyenberge, Jeroen; Meire, Patrick; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2002-04-01

    number (once the mean ratio between numbers in various months is known) and oil rate (provided a sufficiently large sample can be collected), but failed in tracking events. It is a particularly attractive approach because of its long tradition, resulting in invaluable long-term databases, and the uniformity in which these surveys are organised on a large scale. The minimal distance for a monthly survey amounts to 25-30 km (40-50% of Belgian coastline) up to 40 km (65%) in order to attain sound figures for oil rate and species-richness, respectively. These distances are primarily determined by the number of bird corpses that may be collected and are hence a function of beaching intensity and corpse detection rate.

  16. Microbial analyses of clay and water from different samples from the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (RL), Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Barsotti, V.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Hamon, C.J.; Neble, S.; Shippers, A.; Le Marrec, C.; Vinsot, A.; Schwyn, B.

    2010-01-01

    processes that may develop locally in Opalinus Clay upon disturbance by drilling and excavation (i.e., introduction of space, water, microbes and nutrients). In a second part of this work, results are presented here from detection and identification of microorganisms in water which accumulated in an open borehole drilled in the Opalinus Clay (BEZ-G5). Besides introduced (exogenous) microorganisms, such water may contain autochthonous species. The latter may be easier to detect in water samples than by direct analysis of the clay rock. Both culturing (aerobic and anaerobic media) and direct (DNA extraction and PCR-DGGE) methods were used. Pure cultures of bacteria isolated in several enrichment media and identified by DNA extraction, PCR and sequencing indicated that most isolated bacteria are heterotrophic aerobes or facultative anaerobes commonly isolated from soil and water (such as Dietzia sp., Pseudomonas sp.) and therefore probably contaminants. In parallel, direct DNA extraction from water and PCR-DGGE revealed other contaminant bacteria (such as Staphylococcus sp., Rhizobium sp.). Nevertheless, some species may be indigenous in the Opalinus Clay such as Desulfosporosinus sp. isolated on sulfate-reducing media or Speleomyces sp., identified by PCRDGGE and previously isolated from a medieval mine. Complementary characterizations of these bacteria are required to confirm these first results. The diversity of microorganisms detected shows that both culturing and molecular approaches are essential to study this type of environment. (authors)

  17. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Newton

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls. Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise

  18. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Precise and accurate δ13C analysis of rock samples using Flash Combustion–Cavity Ring Down Laser Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev-Clausen, David Morten; Dahl, Tais W.; Saad, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    The ratio of 13C to 12C in marine sedimentary rocks holds important clues to the evolution of the carbon cycle through Earth history. Isotopic analyses are traditionally carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), but this technique is both labor-intensive, expensive and requires ex...

  20. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  1. Major- and trace-element concentrations in rock samples collected in 2004 from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Miller, Marti L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Karl, Sue M.; Baichtal, James F.; Blodgett, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    The Kuskokwim mineral belt of Bundtzen and Miller (1997) forms an important metallogenic region in southwestern Alaska that has yielded more than 3.22 million ounces of gold and 400,000 ounces of silver. Precious-metal and related deposits in this region associated with Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary igneous complexes extend into the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting geologic mapping and a mineral resource assessment of this area that will provide a better understanding of the geologic framework, regional geochemistry, and may provide targets for mineral exploration and development. During the 2004 field season 137 rock samples were collected for a variety of purposes. The 4 digital files accompanying this report reflect the type of analysis performed and its intended purpose and are available for download as an Excel workbook, comma delimited format (*.csv), dBase 4 files (*.dbf) or as point coverages in ArcInfo interchange format (*.e00). Data values are provided in percent, pct (1gram per 100grams), or parts per million, ppm (1gram per 1,000,000grams) per the column heading in the table. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 42 trace-elements (icp42.*) to provide data for use in geochemical exploration as well as some baseline data. Selected samples were analyzed by additional methods; 104 targeted geochemical exploration samples were analyzed for gold, arsenic, and mercury (auashg.*); 21 of these samples were also analyzed to obtain concentrations of 10 loosely bound metals (icp10.*); 33 rock samples were analyzed for major element oxides to support the regional mapping program (reg.*), of which 28 sedimentary rock samples were also analyzed for total carbon, and carbonate carbon.

  2. Gravel beaches nourishment: Modelling the equilibrium beach profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, I; Aragonés, L; Villacampa, Y; Navarro-González, F J

    2018-04-01

    The erosion of the world's coasts and the shortage of sand to mitigate beach erosion are leading to the increasingly common use of gravel for coastal protection and beach nourishment. Therefore, in order to determine the amount of gravel required for such actions, it is important to know perfectly the equilibrium profile of gravel beaches. However, at present, this profile is obtained from formulas obtained mainly after channel tests, and therefore most of them do not adapt to the real profiles formed by gravel beaches in nature. In this article, 31 variables related to sedimentology, waves, morphology and marine vegetation present on the beaches are studied to determine which are the most influential in the profile. From the study carried out, it is obtained that these variables are the steepness and probability of occurrence of the wave perpendicular to the coast, the profile starting slope (between MWL and -2m), the energy reduction coefficient due to Posidonia oceanica as well as the width of the meadow. Using these variables, different numerical models were generated to predict accurately the gravel beach profile, which will lead to a saving in the volume of material used in the order of 1300m 3 /ml of beach with respect to current formulations, and a greater certainty that the beach nourishment carried out will have the desired effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jing Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled high upto 41% of the total debris. Compared to the ocean conservancy�s 2013 report of marine debris in Malaysian beaches, which was 27,005 items with in 6.44 km, the current count is slightly low. However, Malaysia was ranked 14th place among the top 20 countries in International Marine Debris Watch program. Nelayan Beach is the dirtiest beach in Port Dickson. Around 50% of the total plastic items collected are found on those beaches. The marine debris items indicated that they arrived there by land-based and ocean-based activities. High energy conditions such as wind and waves in the beaches correlated well with less debris deposition on the beaches. With debris equivalent of 4193 items/km, Malaysia harvests less solid wastes compared to Croatia, USA, Singapore and Turkey. However, a nation wide survey is needed to assess the seriousness of marine debris problem in Malaysia.

  4. Microbial Fluid-Rock Interactions in Chalk Samples and Salinity Factor in Divalent Ca2+ ions Release for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimoh, Ismaila Adetunji; Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were performed on chalk samples from Danish sector of the North Sea to study microbial fluid-rock interactions with carbonate rock and to evaluate the dissolution of rock matrix (CaCO3). Result showed that the average concentration of Ca2+ ions after microbial...... fluid interactions with chalk samples in media of salinity 40-100g/l increased from initial average concentration of 203 mg/l at the start of the experiment to 1178 mg/l in 28 days. 3-D surface plot (salinity, Ca2+, pH) with time revealed delineation of the measured salinity into two groups...... with a boundary between 70 - 80 g/l. In the low salinity group (40, 50, 60, 70 g/l) pH increased but decreased in the high salinity group (80, 90, 100 g/l) at the end of the experiment. The highest Ca2+ ion concentrations was measured at highest salinities at the end of experiment which means that the dissolution...

  5. BeachWin: Modelling groundwater effects on swash sediment transport and beach profile changes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, L.; Barry, D. A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Masselink, G.

    2002-01-01

    Field and laboratory observations have shown that a relatively low beach groundwater table enhances beach accretion. These observations have led to the beach dewatering technique (artificially lowering the beach water table) for combating beach erosion. Here we present a process-based numerical model that simulates the interacting wave motion on the beach, coastal groundwater flow, swash sediment transport and beach profile changes. Results of model...

  6. Environmental factors controlling macrofaunal assemblages on six microtidal beaches of the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covazzi Harriague, Anabella; Albertelli, Giancarlo

    2007-06-01

    Six microtidal beaches along the Ligurian coast (NW Mediterranean, Italy) were sampled in order to study their macrofaunal assemblages. All six beaches are subject to heavy tourism in the swimming season and three were subject to nourishment activities during the study period (May 2000). The beaches of Lavagna, Varazze and Pietra Ligure were sampled three times: before the nourishment and the onset of the swimming season (March 2000), after the nourishment (June 2000) and at the end of the swimming season (October 2000). The beaches of Varigotti, Albisola and Loano were sampled twice: before and after the swimming season (March and October 2000, respectively). Sampling was performed along two transects (T1 and T2), about 500 m apart, each transect having three sampling stations: one placed in the swash zone, one in the surf zone and one in the subtidal zone (depth of 3-5 m), in order to verify how far the nourishment material reached. The beaches were characterised by coarse sediments that became finer towards the sub-littoral station. The Beach Deposit Index and Beach Index classified the beaches as reflective (Lavagna, Varazze, Albisola and Varigotti) or intermediate (Pietra Ligure and Loano). Species richness showed a clearly increasing pattern from the swash zone (average 7) to the subtidal zone (average 103). The beach communities were dominated by polychaetes, in particular Saccocirrus papillocercus, which was mainly responsible for the dissimilarity between the beach and subtidal stations. The highest abundance was observed at the surf station (average 118.6 ind. m -2) and the lowest at the subtidal station (average 82.1 ind. m -2). The sediment composition and macrofaunal assemblages were not affected by the beach nourishment. The beach communities responded to different environmental descriptors: species richness seemed to be governed by environmental harshness, while abundance seemed to be linked to the degree of homogeneity of the sediments and the

  7. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program — Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-03-01

    NASA’s Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program has Lucite disks containing Apollo lunar samples and meteorite samples that are available for trained educators to borrow for use in classrooms, museums, science center, and libraries.

  8. Investigation of uranium 238 level in phosphate rock samples from kurun mountain Eastern Nuba Mountains in the State of Kordfan (western Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, N. H. M.

    2014-06-01

    The natural radionuclide content of 20 samples collected from Kurun Mountain, western Sudan, has been determined using gamma spectrometry. The data showed that ''2''3 8 U and its decay products were the principal contributors of radioactivity in phosphate deposits. The range of the activity concentration was measured in apatite phosphate rock samples was 378.03-1332.58 Bq/Kg with a mean value of 815.46 Bq/Kg and the data showed that most of samples concentrated in medial comparable with top and bottom of mountain. The distribution of samples indicated that the weathering effect and the rainfall may be the main reasons to enhance the mobility and solubility of uranium from top to bottom of mountain.(Author)

  9. Water permeability and related rock properties measured on core samples from the Yucca Mountain USW GU-3/G-3 and USW G-4 boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Core samples were measured for bulk density, grain density, porosity, resistivity, and water permeability as part of a comprehensive geologic investigation designed to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the containment of high-level radioactive waste products. The cores were selected at the drill sites so as to be representative of the major lithologic variations observed within stratigraphic units of the Paintbrush Tuff, Calico Hills Tuff, Crater Flat Tuff, Lithic Ridge Tuff, and Older Tuffs. Dry and saturated bulk density, grain density, and porosity measurements were made on the core samples principally to establish that a reasonable uniformity exists in the textural and mineral character of the sample pairs. Electrical resistivity measured on sample pairs tended to be lower along the plane transverse to the vertical axis of the drill core herein referred to as the horizontal plane. Permeability values, ranging from virtually zero (<.02 microdarcies) to over 200 millidarcies, also indicate a preferential flow direction along the horizontal plane of the individual tuff units. Permeability decreases with flow duration in all but the non-welded tuffs as unconsolidated particles within the pore network are repositioned so as to impede the continued flow of water through the rock. Reversing flow direction initially restores the permeability of the rock to its original or maximum value

  10. Characterization of microplastic and mesoplastic debris in sediments from Kamilo Beach and Kahuku Beach, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alan M; Elliott, James A

    2016-12-15

    Sediment samples were collected from two Hawai'ian beaches, Kahuku Beach on O'ahu and Kamilo Beach on the Big Island of Hawai'i. A total of 48,988 large microplastic and small mesoplastic (0.5-8mm) particles were handpicked from the samples and sorted into four size classes (0.5-1mm, 1-2mm, 2-4mm, 4-8mm) and nine color categories. For all sizes combined the most common plastic fragment color was white/transparent (71.8%) followed by blue (8.5%), green (7.5%), black/grey (7.3%), red/pink (2.6%), yellow (1.2%), orange (0.6%), brown (0.3%) and purple (0.2%). Color frequency distribution based on both numbers and mass of particles was not significantly different among the various size classes nor between the two beaches. White and black/grey resin pellets accounted for 11.3% of the particles collected from Kahuku Beach and 4.2% of the particles from Kamilo Beach. Plastic type based on Raman Spectrometer analysis of a small representative subsample indicated that most of the fragments were polyethylene and a few were polypropylene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geotechnical properties of the Cassino Beach mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cláudio R. R.; Alves, Antonio M. L.

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of the marine soils properties, together with hydrodynamic and climatic data, plays an important role for a better understanding of the dynamic behavior of sandy and muddy coasts. This paper deals with reporting and basic interpretation of two campaigns of exploration and characterization of the mud of Cassino Beach, southern Brazil, carried out during the years of 2004 and 2005. Samples were obtained by means of cores collected at some locations offshore, and were submitted to various laboratory geotechnical tests, including determination of the physical index, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, and shear resistance by both triaxial and shear vane tests. Results confirm the existence of a very soft soil deposit offshore Cassino Beach, highly plastic, compressible, and viscous, forming an important database for further studies.

  12. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised...

  13. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon...

  14. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon...

  15. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers. The event is scheduled to...

  16. Governance in a beach seine fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medard, Modesta; Dijk, Van Han; Hebinck, Paul; Geheb, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Beach seine gear is one of the prominent fishing gears in Nile Perch fishery. Before Nile Perch was introduced to the lake, beach seines the species targeted with beach seine were Tilapia, Bagrus, Haplochromis, Protopterus and Labeo. In 1994, beach seines were banned in Tanzania and by 2004, this

  17. Application of the collapsing method to acoustic emissions in a rock salt sample during a triaxial compression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manthei, G.; Eisenblaetter, J.; Moriya, H.; Niitsuma, H.; Jones, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Collapsing is a relatively new method. It is used for detecting patterns and structures in blurred and cloudy pictures of multiple soundings. In the case described here, the measurements were made in a very small region with a length of only a few decimeters. The events were registered during a triaxial compression experiment on a compact block of rock salt. The collapsing method showed a cellular structure of the salt block across the whole length of the test piece. The cells had a length of several cm, enclosing several grains of salt with an average grain size of less than one cm. In view of the fact that not all cell walls corresponded to acoustic emission events, it was assumed that only those grain boundaries are activated that are oriented at a favourable angle to the field of tension of the test piece [de

  18. Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to make it suitable for foundry use.

  19. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  20. BEACH VOLUME CHANGE USING UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY SONGJUNG BEACH, KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D and beach profile (vertical 2D on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  1. Beach Resilience to Coastal Structures on a Natural Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Medellín, G.; Hofman, A.; Tereszkiewicz, P.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; López-González, J.

    2016-12-01

    Beach resilience plays an important role on reducing coastal risk associated to either natural or human induced perturbations affecting the coast. Field experiments were conducted in order to investigate beach resilience in Sisal, Yucatán. Both impermeable and permeable 14-m groins were designed to asses the impact of coastal structures on the beach morphology during a 24-hour period. The experiments were conducted in the spring of 2015 and 2016, allowing the assessment of both structures under similar forcing conditions. Intense sea breeze events (W>12 m/s) generated high-angle short-waves, driving alongshore transport in the swash zone. Wind, waves, tides, and currents were measured concurrently and are correlated with beach morphology evolution data derived from intense monitoring conducted during the structure deployment. The impermeable structure induced a significant beach accretion (>60 m3/day) in the updrift side of the structure causing a tremendous impact downdrift. On the other hand, the permeable groin induced a smaller but still significant accretion (40 m3/day), allowing sediment bypass throughout the structure. Furthermore, the beach surveying continued after structures removal in order to estimate the beach recovery capability. Field observations show that the impact of the structure on the morphology is negligible six days after structure removal for the impermeable groin and only one day for the permeable structure. The latter suggests the high beach resilience of the study area. We acknowledge field support provided by researchers and students at the LIPC-UNAM. Financial support was provided by CONACYT (Projects LN271544 and Cátedras 1146), DGAPA-UNAM (PAPIIT-IN107315) and Grupo BARI.

  2. Khnifiss Beach's Black Sand: Provenance and Transport Pathways Investigation Using Heavy Minerals' Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnani, M.; Elbelrhiti, H.; Ahmamou, M.; Masmoudi, L.

    2014-12-01

    Arid areas in south of Morocco suffer from silting problem causing destruction of villages infrastructure, roads, agriculture land and oasis heritage. Black sand on Khnifiss beach near Tarfaya city (S-W Morocco) is marked by enrichment of heavy minerals. This later is an important fraction that could help to assess the provenance and transport pathways of sediment. The sand's origin investigation could be useful to fight against erosion and silting problems from the source of supply, to this end, mineralogical analysis was carried out in Khnifiss beach's sand using Optic Microscope and Scanning Electronic Microscope with dispersive energy (SEM- EDS), in addition to physico-chemical analysis provided by Electronic Microprobe. The results revealed: (i) a high grade of oxides (Rutile, Ilmenite, Magnetite, Ulvöspinel) in samples, (ii) silicates (Quartz, Clinopyroxene, feldspar, Zircon), (iii) phosphate (apatite) and (iv) carbonate (calcite). The dominance of iron oxides justifies the black sand's colour. Then, the mineral composition supposes interference between different origins: proximal source (Calcareous cliff) for calcite, distal sources of oxides and silicates are supposed to be eroded and carried by Drâa valley from granite and igneous rocks in Anti-Atlasic field. Another source supposed might be a proximal volcanic island (Canaries island).

  3. Human viruses and viral indicators in marine water at two recreational beaches in Southern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Gibbons, Christopher D; Griffith, John F; Yu, Qilu; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses may pose disease risks to bather health but occurrence of these viruses has been difficult to characterize at recreational beaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate water for human virus occurrence at two Southern California recreational beaches with a history of beach closures. Human enteric viruses (adenovirus and norovirus) and viral indicators (F+ and somatic coliphages) were measured in water samples over a 4-month period from Avalon Beach, Catalina Island (n = 324) and Doheny Beach, Orange County (n = 112). Human viruses were concentrated from 40 L samples and detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection frequencies at Doheny Beach were 25.5% (adenovirus) and 22.3% (norovirus), and at Avalon Beach were 9.3% (adenovirus) and 0.7% (norovirus). Positive associations between adenoviruses and fecal coliforms were observed at Doheny (p = 0.02) and Avalon (p = 0.01) Beaches. Human viruses were present at both beaches at higher frequencies than previously detected in the region, suggesting that the virus detection methods presented here may better measure potential health risks to bathers. These virus recovery, concentration, and molecular detection methods are advancing practices so that analysis of enteric viruses can become more effective and routine for recreational water quality monitoring.

  4. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  5. Deposition behavior of polystyrene latex particles on solid surfaces during migration through an artificial fracture in a granite rock sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinju, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Satoru; Kuno, Yoshio

    2001-01-01

    The deposition behavior of colloids during transport through heterogeneous media was observed by conducting column experiments to study migration of polystyrene latex particles (diameter=309 nm) through columns packed with artificially fractured granite rock (length=300 and 150 mm). The experiments were conducted under conditions of different ionic strengths and flow rates. The results were similar to those for colloid deposition in columns packed with glass beads reported previously; the colloid breakthrough curves showed three stages, characterized by different rates of change in the concentration of effluent. Colloid deposition on the fracture surfaces was described by considering strong and weak deposition sites. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations indicated the existence of strong and weak sites on the fracture surfaces regardless of mineral composition. The observations also showed that the strong deposition sites tended to exist on surface irregularities such as cracks or protrusions. The degree of colloid deposition increased with increasing ionic strength and decreasing flow rate. The dependencies on ionic strength and flow rate agreed qualitatively with the DLVO theory and the previous experimental results, respectively. (author)

  6. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  7. Rb-Sr systematics in drill core samples of the Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton at the whole rock and mineral scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Futa, K.; Kamineni, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one whole-rock samples from boreholes ATK-1 and ATK-6 define a precise Rb-Sr isochron with an age of 2637 ± 33 Ma and initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr intercept, IR(Sr), of 0.70144 ± 0.00006. An internal mineral isochron for ATC-1 (991-997) and biotites from ATK-1 (35.63) and ATK-1 (3.84) give younger ages of 2541 ± 14 Ma 2574 ± 25 Ma, and 2534 ± 25 Ma, respectively. Data for samples from fracture zones scatter but correlate around an isochron of 2281 ± 153 Ma. The internal isochron and biotite ages record cooling below about 300 C due to uplift and erosion. The younger age, 2281 ± 153 Ma, records an episode or episodes of brittle failure at relatively high crustal levels. These fractures provided pathways for infiltration of water, which facilitated the mineralogical alteration

  8. A baseline assessment of beach debris and tar contamination in Bonaire, Southeastern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Rijn, van J.; Bron, P.S.; Leon, R.

    2013-01-01

    Data on beach debris and tar contamination is provided for 21 natural beach sites in Bonaire, Southeastern Caribbean. Transects amounting to a combined length of 991 m were sampled March–May 2011 and a total of 8960 debris items were collected. Highest debris and tar contamination were found on the

  9. Laboratory Visualization Experiments of Temperature-induced Fractures Around a Borehole (Cryogenic Fracturing) in Shale and Analogue Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.; Wu, Y. S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-12-01

    In tight shales, hydraulic fracturing is the dominant method for improving reservoir permeability. However, injecting water-based liquids can induce formation damage and disposal problems, thus other techniques are being sought. One alternative to hydraulic fracturing is producing fractures thermally, using low-temperature fluids (cryogens). The primary consequence of thermal stimulation is that shrinkage fractures are produced around the borehole wall. Recently, cryogenic stimulation produced some promising results when the cryogen (typically liquid nitrogen and cold nitrogen gas) could be brought to reservoir depth. Numerical modeling also showed possible significant increases in gas production from a shale reservoir after cryogenic stimulation. However, geometry and the dynamic behavior of these thermally induced fractures under different stress regimes and rock anisotropy and heterogeneity is not yet well understood.Currently, we are conducting a series of laboratory thermal fracturing experiments on Mancos Shale and transparent glass blocks, by injecting liquid nitrogen under atmospheric pressure into room temperature blocks under various anisotropic stress states. The glass blocks allow clear optical visualization of fracture development and final fracturing patterns. For the shale blocks, X-ray CT is used to image both pre-existing and induced fractures. Also, the effect of borehole orientation with respect to the bedding planes and aligned preexisting fractures is examined. Our initial experiment on a uniaxially compressed glass block showed fracturing behavior which was distinctly different from conventional hydraulic fracturing. In addition to tensile fractures in the maximum principal stress directions, the thermal contraction by the cryogen induced (1) chaotic, spalling fractures around the borehole wall, and (2) a series of disk-shaped annular fractures perpendicular to the borehole. When applied to a horizontal borehole, the propagation plane of the

  10. 11 things a geologist thinks an engineer should know about carbonate beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Robert B.; Magoon, Orville T.; Robbins, Lisa L.; Ewing, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    This is a review of the geological aspects of carbonate beaches that a geologist thinks may be useful for an engineer. Classical geologic problems of carbonate beaches, for example how ancient examples are recognized in rock sequences, are of little interest to engineers. Geologists not involved in engineering problems may find it difficult to know what an engineer should understand about carbonate beaches. Nevertheless, there are at least eleven topics that are potentially very useful for engineers to keep in mind. These eleven are chosen with as much thought going into what has been omitted as has been given to the eleven included topics. Some qualifications are in order: First, this paper does not discuss certain kinds of carbonate shorelines that are beyond the scope of engineering issues. For example, this review does not discuss very high-energy carbonate boulder beaches. These beaches are comprised of pieces of carbonate material ganging in size from ten centimeters to meters. Typically, these are high-energy storm deposits formed from pieces of either eroded carbonate rock or other large carbonate pieces such as pieces of large corals. This paper focuses on sand-sized (0.0625–2.0 mm) coastal carbonate deposits. Second, offshore beaches will not be discussed. There are many carbonate beaches that form on banks or shoals exposed at low tide, but our discussion is confined to what most people think of when they go to some tropical island and/or resort and walk out to lay on the beach. Third, this paper does not consider mixed carbonate/quartz sand beaches. While mixed beaches are common, only the end member of purely carbonate sand beaches is considered. Fourth, there will be no order of preference of the eleven topics. And lastly, these eleven topics are not consensus items. These are simply one geologist s thoughts about the aspects of carbonate beaches that would be useful for engineering colleagues to keep in mind. Where possible, general reference is

  11. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai.

  12. Geochemical data for stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate and rock samples collected from the Fortyseven Creek gold-arsenic-antimony-tungsten prospect, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Lee, G.K.; O'Leary, R. M.; Theodorakos, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1991, we conducted a reconnaissance geochemical survey around the Fortyseven Creek Au-As-Sb-W prospect that is located in the southwestern part of the Sleetmute quadrangle. At that time, this project was a small part of a more comprehensive Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP) study of the Sleemute quadrangle. AMRAP studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to fulfill requirements of the Alaska National Interests Lands Conservation Act (Public Law 96-487, 1980) to survey certain federal lands to determine their mineral potential. Although AMRAP is no longer in operation, this study represents a small topical study that was conducted during the Sleetmute quadrangle AMRAP study. The objective of the Fortyseven Creek work was to characterize the geochemistry of samples collected downstream from the Fortyseven Creek prospect, as well as mineralized and altered rock samples collected from the prospect. In this report, we describe the samples collected in 1991, the methods used for the analysis of the samples, and the geochemical data for these samples. The data in this report are also available in digital form on computer diskette in Gray and others (1999). An interpretation of these data appears in Gray and others (1998).

  13. Characterizing water/rock interaction in simulated comet nuclei via calorimetry: Tool for in-situ science, laboratory analysis, and sample preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Gooding, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Although results from the Giotto and Vega spacecraft flybys of comet P/Halley indicate a complex chemistry for both the ices and dust in the nucleus, carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are still regarded as useful analogs for the rocky components. Carbonaceous chondrites mixed with water enable simulation of water/rock interactions which may occur in cometary nuclei. Three general types of interactions can be expected between water and minerals at sub-freezing temperatures: heterogeneous nucleation of ice by insoluble minerals; adsorption of water vapor by hygroscopic phases; and freezing and melting point depression of liquid water sustained by soluble minerals. Two series of experiments were performed in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with homogenized powders of the following whole-rock meteorites and comparison samples: Allende (CV3), Murchison (CM2), Orgueil (CI), Holbrook (L6), and Pasamonte (eucrite) meteorites as well as on peridotite (PCC-1, USGS), saponite (Sap-Ca-1, CMS), montmorillonite (STx-1, CMS), and serpentine (Franciscan Formation, California). Results are briefly discussed.

  14. Investigation of uranium238, potassium40 and thorium232 level in soil and rock sample from North and South of Kurdofan state ( Western Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Alshfia Hashiem

    2015-04-01

    In this study 40 soil and rock samples were collected from eight locations (A.B.C.G) F present tow location, 500 grams of soil and rock sample was weighed and closed in plastic containers for weeks so to have secular equilibrium for uranium. Our goal of this study was estimate from North and South of Kurdofan state (Western Sudan). natural radioactivity concentrations in soil rock sample were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using Nal (TI), calibration process carried out for gamma spectroscopy using MW652 as a reference source -Cs-137 and Co-60 with two energy levels. The concentration of K-40 in location A was found to be range (347.78-51,67)Bq/kg in locations B was found to be range (169,90-125,54)Bq/kg in location C was found to be range (152,14-34,47)Bq/kg in location D was found to be range ( 396. 26-49.90)Bq/kg in location E was found to be range ( 168.70-127.70)Bq/kg in location F was found to be range (432.5-200.1)Bq/kg and in location G was found to be range (684.41-347.86)Bq/kg. The concentration of U-238 in location A was found to be range (483.133-19.4) Bq/kg in location B was found to be range (50.24-24.94)Bq/kg in location C was found to be range ( 69.11-10.58) Bq/kg in location D was found to be range (52.50-15.06)Bq/kg in location E was found to be range (56.66-49.6)Bq/kg in location E was found to be range (56.66-49)Bq/kg in location F was found to be range (46.01-19.40)Bq/kg in location A was found to be range (3227.8-40)Bq/kg in location B was found to be range (88.62-40.04) Bq/Kg in location C was found to be range (119.05-14.04) Bq/kg in location D was found to be range (51.62-16.96)Bq/kg in location E was found to be range (43.89-39.84) Bq/kg in location F was found to be range ( 46.18-24.40)Bq/kg and in location G was found to be range (201.05-137.34)Bq/kg.(Author)

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  16. Whole-rock analyses of core samples from the 1988 drilling of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind Tuthill; Taggart, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents and evaluates 64 major-element analyses of previously unanalyzed Kilauea Iki drill core, plus three samples from the 1959 and 1960 eruptions of Kilauea, obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis during the period 1992 to 1995. All earlier major-element analyses of Kilauea Iki core, obtained by classical (gravimetric) analysis, were reported and evaluated in Helz and others (1994). In order to assess how well the newer data compare with this earlier suite of analyses, a subset of 24 samples, which had been analyzed by classical analysis, was reanalyzed using the XRF technique; those results are presented and evaluated in this report also. The XRF analyses have not been published previously. This report also provides an overview of how the chemical variations observed in these new data fit in with the chemical zonation patterns and petrologic processes inferred in earlier studies of Kilauea Iki.

  17. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  18. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, I.R.; Dekker, S.C.; Kanters, Tobias J.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand,

  19. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, I.R.; Dekker, S.C.; Kanters, T.J.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: socalled beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand,

  20. Science Rocks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?"…

  1. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August 24-25...

  2. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  3. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Beach, VA to support the Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show. This action is necessary to provide for the...

  4. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Beaches 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...

  5. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Beaches 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...

  6. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in tropical sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...

  7. Comparison of alkaline fusion and acid digestion methods for the determination of rhenium in rock and soil samples by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko; Tabei, Ken

    2005-01-01

    A simple acid digestion method was studied in order to analyze many samples at once to understand Re behavior in the terrestrial environment, because, under normal laboratory conditions, digestion methods generally used, such as Carius tube digestions, Teflon vessel digestions and alkaline fusions, can handle only a small number of samples at one time to ensure complete sample digestion. In this study, the Re results for reference materials (RMs) obtained by the acid digestion method were compared with those by the alkaline fusion digestion method to get applicability of the acid digestion method for Re determination in soil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Alkaline fusion was chosen for the comparison because it is known to have the highest capability to dissolve Re in geological materials among digestion methods. The average total Re recoveries measured using the 185 Re spike for RMs, such as rock, soil and sediment, were 90.6 ± 4.0% for alkaline fusion and 92.2 ± 7.3% for acid digestion, showing no differences between them. However, Re results obtained by the acid digestion method were usually slightly lower than those by the alkaline fusion (Student's t-test, P -1 , the acid digestion method could dissolve about 80% of the sample Re. Although the acid digestion method is unable to dissolve all Re in the sample, however, the Re discharged to soils could be more extractable than the Re in the dissolution-resistant part; thus, the acid digestion method could be useful for obtaining Re levels in soil samples

  8. Determination of major, minor and trace elements in rock samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Progress in the utilization of borate glasses as targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Tacito Dantas F.; Escalfoni, Rainerio; Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O. da; Miekeley, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    The present work is a continuation of a research study performed at our laboratory aiming at the multielement analysis of rock samples (basalts and shale) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in combination with laser ablation using borate glasses as analytical targets. Argon, nitrogen-argon mixtures and helium were evaluated as cell gases, the latter confirming its better performance. Different operational parameters of the laser, such as gas flow, energy, focus, scanning speed and sampling frequency were optimized. External calibration was made with standards prepared by fusion of geological reference materials (basalts 688 and BCR-2, obsidian SRM 278, and shale SGR-1) of different mass fractions in the meta-tetra borate matrix. Coefficients of determination (R 2 ) were > 0.99 for 30 elements from o total of 40 determined. Method validation was then performed using additional certified reference materials (BHVO-2, BIR-1, SCo-1) produced as borate targets in a similar way. Accuracies were better than 10% for most of the elements studied and analytical precisions, calculated from the residual standard deviations of calibration curves were, typically, between 6% and 10%. Additionally, the semiquantitative TotalQuant (registered) technique was applied, which gave, within the expected uncertainty for this calibration technique, concordant results when compared to the quantitative external calibration procedure. Both methods were then used for the analysis of marine shale samples, which are of great geological interest in petroleum prospecting.

  9. Plastic pollution on the Baltic beaches of Kaliningrad region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena

    2017-01-30

    Contamination of sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea in Kaliningrad region is evaluated on the base of surveys carried out from June 2015 to January 2016. Quantity of macro/meso/microplastic objects in the upper 2cm of the sandy sediments of the wrack zone at 13 sampling sites all along the Russian coast is reported. Occurrence of paraffin and amber pieces at the same sites is pointed out. Special attention is paid to microplastics (range 0.5-5mm): its content ranges between 1.3 and 36.3 items per kg dry sediment. The prevailing found type is foamed plastic. No sound differences in contamination are discovered between beaches with high and low anthropogenic load. Mean level of contamination is of the same order of magnitude as has been reported by other authors for the Baltic Sea beaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytical results and sample locality map for rock, stream-sediment, and soil samples, Northern and Eastern Coloado Desert BLM Resource Area, Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Harley D.; Chaffee, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1996-1998 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geochemical study of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) 5.5 million-acre Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert Resource Area (usually referred to as the NECD in this report), Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, southeastern California (figure 1). This study was done in support of the BLM's Coordinated Management Plan for the area. This report presents analytical data from this study. To provide comprehensive coverage of the NECD, we compiled and examined all available geochemical data, in digital form, from previous studies in the area, and made sample-site plots to aid in determining where sample-site coverage and analyses were sufficient, which samples should be re-analyzed, and where additional sampling was needed. Previous investigations conducted in parts of the current study area included the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program studies of the Needles and Salton Sea 1? x 2? quadrangles; USGS studies of 12 BLM Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) (Big Maria Mountains, Chemehuevi Mountains, Chuckwalla Mountains, Coxcomb Mountains, Mecca Hills, Orocopia Mountains, Palen-McCoy, Picacho Peak, Riverside Mountains, Sheephole Valley (also known as Sheep Hole/Cadiz), Turtle Mountains, and Whipple Mountains); and USGS studies in the Needles and El Centro 1? x 2? quadrangles done during the early 1990s as part of a project to identify the regional geochemistry of southern California. Areas where we did new sampling of rocks and stream sediments are mainly in the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range and in Joshua Tree National Park, which extends into the west-central part of the NECD, as shown in figure 1 and figure 2. This report contains analytical data for 132 rock samples and 1,245 stream-sediment samples collected by the USGS, and 362 stream-sediment samples and 189 soil samples collected during the NURE program. All samples are from the Northern and Eastern Colorado

  11. 591 Morphodynamisme des environnements à Beach-rocks du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    youness

    L'échantillonnage des sédiments dans la plate-forme de Côte d'Ivoire. (Figure 1), s'est déroulé .... Tableau 1 : Granulométrie et description des sables des types morphobathymétriques concaves de la plate-forme continentale de Côte d' ..... la substitution du ciment ferrugineux par un ciment carbonaté s'observe avec une ...

  12. 591 Morphodynamisme des environnements à Beach-rocks du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    youness

    Ils sont constitués de matériaux terrigènes charriés par les cours ... convexes, aux larges des embouchures des grands fleuves, présentent une pente légèrement accentuée au .... Tableau 1 : Granulométrie et description des sables des types morphobathymétriques concaves de la plate-forme continentale de Côte d'Ivoire.

  13. The origin and destruction of beach ridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeglas, D.J.

    1955-01-01

    During the Fall of 1945 the author measured daily the micro-topography of a beach profile at Zandvoort, the Netherlands. The daily changes and the movements of the beach ridges have been determined. Several beach ridges came into being and were destroyed during storms. The structure of the deposits

  14. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  15. The ecology of sandy beaches in Transkei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of sandy beaches in Transkei. T. Wooldridge, A.H. Dye and A. Mclachlan. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. Data from an ecological survey of three sandy beaches in. Transkei and from Gulu beach on the eastern Cape coast,. South Africa, are presented. Physical parameters ...

  16. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  17. Isolation, identification, and pathological effects of beach sand bacterial extract on human skin keratinocytesin vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Fazli; Shahzad, Raheem; Tauseef, Isfahan; Haleem, Kashif Syed; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Mahmood, Sajid; Lee, In-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Beaches are recreational spots for people. However, beach sand contains harmful microbes that affect human health, and there are no established methods for either sampling and identifying beach-borne pathogens or managing the quality of beach sand. This study was conducted with the aim of improving human safety at beaches and augmenting the quality of the beach experience. Beach sand was used as a resource to isolate bacteria due to its distinctive features and the biodiversity of the beach sand biota. A selected bacterial isolate termed FSRS was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, and the sequence was deposited in the NCBI GenBank database under the accession number MF599548. The isolated P. stutzeri bacterium was cultured in Luria-Bertani growth medium, and a crude extract was prepared using ethyl acetate to examine the potential pathogenic effect of P. stutzeri on human skin. A human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) was used to assess cell adhesion, cell viability, and cell proliferation using a morphological analysis and a WST-1 assay. The crude P. stutzeri extract inhibited cell adhesion and decreased cell viability in HaCaT cells. We concluded that the crude extract of P. stutzeri FSRS had a strong pathological effect on human skin cells. Beach visitors frequently get skin infections, but the exact cause of the infections is yet to be determined. The beach sand bacterium P. stutzeri may, therefore, be responsible for some of the dermatological problems experienced by people visiting the beach.

  18. Isolation, identification, and pathological effects of beach sand bacterial extract on human skin keratinocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Subhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Beaches are recreational spots for people. However, beach sand contains harmful microbes that affect human health, and there are no established methods for either sampling and identifying beach-borne pathogens or managing the quality of beach sand. Method This study was conducted with the aim of improving human safety at beaches and augmenting the quality of the beach experience. Beach sand was used as a resource to isolate bacteria due to its distinctive features and the biodiversity of the beach sand biota. A selected bacterial isolate termed FSRS was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, and the sequence was deposited in the NCBI GenBank database under the accession number MF599548. The isolated P. stutzeri bacterium was cultured in Luria–Bertani growth medium, and a crude extract was prepared using ethyl acetate to examine the potential pathogenic effect of P. stutzeri on human skin. A human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT was used to assess cell adhesion, cell viability, and cell proliferation using a morphological analysis and a WST-1 assay. Result The crude P. stutzeri extract inhibited cell adhesion and decreased cell viability in HaCaT cells. We concluded that the crude extract of P. stutzeri FSRS had a strong pathological effect on human skin cells. Discussion Beach visitors frequently get skin infections, but the exact cause of the infections is yet to be determined. The beach sand bacterium P. stutzeri may, therefore, be responsible for some of the dermatological problems experienced by people visiting the beach.

  19. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy: a sedimentological/ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  20. Analysis of the Relationship Between Physical Environmental Parameters and Beach Water Quality in a Subtropical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Wang, J. D.; Elmir, S.; Solo-Gabriele, H. M.; Wright, M. E.; Abdelzaher, A.

    2006-12-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria(FIB) are found in high concentrations in sewage water, and thus are used to indicate whether there is fecal material related pathogen present and to determine whether a beach is safe for recreational use. Studies have shown, however, in subtropical regions, FIB concentrations above EPA standards may be present in the absence of known point sources of human or animal waste, thus reducing the efficacy of FIB beach monitoring programs. An interdisciplinary study is being conducted in Miami, Florida , the goal is to understand the sources and behavior of FIB on a beach without point source loads and also to improve beach health hazard warnings in subtropical regions. This study, examines relationship between enterococci (EPA recommended FIB for use in marine water) and physical environmental parameters such as rain, tide and wind. FIB data employed include Florida Department of Health weekly beach monitoring enterococci (ENT) data during a five year period and a two-day experiment with hourly sampling at Hobie Cat Beach on Virginia Key in the Miami metropolitan area. The environmental data consist of wind from a nearby CMAN tower, and local rain and tide. The analysis also includes data from nearby beaches monitored by the Health Department. Results show the correlation coefficient between ENT and tide at Hobie Cat Beach is positive but not significant(r=0.17). Rain events have a significant influence on ENT at Hobie Cat Beach, with a correlation coefficient of up to 0.7 while at other beaches the correlation is less than 0.2. Reasons for this aberration are being investigated. Although this is the only beach allowing dogs there are other factors of possible importance, such as tidal flats frequented by birds and weaker water circulation and exchange at this beach facing a bay rather than the ocean. Higher ENT levels (> 300CFU/100ml water) are more likely (67% of the time) to be associated with periods of onshore winds, which may affect the

  1. Field and Model Study to Define Baseline Conditions of Beached Oil Tar Balls along Florida’s First Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Bacopoulos; James David Lambert; Mary Hertz; Luis Montoya; Terry Smith

    2014-01-01

    Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. Outcomes from the field study include an established methodology for field data collection and laboratory testing of beached oil tar balls, spatial maps of collected samples and analysis of the data as to transport/wash-...

  2. Effects of the nuisance algae, Cladophora, on Escherichia coli at recreational beaches in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebert, Erik T; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory T

    2008-10-01

    Recreational beaches constitute a large part of the 12 billion dollar per year tourism industry in Wisconsin. Beach closures due to microbial contamination are costly in terms of lost tourism revenue and adverse publicity for an area. Escherichia coli (E. coli), is used as an indicator of microbial contamination, as high concentrations of this organism should indicate a recent fecal contamination event that may contain other, more pathogenic, bacteria. An additional problem at many beaches in the state is the nuisance algae, Cladophora. It has been hypothesized that mats of Cladophora may harbor high concentrations of E. coli. Three beaches in Door County, WI were selected for study, based on tourist activity and amounts of algae present. Concentrations of E. coli were higher within Cladophora mats than in surrounding water. Beaches displayed an E. coli concentration gradient in water extending away from the Cladophora mats, although this was not statistically significant. Likewise, the amount of Cladophora observed on a beach did not correlate with E. coli concentrations found in routine beach monitoring samples. More work is needed to determine the impact of mats of Cladophora on beach water quality, as well as likely sources of E. coli found within the mats.

  3. Watershed Assessment with Beach Microbial Source Tracking and Outcomes of Resulting Gull Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kelly D; Gruber, Steve; Vondrak, Mary; Crumpacker, Andrea

    2016-09-20

    Total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation at a southern California beach involved ultraviolet treatment of watershed drainage that provided >97% reduction in fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations. However, this pollutant control measure did not provide sufficient improvement of beach water quality, prompting further assessment. Investigation included microbial source tracking (MST) for human, gull, and canine fecal sources, monitoring of enterococci and fecal coliform, and measurement of chemical and physical water quality parameters for samples collected from watershed, groundwater, and beach sites, including a beach scour pond and tidal creek. FIB variability remained poorly modeled in regression analysis. However, MST revealed correlations between FIB and gull source tracking markers, leading to recommendations to manage gulls as a pollutant source. Beach conditions were followed for three years after implementation of a best management practice (BMP) to abate gulls using a falconry program for the beach and an upland landfill. The gull abatement BMP was associated with improved beach water quality, and this appears to be the first report of falconry in the context of TMDL implementation. Overall, MST data enabled management action despite an inability to fully model FIB dynamics in the coupled watershed-beach system.

  4. Can beaches survive climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Limber, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is driving sea level rise, leading to numerous impacts on the coastal zone, such as increased coastal flooding, beach erosion, cliff failure, saltwater intrusion in aquifers, and groundwater inundation. Many beaches around the world are currently experiencing chronic erosion as a result of gradual, present-day rates of sea level rise (about 3 mm/year) and human-driven restrictions in sand supply (e.g., harbor dredging and river damming). Accelerated sea level rise threatens to worsen coastal erosion and challenge the very existence of natural beaches throughout the world. Understanding and predicting the rates of sea level rise and coastal erosion depends on integrating data on natural systems with computer simulations. Although many computer modeling approaches are available to simulate shoreline change, few are capable of making reliable long-term predictions needed for full adaption or to enhance resilience. Recent advancements have allowed convincing decadal to centennial-scale predictions of shoreline evolution. For example, along 500 km of the Southern California coast, a new model featuring data assimilation predicts that up to 67% of beaches may completely erode by 2100 without large-scale human interventions. In spite of recent advancements, coastal evolution models must continue to improve in their theoretical framework, quantification of accuracy and uncertainty, computational efficiency, predictive capability, and integration with observed data, in order to meet the scientific and engineering challenges produced by a changing climate.

  5. The effects of beach nourishment on benthic invertebrates in eastern Australia: impacts and variable recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Noriega, Rocio; Jones, Alan; Dye, Theresa

    2012-10-01

    Beach erosion is likely to accelerate, driven by predicted consequences of climate change and coastal development. Erosion is increasingly combated by beach nourishment, adding sand to eroding shores. Because a range of engineering techniques exists to nourish beaches, and because these techniques differ in their environmental effects, assessments of ecological impacts need to be tailored and specific. Here we report on impacts and recovery of benthic invertebrates impacted by beach nourishment operations undertaken at Palm Beach (SE Queensland, Australia). Assessments are made based on a beyond-BACI design, where samples were taken once before nourishment and twice afterwards at the impact and two control sites. Because almost all of the sand was deposited on the upper beach and later moved with bulldozers down-shore, we specifically examined whether the effects of nourishment varied at different heights of the beach-a little-studied question which has management implications. Impacts on the fauna were massive on the upper and middle levels of the beach: samples collected two days after the conclusion of nourishment were entirely devoid of all invertebrate life ('azoic'), whereas weaker effects of nourishment were detectable on the lower shore. Recovery after five months also varied between shore levels. The sediment of the upper level near the dunes remained azoic, the fauna of the middle shore had recovered partially, and the lower level had recovered in most respects. These findings indicate that the height and position of sand placement are important. For example, rather than depositing fill sand on the intertidal beach, it could be placed in the shallow subtidal zone, followed by slow up-shore accretion driven by hydrodynamic forces. Alternatively, techniques that spread the fill sand in thin layers (to minimize mortality by burial) and leave unfilled intertidal refuge islands (to provide colonists) may minimize the ecological impacts of beach nourishment

  6. TSUNAMI DEPOSITS AT QUEEN’S BEACH, OAHU, HAWAII – INITIALRESULTS AND WAVE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Barbara Keating

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Photographs taken immediately after the 1946 Aleutian Tsunami inundated Queen’s Beach, southeastern Oahu, show the major highway around the island was inundated and the road bed was destroyed. That road bed remains visible today, in an undeveloped coastline that shows like change in sedimentary deposits between 1946 and today (based on photographic evidence. Tsunami catalog records however indicate that the beach was repeatedly inundated by tsunami in 1946, 1952, 1957, and 1960. Tsunami runup was reported to have reached between 3 and 11 m elevation. Eyewitness accounts however indicate inundations of up to 20 m in Kealakipapa Valley (Makapu’u Lookout during 1946 and photographic evidence indicated inundation reached 9 m in 1957. The inundation of Kealakipapa Valley has been successfully modeled using a 10-m tsunami wave model.A comparison of the modern beach deposits to those near the remains of the destroyed highway demonstrate that the sedimentary deposits within the two areas have very different rock characteristics. We conclude the modern beach is dominated by the rounding of rocks (mostly coral by wave activity. However, in the area that has experienced prior tsunami inundations, the rocks are characterized by fracturing and a high component of basaltic material. We conclude the area near the destroyed highway reflects past tsunami inundations combined with inevitable anthropogenic alteration.

  7. Texture, carbonate content and component composition of Mauritius beach sands, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Veerayya, M.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    Samples collected from beaches bordering the southern, southeastern, western and northwestern shores representing swell (windward) and non-swell (leeward) dominated environments of the island of Mauritius were studied in order to define grain size...

  8. Textural studies of beach sediments from Sadashivagad and Karwar, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Antao, F.B.

    Analysis of textural parameters such as mean grain size, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis was done for 48 surface sediment samples of two close but separate beaches, namely Sadashivagad and Karwar, in the Central West Coast of India...

  9. Biorock Electric Reefs Grow Back Severely Eroded Beaches in Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. F. Goreau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Severely eroded beaches on low lying islands in Indonesia were grown back in a few months—believed to be a record—using an innovative method of shore protection, Biorock electric reef technology. Biorock shore protection reefs are growing limestone structures that get stronger with age and repair themselves, are cheaper than concrete or rock sea walls and breakwaters, and are much more effective at shore protection and beach growth. Biorock reefs are permeable, porous, growing, self-repairing structures of any size or shape, which dissipate wave energy by internal refraction, diffraction, and frictional dissipation. They do not cause reflection of waves like hard sea walls and breakwaters, which erodes the sand in front of, and then underneath, such structures, until they collapse. Biorock reefs stimulate settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to the environmental stress of all forms of marine life, restoring coral reefs, sea grasses, biological sand production, and fisheries habitat. Biorock reefs can grow back eroded beaches and islands faster than the rate of sea level rise, and are the most cost-effective method of shore protection and adaptation to global sea level rise for low lying islands and coasts.

  10. Effects of Fishing and Fishing Closures on Beach Clams: Experimental Evaluation across Commercially Fished and Non-Fished Beaches before and during Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Management responses to reconcile declining fisheries typically include closed areas and times to fishing. This study evaluated this strategy for a beach clam fishery by testing the hypothesis that changes in the densities and size compositions of clams from before to during harvesting would differ between commercially fished and non-fished beaches. Sampling was spatially stratified across the swash and dry sand habitats on each of two commercially fished and two non-fished beaches, and temporally stratified across three six-week blocks: before, early and late harvesting. Small-scale spatio-temporal variability in the densities and sizes of clams was prevalent across both habitats and the components of variation were generally greatest at the lowest levels examined. Despite this, differences in the densities and sizes of clams among individual beaches were evident, but there were few significant differences across the commercially fished versus non-fished beaches from before to during harvesting. There was no evidence of reduced densities or truncated size compositions of clams on fished compared to non-fished beaches, contrasting reports of some other organisms in protected areas. This was probably due to a combination of factors, including the current levels of commercial harvests, the movements and other local-scale responses of clams to ecological processes acting independently across individual beaches. The results identify the difficulties in detecting fishing-related impacts against inherent levels of variability in clam populations. Nevertheless, continued experimental studies that test alternate management arrangements may help refine and determine the most suitable strategies for the sustainable harvesting of beach clams, ultimately enhancing the management of sandy beaches.

  11. [Effects of human disturbance on the population dynamics of Ocypode quadrata (Decapoda: Ocypodidae) in beaches of the Mexican Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Frank A; Navarrete, Alberto de Jesús; Carrillo, Rosa María de Jesús; Oliva-Rivera, José J

    2016-12-01

    The ghost crab Ocypode quadrata is a relevant species in the Western Atlantic beaches, and has been proposed as an indicator of human impact in these ecosystems. Eventhough some studies have covered various aspects of its natural history, no evaluations on the effects of human disturbance on its population dynamics have been made. This work compared the abundance, growth, and mortality of O. quadrata in two disturbed beaches (Aventuras and Majahual) and two preserved beaches (Xcacel and Puerto Angel) from the Mexican Caribbean. For this, nine samplings were made on each beach (every two to three months) between March 2013 and November 2014. Crabs were collected manually by three people, during the night first hours and for one hour, and a total area of 9 000 m2 per beach. The crabs were measured, weighed, and separated into three groups: juvenile, male and female; while abundance was estimated by the number of collected crabs, and growth parameters were estimated using length frequencies. A total of 1 047 crabs were sampled in the four beaches; a higher crab abundance was found in the preserved beaches, but significant differences were only found between Puerto Angel and Majahual (Tukey, ppopulation dynamics of this species. These results supported the information that the ghost crab is a good indicator of human disturbance, and its population changes were clearly measurable and comparable among protected and impacted beaches; these results are also relevant for the management of sandy beaches in the Mexican Caribbean.

  12. Characterization of 15 selected coccal bacteria isolated from Antarctic rock and soil samples from the McMurdo-Dry Valleys (South-Victoria Land)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, J.; Hirsch, P.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 1500 cultures of microorganisms were isolated from rocks and soils of the Ross Desert (McMurdo-Dry Valleys). From these, 15 coccoid strains were chosen for more detailed investigation. They were characterized by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomical properties. All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-positive and nonmotile. Six strains showed red pigmentation and could be identified as members of the genera Micrococcus (M. roseus, M. agilis) or Deinococcus. In spite of their coccoid morphology, the remaining nine strains had to be associated with coryneform bacteria (Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium), because of their cell wall composition and G+C ratios. Most of the strains were psychrotrophic, but one strain was even obligately psychrophilic, with a temperature maximum below 20 degrees C. Red cocci had in vitro pH optima above 9.0 although they generally originated from acid samples. Most isolates showed a preference for sugar alcohols and organic acids, compounds which are commonly known to be released by lichens, molds and algae, the other components of the cryptoendolithic ecosystem. These properties indicate that our strains are autochthonous members of the natural Antarctic microbial population.

  13. Metrological system for y-ray spectrometry measurement of the specific activity and mass fraction of natural radioactive elements in soil and rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaikovich, I.M.; Fominykh, V.I.; Kirisyuk, E.M.; Belyachkov, Y.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the last few years a great deal of attention has been devoted to the study of the radiation conditions, which in some regions change markedly as a result of intense human activity. One reason for radioactive contamination of an area is dissemination during extraction and processing of radioactive ores or other minerals of natural radioactive elements with a high content of potassium, uranium (radium), and thorium. Estimation of the level of radioactive contamination is one of the main problems of ecological monitoring, and the quality of the measurements sometimes plays a deciding role in the fate of the object being investigated. This also pertains to, in particular, estimation of radioactive contamination of minerals employed for building homes and factories and other industrial structures. In order to draw unequivocal and well-founded conclusions from measurements of the content of natural radioactive elements in soil and rock samples, collected at the object being investigated, a great deal of attention must be devoted during the organization of the measurements to the metrological system

  14. Local scale processes drive long-term change in biodiversity of sandy beach ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Nicholas K; Dugan, Jenifer E; Hubbard, David M; Straughan, Dale

    2017-07-01

    Evaluating impacts to biodiversity requires ecologically informed comparisons over sufficient time spans. The vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to anthropogenic and climate change-related impacts makes them potentially valuable indicators of biodiversity change. To evaluate multidecadal change in biodiversity, we compared results from intertidal surveys of 13 sandy beaches conducted in the 1970s and 2009-11 along 500 km of coast (California, USA). Using a novel extrapolation approach to adjust species richness for sampling effort allowed us to address data gaps and has promise for application to other data-limited biodiversity comparisons. Long-term changes in species richness varied in direction and magnitude among beaches and with human impacts but showed no regional patterns. Observed long-term changes in richness differed markedly among functional groups of intertidal invertebrates. At the majority (77%) of beaches, changes in richness were most evident for wrack-associated invertebrates suggesting they have disproportionate vulnerability to impacts. Reduced diversity of this group was consistent with long-term habitat loss from erosion and sea level rise at one beach. Wrack-associated species richness declined over time at impacted beaches (beach fill and grooming), despite observed increases in overall intertidal richness. In contrast richness of these taxa increased at more than half (53%) of the beaches including two beaches recovering from decades of off-road vehicle impacts. Over more than three decades, our results suggest that local scale processes exerted a stronger influence on intertidal biodiversity on beaches than regional processes and highlight the role of human impacts for local spatial scales. Our results illustrate how comparisons of overall biodiversity may mask ecologically important changes and stress the value of evaluating biodiversity change in the context of functional groups. The long-term loss of wrack-associated species, a key

  15. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R

    2008-01-01

    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  16. Cigarette Waste in Popular Beaches in Thailand: High Densities that Demand Environmental Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipapun Kungskulniti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thailand, like all nations, has a responsibility to initiate environmental actions to preserve marine environments. Low- and middle-income countries face difficulties implementing feasible strategies to fulfill this ambitious goal. To contribute to the revitalization of Thailand’s marine ecosystems, we investigated the level of tobacco product waste (TPW on Thailand’s public beaches. We conducted a cross-sectional observational survey at two popular public beaches. Research staff collected cigarette butts over two eight-hour days walking over a one-kilometer stretch of beach. We also compiled and analyzed data on butts collected from sieved sand at 11 popular beaches throughout Thailand’s coast, with 10 samples of sieved sand collected per beach. Our survey at two beaches yielded 3067 butts in lounge areas, resulting in a mean butt density of 0.44/m2. At the 11 beaches, sieved sand samples yielded butt densities ranging from 0.25 to 13.3/m2, with a mean butt density of 2.26/m2 (SD = 3.78. These densities show that TPW has become a serious problem along Thailand’s coastline. Our findings are comparable with those in other countries. We report on government and civil society initiatives in Thailand that are beginning to address marine TPW. The solution will only happen when responsible parties, especially and primarily tobacco companies, undertake actions to eliminate TPW.

  17. 75 FR 1373 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... Act Grants. SUMMARY: Section 406(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches...? The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act... statutory authority for BEACH Act grants is section 406(b) of the Clean Water Act, as amended by the BEACH...

  18. Recharge into a shingle beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  19. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  20. Archive of information about geological samples available for research from the Ohio State University Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Polar Rock Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Polar Rock Repository (PRR) operated by the Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) at the Ohio State University is a partner in the Index to Marine and...

  1. Fractionated Noble Gases in Martian Meteorite ALH 84001 — An Indicator for Water-Rock Interaction, or a Sample of Ancient Atmosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Bart, G.; Bridges, J. C.; Crowther, S. A.; Filiberto, J.; Gilmour, J. D.; Herrmann, S.; Hicks, L. J.; Kelley, S. P.; Miller, M. A.; Ott, U.; Steer, E. D.; Swindle, T. D.; Treiman, A. H.

    2017-10-01

    Noble gases in the nakhlite and ALH84001 Martian meteorites are still a mystery, but could tell us about either the history of the Martian atmosphere, Martian water rock interaction or - likely - both!

  2. Beach profiling studies at Yarada beach, Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.; Raju, N.S.N.

    Seasonal morphological variations and effect of oceanographic processes such as erosion or accreation along beaches are important to understand the nature of the beach and the cyclic changes occurring during different seasons. Detailed...

  3. Beach litter sourcing: A trawl along the Northern Ireland coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A T; Randerson, P; Allen, C; Cooper, J A G

    2017-09-15

    Fourteen non-recreational coastal locations in Northern Ireland were investigated as to whether beach litter deposition was related to seasonal or site specific factors. Litter items were counted in 100m width transects and 1km strand-line surveys over a five-season period (autumn to autumn). Survey sites comprised fishing ports; estuarine areas, north (high energy) and east coast (low energy) beaches. Fishing ports accumulated the most litter. In the 100m beach surveys, plastics, string and cord, bottle caps, food items, rope, and drink containers dominated. In strand-line surveys, large plastic pieces were dominant, followed by rope, string and cord, strapping bands (absent on beach surveys), cloth, wood (mainly pallets, fish boxes) and metal items. Multivariate analyses revealed major litter category differences between the ports and all other sites, with a lesser distinction between exposed and estuarine sites. There was no simple coastline trend and no apparent effect of seasonality between samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plastics Distribution and Degradation on Lake Huron Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbyszewski, M.; Corcoran, P.

    2009-05-01

    The resistivity of plastic debris to chemical and mechanical weathering processes poses a serious threat to the environment. Numerous marine beaches are littered with plastic fragments that entangle and become ingested by organisms including birds, turtles and plankton. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the amount and effects of plastics pollution on marine organisms, relatively little is known about the distribution and quantity of polymer types along lacustrine beaches. Plastic particles sampled from selected beaches on Lake Huron were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine polymer composition. The majority of the plastic fragments are industrial pellets composed of polypropylene and polyethylene. Varying degrees of oxidation are indicated by multiple irregular peaks in the lower wavenumber region on the FTIR spectra. The oxidized pellets also represent the plastic particles with the most pronounced surface textures, as identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crazes and flakey, fibrous, or granular textures are consistent with chemical weathering processes, whereas gauges and pits occur through abrasion during mechanical weathering. Further textural and compositional analysis will indicate which polymer types are more resistant to weathering processes. Additional investigation of the distribution of plastic debris along the beaches of Lake Huron will indicate the amount and primary transport directions of resistant plastic debris polluting one of Ontario's Great Lakes.

  5. Laboratory testing of rock and salt samples for determination of specific gravity and total porosity of the Zeeck No. 1 well (PD-7), Palo Duro Basin, Texas: unanalyzed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This report contains the specific gravity and total porosity determinations for rock and salt samples from Zeeck No. 1 Well of the Permian Basin. The laboratory test samples were measured for water content, apparent specific gravity, specific gravity of solids, total porosity and effective porosity. Specimen descriptions including specimen number, formation/group, and lithologic description as well as typical data sheets are included in the appendices. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated

  6. Classification of beach response to extreme storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burvingt, Olivier; Masselink, Gerd; Russell, Paul; Scott, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Extreme storms are responsible for rapid changes to coastlines worldwide. During the 2013/14 winter, the west coast of Europe experienced a sequence of large, storm-induced wave events, representing the most energetic period of waves in the last 60 years. The southwest coast of England underwent significant geomorphological change during that period, but exhibited a range of spatially variable and complex morphological responses, despite being subjected to the same storm sequence. Here, we use the 2013/14 storm response along the southwest coast of England as a natural field laboratory and explain this variability in storm response through the introduction and evaluation of a new classification of how sandy and gravel beaches respond to extreme storms. Cluster analysis was conducted using an unique data set of pre- and post-storm airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data from 157 beach sites based on the net volumetric change (dQnet) and a novel parameter, the longshore variation index (LVI) which quantifies the alongshore morphological variability in beach response. Four main beach response types were identified: (1) fully exposed beaches that experienced large and alongshore uniform sediment losses (dQnet ≈ 100 m3·m- 1); (2) semi-exposed beaches that experienced medium alongshore uniform sediment losses (dQnet ≈ 50 m3·m- 1); (3) sheltered short beaches that experienced limited net sediment change and alongshore variability in beach response; and (4) sheltered long beaches that experienced considerable alongshore variability in beach response and large gross sediment change, but limited net sediment change. The key factors in determining the type of beach response are: exposure to the storm waves, angle of storm wave approach and the degree to which the beach is embayed. These factors are universally applicable on many exposed coastlines worldwide, so the response classification presented here is expected to be widely applicable.

  7. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the western Okanogan highlands and of the upper Columbia River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples; no known uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern portions of the western Okanogan highlands and in the upper Columbia River valley were investigated during a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of the Tertiary sedimentary rocks of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples. No portion of the project area of this report is rated of high or of medium favorability for potential uranium resources. Low favorability ratings are given to Oroville, Tonasket, and Pine Creek areas of the Okanogan River valley; to the Republic graben; and to the William Lakes, Colville, and Sheep Creek areas of the upper Columbia River valley. All these areas contain some fluvial, poorly sorted feldspathic or arkosic sandstones and conglomerates. These rocks are characterized by very low permeability and a consistently high siliceous matrix suggesting very low initial permeability. There are no known uranium deposits in any of these areas, and low level uranium anomalies are rare.

  8. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  9. Space Weathering of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  10. Characteristics of meso-sized plastic marine debris on 20 beaches in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongsu; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Hong, Sang Hee; Shim, Won Joon; Eo, Soeun

    2017-10-15

    We surveyed the abundance and accumulation patterns of mesoplastic marine debris (5-25mm) on 20 beaches in Korea. The mean abundance of it was 13.2items/m 2 , and the mean weight was 1.5g/m 2 . Hard plastic and Styrofoam were the dominant types. The proportions of hard plastic and Styrofoam were highly variable among the beaches, each accounting for 0-100% of the total debris on a given beach with 32% and 48.5% (by number) on average, respectively. Relatively lower abundances of mesoplastic marine debris compared with our previous studies were likely due by differences of the sampling areas within the beach. The samples of this research were selected from backshore, middle line, and water edge whereas they were selected from high strandline and backshore in our previous studies. It should be considered when discussing the level of mesoplastic marine debris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microplastics in tourist beaches of Huatulco Bay, Pacific coast of southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retama, I; Jonathan, M P; Shruti, V C; Velumani, S; Sarkar, S K; Roy, Priyadarsi D; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F

    2016-12-15

    The presence and impacts of plastic marine debris (PMD) have been documented in the oceans worldwide, and they deserve special attention. This study is the first to report the presence of microplastics in tourist beaches located in Huatulco Bay, southern Mexico. A total of 70 beach sediment samples (for 2 distinct seasons) were collected from Huatulco Bay in April 2013 and December 2014. The samples were subsequently extracted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify the fibrous microplastics (diametermicroplastics is present in the Conejos, Tangolunda, Santa Cruz, and San Agustin beaches. The microplastics are mainly derived from tourism-based activities and effluents discharged from the hotels and restaurants located along the beaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beach Observations using Quadcopter Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Chung; Wang, Hsing-Yu; Fang, Hui-Ming; Hsiao, Sung-Shan; Tsai, Cheng-Han

    2017-04-01

    Beaches are the places where the interaction of the land and sea takes place, and it is under the influence of many environmental factors, including meteorological and oceanic ones. To understand the evolution or changes of beaches, it may require constant monitoring. One way to monitor the beach changes is to use optical cameras. With careful placements of ground control points, land-based optical cameras, which are inexpensive compared to other remote sensing apparatuses, can be used to survey a relatively large area in a short time. For example, we have used terrestrial optical cameras incorporated with ground control points to monitor beaches. The images from the cameras were calibrated by applying the direct linear transformation, projective transformation, and Sobel edge detector to locate the shoreline. The terrestrial optical cameras can record the beach images continuous, and the shorelines can be satisfactorily identified. However, the terrestrial cameras have some limitations. First, the camera system set a sufficiently high level so that the camera can cover the whole area that is of interest; such a location may not be available. The second limitation is that objects in the image have a different resolution, depending on the distance of objects from the cameras. To overcome these limitations, the present study tested a quadcopter equipped with a down-looking camera to record video and still images of a beach. The quadcopter can be controlled to hover at one location. However, the hovering of the quadcopter can be affected by the wind, since it is not positively anchored to a structure. Although the quadcopter has a gimbal mechanism to damp out tiny shakings of the copter, it will not completely counter movements due to the wind. In our preliminary tests, we have flown the quadcopter up to 500 m high to record 10-minnte video. We then took a 10-minute average of the video data. The averaged image of the coast was blurred because of the time duration of

  13. A hybrid beach morphology model applied to a high energy sandy beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karunarathna, Harshinie; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the application of a hybrid coastal morphodynamic model to forecast inter-annual beach change is discussed through the prediction of beach change in a high energy sandy beach over a period of 5 years. The modelling approach combines a ‘reduced-physics’ formulation with a data-driven

  14. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Virginia Beach, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during...

  15. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  16. Spatial and temporal correlation between beach and wave processes: implications for bar-berm sediment transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Saravanan, S.; Anandakumar, H.; Thanushkodi, K.; Suguna, N.; Jaya, J.

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of a beach and its wave conditions is highly requisite for understanding the physical processes in a coast. This study composes spatial and temporal correlation between beach and nearshore processes along the extensive sandy beach of Nagapattinam coast, southeast peninsular India. The data collection includes beach profile, wave data, and intertidal sediment samples for 2 years from January 2011 to January 2013. The field data revealed significant variability in beach and wave morphology during the northeast (NE) and southwest (SW) monsoon. However, the beach has been stabilized by the reworking of sediment distribution during the calm period. The changes in grain sorting and longshore sediment transport serve as a clear evidence of the sediment migration that persevered between foreshore and nearshore regions. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) were utilized to investigate the spatial and temporal linkages between beach and nearshore criterions. The outcome of the multivariate analysis unveiled that the seasonal variations in the wave climate tends to influence the bar-berm sediment transition that is discerned in the coast.

  17. Rock Foundations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    .... Chapter 4 provides guidance on rock mass characterization and classification schemes. Chapters 5 and 6 provide guidance on related topic areas of foundation deformation and settlement and foundation bearing capacity, respectively...

  18. Topographic changes of the beach at Valiathura, Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Studies on the topography of the beach and the inshore reaches at Valiathura, near Trivandrum reveal that the beach is in a stable equilibrium and presents well defined cyclicity in accretion and erosion every year. During 1 year, the beach...

  19. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  20. Monsoonal effects on beach and offshore sediments from kalbadevi bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra state, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Farnnades, D.

    DAV International Journal of Science Volume-3 Issue-1 2014 ISSN: 2277-5536 (Print); 2277-5641 (Online) 70 MONSOONAL EFFECTS ON BEACH AND OFFSHORE SEDIMENTS... in Ratnagiri to carry out `Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies for placer mining` under the ‘Capacity Building for Sand Mining, Network Program’ of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi. The beach sediment samples from...

  1. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    OpenAIRE

    Pit, I.R.; Dekker, S.C.; Kanters, T.J.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: socalled beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore an...

  2. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    OpenAIRE

    Pit, I.R.; Dekker, S.C.; Kanters, Tobias J.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore a...

  3. Characterization of rock samples localized in some sites of the Mexican Pacific coast; Caracterizacion de muestras de rocas localizadas en algunos sitios de la costa del Pacifico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Torre, J. de la; Falcon, T.; Segovia, N. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa C.P. 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Geophysical studies in zones of high seismicity have showed differences in the content of radioactive material that is used in the study of the geochemical behavior of the subsoil. In an emanometric mapping of radon in soil realized in the Mexican Pacific coast were finding distinct levels in zones with different lithology. With the finality to know the mineralization types in two zones of study which are localized in the Guerrero coast and they belonging to terrains named Guerrero and Xolapa it was determined the mineralogic characteristics in two types of rocks. The identification of the rocks was realized by X-ray diffraction and was determined the elemental chemical composition using a scanning electron microscope. It was indicated in the results obtained that in the two types of rocks were found minerals such as: quartz, albite, microcline anortite, ferroactinolite and biotite. However, it was found differences between them by the presence of their mineralogic compounds because in the rock belonging to Xolapa terrain were presented whereas in the rock localized in the Guerrero terrain were presented sodic and potassic feldspars. The analysis by the Elemental Chemical Composition technique (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) corroborated the results obtained by the X-ray diffraction technique. (Author)

  4. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    significant rise in global sea level over the coming decades. Most governments recognize the local impacts of sand mining and mining activities are illegal in many localities. However, enforcement of these protections has been problematic and there has been little pressure to stop the practice from local or international environmental groups. In many cases, addressing the issue of sand mining requires addressing the local issues that allow it to persist. This includes poverty, corruption, and unregulated development. In areas where beach sand mining significantly supports the local economy, care needs to be given that local workers are given alternative means of income, and builders are provided an affordable substitute for the sand (e.g. crushed rock). Regardless, it is time for both academics and NGOs to address the cumulative environmental impacts of the direct destruction of the world's beaches through mining activities.

  5. Geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples, and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children in four municipalities of the department of Huila (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Opazo-Gutiérrez, Mario Omar; Velásquez-Riaño, Möritz; Orjuela-Osorio, Iván Rodrigo; Avila, Viviana; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles; González-Carrera, María Clara; Ruiz-Carrizosa, Jaime Alberto; Silva-Hermida, Blanca Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride is an element that affects teeth and bone formation in animals and humans. Though the use of systemic fluoride is an evidence-based caries preventive measure, excessive ingestion can impair tooth development, mainly the mineralization of tooth enamel, leading to a condition known as enamel fluorosis. In this study, we investigated the geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples in four endemic enamel fluorosis sentinel municipalities of the department of Huila, Colombia (Pitalito, Altamira, El Agrado and Rivera), and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water, table salt, active sediment, rock, and soil was evaluated by means of an ion selective electrode and the geochemical analyses were performed using X-ray fluorescence. Geochemical analysis revealed fluoride concentrations under 15 mg/kg in active sediment, rock and soil samples, not indicative of a significant delivery to the watersheds studied. The concentration of fluoride in table salt was found to be under the inferior limit (less than 180 μg/g) established by the Colombian regulations. Likewise, exposure doses for fluoride water intake did not exceed the recommended total dose for all ages from 6 months. Although the evidence does not point out at rocks, soils, fluoride-bearing minerals, fluoridated salt and water, the hypothesis of these elements as responsible of the current prevalence of enamel fluorosis cannot be discarded since, aqueducts might have undergone significant changes overtime.

  6. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Sílvia [Laboratório Regional de Veterinária e Segurança Alimentar, Caminho das Quebradas de Baixo n° 79, 9000-254 Funchal (Portugal); Calado, Graça [Laboratório de Saúde Pública, IASaúde, Rua das Pretas n° 1, 9004-515 Funchal (Portugal); Brandão, João [Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Prada, Susana, E-mail: susana@uma.pt [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos Geológicos, Universidade dos Açores, Rua da Mãe de Deus, Edifício do Complexo Científico, 3° Andar — Ala Sul, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2013-09-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality.

  7. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vasconcelos, Sílvia; Calado, Graça; Brandão, João; Prada, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality

  8. Stability of the beaches in Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Angusamy, N.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    placer mining is the common phenomena prevailed throughout the world. Besides India, Australia, Malaysia, Srilanka, South Africa, America, Brazil and Canada are also involved in such mining. 1 Beaches are always moving. Winds, waves and currents... has been done to different sampling stations from the permanent bench mark fixed by Survey of India, in the Guest House of Government of Pondicherry at Karaikkal. The height of the different profiling stations had been determined by means of dumpy...

  9. The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meiofauna are regarded as being both qualitatively and quantitatively significant on sandy beaches (McLachlan 1977c) and ecological studies of such systems should take this into account. Some work has also been done on the chemistry, pollution and meiofauna of Natal beaches (Oliff, Ber- risford, Turner & Ballard 1967).

  10. Differentiating experts’ anticipatory skills in beach volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; Mooren, M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants

  11. Stability and safety of Anjuna beach, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Studies on the Anjuna Beach, Goa, India, from March to December, 1975, show that it is fairly stable though it undergoes seasonal changes and a series of short-term cuts and fills. The beach appears to be quite safe as the longshore currents...

  12. Physical actions and work-rest time in men's beach volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Palao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the ball contacts, jumps, hits, work time, and rest ratio in male beach volleyball players in relation to their tactical roles. The sample of this study included 6970 rallies played by 91 beach volleyball players, which corresponded to 179 sets of the 2008 Men's Beach Volleyball World Tour (FIVB. We analyzed: ball contacts, jumps, hits, work time, rest time, set (first, second or third, and player's tactical role (e.g., defense specialist, blocker, or no specialization. A significantly higher number of jumps were executed by blockers. No differences were found in the third set for any of the physical variables studied. This paper provides references about the physical demands (e.g., contacts, jumps, and hits for blockers and defense specialists and temporal patterns of the beach volleyball game (i.e., work and rest time for two-set matches and three-set matches.

  13. Shoulder Arthroscopy in the Beach Chair Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John D; Frank, Rachel M; Hamamoto, Jason T; Provencher, Matthew T; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-08-01

    Arthroscopic shoulder surgery can be performed in both the beach chair and lateral decubitus positions. The beach chair position is a reliable, safe, and effective position to perform nearly all types of shoulder arthroscopic procedures. The advantages of the beach chair position include the ease of setup, limited brachial plexus stress, increased glenohumeral and subacromial visualization, anesthesia flexibility, and the ability to easily convert to an open procedure. This position is most commonly used for rotator cuff repair, subacromial decompression, and superior labrum anterior-to-posterior repair procedures. To perform arthroscopy surgery in the beach chair position successfully, meticulous care during patient positioning and setup must be taken. In this Technical Note, we describe the necessary steps to safely and efficiently prepare patients in the beach chair position for arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  14. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  15. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  16. Rocking pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, Ger T; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term "rocking pneumonia" in his 1956 song "Roll over Beethoven", pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is caused mainly by the cold and rain and that treatment is hardly possible, aside from a shot of rhythm and blues.

  17. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  18. Characterization and quantification by mass spectrometry of mobile organic matter from clay rock: influence of the origin and of the sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huclier-Markai, S.; Landesman, C.; Montavon, G.; Grambow, B.; Monteau, F.; Fernandez, A.M.; Vinsot, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In environmental studies, Natural Organic Matter (NOM) plays a key role on the bioavailability and the toxicity of metallic compounds. If one wants to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals / radionuclides, which is in natura in most of the cases dependant on their interactions with NOM. One part of the organic inventory in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation (COx) exists as small dissolved compounds in the pore water but the weak content and the weak porosity of the formation (∼ 8 % of water in weight) make the complexation study with metal ions difficult. One part of the organic matter attached to the sediment (∼ 1 % in weight) can be mobilized in a synthetic pore water 1 and can be considered as similar to in situ pore water dissolved organic matter (DOM) regarding its size distribution. The collection of clay pore water has been done through percolation experiment, a unique and original experimental process developed to get pore water from a core sample,that have been described previously. From these experiments, it was shown that mobile organic matter concentration could reach 0.01 mol C/L by application of a pressure gradient up to 100 bars. Since part of the OM from the COx is known to be sensitive to air oxidation, the characterization and quantification of DOM were then performed under anoxic conditions (about - 170 mV vs Standard Hydrogen Electrode SHE). In addition, the chemical composition of NOM contained in the pore water from the argillite clay rock has been determined in in-situ like conditions by ESI-MS and APCI-MS, which are suitable techniques to identify the chemical composition of NOM contained in the COx pore water available from boreholes. Mostly low molecular weight molecules were identified, of whom structural features observed were mainly acidic compounds, fatty acids as well as aldehydes and amino acids. Fulvic and Humic Acids have such low concentrations in the COx formation, leading to a

  19. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  20. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  1. Beach Sand Supply and Transport at Kunduchi in Tanzania and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Beach-head erosion of sandy beach plains in eastern Africa threatens tourism-related infrastructure and the livelihoods of beach users. The nature and drivers of physical shoreline change at Kunduchi, Dar es Salaam, and Bamburi,. Mombasa, are described with analyses of beach sand transport through the ...

  2. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The middle shore is primarily occupied by cirolanids and bivalves, and hippid crabs, bivalves and amphipods dominate the lower beach. Generally, species richness increases from upper to lower beach levels. Studies carried out on exposed sandy beaches of south-central Chile (ca. 40°S) show that different beach states ...

  3. 75 FR 82382 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Act Grants. SUMMARY: Section 406(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches... Clean Water Act to better protect public health at our nation's beaches through improved water quality... statutory authority for BEACH Act grants is section 406(b) of the Clean Water Act, as amended by the BEACH...

  4. Impacts of beach wrack removal via grooming on surf zone water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Todd L; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Zhou, Christina; French-Owen, Darien; Hassaballah, Abdulrahman; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2014-02-18

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are used to assess the microbial water quality of recreational waters. Increasingly, nonfecal sources of FIB have been implicated as causes of poor microbial water quality in the coastal environment. These sources are challenging to quantify and difficult to remediate. The present study investigates one nonfecal FIB source, beach wrack (decaying aquatic plants), and its impacts on water quality along the Central California coast. The prevalence of FIB on wrack was studied using a multibeach survey, collecting wrack throughout Central California. The impacts of beach grooming, to remove wrack, were investigated at Cowell Beach in Santa Cruz, California using a long-term survey (two summers, one with and one without grooming) and a 48 h survey during the first ever intensive grooming event. FIB were prevalent on wrack but highly variable spatially and temporally along the nine beaches sampled in Central California. Beach grooming was generally associated with either no change or a slight increase in coastal FIB concentrations and increases in surf zone turbidity and silicate, phosphate, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations. The findings suggest that beach grooming for wrack removal is not justified as a microbial pollution remediation strategy.

  5. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrášik, Martin; Kopecký, Miloslav

    2014-03-01

    Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite. However, rock as any other material if exposed to exogenous processes starts to deteriorate. Especially mechanical weathering can be very intensive if rock with unsuitable rock properties is used. For long it had been believed that repeated freezing and thawing in relation to high absorption is the main reason of the rock deterioration. In Slovakia for many years the high water absorption was set as exclusion criterion for use of rocks and stones in building industry. Only after 1989 the absorption was accepted as merely informational rock property and not exclusion. The reason of the change was not the understanding of the relationship between the porosity and rock deterioration, but more or less good experiences with some high porous rocks used in constructions exposed to severe weather conditions and proving a lack of relationship between rock freeze-thaw resistivity and water absorption. Results of the recent worldwide research suggest that understanding a resistivity of rocks against deterioration is hidden not in the absorption but in the structure of rock pores in relation to thermodynamic properties of pore water and tensile strength of rocks and rock minerals. Also this article presents some results of research on rock deterioration and pore structure performed on 88 rock samples. The results divide the rocks tested into two groups - group N in which the pore water does not freeze

  6. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T.

    1991-01-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches

  7. 75 FR 65581 - Proposed Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace, Vero Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... surface area at Vero Beach Municipal Airport, Vero Beach, FL. The Vero Beach Non- Directional Beacon (NDB... reference to the decommissioned Vero Beach NDB at Vero Beach Municipal Airport, Vero Beach, FL. This action...

  8. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

  9. Gone to the Beach — Using GIS to infer how people value different beaches for salt water recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating the non-market value of beaches for saltwater recreation is complex. An individual’s preference for a beach depends on their perception of beach characteristics. When choosing one beach over another, an individual balances these personal preferences with any addi...

  10. Population biology of the gastropod Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) on two sheltered beaches in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Tardelli, Daniel Teixeira; Turra, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The structure, dynamics and production of two populations of the olivid gastropod Olivella minuta were analyzed through monthly sampling from November 2009 through October 2011 on two sandy beaches, Pernambuco (very sheltered) and Barequeçaba (sheltered) in São Paulo state (23°48'S), southeastern Brazil. On both beaches, samples were taken along five transects established perpendicular to the waterline. Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated for both populations from monthly length-frequency distributions. The production and turnover ratios were determined using the mass-specific growth rate method. The population on the less-sheltered Barequeçaba Beach was less abundant (120.02 ± 22.60 ind m-1) than on Pernambuco Beach (3295.30 ± 504.86 ind m-1 (±SE)), which we attribute to the greater environmental stability of the latter. Conversely, the mean length, size of the largest individual, and body mass were higher at Barequeçaba than at Pernambuco. The significant differences in the growth of individuals and the mortality rate (Z) between the beaches suggest that density-dependent processes were operating at Pernambuco Beach. The production and P/B ratio at Pernambuco (12.12 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.91 year-1) were higher than at Barequeçaba (0.82 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.06 year-1). The difference in production can be attributed to the higher abundance on Pernambuco, while the higher P/B ratio resulted from the scarcity of smaller individuals in the intertidal zone of Barequeçaba. The P/B ratio estimated for the Pernambuco population is the highest found so far for sandy-beach gastropods. This study reinforces the theory that biological interactions are important regulators of sheltered sandy-beach populations. Future studies with multi-beach sampling are needed to better understand the life-history variations of O. minuta along gradients of degree of exposure of sandy beaches.

  11. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  12. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    14 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the famous 'White Rock' feature in Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. The light-toned rock is not really white, but its light tone caught the eye of Mars geologists as far back as 1972, when it was first spotted in images acquired by Mariner 9. The light-toned materials are probably the remains of a suite of layered sediments that once spread completely across the interior of Pollack Crater. Dark materials in this image include sand dunes and large ripples. Location near: 8.1oS, 335.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  13. 3Wave propagation in rock samples under medium and low temperature conditions. Characteristics of methane hydrate-BSR phenomena; Chu teion ryoiki ni okeru ganseki shiryo no hado denpa tokusei. 1. Methane hydrate BSR gensho no kosatsu suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y.; Matsushima, J.; Sano, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-22

    In relation to sea-bottom pseudo reflection face and methane hydrate in seismic exploration records, fundamental experimental studies have been made. In order to get a handhold to elucidate phenomena accompanying methane hydrate, the studies have investigated wave propagation behavior of rock samples and sandy sediments under medium and low temperature conditions. The experiments have used a constant-temperature cooling water circulating equipment to control temperatures of each sample. The samples were placed in a cooler box with the vibration transmitter and receiver fixedly installed, and changes of the waves against temperature change were measured. Sand-stones and two kinds of tuffs were used as rock samples for the measurement. Artificial sand sample soaked in water was used as a substitute for a methane hydrate layer. As a result of the experiments, the relation between the hydrate layer and the gas layer was comprehended. In addition, the blanking phenomenon was thought occurring as a result of the nearly whole substance presenting the speed of ice due to freezing of the sediments, rather than by what is described in the ground homogeneousness theory. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Feasibility Report on Navigation Improvements for Mexico Beach Inlet, Mexico Beach, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Inlet March 1989 Mexico Beach, Florida S. PERFORMING Ono. REPORT NUNSCR 7. AtjTHOR(s) 11- CONTRACT Oft GRANT NUMB5ER(.) Halter W. Burdin Kenneth P...seemed to offer a solution to some of the problems at Mexico Beach inlet. Preliminary design was performed using the principles of good jetty design...COESAM/PDFC-89/02 FEASIBILITY REPORT ON NAVIGATION IMPROVEMENTS 6.4 FOR MEXICO BEACH INLET MEXICO BEACH, FLORIDA %1 4Y 2 1 US Army Corps AMRH18 of

  15. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  16. Distribution and quantity of microplastic on sandy beaches along the northern coast of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Alexander; Walther, Bruno A; Löwemark, Ludvig; Lee, Yao-Chang

    2016-10-15

    Plastic pollution is now ubiquitous in the world's oceans, and studies have shown macroplastic and microplastic pollution of beaches in several East Asian countries. However, to our knowledge, no study of microplastic pollution has been conducted in Taiwan yet. Therefore, we collected sand samples from four beaches along the northern coast of Taiwan in 2015 and extracted microplastic particles using a saturated NaCl solution. Microplastic particles were identified using synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy. We recovered 4 to 532 particles from eight 0.0125m(3) samples, with a total of 1097 particles weighing 0.771g. A negative trend between the size of the particles and their numbers was documented. We thus established that microplastic pollution was ubiquitous along Taiwan's northern coast. Future research should more comprehensively sample beaches around the entirety of Taiwan's coast, and special emphasis should be placed on identifying different sources and movements of microplastic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beach Nourishment History (1920s to 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...

  18. March 1933 Long Beach, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 5 kilometers southwest of Newport Beach. Seriously affected area: 1,200 square kilometers. Damage: $40 million. Schools were among the buildings most severely...

  19. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on beach changes at Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rao, D.P.

    experiences erosion during southwest monsoon and deposition during northeast monsoon and calm weather period. The annual sediment loss of about 75,000 cubic metres during the study period indicates the net erosional trend of the Visakhapatnam Beach and also...

  1. Cerebral oxygen desaturation during beach chair position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, Annelies T.; de Hert, Stefan G.; Jacobs, Tom F.; de Wilde, Lieven F.; Wouters, Patrick F.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of ischaemic brain damage have been reported in relatively healthy patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. Unrecognised cerebral hypoperfusion may have contributed to these catastrophic events, indicating that routine anaesthesia monitoring may not suffice.

  2. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... no freshwater drainage occurred from the land. Meiofauna: Taxonomic composition. Eight meiofaunal taxa were identified on each beach viz. nematodes, harpacticoid copepods, mystacocarids,. 21 archiannelids, polychaetes, turbellarians, gastrotrichs and oligochaetes. The mean densities of the major.

  3. The beach ridges of India: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    are distinguished into 4 genetic classes. Finally the utilization of beach ridges in the reconstruction of sea level curve, palaeo-climate and sediment budget histories has been highlighted and scope for future study is discussed...

  4. Beach Nourishment History (1920s to 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...

  5. A laboratory experiment for determining both the hydraulic and diffusive properties and the initial pore-water composition of an argillaceous rock sample: a test with the Opalinus clay (Mont Terri, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, S; Michelot, J-L; Matray, J-M; Wittebroodt, Ch; Mifsud, A

    2012-02-01

    Argillaceous formations are thought to be suitable natural barriers to the release of radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository. However, the safety assessment of a waste repository hosted by an argillaceous rock requires knowledge of several properties of the host rock such as the hydraulic conductivity, diffusion properties and the pore water composition. This paper presents an experimental design that allows the determination of these three types of parameters on the same cylindrical rock sample. The reliability of this method was evaluated using a core sample from a well-investigated indurated argillaceous formation, the Opalinus Clay from the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (URL) (Switzerland). In this test, deuterium- and oxygen-18-depleted water, bromide and caesium were injected as tracer pulses in a reservoir drilled in the centre of a cylindrical core sample. The evolution of these tracers was monitored by means of samplers included in a circulation circuit for a period of 204 days. Then, a hydraulic test (pulse-test type) was performed. Finally, the core sample was dismantled and analysed to determine tracer profiles. Diffusion parameters determined for the four tracers are consistent with those previously obtained from laboratory through-diffusion and in-situ diffusion experiments. The reconstructed initial pore-water composition (chloride and water stable-isotope concentrations) was also consistent with those previously reported. In addition, the hydraulic test led to an estimate of hydraulic conductivity in good agreement with that obtained from in-situ tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Beach and Morphology Change Using Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    bathymetric data sets are synoptic , whereby sediment mass across the region can be conserved. Issues can arise using disparate beach profile surveys that...SAJ sought a method for calculating the change in beach volume density for the entire region for the post-hurricane epoch of 2006–2010. Synoptically ...using the Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) (Aquaveo 2013) software for Pinellas, Manatee/Sarasota, and south Sarasota Counties ( Table 1). Lidar data

  7. Health status of recreational beaches in Iskandar development region, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleha, K.; Farah, D.M.F.; Mohd, L.O.; Noorul, A.F.A.; Ahmad, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the health status of recreational beaches in Wilayah Iskandar development area Johor. The nematode/copepod ratio may be used as useful tool for assessing the environmental quality of the beaches. The meiobenthos samples were collected using a PVC corer at three stations at inter tidal zone along beaches in Wilayah Iskandar. Four sampling sessions were conducted in March, April, May and June 2009 during low tide. Physico-chemical parameters including salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured in situ at each station using YSI multi probe MPS 556 and sediment samples were collected for chlorophyll a analysis. The chlorophyll-a concentrations were determined based on the spectrophotometric method using 665 nm wavelength. The ratio showed a wide variability between stations with highest values recorded at Station 3 (2.25 to 131.1) and lowest at Station 2 (0.99 to 15.53). The overall ratio of nematode/copepod could be related to the increase of potentially polluted area along the beaches such as at Station 3. The presence of pre-diapause copepod which is able to survive in the environment condition stress becomes a good indicator for the health status of beaches in Wilayah Iskandar development area. (author)

  8. Long-term Variability of Beach Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianca, C.; Holman, R. A.; Siegle, E.

    2016-02-01

    The most curious morphological features observed on beaches are the cusps. Due to their rhythmic spacing, beach cusps have attracted many observers and many, often contradictory, theories as to their form. Moreover, most of the research about beach cusps has focused on their formation. Few had available long time series to study such things as the variability of alongshore and cross-shore position and spacing on the cusp field, the presence, longevity and interactions between higher and lower sets of cusps, and the processes by which cusp fields extend, shrink or change length scale. The purpose of this work is to use long-term data sets of video images from two study sites, an intermediate (Duck, USA, 26 years) and a reflective beach (Massaguaçu, Brazil, 3 years), to investigate the temporal and spatial changes of cusps conditions. Time-evolving shoreline data were first extracted using an algorithm called ASLIM (Pianca et al 2015). Cusps were then identified based on the band-passed variability of time exposure image data about this shoreline as a function of elevation relative to MSL. The identified beaches cusps will be analyzed for cusp spacing, positions (upper or lower cusps), alongshore variability, merging events, percentage of cusp events, patterns of the events and time scales of variability. Finally, the relationship of these characteristics to environmental conditions (wave, tides, beach conditions) will be studied.

  9. Changes in the intertidal community structure after a mass mortality event in sandy beaches of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadon, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    After a massive mortality of the dominant species (the clam Mesodesma mactroides) occurred in 1995, changes in the intertidal community in sandy beaches of Argentina were monitored. Eight sampling stations were established in a 40 km open stretch and samples were taken every October each year up to

  10. Mapping of environmental radioactivity in sandy beaches of Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Mapeamento da radioatividade ambiental em praias arenosas da Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Alexandre Santos de

    2003-08-15

    In determining reference levels of environmental radioactivity in ten beaches of Ilha Grande-R J, one used the measurement of gamma dose rates in situ (n Gy h{sup -1}) and the conversion of activity concentration of natural radionuclides {sup 238}Th, {sup 232}U and {sup 40}K (344/Kg) in samples from 0-10 cm sand profile, into gamma dose rate. Besides, the activity concentrations of studied radionuclides in the 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm sand profiles were determined, in order to analyse their process of vertical migration. Among the studied beaches, Preta Beach and Dois Rios Beach were selected to carry out a study of the gamma dose rates variation, during a period of twelve months. The annual absorbed dose rate at 1 m above ground level in the sand area was determined through the measurements of gamma dose rate carried out in situ on the beaches. The mean values of gamma dose rate in situ (n Gy h{sup -1}) in the analysed beaches ranged of 62 +- 7 in Dois Rios Beach to 126 +- 24 in Preta Beach. The primordial radionuclide {sup 40}K was the first contributor for the local gamma dose rate in eight studied beaches. None of studied beaches were considered a radiological risk. Sand features, such as porosity and density contribute to modulate the local environmental radiation levels. The comparison of gamma dose rate values from ten studied beaches, obtained through the two different techniques, showed high similarity between the results (R = 0.85). During the period of study in both analysed beaches, Preta and Dois Rios beaches, there was no variation statistically significant in the terrestrial gamma dose rate measured in situ. The higher annual absorbed dose rates were found in Preta Beach and in Caxadaco Beach, with 0.15 +- 0.03 mSv y{sup -1} and 0.10 +- 0.02 mSv{sup -1} respectively; while in the others beaches the mean value of gamma dose rate was 0.08 mSv y{sup -1}. The values of annual absorbed dose rate shown in this work are below that the values found in some

  11. Families of miocene monterey crude oil, seep, and tarball samples, coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs to better assess their origins and distributions in coastal California. These samples were used to construct a chemometric (multivariate statistical) decision tree to classify 288 additional samples. The results identify three tribes of 13C-rich oil samples inferred to originate from thermally mature equivalents of the clayey-siliceous, carbonaceous marl and lower calcareous-siliceous members of the Monterey Formation at Naples Beach near Santa Barbara. An attempt to correlate these families to rock extracts from these members in the nearby COST (continental offshore stratigraphic test) (OCS-Cal 78-164) well failed, at least in part because the rocks are thermally immature. Geochemical similarities among the oil tribes and their widespread distribution support the prograding margin model or the banktop-slope-basin model instead of the ridge-and-basin model for the deposition of the Monterey Formation. Tribe 1 contains four oil families having geochemical traits of clay-rich marine shale source rock deposited under suboxic conditions with substantial higher plant input. Tribe 2 contains four oil families with traits intermediate between tribes 1 and 3, except for abundant 28,30-bisnorhopane, indicating suboxic to anoxic marine marl source rock with hemipelagic input. Tribe 3 contains five oil families with traits of distal marine carbonate source rock deposited under anoxic conditions with pelagic but little or no higher plant input. Tribes 1 and 2 occur mainly south of Point Conception in paleogeographic settings where deep burial of the Monterey source rock favored petroleum generation from all three members or their equivalents. In this area, oil from the clayey-siliceous and carbonaceous marl members (tribes 1 and 2) may overwhelm that from the lower

  12. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  13. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. 77 FR 5793 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act; Availability of BEACH Act Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: Section 406(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches... Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act (CWA) to better protect public health at our... Clean Water Act to include the Great Lakes and marine coastal waters (including coastal estuaries) that...

  15. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  16. Detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from recreational beach using the mecA gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aisya; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Water samples were collected in triplicates from three different locations choosen from the recreational beach of Teluk Kemang, Port Dickson as sampling station including main area of recreation activity for the public. Bacteria were isolated from the water and cultured. Out of 286 presumptive Staphylococcus aureus enumerated by using culture method, only 4 (1.4 %) confirmed as Meticillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on PCR detection of mecA gene. Interestingly, all of MRSA detections were found at the main area of recreational activity. Our results suggested that public beaches may be reservoir for transmission of MRSA to beach visitors and PCR using the mecA gene is the fastest way to detect this pathogenic bacteria.

  17. The macroinfauna of the Galician sandy beaches (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil-spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junoy, J; Castellanos, C; Viéitez, J M; de la Huz, M R; Lastra, M

    2005-05-01

    Eighteen sandy beaches were sampled along the 1659 km of the Galician coast (NW Spain) six months after the Prestige oil-spill to study the impact of the fuel and the clean-up activities on the macroinfauna community. A transect was extended at each beach, from above the drift line to below the swash line at five sampled levels; at each level six 0.05 m2 replicates were taken to a depth of 30 cm and sieved through a 1mm mesh, and the organisms collected and preserved. Results were compared with previous data obtained using the same procedures. The macroinfauna was numerically dominated by the amphipod Pontocrates arenarius, the isopod genus Eurydice, the polychaete Scolelepis squamata, and the amphipod Talitrus saltator. As a result of the Prestige oil-spill and the clean-up activities, beach populations were reduced, with Eurydice and S. squamata as the most affected taxa.

  18. Spatial distributions of biogeochemical reactions in freshwater-saltwater mixing zones of sandy beach aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Michael, H. A.; Ullman, W. J.; Cai, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Beach aquifers host biogeochemically dynamic mixing zones between fresh and saline groundwaters of contrasting origins, histories, and compositions. Seawater, driven up the beachface by waves and tides, infiltrates into the sand and meets the seaward-discharging fresh groundwater, creating and maintaining a highly reactive intertidal circulation cell well-defined by salinity. Seawater supplies oxygen and reactive carbon to the circulation cell, supporting biogeochemical reactions within the cell that transform and attenuate dissolved nutrient fluxes from terrestrial sources. We investigated the spatial distribution of chemical reaction zones within the intertidal circulation cell at Cape Shores, Lewes, Delaware. Porewater samples were collected from multi-level wells along a beach-perpendicular transect. Samples were analyzed for particulate carbon and reactive solutes, and incubated to obtain rates of oxic respiration and denitrification. High rates of oxic respiration were observed higher on the beach, in the landward freshwater-saline water mixing zone, where dissolved oxygen availability was high. Denitrification was dominant in lower areas of the beach, below the intertidal discharge point. High respiration rates did not correlate with particulate carbon concentrations entrained within porewater, suggesting that dissolved organic carbon or immobile particulate carbon trapped within the sediment can contribute to and alter bulk reactivity. A better understanding of the sources and sinks of carbon within the beach will improve our ability to predict nutrient fluxes to estuaries and oceans, aiding the management of coastal environments and ecosystems.

  19. Occurrence and origin of Escherichia coli in water and sediments at two public swimming beaches at Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Camden County, Missouri, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    In the past several years, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources has closed two popular public beaches, Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1, at Lake of the Ozarks State Park in Osage Beach, Missouri when monitoring results exceeded the established Escherichia coli (E. coli) standard. As a result of the beach closures, the U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri University of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, led an investigation into the occurrence and origins of E. coli at Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1. The study included the collection of more than 1,300 water, sediment, and fecal source samples between August 2011 and February 2013 from the two beaches and vicinity. Spatial and temporal patterns of E. coli concentrations in water and sediments combined with measurements of environmental variables, beach-use patterns, and Missouri Department of Natural Resources water-tracing results were used to identify possible sources of E. coli contamination at the two beaches and to corroborate microbial source tracking (MST) sampling efforts. Results from a 2011 reconnaissance sampling indicate that water samples from Grand Glaize Beach cove contained significantly larger E. coli concentrations than adjacent coves and were largest at sites at the upper end of Grand Glaize Beach cove, indicating a probable local source of E. coli contamination within the upper end of the cove. Results from an intensive sampling effort during 2012 indicated that E. coli concentrations in water samples at Grand Glaize Beach cove were significantly larger in ankle-deep water than waist-deep water, trended downward during the recreational season, significantly increased with an increase in the total number of bathers at the beach, and were largest during the middle of the day. Concentrations of E. coli in nearshore sediment (sediment near the shoreline) at Grand Glaize Beach were significantly larger in foreshore samples

  20. Marine oil pollution and beached bird surveys: the development of a sensitive monitoring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camphuysen, C.J.; Heubeck, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most obvious adverse effects of (chronic) pollution of the world's oceans and seas with mineral oil is the mortality of seabirds. Systematic surveys of beachcast corpses of birds ('beached bird surveys') have been used in many parts of the world to document the effect of oil pollution, but particularly so in Western Europe and in parts of North America. In this paper, the history, current schemes, methods and possible (future) use of beached bird surveys are described and discussed, because the value of beached bird surveys has been hotly disputed. Oil pollution is known since the late 19 th century, while the first beached bird surveys were conducted in the 1920s. Due to the amount of man-power needed for these surveys, most beached bird survey programs thrived only through the work of a large number of volunteers. However, most programs have resulted in substantial amounts of high quality data, often covering many consecutive years. One of the main shortcomings of many beached bird survey programs was the emphasis on stranded bird numbers rather than on relative measures, such as oil rates (percentage of corpses oiled of all corpses found). Sources of pollution, particularly so in chronically polluted regions such as the North Sea, the Baltic, the Mediterranean and the waters around Newfoundland, are insufficiently known, but could be studied through a sampling program connected to beached bird surveys. Suggestions for standardization of methods are presented, which could lead to a global and highly sensitive monitoring instrument of marine oil pollution. (Author)

  1. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Summers Engel

    Full Text Available Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales. Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales. These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment

  2. At Park Rynie Beach (31°19´S, 30°44´E), KwaZulu- Natal, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At Park Rynie Beach (31°19´S, 30°44´E), KwaZulu-. Natal, South Africa, several species of zoanthids occupy extensive areas on exposed rocks of the lower Balanoid zone. They are all colonial, the polyps being linked together by a fleshy coenenchyme. During a collecting trip to this locality during February 1998, ...

  3. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  4. Densities and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from marine waters and beach sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Vanessa da Costa; Zampieri, Bruna Del Busso; Ballesteros, Eliete Rodrigues; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is a rising problem all over the world. Many studies have showed that beach sands can contain higher concentration of microorganisms and represent a risk to public health. This paper aims to evaluate the densities and resistance to antimicrobials of Escherichia coli strains, isolated from seawater and samples. The hypothesis is that microorganisms show higher densities in contaminated beach sands and more antimicrobial resistance than the water column. Density, distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria E. coli were evaluate in seawater and sands from two recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. At the beach with higher degree of pollution (Gonzaguinha), water samples presented the highest densities of E. coli; however, higher frequency of resistant strains was observe in wet sand (71.9 %). Resistance to a larger number of antimicrobial groups was observe in water (betalactamics, aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifampicins, and tetracyclines) and sand (betagalactamics and aminoglycosids). In water samples, highest frequencies of resistance were obtain against ampicilin (22.5 %), streptomycin (15.0 %), and rifampicin (15.0 %), while in sand, the highest frequencies were observe in relation to ampicilin (36.25 %) and streptomycin (23.52 %). At the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat, highest densities of E. coli and higher frequency of resistance were obtain in wet and dry sand (53.7 and 53.8 %, respectively) compared to water (50 %). Antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from water and sand only occurred against betalactamics (ampicilin and amoxicilin plus clavulanic acid). The frequency and variability of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in marine recreational waters and sands were related to the degree of fecal contamination in this environment. These results show that water and sands from beaches with a high index of fecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens

  5. RIP current zones along beaches in Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jena, B.K.

    . Parts of stations 5 and 6 in Harmal Beach, 16 at Vagator Beach, 51-54 at Miramar Beach, 75 and 76 at Valsao Beach, 84 at Majorda Beach, and 116 at Palolem Beach are observed to have the risk of permanent rip current zones; and they are unsafe places...

  6. Bare Beach Logistics Over-the-Shore: An Outdated Concept?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pehrson, Christopher J

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of bare beach logistics over-the-shore (LOTS) operations. It examines the utility of the bare beach and asks if this method of LOTS is still viable for today's military...

  7. Beach sand supply and transport at Kunduchi, Tanzania, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related infrastructure and the livelihoods of beach plain users. The nature and drivers of physical shoreline change at Kunduchi, near Dar es Salaam, and Bamburi, near Mombasa, are described with analyses of beach sand transport through the ...

  8. Beach processes between Mulgund and Shiroda, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Sanilkumar, V.; Pathak, K.C.

    Study on beach processes for an year shows seasonal changes without annual net erosion. The beaches are stable and regain the maximum profiles during February to April. Distribution of longshore current direction is not uniform along the study...

  9. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  10. Climate induced changes in beach morphology and sediment dynamics, Machilipatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    The wave climate, littoral current patterns, monthly and seasonal longshore drift rates, beach profile changes, and sediment budget of the beach sediments were determined along Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India) for the NE, SW monsoons...

  11. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  12. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches PRAWN Attribute Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  13. Analysis of Time-Motion and Heart Rate in Elite Male and Female Beach Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueo, Basilio; Jimenez-Olmedo, Jose M; Penichet-Tomas, Alfonso; Ortega Becerra, Manuel; Espina Agullo, Jose J

    2017-12-01

    Beach handball is a spectacular new team sport; however, scientific knowledge about the demands in beach handball is very low. Consequently, the aim of this study was to analyze the physical demands of elite beach handball players by means of time-motion analysis with GPS technology and physiological response with Heart Rate (HR). Both male (n = 12) and female (n = 12) players from the Spanish Beach Handball National Team were recruited for this study. The sample consisted in four matches of two 10-min periods each. Time-motion analysis was performed through GPS devices (SPI Pro X, 15 Hz, GPSports) with synchronized HR monitoring (Polar Electro, Finland). All parameters were recorded for matches and halves to express overall and time-dependent physical and physiological responses. Total match distance covered by male and female players were 1234.7 ± 192 m and 1118.2 ± 221.8 m, respectively. Female players covered more total distance (p = 0.049, ES = 0.79) and distance walking (p beach handball is a demanding sport, with numerous moderate-to-high intensity displacements, distributed intermittently throughout the game: long periods of low intensity activity interspersed by short bursts of high intensity.

  14. Through the sands of time: Beach litter trends from nine cleaned north cornish beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Andrew J R; Porter, Adam; Hembrow, Neil; Sharpe, Jolyon; Galloway, Tamara S; Lewis, Ceri

    2017-09-01

    Marine litter and its accumulation on beaches is an issue of major current concern due to its significant environmental and economic impacts. Yet our understanding of spatio-temporal trends in beach litter and the drivers of these trends are currently limited by the availability of robust long term data sets. Here we present a unique data set collected systematically once a month, every month over a six year period for nine beaches along the North Coast of Cornwall, U.K. to investigate the key drivers of beach litter in the Bude, Padstow and Porthcothan areas. Overall, an average of 0.02 litter items m -2 per month were collected during the six year study, with Bude beaches (Summerleaze, Crooklets and Widemouth) the most impacted (0.03 ± 0.004 litter items m -2 per month). The amount of litter collected each month decreased by 18% and 71% respectively for Padstow (Polzeath, Trevone and Harlyn) and Bude areas over the 6 years, possibly related to the regular cleaning, however litter increased by 120% despite this monthly cleaning effort on the Padstow area beaches. Importantly, at all nine beaches the litter was dominated by small, fragmented plastic pieces and rope fibres, which account for 32% and 17% of all litter items collected, respectively. The weathered nature of these plastics indicates they have been in the marine environment for an extended period of time. So, whilst classifying the original source of these plastics is not possible, it can be concluded they are not the result of recent public littering. This data highlights both the extent of the marine litter problem and that current efforts to reduce littering by beach users will only tackle a fraction of this litter. Such information is vital for developing effective management strategies for beach and marine litter at both regional and global levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological change on a wadi-influenced beach: Essaouira, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Elmimouni, Abdelhadi; Daoudi, Lahcen; Anthony, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Field topographic surveys were conducted at intervals of months from 2004 to 2006 in order to highlight the sediment circulation patterns of the embayed beach of Essaouira, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, especially under the influence of a nearby wadi, the Ksob, which is the main sediment purveyor of the beach, notably via flash floods. The profile data highlight longshore and cross-shore variations in beach morphology. Constant winds from the north rework the upper beach to form barchans ...

  16. Beach litter along various sand dune habitats in the southern Adriatic (E Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilc, Urban; Küzmič, Filip; Caković, Danka; Stešević, Danijela

    2018-03-01

    Marine litter accumulates on sandy beaches and is an important environmental problem, as well as a threat to habitat types that are among the most endangered according to EU legislation. We sampled 120 random plots (2 × 2 m) in spring 2017 to determine the distribution pattern of beach litter along the zonation of habitat types from sea to the inland. The most frequent litter items were plastic, polystyrene and glass. A clear increase of litter cover along the sea-inland gradient is evident, and foredunes and pine forests have the highest cover of litter. Almost no litter was present in humid dune slacks. Shoreline and recreational activities are the major source of beach litter, while ocean/waterway activities are more important in the aphytic zone and strandline. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of natural radioactivity in the sea-beaches of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Shyamal Ranjan; Alam, Md. Kowsar

    2014-01-01

    The present research work was aimed to study the ambient radiation environment of the most popular sea-beaches of Bangladesh. The average activity concentrations of radioactive elements such as 232 Th, '2 38 U and 40 K of beach sand samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector and found to be higher than the internationally accepted values. The absorbed γ dose rate levels of the study areas are similar to other monazite sand-bearing high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of southern and southwestern coastal regions of India and of the world. The estimated values of the radiological parameters of the present study areas were also higher than the internationally accepted values. Hence, Cox's bazaar, Kuakata and Potenga sea-beach regions can be considered as HBRAs and potential zones for monazite like radioactive sand. (author)

  18. Tar ball frequency data and analytical results from a long-term beach monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Edward H; Mauseth, Gary S; Martin, Colin A; Lamarche, Alain; Brown, John

    2002-08-01

    Following the spill of fuel oils from the New Carissa in February 1999, approximately 300 km of beaches on the Pacific coast of North America were surveyed. A long-term observation program focused on the documentation of stranded tar balls in the vicinity of the spill site. Systematic beach surveys which were conducted over the period March 1999 to April 2001 and semi-logarithmic scale, time-series plots proved the most useful format for identifying trends. Beach monitoring continued through to August 2001. by which time 212 tar balls had been analyzed by GC/MS for their chemical characteristics. The samples of tar balls collected between February 1999 and August 2001 were qualitatively compared with New Carissa source oils (NCSO) and 101 (48%) were not consistent with NSCO. The presence of tar balls that are not related to an incident can confound attempts to define cleanup or endpoint criteria and to assess possible injury to natural resources.

  19. Electrical resistivities of rocks from Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsube, T.J.; Hume, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Bulk rock resistivity and bulk surface resistivity measurements have been obtained for 40 gneissic rock samples from Chalk River, Ontario. Though bulk rock resistivity is a function of pore structure, pore-fluid resistivity and pore-surface resistivity, the amount of data documented for pore-surface resistivity is small compared to that for pore structure and pore-fluid resistivity. This study indicates that pore-surface resistivity has a significant effect on bulk rock resistivity. It is important that this fact be considered when interpreting resistivity data obtained by geophysical methods. In addition, a group of mafic gneiss samples had pore-surface resistivity values that were much lower than those reported for clays, glass beads or petroleum reservoir rocks. This is thought to be due to metallic minerals lining the pore walls. Other rock samples collected from the same area showed pore-surface resistivity value similar to those reported in the literature

  20. CERN Rocks

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  1. Evaluation of beach grooming techniques on Escherichia coli density in foreshore sand at North Beach, Racine, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzelman, Julie L.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Jackson, Emma; Bagley, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of Escherichia coli(E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational waters. Current beach management practice involves daily mechanical grooming of the nearshore sand for aesthetics and removal of hazardous debris. However, this practice has not been evaluated in terms of its effects on E. coli loading to beach sand and potential introduction to contiguous swimming water. In this study, we tested E. coli responses to three treatments: mechanical groomer, daily and twice weekly hand raking, and a control (no raking/grooming). A randomized block design consisted of replicated treatments and one control (10 each), for a total of 40 blocks sampled daily for 10 days. Foreshore sand samples were collected by hand coring to an average depth of 10 cm. Median E. colirecovered were 73 (mechanically groomed), 27 (hand-raked daily), 32 (hand-raked twice weekly), and 22 (control) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram dry weight sand. E. colicounts in sand that was groomed were significantly higher than hand rakings and control (p management implications related to grooming efficacy and the importance of understanding non-point sources of bacterial contamination.

  2. Evaluation of beach grooming techniques on Escherichia coli density in foreshore sand at North Beach, Racine, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzelman, Julie L.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Jackson, Emma; Bagley, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of Escherichia coli(E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational waters. Current beach management practice involves daily mechanical grooming of the nearshore sand for aesthetics and removal of hazardous debris. However, this practice has not been evaluated in terms of its effects on E. coli loading to beach sand and potential introduction to contiguous swimming water. In this study, we tested E. coli responses to three treatments: mechanical groomer, daily and twice weekly hand raking, and a control (no raking/grooming). A randomized block design consisted of replicated treatments and one control (10 each), for a total of 40 blocks sampled daily for 10 days. Foreshore sand samples were collected by hand coring to an average depth of 10 cm. Median E. colirecovered were 73 (mechanically groomed), 27 (hand-raked daily), 32 (hand-raked twice weekly), and 22 (control) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram dry weight sand. E. colicounts in sand that was groomed were significantly higher than hand rakings and control (p grooming efficacy and the importance of understanding non-point sources of bacterial contamination.

  3. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  4. Intertidal beach slope predictions compared to field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium

  5. Beachwatch : The effect of daily morphodynamics on seasonal beach evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Not only the storm intensity, but also the capacity of the beach to recover during fair weather conditions, influences the erosion trends of beaches. Susanne Quartel concludes this in her thesis in which the daily changes of the intertidal beach of Noordwijk aan Zee, the Netherlands, are described.

  6. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  7. The environmental impacts of beach sport tourism events: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durban has several established beach sport events. One of the many events is the Mr Price Pro, an internationally recognised surfi ng event, which takes place during the Vodacom Beach Africa festival, held annually during the July holiday season. This article examines the environmental impact of beach tourism events by ...

  8. Fine particle deposition at Vainguinim tourist beach, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Jayakumar, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Ilangovan, D

    . The beach sediments consist primarily shell fragments and quartz, with heavy mineral composed of ilmenits, magnetite and manganese. The black stain of the fine-grained heavy minerals deposited on the beach face reduces the aesthetics of the beach. This paper...

  9. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  10. Measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.; Verheijen, A.H.; Hoonhout, B.M.; Vos, S.E.; Cohn, Nicholas; Ruggiero, P; Aagaard, T.; Deigaard, R.; Fuhrman, D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the first results of measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes during the recently conducted SEDEX2 field experiment at Long Beach, Washington, U.S.A.. Beach erosion and sedimentation were derived using series of detailed terrestrial LIDAR measurements

  11. Trace Elements in Sediments of Selected Gutters and Bar – Beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Sediment samples were collected from selected gutters and Lagos bar beach for the investigation of trace element concentrations. The metals investigated were chromium, lead, arsenic, selenium, cadmium and barium using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained further revealed ...

  12. The beach-seine fishery off Durban, KwaZulu-Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-07-23

    Jul 23, 1996 ... Catch. One hundred species of fish were identified by Institute staff during the weekly sampling of beach-seine catches. In addi- tion, 19 other fish species were encountered by the netters, making a total of 119. A comprehensive species list dating from 1991 and including these 119 fish species is given in.

  13. Trace Elements in Sediments of Selected Gutters and Bar – Beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment samples were collected from selected gutters and Lagos bar beach for the investigation of trace element concentrations. The metals investigated were chromium, lead, arsenic, selenium, cadmium and barium using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained further revealed elevated ...

  14. Sediment characteristics at intertidal regions across Yarada beach, East coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yadhunath, E.M; Raju, N.S.N.; Ganesan, P.; Gowthaman, R.; JayaKumar, S.

    Sediment samples were collected once a month at five different inter-tidal zones across Yarada beach during May-2009 to May-2010 These sediments are characterized by bimodal and unimodal behaviour and most of them are sorted as moderately as well...

  15. Factors affecting the occurrence of algae on the Sopot beach (Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Filipkowska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was financed by the EU CosCo project ("Regional cycle development through coastal co-operation - sea grass and algae focus" - INTERREG IIIC 2N00251 and the statutory IO PAS programme.AbstractThe occurrence of algae on the Sopot beach was investigated from 2004 to 2006 from the beach management point of view. Various methods were applied in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of algae on the shoreline. They included daily observations of the occurrence of macrophyta on the beach, absorption measurements of acetone extracts of the particulate matter in the seawater, the collection of macrophyta and phytoplankton samples for biomass and taxonomic identification, and determination of the degree of decomposition on the basis of chloropigment analyses. The results were related to the environmental conditions: meteorological data and the physico-chemical parameters of the seawater. The biomass recorded on the beach consisted mainly of macroalgae and a small proportion of sea grass (Zostera marina. The phytoplankton biomass consisted mainly of dinoflagellates, diatoms, cyanobacteria, euglenoids and cryptophytes. The conclusions to be drawn from this work are that the occurrence of huge amounts of macrophyta amassing on the Sopot beach depends on the combined effect of high solar radiation in spring and summer, high-strength (velocity × frequency south-westerly winds in May-September, followed by northerly winds, bringing the macrophyta from Puck Bay on to the Sopot beach. At the same time, their abundance along the beach varies according to the shape and height of the shore, the wind strength and the local wind-driven seawater currents. According to estimates, from 2.2-4.4 × 102 tons (dry weight of macrophyta can be moved on to the Sopot beach in one hour. In October, strong south-easterly winds can also transport huge amounts of decomposing biomass onshore. The phytoplankton content in the total biomass is

  16. Mineral Detector for Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, S. T.; Hart, S. D.; Gulick, V. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a Raman spectral analysis tool that uses machine learning algorithms to classify pure minerals in igneous rocks. Experiments show greater than 90% accuracy classifying a test set of pure minerals against a database of similar reference minerals using an artificial neural network. Efforts are currently underway to improve this tool for use as a mineral detector in rock samples, an important milestone toward autonomously classifying rocks based on spectral, and previous imaging work. Although pure mineral classification has been widely successful, applying the same methods to rocks is difficult because the spectra may represent a combination of multiple, and often competing, mineral signatures. In such cases some minerals may appear with more intensity than others resulting in masking of weaker minerals. Furthermore, with our particular spectrometer (852 nm excitation, ~50 micron spot size), minerals such as potassium feldspar fluoresce, both obscuring its characteristic Raman features and suppressing those of weaker minerals. For example, plagioclase and quartz, two key minerals for determining the composition of igneous rocks, are often hidden by minerals such as potassium feldspar and pyroxene, and are consequently underrepresented in the spectral analysis. These technicalities tend to skew the perceived composition of a rock from its actual composition. Despite these obstacles, an experiment involving a training set of 26 minerals (plagioclase, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, quartz) and a test set of 57 igneous rocks (basalt, gabbro, andesite, diorite, dacite, granodiorite, rhyolite, granite) shows that generalizations derived from their spectral data are consistent with expected trends: as rock composition goes from felsic to mafic there is a marked increase in the detection of minerals such as plagioclase and pyroxene along with a decrease in the detection of minerals such as quartz and potassium feldspar. The results suggest that phaneritic

  17. Oil spills and their impacts on sand beach invertebrate communities: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Sand beaches are highly dynamic habitats that can experience considerable impacts from oil spills. This review provides a synthesis of the scientific literature on major oil spills and their impacts on sand beaches, with emphasis on studies documenting effects and recoveries of intertidal invertebrate communities. One of the key observations arising from this review is that more attention has generally been given to studying the impacts of oil spills on invertebrates (mostly macrobenthos), and not to documenting their biological recovery. Biological recovery of sand beach invertebrates is highly dynamic, depending on several factors including site-specific physical properties and processes (e.g., sand grain size, beach exposure), the degree of oiling, depth of oil burial, and biological factors (e.g., species-specific life-history traits). Recovery of affected communities ranges from several weeks to several years, with longer recoveries generally associated with physical factors that facilitate oil persistence, or when cleanup activities are absent on heavily oiled beaches. There are considerable challenges in quantifying impacts from spills on sand beach invertebrates because of insufficient baseline information (e.g., distribution, abundance and composition), knowledge gaps in their natural variability (spatial and temporal), and inadequate sampling and replication during and after oil spills. Thus, environment assessments of impacts and recovery require a rigorous experimental design that controls for confounding sources of variability. General recommendations on sampling strategies and toxicity testing, and a preliminary framework for incorporating species-specific life history traits into future assessments are also provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermochemolysis: A New Sample Preparation Approach for the Detection of Organic Components of Complex Macromolecules in Mars Rocks via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in SAM on MSL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenbrode, J.; Glavin, D.; Dworkin, J.; Conrad, P.; Mahaffy, P.

    2011-01-01

    Organic chemicals, when present in extraterrestrial samples, afford precious insight into past and modern conditions elsewhere in the Solar System . No single technology identifies all molecular components because naturally occurring molecules have different chemistries (e.g., polar vs. non-polar, low to high molecular weight) and interface with the ambient sample chemistry in a variety of modes (i.e., organics may be bonded, absorbed or trapped by minerals, liquids, gases, or other organics). More than 90% of organic matter in most natural samples on Earth and in meteorites is composed of complex macromolecules (e.g. biopolymers, complex biomolecules, humic substances, kerogen) because the processes that tend to break down organic molecules also tend towards complexation of the more recalcitrant components. Thus, methodologies that tap the molecular information contained within macromolecules may be critical to detecting extraterrestrial organic matter and assessing the sources and processes influencing its nature.

  19. Moving sands along a headland-embayed beach system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sónia; Horta, João; Nascimento, Ana; Gomes, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    Resilience of embayed and pocket beaches located at the southernmost coast of Portugal is currently a major question to coastal management of this region. In fact, several among those beaches have been artificially fed aiming to increase the width of the beach allowing people to maintain a safe distance to the unstable rocky cliffs. The sand is dredged from the offshore (ca. 2 miles from the shoreline) representing high costs for the Portuguese government. For how long will the artificial feeding solve the problem? Which beaches are worth being nourished taking into account the morphosedimentary processes? The present work is the result of a field experiment aiming to study the efficiency of the alongshore sedimentary transport between successive embayed beaches. The experiment was performed in the very indented rocky coast of the Algarve region (Southern Portugal) and comprised two field campaigns, both in 2014, during spring tides in March and November. The Algarve coast experiences a semi-diurnal meso-tidal regime ranging from 1.3 m during neap tides to 3.5 m at spring tides and the waves approach from WSW (232°) during 72% of observations along the year, almost normal to the study area shoreline. The wave and current characteristics (significant height-Hs and Period-T for waves, velocity and direction for currents) were measured during three and six tidal cycles respectively for the first and second campaign, using two pressure transducers and one electromagnetic current meter. We used sand painted with orange fluorescent dye (100 kg in March and 200 kg in November) as tracer to track the movement of the sand along the coast. The marked sand was placed on the beach face of the westernmost beach of the study area during the first low tide of each campaign. Following, hundreds of sediment samples were collected during low tide, through the monitored period, in the nodes of a georeferenced square mesh of 10 x 20 m covering three embayed beaches. Later in the

  20. Temporal variability of benthic macrofauna on Cassino beach, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano P. das Neves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variability of benthic macrofauna on Cassino beach, southernmost Brazil, was studied for a period of one year (June 2004 to May 2005 based on monthly sampling. Three sites were selected distant 50m from each other. At each site, 3 transects were established, 2m equidistant from one another. Each transect extended from the base of the primary dunes to the inner surf zone at approximately 1m in depth, with 7 or 8 sampling levels. Within transects, the distance between the levels was 20m until the upper swash zone, from which distance was 10m until the 1-meter isobath. The temporal variation in the abundance of benthic macrofauna observed in the present study can be attributed to (1 the positive effects of the recruitment peaks and migration of particular species to the swash zone and (2 negative effects of the migration of some species to deeper waters, as well (3 as mortality through natural causes (stranding and action of predators and (4 human causes (harvesting and vehicle transit. We attribute the expressive abundance increase of benthic macrofauna to recruitment. The stranding, that is, the trapping of the organisms on the upper parts of the beach, is likely the main cause of abrupt drops in benthic macrofauna abundance.

  1. Mineralogical characterization of beach sand minerals: traditional and modern approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, P.

    2016-01-01

    Precise identification of beach sand minerals is an essential prerequisite for the reserve estimation of a given deposit and also in the subsequent evaluation of the process flow sheet for its optimal recovery. Traditional methods that are used for the identification of the beach sand minerals such as magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, rutile, anatase, zircon, garnet, sillimanite, monazite, quartz and others include heavy liquid separation (bromoform and methylene iodide) and studying the optical properties of the grains from different fractions so as to identify the specific phases in a sample. Grain counting of specific minerals from a given sievefraction under a petrological microscope to estimate the mode and their subsequent conversion in to weight percent fractions forms the critical second stage that is followed by the reserve estimates. These methodologies are tedious and time consuming often involving a few days for a single sample. The paper introduces the numerous instrumental methods (XRF, XRD - Rietveld and CCSEM) of mineral speciation and their qualification in with case studies from the west coast deposits in India

  2. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Air Show at Jones Beach State Park in Wantagh, New York. This proposed safety zone is necessary to...

  3. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  4. Isotopic analysis of neodymium in a granite rock sample in presence of samarium and cerium by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Radhika M.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    Present investigations are directed towards looking into the possibility adopting a standardised procedure for measuring isotopic composition of Nd in a granite sample in presence of Sm and Ce employing a thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) instrument with a variable multi-collection detector system

  5. QUANTIFICATION OF COAL IN THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN BEACHES (DEPARTMENT OF MAGDALENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To quantify the percentage of unburnt coal in beach sediments from the department of Magdalena,(Colombia a simple procedure was devised to separate the sediment mineral phases according to their density. Sediments were collected from six beaches, at two tidal heights, in November 2012 and February 2013, before and after a spill from a coal barge that occurred on 12 January 2013. Sediments were dried, suspended in an aqueous solution of sodium polytungstate (density: 2.0 g•cm-3 and centrifuged. Because coal has a lower density (1.2-1.9 g•cm-3 than other inorganic minerals and rocks, any coal particle present in a sample concentrated in the suspended fraction, whereas more dense particles settled. To remove organic matter not corresponding to coal, the light fraction was subsequently subjected to a weak oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. To estimate an upper limit for any coal present, weight loss on ignition at 550 °C was determined for whole sediments. For the six beaches examined, the maximum weight loss on ignition was 2.4 % and the weight percentage of the light fraction (with a density 3 g•cm-3, which comprise between 10-70 % of the total sediment dry weight. RESUMEN Con el fin de cuantificar el porcentaje de carbón mineral en playas del departamento del Magdalena, (Colombia se llevó a cabo un procedimiento sencillo para separar el sedimento en fracciones sedimentológicas de acuerdo a su densidad. Se utilizaron sedimentos provenientes de seis playas del departamento colectadas de dos niveles mareales en noviembre de 2012 y febrero de 2013, antes y después de un derrame de una barcaza de carbón, que ocurrió el 12 de enero de 2013. Los sedimentos fueron secados, suspendidos en una solución de sodio politungstato (densidad: 2,0 g·cm-3 y centrifugados. Ya que el carbón tiene una densidad menor (1,2-1,9 g·cm-3 que otros minerales inorgánicos, cualquier partícula de carbón presente en una muestra se concentró en la

  6. Measurement of biological oxygen demand sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of biological oxygen demand in a sandy beach using conventional in situ techniques are compared with laboratory measurements of interstitial oxygen changes in intact cores. Oxygen uptake as measured in the laboratory was approximately three times that measured in the field despite the fact that the.

  7. Morphological changes of the beaches of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    with the onset of the southwest monsoon wind and wave conditions followed by slower rates during the subsequent period of the monsoon. This continues till August when the beaches have minimum sediment storage. The wave climates during the postmonsoon and winter...

  8. The effects of sediment used in beach nourishment: Study case El Portet de Moraira beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva, L; Pagán, J I; López, I; Tenza-Abril, A J; Aragonés, L; Sánchez, I

    2018-02-08

    Actions taken to prevent or reduce coastal erosion often do not have the desired effect, leading to major problems instead of solving the original one. This research focuses on why a nourished beach- with borrowed sand and 0.05% of particles beach users as turbidity. This means that the colour of the water was not its characteristic blue, even with calm wave conditions. This research involved a shoreline evolution analysis and a sedimentological study of the sand from 1977 to 2017. The results show that the turbidity episodes that occurred after the beach fill of May 2017 do not coincide with major storms that affected the beach. Furthermore, prior to this beach nourishment, even after the most important storms turbidity was not so pronounced. However, when the pre-nourishment and post-nourishment sediment are compared and analysed in detail, by studying the microstructure and morphology of the sand particles, their composition and morphology were observed to be completely different. These differences are also reflected in the accelerated particle weathering test, with the post-nourishment particles showing greater dissolution of carbonates. From its mineralogy, the post-nourishment material presents a smaller proportion of quartz in its composition and a significant amount of particles (9.6%) formed by clusters of Calcium and Silicon. The separation of this mineralogical composition produced by waves explains the formation of particles measuring beach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sandy beaches in a coastline vulnerable to erosion in Atlantic Canada: Macrobenthic community structure in relation to backshore and physical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Mitchell R.; Duarte, Cristian; Quijón, Pedro A.

    2017-07-01

    Most literature suggests that sandy beach macrobenthic communities are structured by physical factors. However, an aspect that has not been studied in detail is whether those physical factors change with erosion or the association of beaches to backshore features like sand dunes, till bluffs, and sandstone cliffs. We addressed this question by sampling 14 sandy beaches on the north shore of Prince Edward Island, Atlantic Canada. Two null hypotheses were tested: first, there is no relationship between physical factors and community descriptors across sandy beaches, and second, there is no difference among beaches associated with distinct backshore features both in terms of physical factors and community descriptors. In order to test these hypotheses, samples of macrobenthic organisms and measurements of grain size, slope, beach deposit index and erosion rates were obtained. Our surveys collected a total of 14 taxa numerically dominated by the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata. With regards to the first hypothesis, regression analyses showed that community descriptors were all positively related to erosion rates while unrelated to the variation in grain size, slope and beach deposit index. As for the second hypothesis, erosion rates were significantly different among beaches associated to till bluffs (highest), dunes and sandstone cliffs (lowest). Meanwhile, the other physical factors did not significantly differ among backshore features. Species richness was highest in beaches associated to till bluffs and lowest in those associated to sandstone cliffs. Abundance values were also lowest in beaches associated to sandstone cliffs, and their community composition was significantly different to those associated to dunes and till bluffs. We suggest that the relationship between erosion rates and community descriptors is complex and may be mediated by the availability of nutrients: higher erosion levels might account for higher concentrations of nutrients for

  10. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations and Implications for Landing Hazards on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks represent an obvious potential hazard to a landing spacecraft. They also represent an impediment to rover travel and objects of prime scientific interest. Although Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images are of high enough resolution to distinguish the largest rocks (an extremely small population several meters diameter or larger), traditionally the abundance and distribution of rocks on Mars have been inferred from thermal inertia and radar measurements, our meager ground truth sampling of landing sites, and terrestrial rock populations. In this abstract, we explore the effective thermal inertia of rocks and rock populations, interpret the results in terms of abundances and populations of potentially hazardous rocks, and conclude with interpretations of rock hazards on the Martian surface and in extremely high thermal inertia areas.

  11. Adenovirus, enterovirus and thermotolerant coliforms in recreational waters from Lake Guaíba beaches, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, C P; Simonetti, A B; Staggemeier, R; Rigotto, C; Heinzelmann, L S; Spilki, F R

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, molecular detection of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and enteroviruses (EV) was performed in surface water samples collected from beaches Ipanema and Lami, located on the shores of Lake Guaíba, city of Porto Alegre, RS, southern Brazil. Furthermore, water safety was evaluated by counting thermotolerant coliforms (TC), following local government regulations. A total of 36 samples were collected monthly from six different sites along the beaches. Viral genomes were found in 30 (83.3%) samples. The higher detection rate was observed for HAdV (77.8%), followed by EV (22.2%). Although low concentrations of TC have been found, the occurrence of viral genomes in water samples was frequent and may pose a potential risk of infection for people bathing in these beaches.

  12. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  13. 13C/12C and 18O/16O in calcium carbonate-cemented beach sands ('beach rocks')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, H.S.; Sweeney, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the stable isotope composition (C 13 /C 12 and O 18 /O 16 ) of the cement and the local groundwater in Itaparica Island (Salvador-Brazil) is carried out to determine the origin of the carbonate cement. For area A, the cement has Δ13C = 9% showing that CO2 in groundwater charged by decay of organic material is the source of carbonate in the cement. Probably comentation occurs during loss of excess CO2 from groundwater as comes into an environment where loss of CO2 is possible . In area B, where the cements contain, on the average Δ 18 O v=1,3%, the cement is formed from carbonate typical of sea water or a mixture of sea water and fresh water. (Autor) [pt

  14. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  15. Analysis of Time-Motion and Heart Rate in Elite Male and Female Beach Handball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueo, Basilio; Jimenez-Olmedo, Jose M.; Penichet-Tomas, Alfonso; Ortega Becerra, Manuel; Espina Agullo, Jose J.

    2017-01-01

    Beach handball is a spectacular new team sport; however, scientific knowledge about the demands in beach handball is very low. Consequently, the aim of this study was to analyze the physical demands of elite beach handball players by means of time-motion analysis with GPS technology and physiological response with Heart Rate (HR). Both male (n = 12) and female (n = 12) players from the Spanish Beach Handball National Team were recruited for this study. The sample consisted in four matches of two 10-min periods each. Time-motion analysis was performed through GPS devices (SPI Pro X, 15 Hz, GPSports) with synchronized HR monitoring (Polar Electro, Finland). All parameters were recorded for matches and halves to express overall and time-dependent physical and physiological responses. Total match distance covered by male and female players were 1234.7 ± 192 m and 1118.2 ± 221.8 m, respectively. Female players covered more total distance (p = 0.049, ES = 0.79) and distance walking (p sport, with numerous moderate-to-high intensity displacements, distributed intermittently throughout the game: long periods of low intensity activity interspersed by short bursts of high intensity. Key points Beach handball is a demanding sport, with numerous moderate-to-high intensity displacements, distributed intermittently throughout the match. Despite the sandy surface, the distance covered per minute in beach handball is similar to team handball. On average, every 23 s and 27 s, a body acceleration was produced by male and female players, respectively. Female players covered substantially more distance in the first half but at the expense of lower speed. PMID:29238243

  16. Observations of Seasonal Morphological Evolution at a Moderately Energetic Beach in Rincón, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Nieves, A.; Loubriel, M.; Rodriguez-Abudo, S.; Canals, M.; Salgado-Domínguez, G.

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal variations in the wave climate near Rincón, Puerto Rico include high winter swells associated with meteorological disturbances in the north and mid Atlantic, short period waves resulting from local storms, and the occasional south swell. The resulting beach morphology is therefore a complex function of the wave climate, wave-induced currents, and local and remote meteorology, among others. Over the past 75 years, this particular stretch of beach has suffered severe erosion problems, losing as much as 100 meters of beach width at particular locations. The purpose of this study is to develop a high-resolution time series of beach morphology to examine in more detail the seasonal variations at the site. Beach profiles will be collected on a weekly basis using an RTK GPS system at three permanent stations spanning 2 km of coast. Sediment samples will be collected along the profiles to identify sediment properties associated with distinct morphological features, while digital photographs will provide a qualitative sense of beach width. The resulting morphological changes will be assessed in light of the Rincon's directional Waverider buoy data and CariCOOS' SWAN high-resolution wave model. This study will provide quantifiable insights into seasonal erosion/accretion trends at a highly touristic stretch of coast in the US Caribbean.

  17. Spatial-temporal analysis of marine debris on beaches of Niterói, RJ, Brazil: Itaipu and Itacoatiara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Melanie Lopes da; Araújo, Fábio Vieira de; Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Sales, Alessandro Souza

    2015-03-15

    In many areas of the world, studies of marine debris are conducted with an emphasis on analyzing their composition, quantification and distribution on sandy beaches. However, in Brazil, studies are still restricted to some areas of the coast, and the quantities and the spatial and temporal patterns are unknown. To enhance the marine debris information in these areas, we selected the Itaipu and Itacoatiara beaches in Niterói, RJ, to collect, quantify and qualify the solid residues present in their sands. We collected 12 samples and recorded 118.39 kg of residues in Itaipu and 62.94 kg in Itacoatiara. At both beaches, the largest portion of debris was located on the upper part of the beach. Several debris items were related to food and drink consumption on the beaches, which indicated the contribution of beach users to pollution. Most of the debris was plastic. The greatest amount of debris was found at Itaipu in January and February and at Itacoatiara in January and March, months related to both the holiday season and abundant rainfall. The results demonstrated the necessity to implement an Environmental Education project for these areas to reduce its degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  19. Age and morphodynamics of a sandy beach fronted by a macrotidal mud flat along the west coast of Korea: a lateral headland bypass model for beach-dune formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Choi, Jeong-Heon

    2017-08-01

    The Dasari beach-dune system fronted by an intertidal mud flat is a typical example of numerous small beaches found both in embayments and along the open macrotidal west coast of Korea. The beach is frequently exposed to energetic wave action at high tide in winter. Although this coastal dune-sandy beach-intertidal mud flat system has previously been described, its origin and morphodynamic behavior has to date not been firmly established. To clarify these issues, elevation profiles and surficial sediment samples were collected seasonally along five monitoring transects across the tidal flat. In addition, box-cores as well as vibro- and drill-cores were acquired along the middle transect. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C- AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) dating methods were applied to determine the age of the tidal flat, the beach and the dune deposits. The results show that Dasari beach is topographically composed of two distinct morphological and sedimentological sectors, comprising a high-tide sandy beach that merges seaward into an extensive low-tide tidal flat composed of mud. The transition between the two sectors is marked by a sharp break in slope and change in internal sedimentary structures. At the boundary, the subtle shoreward fining trend in mean grain size on the intertidal flat switches to a pronounced shoreward coarsening trend. Near the transition, mixing between the beach sand and the mud is observed. Another striking feature is a seasonal rotation of the beach system centered on the middle sector, with the northern sector eroding in winter and accreting in summer, and the southern sector accreting in winter and eroding in summer. The spatial grain-size pattern reveals that the beach is fed from the neighboring beach in the north by lateral headland bypassing, rather than onshore transport across the tidal flat, the intermittent lateral supply of sand explaining the seasonal rotation of the beach. Stratigraphically, the beach

  20. Effect of beach management policies on recreational water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elizabeth A; Feng, Zhixuan; Gidley, Maribeth L; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Kumar, Naresh; Donahue, Allison G; Reniers, Adrianus J H M; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2018-04-15

    When beach water monitoring programs identify poor water quality, the causes are frequently unknown. We hypothesize that management policies play an important role in the frequency of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) exceedances (enterococci and fecal coliform) at recreational beaches. To test this hypothesis we implemented an innovative approach utilizing large amounts of monitoring data (n > 150,000 measurements per FIB) to determine associations between the frequency of contaminant exceedances and beach management practices. The large FIB database was augmented with results from a survey designed to assess management policies for 316 beaches throughout the state of Florida. The FIB and survey data were analyzed using t-tests, ANOVA, factor analysis, and linear regression. Results show that beach geomorphology (beach type) was highly associated with exceedance of regulatory standards. Low enterococci exceedances were associated with open coast beaches (n = 211) that have sparse human densities, no homeless populations, low densities of dogs and birds, bird management policies, low densities of seaweed, beach renourishment, charge access fees, employ lifeguards, without nearby marinas, and those that manage storm water. Factor analysis and a linear regression confirmed beach type as the predominant factor with secondary influences from grooming activities (including seaweed densities and beach renourishment) and beach access (including charging fees, employing lifeguards, and without nearby marinas). Our results were observable primarily because of the very large public FIB database available for analyses; similar approaches can be adopted at other beaches. The findings of this research have important policy implications because the selected beach management practices that were associated with low levels of FIB can be implemented in other parts of the US and around the world to improve recreational beach water quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Sand patties provide evidence for the presence of Deepwater Horizon oil on the beaches of the West Florida Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, L D; Basso, J; Pulster, E; Paul, J H

    2015-08-15

    The ecological consequences of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill are both long-term and pervasive. The distribution of toxicity and mutagenicity in the Gulf of Mexico suggests oil from the DWH spill could have contaminated the West Florida Shelf (WFS). We utilized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis to determine presence and potential origin of oil contaminants in beach sand patty samples. PAH profiles from WFS beaches were statistically significantly similar to DWH contaminated samples from the Northeast Gulf of Mexico (Gulf Shores, AL; Ft. Pickens, FL). Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), a major component of Corexit 9500 dispersant was also detected in the sediments. DOSS concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 5.5ngg(-1) dry weight. Additionally, two samples from DWH oil contaminated beaches were acutely toxic and one WFS beach sediment sample was mutagenic. These observations provide support for the theory that DWH oil made its way onto beaches of the WFS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of seaweed beachings on dynamics of δ15N isotopic signatures in marine macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemesle, Stéphanie; Mussio, Isabelle; Rusig, Anne-Marie; Menet-Nédélec, Florence; Claquin, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two coastal sites (COU, GM) in the Bay of Seine affected by summer seaweed beachings. • The same temporal dynamics of the algal δ 15 N at the two sites. • N and P concentrations in seawater of the two sites dominated by riverine sources. • A coupling between seaweed beachings and N sources of intertidal macroalgae. - Abstract: A fine-scale survey of δ 15 N, δ 13 C, tissue-N in seaweeds was conducted using samples from 17 sampling points at two sites (Grandcamp-Maisy (GM), Courseulles/Mer (COU)) along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013. Partial triadic analysis was performed on the parameter data sets and revealed the functioning of three areas: one estuary (EstA) and two rocky areas (GM ∗ , COU ∗ ). In contrast to oceanic and anthropogenic reference points similar temporal dynamics characterized δ 15 N signatures and N contents at GM ∗ and COU ∗ . Nutrient dynamics were similar: the N-concentrations in seawater originated from the River Seine and local coastal rivers while P-concentrations mainly from these local rivers. δ 15 N at GM ∗ were linked to turbidity suggesting inputs of autochthonous organic matter from large-scale summer seaweed beachings made up of a mixture of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta species. This study highlights the coupling between seaweed beachings and nitrogen sources of intertidal macroalgae

  3. Mesoscale Morphological Change, Beach Rotation and Storm Climate Influences along a Macrotidal Embayed Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shore profiles and environmental forcing were used to analyse morphological change of a headland bay beach: Tenby, West Wales (51.66 N; −4.71 W over a mesoscale timeframe (1996–2013. Beach profile variations were attuned with longer term shoreline change identified by previous research showing southern erosion and northern accretion within the subaerial zone and were statistically significant in both sectors although centrally there was little or no significance. Conversely a statistically significant volume loss was shown at all profile locations within the intertidal zone. There were negative phase relationships between volume changes at the beach extremities, indicative of beach rotation and results were statistically significant (p < 0.01 within both subaerial (R2 = 0.59 and intertidal (R2 = 0.70 zones. This was confirmed qualitatively by time-series analysis and further cross correlation analysis showed trend reversal time-lagged associations between sediment exchanges at either end of the beach. Wave height and storm events displayed summer/winter trends which explained longer term one directional rotation at this location. In line with previous regional research, environmental forcing suggests that imposed changes are influenced by variations in southwesterly wind regimes. Winter storms are generated by Atlantic southwesterly winds and cause a south toward north sediment exchange, while southeasterly conditions that cause a trend reversal are generally limited to the summer period when waves are less energetic. Natural and man-made embayed beaches are a common coastal feature and many experience shoreline changes, jeopardising protective and recreational beach functions. In order to facilitate effective and sustainable coastal zone management strategies, an understanding of the morphological variability of these systems is needed. Therefore, this macrotidal research dealing with rotational processes across the entire intertidal

  4. Prototypic automated continuous recreational water quality monitoring of nine Chicago beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn Shively,; Nevers, Meredith; Cathy Breitenbach,; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Kasia Przybyla-Kelly,; Ashley M. Spoljaric,; Richard L. Whitman,

    2015-01-01

    Predictive empirical modeling is used in many locations worldwide as a rapid, alternative recreational water quality management tool to eliminate delayed notifications associated with traditional fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) culturing (referred to as the persistence model, PM) and to prevent errors in releasing swimming advisories. The goal of this study was to develop a fully automated water quality management system for multiple beaches using predictive empirical models (EM) and state-of-the-art technology. Many recent EMs rely on samples or data collected manually, which adds to analysis time and increases the burden to the beach manager. In this study, data from water quality buoys and weather stations were transmitted through cellular telemetry to a web hosting service. An executable program simultaneously retrieved and aggregated data for regression equations and calculated EM results each morning at 9:30 AM; results were transferred through RSS feed to a website, mapped to each beach, and received by the lifeguards to be posted at the beach. Models were initially developed for five beaches, but by the third year, 21 beaches were managed using refined and validated modeling systems. The adjusted R2 of the regressions relating Escherichia coli to hydrometeorological variables for the EMs were greater than those for the PMs, and ranged from 0.220 to 0.390 (2011) and 0.103 to 0.381 (2012). Validation results in 2013 revealed reduced predictive capabilities; however, three of the originally modeled beaches showed improvement in 2013 compared to 2012. The EMs generally showed higher accuracy and specificity than those of the PMs, and sensitivity was low for both approaches. In 2012 EM accuracy was 70–97%; specificity, 71–100%; and sensitivity, 0–64% and in 2013 accuracy was 68–97%; specificity, 73–100%; and sensitivity 0–36%. Factors that may have affected model capabilities include instrument malfunction, non-point source inputs, and sparse

  5. Effects of full-scale beach renovation on fecal indicator levels in shoreline sand and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rafael J; Hernandez, Yasiel; Jimenez, Nasly H; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-01-01

    Recolonization of enterococci, at a non-point source beach known to contain high background levels of bacteria, was studied after a full-scale beach renovation project. The renovation involved importation of new exogenous sand, in addition to infrastructure improvements. The study's objectives were to document changes in sand and water quality and to evaluate the relative contribution of different renovation activities towards these changes. These objectives were addressed: by measuring enterococci levels in the sand and fecal indicator bacteria levels (enterococci and fecal coliform) in the water, by documenting sediment characteristics (mineralogy and biofilm levels), and by estimating changes in observable enterococci loads. Analysis of enterococci levels on surface sand and within sediment depth cores were significantly higher prior to beach renovation (6.3-72 CFU/g for each sampling day) when compared to levels during and after beach renovation (0.8-12 CFU/g) (P < 0.01). During the renovation process, sand enterococci levels were frequently below detection limits (<0.1 CFU/g). For water, exceedances in the regulatory thresholds that would trigger a beach advisory decreased by 40% for enterococci and by 90% for fecal coliform. Factors that did not change significantly between pre- and post- renovation included the enterococci loads from animals (approx. 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Factors that were observed to change between pre- and post- renovation activities included: the composition of the beach sand (64% versus 98% quartz, and a significant decrease in biofilm levels) and loads from direct stormwater inputs (reduction of 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Overall, this study supports that beach renovation activities contributed to improved sand and water quality resulting in a 50% decrease of observable enterococci loads due to upgrades to the stormwater infrastructure. Of interest was that the change in the sand mineralogy also coincided with changes in biofilm

  6. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katherine L; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M; Schoon, Petra L; Zumberge, J Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A; George, Simon C; Love, Gordon D; Brocks, Jochen J; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E

    2015-05-12

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (rock) and total sterane (rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼ 2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  7. Core Cutting Test with Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Serdar; Osman Yilmaz, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Roadheaders are frequently used machines in mining and tunnelling, and performance prediction of roadheaders is important for project economics and stability. Several methods were proposed so far for this purpose and, rock cutting tests are the best choice. Rock cutting tests are generally divided into two groups which are namely, full scale rock cutting tests and small scale rock cutting tests. These two tests have some superiorities and deficiencies over themselves. However, in many cases, where rock sampling becomes problematic, small scale rock cutting test (core cutting test) is preferred for performance prediction, since small block samples and core samples can be conducted to rock cutting testing. Common problem for rock cutting tests are that they can be found in very limited research centres. In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing equipment, vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) was introduced. Standard testing procedure was conducted on seven rock samples which were the part of a former study on cutting rocks with another small scale rock cutting test. Results showed that core cutting test can be realized successfully with VRCR with the validation of paired samples t-test.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of heterotrophic marine bacteria isolated from seawater and sands of recreational beaches with different organic pollution levels in southeastern Brazil: evidences of resistance dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Cardoso de Oliveira, Ana Julia; Ranzani de França, Paula Thais; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi

    2010-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of marine heterotrophic bacteria to different antimicrobials agents were evaluated in seawater, dry and wet sands from three marine recreational beaches with different pollution levels. In all studied beaches, the greatest frequencies of resistance were found in relation to penicillin. On Gonzaguinha, the most polluted beach, 72.3% of all isolated strains showed simple resistance, whilst 8.33% had multiple resistance. The values found on Ilha Porchat beach, were 70.8% and 6.9% for simple and multiple resistances, respectively. On Guaraú, the less polluted beach, only 35.3% of isolated strains had simple resistance. Multiple resistance was not observed. While samples from Gonzaguinha and Ilha Porchat beach showed isolated strains resistant to seven and six different antimicrobial agents, respectively, samples from Guaraú beach were resistant only to penicillin and erytromicin. The positive correlations obtained between the degree of seawater contamination and frequency and variability of bacterial resistance indicate that polluted marine recreational waters and sands are sources of resistant bacteria contributing thus, to the dissemination of bacterial resistance.

  9. Use of a mobile terrestrial laser system to quantify the impact of rigid coastal protective structures on sandy beaches, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Wierts, S.; Bernatchez, P.

    2012-04-01

    Coastal erosion is an important issue within the St-Lawrence estuary and gulf, especially in zones of unconsolidated material. Wide beaches are important coastal environments; they act as a buffer against breaking waves by absorbing and dissipating their energy, thus reducing the rate of coastal erosion. They also offer protection to humans and nearby ecosystems, providing habitat for plants, animals and lifeforms such as algae and microfauna. Conventional methods, such as aerial photograph analysis, fail to adequately quantify the morphosedimentary behavior of beaches at the scale of a hydrosedimentary cells. The lack of reliable and quantitative data leads to considerable errors of overestimation and underestimation of sediment budgets. To address these gaps and to minimize acquisition costs posed by airborne LiDAR survey, a mobile terrestrial LiDAR has been set up to acquire topographic data of the coastal zone. The acquisition system includes a LiDAR sensor, a high precision navigation system (GPS-INS) and a video camera. Comparison of LiDAR data with 1050 DGPS control points shows a vertical mean absolute error of 0.1 m in beach areas. The extracted data is used to calculate sediment volumes, widths, slopes, and a sediment budget index. A high accuracy coastal characterization is achieved through the integration of laser data and video. The main objective of this first project using this system is to quantify the impact of rigid coastal protective structures on sediment budget and beach morphology. Results show that the average sediment volume of beaches located before a rock armour barrier (12 m3/m) were three times narrower than for natural beaches (35,5 m3/m). Natural beaches were also found to have twice the width (25.4 m) of the beaches bordering inhabited areas (12.7 m). The development of sediment budget index for beach areas is an excellent proxy to quickly identify deficit areas and therefore the coastal segments most at risk of erosion. The obtained

  10. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  11. Beach sand minerals in ceramic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Patra, R.N.; Mukherjee, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramics are in use since the time memorial and many new materials belonging to this segment of industry have come to existence as the human civilization progressed. Although clay and some non-clay minerals are used in the traditional ceramics, they are not compatible for advanced ceramic applications. The synthesized compounds of elements like aluminium, silicon, titanium, zirconium, rare earths etc are having ability to satisfy the requirements of such advanced high tech applications. The six heavy minerals present in abundantly available Indian beach sand minerals happen to contain these elements and find application as such or in their value added forms both in traditional and advanced ceramics. In this paper an effort has been made to describe the role of beach sand minerals being produced by Indian Rare Earths Ltd as basic raw materials for the Indian ceramic industry. (author)

  12. Virginia Beach search and rescue experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham

    2000-08-01

    In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.

  13. Nano sponge Mn₂O ₃ as a new adsorbent for the preconcentration of Pd(II) and Rh(III) ions in sea water, wastewater, rock, street sediment and catalytic converter samples prior to FAAS determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Emre; Tokalıoğlu, Serife; Sahan, Halil; Patat, Saban

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a nano sponge Mn2O3 adsorbent was synthesized and was used for the first time. Various parameters affecting the recovery values of Pd(II) and Rh(III) were examined. The tolerance limits (≥ 90 %) for both Pd(II) and Rh(III) ions were found to be 75,000 mg L(-1) Na(I), 75,000 mg L(-1) K(I), 50,000 mg L(-1) Mg(II) and 50,000 mg L(-1) Ca(II). A 30s contact time was enough for both adsorption and elution. A preconcentration factor of 100 was obtained by using 100mg of the nano sponge Mn2O3. The reusability of the adsorbent was 120 times. Adsorption capacities for Pd(II) and Rh(III) were found to be 42 and 6.2 mg g(-1), respectively. The detection limits were 1.0 µg L(-1) for Pd(II) and 0.37 µg L(-1) for Rh(III) and the relative standard deviations (RSD, %) were found to be ≤ 2.5%. The method was validated by analyzing the standard reference material, SRM 2556 (Used Auto Catalyst Pellets) and spiked real samples. The optimized method was applied for the preconcentration of Pd(II) and Rh(III) ions in water (sea water and wastewater), rock, street sediment and catalytic converter samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  15. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vasconcelos, Sílvia; Calado, Graça; Brandão, João; Prada, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Minal Joshi,1 Ruth Cheng,2 Hattiyangadi Kamath,1 Joel Yarmush1 1Department of Anesthesiology, New York Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2School of Medicine, St. George’s University, Grenada, West Indies Abstract: Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently. Keywords: neuropraxia, anesthesia, arthroscopy, great auricular nerve

  17. Internal wave turbulence near a Texel beach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Haren

    Full Text Available A summer bather entering a calm sea from the beach may sense alternating warm and cold water. This can be felt when moving forward into the sea ('vertically homogeneous' and 'horizontally different', but also when standing still between one's feet and body ('vertically different'. On a calm summer-day, an array of high-precision sensors has measured fast temperature-changes up to 1 °C near a Texel-island (NL beach. The measurements show that sensed variations are in fact internal waves, fronts and turbulence, supported in part by vertical stable stratification in density (temperature. Such motions are common in the deep ocean, but generally not in shallow seas where turbulent mixing is expected strong enough to homogenize. The internal beach-waves have amplitudes ten-times larger than those of the small surface wind waves. Quantifying their turbulent mixing gives diffusivity estimates of 10(-4-10(-3 m(2 s(-1, which are larger than found in open-ocean but smaller than wave breaking above deep sloping topography.

  18. Rocks Can Wow? Yes, Rocks Can Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sally; Luke, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Rocks and fossils appear in the National Curriculum of England science programmes of study for children in year 3 (ages 7-8). A frequently asked question is "How do you make the classification of rocks engaging?" In response to this request from a school, a set of interactive activities was designed and organised by tutors and students…

  19. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recreational impacts on Colorado River beaches in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Steven W.; Johnson, Robert A.; Dolan, Robert

    1984-07-01

    Recreational impact was measured on eight beaches in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and 15 beaches in Grand Canyon National Park using permanently located transects and plots. Recreational impact indices included densities of human trash and charcoal and a measure of sand discoloration due to charcoal. Significant increases in the indices occurred on several Glen Canyon beaches over a seven-month period. Sand discoloration became significantly higher over all Glen Canyon beaches during the same time period. All indices were significantly higher in Glen Canyon than on similar Grand Canyon beaches. These differences are probably due to differences in: (a) level of impacts tolerated by the respective management regimes and, (b) in the number of user days among the two National Park Service administrative units. Management alternatives are presented for reversing the present trends of recreational impact on Glen Canyon beaches.

  1. The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris on marshes and beaches on the Georgia coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard F; Sanders, Dorothea P

    2015-02-15

    The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris at 20 sites along the Georgia coast were prepared using data reported by a number of volunteer organizations. The amount of plastic debris at highly visited barrier island beaches and estuarine marshes ranged from 300 to >1000 kg. Relatively large amount of plastics (180-500 kg) were found on less visited barrier island beaches, i.e. Blackbeard, Ossabaw and Cumberland Islands. A follow up monthly or quarterly collection study was carried out on two of the sites, a barrier beach and estuarine marsh, to determine accumulation rate in 8000 m(2) areas. Accumulation rates ranged from 0.18 to 1.28 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) on the barrier island beach and from 0.6 to 1.61 kg/30 days-8000 m(2) at the estuarine marsh site. The major type of plastics, e.g. bottles, food wrappers, plastic fragments, was highly variable at different seasons and sites. The authors recommend consideration of a standardization in reporting plastic debris, with respect to quantitation of debris and sample area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. State of the art of the meiofauna of Brazilian Sandy Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fabricio Maria

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, meiofauna studies began in the middle of last century, but they adopted a purely taxonomical approach, describing species from various zoological groups. After this first step, this benthic group was largely neglected until the end of the 20th century when ecological studies began. We here provide a brief review of present knowledge of the meiofauna found on Brazilian sandy beaches to provide information for ReBentos (Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network. Our methodology consisted of a bibliographic survey undertaken using different datasets (Web of ScienceTM, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and Lattes Plataform. For the survey, we considered only those studies published till early 2015. Our analysis showed that the number of meiofauna studies has increased over the last two decades, though they are mainly still concentrated on the Southeast of Brazil. These studies aim to explain the distribution pattern of the meiofauna of the intertidal region of sandy beaches. Based on the results, we presented a discussion of three main topics, i.e., (a current knowledge of Brazilian sandy beach meiofauna, (b sampling strategies for monitoring of the meiofauna, and (c use of the meiofauna as a tool to assess climate change. We trust that this brief review will be useful as a starting point for the delineation of further climate change investigations into sandy beach meiofauna.

  3. Comparison between vertical jumps of high performance athletes on the Brazilian men's beach volleyball team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte Batista, G; Freire De Araújo, R; Oliveira Guerra, R

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the anthropometric profile and the vertical jumps of two groups of Brazilian male high performance beach volleyball players. The sample consisted of 38 male beach volleyball players from the Brazilian Beach Volleyball Circuit of 2006, allocated to two groups according to national ranking of their teams. Anthropometric measures and performance in vertical jumps were assessed using a specific methodology. The anthropometric results of the groups showed no statistically significant differences. The players of group 1 (G1) were better in the spike jump (P<0.01), block jump (P<0.01) and block difference (P<0.01) than the players of group 2 (G2). The prediction model of the spike jump for G2 included body mass and standing spike reach (adjusted R2=0.77) while for the block jump model it was body mass and standing block reach (adjusted R2=0.73). The regression models for G1 were not statistically significant. It is likely that vertical jump height (spike and block) influences the performance of beach volleyball players, and consequently the performance of their teams, since the present study found higher values in G1 than in G2 for the spike jump, block jump and block difference. However, an athlete's success is not related only to the variables investigated in this study; technical skill, tactics, psychology and physical conditioning can also play a role.

  4. Seasonal persistence and population characteristics of Escherichia coli and entercocci in deep backshore sand of two freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Ting, W.T.E.; Tseng, C.C.; Nevers, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the shoreward and seasonal distribution of E. coli and enterococci in sand (at the water table) at two southern Lake Michigan beaches - Dunbar and West Beach (in Indiana). Deep, backshore sand (??? 20 m inland) was regularly sampled for 15 months during 2002-2003. E. coli counts were not significantly different in samples taken at 5-m intervals from 0-40 M inland (P = 0.25). Neither E. coli nor enterococci mean counts showed any correlation or differences between the two beaches studied. In laboratory experiments, E. coli readily grew in sand supplemented with lake plankton, suggesting that in situ E. coli growth may occur when temperature and natural organic sources are adequate. Of the 114 sand enterococci isolates tested, positive species identification was obtained for only 52 (46%), with E. faecium representing the most dominant species (92%). Genetic characterization by ribotyping revealed no distinct genotypic pattern (s) for E. coli, suggesting that the sand population was rather a mixture of numerous strains (genotypes). These findings indicate that E. coli and enterococci can occur and persist for extended periods in backshore sand at the groundwater table. Although this study was limited to two beaches of southern Lake Michigan, similar findings can be expected at other temperate freshwater beaches. The long-term persistence of these bacteria, perhaps independent of pollution events, complicates their use as indicator organisms. Further, backshore sand at the water table may act as a reservoir for these bacteria and potentially for human pathogens. ?? IWA Publishing 2006.

  5. Evolved gas analyses of sedimentary rocks and eolian sediment in Gale Crater, Mars: Results of the Curiosity rover's sample analysis at Mars instrument from Yellowknife Bay to the Namib Dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; McAdam, A. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Ming, D. W.; Edgett, K. S.; Rampe, E. B.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Steele, A.; House, C. H.; Archer, P. D.; Malespin, C. A.; Navarro-González, R.; Stern, J. C.; Bell, J. F.; Calef, F. J.; Gellert, R.; Glavin, D. P.; Thompson, L. M.; Yen, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    The sample analysis at Mars instrument evolved gas analyzer (SAM-EGA) has detected evolved water, H2, SO2, H2S, NO, CO2, CO, O2, and HCl from two eolian sediments and nine sedimentary rocks from Gale Crater, Mars. These evolved gas detections indicate nitrates, organics, oxychlorine phase, and sulfates are widespread with phyllosilicates and carbonates occurring in select Gale Crater materials. Coevolved CO2 (160 ± 248-2373 ± 820 μgC(CO2)/g) and CO (11 ± 3-320 ± 130 μgC(CO)/g) suggest that organic C is present in Gale Crater materials. Five samples evolved CO2 at temperatures consistent with carbonate (0.32 ± 0.05-0.70 ± 0.1 wt % CO3). Evolved NO amounts to 0.002 ± 0.007-0.06 ± 0.03 wt % NO3. Evolution of O2 suggests that oxychlorine phases (chlorate/perchlorate) (0.05 ± 0.025-1.05 ± 0.44 wt % ClO4) are present, while SO2 evolution indicates the presence of crystalline and/or poorly crystalline Fe and Mg sulfate and possibly sulfide. Evolved H2O (0.9 ± 0.3-2.5 ± 1.6 wt % H2O) is consistent with the presence of adsorbed water, hydrated salts, interlayer/structural water from phyllosilicates, and possible inclusion water in mineral/amorphous phases. Evolved H2 and H2S suggest that reduced phases occur despite the presence of oxidized phases (nitrate, oxychlorine, sulfate, and carbonate). SAM results coupled with CheMin mineralogical and Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer elemental analyses indicate that Gale Crater sedimentary rocks have experienced a complex authigenetic/diagenetic history involving fluids with varying pH, redox, and salt composition. The inferred geochemical conditions were favorable for microbial habitability and if life ever existed, there was likely sufficient organic C to support a small microbial population.

  6. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  7. Rocks in Our Pockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Donna; Kuhlman, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    To introduce students to rocks and their characteristics, teacher can begin rock units with the activities described in this article. Students need the ability to make simple observations using their senses and simple tools.

  8. Rock slope design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  9. Chenang Beach and its Crowding Capacity: A Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This working paper focuses in enjoyment factors, specifically: number of beach users, perceived maximum number of beach users accepted, perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the tourism experience and perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the beach quality. At a deeper extent, the evaluation is categorized by number of visitation, visitation motivations, and Chenang Island’s push and pull factors. Relationships between variables were assessed using a two-phase evaluation framework where interestingly, only one demographic factor works with all the studied independent variables. It is also learned that the density of an area number of people seen is considered as a n accepted crowding factor, as opposed to this working paper scope experienced crowding . A unique relationship was observed for crowding level, and visitation satisfaction level and overall evaluation of Chenang beach quality. This working paper further supports the previous literature on the significance of beach carrying capacity management and it is learned that the idea of crowding standard is interlinks with ‘gender, ‘time spend’ and ‘number of boaters’. From findings, this working paper envisages the preferences polar exchange where this should be of interest to tourism-related personnel. It is within this working paper interest to highlight the pressing need in brandishing the image of Chenang Beach. This is to ensure that Chenang Beach, as a field, is maintaining its importance and popularity.

  10. 75 FR 23588 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Riviera Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ..., Riviera Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations..., at Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida. The deviation is necessary to allow timely bridge...

  11. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  12. Beach changes at Visakhapatnam due to the cyclone of May 1979

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, B.P.

    The impact of the May, 1979 cyclonic storm on Visakhapatnam beach, India and the observations made on beach profiles, waves and littoral currents prior to and during the storm are discussed. In general, at Visakhapatnam beach accretion trend starts...

  13. Surface properties of beached plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K

    2015-07-01

    Studying plastic characteristics in the marine environment is important to better understand interaction between plastics and the environment. In the present study, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene terephalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) samples were collected from the coastal environment in order to study their surface properties. Surface properties such as surface functional groups, surface topography, point of zero charge, and color change are important factors that change during degradation. Eroded HDPE demonstrated an altered surface topography and color and new functional groups. Eroded PET surface was uneven, yellow, and occasionally, colonized by microbes. A decrease in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) peaks was observed for eroded PET suggesting that degradation had occurred. For eroded PVC, its surface became more lamellar and a new FTIR peak was observed. These surface properties were obtained due to degradation and could be used to explain the interaction between plastics, microbes, and pollutants.

  14. Igneous rocks formed by hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Grieve, Richard A. F.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Neish, Catherine D.; Pilles, Eric A.; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2018-03-01

    Igneous rocks are the primary building blocks of planetary crusts. Most igneous rocks originate via decompression melting and/or wet melting of protolith lithologies within planetary interiors and their classification and compositional, petrographic, and textural characteristics, are well-studied. As our exploration of the Solar System continues, so too does the inventory of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, settings, and processes. The results of planetary exploration have also clearly demonstrated that impact cratering is a ubiquitous geological process that has affected, and will continue to affect, all planetary objects with a solid surface, whether that be rock or ice. It is now recognized that the production of igneous rocks is a fundamental outcome of hypervelocity impact. The goal of this review is to provide an up-to-date synthesis of our knowledge and understanding of igneous rocks formed by hypervelocity impact. Following a brief overview of the basics of the impact process, we describe how and why melts are generated during impact events and how impact melting differs from endogenic igneous processes. While the process may differ, we show that the products of hypervelocity impact can share close similarities with volcanic and shallow intrusive igneous rocks of endogenic origin. Such impact melt rocks, as they are termed, can display lobate margins and cooling cracks, columnar joints and at the hand specimen and microscopic scale, such rocks can display mineral textures that are typical of volcanic rocks, such as quench crystallites, ophitic, porphyritic, as well as features such as vesicles, flow textures, and so on. Historically, these similarities led to the misidentification of some igneous rocks now known to be impact melt rocks as being of endogenic origin. This raises the question as to how to distinguish between an impact versus an endogenic origin for igneous-like rocks on other planetary bodies where fieldwork and sample analysis may not

  15. 75 FR 70351 - Termination of Environmental Review Process Cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Termination of environmental... the Cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach, Virginia, is terminated. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  16. Durabilidade de peças cerâmicas vermelhas com adição de rejeito de rocha ornamental isenta de granalha Durability of red ceramic samples with addition of ornamental rock waste free of steel particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação da degradação acelerada em laboratório sofrida pelos corpos de prova de cerâmica vermelha com adição de rejeito de rocha ornamental isento de granalha, foi utilizado um equipamento que lixivia com água quente e fria em tempos controlados, e também, congela a amostra em até -4 ºC. Os corpos de prova cerâmicos foram confeccionados com até 10% em massa de rejeito de rocha ornamental a seco, e em seguida, umedecidos e moldados por extrusão. Os materiais produzidos foram calcinados nas temperaturas de 700 ºC, 800 ºC e 900 ºC. Após 1060 h de degradação acelerada em equipamento de laboratório, analisaram-se as propriedades cerâmicas do material. Os resultados das resistências mecânicas foram comparados através da distribuição de Weibull, antes e depois da degradação. Nota-se que o material com adição de 10% de rejeito de rocha ornamental na massa cerâmica é mais confiável quando queimada a 900 ºC após a degradação, quando comparados com as amostras sem adição de rejeito, proporcionando maior durabilidade.For the evaluation of the accelerated degradation in laboratory of red ceramic specimens with addition of ornamental rock waste free from steel particles, an equipment that leach with hot and cool water and time control, and also freezing the specimen at -4 ºC was used,. The ceramic samples were made with up to 10 wt.% of the dry ornamental rock waste, and after humidifying and molding by extrusion. The specimens were fired at 700 ºC, 800 ºC and 900 ºC. After 1060 h of accelerated degradation lab test, ceramic properties were evaluated. The results of the strength were compared for Weibull distribution, before and after degradation. The specimens with addition of 10 wt.% waste is more durable and reliable when fired to 900 ºC after the degradation.

  17. Laminae and grain-size measures in beach sediments, east coast beaches, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    in micro-layer structure of beach sediments at berm/backshore, foreshore and offshore regions. The sediments from the 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0-cm layers as well as from the full core show effects of mixing of the individual micro-layers. The degree...

  18. Field and Model Study to Define Baseline Conditions of Beached Oil Tar Balls along Florida’s First Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bacopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. Outcomes from the field study include an established methodology for field data collection and laboratory testing of beached oil tar balls, spatial maps of collected samples and analysis of the data as to transport/wash-up trends. Archives of the electronic data, including GPS locations and other informational tags, and collected samples are presented, as are the physical and chemical analyses of the collected samples. The thrust of the physical and chemical analyses is to differentiate the collected samples into highly suspect oil tar balls versus false/non-oil tar ball samples. The numerical modeling involves two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of astronomic tides. Results from the numerical modeling include velocity residuals that show ebb-dominated residual currents exiting the inlet via an offshore, counter-rotating dual-eddy system. The tidally derived residual currents are used as one explanation for the observed transport trends. The study concludes that the port activity in the St. Johns River is not majorly contributing to the baseline conditions of oil tar ball wash-up on Florida’s First Coast beaches.

  19. A comparison of fossilized dinosaur bone and the surrounding rock using PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, D.W.; Rees, L.B.; Mangelson, N.F.; Hill, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Six samples of fossilized dinosaur bone and surrounding rock were analyzed by PIXE to investigate general relations between the bone and rock. The powdered samples were brought into an acid solution by a lithium metaborate fusion process. The data were analyzed with chemometric methods to successfully differentiate the bone samples from the complementary rock samples. The Sr/Ca ratio is consistently higher in fossilized bone than the surrounding rock. Ba, Y and U, when found in the rock, appear in significantly higher concentrations in the bone. S and Ti, elements commonly found in rock samples, are not found in the bone samples. (author)

  20. Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-23

    of the open questions which exist for scattering from these types of surfaces and include increasing our basic understanding of: (1) geoacoustic...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Office of Naval Research 875 North Randolph Street ...ideal mean seafloor could be mapped to the local SCATTERING FROM ROCKS 5 Figure 4. (color online) SAS images of the calibration rock outcrop. Boxes

  1. Pengaruh Ketidakamanan Kerja dan Kompensasi terhadap Kepuasan Kerja dan Turnover Intention Karyawan Besakih Beach Hotel Denpasar

    OpenAIRE

    Widyasari, Ni Made; Dewi, I Gusti Ayu Manuati; Subudi, Made

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of job insecurity on turnover intention, the effect of compensation on turnover intention, job insecurity influence of job insecurity on job satisfaction, job satisfaction influence on turnover intention, and the influence of compensation on job satisfaction. Samples are taken by 89 employees in Besakih Beach Hotel. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires and using path analysis. The results of this study showed that job insecuri...

  2. Antimicrobial resistance and species composition of Enterococcus spp. isolated from waters and sands of marine recreational beaches in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso; Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe

    2008-04-01

    Density, species composition and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of the Enterococcus genus were evaluated in seawater and sands from 2 marine recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. The 2 beaches showed predominance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, in the water and the sand. Dry sand presented higher densities of Enterococcus sp. and higher frequency of resistant strains than wet sand and seawater. The beach with a higher degree of pollution presented higher percentages of resistant strains (66.7% and 61.5%, in sand and in water, respectively) and resistance to a larger number of antimicrobials compared with the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat (35.7% and 31.25% of resistant strains in sand and water, respectively). In water samples, the highest frequencies of resistance were obtained against streptomycin (38.5%) and erythromycin (25%), whilst in sand, the highest frequencies were observed in relation to erythromycin and tetracycline (38.1% and 14.3%, respectively). These results show that water and sands from beaches with high indexes of faecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens and contribute to the dissemination of bacterial resistance.

  3. PAH concentrations in Coquina (Donax spp.) on a sandy beach shoreline impacted by a marine oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Richard A; Vestal, Alexandra; Welch, Christina; Barnes, Gracie; Pelot, Robert; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick

    2014-06-15

    The BP MC252 well failure in the Gulf of Mexico, April 2010 caused concern for crude oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) exposure along the sandy beaches of the Florida Panhandle. We began collections of Coquina clams (Donax spp.) from the surf zone of Florida Panhandle beaches to monitor PAH contamination to compliment analysis of surf zone sand samples. These clams had higher levels of PAHs relative to ambient sand, and this allowed us to continue to monitor PAH levels after sand concentrations fell below limits of detection. PAH levels in the Coquina tissues were highly variable, perhaps indicative of the heterogeneous distribution of oil and tar on the beaches and exposure to tar particles. Overall, PAH levels decreased continuously in both sand and Coquina tissues, reaching limits of detection within one and two years respectively after oil landed on Florida Panhandle beaches. Our work suggests these surf zone molluscs may be used to monitor pollutant exposure along high energy sandy beach shorelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  5. Adiposity and response to an obesity prevention intervention in Pakistani and Bangladeshi primary school boys and girls: a secondary analysis using the BEACHeS feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezard, Geneviève; Bansal, Narinder; Bhopal, Raj; Pallan, Miranda; Gill, Paramjit; Barrett, Timothy; Adab, Peymane

    2016-02-09

    As a secondary analysis of the BEACHeS study, we hypothesised there would be sex differences in Pakistani and Bangladeshi school children when examining adiposity and their response to an obesity intervention. The Birmingham healthy Eating and Active lifestyle for CHildren Study (BEACHeS) was designed as a Phase II feasibility study of a complex intervention. 8 primary schools with predominantly South Asian children in Birmingham, UK PARTICIPANTS: 1090 pupils (aged 5-7 years old) from school year 1 and 2 were allocated at school level to receive an intervention. A total of 574 were enrolled in the study with consent. We focused on the 466 children of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin (50.6% boys). Delivered between 2007 and 2009, the 1-year obesity prevention intervention targeted school and family-based dietary and physical activities. Adiposity measures including skinfold thickness were compared by sex at baseline and follow-up. Gains in adiposity measures were compared between control and intervention arms in boys and in girls. Measures were compared using two-sample t tests and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum tests according to normality distribution. At baseline, girls had larger skinfold measures at all sites compared to boys although body mass index (BMI) was similar (eg, median subscapular skinfold 6.6 mm vs 5.7 mm; pintervention group gained less weight and adiposity compared to respective controls (pintervention group. Our secondary analysis suggests differences in adiposity in Pakistani and Bangladeshi girls and boys and in the effect of the intervention reducing adiposity in girls. These preliminary findings indicate that including sex differences should be examined in future trials. ISRCTN51016370; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation…

  7. Breaking waves on a dynamic Hele-Shaw beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; van der Horn, Bram; van der Horn, Avraham/Bram; van der Meer, Roger M.; Zweers, Wout; Thornton, Anthony Richard

    We report the formation of quasi-steady beaches and dunes via breaking waves in our tabletop ‘Hele-Shaw’ beach experiment. Breaking waves are generated by a wave maker, and zeolite particles act as sand. The tank is narrow, just over one-particle diameter wide, creating a quasi-2D set-up. Classical

  8. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point...

  9. Automated mapping of the intertidal beach from video images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uunk, L.; Uunk, L.; Wijnberg, Kathelijne Mariken; Morelissen, R.; Morelissen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fully automated procedure to derive the intertidal beach bathymetry on a daily basis from video images of low-sloping beaches that are characterised by the intermittent emergence of intertidal bars. Bathymetry data are obtained by automated and repeated mapping of shorelines

  10. Sand transport in urbanized beaches - models and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineiro, G.; Norbis, W.; Panario, D.

    2012-01-01

    The general objective is to quantify the wind transport of sand in the urbanized beaches. The specific objectives include testing and calibration of the wind velocity as well as the classification of the beaches according to the magnitude and the direction of sand transport

  11. Dynamics of the Pebble Beach in the Protected Water Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay K. Makarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of the dynamics of the pebble beach in the area of artificial cape, performed in programs designed with the participation of the author, and included a calculation of the diffraction, refraction, transformation, and waves breaking, sediment transport and dynamics of the beach. By results of modeling the optimum configuration of protective constructions is offered.

  12. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from ...

  13. Influence of Tourist Pressure on Beach Litter and Microbial Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims at determining how the degree of human pressure at the La and Korle Beach resorts in Accra, Ghana, which serve different social communities, contributes to beach degradation. A weekly collection of fresh ... The implications for leisure activity like swimming at both sites has minimal health risks since the ...

  14. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  15. Observations of shoreline-sandbar coupling on an embayed beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W.I.; Bryan, K.R.; Coco, G.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a seven-year dataset (1999–2005) of shoreline and sandbar variations derived from video observations at the embayed Tairua Beach, New Zealand, to explore sandbar–shoreline coupling and to determine how this coupling is related to alongshore-averaged sandbar–shoreline separation and beach

  16. Modelling wind forced bedforms on a sandy beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to conceptually simulate observed spatial and temporal variability in aeolian sediment transport rates, erosion and deposition on a beach. Traditional strategies of modeling aeolian sediment transport rates do not account for supply limitations that are common on natural beaches. A

  17. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind ... temporal variation of the foreshore environment. Many researchers ... Keywords. Sediment transport; placer deposits; heavy minerals; beach profile; morphodynamic state; India. J. Earth Syst.

  18. Revisiting Hele-Shaw dynamics to better understand beach evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; van der Horn, Avraham/Bram; van der Horn, A.J.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Gagarina, Elena; Zweers, W.; Thornton, Anthony Richard

    Wave action, particularly during storms, drives the evo lution of beaches. Beach evolution by non-linear break ing waves is poorly understood due to its three-dimensional character, the range of scales involved, and our limited understanding of particle-wave interactions. We show how a novel,

  19. Characteristics of drift pumice from New Caledonia beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Kirsten Ngaire; Stewart, Ariel

    2016-12-01

    Siliceous drift pumice was collected from a total of 40 beaches around the main island of New Caledonia, Southwest Pacific, in order to determine its provenance. New Caledonia is enclosed by a barrier reef lagoon whose 2008 designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site brought attention to the environmental degradation caused by a century of open cast nickel mining. The frequent, voluminous pumice eruptions in the Southwest Pacific provide ample source material that is somewhat durable, highly transportable in water, and easy to collect and analyze. Geochemical and mineralogical analyses were used to identify the source of the pumice in order to map the transport vector across the open ocean and into the lagoon. Drift pumice was sampled during 2008 and 2010. The mineral assemblage of the pumice was consistently calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and opaque minerals. All of the pumice was of fairly uniform geochemistry: low in mafic elements, low in alkalis, with LILE enriched compared to HFSE, and negative Eu, Ti, and Zr anomalies. The pumice is predominately dacitic and tholeiitic. This geochemical signature was consistent with published data from the Tonga arc, which is further supported by the mineralogy. With the exception of two samples (which probably came from either the Kermadec arc or Vanuatu) all of the pumice comes from the Tonga arc. The samples from 2008 are consistent with pumice erupted from Metis Shoal in 2006, and the majority of 2010 samples are consistent with pumice erupted from an unnamed volcano (0403-091) that erupted in 2001.

  20. Some rock mass assessment procedures for discontinuous crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boodt, P.I.; Brown, E.T.

    1985-03-01

    Underground radioactive waste repositories place especially stringent demands on rock mass assessment and excavation design methodologies. As part of the Building Research Establishment's programme of research into geotechnical site assessment methodology, experiments were undertaken at an underground test site in granite at Troon, Cornwall, and in the Imperial College Laboratories. The results of discontinuity surveys showed that the borehole impression packer probe technique can provide an important source of information for radioactive waste repository site assessment. Similarly, borehole pressure tests can provide valuable data on discontinuity apertures and hydraulic conductivities and on rock mass permeabilities. A versatile, modular borehole pressure test system for use from restricted underground locations was developed and used successfully. Field tests gave values of equivalent parallel plate apertures and discontinuity hydraulic conductivities in similar ranges to those measured in laboratory tests on samples recovered from the site. Discontinuity normal stiffnesses were also measured successfully using the Terra Tek Geothermal Rock Mechanics Test System which proved itself capable of providing laboratory test data required to support geotechnical site assessment procedures for radioactive waste repositories in discontinuous rock. (author)

  1. COMPARISON OF ENTEROCOCCUS MEASUREMENTS IN FRESHWATER AT TWO RECREATIONAL BEACHES BY QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND MEMBRANE FILER CULTURE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell densities of the fecal pollution indicator genus, Enterococcus, were determined by a rapid (2-3 hr) quantitative PCR (QPCR) analysis based method in 100 ml water samples collected from recreational beaches on Lake Michigan and Lake Erie during the summer of 2003. Enumeration...

  2. Spatial variation of the intertidal sediments and macrozoo-benthic assemblages along Eighty-mile Beach, North-western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honkoop, Pieter J. C.; Pearson, Grant B.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Piersma, Theunis

    The extensive intertidal flats along Eighty-mile Beach in North-western Australia appear to be monotonous and homogeneous and seem ideally suited to study tidal zonation in macrozoo-benthic communities and their possible correlates with characteristics of the sediment. In October 1999, we sampled

  3. Monmouth Beach, New Jersey: Beach-Fill "Hot Spot" Erosion Evaluation. Report 2. Functional Design of Shore-Protection Alternatives for Beach-Fill Longevity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, S

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Army Engineer District, New York, is constructing Section I-Sea Bright to Ocean Township, New Jersey, of the Atlantic Coast of New Jersey - Sandy Hook to Barnegat Inlet Beach Erosion Control Project...

  4. Gleaning and Dreaming on Car Park Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Croft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores beachcombing and gleaning as practices that combine mobility with daydreaming and which allow us to experience our environment with the perception of ‘tactile nearness’ (Benjamin. Through eco-poetics shaped by ‘inconceivable analogies and connections’ (Benjamin, the author re-imagines a neglected space used as a short-cut on the way to work—the Liverpool Adelphi car park in Liverpool—as “Car Park Beach”. Inspired by the situationists’ slogan ‘Sous les pavés, la plage’, the author argues that Car Park Beach opens up imaginative possibilities for a different form of ecological encounter with our own precarity, one ushered in by a ‘close-up’ awareness of how waste transforms our world. Car Park Beach is a site that the author associates with the drift-like, distracted movements of both people and matter, and this article therefore attempts to deploy an equivalent method of analysis. Drawing on her own practice of gleaning photos and objects on the way to work, the author places a vocabulary of flotsam and jetsam at the axis of her discussion. Allusive, often layered, connections are followed between a diverse range of sources including beachcombing guides, literary memoirs, documentary films, eco-criticism, and auto-ethnography.

  5. Application of GIS in Beach Placer Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in beach placer exploration combines the activities of data collection, organisation, visualisation, query, analysis and prediction. GIS has the potential to enhance the capability for creative data analysis, modelling and interpretation. Exploration software and GIS are essential tools for geoscientists searching for mineral deposits. GIS technology has come a long way in the past fifteen years, especially in data handling, analysis, visualization etc. Modern technology and solutions are now evolving to allow geoscientists to share data easily between mapping platforms and enterprise level GIS environments. In beach placer exploration programme, data handling and processing are the main challenging tasks due to generation and processing of large volume of field and laboratory data of the areas under investigation. Though there are limitations in visualising map data as a single map on a screen, due to its non-proportionate lengths and widths, a GIS can very well handle all these varied datasets to demarcate highly potential zones within a narrow coastal strip. Generally these datasets contain information from thousands of drillholes about their location co-ordinates, depth, height, description and thickness of lithounits, water table level, radioactivity and other pertinent subsurface properties. Field data collection can be efficiently done using a hand held global positioning system (GPS) installed with mobile-GIS application and data handling software

  6. Beach safety education for primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Jeff; Kanasa, Harry; Pendergast, Donna; Clark, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Childhood drowning remains a serious public health problem worldwide. The Australian Water Safety Council has set as one of its highest priorities the reduction of drowning deaths in children aged 0-14 years. However, concerns have recently been raised that many students completing primary school still lack the ability to recognize potential aquatic risks, cope with emergencies or assist someone else in danger. In this study, 107 primary school children aged 11-12 completed a one day training programme led by surf lifesaving instructors. Pre, post and eight week follow-up measures showed statistically significant improvements in recognition of the red 'beach closed' flag, aquatic safety signs, how to identify a rip current and choosing the safest place to swim at a beach that included a rip current in the picture. Following training students were more willing to provide first aid assistance to family members and friends in an emergency situation. Findings reinforce the value of school-based training that provides a general foundation for aquatic safety, with the caveat that current programmes must be evaluated to ensure their content has a robust prevention focus.

  7. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background... letter from R. W. Borchardt (NRC) to M. S. Fertel (Nuclear Energy Institute) dated June 4, 2009. The...

  8. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear...

  9. Marine debris in central California: quantifying type and abundance of beach litter in Monterey Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevelt, C; Los Huertos, M; Garza, C; Nevins, H M

    2013-06-15

    Monitoring beach litter is essential for reducing ecological threats towards humans and wildlife. In Monterey Bay, CA information on seasonal and spatial patterns is understudied. Central California's coastal managers require reliable information on debris abundance, distribution, and type, to support policy aimed at reducing litter. We developed a survey method that allowed for trained citizen scientists to quantify the types and abundance of beach litter. Sampling occurred from July 2009-June 2010. Litter abundance ranged from 0.03 to 17.1 items m(-2). Using a mixed model approach, we found season and location have the greatest effect on litter abundance. Styrofoam, the most numerically abundant item, made up 41% of the total amount of litter. Unexpected items included fertilizer pellets. The results of this study provide a baseline on the types and abundance of litter on the central coast and have directly supported policy banning Styrofoam take out containers from local municipalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sources of plastic marine debris on beaches of Korea: More from the ocean than the land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jong Su; Shim, Won Joon; Song, Young Kyoung

    2014-06-01

    Reduction of marine debris requires knowledge of its sources. Sources of plastic marine debris found on six beaches of Korea were estimated. Samples larger than 25 mm were collected from 10 quadrats of 5 × 5 m for each beach in spring 2013. The total 752 items (12,255 g) of debris comprised fiber and fabric (415 items, 6,909 g), hard plastic (120 items, 4,316 g), styrofoam (93 items, 306 g), film (83 items, 464 g), foamed plastic other than styrofoam (21 items, 56 g), and other polymer (20 items, 204 g). With the probable sources allocated to each of 55 debris types, the source of 56% of all the collected debris appeared to be oceanbased and 44% was land-based. Priorities of policy measures to reduce marine debris should be different from regions to regions as the main sources of debris may differ.

  11. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  12. Avaliação da qualidade ambiental das praias da ilha de Itaparica, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia / Environmental quality of the beaches of the island of Itaparica, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Lopes de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental quality of a beach represents one of the main factors for its attractiveness for recreational purposes. The present study had the main objective of evaluating the environmental quality of some of the most frequented beaches in the island of Itaparica, based on analyses of their balneability, sand quality and occurrence of marine litter. The Thermotolerant and Total Coliforms analyses during both periods characterized the beaches of Ponta de Itaparica, Ponta de Areia, Mar Grande andConceiçãoas adequate for primary contact recreation, while the Barra Grande beach was only considered adequate during the low season. When considering the analysis of these parameters for the sand, all beaches during the high season were adequate for primary contact activities, however, during the low season, only Barra Grande beach obtained a satisfactory result. A large amount of litter was found in the beaches sampled, particularly during the high season. Among the residues, plastic items predominated. The results indicate that the deficiency in the environmental sanitation infrastructure and disorderly use of the coast are the main responsible factors for the compromised environmental quality of the beaches of the island of Itaparica.

  13. Comparisons of microplastic pollution between mudflats and sandy beaches in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Shing; Xu, Xiaoyu; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Cheung, Siu-Gin

    2018-05-01

    Most of the previous studies of microplastic pollution on coastal habitats focused on high energy beaches although low energy areas such as mudflats are supposed to retain more microplastics, not to mention that mudflats are biologically more diverse. We quantified and characterized microplastics from 10 mudflats and 10 sandy beaches in Hong Kong spanning from the eastern to western waters. Sediment samples were collected at 1.0 m and 1.5 m above chart datum (CD) and at the strandline. Abundance of microplastics ranged between 0.58 and 2116 items kg -1 sediment with that on mudflats being ten times more than on beaches. Polyethylene (46.9%) was the most abundant and followed by polypropylene (13.8%) and polyethylene terephthalate (13.5%). Expanded polystyrene was the most abundant in the strandline samples but not at 1.0 m and 1.5 m above CD. Although previous studies have concluded that the input from Pearl River is a major source of microplastics on Hong Kong shores, this study has demonstrated that the contribution of local pollution sources such as discharge from sewage treatment plants to microplastic pollution should not be neglected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Ortega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16±55.35ind./m² belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae, Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not

  15. Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ileana; Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly J

    2014-06-01

    The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16 +/- 55.35 ind./m2) belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae), Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not usually a

  16. Persistence and microbial source tracking of Escherichia coli at a swimming beach at Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) has closed or posted advisories at public beaches at Lake of the Ozarks State Park in Missouri because of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceedances in recent years. Spatial and temporal patterns of E. coliconcentrations, microbial source tracking, novel sampling techniques, and beach-use patterns were studied during the 2012 recreational season to identify possible sources, origins, and occurrence of E. coli contamination at Grand Glaize Beach (GGB). Results indicate an important source of E. coli contamination at GGB was E. coli released into the water column by bathers resuspending avian-contaminated sediments, especially during high-use days early in the recreational season. Escherichia coli concentrations in water, sediment, and resuspended sediment samples all decreased throughout the recreational season likely because of decreasing lake levels resulting in sampling locations receding away from the initial spring shoreline as well as natural decay and physical transport out of the cove. Weekly MDNR beach monitoring, based solely on E. coli concentrations, at GGB during this study inaccurately predicted E. coli exceedances, especially on weekends and holidays. Interestingly, E. coli of human origin were measured at concentrations indicative of raw sewage in runoff from an excavation of a nearby abandoned septic tank that had not been used for nearly two years.

  17. Laboratory measurements of rock thermal properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Balling, N.; Nielsen, S.B.

    The thermal properties of rocks are key elements in understanding and modelling the temperature field of the subsurface. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity can be measured in the laboratory if rock samples can be provided. We have introduced improvements to the divided bar and needle...... probe methods to be able to measure both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The improvements we implement include, for both methods, a combination of fast numerical finite element forward modelling and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion scheme for estimating rock thermal parameters...

  18. 75 FR 79293 - Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach... removes Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach Municipal Airport, Vero Beach, FL. The Vero Beach Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new...

  19. 77 FR 5184 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ..., Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations... Wrightsville Beach, NC. This deviation is necessary to accommodate the Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and Half Marathon committee...

  20. 78 FR 669 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ..., Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations... Wrightsville Beach, NC. This deviation is necessary to accommodate the 2013 Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and Half Marathon...

  1. 76 FR 1359 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ..., Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Temporary Deviation from regulations... Wrightsville Beach, NC. The deviation is necessary because participants in the 2011 Wrightsville Beach... remain in the closed position for two hours to accommodate the 2011 Wrightsville Beach/Quintiles Marathon...

  2. Governance in a beach seine fishery : a case study from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medard, M.; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Hebinck, P.; Geheb, K.

    2016-01-01

    Beach seine gear is one of the prominent fishing gears in Nile Perch fishery. Before Nile Perch was introduced to the lake, beach seines the species targeted with beach seine were Tilapia, Bagrus, Haplochromis, Protopterus and Labeo. In 1994, beach seines were banned in Tanzania and by 2004, this

  3. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013...

  4. Estimating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance from beach seine data collected in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Hendrix, A. Noble

    2016-06-17

    Resource managers rely on abundance or density metrics derived from beach seine surveys to make vital decisions that affect fish population dynamics and assemblage structure. However, abundance and density metrics may be biased by imperfect capture and lack of geographic closure during sampling. Currently, there is considerable uncertainty about the capture efficiency of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by beach seines. Heterogeneity in capture can occur through unrealistic assumptions of closure and from variation in the probability of capture caused by environmental conditions. We evaluated the assumptions of closure and the influence of environmental conditions on capture efficiency and abundance estimates of Chinook salmon from beach seining within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay. Beach seine capture efficiency was measured using a stratified random sampling design combined with open and closed replicate depletion sampling. A total of 56 samples were collected during the spring of 2014. To assess variability in capture probability and the absolute abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon, beach seine capture efficiency data were fitted to the paired depletion design using modified N-mixture models. These models allowed us to explicitly test the closure assumption and estimate environmental effects on the probability of capture. We determined that our updated method allowing for lack of closure between depletion samples drastically outperformed traditional data analysis that assumes closure among replicate samples. The best-fit model (lowest-valued Akaike Information Criterion model) included the probability of fish being available for capture (relaxed closure assumption), capture probability modeled as a function of water velocity and percent coverage of fine sediment, and abundance modeled as a function of sample area, temperature, and water velocity. Given that beach seining is a ubiquitous sampling technique for

  5. Macroinfauna and sediment data from swash zones of sandy beaches along the SE Gulf of Mexico and SE Florida coast, 2010-2011 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (NODC Accession 0083190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling for macroinfauna from swash zones of beaches along the SE Gulf of Mexico and SE coast of Florida was conducted from May 2010- July 2011. At each site,...

  6. Synthesis study of an erosion hot spot, Ocean Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7 years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.

  7. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms-The role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladenburg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular.

  8. Carbonate cements in contemporaneous beachrocks, Jaguaribe beach, Itamaracá island, northeastern Brazil: petrographic, geochemical and isotopic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Núbia C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Holocene beachrocks of the Jaguaribe beach, State of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, consist of horizontal, cemented layers approximately 40 cm thick. The cement shows three textural varieties: (a calciferous, surrounding siliciclastic grains, (b micritic, with an acicular fringe; and (c cryptocrystalline calcite in pores. Early cementation took place at the water table below beach ridges, where geochemical, hydrodynamic and, perhaps, also microbiological conditions favored rapid precipitation of aragonite and/or high-Mg calcite. delta13C values range from -1.8 to +1.5? for dissolved carbonate in interstitial water and from +0.2 to +2.1? for bioclastic components. delta18O values range from -2.8 to +0.5? for seawater, freshwater and interstitial water. delta13C values and diagenetic features suggest that cementation occurred in meteoric-vadose and/or marine-phreatic water by loss of CO2 during evaporation of the interstitial water. Locally, superimposed low-Mg calcite cements point to subsequent freshwater influence. Total-rock cement composition of vertically stacked beachrock beds at the Jaguaribe beach shows that the highest beachrock bed is older than the one (of same petrographic composition situated at the current groundwater level. This implies a downward progression of cementation, which probably followed the sea-level fall after a local high stand.

  9. Applications of Dredging and Beach Fills in GenCade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the nourished beach and the natural beach berm height are identical. GenCade requires the modeler to input a beach fill as an added berm width...step in the simulation. A graphic of the volume of each shoal through time can be viewed by going to Display->Plot Wizard and selecting GenCade Inlet...Station. Kraus, N. C. 2002. Reservoir model for calculating natural sand bypassing and change in volume of ebb-tidal shoals, part I: Description. ERDC

  10. Cranial nerves neuropraxia after shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, A; Boyer, P; Soubeyrand, M; Hamida, F Ben; Vannier, J-L; Massin, P

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of neuropraxia of the 9th, 10th and 12th cranial nerve pairs after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the beach chair position. The elements in the medical file seem to exclude an intracranial cause of the lesions and support a mechanical, extracranial cause due to intubation and/or the beach chair position. This clinical case report shows the neurological risks of the beach chair position during arthroscopic shoulder surgery and presents the essential safety measures to prevent these risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of abrasion surfaces in rock shore environments of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feal-Pérez, Alejandra; Blanco-Chao, Ramón

    2013-04-01

    Despite the recent upsurge in rock coast research, many aspects of abrasion and their relationships to other processes remain poorly understood. In this paper, mechanisms subsumed under the general term abrasion were investigated at the beaches of Oia and Sartaña along the Galician coast of NW Spain, in particular at the micro- to meso-scale (mm-cm). Relationships between abrasion and mechanical rock strength served to explore feedbacks between weathering and abrasion on rock coasts, based on measurements of rock surface strength by means of the Equotip (Proceq) method, and stereomicroscope analyses of rock surfaces undergoing varying degrees of abrasion. The results suggest that (1) abrasion along near-vertical rock surfaces leads to a decrease in rock strength with elevation above the top of the basal sediment layer, (2) abrasion processes encompass two different modes, namely, the wave-induced sweeping and dragging of sand and gravel, and the projection of clasts against rock surfaces, each mode depending predominantly on the grain size of the abrasive agent, and (3) the two abrasion modes produce different rock surfaces whose roughness is strongly influenced by the properties of diverse minerals, in particular fracture and cleavage.

  12. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  13. Morphological changes, beach inundation and overwash caused by an extreme storm on a low-lying embayed beach bounded by a dune system (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Ruth; Guillén, Jorge; Ruiz, Antonio; Jiménez, José A.; Sagristà, Enric

    2016-12-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a low-lying, micro-tidal sandy beach in the western Mediterranean, Pals beach, was characterized using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Data were collected in prior to and six months after the impact of an extreme storm with a return period of approx. 50 years, with the aim of characterizing the beach's response to the storm. The use of repeated high-resolution topographic data to quantify beach geomorphic changes has allowed assessment of the accuracy of different proxies for estimating beach volume changes. Results revealed that changes in the shoreline position cannot accurately reproduce beach volume changes on low-lying beaches where overwash processes are significant. Observations also suggested that volume estimations from beach profiles do not accurately represent subaerial volume changes at large profile distances on beaches with significant alongshore geomorphological variability. Accordingly, the segmentation of the beach into regularly spaced bins is proposed to assess alongshore variations in the beach volume with the accuracy of the topographic data. The morphological evolution of Pals beach during the study period showed a net shoreline retreat (- 4 m) and a significant sediment gain on the subaerial beach (+ 7.5 m3/m). The net gain of sediment is mostly due to the impact of the extreme storm, driving significant overwash processes that transport sediment landwards, increasing volume on the backshore and dunes. The increase of volume on the foreshore and the presence of cuspate morphologies along the shoreline also evidence post-storm beach recovery. Observed morphological changes exhibit a high variability along the beach related to variations in beach morphology. Changes in the morphology and migration of megacusps result in a high variability in the shoreline position and foreshore volume changes. On the other hand, larger morphological changes on the backshore and larger inundation distances

  14. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  15. Estimation of potentially contaminated sediment volume in cases of oil spill in a summer conditions to sandy beaches of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Estimativa do volume sedimentar potencialmente contaminado em casos de derrame de oleo em condicoes de verao para praias arenosas do Rio Grande do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costi, Juliana; Calliari, Lauro J. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Field experiments relating oil of two different densities with sediment penetration along ocean beaches with distinct morphodynamic behavior along the RS coastline indicates that, for both types of oil, higher penetration is associated to beaches which display higher mean grain size. Based on penetration depth it is possible to estimate the volume of contaminated sediments due to oil spills that eventually can reach the coast. Sediment cores sampled at 80 days interval at two different places characterized by a dissipative and a intermediate beaches indicate a higher variation of the sediment parameters and volume associated to the intermediate beach. (author)

  16. Human and bovine viruses and bacteria at three Great Lakes beaches: Environmental variable associations and health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Lutz, Michelle A.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Busse, Kimberly M.; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65–87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13–35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 3 × 10–5, 7 × 10–9, and 3 × 10–7 for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  17. Human and Bovine Viruses and Bacteria at Three Great Lakes Beaches: Environmental Variable Associations and Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Borchardt, Mark A; Carvin, Rebecca B; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K; Lutz, Michelle A; McDermott, Colleen M; Busse, Kimberly M; Kleinheinz, Gregory T; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-19

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65-87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13-35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 2 × 10(-5), 8 × 10(-6), and 3 × 10(-7) [corrected] for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  18. Observations sur les microfaciès des roches sédimentaires prélevées sur la marge armoricaine Observations on the Microfacies of Sedimentary Rock Samples from the Armorican Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastouret L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude des dragages de roches et de sédiments effectués sur la marge armoricaine entre 47 et 48, de latitude Nord permet d'en préciser l'évolution paléogéographique et tectonique et de l'intégrer à celle du golfe de Gascogne. L'analyse de mi crofaciès des échantillons rocheux dont l'âge varie du Jurassique supérieur au Néogène met en évidence - d'une part, l'appartenance de la bordure nord de la marge armoricaine au domaine mésogéen au moins jusqu'au Crétacé moyen; - d'autre part, la permanence d'un régime de plate-forme carbonatée qui paraît fonctionner du Tithonique au Tertiaire inférieur, sur laquelle ont pu s'installer des édifices récifaux notamment au Crétacé moyen. Pendant toute cette période la sédimentation a compensé la subsidence; - enfin, l'accentuation de la subsidence à partir de l'Éocène (accompagnée d'une diminution de la production de calcium $ qui est vraisemblablement en relation avec les phénomènes tectoniques majeurs qui ont affecté à ce moment la bordure sud de la plaque européenne. A study of rock samples and sedimenis obtained by dredging from the Armorican Margin (47 ta 48° N brings new data on the paleogeographic and tectonic evolution of this ares in relation ta the formation of the Bay of Biscay. Microfacies ranging from the Upper Jurassic ta the Neogene show - the Armorican Margin until al least the Middle Cretaceous belongs to the Mesogean realm ; - carbonate platform regime prevails from the Tithonian to the Lower Tertiory with reef building occurring in the Middle Cretaceous. During this whole period in the area under consideration, sedimentation accounts for or even exceeds subsidence ; - the subsidence rate increases (and/or carbonate production decreases toward the end of the Eocene, and this may be related ta first order tectonic events offecting the southern part of the European plate.

  19. Determination of levels of organochlorine pesticides in plastic resin pellets on selected beaches in the Greater Accra region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoatey, A. E.

    2012-07-01

    The levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in beached plastic resin pellets were determined with the objective of assessing the status of OCP pollution in the marine ecosystem in selected beaches in Ghana. Samples of plastic resin pellets were collected at seven beaches in Accra (namely Art centre, Sakumono, Osu castle, Labadi, Korle-Gonno, Independence Square and Tema Mighty beaches) and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, total chlorine and extractable chlorine. The plastic pellets were subjected to Soxhlet extraction and the extracts analyzed using Gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. The detected compounds were alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, hexachlorobenzene, o, p' -DDE, p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o, p'-DDT, heptachlor, trans-heptachlor epoxy, trans-chlordane, trans-nanochlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, alpha-endosulphan, beta-endosulphan, endosulphan sulphate and methoxychlor. Analysis of the virgin pellets recorded no organochlorine pesticides present. However, plastics pellets collected from all seven beaches were found to contain OCPs with the highest recorded on the Art Centre beach with a total concentration of 106.26 ng/g. Plastic pellets collected on the Labadi beach recorded the lowest OCPs with a concentration of 20.2 ng/g. Total chlorine and extractable organochlorine (EOCI) were also determined in the plastic resin pellets by using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The concentrations of total chlorine analyzed by INAA were between 2.82 and 50.25 mg/kg whereas the EOCR concentrations ranged from 1.67 to 30.90 mg/kg. EOCR accounted for 48.05% of the total chlorine in plastic pellets, suggesting that chlorine in the beached pellet relatively existed as organic and are extractable. The relative proportion of known or identified organochlorines (such as HCHs, DDT s, chlordane compounds, endosulphans, HCB and methoxychlor) to the total extractable organochlorine(EOCI) was averagely 7.4% which suggested

  20. Four-season variation of 2014 year in the surface sediments of the Gochang beach, southwestern coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kang, Sol-Ip

    2015-04-01

    The marco-tide, open-coast Gochang beach, located on the southwestern coast of Korea, was studied in terms of four season variations in surface sediment and sedimentary environment. During the four seasons of winter (February), spring (May), summer (August), and fall (November) in 2014 year, surface sediments of total 252 sites were sampled across three survey lines, consisting of 21 sites at 30 m intervals in each transverse line to the coast, respectively. The Gochang beach comprises the Dongho, Kwangseungri, and Myeongsasipri beaches from north to south. The pocket-type Dongho beach is mainly composed of very fine sands to very coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. The average of grain size is the coarsest in the winter. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel trend of fine and medium sands during the four seasons. During the winter, the upper tidal flat was dominated by medium sand, while the lower tidal flat was dominated by find sand. The surface sediments of the Kwangseungri beach are mainly composed of fine-grained sands, and the mean grain size is the coarsest in winter. Grain-size distribution shows a uni-mode pattern in the four seasons. Mud facies partly exist in spring and summer seasons, whereas it is rarely shown in autumn and winter. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel trend of fine to coarse sand during the four seasons. The Myeongsasipri beach is mainly composed of very fine sands to very coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. Grain-size distribution shows a weak bi-modal trend in the autumn and a uni-mode pattern in the spring, summer and winter. The mean grain size of the winter is the coarsest among those of four seasons. The spatial distribution of four seasons also shows a coast-parallel trend. During the four seasons of 2014 year in the Gochang beach, overall distribution of the grain sizes represents a fining trend from upper to lower tidal

  1. Urban Estuarine Beaches and Urban Water Cycle Seepage: The Influence of Temporal Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgia Costa-Dias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperate estuarine beaches are an asset to coastal cities. Being located within the transition zone where the river meets the sea can provide several environmental benefits such as warm water temperature during the summer, flat waters, protection from coastal upwelling-induced morning fog, as well as additional recreational and cultural values. In this study we address a major question—can the urban water cycle impair the water quality dynamics during a bathing season in a temperate Atlantic estuary (Douro, Northwest Portugal? Water quality was assessed according to the EU legal criteria at different time scales. No daily, weekly, or monthly patterns for microbiological descriptors were found, which rather followed the hourly tidal dynamics. Quality decreased during high tide, affecting potentially 800+ beach-users during mid-summer weekends (4 m2 per person. Low water quality was transported upstream from highly populated urban areas. Therefore, the understanding of the dynamics of estuarine systems is essential to adapt the standard official approach, and the obtained results can be used to draw policy recommendations to improve the sampling strategy, aiming for more accurate assessment of the water quality to reduce the risk hazard of estuarine beaches.

  2. Persistent organic pollutants in plastic marine debris found on beaches in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Almira; Rochman, Chelsea M; Flores, Elisa M; Hill, Kish L; Vargas, Erica; Vargas, Serena A; Hoh, Euhna

    2012-01-01

    Plastic debris were collected from eight beaches around San Diego County, California. Debris collected include: pre-production pellets and post-consumer plastics including fragments, polystyrene (PS) foam, and rubber. A total of n = 2453 pieces were collected ranging from plastic pieces were separated by type, location, and appearance and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its breakdown products, and chlordanes. PAH concentrations ranged from 30 ng g(-1) to 1900 ng g(-1), PCBs from non-detect to 47 ng g(-1), chlordanes from 1.8 ng g(-1) to 60 ng g(-1), and DDTs from non-detect to 76 ng g(-1). Consistently higher PAH concentrations found in PS foam samples (300-1900 ng g(-1)) led us to examine unexposed PS foam packaging materials and PS virgin pellets. Unexposed PS foam contained higher concentrations of PAHs (240-1700 ng g(-1)) than PS virgin pellets (12-15 ng g(-1)), suggesting that PAHs may be produced during manufacturing. Temporal trends of debris were investigated at one site, Ocean Beach, where storm events and beach maintenance were found to be important variables influencing debris present at a given time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity and Abundance of Chlorophyta in Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, A. C.; Nugroho, I. C.; Firdaus, N. U. N.; Puspita, N. O. J.; Fajrin, S. A. R.; Hamzah, S. D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Chlorophyta plays an important role in energy flow as the main producer in marine food chain, material circulation, bioaccumulation, and bio-indicator in the intertidal zone. Several genera of Chlorophyta have been used by local society around coastal area of Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta as local product, but the research about diversity and abundance information of Chlorophyta in Krakal beach was not yet understood. The aim of this study is to gain the information about diversity and abundancy of Chlorophyta in Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul,Yogyakarta. This research was conducted in March 11th 2017. This research utilizes Line Transect and Stratified Random Sampling method which is used 1x1 m plot. There are six genera of Chlorophyta have been identified in this research, such as Chaetomorpha sp.; Boergesenia sp; Ulva sp.; Cladophora sp.; Enteromorpha sp.; and Halicystis sp. From 6 genera of Chlorophyta, the highest genera coverage is Enteromorpha sp. (9.88%). This research is expected to record data of macroalgae abundance especially Chlorophyta, in Krakal Beach. By this research, monitoring of macroalgae could be done and supported by government and local people to maintain the sustainability of Chlorophyta.

  4. Water quality and antibiotic resistance at beaches of the Galápagos Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie eOverbey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and residential population growth are increasing on the Galápagos Islands, yet the effects of this growth on environmental quality are not well understood. The goal of this study was to characterize recreational water quality on one of the inhabited islands of the Galápagos (Isla San Cristóbal. Five beaches were sampled to allow a comparison between beaches with and without discharge of human sewage, and to help elucidate the effects of human activities in this unique environment. Enterococcus concentrations were quantified using IDEXX Enterolert® and antibiotic resistance testing was performed on Escherichia coli isolated by membrane filtration. All study beaches sometimes exceeded international guidelines for recreational water quality, and significantly higher Enterococcus concentrations were found near sites subjected to sewage discharge (p < 0.01. These sewage-impacted sites also had higher levels of antibiotic resistant E. coli, suggesting that human activities are increasing the levels of resistance that would occur naturally. Future studies should characterize the extent of this impact both spatially and temporally. The results of this study demonstrate that sewage can contribute antibiotic resistant bacteria to marine waters and suggest that human impacts in the Galápagos Islands extend to the environmental resistome. This impact is likely common in areas across the globe wherever tourists frequently carry and use antibiotics.

  5. Coastal debris analysis in beaches of Chonburi Province, eastern of Thailand as implications for coastal conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thushari, Gajahin Gamage Nadeeka; Chavanich, Suchana; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2017-03-15

    This study quantified coastal debris along 3 beaches (Angsila, Bangsaen, Samaesarn) in eastern coast of Thailand. Debris samples were collected from lower and upper strata of these beaches during wet and dry seasons. The results showed that Bangsaen had the highest average debris density (15.5m -2 ) followed by Samaesarn (8.10m -2 ), and Angsila (5.54m -2 ). Among the 12 debris categories, the most abundant debris type was plastics (>45% of the total debris) in all beach locations. Coastal debris distribution was related to economic activities in the vicinity. Fishery and shell-fish aquaculture activities were primary sources of debris in Angsila while tourism activities were main sources in Bangsaen and Samaesarn. Site-specific pollution control mechanisms (environmental awareness, reuse and recycling) are recommended to reduce public littering. Management actions in Angsila should focus on fishery and shell-fish culture practices, while Bangsaen and Samaesarn should be directed toward leisure activities promoting waste management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Occurrence of tar balls on the beaches of Fernando de Noronha Island, South Equatorial Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista Neto, José Antônio; da Costa Campos, Thomas Ferreira; de Andrade, Carala Danielle Perreira; Sichel, Susanna Eleonora; da Fonseca, Estefan Monteiro; Motoki, Akihisa

    2014-12-01

    This work reports on the widespread occurrence of tar balls on a pebble beach of Sueste Bay on Fernando de Noronha Island, a Brazilian national marine park and a preserve in the South Equatorial Atlantic. Environmental regulations preclude regular visitors to the Sueste Bay beach, and the bay is a pristine area without any possible or potential sources of petroleum in the coastal zone. In this work, these tar balls were observed for the first time as they occurred as envelopes around beach pebbles. They are black in color, very hard, have a shell and coral fragment armor, and range in average size from 2 to 6 cm. The shape of the majority of the tar balls is spherical, but some can also be flattened ellipsoids. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analyses of the collected samples revealed the characteristics of a strongly weathered material, where only the most persistent compounds were detected: chrysene, benzo(b,k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a,h)antracene and benzo(a)pyrene.

  7. Rock Physical Interpretation of the Relationship between Dynamic and Static Young's Moduli of Sedimentary Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.

    2017-12-01

    The static Young's modulus (deformability) of a rock is indispensable for designing and constructing tunnels, dams and underground caverns in civil engineering. Static Young's modulus which is an elastic modulus at large strain level is usually obtained with the laboratory tests of rock cores sampled in boreholes drilled in a rock mass. A deformability model of the entire rock mass is then built by extrapolating the measurements based on a rock mass classification obtained in geological site characterization. However, model-building using data obtained from a limited number of boreholes in the rock mass, especially a complex rock mass, may cause problems in the accuracy and reliability of the model. On the other hand, dynamic Young's modulus which is the modulus at small strain level can be obtained from seismic velocity. If dynamic Young's modulus can be rationally converted to static one, a seismic velocity model by the seismic method can be effectively used to build a deformability model of the rock mass. In this study, we have, therefore, developed a rock physics model (Mavko et al., 2009) to estimate static Young's modulus from dynamic one for sedimentary rocks. The rock physics model has been generally applied to seismic properties at small strain level. In the proposed model, however, the sandy shale model, one of rock physics models, is extended for modeling the static Young's modulus at large strain level by incorporating the mixture of frictional and frictionless grain contacts into the Hertz-Mindlin model. The proposed model is verified through its application to the dynamic Young's moduli derived from well log velocities and static Young's moduli measured in the tri-axial compression tests of rock cores sampled in the same borehole as the logs were acquired. This application proves that the proposed rock physics model can be possibly used to estimate static Young's modulus (deformability) which is required in many types of civil engineering applications

  8. The Utility of Using a Near-Infrared (NIR) Camera to Measure Beach Surface Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.; Schmutz, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Surface moisture content is an important factor that must be considered when studying aeolian sediment transport in a beach environment. A few different instruments and procedures are available for measuring surface moisture content (i.e. moisture probes, LiDAR, and gravimetric moisture data from surface scrapings); however, these methods can be inaccurate, costly, and inapplicable, particularly in the field. Near-infrared (NIR) spectral band imagery is another technique used to obtain moisture data. NIR imagery has been predominately used through remote sensing and has yet to be used for ground-based measurements. Dry sand reflects infrared radiation given off by the sun and wet sand absorbs IR radiation. All things considered, this study assesses the utility of measuring surface moisture content of beach sand with a modified NIR camera. A traditional point and shoot digital camera was internally modified with the placement of a visible light-blocking filter. Images were taken of three different types of beach sand at controlled moisture content values, with sunlight as the source of infrared radiation. A technique was established through trial and error by comparing resultant histogram values using Adobe Photoshop with the various moisture conditions. The resultant IR absorption histogram values were calibrated to actual gravimetric moisture content from surface scrapings of the samples. Overall, the results illustrate that the NIR spectrum modified camera does not provide the ability to adequately measure beach surface moisture content. However, there were noted differences in IR absorption histogram values among the different sediment types. Sediment with darker quartz mineralogy provided larger variations in histogram values, but the technique is not sensitive enough to accurately represent low moisture percentages, which are of most importance when studying aeolian sediment transport.

  9. Two year study of swash zone suprabenthos of two Galician beaches (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Madrid, Rubén; Martínez-Vázquez, Juan M.; Viéitez, José M.; Junoy, Juan

    2013-10-01

    The suprabenthos is considered a major food resource for some fish and birds. Moreover, it plays a key role in the food chain and in nutrient regeneration in the surf zone. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that regulate this fauna and the differences between the suprabenthic groups, to study the possibility of seasonal variations and to compare these results with those of other studies conducted in Europe. A study and geographical comparison was conducted of the temporal patterns of the suprabenthos in the swash zone at two sandy beaches on the NE Atlantic coast (Altar and Ladeira beaches) in the NW of Spain. The study was carried out from September 2005 to August 2007 (24 months). To study the fauna, 60 m2 was sampled monthly with a suprabenthic sledge, and a total of 101 species belonging to Peracarida and Decapoda were recorded. Total densities ranged from 0.42 ind·m- 2 to 178.75 ind·m- 2. Ladeira beach showed higher densities and species richness than Altar beach, and the biocoenosis showed a different dynamic over the 24 months and between years and locations. These results indicate that there is no clear seasonality in the dynamic of suprabenthic species, although the variance of Peracarida orders was explained in diverse degree by environmental variables. The environmental models implemented explained between 27.7% and 93.8% of the faunal data, and hydrodynamic factors and daily global irradiance were selected as the best factors to explain the temporal variations.

  10. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  11. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilik, Julyus-Melvin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Hassan, Ruhana

    2016-01-01

    Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km) found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  12. Macrofauna and meiofauna of two sandy beaches at Mombasa, Kenya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Macrofauna and meiofauna of 2 sandy beaches having medium and fine sand particles, respectively, were investigated, quantitatively Macrofauna density was highest around high water mark and progressively decreased towards low water mark Meiofauna...

  13. Observation on foreshore morphodynamics of microtidal sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.

    cycles at these two loca- tions. In this context, our study aims to observe the foreshore sediment accretion and erosion processes in Figure 1. Study area covering two microtidal sandy beaches (Kunda- pura and Padukare) along Karnataka...

  14. Plastic pellets on the Caranzalem beach sands, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Postmonsoonal survey of Caranzalem beach, Goa, India indicated the presence of plastic pellets. These pellets varied in shape, size and number, and are considered to be contaminants of marine environment...

  15. Transport and distribution of bottom sediments at Pirita Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomere, Tarmo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic factors affecting sediment supply for and transport processes at Pirita Beach, a sandy section of the south­eastern coast of Tallinn Bay, are analysed. Observations of bathymetry, sediment properties and sources, sediment transport processes and their changes arising from coastal engineering activities are reported. The mean grain size is about 0.12 mm, with the fine sand fraction (0.063–0.125 mm accounting for about 77% of the sediments. Coarse sand dominates only along the waterline. The content of coarser sediments is greater in the northern part of the beach. A number of coastal engineering structures have blocked natural sediment supplies. The beach suffers from sediment deficit now and has lost about 400 m3 of sand annually from the dry beach between 1997 and 2005.

  16. Beach morphological variations over micro-time scales

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.; Sastry, J.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    formation, variations in the profiles show anomalous behaviour. The differences in grain-size distribution of the sediments of these 2 beaches are attributed to the available wave energies at these 2 locations...

  17. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  18. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  19. Wave refraction and littoral currents off Colva Beach, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Wave refraction studies have been carried out for waves of different periods approaching the coast at Colva, with directions of approach lying between180 degrees and 340 degrees, to obtain a qualitative picture of littoral flows along the beach...

  20. Virginia Beach Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Beach, Virginia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...