WorldWideScience

Sample records for beach nourishment project

  1. Beach Nourishment Techniques. Report 3. Typical U.S. Beach Nourishment Projects Using Offshore Sand Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Cooperative Beach Erosion Control Project at Presque Isle Peninsula, Erie , Pennsylvania ," Buffalo, N. Y. U. S. Army Engineer District, Charleston. 1963 (Mar...104 Presque Isle , Pa .. .. ..................... 109 REFERENCES .. ............................ 115 2A BEACH NOURISHMENT...RIVER COUNTY, FL T PRESQUE ISLE . PA Figure 1. Beach fill projects location map ...../ ...... studies have been authorized, or which are publicly owned

  2. Beach monitoring project Sand Key Phase II Beach nourishment program (North Redington Beach and Redington Shores) Post-Nourishment Report Part II Offshore Profiles and Wave Data

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    This study presents the third post-nourishment survey (January 1989) results for the Sand Key Phase II beach nourishment project carried out in June, 1988. The monitoring program to this beach nourishment project is a joint effort between the University of South Florida and University of Florida. The field surveys include a total of 26 profiles, encompassing approximately 3 miles of shoreline extending from DNR R-96 to R-1ll. The total calculated volume loss of sand in the n...

  3. Long-term effects of beach nourishment on intertidal invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, Tyler Brock

    2015-01-01

    Although beach nourishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, no consensus exists regarding how long nourishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of sandy beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a nourishment project at eight beaches across San Diego County. Each beach was split into nourished and control sections. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately fol...

  4. Offshore Sand Resource Needs, Data Availability and Revaluation, and Beach Nourishment Projects in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conery, I.; Walsh, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Storms and sea-level rise continue to impact the dynamic coastlines of North Carolina. Since the coastal region is economically critical to the state and yields numerous ecosystem services, many towns have planned beach nourishment projects. However, offshore sands compatible for nourishment are limited, and project costs fluctuate with borrow source proximity to the shoreline. Hurricane Sandy (2012) caused high water levels and waves resulting in localized overwash and erosion in the northeastern part of NC. In response, to effectively meet the rising nourishment demands for recovery after future storm events and for long-term resiliency, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) recognized the need to compile and consolidate all geophysical and geologic information in federal waters (3-8 nm) along the East Coast states. A GIS database was created for NC using bathymetric, seismic reflection, sediment and other relevant data from federal, state and private entities. Information will be accessible to the public, coastal planners and managers to allow for informed decision-making and cost-effective project planning. Priority regions for seismic and core collection were determined based on data gaps and needs across the state. In addition, potential sand resource thickness and volume in northeastern NC were revaluated using comparisons of several overlapping datasets. Shoreline volume losses were calculated using long-term erosion rates and compared to historic and future nourishment projects. Finally, tourism-based revenue by town was evaluated and related to short and long-term nourishment costs.

  5. Alongshore variability of nourished and natural beaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Schipper, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Alongshore variability in topography (i.e. height differences in bed level along the coast) can exist on both natural and nourished beaches. An important question prior to implementation of a nourishment project is how alongshore variability is going to evolve and, related to this variability, the e

  6. Evaluation of a small beach nourishment project to enhance habitat suitability for horseshoe crabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N.L.; Smith, D.R.; Tiyarattanachai, R.; Nordstrom, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    This field study evaluates the effect of nourishing an estuarine beach with gravel to enhance spawning rates by horseshoe crabs. A total of 564??m3 of coarse sand and gravel were emplaced in two 90??m-long treatment segments at Bowers Beach, Delaware, USA from 9 to 11 April 2002. Field data were gathered between 6 April and 24 May 2002 to characterize the two fill segments and the un-nourished segments between them as well as two control segments at the adjacent Ted Harvey Beach. Sediment samples were taken from the foreshore surface and at depth before and after the nourishment. Bay water levels, wave heights, and beach ground water characteristics were monitored over a 12-hour tidal cycle at one of the nourished (15 May 2002) and the unnourished segment (16 May 2002) at Bowers Beach and at one of the control segments at Ted Harvey Beach (21 May 2002) using piezometers and pressure transducers inserted in wells. The beaches were cored to estimate the density of horseshoe crab eggs deposited during the spawning season. Horseshoe crab eggs were buried in pouches at 0.15 to 0.20??m depth for 30 to 40??days to evaluate their survival in developing into embryo or larval stage. Bulk sediment samples were taken to evaluate moisture characteristics near locations where egg pouches were buried. Density of spawning females at Bowers Beach was 1.04??m- 2 in 2001 and 1.20??m- 2 in 2002. These rates are lower than at Ted Harvey Beach but reveal an increase in spawning while Ted Harvey Beach underwent a considerable decrease (2.63??m- 2 to 1.35??m- 2). Sediments low on the foreshore remained nearly saturated throughout the tidal cycle at both beaches. The average hydraulic conductivity on the upper foreshore at the non-treatment section at Bowers Beach (0.19??cm s- 1) was less than at Ted Harvey Beach (0.27??cm s- 1), and the finer, better sorted sediments at depth at Bowers Beach resulted in a higher porosity, creating greater moisture retention potential. Egg development was

  7. Beach Nourishment History (1920s to 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...

  8. Beach Nourishment History (1920s to 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...

  9. Tidal flow separation at protruding beach nourishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Max; de Schipper, Matthieu A.; Swinkels, Cilia; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J. H. M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the application of large-scale beach nourishments has been discussed, with the Sand Motor in the Netherlands as the first real-world example. Such protruding beach nourishments have an impact on tidal currents, potentially leading to tidal flow separation and the generation of tidal eddies of length scales larger than the nourishment itself. The present study examines the characteristics of the tidal flow field around protruding beach nourishments under varying nourishment geometry and tidal conditions, based on extensive field observations and numerical flow simulations. Observations of the flow field around the Sand Motor, obtained with a ship-mounted current profiler and a set of fixed current profilers, show that a tidal eddy develops along the northern edge of the mega-nourishment every flood period. The eddy is generated around peak tidal flow and gradually gains size and strength, growing much larger than the cross-shore dimension of the coastline perturbation. Based on a 3 week measurement period, it is shown that the intensity of the eddy modulates with the spring-neap tidal cycle. Depth-averaged tidal currents around coastline perturbations are simulated and compared to the field observations. The occurrence and behavior of tidal eddies is derived for a large set of simulations with varying nourishment size and shape. Results show that several different types of behavior exist, characterized by different combinations of the nourishment aspect ratio, the size of the nourishment relative to the tidal excursion length, and the influence of bed friction.

  10. Tidal flow separation at protruding beach nourishments

    OpenAIRE

    Rademacher, Max; de Schipper, Matthieu A.; Swinkels, Cilia; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JC011942 In recent years, the application of large-scale beach nourishments has been discussed, with the Sand Motor in the Netherlands as the first real-world example. Such protruding beach nourishments have an impact on tidal currents, potentially leading to tidal flow separation and the generation of tidal eddies of length scales larger than the nourishment itself. The present study examines the cha...

  11. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals.

  12. A morphological modeling study to compare different methods of wave climate schematization and evaluate strategies to reduce erosion losses from a beach nourishment project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedet, L.; Dobrochinski, J.P.F.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Klein, A.H.F.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Beach nourishment on open ocean beaches not bounded by headlands or other structures suffers from high rates of lateral losses of fill volume as the nourished shoreline equilibrates with its surroundings. Estimates of lateral losses are essential for beach nourishment design, these predictions have

  13. Seismic scattering attribute for sedimentary classification of nearshore marine quarries for a major beach nourishment project: Case study of Adriatic coastline, Regione Abruzzo (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Luciana; Contini, Paolo; De Girolamo, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Of fundamental importance for any major beach nourishment project using marine quarries is a correct sedimentary classification. The main purpose of such a classification is to identify sand with the appropriate features for beach nourishment. This task is more onerous when quarry sediments are heterogeneous and mixed with silt. This is typical of nearshore marine quarries. The presence of excess silt compromises the use of marine quarries because of the water turbidity that may be induced in the nourished beaches, especially when the beaches are protected by defense structures. Here we discuss the use of scattering amplitude of seismic data, acquired with a pinger source (2-10 kHz), to detect and classify the unconsolidated sediment of a marine quarry. A robust correlation was found between this seismic attribute and the silt content in the sediment. The scattering amplitude was numerically calculated from the seismic data and used to map slices of silt content at different depths. The results have been validated with sedimentary analysis of vibra- and rotary cores, and by the dredged material used for the beach nourishment. The marine quarry produced about 1.200.000 m3 of sand used to nourish eight different beach sites along the Adriatic coasts of the Regione Abruzzo (Italy). The large-scale sedimentary assessment of the area was based on seismic boomer data and the evaluation of the volume of dredged sediments on multibeam data surveyed before and after the exploitation of the quarry. The study shows that this approach is effective in sites with high lateral and vertical variations in the percentage of sand in the sediments.

  14. Multi-year persistence of beach habitat degradation from nourishment using coarse shelly sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Charles H; Bishop, Melanie J; D'Anna, Linda M; Johnson, Galen A

    2014-07-15

    Beach nourishment is increasingly used to protect public beach amenity and coastal property from erosion and storm damage. Where beach nourishment uses fill sediments that differ in sedimentology from native beach sands, press disturbances to sandy beach invertebrates and their ecosystem services can occur. How long impacts persist is, however, unclear because monitoring after nourishment typically only extends for several months. Here, monitoring was extended for 3-4 years following each of two spatially separated, replicate nourishment projects using unnaturally coarse sediments. Following both fill events, the contribution to beach sediments of gravel-sized particles and shell fragments was enhanced, and although diminishing through time, remained elevated as compared to control sites at the end of 3-4 years of monitoring, including in the low intertidal and swash zones, where benthic macroinvertebrates concentrate. Consequently, two infaunal invertebrates, haustoriid amphipods and Donax spp., exhibited suppressed densities over the entire post-nourishment period of 3-4 years. Emerita talpoida, by contrast, exhibited lower densities on nourished than control beaches only in the early summer of the first and second years and polychaetes exhibited little response to nourishment. The overall impact to invertebrates of nourishment was matched by multi-year reductions in abundances of their predators. Ghost crab abundances were suppressed on nourished beaches with impacts disappearing only by the fourth summer. Counts of foraging shorebirds were depressed for 4 years after the first project and 2 years after the second project. Our results challenge the view that beach nourishment is environmentally benign by demonstrating that application of unnaturally coarse and shelly sediments can serve as a press disturbance to degrade the beach habitat and its trophic services to shorebirds for 2-4 years. Recognizing that recovery following nourishment can be slow, studies

  15. Influence of near-shore marine structures in a beach nourishment project on tidal currents in Haitan Bay, facing the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾杰; 马悦; 王彬谕; Jueyi SUI; 匡翠萍; 刘建辉; 雷刚

    2016-01-01

    The Longfengtou Beach in the Haitan Bay, located in Fujian Province of China and facing the Haitan Strait, has been suffering severe erosion due to the construction of seawalls. A simple beach nourishment project implemented has not achieved the anticipated beach restoration. Thus a practical solution has to rely on a combination with near-shore marine structures. In this study, a 2-D calibrated flow model is set up to investigate the effects of three different layouts of near-shore marine structures on the tidal current. It is shown that the breakwaters situated in both the north and south ends play a vital part in the protection against erosion. The offshore breakwaters can serve as a barrier to obstruct the current circulation then reduce the current velocity. The groyne linking the Guimo islet and the coast significantly reduces the south-to-north water exchange through the channel and redirects the current direction nearly perpendicular to the north breakwater, which cuts off the longshore transport that may have a negative influence on the beach, especially, the northern part. It is also noted that the monsoon at the site with different directions increases the current velocity. In general, proper layouts of marine structures can reduce the current velocity thus lead to less intense sand transport near the beach.

  16. Employing LIDAR and Rtk GPS to Evaluate a Small Beach Nourishment in Southern Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A. G.; Smith, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    An increasing number of coastal communities are considering opportunistic beach nourishment as a coastal erosion mitigation method, particularly as erosion rates are quantified with increasing accuracy and consequences of sea level rise are realized. The southernmost region of Monterey Bay is eroding at rates of 0-0.8 m/year and small scale beach nourishment has been recommended as a possible mitigation technique. However, the absence of monitored pilot studies and calibrated models has prevented stakeholders from confidently predicting the lifetime or cost-benefit of the project. During the winter of 2012 - 2013, approximately 7,500 m3 of Monterey Harbor dredge material was used to nourish a section of beach identified as a critical erosion area. To determine whether this method is feasible as A long term mitigation strategy, we have collected topographic survey data of the nourishment area and control sites. Baseline beach profile data were collected using vessel based light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and real time kinematic (RTK) GPS prior to nourishment and periodically following completion of the nourishment project. Swell height and period were also monitored immediately offshore of the nourishment region. Morphologic change based on topographic survey data is combined with wave data to calibrate a beach morphology model to the Southern Monterey Bay region for use in future coastal erosion decisions as well as establish a nourishment evaluation method that could be applied to other critical erosion areas.

  17. GA_NOURISH - Spatial Extents of Beach Nourishment Along the Georgia Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Attempts to stabilize the shore can greatly influence rates of shoreline change. Beach nourishment in particular will bias rates of observed shoreline change toward...

  18. NC_NOURISH - Spatial Extents of Beach Nourishment Along the North Carolina Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Attempts to stabilize the shore can greatly influence rates of shoreline change. Beach nourishment in particular will bias rates of observed shoreline change toward...

  19. LA_NOURISH - Spatial Extents of Beach Nourishment Along the Louisiana Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Attempts to stabilize the shore can greatly influence rates of shoreline change. Beach nourishment in particular will bias rates of observed shoreline change toward...

  20. FL_NOURISH - Spatial Extents of Beach Nourishment Along the Florida Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Attempts to stabilize the shore can greatly influence rates of shoreline change. Beach nourishment in particular will bias rates of observed shoreline change toward...

  1. AL_NOURISH - Spatial Extents of Beach Nourishment Along the Alabama Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Attempts to stabilize the shore can greatly influence rates of shoreline change. Beach nourishment in particular will bias rates of observed shoreline change toward...

  2. TX_NOURISH - Spatial Extents of Beach Nourishment Along the Texas Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Attempts to stabilize the shore can greatly influence rates of shoreline change. Beach nourishment in particular will bias rates of observed shoreline change toward...

  3. FL_NOURISH - Spatial Extents of Beach Nourishment Along the Florida Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Attempts to stabilize the shore can greatly influence rates of shoreline change. Beach nourishment in particular will bias rates of observed shoreline change toward...

  4. SC_NOURISH - Spatial Extents of Beach Nourishment Along the South Carolina Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Attempts to stabilize the shore can greatly influence rates of shoreline change. Beach nourishment in particular will bias rates of observed shoreline change toward...

  5. A holistic evaluation of a typical beach nourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    is the primary method used by the Danish Coastal Authority for coastal protection and represents a management tool which serves a dual purpose. Beach Nourishment is protecting coastal lands as well as backshore properties (infrastructures, buildings etc.) and preserving natural heritages. Nevertheless, more......The coastal landscape in Denmark is characterized by multiple areas of geologic, biologic and recreational interests both at a national and international level. In the later years several guidelines have been set up in the coastal protection area. Recognizing the value of the healthy natural...... environment, the aims for the future are to ensure the presence of naturally shaped beaches and at the same time to reduce the risk of erosion. For this reason beach nourishment is used widely along the Danish North Sea coast and this method is preferred to solid constructions. Beach Nourishment...

  6. Intensified coastal development in beach-nourishment zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.; Armstrong, S.; Limber, P. W.; Goldstein, E. B.; Ballinger, R.

    2016-12-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Beach nourishment, a method for mitigating coastal storm damage or chronic erosion by deliberately replacing sand on an eroded beach, has been the leading form of coastal protection in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, investment in hazard protection can have the unintended consequence of encouraging development in places especially vulnerable to damage. To quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing zones, we examine the parcel-scale housing stock of all shorefront single-family homes in the state of Florida. We find that houses in nourishing zones are significantly larger and more numerous than in non-nourishing zones. Florida represents both an advanced case of coastal risk and an exemplar of ubiquitous, fundamental challenges in coastal management. The predominance of larger homes in nourishing zones indicates a positive feedback between nourishment and development that is compounding coastal risk in zones already characterized by high vulnerability. We offer that this phenomenon represents a variant of Jevons' paradox, a theoretical argument from environmental economics in which more efficient use of a resource spurs an increase in its consumption. Here, we suggest reductions in coastal risk through hazard protection are ultimately offset or reversed by increased coastal development.

  7. Beach Nourishment and Artificial Surf Reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.H.; De Menezes, J.T.; Sperb, R.S.; Siegle, E.; Fontura, R.; Van de Graaff, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van der Schrieck, G.L.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Balneário Camboriú is a very touristy city in southern Brazil, situated in the five kilometer wide Camboriú Bay. Its main tourist attraction is the beach, which is 5800 m long and rather narrow with a dry width of 10 to 20 m. The city is facing several problems regarding the beach that have a

  8. Beach Nourishment and Artificial Surf Reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.H.; De Menezes, J.T.; Sperb, R.S.; Siegle, E.; Fontura, R.; Van de Graaff, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van der Schrieck, G.L.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Balneário Camboriú is a very touristy city in southern Brazil, situated in the five kilometer wide Camboriú Bay. Its main tourist attraction is the beach, which is 5800 m long and rather narrow with a dry width of 10 to 20 m. The city is facing several problems regarding the beach that have a negati

  9. Beach Nourishment and Artificial Surf Reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.H.; De Menezes, J.T.; Sperb, R.S.; Siegle, E.; Fontura, R.; Van de Graaff, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van der Schrieck, G.L.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Balneário Camboriú is a very touristy city in southern Brazil, situated in the five kilometer wide Camboriú Bay. Its main tourist attraction is the beach, which is 5800 m long and rather narrow with a dry width of 10 to 20 m. The city is facing several problems regarding the beach that have a negati

  10. A holistic evaluation of a typical beach nourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    and more attention is being paid to the recreational values of the beaches, i.e. tourism so that an additional purpose of Beach Nourishment is to increase the recreational space along the shore. Families using the beaches prefer small grain sizes and gentle slopes. Seen from a coastal protection point...... of view it is on the other hand wiser to use coarser materials, and place these materials as close to the dunes as possible. Such a procedure will ultimately lead to the generation of somewhat steep, unattractive and sometimes dangerous local sandy cliffs. The aim of the present paper is to give...

  11. Beach nourishment alternative assessment to constrain cross-shore and longshore sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, Servet; Work, Paul; Uzlu, Ergun; Kankal, Murat; Yuksek, Omer

    2016-01-01

    A combined field and laboratory investigation was conducted to assess five options for creation of a recreational beach on a steep, armored shoreline on the eastern Black Sea coast. All designs incorporated a beach nourishment project placed between two existing, shore-normal, rubble-mound groins. Alternatives included the placement of a nearshore berm, longshore extensions added to the existing groins, and shore-parallel breakwaters. Several alternatives are reviewed for quantifying the performance of each design, including assessment of the change in shoreline position and project volume retained between the groins. Dimensionless benefits and benefit-cost ratios are quantified, and recommendations made on how to select the best outcome from a benefit-to-cost standpoint when options including hard structures are incorporated into a beach nourishment project design.

  12. Beach nourishment in the USA, the history, the impacts, and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert; Coburn, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Currently, the primary tool being used at the local, state, and federal level in the USA to adapt to rising sea level, and to reduce potential storm damage is the addition of sand to the coastal system in the form of engineered beaches and dunes (commonly referred to as beach nourishment or beach replenishment). At the Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines, we have built a comprehensive database of all beach dredge and fill projects in the USA. The database tracks a history of beach projects that date back to 1923 with continual updates as new projects are implemented today. The projects in the database represent the movement of over 950 million cubic meters of sand covering over 3700 km of shoreline. This massive program of shoreline stabilization is being carried out with little long-term vision or planning, and no consideration for the cumulative environmental impacts of mining and placing so much sand. It is no exaggeration to say that a significant portion of the US East and Gulf Coasts are now completely artificial constructs, with engineering replacing natural processes. Along many shorelines, beach nourishment has become unsustainable as sand sources diminish. In addition, the cost of moving the sand has increased dramatically as communities scramble to build beaches and dunes. This program is not sustainable into the future, but there has been no widespread recognition of this reality, nor any move towards sensible retreat from the coast.

  13. Morphological developments after a beach and shoreface nourishment at Vlugtenburg beach, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schipper, M. A.; de Vries, S.; Ranasinghe, R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Stive, M. J. F.

    2012-04-01

    For the last decades Dutch coastal policy requires sand nourishments to mitigate the effects of coastal erosion. Over time, the nourishment strategy has evolved from direct protection approach to a feeder approach; instead of placing the sand on the beach or dune where it directly benefits safety, sand is placed on the shoreface or alongshore concentrated. Subsequently natural processes redistribute the sand over the profile and alongshore. With the shift in nourishment approach, a study was started to investigate in detail how nourished sand is redistributed in space and time. Here we present results from a high resolution bathymetric survey campaign conducted at Vlugtenburg beach at the south west coast of the Netherlands. At this site a beach and shoreface nourishment of 5.4 million m3 was installed in spring 2009, moving the shoreline approximately 250 m forward. Since the completion of the project, a total of 22 profiles were measured monthly extending from the dunefoot to 9 m below mean sea level. These surveys are executed using walking GPS surveys for the subaerial part and jetski surveys for the subaqueous part. Observations show that the morphodynamic evolution can be characterized by two stages; first a period of rapid changes followed by a period of more stable topography. In the first period, 12 to 15 months after construction, a large cross shore (offshore) movement of the nourished sand is found. The cross shore movement results from a rapid adaptation of the construction profile (characterized by a steep foreshore slope from -2 to -4 m) to a more natural profile with a large subtidal bar. A sediment budget analysis over all 28 surveys up to present shows a gradual loss of volume. As topographic changes below the -8 m and above +3 m are small, it is most likely that the majority of the sediment deficit can be contributed to alongshore losses. Furthermore, the domain itself is subdivided in various coastal sections, revealing that the cross shore

  14. Modeling the Economics of Beach Nourishment Decisions in Response to Coastal Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, M.; Ashton, A. D.; Hoagland, P.; Jin, D.; Kite-Powell, H.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.

    2012-12-01

    Beaches are constantly moving and changing. The dynamic transformations of beaches are mostly the result of the erosion of sand, which can occur through movements alongshore caused by waves, movements off-shore due to storms, or submersion due to sea-level rise. Predicted climate change impacts include potential changes in storminess and accelerated sea-level rise, which will lead to increased coastal erosion. At the same time, the number of people residing in coastal communities is increasing. The risks from eroding beaches (increased coastal flooding, damage to infrastructure, and displaced residents) are therefore increasing in number and scale; and coastal residents are taking actions to protect their homes. One such action is beach nourishment, where sand is added to a resident's property in order to widen the beach. We have developed an economic model of beach nourishment decision-making to investigate the relationship between the optimal volume and timing of beach nourishment and factors such as property value, erosion rate, and initial beach width. In this model, waterfront property owners nourish a beach when the losses in net rental income exceed the costs incurred from nourishing the beach. (Rental income is a function of property value, which in turn depends upon the width of the beach.) It is assumed that erosion and sea-level rise are related. We examine different nourishment scenarios, including one-time nourishment in the first year; constant annual nourishment; and a myopic decision process in which the homeowner nourishes the beach if property losses from erosion over the next five years are expected to exceed the cost of nourishment. One-time nourishment delays property flooding for both constant and accelerating sea level rise; however, this delay is more substantial under constant sea level rise. With continual nourishment, the beach can be maintained under constant sea-level rise, provided that the erosion rate is comparable to the additional

  15. Effect of the coastal conservation due to beach nourishment of Totori sand dune coast

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Shibutani; Matsubara, Y.; Kuroiwa, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tottori Sand Dune Coast located at western part of Japan is a sandy beach with a length about 8km facing Sea of Japan. The coast has been eroded starting around 1940s and the beach nourishment project has been carried out to restore the shoreline since 2005 at Tottori Sand Dune Coast. In the project, the deposition sands at port and river mouth were transported to the erosional area and injected in the region of the offshore erosional area and the backshore area and the total volumes of the s...

  16. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Spyros Foteinis; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G.; Costas Synolakis

    2013-01-01

    The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plan...

  17. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  18. Variability of grain sizes in a beach nourishment programme for the Danish West Caost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    The coastal landscape in Denmark is characterized by multiple areas of geologic, biologic and recreational interests both national and international. In the later years several guidelines have been set up for the coastal protection area. The aims for the future are to ensure the presence...... of naturally shaped beaches while at the same time the risk for erosion is reduced. For this reason beach nourishment is used widely along the Danish North Sea coast (called West Coast) and this method is preferred in preference to put up solid constructions. Beach nourishment is the primary method used...... by the Danish Coastal Authority. However problems have occurred in describing the spatial distribution of medium grain size d50 and the gradation U of the sediment used for beach nourishment. At the same time the sedimentary composition determines how fast the nourished beach is eroded and how the beach...

  19. Case study Piçarras Beach: Erosion and nourishment of a headland bay beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, S.; Hoekstra, R.; De Zeeuw, R.; Zoon, A.

    2008-01-01

    Master project report. Piçarras is one of the touristic beaches of Santa Catarina state in Brazil. Piçarras beach is a headland bay beach. In the bay irregular features like an island, rocky outcrops and shoals are present influencing wave propagation. In the south Piçarras is bounded by Piçarras ri

  20. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Foteinis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF system. Heavy metal point sources included (i the effluents of small industries (tanneries, (ii wastewater treatment plant effluents, and (iii paint and oil scraps from substandard ship maintenance activities that take place on ports breakwaters. A few neighboring beaches were found to have similar heavy metal concentrations, with mean values of Cu, Zn, and Pb ranging from 80 to 130, 15 to 25, and 25 to 40 mg/kg, respectively. Existing legislation regarding dredging activities in Greece appears insufficient for sustainable and environmentally friendly nourishment. We conclude that before opportunistic beach restoration projects materialize with material borrowed from ports and harbors the quality of the dredged material needs to be assessed.

  1. Heavy metal distribution in opportunistic beach nourishment: a case study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G; Synolakis, Costas

    2013-01-01

    The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plant effluents, and (iii) paint and oil scraps from substandard ship maintenance activities that take place on ports breakwaters. A few neighboring beaches were found to have similar heavy metal concentrations, with mean values of Cu, Zn, and Pb ranging from 80 to 130, 15 to 25, and 25 to 40 mg/kg, respectively. Existing legislation regarding dredging activities in Greece appears insufficient for sustainable and environmentally friendly nourishment. We conclude that before opportunistic beach restoration projects materialize with material borrowed from ports and harbors the quality of the dredged material needs to be assessed.

  2. Methodology of seasonal morphological modelisation for nourishment strategies on a Mediterranean beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroudé, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    A modified 2DH morphodynamical model was employed to simulate the evolution of large-scale features with major implications for beach nourishment. The study was focused on modelling the evolution of material artificially placed in different parts of the profile, extracting or adding material to the natural bars, and quantifying how the profile responds to different wave climates and nourishment placements. The simulated results were compared with field data from a Mediterranean beach.

  3. Indications of a positive feedback between coastal development and beach nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick W.; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Beach nourishment, a method for mitigating coastal storm damage or chronic erosion by deliberately replacing sand on an eroded beach, has been the leading form of coastal protection in the U.S. for four decades. However, investment in hazard protection can have the unintended consequence of encouraging development in places especially vulnerable to damage. In a comprehensive, parcel-scale analysis of all shorefront single-family homes in the state of Florida, we find that houses in nourishing zones are significantly larger and more numerous than in non-nourishing zones. The predominance of larger homes in nourishing zones suggests a positive feedback between nourishment and development that is compounding coastal risk in zones already characterized by high vulnerability.

  4. Impacts of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne on Two Nourished Beaches along the Southeast Florida Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedet, L.; Campbell, T.; Finkl, C.W.; Stive, M.J.F.; Spadoni, R.

    2005-01-01

    Site inspections and beacli profile surveys of nourislied beaclies in the city of Boca Raton, and Town of Palm Beach, Florida show that the nourished beaches protected the shore from hurricane impacts in 2004. Striking the southeast coast of Florida within 20 days of each other. Hurricane Frances (S

  5. Impacts of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne on Two Nourished Beaches along the Southeast Florida Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedet, L.; Campbell, T.; Finkl, C.W.; Stive, M.J.F.; Spadoni, R.

    2005-01-01

    Site inspections and beacli profile surveys of nourislied beaclies in the city of Boca Raton, and Town of Palm Beach, Florida show that the nourished beaches protected the shore from hurricane impacts in 2004. Striking the southeast coast of Florida within 20 days of each other. Hurricane Frances

  6. Impacts of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne on Two Nourished Beaches along the Southeast Florida Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedet, L.; Campbell, T.; Finkl, C.W.; Stive, M.J.F.; Spadoni, R.

    2005-01-01

    Site inspections and beacli profile surveys of nourislied beaclies in the city of Boca Raton, and Town of Palm Beach, Florida show that the nourished beaches protected the shore from hurricane impacts in 2004. Striking the southeast coast of Florida within 20 days of each other. Hurricane Frances (S

  7. Effects of nourishment on the form and function of an estuarine beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N.L.; Nordstrom, K.F.; Saini, S.; Smith, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Beach nourishment programs in estuaries can enhance shore protection, but they decrease habitat suitability by creating higher berms and wider backshores than would occur under natural conditions. Use of sediment sources from outside the area can result in sedimentary characteristics that differ from native sediments on the surface and at depth, altering conditions for both aeolian transport to dunes and interstitial fauna. Field data were gathered on an estuarine beach to determine differences in beach profile change, depth of sediment reworking, and potential for aeolian transport due to nourishment. Data were gathered over a 20-month period 6 months prior to nourishment, 3 days after nourishment, 6 months after nourishment, and 14 months after nourishment when the beach was mechanically graded to eliminate a vertical scarp in the foreshore. The nourishment consisted of 87,900m3 of sediment emplaced to create a 1.34-km-long, 30-m-wide berm 2.3m above mean tide level. Seven percent of the fill was removed from the profile within 6 months after nourishment, accompanied by 7m in horizontal retreat of the artificial berm. The fill on the backshore remained above the zone of wave influence over a winter storm season and was separated from the active foreshore by the scarp. Nourished sediments on the intertidal foreshore were significantly different from native sediments to a depth of 0.20m below the surface. A lag surface of coarse sediment formed by deflation on the backshore, resulting in a rate of aeolian transport <2% of the rate on the wave-reworked foreshore.Nourishing a beach to a level higher than would be created by natural processes can create a profile that compartmentalizes and restricts transport of sediment and movement of fauna between the foreshore and backshore. Mechanical grading can eliminate the scarp, allow for faunal interaction, and reestablish wave reworking of the backshore that will facilitate aeolian transport. Using an initial design to

  8. Emergent behavior in a coupled economic and coastline model for beach nourishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Lazarus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed coastal areas often exhibit a strong systemic coupling between shoreline dynamics and economic dynamics. "Beach nourishment", a common erosion-control practice, involves mechanically depositing sediment from outside the local littoral system onto an actively eroding shoreline to alter shoreline morphology. Natural sediment-transport processes quickly rework the newly engineered beach, causing further changes to the shoreline that in turn affect subsequent beach-nourishment decisions. To the limited extent that this landscape/economic coupling has been considered, evidence suggests that towns tend to employ spatially myopic economic strategies under which individual towns make isolated decisions that do not account for their neighbors. What happens when an optimization strategy that explicitly ignores spatial interactions is incorporated into a physical model that is spatially dynamic? The long-term attractor that develops for the coupled system (the state and behavior to which the system evolves over time is unclear. We link an economic model, in which town-manager agents choose economically optimal beach-nourishment intervals according to past observations of their immediate shoreline, to a simplified coastal-dynamics model that includes alongshore sediment transport and background erosion (e.g. from sea-level rise. Simulations suggest that feedbacks between these human and natural coastal processes can generate emergent behaviors. When alongshore sediment transport and spatially myopic nourishment decisions are coupled, increases in the rate of sea-level rise can destabilize economically optimal nourishment practices into a regime characterized by the emergence of chaotic shoreline evolution.

  9. Evaluation of Bajo Blanco Sandbar as a Potential Beach Nourishment Borrow Site for Eroding Beaches in Rincon, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, C. A.; Canals, M.

    2016-02-01

    The municipality of Rincón, Puerto Rico is recognized for its world-class surfing beaches. Unfortunately, the coast from Punta Higüero to Punta Cadena in Rincón is experiencing long-term erosion (Thieler 2007), which has caused the destruction of many beachfront homes and hotels and had negative impacts on the local tourism-driven economy. The purpose of this project is to evaluate whether the nearby Bajo Blanco sandbar, located just offshore of these eroded beaches, could be used as a possible beach nourishment borrow site. A high-resolution bathymetric survey of Bajo Blanco sandbar was conducted along with a grain size analysis to compare the grain size distribution of the Bajo Blanco sandbar with the sediment properties of the eroded beaches. It was found that the sediment from Bajo Blanco is finer yet may be suitable as beach fill material for these beaches according to Dean's overfill ratio. Compatibility analysis suggests a total volume of sandbar sediment of approximately 685,555 cubic meters to allow successful beach equilibrium. To evaluate the potential effects of the sand extraction on the nearshore wave climate, numerical simulations were performed using the spectral wave model of the USACE Coastal Modeling System (CMS-Wave). Wave model results for several dredging scenarios suggest that wave energy flux concentrates around the shoal causing an increase in wave height at the northern and southern edges of the shoal. Therefore, conservation of energy leads to a reduction of wave energy flux shoreward of the shoal, causing a shadow of reduced wave height. In addition, the Tres Palmas Marine reserve is located just north of Bajo Blanco sandbar and features some of the healthiest Elkorn Corals in the Caribbean. To avoid excessive sedimentation of these reefs during dredging activities, the Particle Tracking Module (PTM), integrated in the Surface-water Modeling System (SMS), was used to evaluate the Lagrangian particle transport processes along Bajo

  10. Effect of Beach Nourishment and Borrowing on Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    i.e., gorgonians, sea whips, and sea fans. STONY CORAL - Hard corals, i.e., brain coral (Monastrea carver-nosa) and staghorn coral ( Acropora ... cervicornis ). TAXON - Name applied to a taxonomic group. TROPHIC - A successive stage of nourishment as represented by links through the food chain beginning

  11. A numerical study on the effect of beach nourishment on wave overtopping in shallow foreshores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suzuki, T.; Verwaest, T.; Veale, W.; Trouw, K.; Zijlema, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of beach nourishment on wave overtopping in shallow foreshores is investigated with the nonhydrostatic wave-flow model SWASH. Firstly, the applicability of SWASH to model wave overtopping is tested by comparing results with a physical model setup with different storm wall h

  12. Eco-Environmental Impact Assessment of Pre-Leisure Beach Nourishment on the Benthic Invertebrate Community at Anping Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Han SHIH; Yi-Yu KUO; Ta-Jen CHU; Wen-Chieh CHOU; Wei-Tse CHANG; Ying-Chou LEE

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, owing to global warming and the rising sea levels, beach nourishment and groin building have been increasingly employed to protect coastal land from shoreline erosion. These actions may degrade beach habitats and reduce biomass and invertebrate density at sites where they were employed. We conducted an eco-environmental evaluation at the Anping artificial beach-nourishment project area. At this site, sand piles within a semi-enclosed spur groin have been enforced by use of eco-engineering concepts since 2003. Four sampling sites were monitored during the study period from July 2002 to September 2008. The environmental impact assessment and biological investigations that we conducted are presented here. The results from this study indicate that both biotic (number of species, number of individual organisms, and Shannon-Wiener diversity) and abiotic parameters (suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved inorganic phosphorus, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, median diameter, and water content) showed significant differences before and after beach engineering construction. Biological conditions became worse in the beginning stages of the engineering but improved after the restoration work completion.This study reveals that the composition of benthic invertebrates changed over the study period, and two groups oforganisms, Bivalvia and Gastropoda, seemed to be particularly suitable to this habitat after the semi-enclosed artificial structures completion.

  13. Eco-environmental impact assessment of pre-leisure beach nourishment on the benthic invertebrate community at Anping coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Han; Kuo, Yi-Yu; Chu, Ta-Jen; Chou, Wen-Chieh; Chang, Wei-Tse; Lee, Ying-Chou

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, owing to global warming and the rising sea levels, beach nourishment and groin building have been increasingly employed to protect coastal land from shoreline erosion. These actions may degrade beach habitats and reduce biomass and invertebrate density at sites where they were employed. We conducted an eco-environmental evaluation at the Anping artificial beach-nourishment project area. At this site, sand piles within a semi-enclosed spur groin have been enforced by use of eco-engineering concepts since 2003. Four sampling sites were monitored during the study period from July 2002 to September 2008. The environmental impact assessment and biological investigations that we conducted are presented here. The results from this study indicate that both biotic (number of species, number of individual organisms, and Shannon-Wiener diversity) and abiotic parameters (suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved inorganic phosphorus, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, median diameter, and water content) showed significant differences before and after beach engineering construction. Biological conditions became worse in the beginning stages of the engineering but improved after the restoration work completion. This study reveals that the composition of benthic invertebrates changed over the study period, and two groups of organisms, Bivalvia and Gastropoda, seemed to be particularly suitable to this habitat after the semi-enclosed artificial structures completion.

  14. Towards a methodological framework for the prediction and mitigation of the ecological impact of beach nourishment: a case study on intertidal benthic macrofauna

    OpenAIRE

    Speybroeck, J.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Beach nourishment is a widely applied means for coastal protection in Europe and North America. Nowadays, beach nourishment is widely considered as a better alternative than the construction of hard structures to protect a coast against detrimental erosive effects, both from an ecological as from an engineering perspective. Even though beach nourishment is considered as the more ecologically sound option, this form of beach restoration also brings about sizable changes in the sandy beach ecos...

  15. Assessing shelf aggregate environmental compatibility and suitability for beach nourishment: a case study for Tuscany (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigongiari, Nicola; Cipriani, Luigi E; Pranzini, Enzo; Renzi, Monia; Vitale, Giovanni

    2015-04-15

    Beach nourishment practices are a key aspect in coastal management plans for stakeholders and communities. Stemming from a concrete case-study (Tuscany), this research analyzes: (i) principal problems of current law regulating dredging, (ii) gaps in technical guidelines, (iii) advantages of integrated approaches to the decision-making process, (iv) possible applicable nourishment options and their costs and benefits. Our results show that sand compatibility is driven mainly by grain-size stability due to the occurrence of lower pollution levels in off-shore deposits than in threatened beaches, thus current laws and guidelines should be improved to fill the evident gap in the evaluation process and to include a more complete approach to data evaluation and an integrated approach to ecotoxicity evaluation, which is relevant in cases of geochemical anomalies. The cost-benefit analysis performed indicates that only dredging intended to manage more than 1 million m(3) of aggregates would represent a real advantage for local communities.

  16. Development of 3D beach evolution model for sand nourishments and its application to morphodynamics around coastal structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroiwa, M.; Matsubara, Y.; Fujitani, H.; H. Mase

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model to predict three-dimensional (3D) beach evolution after sand nourishment was developed. The injection process of sand to near shoreline or offshore area was expressed by the sediment flux in the conservation equation associated with sediment transports and water depth changes, furthermore, sand dredging process was considered. In this study, First, computation of beach evolution around a coastal structure with and without nourishment was carried out. Secondly, the develop...

  17. Multidecadal Shoreline Evolution Due to Large-scale Beach Nourishment in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, M.; Takewaka, S.; Kuriyama, Y.

    2016-12-01

    A large-scale beach nourishment in the Netherlands, the Sand Engine, is getting attention as a new type of nourishment. As a similar case in Japan, here, we investigated morphological changes from 1961 to 2013 on the Hasaki coast, where approximately 50 million cubic meters of sands were dumped into the nearshore zone. The Hasaki coast, which is located in the eastern Japan facing the Pacific Ocean, has 16 km long sandy beach. From 1965 to 1977, approximately 50 million cubic meters of sediments were dumped into the nearshore zone on the north side of the beach for disposal of the earth and sand generated during the construction of the Kashima Port, which is an artificially-excavated port. A part of the shoreline-advanced area due to the dump was reclaimed for a land space. Therefore, in practice, approximately 26 million cubic meters of them was the volume of the sediment supply contributed to the morphological change. The volume is comparable to the nourishment of the Sand Engine, of which the volume is 21.5 million cubic meters. An increase in the sediment budgets due to the dump resulted in the mean shoreline advance of approximately 40 meters from 1969 to 1984. After that, although the advance was abated from 1984 to 1993, the shoreline began to advance again from 1993. As the result, the mean shoreline position in 2013 was located approximately 70 meters seaward compared to the position in 1961.

  18. Applying an analogue for a conceptual model for the development of a mega nourishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acehte, F.; Luijendijk, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a mega-nourishment project. Mega-nourishment is a new technology for beach nourishment that has recently been developed. It arises as an alternative to beaches where a structural erosion problem is observed and there is the need for continuously nourishments

  19. Environmental release of dioxins from reservoir sources during beach nourishment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, Yves; Vining, Bryan; Mace, Kimberly; Mills, William; Hart, Jerry

    2012-07-01

    In late 1990s, USEPA/FDA made an important connection regarding the presence of elevated levels of dioxins (e.g., 1500 ng kg(-1) TEQ) in ball clays mined in Mississippi (USA) from a geological deposit dated to ~40 million years (Mississippi Embayment) that stretches over several states (northern part of Mississippi to Kentucky) and levels of dioxins in selected animal food sources. Following a recent beach nourishment program along the mid-Atlantic coast of the US, a number of dark gray, blue tinted nuggets of varying sizes were found on beach strands and near the shoreline. Using the presence of these balls of clay (shape, color, and knowledge regarding their use in pottery) on the beach, together with our direct experience analyzing ball clays for dioxins, we made a possible association between these clays and elevated dioxins. Concerns regarding the potential of nourishment programs to cause severe damage to our beaches drove us to test the dioxin content of nourishment exposed clays. A number of the nuggets, along with freshly dredged and deposited sand (collected the morning after nourishment) with the same coloration, and others (sun-bleached), collected approximately 2 weeks after the completion of the nourishment efforts, were analyzed for the presence of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and selected semi-volatile chlorinated organics. The clay PCDD/F WHO2005-TEQs (dry weight; ND=DL; EMPC=EMPC) ranged from 0.41 to 5.78 ng kg(-1) with an average of 2.64 ng kg(-1), whereas the sand sample's TEQs ranged from 0.18 to 0.31 ng kg(-1) PCDD/F WHO-2005, with an average of 0.22 ng kg(-1). The average total tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin concentration was 2700 ng kg(-1) (with a maximum of 5800 ng kg(-1)) for the clays and 8.5 ng kg(-1) (with a maximum of 16.8 ng kg(-1)) for the sand samples. The congener 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TEF=1) was detected in half of the clay samples (0.11-0.77 ng kg(-1)). All of the clay and sand samples displayed an unambiguous and dominating 1

  20. Initial spreading of a mega feeder nourishment : Observations of the Sand Engine pilot project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schipper, Matthieu A.; de Vries, Sierd; Ruessink, Gerben|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/169093360; de Zeeuw, Roeland C.; Rutten, Jantien; van Gelder-Maas, Carola; Stive, Marcel J F

    2016-01-01

    Sand nourishments are a widely applied technique to increase beach width for recreation or coastal safety. As the size of these nourishments increases, new questions arise on the adaptation of the coastal system after such large unnatural shapes have been implemented. This paper presents the initial

  1. Applying an analogue for a conceptual model for the development of a mega nourishment

    OpenAIRE

    Acehte, F.; Luijendijk, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a mega-nourishment project. Mega-nourishment is a new technology for beach nourishment that has recently been developed. It arises as an alternative to beaches where a structural erosion problem is observed and there is the need for continuously nourishments works. A pilot project was implemented near The Hague (The Netherlands) in October 2011, called the Sand Engine [Mulder 2000], however the impacts of such project are widely unknown. From this per...

  2. Beach Ball Coronagraph Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Beach Ball” Coronagraph will be the first steps to simplify and revolutionize the next generation solar coronagraph design.  The solar corona...

  3. Evaluation of a shoreface nourishment in De Haan: analysis of 20 years of data

    OpenAIRE

    Houthuys, R.; Trouw, K.; Delgado, R; Verwaest, T.; Mostaert, F.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the implementation of the Master Plan for Coastal Safety and Vlaamse Baaien project, an assessment of the added value of shoreface nourishment as coastal protection measure and as alternative to classic procedures for beach nourishment maintenance will be performed. This project, entitled “Shoreface nourishments as coastal protection measure”, is carried out at Flanders Hydraulics Research with as central activity the monitoring of a pilot shoreface nourishment that will t...

  4. Taking three typical nourished beaches for example to explore the character and mechanism of erosional hot spot at nourished beach%以3个典型个例探讨养护海滩侵蚀热点的特征及其成因类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔚广鑫; 蔡锋; 戚洪帅; 刘建辉

    2013-01-01

    Based on the data of multi-period topography survey, observation records and remote sensing images from 3 typical beach nourishment projects, i. e. Xiangshan—Changwei Reef beach in Xiamen, West Beach in Beidaihe and Longfengtou beach in Pingtan, the distribution and morphological characteristics of beach erosional hot spots were investigated, and their causes and control factors were further analyzed. The results show that the different scales of erosional hot spots are found at nourished beaches, ranging from 20 to 260m. This study shows that the main factors causing beach erosional hot spots are coastal underwater topography, sewage pipes or groins, headlands and the abrupt change of shoreline direction. They can be specially expressed as: ( 1 ) When there existed offshore submerged breakwaters, bars or continuous reefs with gaps under water, erosional hot spots would emerge as wave energy accumulation induced by wave diffraction. (2) Sewage pipes buried across the beach will block the sediment transport along the coast, causing erosional hot spots at its downstream. (3)The headlands at both ends of a bay coast could cause partially serious erosion surrounding the headland by wave refraction and reflection. (4) In the case of the shoreline direction of a nourished beach has an abrupt change, especially protruding seaward, it will be smoothed by wave action, resulting serious erosion at the abrupt point.%基于厦门香山—长尾礁海滩、北戴河西海滩和平潭龙凤头海滩3个典型海滩养护后多期地形地貌测量数据、观测记录和遥感影像等,分析了养护海滩侵蚀热点的分布和形态特征,探讨了各处侵蚀热点的形成原因和控制因素.从野外调查来看,侵蚀热点在各养护海滩皆有分布,热点宽度为20 ~260 m不等.研究表明沿岸水下地形、排污管道的布设、岬角和岸线走向突变是诱发侵蚀热点的主要因素,具体表现为:(1)沿岸水下地形分布有离岸潜堤、

  5. 75 FR 20826 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Beach and Dune Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... on Beach and Dune Restoration in St. Lucie County, FL AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers... Erosion Control District (County) to construct a beach nourishment and dune restoration project along St... associated with beach nourishment and dune restoration. The primary Federal involvement associated with...

  6. Coastal erosion project, Diani beach, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballot, J.; Hoyng, C.; Kateman, I.; Smits, M.; De Winter, R.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. Since the seventies, the establishment of hotels and other facilities has increased the pressure on the Kenyan coast. During the last decade, hotel managers and residents in Diani Beach have been experiencing problems with erosion. The only measures taken to address the

  7. Coastal erosion project, Diani beach, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballot, J.; Hoyng, C.; Kateman, I.; Smits, M.; De Winter, R.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. Since the seventies, the establishment of hotels and other facilities has increased the pressure on the Kenyan coast. During the last decade, hotel managers and residents in Diani Beach have been experiencing problems with erosion. The only measures taken to address the proble

  8. Disponibilidad de arena para el refulado de las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal, Argentina Sand availability for nourishment of the Miramar and Chapadmalal beaches, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FI Isla

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Las playas de Miramar se originaron por los aportes naturales transportados directamente como médanos transversales desde el oeste, aunque estas arenas son de origen marino que llegaron a la costa por la acción de olas. Cuando ese aporte de arena mermó debido a la forestación de los médanos del Vivero Ameghino, se debió recurrir a espigones rígidos, que luego debieron ser prolongados para mantener una anchura suficiente de las playas para los requerimientos balnearios. Hoy día el repoblamiento artificial resulta el único método factible de recuperar las playas desde los sectores sumergidos o desde médanos vecinos. Utilizando un sonar de barrido lateral y muestreos de arena se analizó la distribución y calidad de las arenas sumergidas como eventual fuente de alimentación de las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal. Se estimaron factores de relleno y recurrencia en relación a la granulometría actual de estas playas. La playa sumergida está compuesta principalmente de arena muy fina y se extiende hasta una profundidad de 10-15 m, más allá de la cual se descubren afloramientos de limos entoscados hasta la profundidad de aproximadamente 20 metros. Otro sector arenoso se extiende a profundidades mayores y está dominado por fajas de arena orientadas hacia el NE. Lamentablemente, estas arenas son demasiado finas y por lo tanto no resultarían económicamente aptas para repoblar las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal.The beaches of Miramar were originated by the migration of transverse dunes from the west of the city, although the provenance of the sand is of marine origin and deposited by wave action. When this input of sand diminished significantly due to the dune fixation at the Ameghino Nature Reserve, a groyne field was emplaced and, after several years, extended to provide a minimum beach width for tourist requirements. Today, artificial beach nourishment is the only method to guarantee enough sand from the near-shore. The distribution

  9. 近岸人工沙坝保滩促淤的试验研究%Experimental study on the shore nourishment for beach protection and siltation promotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建; 拾兵; 李智; 刘德飞; 范菲菲

    2012-01-01

    By using the normal wave model,this paper studies the cross-section profile of the Beidaihe beach with or without the shore nourishment through the measurements of limit wave height at three kinds of water levels,and the wave height inside and outside the bar and stable terrain of beach strand.The analysis data shows that the wave transmission coefficient decreases with the water level dropping.The sediment carrying capacity of littoral current weakens enough so that sediment may deposit in the lee of artificial bar.To a certain extent,the shore nourishment can prevent the loss of sediment offshore.Hie research result can provide scientific data for the design and implementation of the engineering for protecting the beach and promoting the silt.%借助正态波浪模型,对北戴河海滩某横断面有、无沙坝布置进行了3种水位的极限波高入射试验,测取了坝内外波高过程线及稳定后的断面地形.试验资料及理论分析显示:有无沙坝时沿岸流及波浪的挟沙能力之比与水下沙坝的波浪透射系数的平方成正比,按试验最大透射系数计算的挟沙能力亦可降50%左右,且有沙坝上涌带破波回流对岸滩的冲刷水深可以维持在平均海平面以下1m内,说明人工沙坝的填筑很大程度促使水体挟带泥沙于掩护区域落淤有效的阻止了泥沙的离岸亏损.试验将为保滩促淤工程设计与实施提供科学依据.

  10. Observations of coastal sediment dynamics of the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project, Imperial Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Lam, Angela; Ferreiera, Joanne; Miller, Ian M.; Rippy, Meg; Svejkovsky, Jan; Mustain, Neomi

    2012-01-01

    Coastal restoration and management must address the presence, use, and transportation of fine sediment, yet little information exists on the patterns and/or processes of fine-sediment transport and deposition for these systems. To fill this information gap, a number of State of California, Federal, and private industry partners developed the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project ("Demonstration Project") with the purpose of monitoring the transport, fate, and impacts of fine sediment from beach-sediment nourishments in 2008 and 2009 near the Tijuana River estuary, Imperial Beach, California. The primary purpose of the Demonstration Project was to collect and provide information about the directions, rates, and processes of fine-sediment transport along and across a California beach and nearshore setting. To achieve these goals, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored water, beach, and seafloor properties during the 2008–2009 Demonstration Project. The project utilized sediment with ~40 percent fine sediment by mass so that the dispersal and transport of fine sediment would be easily recognizable. The purpose of this report is to present and disseminate the data collected during the physical monitoring of the Demonstration Project. These data are available online at the links noted in the "Additional Digital Information" section. Synthesis of these data and results will be provided in subsequent publications.

  11. Optimization of Ebb Shoal Mining and Beach Nourishment at St. Johns County, St. Augustine Inlet, Florida, Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    trajectory of a sediment budget using GenCade ........................... 42  4.3  Role of projects on the future sediment budget...Manager, Dr. David King (CPB), CHL, and Drs. Magnus Larson and Hans Hanson, Lund University, reviewed a draft of this document. Information and...an estimate of potential error in modeled long- term scenarios. ERDC/CHL TR-12-14; Report 3 42 4.2 Determining the trajectory of a sediment

  12. Linear evolution of a shoreface nourishment

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, S; Dodd, Nicholas; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falqués Serra, Albert

    2007-01-01

    The morphological evolution of a shoreface nourishment is investigated by interpreting the nourishment as a linear perturbation of the natural system. The nourishment is projected onto the subset of linear eigenmodes with negative growth rates of the morphodynamical system. The evolution of these linear modes then determines the temporal behaviour of the shoreface nourishment. The method is presented, and results are shown for shoreface nourishments of different length scales on a straight co...

  13. Initial Morphologic Evolution of Perdido Key Berm Nourishment, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Nourishment , Florida by Ping Wang, Katherine E. Brutsche, Tanya M. Beck, Julie D. Rosati, and Linda S. Lillycrop PURPOSE: This Coastal and...portion of Perdido Key, including the present study area, was nourished in 1985 and 1989 (Dean et al. 1995). The 1985 beach nourishment was...Key berm nourishment , Florida. Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-89. Vicksburg, MS: US Army Engineer Research and

  14. A Holistic Evaluation of a Typical Coast Nourishment on the Danish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2008-01-01

    heritages and the recreational value of the beach. After the nourishment, the beach was monitored by levelling profiles on four dates to monitor and track the evolution of the nourished material. Furthermore, laboratory tests involving different gradations of nourishment material are shown which indicate...

  15. Sediment- and morphodynamics of shoreface nourishments along the North-Holland coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Sonneville, B.; Van der Spek, A.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch coastal maintenance policy which was implemented in 1990 aims at fighting structural erosion by nourishing sand. Initially, the beaches were nourished. The lifetime of these beach nourishments turned out to be relatively short (~2 yrs), especially at identified erosion ‘hotspots’ along the

  16. Characteristics of coastal dune topography and vegetation in environments recently modified using beach fill and vegetation plantings, Veneto, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Karl F; Gamper, Ulrike; Fontolan, Giorgio; Bezzi, Annelore; Jackson, Nancy L

    2009-12-01

    Human actions can contribute to degradation of coastal environments or they can increase the likelihood that these environments will be restored. Beach nourishment provides a basis for restoration, but ways must be found to add habitat improvement to projects designed for shore protection. This study examines how beach nourishment projects can help reinstate dune landscapes in locations where beaches and dunes had been replaced by static shore protection structures. Dune topography and vegetation on three nourished sites on the northern Adriatic Coast of Italy are compared to a reference site to evaluate changes after beach fill was emplaced. Results reveal how nourishment projects used for shore protection can restore the space available for dunes to form, increase the likelihood of sediment transfers inland and increase the diversity of topography and vegetation. Beach raking prevents formation and growth of hummocky, incipient backshore dunes that would otherwise evolve into a naturally functioning foredune. Sand-trapping fences can speed the process of foredune development but can be counterproductive if they interfere with transport to beach grass (Ammophila littoralis) planted landward of them. Shore protection structures can provide stability and more time for dune evolution on eroding shores, resulting in greater species richness and longer retention of ecological niches. These structures need not be required if re-nourishment occurs frequently enough to provide a beach wide enough to protect against storm wave uprush.

  17. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Shore Protection Policy § 263... shore and beach restoration and protection projects not specifically authorized by Congress,...

  18. Experimental simulation of shoreface nourishments under storm events: a morphological, hydrodynamic, and sediment grain size analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasso, F.R.; Michallet, H.; Barthélemy, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on barred beach shoreface nourishments physically simulated in a wave flume. The attack of a schematic storm on three different nourishments is analysed. The apex and waning storm phases lead respectively to offshore and onshore sediment transports. Nourishments in the trough and

  19. Nourishing a partnership to improve middle school lunch options: a community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Kay, Joseph S; Lin, Grace C

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research is predicated on building partnerships that tackle important issues to the community and effectively improve these issues. Community-based participatory research can also be an empowering experience, especially for children. This article describes a university-community partnership in which students at a low-income middle school worked to improve the quality of the cafeteria food provided to the 986 students eligible for free and reduced price lunches. The project led to menu changes, improved communication between youth, school administrators, and district staff, and enabled youth to enact school improvements that were beneficial for their health.

  20. Miramar (Goa) Beach Management Project: An Oceanographic Evaluation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Ingole, B.S.

    and permanently eliminate faunal diversity. Human actions are responsible for the degradation of vegetation resulting in exposed dunes at Miramar. When wind speed attains around 20 km/h, continuous eolian transport and loss of beach sand onto roads is one major...

  1. The model test of restoration project of the gravel beach of Chen Village fishing port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. X.; Gui, J. S.; Sun, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Gravel beach is a case in coastal landform by wave action. It is more and more crucial for the environment of coastal engineering in recent years. However, it is poorly studied for it in China. And this paper which is based on the model test of Restoration Project of the Gravel Beach of Chen Village Fishing Port, uses two dimensional normal physical models, aiming at exploring the movement of gravel beach under wave action and verifying the stability of the gravel beach section. The test depends on different water levels (designed high water level, designed low water level, and extreme high water level) and return periods (2, 5, 10, 25, 50 years once). Finally, two distinct experimental sections are got under the changed conditions and the movement law of gravels is obtained.

  2. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  3. Ecological Evaluation of a Beach Nourishment Project at Hallandale (Broward County) Florida. Volume II. Evaluation of Benthic Communities Adjacent to a Restored Beach, Hallandale (Broward County), Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Department of Biological Sciences AREA & ORK UNIT NUMBERS Florida Atlantic University G31266 Boca Raton, Florida 33431 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...in September 1979. -Core samples at sand stations yielded 114 invertebrate species, not includ- ing nemerteans and oligochaete annelids. More than 90...samples from the two transects yielded 114 species of benthic invertebrates, not including the oligochaete and nemertean worms which were not

  4. Small mammal community succession on the beach of Dongting Lake, China after the Three Gorges Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiwen; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Guo, Cong; Huang, Guoxian; Shen, Guo; Zhou, Xunjun

    2014-06-01

    Although the Three Gorges Project (TGP) may have affected the population structure and distribution of plant and animal communities, few studies have analyzed the effect of this project on small mammal communities. Therefore, the present paper compares the small mammal communities inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake using field investigations spanning a 20-year period, both before and after the TGP was implemented. Snap traps were used throughout the census. The results indicate that the TGP caused major changes to the structure of the small mammal community at a lake downstream of the dam. First, species abundance on the beaches increased after the project commenced. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), which rarely inhabited the beach before the TGP, became abundant (with marked population growth) once water was impounded by the Three Gorges Reservoir. Second, dominant species concentration indices exhibited a stepwise decline, indicating that the community structure changed from a single dominant species to a more diverse species mix after TGP implementation. Third, the regulation of water discharge release by the TGP might have caused an increase in the species diversity of the animal community on the beaches. A significant difference in diversity indices was obtained before and after the TGP operation. Similarity indices also indicate a gradual increase in species numbers. Hence, a long-term project should be established to monitor the population fluctuations of the Yangtze vole (Microtus fortis), the striped field mouse and the Norway rat to safeguard against population outbreaks (similar to the Yangtze vole outbreak in 2007), which could cause crop damage to adjacent farmland, in addition to documenting the succession process of the small mammal community inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley

  5. 北戴河新区沙坝工程后海滩演变预测%Prediction on shoreline evolution after bar nourishment project at New District, Beidaihe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾杰; 王佳元; 马悦; 匡翠萍; 张甲波

    2016-01-01

    通过对北戴河新区洋河-葡萄岛岸段剖面监测资料的分析,得到该段海滩沙坝建设前的演变特征。基于水动力和地形资料,采用GENESIS数值模型建立该岸段的岸线演变模型,使用实测的剖面资料进行验证,并预测了沙坝工程建成后3个月、6个月、1a、5a和10a的岸线演变。结果表明:沙坝建设及刚完成期间,海滩迅速增宽,后经季节变化调整,1 a逐渐形成新的动态平衡;长期来看,岸段总体呈现东冲西淤的状态,趋于平直。%Based on the analysis of profile measurements at Yang River-Putao Island coast at New District, Beidaihe, we obtained the natural evolution characteristics before the bar nourishment. A shoreline evolution model is established for the beach using GENESIS according to the observations of hydrodynamic and topography and verified against the shoreline data. Predictions on the shorelines after the bar nourishment are conducted by the model in terms of 3 months, 6 months, 1 a, 5 a and 10 a. Conclusions can be gained that the beach quickly increased in width during the construction period and after the bar nourishment then adjusted to the seasonal variations of hydrodynamic, and finally reached to a new equilibrium state in 1 a. In general, the shoreline appears as erosion in east part and deposition in west part and tends to straightness.

  6. Beachfront nourishment decisions: the "sucker-free rider" problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-06-01

    Coastal communities and beachfront property owners often respond to erosion by adding sand to restore local beaches. However, beach nourishment alters shoreline dynamics, not only at the replenishment site but also in adjacent coastal regions, as natural coastal processes shift sand from one location to another. The result is that "sucker" communities pay to build up their beaches, but that replenishment also helps protect the coastlines of "free rider" communities. The sucker-free rider situation is an example of a classic problem studied in economics and game theory frameworks.

  7. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  8. Tracking aeolian transport patterns across a mega-nourishment using video imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnberg, Kathelijne; van der Weerd, Lianne; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2014-05-01

    Coastal dune areas protect the hinterland from flooding. In order to maintain the safety level provided by the dunes, it may be necessary to artificially supply the beach-dune system with sand. How to best design these shore nourishments, amongst others with respect to optimal dune growth on the long-term (decadal scale), is not yet clear. One reason for this is that current models for aeolian transport on beaches appear to have limited predictive capabilities regarding annual onshore sediment supply. These limited capabilities may be attributed to the lack of appropriate input data, for instance on moisture content of the beach surface, or shortcomings in process understanding. However, it may also be argued that for the long-term prediction of onshore aeolian sand supply from the beach to the dunes, we may need to develop some aggregated-scale transport equations, because the detailed input data required for the application of process-scale transport equations may never be available in reality. A first step towards the development of such new concepts for aggregated-scale transport equations is to increase phenomenological insight into the characteristics and number of aeolian transport events that account for the annual volume changes of the foredunes. This requires high-frequency, long-term data sets to capture the only intermittently occurring aeolian transport events. Automated video image collection seems a promising way to collect such data. In the present study we describe the movement (direction and speed) of sand patches and aeolian bed forms across a nourished site, using video imagery, to characterize aeolian transport pathways and their variability in time. The study site is a mega-nourishment (21 Mm3 of sand) that was recently constructed at the Dutch coast. This mega-nourishment, also referred to as the Sand Motor, is a pilot project that may potentially replace current practice of more frequently applying small scale nourishments. The mega-nourishment

  9. Performance Monitoring of a Nearshore Berm at Ft. Myers Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    respectively. ................................................. 121  ERDC/CHL TR-13-11 xiii Preface This study was performed by the Coastal ...monitoring study conducted by the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP) and Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program, two US Army Corps of...to predictive models of the Perdido Key Beach nourishment project, Florida USA. Coastal Engineering (39) 173-191. Brutsche, K. E. and P. Wang. 2012

  10. Field Guide to Beaches. Early Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, John H.

    The study of beaches and their capacity as an interface between land, air, and water is presented. Students investigate shore phenomena to better understand the beach's history and possible future. Also discussed is the interaction between man and the beach, from weather effects to pollution. Laboratory investigations of samples collected from the…

  11. Identifying, Planning, and Financing Beneficial Use Projects Using Dredged Material: Beneficial Use Planning Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    the website’s foundation by providing practical guidance for project sponsors (e.g., government agencies, port authorities, marinas , industries, and...parks provid- ing such amenities as swimming, picnicking, camping, or boating. 4. Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, and Aquaculture : using dredged...Development Beach Nourishment (offshore berms only) Parks and Recreation Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, and Aquaculture Strip-Mine Reclamation

  12. The Race to Nourish: Exploring resource equity in a coupled human coastline model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Z. C.; McNamara, D.; Murray, A.; Smith, M.

    2011-12-01

    Many coastal communities are faced with eroding shorelines due to gradients in the alongshore transport of sediment and rising sea level. These communities often employ a beach nourishment mitigation strategy to counter erosion from natural forces. These nourishment activities provide economic benefits in the form of protection from storms and enhanced recreation on the stabilized beach. Previous work has shown that economically optimal nourishment decisions indicate that rising nourishment costs can lead to more frequent nourishment. Given that the cost of nourishing is likely to rise as offshore sediment borrow sites become more scarce, this suggests a positive feedback whereby nourishment that dwindles offshore borrow sites causes more frequent nourishment. We explore the dynamics of this feedback in a coupled economic-coastline model and how resulting long term shoreline and economic patterns respond to forcing changes in the form of increased sea level rise and changing storminess along both a straight shoreline and a cuspate Carolina like shoreline. The economic model utilizes myopic manager agents that inform a community of the optimal nourishment interval based on the current cost of sand and locally observed erosion rate since the last nourishment episode. Communities nourish independently but can affect the erosion rate of adjacent communities through alongshore sediment transport dynamics. The coastline model tracks large-scale coastline change via alongshore sediment transport calculations and erosion due to rising sea level. Model experiments show that when the economic model is coupled to a flat coastline, the feedback in sand cost leads to resource inequity as communities that become caught in the feedback nourish frequently while adjacent communities maintain coastline position by "free riding" on these neighbor towns. Model experiments also show that on cuspate coastlines, the emergent cuspate features enhance the cost feedback and create unequal

  13. Project Veracruz: An assessment for the eroding beach south of Veracruz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineke, D.; Volbeda, E.; De Weerdt, B.; De Wit, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to frequently occurring storms, like hurricanes and cold fronts, the coasts around the Mexican port city Veracruz suffer from erosion. This is most severe at the beaches of Boca del Rio just south of the city of Veracruz. Here, small beaches can be found between large groynes. These groynes bloc

  14. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Project Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Paleozoic in age and consist chiefly of schist, gneiss, gabbro , 0 This information has been derived from the RFA, 1996. Jacobs Enn wtn Wo .• FINAL PROJECT...system which has supplied potable water to the area is the Van Bibber system. During World War II (WW II) a system was also used which supplied water...Imregriating plants were operated at Beach Point during and alteir World War I!; these plants were used to treat clothing with a waxy material that provides

  15. The mobilization of toxic trace elements due to pyrite oxidation at the mega-nourishment The Sand Motor, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, I.; Doodeman, L.; Van Heteren, S.; van Bruggen, M.; Griffioen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Pilot project "The Sand Motor" is a 21.5 million m3 nourishment of sandy sediment situated along the coast of the Netherlands close to The Hague (figure 1). It was constructed in 2011 and initially spans the shore over a 2.4 km stretch and extends up to 1 km offshore creating a hook-shaped peninsula. Due to wind, waves and currents the Sand Motor will gradually change in shape and eventually be fully incorporated into the dunes and beach. This concept is expected to be more environmentally friendly compared to traditional beach and shoreface nourishments. The aim of this project is to understand how oxidation changed the geochemistry of the sediment applied and to address possible toxic element mobilization. The sediment was taken 10 km out of shore from the sea floor, which was at a depth of 20 m. Grab samples of the upper 25 cm seabed analyzed for geochemical mapping of Southern North Sea sediments, show locally high contents of sulfur, iron and trace elements like arsenic indicating presence of pyrite with impurities. Sediment was removed to a maximum depth of 6 m below sea floor, reaching different geological layers including bog iron ore layers. Different degrees of pyrite oxidation are expected with depth at the Sand Motor. First, minimum oxidation when sediment was deposited from the ship directly by opening the bottom floor, which is now present under water at the deepest part of the nourishment. Second, limited oxidation when sediment was applied from the ship under high pressure through the air, and settled below sea level. Last, maximum oxidation when the same method was used but the sediment remains located in a surface layer having a maximum height of 4 m above sea level. At the Sand Motor, samples were taken of surface water, pore water and sediment from the surface to a depth of 10 m, the bottom of the nourishment. Analyses show that pyrite oxidation has occurred above sea level and mobilization of arsenic is present up to a maximum concentration of

  16. Application of the analytic hierarchy process to a sustainability assessment of coastal beach exploitation: a case study of the wind power projects on the coastal beaches of Yancheng, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weijun; Bai, Jie; Sun, Huimei; Zhao, Yangguo

    2013-01-30

    Sustainability assessments of coastal beach exploitation are difficult because the identification of appropriate monitoring methodologies and evaluation procedures is still ongoing. In particular, the most suitable procedure for the application of sustainability assessment to coastal beaches remains uncertain. This paper presents a complete sustainability assessment process for coastal beach exploitation based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). We developed an assessment framework consisting of 14 indicators derived from the three dimensions of suitability, economic and social value, and ecosystem. We chose a wind power project on a coastal beach of Yancheng as a case study. The results indicated that the wind power farms on the coastal beach were not completely in keeping with sustainable development theory. The construction of the wind power farms had some negative impacts. Therefore, in the design stage, wind turbines should be designed and planned carefully to minimize these negative impacts. In addition, the case study demonstrated that the AHP was capable of addressing the complexities associated with the sustainability of coastal beaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments.

  18. Physical processes and landforms on beaches in short fetch environments in estuaries, small lakes and reservoirs: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2012-02-01

    more frequently to control erosion. Their effect has been to reduce the extent of beach in small water bodies. Beach nourishment projects have been fewer than on exposed shores and the quantities smaller. Many nourishment projects have been implemented for amenity value and have been placed in locations where waves have not been able to create an equilibrium landform. The biggest difference in process controls between estuaries and lakes and reservoirs is in the mechanism for water level change. Tides and surges from external basins are important on estuarine beaches, whereas rainfall, runoff, groundwater flow, evapotranspiration and control by dams are more important in reservoirs and lakes. Future sea level rise will threaten beach environments in estuaries where shore parallel walls will prevent onshore migration of landforms and habitats and will change the number and locations of beaches in unarmored areas. Dam removal will pose a threat to the existence of reservoirs and dammed lakes. Water levels are more dependent on human actions in lakes and reservoirs, so changes can be minimal or increased to a greater extent than in estuaries. Lesser stability and predictability of beaches will complicate future management efforts.

  19. Monitoring and modeling shoreline response due to shoreface nourishment on a high-energy coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P. L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Shoreface nourishment can be an efficient technique to feed sediment into the littoral zone without the order of magnitude cost increase incurred by directly nourishing the beach. An erosion hot spot at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, USA, threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location, a new beneficial reuse plan was implemented in May 2005 for the sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. From 2005 to 2007, approximately 230,000 m of sand was placed annually at depths between 9 and 14 m, in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves could potentially feed sediment onto the section of beach experiencing critical erosion. The evolution of the disposal mound and adjacent beach were monitored with 12 multibeam bathymetric surveys, and over 40 high-resolution beach topographic surveys. In addition, sediment transport processes were investigated using sediment grab samples, acoustic Doppler profilers, and two separate models: a cross-shore profile model (UNIBEST-TC) and a coastal area model (Delft3D). The results of the monitoring and modeling demonstrate that the disposal mound may be effective in dissipating wave energy striking this vulnerable stretch of coast with negligible shadowing effects, but a positive shoreline response can only be achieved by placing the sediment in water depths less than 5 m. 

  20. Potential RSM Projects: West Maui Region, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    an open coast should be investigated. 8. The potential for hotels to share in the cost of beach nourishment projects should be determined. Tourists...quantification of regional coastal processes. 13. Best management practices (BMPs) for the use of upland sediment sources are needed so that proper...should be determined. 5. More water quality stations within the region should be established and ensured that they accurately measure constituents of

  1. Improving Oasis Beach: Creating a sustainable and attractive beach around hotel Oasis in Varadero Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, E.F.; Poelhekke, L.; Schlepers, M.H.; De Boer, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the North of Cuba, the Oasis beach area is situated. The beach suffers from structural erosion and earlier measures to deal with this have not succeeded. In this project, a solution is offered to reach two goals: foremost, a beach improvement to the Oasis beach sector and second, a halt to the s

  2. Evaluation of nourishment schemes based on long-term morphological modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Nicholas; Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Drønen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    A recently developed long-term morphological modeling concept is applied to evaluate the impact of nourishment schemes. The concept combines detailed two-dimensional morphological models and simple one-line models for the coastline evolution and is particularly well suited for long-term simulatio...... site. This study strongly indicates that the hybrid model may be used as an engineering tool to predict shoreline response following the implementation of a nourishment project....

  3. Potential Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Projects in the Haleiwa Region, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    entering the HSBH is just one of the potential RSM projects considered as part of the present studies . Ultimately, shoreline change analysis, coastal ...Region’s shoreline to reduce wave inundation.  Provide public outreach on coastal processes and beach nourishment . ERDC/CHL CHETN-XIV-37 May 2014...tracer study for the HBP prior to construction of new coastal structures to determine where the sand is going.  Grade the profile along the

  4. Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163679.html Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain Researchers suggest making friends of all ages ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Healthy Aging Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Healthy ...

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of sediment size on a mixed sand and gravel beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Diane P.; Walton, Susan M.

    2007-12-01

    Mixed sand and gravel beaches have been the subject of comparatively few studies in the UK. This paper describes the sediment distribution before, during and after a programme of beach nourishment along a section of mixed sand and gravel beach forming part of the Pevensey Bay Coastal Defences, in East Sussex, UK. The beach was recharged in September 2002, and beach profiles were measured along three cross-shore transects from August 2002 to February 2003. Sediment samples were taken along the transects between August and November 2002, and a total of 147 sediment samples were analysed, 40 before nourishment and 107 after nourishment. The majority of the sediment samples were strongly bimodal, with mean sizes varying between a minimum of 0.18 mm (2.48 ϕ) for the sand fraction and a maximum of 27 mm (- 4.74 ϕ) for the gravel. The recharge material was also bimodal but contained more fine sediment than the natural beach material, particularly on the upper beach. The recharge sediment had grain sizes and sorting similar to some of the natural material but lower bimodality parameters than any of the natural sediment. The sediment distributions after recharge contained significantly more fine sediment, particularly on the upper beach. Over time, the beach profile lowered and fine sediment appeared to be selectively transported seawards from the beachface.

  6. Long-Term Effects of Beach Nourishment on the Benthic Fauna of Panama City Beach, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Ervilia concentrica .. .. .. .. 6.41 .. .. .. .. .. Veneridae sp. -. .. .. .. .. 1.62 .. .. .. .. ARTHROPODA CRUSTACEA CIACEA Manocuma sp...38.29 - 80.85 13.63 50.78 - 38.06 .. .. .. ARTHROPODA CRUSTACEA ISOPODA Chiridotea excavata -- 3.14 -- 3.26 AMPHIPODA Acanthobaustorius sp...Strigilla sp. -- I Tellina sp. -- 1 Unidentified sp. A -- 1 Veneridae -- I ARTHROPODA CRUSTACEA CUIACEA Mancocuma sp. -- 1 Oxyurostylis smithi -- 2

  7. Short- and medium-term response to storms on three Mediterranean coarse-grained beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Edoardo; Bertoni, Duccio; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The storm response of three Italian coarse-grained beaches was investigated to better understand the morphodynamics of coarse-clastic beaches in a microtidal context. Two of the studied sites are located on the eastern side of the country (Portonovo and Sirolo) and the third one (Marina di Pisa) is on the western side. Portonovo and Sirolo are mixed sand and gravel beaches where the storms approach from two main directions, SE and NE. Marina di Pisa is a coarse-grained, gravel-dominated beach, exposed to storms driven by SW winds. Gravel nourishments were undertaken in recent years on the three sites. Beach topography was monitored measuring the same network of cross sections at a monthly (i.e. short-term) to seasonal frequency (i.e. medium-term). Geomorphic changes were examined before and after storm occurrences by means of profile analyses and shoreline position evaluations. The beach orientation and the influence of hard structures are the main factors controlling the transport and accumulation of significant amount of sediments and the consequent high variability of beach morphology over the medium-term. For Marina di Pisa, storms tend to accumulate material towards the upper part of the beach with no shoreline rotation and no chance to recover the initial configuration. Sirolo and Portonovo showed a similar behaviour that is more typical of pocket beaches. Both beaches show shoreline rotation after storms in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction according to the incoming wave direction. The wider and longer beach at Sirolo allows the accumulation of a thin layer of sediment during storms, rather than at Portonovo where, given its longshore and landward boundaries, the beach material tends to accumulate in greater thickness. After storms, Sirolo and especially Portonovo can quickly recover the initial beach configuration, as soon as another storm of comparable energy approaches from the opposite direction of the previous one. Large morphological

  8. Caustic waterflooding demonstration project: Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Third annual report, June 1978-May 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E.H.

    1979-12-01

    A caustic-enhanced waterflooding pilot test is being conducted in the Ranger Reservoir of the Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Evaluation of entrapment and entrainment caustic flooding in Ranger Zone cores was continued. The caustic-only (entrapment) core floods failed to demonstrate improved behavior. Based on the unfavorable results of all tests of the entrapment mechanism, further laboratory work and flooding in the pilot with caustic alone have been eliminated from the project's plans. Some of the year's caustic-salt (entrainment) core floods in contrast showed both substantial recovery and WOR improvement. The poorer overall entrainment core flood results obtained in the year may be due to the core material, a smaller preflush volume used or the crude oil employed. Core flood testing where sodium silicate is substituted for some of the sodium hydroxide, was continued. The primary set of caustic water-oil dehydration tests was completed. The test softening of produced waters was completed and the results evaluated; produced water softening was found to be an economically feasible alternative to the use of fresh water. The preflush injection facilities became operational in January 1979 with the pilot's preflush officially begun April 15, 1979. The alkaline injection facility was expanded in scope to permit use of both sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide; its completion in late 1979 is anticipated with the alkaline-salt injection scheduled to begin at that time. The base case reservoir simulator prediction of the pilot under continued waterflooding was completed. This prediction provided the base line from which incremental alkaline flood production will be determined, as the test has now been declared a qualified tertiary enhanced recovery project by DOE's Economic Regulatory Administration. Major well repair/redrill work continued to be necessary exceeding earlier increased cost estimates.

  9. [Investigation of Tomsk students catering nourishment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkoj, O S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study the students nourishment in the dining - rooms of three Tomsk colleges. During the study the intake of main nutrients of each student was fixed. 225 students took part at our research. It was detected, that in this very random sampling, the predominate majority of students were eating without following the principles of healthy, rational nourishment. It turned out the decreased consumption of main nutrients for about 30-40%, and also calorie content for about 45%.

  10. Distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): a study supported by a citizen science project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Ruz, Valeria; Thiel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of large and small plastic debris is a problem throughout the world's oceans and coastlines. Abundances and types of small plastic debris have only been reported for some isolated beaches in the SE Pacific, but these data are insufficient to evaluate the situation in this region. The citizen science project "National Sampling of Small Plastic Debris" was supported by schoolchildren from all over Chile who documented the distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches. Thirty-nine schools and nearly 1000 students from continental Chile and Easter Island participated in the activity. To validate the data obtained by the students, all samples were recounted in the laboratory. The results of the present study showed that the students were able to follow the instructions and generate reliable data. The average abundance obtained was 27 small plastic pieces per m(2) for the continental coast of Chile, but the samples from Easter Island had extraordinarily higher abundances (>800 items per m(2)). The abundance of small plastic debris on the continental coast could be associated with coastal urban centers and their economic activities. The high abundance found on Easter Island can be explained mainly by the transport of plastic debris via the surface currents in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, resulting in the accumulation of small plastic debris on the beaches of the island. This first report of the widespread distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches underscores the need to extend plastic debris research to ecological aspects of the problem and to improve waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between Sport Nourishment Supplement and Athletes' Sports Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjiang Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for the athlete's body recovery and rehabilitation to have sport nourishment supplement. In this study, it analyzed the effect of sport nourishment supplement with the overview of sport nourishment supplements, discussing the influence of sports nutrition supplement on sports abilities of athletes.

  12. Climate change-driven cliff and beach evolution at decadal to centennial time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li; O'Neill, Andrea; Barnard, Patrick; Vitousek, Sean; Limber, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Here we develop a computationally efficient method that evolves cross-shore profiles of sand beaches with or without cliffs along natural and urban coastal environments and across expansive geographic areas at decadal to centennial time-scales driven by 21st century climate change projections. The model requires projected sea level rise rates, extrema of nearshore wave conditions, bluff recession and shoreline change rates, and cross-shore profiles representing present-day conditions. The model is applied to the ~470-km long coast of the Southern California Bight, USA, using recently available projected nearshore waves and bluff recession and shoreline change rates. The results indicate that eroded cliff material, from unarmored cliffs, contribute 11% to 26% to the total sediment budget. Historical beach nourishment rates will need to increase by more than 30% for a 0.25 m sea level rise (~2044) and by at least 75% by the year 2100 for a 1 m sea level rise, if evolution of the shoreline is to keep pace with rising sea levels.

  13. The role of beach morphodynamic state on infragravity swash on beaches: field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Paula; González, Mauricio; Medina, Raul

    2017-04-01

    The runup generated by waves can be defined as the maximum height above sea water level on the coastline and is an important criterion for costal structures/nourishment design and erosion/flooding risk analysis. Given the complexity of nonlinear processes involved in the runup generation, its prediction is commonly made by means of empirical formulations that relate wave and beach parameters. The most accepted parametrization presented till the moment was proposed by Stockdon et al. (2006), in which the runup exceeded by 2 percent of the waves (R2) is described in terms of setup (η - the steady superelevation of the mean water level caused by breaking waves) and incident and infragravity swash (Sinc and Sig- time-varying fluctuations around the setup caused by non-breaking waves). Such formulation has been widely accepted and its efficiency was appraised in many works. Nevertheless, although empirical parametrization of infragravity swash using incident wave's parameters shows reasonable skill, the correlation can still present considerable scatter. The amount of infragravity energy on swash is directly related to the morphodynamic beach state, in a way that beach profiles classified as reflective (low wave energy, coarse sediment and higher beach slope) tend to show lower Sig values than dissipative ones (high wave energy, fine sediment and lower beach slope). However, since Stockdon's formula for predicting infragravity swash consider only wave parameters, its use implies that beaches receiving the same wave energy but with different grain size and beach slope would present the same Sig values. This work assumed the hypothesis that the scatter verified on the predictions of the infragravity swash is mainly related to the lack of information about the beach state in Stockdon formula. Based on that, a field campaign was designed and carried out in Somo-El Puntal beach, north Spain, with the aim of generating data to be analyzed in terms of infragravity swash. An

  14. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  15. Airborne laser quantification of Florida shoreline and beach volume change caused by hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William, V.

    This dissertation combines three separate studies that measure coastal change using airborne laser data. The initial study develops a method for measuring subaerial and subaqueous volume change incrementally alongshore, and compares those measurements to shoreline change in order to quantify their relationship in Palm Beach County, Florida. A poor correlation (R2 = 0.39) was found between shoreline and volume change before the hurricane season in the northern section of Palm Beach County because of beach nourishment and inlet dynamics. However, a relatively high R2 value of 0.78 in the southern section of Palm Beach County was found due to little disturbance from tidal inlets and coastal engineering projects. The shoreline and volume change caused by the 2004 hurricane season was poorly correlated with R 2 values of 0.02 and 0.42 for the north and south sections, respectively. The second study uses airborne laser data to investigate if there is a significant relationship between shoreline migration before and after Hurricane Ivan near Panama City, Florida. In addition, the relationship between shoreline change and subaerial volume was quantified and a new method for quantifying subaqueous sediment change was developed. No significant spatial relationship was found between shoreline migration before and after the hurricane. Utilization of a single coefficient to represent all relationships between shoreline and subaerial volume change was found to be problematic due to the spatial variability in the linear relationship. Differences in bathymetric data show only a small portion of sediment was transported beyond the active zone and most sediment remained within the active zone despite the occurrence of a hurricane. The third study uses airborne laser bathymetry to measure the offshore limit of change, and compares that location with calculated depth of closures and subaqueous geomorphology. There appears to be strong geologic control of the depth of closure in

  16. Southwest Washington littoral drift restoration—Beach and nearshore morphological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M.

    2012-01-01

    A morphological monitoring program has documented the placement and initial dispersal of beach nourishment material (280,000 m3) placed between the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) North Jetty and North Head, at the southern end of the Long Beach Peninsula in southwestern Washington State. A total of 21 topographic surveys and 8 nearshore bathymetric surveys were performed between July 11, 2010, and November 4, 2011. During placement, southerly alongshore transport resulted in movement of nourishment material to the south towards the MCR North Jetty. Moderate wave conditions (significant wave height around 4 m) following the completion of the nourishment resulted in cross-shore sediment transport, with most of the nourishment material transported into the nearshore bars. The nourishment acted as a buffer to the more severe erosion, including dune overtopping and retreat, that was observed at the northern end of the study area throughout the winter. One year after placement of the nourishment, onshore transport and beach recovery were most pronounced within the permit area and to the south toward the MCR North Jetty. This suggests that there is some long-term benefit of the nourishment for reducing erosion rates locally, although the enhanced recovery also could be due to natural gradients in alongshore transport causing net movement of the sediment from north to south. Measurements made during the morphological monitoring program documented the seasonal movement and decay of nearshore sand bars. Low-energy conditions in late summer resulted in onshore bar migration early in the monitoring program. Moderate wave conditions in the autumn resulted in offshore movement of the middle bar and continued onshore migration of the outer bar. High-energy wave conditions early in the winter resulted in strong cross-shore transport and creation of a 3-bar system along portions of the coast. More southerly wave events occurred later in the winter and early spring and coincided

  17. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  18. Breast milk composition and bile salt-stimulated lipase in well-nourished and under-nourished Nigerian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindler, J; Nwankwo, M U; Omene, J A; Roberts, I M; LaRocca, G M; Glew, R H

    1987-03-01

    Breast milk was analysed in 9 under-nourished Nigerian mothers and 23 well-nourished mothers who served as controls. Milk from the under-nourished mothers contained adequate amounts of lactose and total triglycerides, but had significantly lower bile salt-stimulated lipase activity (BSSL); their mean BSSL activity was only about 50% of the activity in milk from the control group. Total milk protein was also significantly lower than for the controls (1.45 vs. 1.09 g/dl, respectively; P less than 0.01). Our findings may have nutritional implications for breast-fed infants of under-nourished nursing mothers.

  19. Sediment Transport Study in Haeundae Beach using Radioisotope Labelled Compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Sup [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer.

  20. Design and rationale for NOURISH-T: a randomized control trial targeting parents of overweight children off cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marilyn; Ewing, Lin; Davila, Esther; Thompson, Amanda L; Hale, Gregory; Mazzeo, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 40% of off-treatment pediatric cancer survivors (PCS) are overweight or obese, which increases their risk for negative long-term physical health complications. Consistent with the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) emphasis on patients transitioning from treatment to cancer survivorship and increasing long-term healthy behaviors in these survivors, we plan to conduct a pilot RCT to address the increasing overweight/obesity rates among PCS by targeting their caregivers as agents for PCS behavior change. We plan to focus on parents' behaviors, attitudes and roles in promoting healthier eating and physical activity (PA) in PCS and adapt an evidence-informed, manualized parent intervention - NOURISH - found to be effective for parents of overweight and obese children and adolescents in reducing child and adolescent BMI. We plan to adapt NOURISH for caregivers of 5-12 year old PCS (6 months-4 years off active cancer treatment). Our pilot feasibility RCT - NOURISH-T (Nourishing Our Understanding of Role modeling to Improve Support for Healthy Transitions) evaluates: 1) the preliminary efficacy of NOURISH-T for PCS, compared with an Enhanced Usual Care (EUC) control condition, and 2) factors to consider to improve future adaptations of the intervention. The project will enroll caregivers of PCS at two pediatric oncology clinics into the 6-week intervention (or EUC) with assessments occurring pre- and post-6 weeks of intervention, and at a 4-month follow-up.

  1. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    significant difference in foreshore characteristics such as seasonal berm height and foreshore slope between the two types of beaches, beaches without back-beach barriers have more developed back dune systems and are significantly wider than adjacent restricted beaches, given that no extensive artificial beach nourishment has occurred. In regions such as Ventura and Imperial Beach, unrestricted beaches are 50-100% wider than adjacent beaches with back-beach barriers even with no significant differences in historical rates of shoreline change. Taking into account the nature of the back beach is just as crucial in predicting impacts of sea-level rise on beaches in California as considering inundation and retreat in the foreshore, and will be an important consideration for coastal managers in designing sea-level rise adaptation plans.

  2. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  3. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  4. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  5. Food medicine and minor nourishment in the folk traditions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo and Latium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2003-09-01

    A series of research projects on wild plants used in Central Italy (Marche, Latium and Abruzzo) as food medicine and for minor nourishment was carried out in the years 1979-2000. This study reports a summary of the data personally collected in the field. Minor nourishment appears to be still consistently utilised: wild plants are consumed preferably in salads, boiled or in omelettes. Some therapeutic properties are attributed by people to the alimentary plants, often documented by the scientific literature. In this study, folk alimentary and/or therapeutic food uses of 126 entities distributed among 39 families are described. Particular folk uses concerning cultivated plants are also reported. In this paper, for the first time pharmacobotanical properties are systematically emphasised for the folk food species of Central Italy. References to analogous alimentary uses in Central Italy are documented. Comparisons among different food traditions are also discussed.

  6. Liaoning Huludao Beach Exhibition Center by META-Project%辽宁葫芦岛市海滨展示中心设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王硕; 张婧

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an introduction to META-Project's recent work,the 'Beach Exhibition Center' in Huludao,liaoning.Starting with a clear process of reasoning,the architects of META-Project come up with a strategy of section that controls the entire design.Through 'clashes' between distinct programmatic volumes,the internal space evolves into unexpected complexities.The article also raises the issue of how architects could expand the relationship between architecture and public space in commercial Programs.%文章介绍了元建筑设计的葫芦岛海滨展示中心项目。建筑师在设计过程中通过明确的推理过程,提出控制整个设计的剖面策略。并在此基础上,通过不同功能体量间的冲突,演化出意料之外的空间复杂性,最终使该建筑成为公共的舞台。文章同时探讨了建筑师如何在商业项目中拓展建筑与公共空间的关系的问题。

  7. Seven persistent misconceptions about Ocean Nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, I.

    2016-02-01

    Ian S F Jones Ocean Technology Group University of Sydney, F09 Australia The productivity of the open ocean is dependent on the flow of nutrients most of which are upwelled from the deep ocean. The natural limitation posed by the restricted supply of nutrients in the soil has been overcome in agriculture by supplying mined or manufactured nutrients. This has increased the productivity of the arable land by a factor of five. Purposeful ocean fertilisation, in contrast, has rarely been practiced in part because of a number of concerns about the potential environmental impacts. In some regions of the ocean iron is the limiting nutrient while in the majority of the ocean, the macronutrient nitrogen limits phytoplankton growth. The fertilization with macronutrients, has been termed Ocean Nourishment and has a number of differences to fertilisation by iron. Some misunderstandings arise because analogies of coastal eutrophication and iron fertilisation are uncritically assumed to apply to macronutrient fertilisation. Seven misunderstandings persist and now can be discounted; Export will be low due to enhancement of the microbial loop. Phosphate and silica will need to be supplied. The quantity and cost of nitrogen make carbon sequestration uneconomic Fertilisation with urea encourages dinoflagellates. Size distribution will unsuitable (too small) for zooplankton and herbivorous fish. Fertilization will cause alarming levels of oxygen consumption. Implementation carries large ecological risk. For low fertilisation concentrations, away from shallow water, in a prevailing current, in temperate waters, the seven concerns above can be shown to be mild enough to justify open ocean small scale scientific experimentation.

  8. Summary of Second Regional Workshop on Dredging, Beach Nourishment, and Bids on the North Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Name Scientific Name Common Loon Gavia immer Black Scoter Melanitta nigra Red-throated Loon Gavia Stellata Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula Horned...Oceanodroma leucorhoa Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris Northern Gannet Morus bassanus King Rail Rallus elegans Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo...Skimmer Rynchops nigra Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus Razorbill Alca torda Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus Black Guillemot Cepphus

  9. Effects of Beach Nourishment on the Nearshore Environment in Lake Huron at Lexington Harbor (Michigan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    newton meters millibars 1.0197 x 10 - 3 kilograms per square centimeter ounces 28.35 grams pounds 453.6 grams 0.4536 kilograms ton, long 1.0160 metric...PiRCH a 7450 9o-34R ^A’, LEYE 1 400 337 VI 3 ALEWIFE 200 7000 160-193 TROUT PERCH 4 50 117-132 SPOTTAIL SHINER 32 410 105-121 YELLOW PERCH 3 C63 185-337

  10. Summary of First Regional Workshop on Dredging, Beach Nourishment, and Birds on the South Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    disposal facilities, including the Least Tern (Sterna antillarum), Wilson’s Plover (Charadrius wilsonia), Ground Dove (Columbina passerina ), Gull...terrestrial species of regional concern including the Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the Painted Bunting ( Passerina ciris). ERDC/EL TR-06-10 54

  11. Macrofauna Distributions in the Swash Zone of Nourished and Protected Barrier Island Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a dissertation research proposal designed to answer some of the fundamental questions concerning the nature of the physical-biological link between sandy...

  12. Physical Modeling of the Cross-Shore Sediment Transport on a Sand-Gravel Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xharde, Regis; Brunelle, Corinne; Frandsen, Jannette

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the cross-shore evolution of a nourished beach profile under storm wave conditions with specific emphasis on sediment transport within the breaking zone. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the coastal transport processes, a physical model of the beach was built at scale 1:3 in the new Quebec Coastal Physics Laboratory (QCPL), Canada. The modeled beach is 4.2 m high, 5 m wide and 40 m long with a mean slope of 1:10. The beach is formed of a mixture of sediment with grain sizes ranging from 0.65 mm up to 20 mm. The stability of the beach is tested for operational and storm waves. We report on run-up and run-down processes via wave gages, video records of waves and ultrasonic water level measurements. Sediment transport processes within the surf zone and on the beach face are monitored using acoustic Doppler profilers and optical backscattering sensors. The beach profile is surveyed prior and after each test series using a topographic laser scanner. Initial results show that sand is transported off-shore to a breaker bar while cobbles are pushed on the upper beach by run-up. Details of the underlying mechanism of different breaker types and impact on sediment transport will be presented.

  13. 77 FR 2966 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Exemption from Licensing. b. Project No.: 14345-000. c. Filing Date: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the...

  14. Erosion Negril Beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Ham, D.; Henrotte, J.; Kraaijeveld, R.; Milosevic, M.; Smit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing erosion of the Negril Beach has become worse the past decade. In most places along the coast line, the beach will be gone in approximately 10 years. This will result in a major decrease of incomes that are made by the local tourist sector. To prevent the erosion this study has been perfo

  15. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  16. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  17. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  18. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting...

  19. Recent coastal dune development: Effects of sand nourishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.A.J.; Heteren, S. van; Vonhgen, L.M.; Spek, A.J.F. van der; Valk, B. van der

    2012-01-01

    Much of the Dutch coast has been subject to structural erosion. From 1990 onward, sand nourishments have been used under a government policy of dynamic preservation. Annual monitoring and field inspections show that the structural erosion has decreased or even turned into coastal progradation after

  20. 77 FR 73636 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...] Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting... No.: P-14345-001. c. Date filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock River, in the Town of...

  1. National List of Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the...

  2. Massachusetts raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting...

  3. New Jersey raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting...

  4. New Jersey Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting...

  5. Detailed Project Report and Environmental Impact Assessment for Lakeshore Park, Ashtabula, Ohio Beach Erosion Control and Shoreline Protection Study. Stage III Documentation. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    lines of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the Gulf of Mexico , the Great Lakes, and lakes, estuaries, and bays directly connected therewith." These... GRAN SAMPLE H - GRAB SAPLE - - -- L -- + - -~- --- ~ --. --- --- 4 ~ .- H R S Ci-t---,N ID -~ IEAV EST AT ) SUMMAR 7 21~i 7I71.’-7~- 4(GRAB...and only a small percentage would be suitable for beach fill. Un- depresent conditions the only damage found to be attributable to the harbor

  6. Sand supply to beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2017-04-01

    In most cases, beaches and dunes are built by sand that has been transported onshore from the shoreface. While this has been known for a long time, we are still not able to quantitatively predict onshore sediment transport and sand supply to beaches. Sediment transport processes operating during brief, high-energy stormy conditions - when beaches erode and sand moves offshore - are fairly well known and they can be modelled with a reasonable degree of confidence. However, the slower onshore sand transport leading to beach recovery under low-to-moderate energy conditions - and the reason why beaches and dunes exist in the first place - is not yet well understood. This severely limits our capability to understand and predict coastal behaviour on long time scales, for example in response to changing sea level or wave conditions. This paper will discuss issues and recent developments in sediment transport measurement and prediction on the lower and upper shoreface and into the swash zone. The focus will be on the integration and upscaling of small-scale deterministic process measurements into parametric models that may increase modelling capabilities of coastal behaviour on larger temporal and spatial scales.

  7. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    temperature under the beach and inland. However, the thickness depends upon variabilities of precipitation, hinterland, water table fluctuations, temperature changes, composition and changes in sea level. Since the beach rock is formed in the tidal or spray...

  8. Summary of Annual Beach Notifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA gathers state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories. Between 1999 and...

  9. Short to long-term evolution of the shoreline and the subaerial sand beach driven by extreme forcings : Wan-Tzu-Liao, Taïwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campmas, Lucie; Bouchette, Frederic; Meulé, Samuel; Sous, Damien; Liou, Jiing-Yih; Leroux-Mallouf, Romain; Sabatier, François; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the interactions between wave conditions, water level and morphology of a sand barrier driven by paroxysmal conditions over instantaneous swash event, storm event, monsoon/typhoons seasons and decadal time scales. In the framework of the KUN-SHEN project, 7 months of monitoring (2011-2012) provided 20 topobathymetric surveys (from the subtidal zone to the back-barrier) and acquisitions of offshore, nearshore and shallow water hydrodynamics including velocity profiling, free surface measurement and absolute pressure. Offshore waves were extracted at Cigu buoy (18 m of water depth). Nearshore waves were acquired from the current profiler deployed 400 m off the coast in 4 m of water depth and water level on the subaerial beach were acquired from pressure sensors deployed from the subtidal zone to the dune crest. Morphologic changes of the emerged beach were monitored using D-GPS each week during the winter monsoon season and just before and after each event during the summer typhoons season. The long-term shoreline changes (1993-2009) of the sand barrier is based on aerial photographs and satellites images. The short-term study focus on the sand bed elevation changes associated with individual swash events during the most energetic storm recorded. During this Talim tropical storm (offshore significant wave height up to 10.3 m with period about 14.6 s), pressure sensors deployed in the subaerial beach display a sand bed nourishment about +3.02 cm/h during the storm rising. The numerous swash-swash interactions during the falling period of the storm appear more erosive. Morphological changes of Talim storm in the whole emerged beach included 6.7 m of dunefoot retreat and a sand transfer from a dune breach to wash-over deposits in the lagoon. Additionally, the foreshore was nourished +2261 m3 +/-268 m3 as well as the whole sand barrier (+1920 m3 +/-1071 m3). The summer season of typhoons appears to be an accretive period (3556 m3 +/-1071

  10. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  11. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  12. 76 FR 32147 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the St. Lucie South Beach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... for the St. Lucie South Beach and Dune Restoration Project Located in St. Lucie County, Florida AGENCY.... California Blvd., Port St. Lucie, 34986. 5. USACE Palm Beach Gardens Regulatory Office, 4400 PGA Boulevard, Suite 500 Palm Beach Gardens, Florida 33410. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Leah Oberlin,...

  13. 77 FR 13102 - Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the St. Lucie South Beach and Dune...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... St. Lucie South Beach and Dune Restoration Project located in St. Lucie County, Florida AGENCY: U.S.... Lucie West Library J Building, 500 NW. California Blvd., Port St. Lucie, 34986, 5. USACE Palm Beach Gardens Regulatory Office, 4400 PGA Boulevard, Suite 500 Palm Beach Gardens, Florida 33410. FOR...

  14. Behaviour of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on a rehabilitated sandy beach on the European Atlantic Coast (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Filipa; Rossano, Claudia; Nourisson, Delphine; Gambineri, Simone; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and human controls are widely accepted as the main structuring forces of the macrofauna communities on sandy beaches. A population of the talitrid amphipod Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) was investigated on an exposed sandy beach on the Atlantic coast of Portugal (Leirosa beach) to estimate orientation capabilities and endogenous rhythms in conditions of recent changes in the landscape (artificial reconstruction of the foredune) and beach morphodynamics (stabilization against erosion from the sea). We tested sun orientation of talitrids on the beach and recorded their locomotor activity rhythms under constant conditions in the laboratory. The orientation data were analysed with circular statistics and multiple regression models adapted to angular distributions, to highlight the main factors and variables influencing the variation of orientation. The talitrids used the sun compass, visual cues (landscape and sun visibility) to orient and the precision of orientation varied according to the tidal regime (rising or ebbing tides). A well-defined free-running rhythm (circadian with in addition a bimodal rhythmicity, likely tidal) was highlighted in this population. This showed a stable behavioural adaptation on a beach that has experienced a process of artificial stabilization of the dune through nourishment actions over a decade. Monitoring the conditions of such dynamic environments and the resilience capacity of the inhabiting macroinfauna is a main challenge for sandy beach ecologists.

  15. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    weakening tendency from west to east, which is opposite to the trend of the wave conditions outside the breaking region. The presence of submerged shoal (Dengzhou Shoal), deep trough (Dengzhou Channel), islands and irregular topography influnces the wave climate, beach types, wave-induced current features, littoral sediment transport trends and coastline evolution patterns in the southern Bohai Strait. Human activities, such as the sand exploitation of Dengzhou Shoal and other coastal engineering projects, also influence the beach morphology and coastline evolution.

  16. Integral management systems of beaches; Sistemas de Gestion Integral de Playas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monar, F.

    2002-07-01

    The Qualitat Calvia Plan includes an assembly of 25 projects. One of them is the Integral Management Project of Buildings, Infrastructures and Public Spaces (GEEP) in which is integrated the Integral Management Plan of Beaches that tries to offer a better service to our visitors and residents in the unique public spaces of our beaches. (Author)

  17. Integrated Co-management of Lakes through Beach Management Units

    OpenAIRE

    Goverment of Uganda; Department for International Development (DFID) of the UK Government

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record In 1999, the Integrated Co-management of Lakes through Beach Management Units project was started in an effort to implement a new approach to the management of lake resources in Uganda. The main components of this plan involved decentralization, local community management, and improving the livelihood of the poor. In order to finance the management of these areas, the Beach Management Units (BMU's) are charging user fees to those individuals who obtain benefit from the...

  18. Bio-inspired nourishing relationship between human and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    This paper discuses on the adaptive systems in the near future from the viewpoint of nourishing relationship. Based on the assumption that the social system is so-called "system of systems," managing adaptive systems within the social system puts emphasis rather on relationship among systems than on each element of systems with the help of ecological approach to systems science. Inspired by natural biological systems, the relationship between adaptive systems and users are formalized as a mutual nurturing, then this paper discusses on principle of designing such relationship.

  19. Beach and Morphology Change Using Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    were imported as (x, y, z) scatter points into the Scatter Module of the SMS (Figure 3) decimated by 5 meters (m) in the cross- shore and 50 m in...morphodynamics of sandy and mixed sand and gravel beaches. Graduate thesis and dissertation. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida. http...Engineers (USACE), Jacksonville District (SAJ). 2010. Pinellas County, Florida, shore protection project: Long Key & Treasure Island segments, 2006

  20. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  1. STENCIL - Strategies and Tools for Environment-friendly Shore Nourishments as Climate Change Impact Low-Regret Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmels, Stefan; Cofalla, Catrina; Deutschmann, Björn; Ganal, Caroline; Gijsman, Rik; Hass, H. Christian; Hollert, Henner; Mielck, Finn; Schlurmann, Thorsten; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Shiravani, Gholamreza; Staudt, Franziska; Strusinska, Agnieszka; Visscher, Jan; Wiltshire, Karen; Wolbring, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Shore nourishments are regarded as an almost routine coastal protection measure and have been carried out worldwide for several decades. Recent studies generally conclude that "soft" coastal protection measures are an effective option for a sustainable coastal management. However, more research on economic sustainability, species-specific habitat demands and availability of sand deposits is required. Nowadays, the recent paradigm shifts to concepts like the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). For the German Wadden Sea these management objectives are an important issue of the "Wattenmeerstrategie 2100" (MELLUR-SH, 2015), a political strategy report that demands an adaption against the global change and the expected sea-level rise up to the year 2100. Hence, also new concepts and tools for the implementation of more sustainable, effective and environment-friendly shore nourishments are needed. The research project STENCIL joins the expertise of coastal engineers, geologists, biologists and toxicologists in order to make a first step towards the long-term goal of establishing an ICZM and EAM for shore nourishments in the German Wadden Sea. The project focuses on providing improved tools, models and methods for the prediction of coastal hydro- and morphodynamics. Furthermore, the impact of dredging and dumping activities on benthic habitats and their natural regeneration potentials will be evaluated. Since these impacts are still widely uninvestigated, monitoring of dredging areas and the surrounding sites using hydroacoustic devices, aerial photos and sediment samples for grain-size and benthos analysis remains of high importance. In order to develop standardized operative observation methods, analysis and decision-supporting tools, an implementation of field measurements, laboratory experiments as well as conceptual and numerical models is planned. These combined approaches will result in valuable data sets for

  2. Carbonate Beaches: A Balance Between Biological and Physical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, R.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    of 40 years. The long-term predictive tool for carbonate beach evolution provided valuable support to developing coastal zone management policy and actions to preserve the beaches in their natural form, minimizing the need for artificial nourishment of the beaches. Many models of sediment movement on shorelines are derived from clastic examples, and fit carbonate coastlines only with difficulty. We have combined field surveys of benthic biota, estimates of sediment production from skeletal growth and bioerosion, and sediment destruction by comminution and dissolution with dynamic models of sediment movement in the littoral zone, achieving improved understanding of coastal processes of erosion and deposition. Mauritius is fringed by shallow lagoons, often with luxuriant stands of Acropora. The offshore region is exhumed Pleistocene-all the sediment on the beaches comes from the lagoons. From surveys of coral cover, and estimates of sediment production from reef, sand and hardground areas, we produced dynamic models that faithfully hindcast shoreline dynamics for decades, and allowed identification of regions especially vulnerable to erosion. On the south coast of Barbados, one of the main issues in stabilising and rehabilitation the coastline is the balance between sediment from longshore drift and local sources. By identifying localised areas of characteristic sediment-producers (e.g., the foraminiferan Homotrema rubrum, the green alga Halimeda), we were able to determine the balance between proximal and distal sediment sources. The resulting model hindcasts the coastline through all the major hurricanes of the past 30 years.

  3. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report.

  4. Motivational interviewing with parents of overweight children: study design and methods for the NOURISH + MI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Melanie K; Jeffers, Amy J; Tully, Carrie B; Thornton, Laura M; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2014-03-01

    There is an urgent need for innovative approaches to pediatric obesity treatment. There is also a demand for targeted strategies that reduce attrition and improve treatment adherence. Intervening exclusively with parents of overweight children is a novel approach with demonstrated efficacy in reducing child body mass index (BMI) percentile. Motivational interviewing (MI), a brief communication style for exploring and resolving ambivalence about behavior change, might enhance treatment engagement when implemented as part of obesity interventions. The aim of this report is to provide the rationale and methods for a novel study of MI with parents in the treatment of their children's overweight. We designed and are currently implementing NOURISH+MI, a randomized controlled trial examining the feasibility and efficacy of an adjunct values-based MI intervention, implemented within a culturally-tailored parent intervention for overweight children ages 5-11 years, NOURISH(+) (Nourishing Our Understanding of Role modeling to Improve Support and Health). Specifically, we are randomly assigning 60 parents to this adjunctive treatment, and investigating if adding two MI sessions prior to the NOURISH(+) group intervention will enhance treatment effects. We will be able to compare NOURISH+MI participants with those from the two NOURISH(+) treatment conditions (NOURISH(+) and control). We hypothesize that children whose parents participate in NOURISH+MI will demonstrate lower attrition and greater adherence with NOURISH(+), ultimately leading to greater treatment effects, compared with children whose parents are randomized to NOURISH(+) or a control group. Findings will contribute to the emerging literature examining the efficacy of MI within pediatric obesity interventions.

  5. Assessing Long-Term Spatial and Temporal Change of the Dune-Beach System: Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, E.; Hapke, C. J.; Hehre, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Morphologic changes over 10, 30, and 40 year intervals are quantified and used to better understand patterns of change and geologic controls on the subaerial system at Fire Island, New York. Elevation data from modern lidar and RTK GPS surveys are compared with photogrammetrically-derived 3D topography from historical aerial photos to assess long-term change. More temporally dense digital elevation models are used to assess shorter-term variability in selected areas. The analysis provides the first of its kind island-long assessment of long-term beach/dune morphologic change at Fire Island. Fire Island is a 50-km long barrier island which lies along the south shore of Long Island. A host of management regimes and interests are present at Fire Island, including privately owned communities and public lands. To better anticipate future change, coastal managers and residents alike require a better understanding of island evolution over the last half-century, especially oceanfront morphology changes in modified and unmodified areas. In this study, three high-resolution topographic models of the dune and beach system were used to assess morphologic change from 1969 through 2009. Historical datasets were generated using digital photogrammetric processing techniques, while more recent datasets were derived from a combination of lidar and real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS surfaces. Results show that distinct differences in alongshore behavior can be attributed to antecedent geology/geomorphology and anthropogenic modifications. The western third of the island, a prograding spit, shows continued and persistent accretion along its dunes and beaches. Beaches and dunes fronting communities in the western reach of the island show net dune crestline (3 m) and substantial shoreline (25 m) accretion, which are positively correlated with dune crest height and may be linked to numerous beach nourishment projects that have occurred in this area since the 1960s. The eastern half of the

  6. On the Season, a Report of a Public Health Project Conducted Among Negro Migrant Agricultural Workers in Palm Beach County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Robert H.; Northcutt, Travis J., Jr.

    A 5-year project to develop public health services for migrant workers was initiated in Florida in 1956. The project staff consisted of 8 public health personnel: 2 public health nurses, a public health educator, a public health nutritionist, a medical social worker, a part-time sanitarian, a liaison worker, and a secretary. Two practicing…

  7. Terrestrial-based lidar beach topography of Fire Island, New York, June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Owen T.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Lee, Kathryn G.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2016-02-19

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) in Florida and the USGS Lower Mississippi-Gulf Water Science Center (LMG WSC) in Montgomery, Alabama, collaborated to gather alongshore terrestrial-based lidar beach elevation data at Fire Island, New York. This high-resolution elevation dataset was collected on June 11, 2014, to characterize beach topography and document ongoing beach evolution and recovery, and is part of the ongoing beach monitoring within the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. This USGS data series includes the resulting processed elevation point data (xyz) and an interpolated digital elevation model (DEM).

  8. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  9. Transition and nostalgia: the Acandí people nourishing system, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Margarita Alcaraz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know and understand the nourishing system of the Acandí people relative to their economic and social history, providing elements for intercultural health care. Methodology: ethnography focused in the nourishing system. A total of 33 semi–structured interviews were performed, three focal groups were organized and field study was carried on. Manual analysis was performed. Results: looking back into the past one can realize how planting, harvesting, hunting, fishing, community sharing of foods (were daily socialization occurs recede today in front of media, tourism, unrest, and changing methods of production. Present day economic problems force people to pass from three daily meals to only two, affecting specially elders and children. Conclusions: despite nourishing transition, nourishing identity remains with nostalgia of better by-gone times and present day evidence of serious nourishing shortcomings. It is then convenient to establish polices and clear and responsible planning to preserve nourishing culture, nourishing security and the empowerment of the Acandí people in relation to those goals.

  10. Governance in a beach seine fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medard, Modesta; Dijk, Van Han; Hebinck, Paul; Geheb, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Beach seine gear is one of the prominent fishing gears in Nile Perch fishery. Before Nile Perch was introduced to the lake, beach seines the species targeted with beach seine were Tilapia, Bagrus, Haplochromis, Protopterus and Labeo. In 1994, beach seines were banned in Tanzania and by 2004, this

  11. Beach ridges and prograded beach deposits as palaeoenvironment records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toru

    2012-09-01

    Beach ridges are landforms commonly developed on prograded coasts with beach shorelines. A sequence of beach ridges, coupled with their subsurface deposits, can be regarded as a time series of coastal evolution. Methodological advances in field surveying and chronology applicable to beach ridges have led to detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions to be derived from such sequences. This paper reconsiders the basic aspects of beach ridges and deposits, which need to be properly understood for their comprehensive interpretation in a palaeo-environmental context. It also reviews case studies in which beach-ridge sequences have been used to unveil past sea-level history, catastrophic events, and climate changes. Proposed formative processes of beach ridges include: 1) progradation of sandy beach and berm formations in relation to fairweather waves, coupled with aeolian foredune accumulation; 2) building of gravel ridges by storm waves; 3) welding of longshore bars. Beach-ridge formation through sea-level oscillation is thought to be questionable and caution is suggested for this process when undertaking palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Beach deposit stratification is known to dip either landwards or seawards, but landward dips are uncommon. Seaward dipping stratification is formed in relation to beachface progradation, and is usually dissected in places by erosion surfaces resulting from episodic beach retreat. The boundary between the foreshore and the underlying shoreface is well defined only in the case that longshore bars lead to complex bedding structure relative to that of the foreshore. Reliable chronology of beach ridges can be determined by radiocarbon and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Radiocarbon dating of articulated shells, which are considered not to be extensively reworked, provides robust results, but OSL dating is more useful as it enables direct dating of sediment grains. It is noted that there are restrictions in chronological

  12. EFFECT OF SPERM NOURISHING INSTANT POTION ON REGULATING THE FUNCTION OF HYPOTHALAMUS-PITUITARYTESTIS AXIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUMei-Guang; ZHANGYue-Lin; YANGXian-Lin

    1989-01-01

    From Sept. 1987 to Oct. 1988, in Tianjin West River Hospital, Male Infertility Clinic of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 300 patients or male infertility for more than 2 years without organic diseases but abnormal sperm counts were given Sperm Nourishing Instant

  13. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  14. BEACH VOLUME CHANGE USING UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY SONGJUNG BEACH, KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D and beach profile (vertical 2D on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  15. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  16. 1933 Long Beach, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 5 kilometers southwest of Newport Beach. Seriously affected area: 1,200 square kilometers. Damage: $40 million. Schools were among the buildings most severely...

  17. Human Health at the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day at the beach are from swimming. Food poisoning from improperly refrigerated picnic lunches may also have ... simple steps to protect against overexposure to UV radiation as well as how to check the UV ...

  18. Horry County Beach Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Horry County has coordinated with DHEC OCRM to fully inventory, analyze, and documenteach of the ten required elements for an approvable local comprehensive beach...

  19. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  20. Fistuloclysis: An Interprofessional Approach to Nourishing the Fistula Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcutts, Kate; Mercer, David; Ziegler, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Enteric fistulas can be classified as enterocutaneous and/or enteroatmospheric. Both are devastating complications of bowel disease, abdominal surgery, and/or open abdomen. Enteric fistulas are associated with a mortality rate varying from 1% to 33%; the main cause of death is sepsis. Coordinated and skillful efforts of an interprofessional team are required in customizing successful treatment regimens appropriate to each patient's unique clinical scenario. A 65-year-old white woman experienced an enteroatmospheric fistula patient after ventral hernia repair. Care of this patient was based on the complementary relationship between professionals from 2 disciplines: the wound and ostomy continence nurse (WOC nurse) and the nutrition support registered dietitian/nutritionist. Working together, they developed a comprehensive wound, ostomy, and nutritional plan. Initially, the patient received parenteral nutrition exclusively. After the fistula tract was clearly defined, a feeding tube was placed into the distal limb of the fistula, and she received nourishment via a fistuloclysis (ie, enteral feedings administered via the fistula). A special wound management system was created to contain fistula output while allowing feeding through the distal limb of the fistula. Enterocutaneous and enteroatmospheric fistulas originating from the small bowel present a management challenge to the entire healthcare team. WOC nurses are often called upon to meet the challenge of maintaining skin health while promoting dignity and function. Nutrition support via registered dietitian/nutritionists play a critical role in managing the nutrition regimen for these patients. In this case, the use of fistuloclysis met the patient's nutritional needs while avoiding the risks associated with parenteral nutrition.

  1. Human threats to sandy beaches: A meta-analysis of ghost crabs illustrates global anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lucrezi, Serena; Connolly, Rod M.; Peterson, Charles H.; Gilby, Ben L.; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D.; Walker, Simon J.; Leon, Javier X.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Weston, Michael A.; Turra, Alexander; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Holt, Rebecca A.; Schoeman, David S.

    2016-02-01

    Beach and coastal dune systems are increasingly subjected to a broad range of anthropogenic pressures that on many shorelines require significant conservation and mitigation interventions. But these interventions require reliable data on the severity and frequency of adverse ecological impacts. Such evidence is often obtained by measuring the response of 'indicator species'. Ghost crabs are the largest invertebrates inhabiting tropical and subtropical sandy shores and are frequently used to assess human impacts on ocean beaches. Here we present the first global meta-analysis of these impacts, and analyse the design properties and metrics of studies using ghost-crabs in their assessment. This was complemented by a gap analysis to identify thematic areas of anthropogenic pressures on sandy beach ecosystems that are under-represented in the published literature. Our meta-analysis demonstrates a broad geographic reach, encompassing studies on shores of the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, as well as the South China Sea. It also reveals what are, arguably, two major limitations: i) the near-universal use of proxies (i.e. burrow counts to estimate abundance) at the cost of directly measuring biological traits and bio-markers in the organism itself; and ii) descriptive or correlative study designs that rarely extend beyond a simple 'compare and contrast approach', and hence fail to identify the mechanistic cause(s) of observed contrasts. Evidence for a historically narrow range of assessed pressures (i.e., chiefly urbanisation, vehicles, beach nourishment, and recreation) is juxtaposed with rich opportunities for the broader integration of ghost crabs as a model taxon in studies of disturbance and impact assessments on ocean beaches. Tangible advances will most likely occur where ghost crabs provide foci for experiments that test specific hypotheses associated with effects of chemical, light and acoustic pollution, as well as the consequences of climate change (e

  2. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  3. Moving sands along a headland-embayed beach system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sónia; Horta, João; Nascimento, Ana; Gomes, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    Resilience of embayed and pocket beaches located at the southernmost coast of Portugal is currently a major question to coastal management of this region. In fact, several among those beaches have been artificially fed aiming to increase the width of the beach allowing people to maintain a safe distance to the unstable rocky cliffs. The sand is dredged from the offshore (ca. 2 miles from the shoreline) representing high costs for the Portuguese government. For how long will the artificial feeding solve the problem? Which beaches are worth being nourished taking into account the morphosedimentary processes? The present work is the result of a field experiment aiming to study the efficiency of the alongshore sedimentary transport between successive embayed beaches. The experiment was performed in the very indented rocky coast of the Algarve region (Southern Portugal) and comprised two field campaigns, both in 2014, during spring tides in March and November. The Algarve coast experiences a semi-diurnal meso-tidal regime ranging from 1.3 m during neap tides to 3.5 m at spring tides and the waves approach from WSW (232°) during 72% of observations along the year, almost normal to the study area shoreline. The wave and current characteristics (significant height-Hs and Period-T for waves, velocity and direction for currents) were measured during three and six tidal cycles respectively for the first and second campaign, using two pressure transducers and one electromagnetic current meter. We used sand painted with orange fluorescent dye (100 kg in March and 200 kg in November) as tracer to track the movement of the sand along the coast. The marked sand was placed on the beach face of the westernmost beach of the study area during the first low tide of each campaign. Following, hundreds of sediment samples were collected during low tide, through the monitored period, in the nodes of a georeferenced square mesh of 10 x 20 m covering three embayed beaches. Later in the

  4. Mixed sand and gravel beaches: accurate measurement of active layer depth and sediment transport volumes using PIT tagged tracer pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A.; Moses, C.; Sear, D. A.; Cope, S.

    2016-12-01

    As sediments containing significant gravel portions are increasingly used for beach replenishment projects globally, the total number of beaches classified as `mixed sand and gravel' (MSG) increases. Calculations for required replenishment sediment volumes usually assume a uniform layer of sediment transport across and along the beach, but research into active layer (AL) depth has shown variations both across shore and according to sediment size distribution. This study addresses the need for more accurate calculations of sediment transport volumes on MSG beaches by using more precise measurements of AL depth and width, and virtual velocity of tracer pebbles. Variations in AL depth were measured along three main profile lines (from MHWS to MLWN) at Eastoke, Hayling Island (Hampshire, UK). Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged pebbles were deployed in columns, and their new locations repeatedly surveyed with RFID technology. These data were combined with daily dGPS beach profiles and sediment sampling for detailed analysis of the influence of beach morphodynamics on sediment transport volumes. Data were collected over two consecutive winter seasons: 2014-15 (relatively calm, average wave height sandy lower foreshore reduced the AL to 10% of wave height in this area. The disparity in AL depth across the beach profile indicates that traditional models are not accurately representing bulk sediment transport on MSG beaches. It is anticipated that by improving model inputs, beach managers will be better able to predict necessary volumes and sediment grain size proportions of replenishment material for effective management of MSG beaches.

  5. Renewable Energy Development in Hermosa Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K.

    2016-12-01

    The City of Hermosa Beach, California, with the support of the AGU's TEX program, is exploring the potential for renewable energy generation inside the City, as part of the implementation of the City's 2015 Municipal Carbon Neutral Plan. Task 1: Estimate the technical potential of existing and future technologies Given the City's characteristics, this task will identify feasible technologies: wind, solar, tidal/wave, wastewater biogas, landfill biogas, microscale anaerobic digestion (AD), and complementary energy storage. Some options may be open to the City acting alone, but others will require working with municipal partners and private entities that provide services to Hermosa Beach (e.g., wastewater treatment). Energy storage is a means to integrate intermittent renewable energy output. Task 2: Review transaction types and pathways In this task, feasible technologies will be further examined in terms of municipal ordinances and contractual paths: (a) power purchase agreements (PPAs) with developers, under which the City would purchase energy or storage services directly; (b) leases with developers, under which the City would rent sites (e.g., municipal rooftops) to developers; (c) ordinances related to permitting, under which the City would reduce regulatory barriers to entry for developers; (d) pilot projects, under which the City would engage with developers to test new technologies such as wind/wave/microscale AD (pursuant to PPAs and/or leases); and (e) existing projects, under which the City would work with current wastewater and landfill contractors to understand (i) current plans to develop renewable energy, and (ii) opportunities for the City to work with such contractors to promote renewable energy. Task 3: Estimate costs by technology Finally, the last task will gather existing information about the costs, both current and projected, of the feasible technologies, including (i) overnight construction cost (capital); (ii) integration costs (e

  6. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August...

  7. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  8. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in...

  9. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic... Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised of a series of triathlon races, is scheduled to take place on Saturday, October 8, 2011 and...

  10. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised of a series of triathlon races, is scheduled to take place on Saturday, October...

  11. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach Triathlon, which is comprised of a series of triathlon races, is scheduled to take place on Saturday, October...

  12. Lake Beach Monitoring Locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...

  13. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Beaches 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...

  14. Amchitka beach surveys, 1978-1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of 16 beaches on Amchitka Island began 28 October 1978 as part of Alaska Beached Bird Survey. The purpose of the surveys is to provide baseline data on...

  15. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Beaches 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...

  16. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in tropical sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...

  17. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  18. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  19. Sediment Distribution in the Nearshore Zone: Grain Size Evolution in Response to Shoreface Nourishment (Island of Terschelling, The Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, J.; Hoekstra, P.

    1997-11-01

    The natural sediment distribution in the littoral zone of Terschelling, The Netherlands was disturbed by a shoreface nourishment carried out off the central part of the island. The sedimentological impact of this shoreface nourishment, i.e. the grain size evolution and the sediment dynamics, is studied in order to increase understanding of coastal processes. The variability of the sediment during the study period is due to both natural processes and the nourishment. Immediately after implementation of the nourishment, the sediment distribution was measurably affected. The sediment supplied caused a coarsening (20-40 μm) of the sediment in the zone directly affected by the nourishment. Six months after the nourishment, the grain size distribution across the profile was nearly the same as the original, and no significant effects of the nourishment could be recognized in the median grain size. Individual grain size fractions displayed a temporal evolution more complex than the median size, and significant changes, unrelated to the sand supplied, were observed. Results of the sediment analysis from the coastal zone of Terschelling indicate that the shoreface nourishment only had a short-term and very local impact on the sediment distribution. Some months after the nourishment, the former grain size distribution was re-established. This implies that the nourished sediment was quickly dispersed and mixed with the original deposits, and that it only represents a small part of the volume of sediment involved in the dynamics of the littoral zone. On a yearly perspective, the natural variability of the sediment was higher than the changes caused by the nourishment.

  20. Jamaica Beach Projects 1982-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We used data from 1984 samples taken approximately monthly over 11 yrs (1982 to 1992) with a drop trap sampler that sampled an area of 2.6 m2 to quantify and compare...

  1. Can beaches survive climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Limber, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is driving sea level rise, leading to numerous impacts on the coastal zone, such as increased coastal flooding, beach erosion, cliff failure, saltwater intrusion in aquifers, and groundwater inundation. Many beaches around the world are currently experiencing chronic erosion as a result of gradual, present-day rates of sea level rise (about 3 mm/year) and human-driven restrictions in sand supply (e.g., harbor dredging and river damming). Accelerated sea level rise threatens to worsen coastal erosion and challenge the very existence of natural beaches throughout the world. Understanding and predicting the rates of sea level rise and coastal erosion depends on integrating data on natural systems with computer simulations. Although many computer modeling approaches are available to simulate shoreline change, few are capable of making reliable long-term predictions needed for full adaption or to enhance resilience. Recent advancements have allowed convincing decadal to centennial-scale predictions of shoreline evolution. For example, along 500 km of the Southern California coast, a new model featuring data assimilation predicts that up to 67% of beaches may completely erode by 2100 without large-scale human interventions. In spite of recent advancements, coastal evolution models must continue to improve in their theoretical framework, quantification of accuracy and uncertainty, computational efficiency, predictive capability, and integration with observed data, in order to meet the scientific and engineering challenges produced by a changing climate.

  2. Can beaches survive climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Limber, Patrick W.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is driving sea level rise, leading to numerous impacts on the coastal zone, such as increased coastal flooding, beach erosion, cliff failure, saltwater intrusion in aquifers, and groundwater inundation. Many beaches around the world are currently experiencing chronic erosion as a result of gradual, present-day rates of sea level rise (about 3 mm/year) and human-driven restrictions in sand supply (e.g., harbor dredging and river damming). Accelerated sea level rise threatens to worsen coastal erosion and challenge the very existence of natural beaches throughout the world. Understanding and predicting the rates of sea level rise and coastal erosion depends on integrating data on natural systems with computer simulations. Although many computer modeling approaches are available to simulate shoreline change, few are capable of making reliable long-term predictions needed for full adaption or to enhance resilience. Recent advancements have allowed convincing decadal to centennial-scale predictions of shoreline evolution. For example, along 500 km of the Southern California coast, a new model featuring data assimilation predicts that up to 67% of beaches may completely erode by 2100 without large-scale human interventions. In spite of recent advancements, coastal evolution models must continue to improve in their theoretical framework, quantification of accuracy and uncertainty, computational efficiency, predictive capability, and integration with observed data, in order to meet the scientific and engineering challenges produced by a changing climate.

  3. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  4. The Geomorphic System and the Effects of Human Interference at Gold Coast Beach in Tainan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    2017-04-01

    The Gold Coast beach in Tainan, Taiwan, located between Anping harbor and Ur-Jen river mouth, is the subject of this study, which characterizes the beach's geomorphic system through the analysis of information such as sediment grain size, mineral composition, and periodic measurements of morphological changes of the beach. Based upon such characterizations, further analysis is conducted on the effects that human activities of the last 15 years have upon the geomorphic changes within the Gold Coast beach. The study shows that the median grain size of the Gold Coast beach's sediment is medium sand. The mineral composition includes mainly slate fragments and quartz grains, with small amounts of feldspar, sandstone and shell fragments. Based on a comprehensive study of the longshore distribution of beach sediment size and mineral composition of southwestern coast of Taiwan, as well as, the long-term, monitored data of waves, tides, and currents in this region, we conclude that the main process responsible for the sand accumulation at Gold Coast beach is the prevailing longshore sand transport from south to north. The southern breakwater of Anping harbor plays a role in intercepting the longshore transport sand and helps form the beach. Since the Ur-Jen river flows through a mudstone region, the suspended sediment plume during the flood season does not provide much sediment source to the sandy beach. A monthly beach profile survey project conducted between the years 1999 to 2000 revealed that the beach elevation and width had experienced an obvious seasonal change. The beach widened during the winter, but narrowed in the summer due to typhoon wave erosion. When the subaerial beach was eroded, a submerged longshore bar that was oriented almost parallel to the shoreline had formed at a distance about 400-600 meter away. With this observation, we can conclude that beach morphology is also influenced by various seasonal wave actions that affect onshore and offshore sand

  5. Indigenous Knowledge in Post-Secondary Educators' Practices: Nourishing the Learning Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuik, Jonathan; Gillies, Carmen L.

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 to 2009, Indigenous Elders and scholars shared their insights in the Comprehending and Nourishing the Learning Spirit Animation Theme Bundle of the Aboriginal Learning Knowledge Centre (ABLKC). The ABLKC was an applied research, knowledge exchange, and monitoring program with a mandate to advance Aboriginal education in Canada. One of…

  6. Cross-shore redistribution of nourished sand near a breaker bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the optimal location for dumping nourished sand on a barred coastline. This is done by investigating the short-term behavior of the cross-shore redistribution of nourished sediment on a breaker-bar profile in a two-dimensional vertical plane. This is achieved by the use of a...... bar can have both destructive and protective impacts on the original shoreward-located cross-shore profile.......This paper focuses on the optimal location for dumping nourished sand on a barred coastline. This is done by investigating the short-term behavior of the cross-shore redistribution of nourished sediment on a breaker-bar profile in a two-dimensional vertical plane. This is achieved by the use...... over the profile is consider as a means of imposing the net recirculation resulting from longshore nonuniformities or the impact of wind-induced shear stresses. The impact of wave height, irregularity in incident waves, and the size of the sediment grains on the cross-shore distribution of suspended...

  7. The opacity of reduction: nutritional black-boxing and the meanings of nourishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the process of consolidating technical and historically contingent ideas about nourishment into seemingly straightforward terms such as vitamins and minerals. I study the adoption of scientific principles of abstraction and reduction as a strategy of nutrition education in thre

  8. The opacity of reduction: nutritional black-boxing and the meanings of nourishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the process of consolidating technical and historically contingent ideas about nourishment into seemingly straightforward terms such as vitamins and minerals. I study the adoption of scientific principles of abstraction and reduction as a strategy of nutrition education in

  9. Geothermal energy at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine and evaluate sources of geothermal energy at two military bases in southern California, the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station. One part of the project focused on the natural geothermal characteristics beneath the naval bases. Another part focused on the geothermal energy produced by oilfield operations on and adjacent to each base. Results of the study are presented here for the US Department of the Navy to use in its program to reduce its reliance on petrolem by the development of different sources of energy. The study was accomplished under a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy's San Francisco Operations Office and the Department of the Navy's Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California, for joint research and development of geothermal energy at military installations.

  10. Survey of microbial populations within Lake Michigan nearshore waters at two Chicago public beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kema Malki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Michigan is a critical resource for the residents of Chicago, providing drinking water to its 9+ million area residents. Along Chicago׳s 26 miles of public beaches the populous urban environment and this freshwater environment meet. While city-led monitoring initiatives investigate pathogenic bacteria in these nearshore waters, very little is known about other microbial species present. We collected surface water samples from two Chicago public beaches – Montrose Beach and 57th Street Beach – every ten days from June 5 through August 4, 2013 as well as once in early Fall (October 4, 2013. Sixteen bacterial communities in total were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI׳s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802. OTU calls for each read are also available at our online repository: www.lakemichiganmicrobes.com/bacteria/.

  11. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  12. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  13. Anthropogenic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): results from a national survey supported by volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Macarena; de Los Angeles Gallardo, Ma; Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo; Núñez, Paloma; Vásquez, Nelson; Thiel, Martin

    2009-11-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is an ubiquitous problem, which has motivated public participation in activities such as beach surveys and clean-up campaigns. While it is known that beaches in the SE Pacific are also affected by this problem, the quantities and types of AMD remain largely unknown. In the context of an outreach project, volunteers (approximately 1500 high-school students) participated in a nation-wide survey of AMD on 43 beaches distributed randomly along the entire Chilean coast (18 degrees S to 53 degrees S). The mean density of AMD was 1.8 items m(-2) and the major types were plastics, cigarette butts and glass. Densities in central Chile were lower than in northern and southern Chile, which could be due to different attitudes of beach users or to intense beach cleaning in central regions. We suggest that public participation in surveys and cleaning activities will raise awareness and thereby contribute to an improvement of the situation.

  14. Short-term effect of beach replenishment on a shallow Posidonia oceanica meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Correa, José M; Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2009-09-01

    Putative perturbations on a Posidonia oceanica meadow produced by recent artificial beach nourishment were evaluated in relation to four undisturbed meadows. Temporal variations of putative impacted location vs. control locations of environmental (light availability and sediment features), plant (associated epiphytes, silt-clay fraction attached to epiphytes, herbivore attack, non-structural carbohydrate reserves) and structural parameters (cover and density) of meadows were tested by asymmetrical analysis of variance beyond BACI (Before/After, Control/Impact). Additionally, two asymmetrical analyses of variance were used to test for differences in vegetative growth of horizontal rhizomes (leaf production, horizontal rhizome growth, biomass production and net secondary rhizome recruitment) before and after beach replenishment. Environmental effects induced by dumping works were only detected in connection with a higher silt-clay deposition rate. This increase was consistent with the increase of silt-clay cover attached to epiphytes. As a consequence of silt-clay smothering, a decrease of filter feeding epiphytes, starch reserves, shoot surface and shoot biomass was observed. The sensitivity of plants to sediment inputs, leads us to recommend avoidance of dumping or sediment movement in the vicinity of P. oceanica meadows.

  15. Five years of beach drainage survey on a macrotidal beach (Quend-Plage, northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.

  16. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    rates of seasonal cross-shore sediment transport mask any potential profile change in the Coastal Profiling System data due to dredge placement. *Pockets of accretion have been recorded by topographic surveying adjacent to the dredge site, but it is unclear if the accretion is linked to the nourishment. *Cross-shore profile modeling suggests that dredge material must be placed in water depths no greater than 5 m to drive a positive shoreline response. *Area modeling demonstrates that the new dredge site increases wave dissipation and modifies local sediment-transport patterns, although the effect on the nearshore morphology is largely negligible. *Any increase in beach width or wave energy-dissipation related to the nourishment is likely to be realized only in the vicinity directly onshore of the nourishment site, which is several hundred meters south of the area of critical erosion. *Larger waves from the northwest and smaller waves from the west or southwest contribute most to the sediment transport from the dredge mound onshore.

  17. Stability and safety of Anjuna beach, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Studies on the Anjuna Beach, Goa, India, from March to December, 1975, show that it is fairly stable though it undergoes seasonal changes and a series of short-term cuts and fills. The beach appears to be quite safe as the longshore currents...

  18. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  19. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    A need exists for frequent and prompt updating of shoreline positions, rates of shoreline movement, and volumetric nearshore changes. To effectively monitor and predict these beach changes, accurate measurements of beach morphology incorporating both shore-parallel and shore-normal transects are required. Although it is possible to monitor beach dynamics using land-based surveying methods, it is generally not practical to collect data of sufficient density and resolution to satisfy a three-dimensional beach-change model of long segments of the coast. The challenge to coastal scientists is to devise new beach monitoring methods that address these needs and are rapid, reliable, relatively inexpensive, and maintain or improve measurement accuracy.

  20. Hospital admissions in poorly nourished, compared with well-nourished, older South Australians receiving 'Meals on Wheels': findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate whether 'Meals on Wheels' (MOW) improves health and reduces hospital admissions in poorly nourished (PN) older people. Two hundred and fifty older South Australians were retrospectively classified: (i) PN (MNA score times greater in both PN than WN groups. Hospital admissions were not different for MOW PN compared with non-MOW PN and WN, but non-MOW PN had 2.9 as many admissions and spent 5 days more in hospital than WN (all Ps < 0.05). Providing MOW to nutritionally vulnerable older people may not prevent age-related decline in health, although a potential reduction in hospital admissions warrants investigation. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  1. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is the public-facing query of the Program tracking, Beach Advisories, Water quality standards, and Nutrients database (PRAWN) which tracks beach closing and advisory information.

  2. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... east of Daytona Beach, Florida, during the Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, a series of...

  3. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

  4. Morphology and composition of beach-cast Posidonia oceanica litter on beaches with different exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Simone; De Falco, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    Posidonia oceanica seagrass litter is commonly found along sandy shores in the Mediterranean region, forming structures called banquettes, which are often removed in order to allow the beach to be used for tourism. This paper evaluates the relationship between the morphology and composition of banquettes and beach exposure to dominant waves. A Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System was used to evaluate the variability of banquettes and beach morphology over a period of 1 year. Banquette samples, collected at two different levels of the beach profile (i.e. foreshore and backshore), were used to evaluate the contribution of leaves, rhizomes and sediments to the total weight. Banquettes showed a higher volume, thickness and cross-shore length on exposed beaches, whereas narrower litter deposits were found on the sheltered beach. On exposed beaches, banquettes were deposited in beach zones characterized by changes in elevation. These changes in elevation were mainly due to the deposition and erosion of sediments and secondly to the deposition and or erosion of leaf litter. On sheltered beaches, the variability in beach morphology was low and was restricted to areas where the banquettes were located. The leaf/sediment ratio changed along the cross-shore profile. On the backshore, banquettes were a mixture of sediments and leaves, whereas leaves were the main component on the foreshore, independently of the beach exposure. The processes which control the morphodynamics in the swash zone could explain the variability of banquette composition along the cross-shore profile. Finally, this study highlighted that Posidonia oceanica seagrass litter plays an important role in the geomorphology of the beachface and its removal can have a harmful impact on the beaches.

  5. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  6. Composite modelling of interactions between beaches and structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerritsen, Herman; Sutherland, James; Deigaard, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    An overview of Composite Modelling (CM) is presented, as elaborated in the EU/HYDRALAB joint research project Composite Modelling of the Interactions Between Beaches and Structures. An introduction and a review of the main literature on CM in the hydraulic community are given. In Section 3...... in the various case studies. The related subject of Good Modelling Practice is summarized in Section 5. Then guidelines are given on how to decide if CM may be beneficial, and how to set up a CM experiment. It is concluded that CM in the hydraulic community is still in its infancy but involves challenging...... research with significant potential....

  7. Preliminary study of river- and beach processes in the Matina region of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Boer, V.J.E.; Joosten, D.A.W.; Melman, F.C.R.; Post, S.

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for this project are the severe erosion problems at the Pacuare Nature Reserve, situated on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. The Reserve’s installations are situated next to a lagoon which is separated from the open sea by a barrier beach. The lagoon is connected on the landward

  8. Clinical Study on Kidney-Nourishing and Governor Vessel-Regulating Acupuncture Therapy for Apoplexy Sequela

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; PANG Yong; ZOU Zhuo-cheng; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2007-01-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of kidney-nourishing and governor vessel-regulating therapy for apoplexy sequela.Methods:Sixty subjects were equally randomized into observation group and control group,and respectively treated for 35 days.The scores of survival quality,interleukin-6(IL-6),interleukin-8(IL-8)and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were measured,and the clinical efficacy were compared between two groups.Results and Conclusion:After treatment.all the observational items were improved,with better results in observation group than in control group.This therapy has better effects than regular method in the treatment of apoplexy sequela.

  9. Habitat--Offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the habitat map of the seafloor (see sheet 7) offshore of Refugio Beach, California (vector data file is included in...

  10. Studies on beach changes at Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rao, D.P.

    experiences erosion during southwest monsoon and deposition during northeast monsoon and calm weather period. The annual sediment loss of about 75,000 cubic metres during the study period indicates the net erosional trend of the Visakhapatnam Beach and also...

  11. Folds--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  12. Contours--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of Offshore Refugio Beach, California (vector data file is included in...

  13. Faults--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  14. Folds--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  15. Faults--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is...

  16. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Miami to Jupiter, Florida Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting...

  17. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Salvo to Duck, North Carolina Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  18. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Salvo to Duck, North Carolina Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  19. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Miami to Jupiter, Florida Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and predicting...

  20. Index of hydrologic data for selected sites in Palm Beach County, Florida, 1928-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenshein, R.S.; Causaras, C.R.; Fish, John E.

    1986-01-01

    A regional assessment of the surficial aquifers in Dade, Broward , and Palm Beach Counties, Florida, including the Biscayne aquifer, was begun in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District. The purpose of the first phase of the project was to determine the geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data available in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and other public agencies. This report summarizes, through tables and maps, the types of data available for Palm Beach County. (USGS)

  1. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-08-15

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion.

  2. Habitat selection of juvenile sole (Solea solea L.): Consequences for shoreface nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Marjolein H. M.; Blom, Ewout; Chen, Chun; Bolle, Loes J.; Baptist, Martin J.

    2017-04-01

    The shallow coastal zone is an essential nursery habitat for juvenile flatfish species such as sole (Solea solea L.). The increased frequency of shoreface nourishments along the coast is likely to affect this nursery function by altering important habitat conditions, including sediment grain size. Sediment preference of juvenile sole (41-91 mm) was studied in a circular preference chamber in order to understand the relationship between grain size and sole distribution. The preference tests were carried out at 11 °C and 20 °C to reflect seasonal influences. The juveniles showed a significant preference for finer sediments. This preference was not length dependent (within the length range tested) nor affected by either temperatures. Juvenile sole have a small home range and are not expected to move in response to unfavourable conditions. As a result, habitat alterations may have consequences for juvenile survival and subsequently for recruitment to adult populations. It is therefore important to carefully consider nourishment grain size characteristics to safeguard suitable nursery habitats for juvenile sole.

  3. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  4. Brain impairment in well-nourished chronic alcoholics is related to ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, J M; Estruch, R; Salamero, M; Orteu, N; Fernandez-Solà, J; Sacanella, E; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1997-05-01

    To determine the influence of chronic ethanol intake on the central nervous system, we studied 40 asymptomatic, well-nourished, chronic alcoholics (mean age, 42.6 +/- 9.1 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects. Studies included neuropsychological testing, visual and short-latency auditory evoked potentials, and morphometric analysis of computed tomography scans. The mean daily ethanol consumption of the alcoholics was 204 gm over an average of 26.4 years. Compared to control subjects, chronic alcoholics exhibited a significant prolongation of the P100 latency of visual evoked potentials, and a prolongation and reduction in the amplitude of the latency of the V wave of short-latency auditory evoked potentials. These abnormalities were related to the lifetime dose of ethanol consumed. Brain morphometric analysis showed that alcoholics had a significantly greater degree of brain shrinkage with age, compared to control subjects. The cortical atrophy index correlated significantly with the lifetime ethanol consumption. Neuropsychological testing in alcoholics compared to controls revealed a significant impairment of frontal skills that was related to age, degree of scholarship, and the presence of frontal atrophy. In conclusion, well-nourished chronic alcoholics exhibited significant brain impairment, as demonstrated by neuropsychological testing, evoked potentials, and brain morphometric analysis, which was correlated with the lifetime dose of ethanol consumed.

  5. A new technique for detecting colored macro plastic debris on beaches using webcam images and CIELUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kako, Shin'ichiro

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a technique for detecting the pixels of colored macro plastic debris (plastic pixels) using photographs taken by a webcam installed on Sodenohama beach, Tobishima Island, Japan. The technique involves generating color references using a uniform color space (CIELUV) to detect plastic pixels and removing misdetected pixels by applying a composite image method. This technique demonstrated superior performance in terms of detecting plastic pixels of various colors compared to the previous method which used the lightness values in the CIELUV color space. We also obtained a 10-month time series of the quantity of plastic debris by combining a projective transformation with this technique. By sequential monitoring of plastic debris quantity using webcams, it is possible to clean up beaches systematically, to clarify the transportation processes of plastic debris in oceans and coastal seas and to estimate accumulation rates on beaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey of viral populations within Lake Michigan nearshore waters at four Chicago area beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sible

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to the oceans, freshwater environments represent a more diverse community of microorganisms, exhibiting comparatively high levels of variability both temporally and spatially Maranger and Bird, Microb. Ecol. 31 (1996 141–151. This level of variability is likely to extend to the world of viruses as well, in particular bacteria-infecting viruses (bacteriophages. Phages are known to influence bacterial diversity, and therefore key processes, in environmental niches across the globe Clokie et al., Bacteriophage 1 (2011 31–45; Jacquet et al., Adv. Ocean Limn. 1 (2010 97–141; Wilhelm and Suttle, Bioscience 49 (1999 781–788; Bratback et al., Microb. Ecol. 28 (1994 209–221. Despite their prevalence and likely critical role in freshwater environments, very few viral species have been characterized. Metagenomic approaches, however, have allowed for a glimpse into phage diversity. We collected surface water samples from four Chicago area beaches – Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach – every two weeks from May 13 through August 5, 2014. Sampling was conducted with four biological replicates for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. DNA isolated from each of the individual samples for a given collection date/location was pooled together, with one exception – Calumet Beach on August 5, 2014 – in which each biological replicate was sequenced individually. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI’s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA248239.

  7. Performance Assessment of Lokoja Confluence Beach as a Tourist Site in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Oluwaseyi Olorunfemi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beach tourism is a global phenomenon mainly in coastal areas of countries with unique and favorable shorelines. However, certain inland waterways serve same purpose of beach tourism. This research (as its objectives exposes the condition of amenities, identifies associated socio-economic benefits and reveals problems confronting the Lokoja Confluence Beach in Kogi State, Nigeria. A survey design (with the aid of questionnaires and interview guide was employed to obtain data from tourists, managers of the Confluence Beach and government officials at the State Tourism Board. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select respondent tourists. Univariate analysis was employed to obtain relevant information from collated data. The research findings revealed the existence of a few functional amenities and some uncompleted facility projects; diverse economic benefits to residents; problems of petty crime, diversion of funds and poor sensitization. Recommendations include provision of supplementary funds by the three tiers of government, development of strategic policy on marketing/sensitization and provision of amenities for indoor games close to the beach front.

  8. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where

  9. Disponibilidad de arena para el refulado de las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal, Argentina Sand availability for nourishment of the Miramar and Chapadmalal beaches, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    FI Isla

    2003-01-01

    Las playas de Miramar se originaron por los aportes naturales transportados directamente como médanos transversales desde el oeste, aunque estas arenas son de origen marino que llegaron a la costa por la acción de olas. Cuando ese aporte de arena mermó debido a la forestación de los médanos del Vivero Ameghino, se debió recurrir a espigones rígidos, que luego debieron ser prolongados para mantener una anchura suficiente de las playas para los requerimientos balnearios. Hoy día el repoblamient...

  10. 75 FR 54369 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-NEW, Upcoming Projects Considering the Use of Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... resources for use in shore protection and beach and coastal restoration, which is considered a... by noncompetitive negotiated agreement (NNA) for use in shore protection and beach and coastal... Government. Background Since 1995, 22 shore protection or beach and coastal restoration projects have...

  11. Haeundae beach in Korea: Seasonal-to-decadal wave statistics and impulsive beach responses to typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Do, Jong-Dae; Kim, Sun Sin; Park, Won-Kyung; Jun, Kicheon

    2016-12-01

    Haeundae Beach represents Korean pocket beaches that are currently erosional and dominated by summertime typhoons. The decadal wave characteristics 9 km offshore of Haeundae Beach were analyzed using the WAM model that was validated through the 2007 wave observations. The wave statistics modelled for 1979-2007 indicates that the seasonal mean significant wave height (H s) is highest (0.6-0.7 m) in summer due to typhoons, in contrast to the lowest (around 0.5 m) autumn analog. The wave direction is also pronouncedly seasonal with the principal bearings of SSW and NE in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The WAM results additionally show that the H s has gradually increased over the region of Haeundae Beach since 1993. Beach profiling during June-November 2014 shows the opposite processes of the typhoon and fair-weather on beach sands. During a typhoon, foreshore sands were eroded and then accumulated as sand bars on the surf zone. In the subsequent fair-weather, the sand bars moved back to the beach resulting in the surf-zone erosion and foreshore accretion. A total of 5 cycles of these beach-wide sand movements yielded a net retreat (up to 20 m) of the shoreline associated with large foreshore erosion. However, the surf zone only slightly accumulated as a result of the sand cycles. This was attributed to the sand escape offshore from the westernmost tip of the beach. The present study may provide an important clue to understanding the erosional processes in Haeundae Beach.

  12. Factors affecting the occurrence of algae on the Sopot beach (Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Filipkowska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was financed by the EU CosCo project ("Regional cycle development through coastal co-operation - sea grass and algae focus" - INTERREG IIIC 2N00251 and the statutory IO PAS programme.AbstractThe occurrence of algae on the Sopot beach was investigated from 2004 to 2006 from the beach management point of view. Various methods were applied in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of algae on the shoreline. They included daily observations of the occurrence of macrophyta on the beach, absorption measurements of acetone extracts of the particulate matter in the seawater, the collection of macrophyta and phytoplankton samples for biomass and taxonomic identification, and determination of the degree of decomposition on the basis of chloropigment analyses. The results were related to the environmental conditions: meteorological data and the physico-chemical parameters of the seawater. The biomass recorded on the beach consisted mainly of macroalgae and a small proportion of sea grass (Zostera marina. The phytoplankton biomass consisted mainly of dinoflagellates, diatoms, cyanobacteria, euglenoids and cryptophytes. The conclusions to be drawn from this work are that the occurrence of huge amounts of macrophyta amassing on the Sopot beach depends on the combined effect of high solar radiation in spring and summer, high-strength (velocity × frequency south-westerly winds in May-September, followed by northerly winds, bringing the macrophyta from Puck Bay on to the Sopot beach. At the same time, their abundance along the beach varies according to the shape and height of the shore, the wind strength and the local wind-driven seawater currents. According to estimates, from 2.2-4.4 × 102 tons (dry weight of macrophyta can be moved on to the Sopot beach in one hour. In October, strong south-easterly winds can also transport huge amounts of decomposing biomass onshore. The phytoplankton content in the total biomass is

  13. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  14. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  15. Beach Management & Analysis of the Visitors’ Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Paksoy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available User perceptions can become vital especially at beach preferences as cleanliness, safety and amenities are some of the apparent factors that will affect. With the awareness of probable adaptation of beach users’ demands into policy recommendations, a case study has been carried out at Black Sea Coast of İstanbul at Şile beaches. Şile has been chosen in this study purposefully as it is a touristic district of İstanbul which has aimed to earn Blue Flag award previously. Secondly, it receives high amount of visitors especially during the peak periods in weekends; as it has a very close location to the city, people are choosing here most of the time just for the day. In this research with factors about human use of beach and impacts like cleanliness and sufficiency of amenities (showers, toilets, changing cubicles, parks etc. and the number of lifeguards are studied. Regarding the findings, the researchers consequently highlight recommendations for Şile beach management which could enhance the visitor experience.

  16. Beach Management & Analysis of Visitors’ Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Paksoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available User perceptions can become vital especially at beach preferences as cleanliness, safety and amenities are some of the apparent factors that will affect. With the awareness of probable adaptation of beach users’ demands into policy recommendations, a case study has been carried out at Black Sea Coast of İstanbul at Şile beaches. Şile has been chosen in this study purposefully as it is a touristic district of İstanbul which has aimed to earn Blue Flag award previously. Secondly, it receives high amount of visitors especially during the peak periods in weekends; as it has a very close location to the city, people are choosing here most of the time just for the day. In this research with factors about human use of beach and impacts like cleanliness and sufficiency of amenities (showers, toilets, changing cubicles, parks etc. and the number of lifeguards are studied. Regarding the findings, the researchers consequently highlight recommendations for Şile beach management which could enhance the visitor experience.

  17. Formation and species composition of stormcast beach wrack in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea * The study was supported by the EU Life+project MARMONI ‘Innovative approaches for marine biodiversity monitoring and assessment of conservation status of nature values in the Baltic Sea’, ESF grant No. 8980, Estonian target financed project SF0180104s08 and Institutional research funding IUT2-20 of the Estonian Research Council.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülo Suursaar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate hydrodynamic effects on the formation of beach wrack at three locations in the northern Baltic Sea and to quantify the differences between the composition of species found in the beach wrack and in the neighbouring sea. Hydrodynamic measurements and modelling indicated that the beach wrack was mostly of local origin and that it was formed during high sea level and wave events. Comparison of the methods of beach wrack sampling and seabed sampling (diver, underwater video demonstrated that beach wrack sampling can be considered an alternative tool for describing the species composition of macrovegetation in near-coastal sea areas. Although the hydrodynamic variability is greater in autumn and more biological material is cast ashore, the similarity between the two sampling methods was higher in spring and summer.

  18. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  19. Evaluation of Subterranean Subsidence at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of subsurface subsidence at Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach (NWSSB) areas which include Seal Beach National...

  20. EPA Office of Water (OW): Beaches PRAWN Attribute Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...

  1. Beach processes between Mulgund and Shiroda, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Sanilkumar, V.; Pathak, K.C.

    Study on beach processes for an year shows seasonal changes without annual net erosion. The beaches are stable and regain the maximum profiles during February to April. Distribution of longshore current direction is not uniform along the study...

  2. Climate induced changes in beach morphology and sediment dynamics, Machilipatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    The wave climate, littoral current patterns, monthly and seasonal longshore drift rates, beach profile changes, and sediment budget of the beach sediments were determined along Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India) for the NE, SW monsoons...

  3. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  4. A simplified model of pathogenic pollution for managing beaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simplified model of pathogenic pollution for managing beaches. ... key physical processes involved in mixing and dispersion of pathogenic pollution at ... Key words: beach-water quality model, pathogenic pollution, storm-water runoff, E. coli

  5. Effect of nutrition on vitamin D status: studies on healthy and poorly nourished Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, E R; Jones, D A; Round, J M; Edwards, R H

    1984-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out of 412 healthy and 226 chronically malnourished children in Recife, Brazil. Anthropometric measurements, x-rays of hands and wrists, and biochemical data related to skeletal growth were obtained. Levels of plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D were measured in both groups of children and both showed higher concentrations than those reported for normal European children. The high levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D found in these two groups of Brazilian children are probably the result of the intense solar radiation in this part of Brazil and argue against the diet being an important source of vitamin D in poorly nourished children. Some bone abnormalities were seen in the underprivileged group of children but in view of our findings these were more likely to be a result of protein-energy malnutrition than rickets.

  6. Through the sands of time: Beach litter trends from nine cleaned north cornish beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Andrew J R; Porter, Adam; Hembrow, Neil; Sharpe, Jolyon; Galloway, Tamara S; Lewis, Ceri

    2017-09-01

    Marine litter and its accumulation on beaches is an issue of major current concern due to its significant environmental and economic impacts. Yet our understanding of spatio-temporal trends in beach litter and the drivers of these trends are currently limited by the availability of robust long term data sets. Here we present a unique data set collected systematically once a month, every month over a six year period for nine beaches along the North Coast of Cornwall, U.K. to investigate the key drivers of beach litter in the Bude, Padstow and Porthcothan areas. Overall, an average of 0.02 litter items m(-2) per month were collected during the six year study, with Bude beaches (Summerleaze, Crooklets and Widemouth) the most impacted (0.03 ± 0.004 litter items m(-2) per month). The amount of litter collected each month decreased by 18% and 71% respectively for Padstow (Polzeath, Trevone and Harlyn) and Bude areas over the 6 years, possibly related to the regular cleaning, however litter increased by 120% despite this monthly cleaning effort on the Padstow area beaches. Importantly, at all nine beaches the litter was dominated by small, fragmented plastic pieces and rope fibres, which account for 32% and 17% of all litter items collected, respectively. The weathered nature of these plastics indicates they have been in the marine environment for an extended period of time. So, whilst classifying the original source of these plastics is not possible, it can be concluded they are not the result of recent public littering. This data highlights both the extent of the marine litter problem and that current efforts to reduce littering by beach users will only tackle a fraction of this litter. Such information is vital for developing effective management strategies for beach and marine litter at both regional and global levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [The influence of the trematode invasion on the average daily rations and electoral nourishment of Planorbarius corneus (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Bulinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnichenko, A P; Girin, V K

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the Trematode invasion on the average daily rations and electoral nourishment of the two size groups in the great ramshorn snail Planorbarius corneus, "young" (12-24 mm in diameter) and "old" (24-36.5 mm in diameter), have been investigated.

  8. Temporal trend of litter contamination at Cassino beach, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tourinho, Paula da Silva; Fillmann,Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate temporal trends of litter contamination at Cassino beach, Southern Brazil. Surveys were conducted between 1994 and 1995, and then resumed from 2003 to 2006. Litter composition was related to both land- anmarinebased origins. However, seasonal and spatial variations showed that in situ deposition by beach users is still a major source of litter at Cassino beach. The results indicated a significant increase in litter amount at Cassino beach over the survey ...

  9. Geothermal energy at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, California. Final Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine and evaluate sources of geothermal energy at two military bases in southern California, the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station. One part of the project focused on the natural geothermal characteristics beneath the naval bases. Another part focused on the geothermal energy produced by oilfield operations on and adjacent to each base. Results of the study are presented here for the US Department of the Navy to use in its program to reduce its reliance on petroleum by the development of different sources of energy. The project required research of various reports and data, both published and unpublished, particularly those of the California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil and Gas and of oil companies with leases on or adjacent to the naval bases. Important field investigations included the measurement of well-head temperatures of fluids produced from selected oil wells at each naval base and a detailed gravity survey of the Seal Beach naval base and vicinity. The well-head temperatures were needed to evaluate individual wells as sources of geothermal energy, while the gravity survey attempted to discover subsurface geologic structures that might contain geothermal fluids of temperatures higher than those predicted by the regional geothermal conditions.

  10. Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Swinkels, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of

  11. Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Swinkels, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of

  12. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  13. Intertidal beach slope predictions compared to field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium

  14. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  15. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  16. Beachwatch : The effect of daily morphodynamics on seasonal beach evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Not only the storm intensity, but also the capacity of the beach to recover during fair weather conditions, influences the erosion trends of beaches. Susanne Quartel concludes this in her thesis in which the daily changes of the intertidal beach of Noordwijk aan Zee, the Netherlands, are described.

  17. Macrofauna and meiofauna of two sandy beaches at Mombasa, Kenya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    density was maximum around high water mark at the English point, a more sheltered beach On the more exposed Nyali Beach the meiofauna was aggregated downshore and highest numbers were recorded between mid and low water mark On both the beaches...

  18. Fine particle deposition at Vainguinim tourist beach, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Jayakumar, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Ilangovan, D.

    . The beach sediments consist primarily shell fragments and quartz, with heavy mineral composed of ilmenits, magnetite and manganese. The black stain of the fine-grained heavy minerals deposited on the beach face reduces the aesthetics of the beach. This paper...

  19. Intertidal beach slope predictions compared to field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium valu

  20. Changes in the Global Wave Climate from Single-Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Gil; Behrens, Arno; Dobrynin, Mikhail; Miranda, Pedro; Semedo, Alvaro; Staneva, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    Ocean surface wind waves are of outmost relevance for practical and scientific reasons. On the one hand waves have a direct impact in coastal erosion, but also in sediment transport and beach nourishment, in ship routing and ship design, as well as in coastal and offshore infrastructures, just to mention the most relevant. On the other hand waves are part of the climate system, and modulate most of the exchanges that take place at the atmosphere-ocean interface. In fact waves are the "ultimate" air-sea interaction process, clearly visible and noticeable. Up until recently the impact of climate change in future global wave climate had received very little attention. Some single model single scenario global wave climate projections, based on CMIP3 scenarios, were pursuit and received relative attention in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change) AR5 (Fifth Assessment Report). In the present study the impact of a warmer climate in the future global wave climate is investigated through a 3-member "coherent" ensemble of wave climate projections: single-model, single-forcing, and single-scenario. In this methodology model variability is eliminated, leaving only room for the climate change signal. The three ensemble members were produced with the wave model WAM, forced with wind speed and ice coverage from EC-Earth projections, following the representative concentration pathway with a high emissions scenario 8.5 (RCP8.5). The ensemble present climate reference period (the control run) has been set for 1971 to 2005. The projected changes in the global wave climate are analyzed for the 2071-2100 period. The ensemble reference period is evaluated trough the comparison with the European Centre for medium-range weather forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim reanalysis.

  1. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  2. Effects of full-scale beach renovation on fecal indicator levels in shoreline sand and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rafael J; Hernandez, Yasiel; Jimenez, Nasly H; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-01-01

    Recolonization of enterococci, at a non-point source beach known to contain high background levels of bacteria, was studied after a full-scale beach renovation project. The renovation involved importation of new exogenous sand, in addition to infrastructure improvements. The study's objectives were to document changes in sand and water quality and to evaluate the relative contribution of different renovation activities towards these changes. These objectives were addressed: by measuring enterococci levels in the sand and fecal indicator bacteria levels (enterococci and fecal coliform) in the water, by documenting sediment characteristics (mineralogy and biofilm levels), and by estimating changes in observable enterococci loads. Analysis of enterococci levels on surface sand and within sediment depth cores were significantly higher prior to beach renovation (6.3-72 CFU/g for each sampling day) when compared to levels during and after beach renovation (0.8-12 CFU/g) (P < 0.01). During the renovation process, sand enterococci levels were frequently below detection limits (<0.1 CFU/g). For water, exceedances in the regulatory thresholds that would trigger a beach advisory decreased by 40% for enterococci and by 90% for fecal coliform. Factors that did not change significantly between pre- and post- renovation included the enterococci loads from animals (approx. 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Factors that were observed to change between pre- and post- renovation activities included: the composition of the beach sand (64% versus 98% quartz, and a significant decrease in biofilm levels) and loads from direct stormwater inputs (reduction of 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Overall, this study supports that beach renovation activities contributed to improved sand and water quality resulting in a 50% decrease of observable enterococci loads due to upgrades to the stormwater infrastructure. Of interest was that the change in the sand mineralogy also coincided with changes in biofilm

  3. Morphological changes of the beaches of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    with the onset of the southwest monsoon wind and wave conditions followed by slower rates during the subsequent period of the monsoon. This continues till August when the beaches have minimum sediment storage. The wave climates during the postmonsoon and winter...

  4. The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estuary(32°25' 45"E128° 15'35"S),Blythdale (31 ° 16'20"EI. 29° 16'25"S) ... Bentho-planktonic mysids were collected with a sledge which skims off ... Along each transect a series of .... times more carbonate than the southern beaches. At So-.

  5. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... sandy beaches on the Namibian coast, Langstrand and Cape Cross. A transverse ... prominent in the mid-shore at Cape Cross but occurred in low numbers at Langstrand , where archiannelids ... Koop (1983) recorded the faunal composition of local .... four replicate sediment cores were taken at 15 cm.

  6. Cross-Shore Exchange on Natural Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    public health cost estimates of contaminated coastal waters: A case study of gastroenteritis at Southern California beaches. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40...Jones, J. Svejkovsky, G. V. Leipzig, and A. Brown, 2001: Generation of enterococci bacteria in a coastal saltwater marsh and its impact on surf zone

  7. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  8. The effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.; Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Hua, G.; Tao, X.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Beach slope changes the tidal induced saltwater-freshwater circulations in coastal aquifers. However, the effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater-freshwater mixing process is far from understood. Based on sand flume experiments and numerical simulations, we investigated the intrusion process of saltwater into freshwater under tidal forcing and variable beach slopes. The sand flume experiment results show that milder slope induces larger upper saline plume (USP) and seaward salt wedge interface (SWI) under tidal forcing. While, the steady state SWI keeps stagnant with different beach slopes. Consistent with the previous research, our numerical simulations also show a lager flux exchange across the milder beach induced by the tidal fluctuations. The groundwater table fluctuates more intensify with deeper beach slope. The next step of our study will pay attention to the effect of beach slope on the instability of USP which induces the salt-fingering flow.

  9. Determinants of rapid weight gain during infancy: baseline results from the NOURISH randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihrshahi Seema

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain in infancy is an important predictor of obesity in later childhood. Our aim was to determine which modifiable variables are associated with rapid weight gain in early life. Methods Subjects were healthy infants enrolled in NOURISH, a randomised, controlled trial evaluating an intervention to promote positive early feeding practices. This analysis used the birth and baseline data for NOURISH. Birthweight was collected from hospital records and infants were also weighed at baseline assessment when they were aged 4-7 months and before randomisation. Infant feeding practices and demographic variables were collected from the mother using a self administered questionnaire. Rapid weight gain was defined as an increase in weight-for-age Z-score (using WHO standards above 0.67 SD from birth to baseline assessment, which is interpreted clinically as crossing centile lines on a growth chart. Variables associated with rapid weight gain were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Complete data were available for 612 infants (88% of the total sample recruited with a mean (SD age of 4.3 (1.0 months at baseline assessment. After adjusting for mother's age, smoking in pregnancy, BMI, and education and infant birthweight, age, gender and introduction of solid foods, the only two modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain to attain statistical significance were formula feeding [OR = 1.72 (95%CI 1.01-2.94, P = 0.047] and feeding on schedule [OR = 2.29 (95%CI 1.14-4.61, P = 0.020]. Male gender and lower birthweight were non-modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain. Conclusions This analysis supports the contention that there is an association between formula feeding, feeding to schedule and weight gain in the first months of life. Mechanisms may include the actual content of formula milk (e.g. higher protein intake or differences in feeding styles, such as feeding to schedule

  10. Mid-Twenty-First-Century Changes in Global Wave Energy Flux: Single-Model, Single-Forcing and Single-Scenario Ensemble Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Lemos, Gil; Dobrynin, Mikhail; Behrens, Arno; Staneva, Joanna; Miranda, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of ocean surface wave energy fluxes (or wave power) is of outmost relevance since wave power has a direct impact in coastal erosion, but also in sediment transport and beach nourishment, and ship, as well as in coastal and offshore infrastructures design. Changes in the global wave energy flux pattern can alter significantly the impact of waves in continental shelf and coastal areas. Up until recently the impact of climate change in future global wave climate had received very little attention. Some single model single scenario global wave climate projections, based on CMIP3 scenarios, were pursuit under the auspices of the COWCLIP (coordinated ocean wave climate projections) project, and received some attention in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change) AR5 (fifth assessment report). In the present study the impact of a warmer climate in the near future global wave energy flux climate is investigated through a 4-member "coherent" ensemble of wave climate projections: single-model, single-forcing, and single-scenario. In this methodology model variability is reduced, leaving only room for the climate change signal. The four ensemble members were produced with the wave model WAM, forced with wind speed and ice coverage from EC-Earth projections, following the representative concentration pathway with a high emissions scenario 8.5 (RCP8.5). The ensemble present climate reference period (the control run) has been set for 1976 to 2005. The projected changes in the global wave energy flux climate are analyzed for the 2031-2060 period.

  11. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. [Annual report], February 24, 1992--February 23, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, V.J.

    1993-03-15

    The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the utility of a device called the ``beach cone`` in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the US Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. One of the initial sites was abandoned because it was found to be unsuitable for beach cone placement. The test sites have been observed for six months and preliminary findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. It is too soon to state the categorical success of the beach cones, but results to date are encouraging.

  12. Mesoscale Morphological Change, Beach Rotation and Storm Climate Influences along a Macrotidal Embayed Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shore profiles and environmental forcing were used to analyse morphological change of a headland bay beach: Tenby, West Wales (51.66 N; −4.71 W over a mesoscale timeframe (1996–2013. Beach profile variations were attuned with longer term shoreline change identified by previous research showing southern erosion and northern accretion within the subaerial zone and were statistically significant in both sectors although centrally there was little or no significance. Conversely a statistically significant volume loss was shown at all profile locations within the intertidal zone. There were negative phase relationships between volume changes at the beach extremities, indicative of beach rotation and results were statistically significant (p < 0.01 within both subaerial (R2 = 0.59 and intertidal (R2 = 0.70 zones. This was confirmed qualitatively by time-series analysis and further cross correlation analysis showed trend reversal time-lagged associations between sediment exchanges at either end of the beach. Wave height and storm events displayed summer/winter trends which explained longer term one directional rotation at this location. In line with previous regional research, environmental forcing suggests that imposed changes are influenced by variations in southwesterly wind regimes. Winter storms are generated by Atlantic southwesterly winds and cause a south toward north sediment exchange, while southeasterly conditions that cause a trend reversal are generally limited to the summer period when waves are less energetic. Natural and man-made embayed beaches are a common coastal feature and many experience shoreline changes, jeopardising protective and recreational beach functions. In order to facilitate effective and sustainable coastal zone management strategies, an understanding of the morphological variability of these systems is needed. Therefore, this macrotidal research dealing with rotational processes across the entire intertidal

  13. [Selected nourishment habits depending on physical activity of 14-16 year-old teenagers in the north-eastern Poland on the example of Sokolski district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbński, Robert; Karczewski, Jan Kazimierz; Siemienkowicz, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the survey was the evaluation of specific nourishment habits among 14-16 year-old teenagers of a different physical activity in the north-eastern Poland on the example of Sokolski district. The 14-16-year teenagers from secondary school, in Sokolski district (368 boys and 368 girls) were examined. They were chosen at random. The researches were carried out from November to December in 2006-2007 school year by the method of a diagnostic poll with the aid of the anonymous questionnaire. The low percentage of teenagers who declared the proper nourishment habits was stated, and it was observed that the more physically active teenagers were the more of them declared rational nourishment habits within the scope of analyzed nourishment habits.

  14. Rehabilitation of the Mayabeque Beach: Determination of the main causes of erosion and proposal of several solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Hengel, D.; Poot, J.G.; Theunissen, R.P.G.J.; Kluyver, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this report the beach erosion problem at the Village of Mayabeque, located 60 km south of Havana at the South coast of Cuba will be investigated. Mayabeque is a small local holiday village. 20 houses are permanently inhabited and in the summer the population goes up to 3000, mostly Cuban people all spending there holidays here. Mayabeque suffers from an average coast regression of 1.1 meter per year. The main objective of this project is the rehabilitation of the Mayabeque Beach. Therefore...

  15. Mauritius: A journey from beach to laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.

    and fun-filled sunny golden beach-centered tourism. However, despite having an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) thousand times its landmass, the ocean based economic activities contributing to the Gross National Product of Mauritius have been... unfortunately insignificant. Considering the facts that Mauritius is one of the most densely populated countries in the world and does not have any known land-based mineral resources, exploitation of oceanic resources will probably follow as the next phase...

  16. The response and recovery of coastal beach-dune systems to storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Eugene; Lynch, Kevin; Wilkes Orozco, Sinead; Castro Camba, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    This two year field monitoring project examines the response and recovery of a coastal beach-dune system in the west coast of Ireland (The Maharees, Co. Kerry) to storms. Historic analyses were completed using maps, aerial photography, and DGPS surveys with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System. The results establish that the average shoreline recession along the 1.2 km site is 72 m during the past 115 years. The coastal monitoring experiment aims to link micro-scale aeolian processes and meso-scale beach-dune behaviour to identify and quantify sediment exchange between the beach and dune under different meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions. Geomorphological changes on the beach and near-shore bar migration were monitored using repeated monthly DGPS surveys and drone technology. Topographical data were correlated with atmospheric data obtained from a locally installed Campbell Scientific automatic weather station, oceanographic data from secondary sources, and photogrammetry using a camera installed at the site collecting pictures every 10 minutes during daylight hours. Changes in surface elevation on the top of the foredune caused by aeolian processes are measured using erosion pin transects. The preliminary results illustrate that natural beach building processes initiate system recovery post storms including elevated foreshores and backshores and nearshore sand bar migration across the entire 1.2 km stretch of coastline. In parallel with the scientific work, the local community have mobilized and are working closely with the lead scientists to implement short term coastal management strategies such as signage, information booklets, sand trap fencing, walkways, wooden revetments, dune planting in order to support the end goal of obtaining financial support from government for a larger, long term coastal protection plan.

  17. Varadero Beach, Hicacos Península, Cuba: relief génesis and evolution, and environmental experience linked to its artificial regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Hernández Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The coastal system constitutes one of the most fragüe systems of the Earth's surface, specially in cumulative áreas such as beaches. Dumping sand is one of the main ways to artificially promote the sedimentary enrichment and temporary stability of beaches, thus contributing to their environmental protection and sustainable development. The present work improves our knowledge on the structure, morphology, génesis and dynamícs of the peninsular relief of Hicacos, Cuba, fundamentally at its northern sector, focusing on its use and optimized management. The study proposes an evolutionary model for its geomorphological consolidation; it describes the environmental experiences related to dumping sand in Varadero beach in 1998 as a beach-recovering measure, and suggests a number of preventive and corrective measures that favor geomorphic stability, in harmony with current and projected resorts and services.

  18. Spectral signatures for swash on reflective, intermediate and dissipative beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Michael G; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we synthesise a large data set gathered from a wide variety of field deployments and integrate it with previously published results to identify the spectral signatures of swash from contrasting beach types. The field data set includes the full range of micro-tidal beach types...... the three beach types. Swash energy at short-wave frequencies is dominant on reflective and intermediate beaches and swash at long-wave frequencies is dominant on dissipative beaches; consistent with previously reported spectral signatures for the surf zone on these beach types. The available swash spectra...... were classified using an automated algorithm (CLARA) into five different classes. The ordered classes represent an evolution in the spectrum shape, described by a frequency downshifting of the energy peak from the short-wave into the long-wave frequency band and an increase in the long-wave swash...

  19. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Newton

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls. Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise

  20. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program.3 The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%. The new 15,000-square foot (ft2) LBGO office building has two stories and houses private offices, open-plan cubicle offices, and a conference room and call center on the second floor. The building’s modular nature allowed LBGO to realize the cost benefits of fasttracked construction while saving substantial energy and reducing operational costs. The project was funded by the utility’s ratepayer revenue, which imposed a tight budget limit. The design process was a collaborative effort involving LBGO and its design-build team, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), and subcontractors Stantec (formerly Burt Hill) and LHB Inc. The team proposed efficiency measures based on computer modeling of the building in full compliance with ASHRAE 90.1-2007; in the modeled building, the lighting and cooling systems were the largest energy users, so increasing the efficiency of these systems was a top priority. Promising measures were modeled to estimate their energy performance, and each measure was evaluated for its feasibility within the budget.

  1. 75 FR 36069 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... treatment system for the Easton Beach Project in Newport, Rhode Island. This is a project specific waiver... Engineer, (617) 918-1658, or David Chin, Environmental Engineer, (617) 918-1764, Municipal Assistance Unit... part of its proposed Easton Beach Project in Newport, RI. Trojan Technologies has a U.S....

  2. Chenang Beach and its Crowding Capacity: A Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This working paper focuses in enjoyment factors, specifically: number of beach users, perceived maximum number of beach users accepted, perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the tourism experience and perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the beach quality. At a deeper extent, the evaluation is categorized by number of visitation, visitation motivations, and Chenang Island’s push and pull factors. Relationships between variables were assessed using a two-phase evaluation framework where interestingly, only one demographic factor works with all the studied independent variables. It is also learned that the density of an area number of people seen is considered as a n accepted crowding factor, as opposed to this working paper scope experienced crowding . A unique relationship was observed for crowding level, and visitation satisfaction level and overall evaluation of Chenang beach quality. This working paper further supports the previous literature on the significance of beach carrying capacity management and it is learned that the idea of crowding standard is interlinks with ‘gender, ‘time spend’ and ‘number of boaters’. From findings, this working paper envisages the preferences polar exchange where this should be of interest to tourism-related personnel. It is within this working paper interest to highlight the pressing need in brandishing the image of Chenang Beach. This is to ensure that Chenang Beach, as a field, is maintaining its importance and popularity.

  3. Moving towards an ecological management of the beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhooren, S.; Maelfait, H.; Belpaeme, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Belgian coast has an enormous touristic potential with over 16 million people visiting the coast for a day-trip and a turnover of more than 2500 Million. The ecological value of the beaches is at risk, caused by an extensive use of mechanical beach cleaners. Mechanical beach cleaners not only remove most of the man-produced waste, but unfortunately also take away organic material. Management for more sustainable beaches is necessary, because coastal communities spend yearly over 10.000 pe...

  4. Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claereboudt, Michel R

    2004-11-01

    Beach debris abundance and weight were estimated from surveys on 11 beaches of the Gulf of Oman along the Omani coast. Debris were collected on two occasions from 100 m transects, sorted and categorized by origin and type. Overall contaminations ranged from 0.43 to 6.01 items m(-1) of beach front on different beaches with a mean value of 1.79+/-1.04 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of weight, contamination levels ranged from 7.8 to 75.44 gm(-1) of beach front with a mean contamination of 27.02+/-14.48 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of numbers of items, plastic debris ranked first on all beaches followed by either wood items or other organic materials such as cigarette butts. Industrial debris remained few on all beaches (<10%). Most debris had a local origin and, in terms of numbers, were associated with beach recreational activities whereas fishing debris represented the largest proportion of the debris in terms of weight. There were notable differences between beaches in the relative abundance of recreation-related and fishing-related debris.

  5. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  6. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  7. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.D. Chavan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach pea seeds contained very low grain weight, density, hydration capacity,  hydration index, swelling capacity and swelling index than the green pea and field pea. Beach pea had higher amount of crude protein, ash, crude fibre and polyphenols, but lower in starch content than the green pea and field pea. Without any treatment to beach pea seeds the water uptake capacity was very low. Mechanical treatment to beach pea seeds increasedthe water uptake percentage. The recovery of hull was 3 to 6 times higher in beach pea than that of green pea and field pea. The crude protein  content in beach pea hull was 2-5% higher than others. The beach pea hull, dhal and whole seeds were good source of macro- and micro- minerals than that of the other two peas. The electron microscopic  structure of beach pea hull crude fibre showed a very close and compact structure than green pea and field pea hull crude fibre structure. Lowering the hardness of beach pea seeds with mechanical or chemical treatments will give more scope for their utilization in the human nutrition.

  8. Laminae and grain-size measures in beach sediments, east coast beaches, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    in micro-layer structure of beach sediments at berm/backshore, foreshore and offshore regions. The sediments from the 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0-cm layers as well as from the full core show effects of mixing of the individual micro-layers. The degree...

  9. Beach profiling studies at Yarada beach, Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.; Raju, N.S.N.

    keeping the May 2009 profile as the base reference, over which the values of other seasons are compared and is presented in Table 9(iii). �A program to compute the volume of sand along beach Profiles� (Ganesan, P., 2006) was used for computation of volumes...

  10. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in..., which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select...

  11. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the City of New Smyrna... Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are in compliance with applicable requirements....

  12. Headland sediment bypassing and beach rotation in a rocky coast: an example at the western Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mónica; Taborda, Rui; Lira, Cristina; Bizarro, Aurora; Oliveira, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    (less energetic) incident wave conditions. The persistence of these conditions induces an enlargement of the beach downdrift (southward) and eventually sediment bypassing. This process can result in a continuous inner bar along the headland coast, which migrates downdrift in the surf zone and weld to the downdrift beach. The counter-clockwise rotation observed in the winter is more variable being in agreement with the less persistent W and SW incident wave conditions, suggesting that sediment bypassing occurs only southwards. The work was funded by FEDER funds through the Operational Programme for Competitiveness Factors - COMPETE and FCT National Funds - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology under the project Beach to Canyon Head Sedimentary Processes (PTDC/MAR/114674/2009). First author benefits from a PhD grant funded by FCT (SFRH/BD/79126/2011).

  13. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  14. Dinosaurs nesting on a red beach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P. Martin; Peitz, Christian; Gallemi, Jaume; Cousin, Rémi

    1998-07-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Basturs locality (Tremp Basin, northern Spain) preserves numerous dinosaur eggs ( Megaloolithus cf. M. mammilare Vianey-Liaud, 1994). The locality was recently studied by Sanz et al. (1995) as well as by us. However, we have to disagree with several conclusions by Sanz et al. and suggest alternative interpretations incorporating data from other localities (Coll de Nargó). The dinosaurs at Basturs did not nest at the beach, nor is there evidence for colonial nesting and territorial behaviour. However, the locality superbly documents nesting site fidelity with an estimated occupation time of over 10 000 years.

  15. Bores and Swash on Natural Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    MODERATE ENERGY -Im Punk ~ -- -- -- ... .. !60~~ 50 o f5 TsCS) --- -midsurf zone -----U - midsurf zone -U - swosh FIGURE 5 .2 burf zone and awash spectra from...pp 401-410. 2Bascom, N.., 1951, 8Th* relationship between sand size and beach face slope, Trans. Am. GOophys. Union, Vol 32 () pp 866-874. Bradshaw...dry bed*, ASCS. Jour. Hyd. Div., HY2, pp 187-216. 100 Friedman, G.F., 1967, nDynamic processes and statistical measures compared for size frequency

  16. Oluvil Port Development Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Margheritini, Lucia

    Oluvil Port Development Project is the first development of a large port infrastructure in the entire eastern coastline of Sri Lanka. The project is supported by the Danish Foreign Ministry. Feasibility studies and detailed design studies were carried out by Lanka Hydraulic Institute Ltd during...... the years 1995 to 2003. The design was reviewed by COWI a/s. Construction of the port was started in 2008. MT Højgaard a/s acted as contractor. The outer breakwaters were constructed as first part of the project. During and after completion of the breakwaters a serious beach erosion and sand accumulation...... has been observed. Severe erosion is seen north of the harbour and some accumulation of sand is seen south of the harbour. On a sandy coastline like the one in Oluvil such erosion problems as observed are very typical. The report: Oluvil Port Development Project: Studies on Beach Erosion written...

  17. Wave Reflection on a Two-Slope Steep Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    surveys taken during cross-shore transport study experiment. .....................................12  Figure 7.  Sea kayak with echo sounder and...Suhayda, 1974) Natural beaches are composed of complicated slopes and encounter a wide spectrum of wave frequencies, amplitudes, and directions. Suhayda...1974) conducted a field experiment investigating standing waves on a natural beach. He expanded on the theoretical results of Lamb (1932

  18. Waihi Beach to the future: An objective review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugmans, J.; Van Dijk, R.; Van der Lans, J.; Loeffen, R.; Wagner, J.

    2003-01-01

    Waihi Beach is a village consisting out of 2300 inhabitants, located in the Bay of Plenty on the North Island of New Zealand. It can be seen as a 9 km long tombolo beach. Dunes used to protect most of the land, but have decreased in size through natural erosive processes and through urban developmen

  19. A study on the reconstruction of Los Acantilados Beach, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algera, A.; Burger, B.; Hartog, W.M.; De Rijke, Q.C.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Mar del Plata is situated some 400 km South of Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina. The city has two main incomes, namely industry and tourism. In summer, beaches of this Atlantic Ocean faced destination are packed with typical Argentine beach tents, which can be rented, and people fr

  20. Revisiting Hele-Shaw dynamics to better understand beach evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; van der Horn, Avraham/Bram; van der Horn, A.J.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Gagarina, Elena; Zweers, W.; Thornton, Anthony Richard

    2013-01-01

    Wave action, particularly during storms, drives the evo lution of beaches. Beach evolution by non-linear break ing waves is poorly understood due to its three-dimensional character, the range of scales involved, and our limited understanding of particle-wave interactions. We show how a novel, three-

  1. Waihi Beach to the future: An objective review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugmans, J.; Van Dijk, R.; Van der Lans, J.; Loeffen, R.; Wagner, J.

    2003-01-01

    Waihi Beach is a village consisting out of 2300 inhabitants, located in the Bay of Plenty on the North Island of New Zealand. It can be seen as a 9 km long tombolo beach. Dunes used to protect most of the land, but have decreased in size through natural erosive processes and through urban

  2. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  3. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  4. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  5. 1981 beached animal and plastic litter surveys report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 119.63 km of beach were walked in 41 surveys (Appendix 1.). Birds and mammals were found on 16 of these surveys. There were 0.03 birds/km beach walked,...

  6. Observations of shoreline-sandbar coupling on an embayed beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W.I.; Bryan, K.R.; Coco, G.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a seven-year dataset (1999–2005) of shoreline and sandbar variations derived from video observations at the embayed Tairua Beach, New Zealand, to explore sandbar–shoreline coupling and to determine how this coupling is related to alongshore-averaged sandbar–shoreline separation and beach

  7. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  8. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  9. [Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of group nourishment in 16-18 aged youths in a summer sports camp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria; Marian, Fiedor

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was an attempt to evaluate the way of group nourishment among the teenage youths on a summer sports camp with respect to quantity and quality of food. The distribution of BMI rate among 165 girls and 131 boys--the participants of the camp was also estimated. The research showed that the analyzed decade menus were typically correct considering the average energetic value, they contained the overstandard amounts of protein and phosphorus, insufficiency of calcium, iron, magnesium and group B and C vitamins as well. At qualitative evaluation the analyzed menus received 21 points according to Starzynska's scale (satisfactory grade).

  10. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time.

  11. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  12. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  13. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear...

  14. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background... letter from R. W. Borchardt (NRC) to M. S. Fertel (Nuclear Energy Institute) dated June 4, 2009. The...

  15. Monitoring beach evolution using low-altitude aerial photogrammetry and UAV drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Vacchi, Matteo; Mucerino, Luigi; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Beach monitoring is essential in order to understand the mechanisms of evolution of soft coasts, and the rates of erosion. Traditional beach monitoring techniques involve topographic and bathymetric surveys of the beach, and/or aerial photos repeated in time and compared through geographical information systems. A major problem of this kind of approach is the high economic cost. This often leads to increase the time lag between successive monitoring campaigns to reduce survey costs, with the consequence of fragmenting the information available for coastal zone management. MIRAMar is a project funded by Regione Liguria through the PO CRO European Social Fund, and has two main objectives: i) to study and develop an innovative technique, relatively low-cost, to monitor the evolution of the shoreline using low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry; ii) to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion using also the data collected by the UAV instrument. To achieve these aims we use a drone with its hardware and software suit, traditional survey techniques (bathymetric surveys, topographic GPS surveys and GIS techniques) and we implement a numerical modeling chain (coupling hydrodynamic, wave and sand transport modules) in order to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion.

  16. Four-season variation of 2014 year in the surface sediments of the Gochang beach, southwestern coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kang, Sol-Ip

    2015-04-01

    area. Keywords: seasonal variation, surface sediment, macro-tide, beach, Gochang Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion (KIMST) through the project grant of Tracking and Prediction on Impacts of Ancient Extreme Climatic Events in the West and South Coastal Zone of Korea and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0025733).

  17. Observations on After-Effect Duration of Kidney-Nourishing and Marrow-Replenishing Therapy on 58 Cases of Mediterranean Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-juan; WU Zhi-kui; ZHANG Xin-hua; WANG Rong-xin; LIU Yong-mei; FANG Su-ping; ZHANG Chong; ZHOU Tian-hong; LI Ping-ping; LUO Rui-gui; DUAN Shu-min

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the after-effect duration of kidney-nourishing and marrow-replenishing therapy on Mediterranean anemia. Methods: To observe the kidney-nourishing and marrow-replenishing therapy on 58 cases of Mediterranean anemia and the influence of various relative factors on the after-effect duration. Results: The after-effect duration on 58 cases varied from 3-6 months, about 4 months on average, and was not influenced by sex, clinical types, genetic types, types of Mediterranean anemia and other factors. Conclusion: Kidney-nourishing and marrow-replenishing therapy used to treat Mediterranean anemia can not only produce good therapeutic effect during treatment but also keep after effect lasting for about 4 months, indicating that the therapy used to treat Mediterranean anemia has good clinical after effect.

  18. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  19. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and...

  20. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Beach County Park Airport, West Palm Beach, FL (78 FR 6258). Interested parties were invited to... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have...

  1. Governance in a beach seine fishery : a case study from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medard, M.; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Hebinck, P.; Geheb, K.

    2016-01-01

    Beach seine gear is one of the prominent fishing gears in Nile Perch fishery. Before Nile Perch was introduced to the lake, beach seines the species targeted with beach seine were Tilapia, Bagrus, Haplochromis, Protopterus and Labeo. In 1994, beach seines were banned in Tanzania and by 2004, this

  2. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  3. Coastal Land Air Sea Interaction: "the" beach towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahan, J. H.; Koscinski, J. S.; Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Thornton, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Coastal Land Air Sea Interaction (CLASI) experiment, an alongshore array of 6-m high towers instrumented with ultrasonic 3D anemometers and temperature-relative humidity sensors were deployed at five sandy beaches near the high-tide line in Monterey Bay, CA, in May-June 2016. A cross-shore array of towers was also deployed from within the active surfzone to the toe of the dune at one beach. In addition, waves and ocean temperature were obtained along the 10m isobath for each beach. The dissipative surfzone was O(80m) wide. The wave energy varies among the beaches owing to sheltering and refraction by the Monterey Canyon and headlands. The tides are semi-diurnal mixed, meso-tidal with a maximum tidal range of 2m. This results in a variable beach width from the tower to the tidal line. Footprint analysis for estimating the source region for the turbulent momentum fluxes, suggests that the observations represent three scenarios described as primarily ocean, mixed beach and ocean, and primarily beach. The direct-estimate of the atmospheric stability by the sonic anemometer suggest that all of the beaches are mostly unstable except for a few occurrences in the evening during low wind conditions. The onshore neutral drag coefficient (Cd) estimated at 10m heights is 3-5 times larger than open ocean estimates. Minimal variability was found in Cd based on the footprint analysis. Beach-specific spatial variability in Cd was found related to atmospheric stability and wave energy.

  4. Hurricane Sandy beach response and recovery at Fire Island, New York: Shoreline, beach profile data, and breach shoreline data: October 2012 to June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rachel E.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Brenner, Owen T.; Reynolds, Billy J.

    2017-01-01

    Fire Island, New York is the site of a long term coastal morphologic change and processes project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). One of the objectives of the project was to understand the morphologic evolution of the barrier system on a variety of time scales (months–years–decades–centuries). In response to Hurricane Sandy (October 2012), this effort continued with the intention of resolving storm impacts, post-storm beach response, and recovery. The day before Hurricane Sandy made landfall a USGS field team conducted surveys at Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) to quantify the pre-storm morphologic state of the beach and dunes. The area was re-surveyed after the storm, as soon as access to the island was possible. In order to fully capture the recovery of the barrier system, the USGS Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Fire Island Study was established to include regular surveying in the weeks, months, and years following the storm. As part of the USGS Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Fire Island Study, the beach is monitored periodically to enable better understanding of post-Sandy recovery. The alongshore state of the beach is recorded using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) to collect data around the mean high water (MHW; 0.46 meter North American Vertical Datum of 1988) to derive a shoreline, and the cross-shore response and recovery are measured along a series of 15 profiles (Figure 1). Monitoring continued in the weeks following Hurricane Sandy with additional monthly collection through April 2013, and repeat surveys every 2–3 months thereafter until October 2014. Additional bi-annual surveys have been collected through September 2016. Beginning in October 2014 the USGS also began collecting a shoreline at the Wilderness breach, in the location of Old Inlet, in the Otis Pike High Dunes Wilderness area. The shoreline collected was an approximation of the MHW shoreline. The operator walked along an estimated MHW elevation above

  5. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Jing Yi; Narayanan Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled h...

  6. Marine anthropogenic litter on British beaches: A 10-year nationwide assessment using citizen science data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, S E; Coombes, C; Foster, L C; Galloway, T S; Godley, B J; Lindeque, P K; Witt, M J

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that anthropogenic litter, particularly plastic, represents a highly pervasive and persistent threat to global marine ecosystems. Multinational research is progressing to characterise its sources, distribution and abundance so that interventions aimed at reducing future inputs and clearing extant litter can be developed. Citizen science projects, whereby members of the public gather information, offer a low-cost method of collecting large volumes of data with considerable temporal and spatial coverage. Furthermore, such projects raise awareness of environmental issues and can lead to positive changes in behaviours and attitudes. We present data collected over a decade (2005-2014 inclusive) by Marine Conservation Society (MCS) volunteers during beach litter surveys carried along the British coastline, with the aim of increasing knowledge on the composition, spatial distribution and temporal trends of coastal debris. Unlike many citizen science projects, the MCS beach litter survey programme gathers information on the number of volunteers, duration of surveys and distances covered. This comprehensive information provides an opportunity to standardise data for variation in sampling effort among surveys, enhancing the value of outputs and robustness of findings. We found that plastic is the main constituent of anthropogenic litter on British beaches and the majority of traceable items originate from land-based sources, such as public littering. We identify the coast of the Western English Channel and Celtic Sea as experiencing the highest relative litter levels. Increasing trends over the 10-year time period were detected for a number of individual item categories, yet no statistically significant change in total (effort-corrected) litter was detected. We discuss the limitations of the dataset and make recommendations for future work. The study demonstrates the value of citizen science data in providing insights that would otherwise not be

  7. Cadmium, lead and bromine in beached microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massos, Angelo; Turner, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Samples of microplastic (n = 924) from two beaches in south west England have been analysed by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry, configured in a low-density mode and with a small-spot facility, for the heavy metals, Cd and Pb, and the halogen, Br. Primary plastics in the form of pre-production pellets were the principal type of microplastic (>70%) on both beaches, with secondary, irregularly-shaped fragments representing the remainder of samples. Cadmium and Pb were detected in 6.9% and 7.5% of all microplastics, respectively, with concentrations of either metal that exceeded 10(3) μg g(-1) usually encountered in red and yellow pellets or fragments. Respective correlations of Cd and Pb with Se and Cr were attributed to the presence of the coloured, inorganic pigments, cadmium sulphoselenide and lead chromate. Bromine, detected in 10.4% of microplastics and up to concentrations of about 13,000 μg g(-1), was mainly encountered in neutrally-coloured pellets. Its strong correlation with Sb, whose oxides are effective fire suppressant synergists, suggests the presence of a variety of brominated flame retardants arising from the recycling of plastics originally used in casings for heat-generating electrical equipment. The maximum bioaccessible concentrations of Cd and Pb, evaluated using a physiological extraction based on the chemical characteristics of the proventriculus-gizzard of the northern fulmar, were about 50 μg g(-1) and 8 μg g(-1), respectively. These concentrations exceed those estimated for the diet of local seabirds by factors of about 50 and 4, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological changes, beach inundation and overwash caused by an extreme storm on a low-lying embayed beach bounded by a dune system (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Ruth; Guillén, Jorge; Ruiz, Antonio; Jiménez, José A.; Sagristà, Enric

    2016-12-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a low-lying, micro-tidal sandy beach in the western Mediterranean, Pals beach, was characterized using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Data were collected in prior to and six months after the impact of an extreme storm with a return period of approx. 50 years, with the aim of characterizing the beach's response to the storm. The use of repeated high-resolution topographic data to quantify beach geomorphic changes has allowed assessment of the accuracy of different proxies for estimating beach volume changes. Results revealed that changes in the shoreline position cannot accurately reproduce beach volume changes on low-lying beaches where overwash processes are significant. Observations also suggested that volume estimations from beach profiles do not accurately represent subaerial volume changes at large profile distances on beaches with significant alongshore geomorphological variability. Accordingly, the segmentation of the beach into regularly spaced bins is proposed to assess alongshore variations in the beach volume with the accuracy of the topographic data. The morphological evolution of Pals beach during the study period showed a net shoreline retreat (- 4 m) and a significant sediment gain on the subaerial beach (+ 7.5 m3/m). The net gain of sediment is mostly due to the impact of the extreme storm, driving significant overwash processes that transport sediment landwards, increasing volume on the backshore and dunes. The increase of volume on the foreshore and the presence of cuspate morphologies along the shoreline also evidence post-storm beach recovery. Observed morphological changes exhibit a high variability along the beach related to variations in beach morphology. Changes in the morphology and migration of megacusps result in a high variability in the shoreline position and foreshore volume changes. On the other hand, larger morphological changes on the backshore and larger inundation distances

  9. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  10. Morphological change by overwash on a microtidal backshore: Bevano beach, Northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrati, M.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.; Fontana, E.; Masina, M.

    2009-04-01

    to a series of storm-surges between December 10th and December 15th with surge values fluctuating between 0.6 m and 0.8 m and offshore significant wave heights reaching up to 2 m. This caused important wave run-up and water level set-up on the upper beach. The previously developed washover fans continued their landward migration and the most important one is now at few meters from the landward side of the old river channel, threatening to form a lake. The other washover fans that were originally less developed merged into a single large washover terrace. This study demonstrates that the exceptional surge of December 1st was the instigator of initial morphological changes (formation of seven washover fans) which then facilitated successive morphological changes caused by the subsequent storm surges and, as a result, generating the complete change of the morphologic configuration of the microtidal setting. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement n° 202798 (MICORE Project).

  11. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory T. Kleinheinz; McDermott, Colleen M.; Sarah Hughes; Amanda Brown

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impa...

  12. Wave-dominated, mesotidal headland-bay beach morphody-namic classsfications of the Shuidong Bay in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jitao; DING Yuanting; CHENG Huangxin; CAI Lailiang; CHEN Zishen

    2016-01-01

    Beach morphodynamic classifications have achieved extensive acceptance in foreign coastal geomorphological studies. Three beaches located in different zones of a headland-bay coast are classified according to a dimensionless fall parameter, a relative tide range parameter and a dimensionless embayment scaling parameter. Synchronous data, including wave, tide, sediment and beach morphology, are respectively collected from the tangential beach, the transitional beach and the shadow beach of the Shuidong Bay during each spring tide for 16 successive months. The research results indicate that (1) the beach in the tangential zone falls between two major categories which are low tide terrace beaches with rips and barred beaches; the beach in the transitional zone exhibits two main types which are low tide bar/rip beaches and barred dissipative beaches; and the beach in the shadow zone mainly mirrors dissipative states with presence or absence of bars; and (2) the sequential changes and differences of beach states in different coastal zones reflect spatial and temporal variabilities of the headland-bay coast, totally meeting the actual measured beach morphology changes, showing that studies on wave-dominated, meso-macrotidal beaches need to consider the influences of the tides. Meanwhile, the research mainly provides a framework about beach state studies, due to different beach states with different erosion patterns, which requires the need to strengthen the researches in this respect, in order to further enrich theoretical basis for a beach topography evolution, beach morphodynamic processes and beach erosion prevention in China.

  13. 象山皇城海滩稳定性分析与防护对策%Stability analysis and protection methods for the Huangcheng Beach in Xiangshan County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童宵岭; 时连强; 夏小明; 程林; 姜呈浩

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a parabolic model was used to study the stability of the Huangcheng Beach, and the impact of the seawall on the beach was analyzed, and the protection methods were figured out. The results show that erosion was found in the north part of the Huangcheng Beach, and the planform of the Huangcheng Beach hasn′t reached the static equilibrium. The northern seawall was too close to the seaward, so that the backshore dunes formed. The most important sources of supply for the beach, were isolated and disappeared completely. Furthermore, the interaction of spring tide drowning the bottom of the seawall and the breaking waves in the front of seawall made water flow of beach face and sediment movement intensively. Therefore, the scour in the front of seawall happened. Finally, the best countermeasure to prevent the erosion of beach was to use the appropriate beach nour-ishment after removing and rebuilding the northern part of seawall. Through the study on the stability of the Huangcheng Beach, the impact of seawall on the beach can be well understood. This can provide some scientific basis for the rational development of Zhejiang headland bay beach resources, and construction of coastal protection engineering.%以浙江岬湾砂质海岸象山皇城海滩为例,运用抛物线模型,分析得出皇城海滩的冲淤演化动态,并通过历史岸线形态对比探讨皇城海塘对其的影响,最终提出防止海岸侵蚀的对策。研究结果表明,皇城海滩北部有一定的侵蚀,其平面形态还未达到静态平衡,处于不稳定状态;皇城海滩北段海塘修建得过于靠海,致使海滩最重要的泥沙补给源——后滨沙丘被阻断,甚至消失,同时大潮水位可直接淹没海塘堤脚,加上海塘前为近破波,滩面水流和泥沙运动剧烈,最终导致堤前滩面的冲刷。基于此,防止海岸侵蚀的最佳对策是在拆除、重建海滩北部部分海塘后再进行适当的海滩

  14. An integrated multispectral video and environmental monitoring system for the study of coastal processes and the support of beach management operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghionis, George; Trygonis, Vassilis; Karydis, Antonis; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Alexandrakis, George; Drakopoulos, Panos; Amdreadis, Olympos; Psarros, Fotis; Velegrakis, Antonis; Poulos, Serafim

    2016-04-01

    detect upwelling in the nearshore zone, and enhances the safety of beach users. All data can be presented in real- or quasi-real time and are stored for future analysis and training/validation of coastal processes models. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project BEACHTOUR (11SYN-8-1466) of the Operational Program "Cooperation 2011, Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship", co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs.

  15. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  16. Plastic pellets on the Caranzalem beach sands, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Postmonsoonal survey of Caranzalem beach, Goa, India indicated the presence of plastic pellets. These pellets varied in shape, size and number, and are considered to be contaminants of marine environment...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Seal Beach NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  18. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A; Rokade, M.A

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  19. Pollution of some recreation beaches of Mumbai, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Kadam, A.N.

    of Mumbai (Figure 1). It was therefore feared that they might have polluted the recreation beaches causing deleterious effects to the human health. Some such effects are known to be skin irritations, gastrointestinal diseases, transmission of typhoid...

  20. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is included in...

  1. Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Seal Beach NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  2. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheets 10, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach, California. The vector data file is included in...

  3. Wave refraction and littoral currents off Colva Beach, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Wave refraction studies have been carried out for waves of different periods approaching the coast at Colva, with directions of approach lying between180 degrees and 340 degrees, to obtain a qualitative picture of littoral flows along the beach...

  4. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyus-Melvin Mobilik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  5. Virginia Beach Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Beach, Virginia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  6. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  7. Backscatter--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach map area, California. The raster data...

  8. Modes of embayed beach dynamics: analysis reveals emergent timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. T.; Murray, A.; Limber, P. W.; Ells, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    Embayed beaches, or beaches positioned between rocky headlands, exhibit morphologic changes over many length and time scales. Beach sediment is transported as a result of the day-to-day wave forcing, causing patterns of erosion and accretion. We use the Rocky Coastline Evolution Model (RCEM) to investigate how patterns of shoreline change depend on wave climate (the distribution of wave-approach angles) and beach characteristics. Measuring changes in beach width through time allows us to track the evolution of the shape of the beach and the movement of sand within it. By using Principle Component Analysis (PCA), these changes can be categorized into modes, where the first few modes explain the majority of the variation in the time series. We analyze these modes and how they vary as a function of wave climate and headland/bay aspect ratio. In the purposefully simple RCEM, sediment transport is wave-driven and affected by wave shadowing behind the headlands. The rock elements in our model experiments (including the headlands) are fixed and unerodable so that this analysis can focus purely on sand dynamics between the headlands, without a sand contribution from the headlands or cliffs behind the beach. The wave climate is characterized by dictating the percentage of offshore waves arriving from the left and the percentage of waves arriving from high angles (very oblique to the coastline orientation). A high-angle dominated wave climate tends to amplify coastline perturbations, whereas a lower-angle wave climate is diffusive. By changing the headland/bay aspect ratio and wave climate, we can perform PCA analysis of generalized embayed beaches with differing anatomy and wave climate forcings. Previous work using PCA analysis of embayed beaches focused on specific locations and shorter timescales (beach dynamics over longer timescales. The first two PCA modes, which explain a majority of the beach width time series variation (typically >70%), are a 'breathing' mode and a

  9. The durban beach monitoring program: simple surveys speak volumes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Wet, p

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation provides a short background and history of the Durban Bay monitoring area, and then progresses to providing maps of the areas monitored. Beach survey data is discussed, and the effects of sandmining touched on....

  10. Daytona Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Daytona Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  11. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  12. Artificial Beach Lighting Survey of St. George Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — St. George Island SGI is a significant sea turtle nesting beach for loggerhead and occasionally leatherback sea turtles in the Florida panhandle Lewis et al 1996 ....

  13. Beach Sand Supply and Transport at Kunduchi in Tanzania and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OCEAN. Mombasa. Dar es. Salaam. KUNDUCHI. KENYA. TANZANIA ... Figure 2. a) Reef-platform transects at Bamburi. b) Beach plain sand ..... comprised coral debris covered by turf algae .... and ocean acidification should not be ruled.

  14. Transport and distribution of bottom sediments at Pirita Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomere, Tarmo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic factors affecting sediment supply for and transport processes at Pirita Beach, a sandy section of the south­eastern coast of Tallinn Bay, are analysed. Observations of bathymetry, sediment properties and sources, sediment transport processes and their changes arising from coastal engineering activities are reported. The mean grain size is about 0.12 mm, with the fine sand fraction (0.063–0.125 mm accounting for about 77% of the sediments. Coarse sand dominates only along the waterline. The content of coarser sediments is greater in the northern part of the beach. A number of coastal engineering structures have blocked natural sediment supplies. The beach suffers from sediment deficit now and has lost about 400 m3 of sand annually from the dry beach between 1997 and 2005.

  15. Short Communication Energy and ash contents of sandy beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    macrofauna found on three exposed sandy beaches on the west coast ... that they often form the predominant shore type (Bally,. McQuaid ... their sediments are given in Table I. Animals ..... The biochemical composition of the tropical intertida1 ...

  16. Lido Beach National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Lido Beach Wildlife Management Area. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  17. Seafloor character--Offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7) offshore of Refugio Beach, California (raster data file is included in...

  18. Impacts of Lake Level Regulation on Beaches and Boating Facilities--Lakes Erie and Ontario and Connecting Waterways. Recreation Beaches Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-18

    feet, the crews were in- structed to take additional measurements. At very long beaches, such as at Presque Isle State Park, in Pennsylvania , the...REGULATION ON BEACHES AND BOATING FACILITIES- LAKES ERIE AND) ONTARIO AND CONNECTING WATERWAYS -I RECREATION BEACHES INVENTORY 3 December 18, 1979 Contract...CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Impacts of Lake Level Regulation on Beaches and Boating Facilities--Lake Erie and

  19. Longshore currents of regular waves on different beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志利; 王淑平; 邱大洪; 王艳; 王风龙; 董国海

    2003-01-01

    The experiment and numerical computations of longshore currents produced by regularwaves on the two beaches with the slopes of 1:100 and 1: 40 are made. The cross-shore distributions oflongshore current velocities and wave heights are given and the influences of wave heights, wave periodsand beach slopes on the longshore currents are discussed. The discussion is also made for the influencesof different eddy viscosity coefficients on the numerical results of longshore current velocities.

  20. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  1. Medium-term dynamics of a middle Adriatic barred beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Postacchini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been paid to beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscape feature and around 70 % of the Marche region's coast (central Adriatic is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the region includes the beach of Senigallia, frequently monitored in the last decades and characterized by a multiple bar system, which represents a natural beach defense. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show long-term stability, confirmed by a good adaptation of an analyzed stretch of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short- to medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. The medium-term dynamics of the beach, which deal with the evolution of submerged bars and are of the order of years or seasons, have been related to the wave climate collected, during the analyzed temporal windows, by a wave buoy located about 40 km off Senigallia. An overall interpretation of the hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and seabed morphology suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term. These medium-term time ranges during which waves mainly come from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and by a larger/smaller relative wave height, and seem to induce seaward/shoreward bar migration as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southeastward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile shape suggests the adaptation to a decreasing sediment size in the submerged beach. This is probably due to the presence of both the harbor jetty and river mouth north of the investigated area.

  2. Longshore Currents of Random Waves on Different Plane Beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志利; 王淑平; 邱大洪; 王艳; 王风龙; 董国海

    2003-01-01

    Model tests and numerical calculation of longshore currents and wave heights produced by irregular waves on two beaches with slopes of 1:100 and 1:40 are studied. The cross-shore distributions of longshore current velocities and wave heights are given and the influences of wave heights, wave periods, and beach slopes on longshore currents are discussed. The discussion is also made on the influences of different eddy viscosity coefficients on the numerical results of longshore current velocities.

  3. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Final report, February 24, 1992--September 18, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, V.J.

    1995-09-18

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the utility of a device called the {open_quotes}beach cone{close_quotes} in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. Findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island, and they might have been instrumental in repairing an approximately 200 meter gap in the island. At the eighth installation the amount of accreted material was measured by surveys to be 2200 cubic meters (2900 cubic yards) in February of 1993, when the cones were found to have been completely covered by the material. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. The cost of sediment accretion using beach cones was found to be about $13.72 per cubic yard, which would be much lower if the cones were mass produced (on the order of $3.00 per cubic yard). The survival of the cones through the fringes of Hurricane Andrew indicates that they can be anchored sufficiently to survive significant storms. The measurements of the cones settling rates indicate that this effect is not significant enough to hinder their effectiveness. A subcontract to Xavier University to assess the ecological quality of the experimental sites involved the study of the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals. The highest concentration of heavy metals were near a fishing camp while the lowest levels were in the beach sand of a barrier island. This suggests that the metals do not occur naturally in these areas, but have been placed in the sediments by man`s activities.

  4. Clinical Research on Nourishing Yin and Unblocking Meridians Recipe Combined with Opioid Analgesics in Cancer Pain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ting; MA Sheng-lin; XIE Guang-ru; DENG Qing-hua; TANG Zhong-zhu; PAN Xiao-chan; ZHANG Min; XU Su

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the analgesic effects of Nourishing yin and Unblocking meridians Receipe (NUR) combined with opioid analgesics in managing cancer pain. Methods: All the patients enrolled were differentiated as of yin deficiency and meridian blocked syndrome type of TCM. Forty-one of them in the treated group were treated with NUR combined with opioid analgesics, while 43 of them in the control group were given opioid analgesics alone with successive 14 days as one treatment course for both groups. Results:The indexes of the treated group were superior to those in the control group as to the degree of pain-relieving, the therapeutic effect of analgesia, the occurrence frequency of cancer pain every day and its duration each time, the analgesic initial time, and the quality of life. Conclusion: NUR combined with opioid analgesics in cancer pain management was more effective than opioid analgesics alone.

  5. Developing an interactive Tool for evaluating sand nourishment strategies along the Holland coast in perspective of benthos, fish nursery and dune quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baptist, M.J.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Huisman, B.J.A.; Groot, de A.V.; Boer, de W.; Ye, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Sand nourishments can affect the coastal ecosystem in various ways. Direct effects are the burial of benthic species under a layer of sand. In the direct vicinity, suffocation of benthos can occur due to the settling of a plume of suspended sediment particles. A plume of fine particles may also incr

  6. Biomodulative effects of polarized light on the healing of cutaneous wounds on nourished and undernourished Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Meireles, Gyselle Cynthia Silva; Carvalho, Carolina Montagn; de Barros Vieira, Alessandro Leonardo; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2006-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate, by light microcopy, the differences in healing process of cutaneous wounds on nourished or undernourished rats following illumination by polarized light (lambda400-2000 nm) with 20 or 40 J/cm(2). There are some reports in the literature on different effects of polarized light on wound healing. Amongst the factors that interfere with wound healing one is the nutritional status of the subject. Thirty nourished or undernourished Wistar rats had one standardized surgical wound created on the dorsum and were divided into six groups: group 1, control (standard diet); group 2, control (Northeastern Brazilian Basic Diet [DBR]); group 3, standard diet + polarized light (20 J/cm(2)); group 4, standard diet + polarized light (40 J/cm(2)); group 5, DBR + polarized light (20 J/cm(2)); group 6, DBR + polarized light (40 J/cm(2)). The first application of treatment was carried out immediately after wounding and repeated every 24 h during 7 days. The animals were sacrificed, and specimens were taken and routinely processed to wax, cut, and stain with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Sirius Red. These were then analyzed under light microscopy. The analysis included re-epitheliialization, inflammatory infiltrate, and fibroblastic proliferation. Sirius Red-stained slides were used to perform descriptive analysis of collagen. The analysis of the results showed better results in these groups illuminated with 20 J/cm(2). It is concluded that nutritional status influenced the progression of the healing process as well as the quality of the healed tissue, and that the use of polarized light resulted in a positive biomodulatory effect.

  7. Effect of Detoxification, Removing Stasis and Nourishing Yin Method on Corticosteroid-induced Hyperlipidemia in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of TCM therapy for detoxification, removing stasis, and nourishing yin on corticosteroid-induced hyperlipemia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to investigate its mechanism. Methods: One hundred and seventy patients with SLE were randomly assigned to the integrative medicine group (IM group) and the Western medicine group (WM group), 85 in each group. Also, 30 healthy subjects selected from blood donors were enrolled in the normal control (NC) group. All patients were treated mainly with prednisone,while those in the IM group were given TCM therapy additionally, and the therapeutic course for both groups was 6 successive months. The changes of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Iow density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and apolipoprotein A (ApoA) were determined and observed. A 2-year follow-up study was carried out in 16 patients of the WM group and 25 of the IM group. Results: Before treatment, no significant difference had been found among the three groups in the serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins. After the 6-month treatment, as compared with the WM group, the IM group showed lower levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and higher levels of HDL-C and ApoA (P<0.05). A similar effect was also shown by the follow-up study in the IM group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion: TCM therapy for detoxification, removing stasis, and nourishing yin can effectively regulate the levels of serum lipids and lipoproteins in preventing and treating SLE patients with corticosteroidinduced hyperlipemia.

  8. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  9. Post-monsoon equilibrium beach profiles and longshore sediment transport rates at Candolim, Miramar and Keri beaches of Goa, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Yadhunath, E.M.; Jishad, M.; Gowthaman, R.; Rajasekaran, C.; Pednekar, P.S.

    Equilibrium profile is one of the concepts in coastal geomorphology which is a result of the balance of destructive versus constructive forces. Two equilibrium beach profile models, viz . Bruun/Dean’s two thirds power model and modified Bodge...

  10. Daily beach profiles and littoral environmental observations off Baga, Calangute and Miramar beaches during November-December 1999

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Raju, N.S.N.; Gowthaman, R.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    This report presents the results of the field observations and theoretical studies on the coastal processes at Baga, Calangute and Miramar beaches along the North Goa coast, India. The field observations undertaken for a period of one month during...

  11. 76 FR 3152 - Agency Information Collection Activity: 1010-NEW, Upcoming Projects Considering the Use of Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... respondents will submit to BOEMRE to obtain OCS sand, gravel, and shell resources for use in shore protection... noncompetitive negotiated agreement (NNA) for use in shore protection and beach and coastal restoration, or for.... Since 1995, 22 shore protection or beach and coastal restoration projects have been completed using...

  12. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach-ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of past sea-level variations based on different methods and techniques have been presented in a range of studies, including interpretation of beach ridge characteristics. In Denmark, Holocene beach ridge plains have been formed during the last c. 7700 years, a period characterised by both...... (i.e. sea-level) at the time of deposition. Combining the variations in height of the downlaps (in meters above present mean sea-level) with optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques provides estimates of relative sealevel at specific times....... been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet...

  13. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes-Entering a new era of investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?

  14. Quality Standard Research of Kidney Nourishing Blood Tonic Capsule%补肾养血生发胶囊质量标准提高研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新民

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore and analyze kidney nourishing blood tonic capsule quality standard to improve the countermeasures.Methods The kidney nourishing blood tonic capsule gives microscopical identification and TLC identification, and analyzes its quality, function, etc.Results Through the kidney nourishing blood germinal capsule quality standard to give a series of control, found that kidney nourishing blood tonic capsule with strong speciifcity.Conclusion Kidney nourishing blood tonic capsule the original quality standard prescription no medicinal materials inspection items, unable to effectively control the quality of the drug, on the quality standard research, effective control of drug quality.%目的:探究与分析补肾养血生发胶囊质量标准提高对策。方法对补肾养血生发胶囊给予显微鉴别及薄层色谱鉴别,并对其质量、功能等进行分析。结果通过对补肾养血生发胶囊的质量标准给予一系列的控制,发现补肾养血生发胶囊具有较强的专属性。结论补肾养血生发胶囊原质量标准处方无药材检验项目,无法有效控制药品的质量,对其进行质量标准提高的研究,有效控制药品质量。

  15. Morphodynamic modeling of low energy beaches under waves, tides and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, G.; Marino-Tapia, I.

    2013-05-01

    sections was determined to quantify the morphodynamic changes. As a result of the comparison of volumetric changes, between the different scenarios, the mixed effect of waves and tides was found to be the most relevant force dominating the global beach morphodynamics. This result is relevant because future projects involving coastal protection structures, at Progreso, Yucatán, could be focused on using semi submerged structures that take into account the interaction between the variation of water levels and the structure to dissipate the wave energy. Despite identifying the relationship of waves and tides with coastal erosion, when the partial accretion processes occurred in some sections, the wave-current forcing became more relevant. Alternative shore protection schemes, such as the use of seagrasses is also evaluated by spatially varying the bed roughness in the whole domain. The results show the efficiency of sea grasses as energy dissipaters.

  16. An Engineering Application Tool for Visual Assessment of the Equilibrium Beach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An engineering application tool for prediction of the static equilibrium bay (Beach Mod) is established to describe two bay shape formulas by use of the programming software "MATLAB" with a graphic user interface (GUI). The tool is user-friendly for engineering students for the design of beach shapes. This tool was tested through application on three types of beaches in Taiwan and Australia. By implementing the concept of Headland Control, the Beach Mod program allows users to draw a structure and create an artificial headland. The results indicate that Beach Mod can efficiently forecast beach changes as well as MEPBAY, a competing software package, while boasting a better user interface.

  17. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  18. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  19. Lidar-derived beach morphology (dune crest, dune toe, and shoreline) for U.S. sandy coastlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara; Long, Joseph W.; Birchler, Justin; Brenner, Owen T.; Hardy, Matthew; Morgan, Karen L. M.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Torres, Miguel Loubriel

    2017-01-01

    The USGS National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project aims to identify areas of the nation’s coastline that are most vulnerable to extreme storms and long-term shoreline change. These assessments require coastal elevation data across diverse geographic regions and covering a time span of many years.  The datasets published here, organized by individual field activity numbers (FANs), define the dune crest (denoted by DC in the feature_type attribute), dune toe (denoted by DT in the feature_type attribute), and shoreline (denoted by SL in the feature_type attribute) at 10m intervals alongshore for each processed lidar elevation survey. Beach width and beach slope as calculated from dune toe to shoreline are also included at each shoreline location.

  20. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Navarre Beach, Florida, to Breton Island, Louisiana, September 18–19, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On September 18–19, 2015, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Navarre Beach, Florida, to Breton Island, Louisiana, aboard a Maule MT57 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was conducted to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown in September 2014. The data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  1. Alimentação do lactente portador de lesão lábio-palatal: aleitamento e introdução alimentar Nourishment of the infant with cleft lip and palate lactant: nursing and nourishing introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Genovez PINI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available São inquestionáveis as vantagens do leite materno para o neonato. Na sua impossibilidade, é necessária a introdução do leite artificial e de alimentação adequada como forma de reposição de nutrientes, respeitando-se a maturação neuro-fisiológica da criança. Para o estudo, foram investigadas 60 crianças de 2 a 4 anos, de ambos os sexos, portadoras de lesão lábio-palatal, pacientes do Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais, Universidade de São Paulo, Bauru, quanto a sua história dietética pregressa (aleitamento e introdução alimentar e peso e estatura atuais, a fim de verificar possíveis influências no estado nutricional relacionadas à sua alimentação no primeiro ano de vida. Os dados obtidos mostraram que o aleitamento materno foi significativo, e que o desmame, o aleitamento artificial e a introdução alimentar, apesar de inadequados, pouco influenciaram na antropometria atual.The advantages of the mother's milk for the newborn infants are unquestionable. In its impossibility, it is necessary the introduction of the artificial milk and adequate food as an alternative way of replacing nutrients, respecting the child's neurophysiological maturing. For this study, 60 children aged 2 to 4 years old (male and female, carriers of cleft lip and palate, who were patients of the Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais at the Universidade de São Paulo in the city of Bauru, were investigated, considering their earlier dietary history (nursing and nourishing introduction and present weight and height, in order to verify possible influences on nutritional status related to their feeding in the first year of life. The obtained data showed that the nursing was significant, and that the weaning, the artificial nursing and the nourishing introduction, in spite of inadequate, hardly influenced the current anthropometry.

  2. Association of land use and its change with beach closure in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land use and its change have great influences on water quality. However, their impacts on microbial contamination of beach water have been rarely investigated and their relationship with beach closure is still unknown. Here, we analyzed beach closure data obtained from 2004 to 2013 for more than 500 beaches in the United States, and examined their associations with land use around beaches in 2006 and 2011, respectively, as well as the land use change between 2011 and 2006. The results show that the number of beach closures is negatively associated with the percentages of forest, barren land, grassland and wetland, while positively associated with the percentage of urban area. The results from multi-level models also indicate the negative association with forest area but positive association with urban area and agriculture. The examination of the change of land use and the number of beach closures between 2011 and 2006 indicates that the increase in the number of beach closures is positively associated with the increase in urban (β=1.612, p<0.05) and agricultural area including pasture (β=0.098, p<0.05), but negatively associated with the increase in forest area (β= -1.789, p<0.05). The study suggests that urbanization and agriculture development near beaches have adverse effects on beach microbial water quality, while afforestation may protect beach water quality and reduce the number of beach closures. To compare differences in beach closures across the US u

  3. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors

  4. Alongshore variability in nearshore-beach-dune interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Timothy; Donker, Jasper

    2017-04-01

    At straight, sandy coasts, wave- and wind-induced processes often lead to the development of an alongshore-variable morphology in the nearshore, beach and dune systems on spatial scales from tens of metres to a few kilometres. Although our understanding of this morphological patterning is quite mature for the different sub-systems, we are only starting to understand how these patterns affect each other across the entire nearshore-beach-dune system. The morphological patterns emerging in subtidal bars often exhibit landward-protruding shallower areas at regular intervals alongshore, known as horns. The alongshore depth variation in these so-called crescentic bars is thought to affect the morphodynamics of the more landward intertidal beach by acting as an alongshore-variable filter for the wave field, both during erosional storm events and the accretionary recovery periods in between storms. Recent studies have revealed that persistent (years - decades) foredune accretion and embryo dune development primarily border wider beach areas, especially along fetch-limited narrow (shore. This suggests that SPAWs play a significant role in the development of alongshore-variable dune morphology at our study site. At the conference, we will further explain the temporal and spatial variations involved in this morphological coupling across the entire nearshore-beach-dune system.

  5. New beach ridge type: severely limited fetch, very shallow water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, W.F.; Demirpolat, S.

    1988-09-01

    The southern end of Laguna Madre (Texas) north of the Rio Grande mouth is marked by very shallow water, wide tidal flats, lunettes, islands made of beach ridges, and lesser features. The number and variety of islands in the lagoon is remarkable. The lunettes (clay dunes) are made primarily of quartz sand and coarse silt. They are common 5-10 m high, irregular in shape, and steep sided. They were deposited from wind transport and did not migrate. Those that are islands in the lagoon predate present position of sea level. Islands made of beach ridges were built from the lagoon side. Photoanalysis, field work, and granulometry all show that this sand was not moved into these ridges by Gulf of Mexico waves. Trenches in 12 beach ridges showed horizontal bedding but neither low-angle nor steep cross-bedding (quite unlike swash-built beach ridges). The ridges were built by wind-tide lag effects, not from the swash. Therefore, these beach ridges are a new type, in addition to swash-built, eolian, and storm-surge ridges. Growth of the ridges appears to be completed.

  6. Impacts of enhanced central Pacific ENSO on wave climate and headland-bay beach morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortlock, Thomas R.; Goodwin, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Wave climate and Pacific basin coastal behaviour associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is understood at a reconnaissance level, but the coastal response to different central Pacific (CP) versus eastern Pacific (EP) flavours of ENSO is unknown. We show that CP ENSO events produce different patterns of directional wave power to EP ENSO along the southeast Australian shelf and southwest Pacific region, because of significant variability in trade-wind wave generation. The modulation of the trade wind wave climate during CP ENSO has thus far been neglected in existing coastal process studies. We also show that coastal change between CP and EP ENSO cannot be inferred from shifts in the deepwater wave climate. This is because variability in trade wind wave generation is masked in deepwater by the persistence of high power extra-tropical waves that have reduced impact on nearshore processes due to high wave refraction. Morphodynamic modelling in a headland-bay beach indicates that CP ENSO leads to higher coastal erosion potential and slower post-storm recovery than EP ENSO during an El Niño/La Niña cycle. We show that the alongshore variability in beach morphological type can be used to model the static equilibrium planform response for each ENSO phase. Results indicate that shoreline response to ENSO in most headland-bay beach coasts is not as simple as the existing paradigm that (anti-) clockwise rotation occurs during El Niño (La Niña). Our methods provide a second-order approach to project coastal response and predict the discrete shoreline rotations for ENSO flavours.

  7. Metal-Microbial Interactions in Toronto Sunnyside Beach: Impact on Water Quality and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plach, J. M.; Elliott, A.; Warren, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Assessing recreational water quality requires a fundamental understanding of metal-microbial interactions and the key biogeochemical processes occurring in urban public beaches. Metals play an important role in the distribution and virulence (e.g. resistance) of microorganisms in water systems. In turn, microorganisms have a significant influence on metal cycling, thus affecting metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Bacteria adhere to floc, small suspended mineral-bacterial aggregates, in aquatic systems resulting in high-density floc-associated bacterial biofilm communities. These nanoparticulate bacterial microhabitats are important environmental sinks for metals and potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify (1) metal distributions among suspended floc, bed sediment and water-column aqueous compartments (2) important biogeochemical processes influencing metal cycling and (3) linkages between floc metals and the occurrence of floc associated antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens across a series of variably contaminated aquatic systems. Results of this project will provide new diagnostic indicators of pathogens in recreational water systems and aid in the development of public health policies to improve water quality and reduce water borne infectious disease. Here, results will be presented assessing the metal and microbial community dynamics in samples collected from Toronto's Sunnyside Beach (May 13 and August 20), an urban public beach on Lake Ontario. Water column, floc and bed sediments near and offshore were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and metal concentrations. Floc were imaged using DAPI and FISH to assess microbial community structure. Results to date, characterizing the linkages amongst bacteria, metal contaminant concentrations and sediment partitioning and system physico-chemical conditions will be discussed.

  8. Young Geophysicists: `Know How' Tips to Nourish Them from Lectures and Seminars to Field Work and Conferences (Geology and Geophysics Department, Novosibirsk State University, GGD, NSU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmenkulova, I. F.

    2016-12-01

    How to nourish young brilliant geophysicists? Here are the tips: We teach them as physicists (at the Department of Physics, together with students majoring in physics). Students have special facilities in field work, using most modern geophysical equipment. They can participate in real projects on applied geophysics during their studies. They attend special seminars and conferences for both young professionals and full-fledged scientists. Their English Language Program is focused on geophysical terminology. There are four specialties at Geology and Geophysics Department of Novosibirsk State University: Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geology, and Geochemistry of Oil and Gas. However, the curriculum for geophysicists is absolutely different from other specialties. Mathematics, physics and laboratory work are given at the Department of Physics (together with students majoring in physics). All the necessary geological subjects are also studied (including field work). During all period of their study the students work part time at many geophysical institutions. The equipment is both traditional and most modern, created at the Institute of Oil and Gas Geophysics. The students present the result of their field work and laboratory experiments in many seminars and conferences. For example, there is a traditional annual conference in Shira, Khakassia, for young professionals. Every year the Seminar in Geodynamics, Geophysics and Geomechanics is held in the Altay Mountains (Denisova Cave Camp). This Seminar was organized by the late Sergey Goldin, the Director of the Institute of Geophysics, the Head of the Chair of Geophysics, a Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In July 2016 this Seminar was devoted to 80's birth anniversary of Sergey Goldin. Several students of geophysics presented the results of their work there. Next year the seminar is supposed to be international. A special attention is given to the English course lasting for 5 years. The students learn general

  9. Land use and beach closure 2004-2013 in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the beach closure data and land use information around each beach in 2006 and 2011 in the United States. The original data are created by EPA...

  10. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment.

  11. An experiment to restore coastal sand dunes at Miramar beach, Goa: An appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    . Loss of vegetation is attributed to continuous trampling by humans, resulting in the creation of loose free sand that gets transported landwards. During windy days, large quantities of beach sand are blown from the beach and subsequently accumulate...

  12. Seasonal beach profiling along Malvan and Kotharwadi coast , southern Maharashtra, central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.; Gaonkar, S.S.

    Seasonal morphological variations and effect of oceanographic processes such as erosion or accretion along beaches are important to understand the nature of the beach and the cyclic changes occurring during different seasons. These studies...

  13. Textural studies of beach sediments from Sadashivagad and Karwar, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Antao, F.B.

    . Frequency distribution curves for both the beach sediments differ in their modal class showing unimodal to weakly bimodal trend for the Sadashivagad and strongly bimodal to unimodal trend for the Karwar beach sediments. The plots of mean grain size vs...

  14. Observations on the ecology of some sandy beaches of the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, B.M.; Rajan, S.

    The seasonal cycles of organic matter and chlorophyll at some beaches of the Kerala Coast were studied in relation to the abundance of the interstitial fauna at one of the beaches The faunal abundance showed no definite correlation either...

  15. Prospect of Oil/Gas Exploration in Beach Area of Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gansheng; Dou Lirong; Yuan Lingling; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Located in beach zone along Bohai Bay, the beach area of Bohai Bay basin is restricted between coastline and water depth of 5 m, stretching from Bayuquan to Huludao, Liaoning Province and Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province to Weihekou, Shandong Province.

  16. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

    2015-02-01

    Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  18. A method for determining average beach slope and beach slope variability for U.S. sandy coastlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.

  19. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers.

  20. Mechanisms controlling the complete accretionary beach state sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubarbier, Benjamin; Castelle, Bruno; Ruessink, Gerben; Marieu, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Accretionary downstate beach sequence is a key element of observed nearshore morphological variability along sandy coasts. We present and analyze the first numerical simulation of such a sequence using a process-based morphodynamic model that solves the coupling between waves, depth-integrated currents, and sediment transport. The simulation evolves from an alongshore uniform barred beach (storm profile) to an almost featureless shore-welded terrace (summer profile) through the highly alongshore variable detached crescentic bar and transverse bar/rip system states. A global analysis of the full sequence allows determining the varying contributions of the different hydro-sedimentary processes. Sediment transport driven by orbital velocity skewness is critical to the overall onshore sandbar migration, while gravitational downslope sediment transport acts as a damping term inhibiting further channel growth enforced by rip flow circulation. Accurate morphological diffusivity and inclusion of orbital velocity skewness opens new perspectives in terms of morphodynamic modeling of real beaches.

  1. Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção; Santos, Isaac Rodrigues dos; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed beaches, where cigarette butts, straws, paper fragments, soft plastic fragments, and food packaging...

  2. Morphosedimentary evolution of carbonate sandy beaches at decadal scale : case study in Reunion Island , Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabot, Marie-Myriam; Pennober, Gwenaelle; Suanez, Serge; Troadec, Roland; Delacourt, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Global change introduce a lot of uncertainties concerning future trajectory of beaches by directly or indirectly modifying major driving factors. An improved understanding of the past shoreline evolution may help for anticipate future coastline response. However, in tropical environment, studies concerning carbonate beaches dynamics are scarce compared to open sandy beaches. Consequently, coral reef protected beaches morphological adjustment is still poorly understood and long-term evolution rate are poorly quantified in these specific environment. In this context, La Reunion Island, insular department of France located in Indian Ocean, constitute a favoured laboratory. This high volcanic island possesses 25 km of carbonate beaches which experience hydrodynamic forcing specific from tropical environment: cyclonic swell during summer and long period swell during winter. Because of degraded coral reef health and high anthropogenic pressure, 50% of the beaches are in erosion since 1970s. Beach survey has been conducted since 1990s by scientist and are now encompassed as pilot site within a French observatory network which guarantee long-term survey with high resolution observational techniques. Thus, La Reunion Island is one of the rare carbonate beach to be surveyed since 20 years. This study aims to examined and quantify beach response at decadal scale on carbonate sandy beaches of Reunion Island. The study focus on 12 km of beaches from Cap Champagne to the Passe de Trois-Bassins. The analyze of 15 beach profile data originated from historical and DGPS beach topographic data confirm long term trend to erosion. Sediment lost varies between 0.5 and 2 m3.yr-1 since 1998. However longshore current have led to accretion of some part of beach compartment with rate of 0.7 to 1.6 m3.yr-1. Wave climate was examined from in-situ measurement over 15 years and show that extreme waves associated with tropical cyclones and long period swell play a major role in beach dynamics

  3. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  4. [Microbiological quality of seaside sands: a beach in Latium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Lucia; Briancesco, Rossella; Cataldo, Claudia; Di Girolamo, Irene

    2002-01-01

    This study is focused on the microbiological quality of a sandy beach in the coastal area around Rome, Italy. The microbiological surveys were carried out on the sands collected both on the beach and on the waterline. A low-concentration of faecal bacteria (streptococci outnumbered Escherichia coli) and a constant rate of staphylococci were detected over the sampling period. Significant statistical correlations were calculated between yeasts and moulds, Escherichia coli and streptococci, streptococci and sulfite-reducing clostridium spores. This survey's data could be a baseline for future studies.

  5. Linkages between sediment composition, wave climate and beach profile variability at multiple timescales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karunarathna, H.; Horrillo-Caraballo, J.M.; Kuriyama, Y.; Mase, H.; Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Reeve, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses, compares and contrasts cross-shore morphodynamic behaviour of four diverse beaches that have very different regional settings, wave climates and sediment characteristics, with the aid of rarely available long term measurements of beach profiles and incident waves. The beaches

  6. Linkages between sediment composition, wave climate and beach profile variability at multiple timescales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karunarathna, H.; Horrillo-Caraballo, J.M.; Kuriyama, Y.; Mase, H.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.; Reeve, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses, compares and contrasts cross-shore morphodynamic behaviour of four diverse beaches that have very different regional settings, wave climates and sediment characteristics, with the aid of rarely available long term measurements of beach profiles and incident waves. The beaches inv

  7. RIP current zones along beaches in Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jena, B.K.

    Goa has a 125-km-long coastline of which two-thirds consists of beautiful sandy beaches. There are mainly 17 beaches having significant importance of tourism. Sporadically, surf drownings have been reported at a few stretches of the beach. Longshore...

  8. Morphodynamic characterization of the Spanish beaches of the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente, J.; Gracia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Anfuso, G.; Rodriguez-Ramirez, A.

    2015-07-01

    During the1980s several attempts were made to classify beaches according to their morphodynamic behav- iour. Published papers proposed classifications based mainly on wave incident energy and beach character- istics, such as foreshore slopes and sediment settling velocities. In the 1990s more complex classifications appeared, where the effect of tides on wave action was included, highlighting their relevance to the determi- nation of the morphodynamic state of the beach. In this paper we present a beach monitoring programme, in which more than 30 beaches located along the Spanish shores of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Strait of Gibraltar were surveyed for four years (2000-2004). The long study period allowed the monitoring of beach morphologies related both to fair weather (summer) and storm (winter) conditions. The coastal setting in the study area provided the opportunity for covering a wide range of tidal conditions, from high mesotidal (MSTR ca. 4 m) to microtidal (MSTR around 1 m). Furthermore, the dimensions of the study area permitted the mon- itoring of beaches linked to different boundary conditions, thus including both attached and detached beach- es located at varying distances from main sediment sources, and influenced by different wave regimes. The analysis of the beach morphologies related to such contrasting conditions allowed the identification of the real significance of the tidal effect on beach profile morphology and hence on beach morphodynamics. Finally, we conclude that the effect of tides on wave action is the main factor determining beach morphody- namic behaviour. (Author)

  9. Gone to the Beach — Using GIS to infer how people value ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating the non-market value of beaches for saltwater recreation is complex. An individual’s preference for a beach depends on their perception of beach characteristics. When choosing one beach over another, an individual balances these personal preferences with any additional costs including travel time and/or fees to access the beach. This trade-off can be used to infer how people value different beach characteristics; especially when beaches are free to the public, beach value estimates rely heavily on accurate travel times. A current case study focused on public access on Cape Cod, MA will be used to demonstrate how travel costs can be used to determine the service area of different beaches, and model expected use of those beaches based on demographics. We will describe several of the transportation networks and route services available and compare a few based on their ability to meet our specific requirements of scale and seasonal travel time accuracy. We are currently developing a recreational demand model, based on visitation data and beach characteristics, that will allow decision makers to predict the benefits of different levels of water quality improvement. An important part of that model is the time required for potential recreation participants to get to different beaches. This presentation will describe different ways to estimate travel times and the advantages/disadvantages for our particular application. It will go on to outline how freely a

  10. 33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The water of Anaheim Bay Harbor between the east and west jetties at the United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach...

  11. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  12. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA in approximate position 39 13'55'' N, 120 01'42'' W...

  13. 77 FR 50444 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 295.6, at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict...

  14. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  15. 75 FR 79293 - Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend and remove Class E airspace at Vero Beach, FL (75 FR 65581... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach... removes Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach...

  16. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  17. 77 FR 38005 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Kings Beach Independence Day Fireworks display from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. on July 3... from Tahoe Keys Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA at position 39 13'55'' N, 120...

  18. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Miami Beach, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. The area to the eastward of a line bearing 12° (N. 12° E.) through a point X, which is 11/2 nautical miles due east of the intersection of the Miami Beach shore line... Miami Beach, Fla. 110.188 Section 110.188 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY... amends Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic... of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic coordinates for the airport...

  20. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY... in the Federal Register on April 11, 2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES... D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error was made in...

  1. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the triathlon. The special local...

  2. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the...

  3. 78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide..., February 20, 2013, dredging operations will be conducted on Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida... the southwestern corner of Singer Island and then due south across the inlet to Palm Beach...

  4. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... south by a 10-mile radius of the Palm Beach International Airport, and on the west by the Florida... Florida Turnpike (highway 91) and Lantana Road to the intersection of a 5-mile radius of the Palm Beach... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach...

  5. Linkages between sediment composition, wave climate and beach profile variability at multiple timescales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karunarathna, H.; Horrillo-Caraballo, J.M.; Kuriyama, Y.; Mase, H.; Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Reeve, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses, compares and contrasts cross-shore morphodynamic behaviour of four diverse beaches that have very different regional settings, wave climates and sediment characteristics, with the aid of rarely available long term measurements of beach profiles and incident waves. The beaches inv

  6. Perioperative Immunonutrition in Well-Nourished Patients Undergoing Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer: Evaluation of Inflammatory and Immunologic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay D. Plank

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited work is available on the benefits of nutritional support enriched with arginine and n-3 fatty acids in surgical patients with head and neck cancer, particularly if well-nourished. We conducted a pilot study in these patients to examine effects on inflammatory markers and clinical outcome. Patients scheduled for radical resection of the oral cavity were randomised to 5 day preoperative and 5 day postoperative Impact® (IMN, n = 4, or no preoperative supplementary nutrition and Isosource® postoperatively (STD, n = 4. Plasma fatty acids, C-reactive protein (CRP, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6 and IL-10 were measured at baseline, day of surgery and on postoperative days (POD 2, 4 and 10. Postoperative complications were recorded. The (eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratio was significantly higher in IMN patients on POD 2, 4 and 10 (P < 0.01. While not statistically significant, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 concentrations were higher in the STD group on POD2 while IL-10 was lower. Median length of stay was 10 (range 10–43 days in the IMN group and 21.5 (7–24 days in the STD group. Five complications were seen in the STD group and two in the IMN group. The results support the need for a larger trial focusing on clinical outcome.

  7. Immunization protected well nourished mice but not undernourished ones from lung injury in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Cunha Maria

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant (MRSA has been frequently isolated from endotracheal and lung puncture aspirates in malnourished children with pneumonia. In this work we evaluated the susceptibility of undernourished BALB/c mice and its ability to mount a protective immunity against MRSA with emphasis on the lung involvement. Results BALB/c mice submitted to a 20% dietary restriction during 20 days presented a significant decrease in body weight, lymphocyte number and also atrophy in thymus and intestinal epithelium. Determination of bacterial load by the number of colony forming units (CFU indicated a similar susceptibility whereas the findings of Gram stain clearly suggested a higher amount of bacteria in the lungs of normal mice than in the undernourished ones. Immunization reduced bacterial growth in the lungs of normal mice but not in the undernourished ones. Histopathological analysis showed that inflammation appeared in the lungs from normal mice only after infection and that immunization prevented this pulmonary inflammatory process. On the other hand, undernourished mice presented lung inflammation even before infection. In addition, the degree of this inflammatory process did not change with infection or previous immunization. Conclusion Our results indicated that lung injury during MRSA infection is prevented by previous immunization in well nourished but not in undernourished mice.

  8. A web platform for landuse, climate, demography, hydrology and beach erosion in the Black Sea catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Anthony; Guigoz, Yaniss; Ray, Nicolas; Mancosu, Emanuele; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Rouholahnejad Freund, Elham; Allenbach, Karin; de Bono, Andrea; Fasel, Marc; Gago-Silva, Ana; Bär, Roger; Lacroix, Pierre; Giuliani, Gregory

    2017-07-01

    The Black Sea catchment (BSC) is facing important demographic, climatic and landuse changes that may increase pollution, vulnerability and scarcity of water resources, as well as beach erosion through sea level rise. Limited access to reliable time-series monitoring data from environmental, statistical, and socio-economical sources is a major barrier to policy development and decision-making. To address these issues, a web-based platform was developed to enable discovery and access to key environmental information for the region. This platform covers: landuse, climate, and demographic scenarios; hydrology and related water vulnerability and scarcity; as well as beach erosion. Each data set has been obtained with state-of-the-art modelling tools from available monitoring data using appropriate validation methods. These analyses were conducted using global and regional data sets. The data sets are intended for national to regional assessments, for instance for prioritizing environmental protection projects and investments. Together they form a unique set of information, which lay out future plausible change scenarios for the BSC, both for scientific and policy purposes.

  9. A web platform for landuse, climate, demography, hydrology and beach erosion in the Black Sea catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Anthony; Guigoz, Yaniss; Ray, Nicolas; Mancosu, Emanuele; Abbaspour, Karim C; Rouholahnejad Freund, Elham; Allenbach, Karin; De Bono, Andrea; Fasel, Marc; Gago-Silva, Ana; Bär, Roger; Lacroix, Pierre; Giuliani, Gregory

    2017-07-04

    The Black Sea catchment (BSC) is facing important demographic, climatic and landuse changes that may increase pollution, vulnerability and scarcity of water resources, as well as beach erosion through sea level rise. Limited access to reliable time-series monitoring data from environmental, statistical, and socio-economical sources is a major barrier to policy development and decision-making. To address these issues, a web-based platform was developed to enable discovery and access to key environmental information for the region. This platform covers: landuse, climate, and demographic scenarios; hydrology and related water vulnerability and scarcity; as well as beach erosion. Each data set has been obtained with state-of-the-art modelling tools from available monitoring data using appropriate validation methods. These analyses were conducted using global and regional data sets. The data sets are intended for national to regional assessments, for instance for prioritizing environmental protection projects and investments. Together they form a unique set of information, which lay out future plausible change scenarios for the BSC, both for scientific and policy purposes.

  10. Hurricane Sandy washover deposits on southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James M.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Zaremba, Nicholas J.; Lunghino, Brent D.; Kane, Haunani H.

    2016-07-22

    Sedimentologic and topographic data from Hurricane Sandy washover deposits were collected from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey, in order to document changes to the barrier-island beaches, dunes, and coastal wetlands caused by Hurricane Sandy and subsequent storm events. These data will provide a baseline dataset for use in future coastal change descriptive and predictive studies and assessments. The data presented here were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/sandy-wetland-assessment/), which aims to assess ecological and societal vulnerability that results from long- and short-term physical changes to barrier islands and coastal wetlands. This report describes data that were collected in April 2015, approximately 2½ years after Hurricane Sandy’s landfall on October 29, 2012. During the field campaign, washover deposits were photographed and described, and sediment cores, sediment samples, and surface-elevation data were collected. Data collected during this study, including sample locations and elevations, core photographs, computed tomography scans, descriptive core logs, sediment grain-size data, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata, are available in the associated U.S. Geological Survey data release (Bishop and others, 2016; http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7PK0D7S).

  11. Correlations Between Emerita analoga and Profilicollis spp. as Influenced by Environmetal Factors at Ocean Beach, San Francisco CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S.; Garza, F.; Zhang, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2002 the Careers in Science (CiS) intern program has monitored Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California for the population of Emerita analoga (Pacific Mole Crab) as part of a partnership program with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS). LiMPETS is an organization that conducts citizen science with Bay Area youth such as the CiS interns. We specifically assist in the collection of Pacific Mole Crab population statistics at Ocean Beach during the summer from June through August. The purpose of collecting Pacific Mole Crabs is to monitor Acanthocephalan parasites (Profilicollis spp.) - to which Pacific Mole Crabs serve as intermediate hosts - and to learn more about our environment as Pacific Mole Crabs are indicator species. During our collections at Ocean Beach we record size, sex, and number of individuals at specific transects. We then take a random sample from the day, return to the lab, and record their sizes, sexes, and Acanthocephalan parasite load. The results of the collection and dissections are then entered into the LiMPETS online database for scientist and researchers to use. Our project will focus on correlations relating to the data collected (Pacific Mole Crab population, parasite load, abiotic and biotic factors, et cetera).

  12. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. Variation of surface sediments in the Dongho beach before and after the typhoon Kompasu in 2010, southwestern coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; So, Kwang-Suk

    2015-04-01

    The Dongho beach, located on the southwestern coast of Korea, is marco-tide, open-coast, and pocket-type. In the Dongho beach, this study has focused on the typhoon effects of topography, surface sediment, and sedimentary environment, appeared before and after the typhoon Kompasu in 2010. The typhoon Kompasu moved along the southwestern coasts and across midlands of the Korean Peninsula from 1 to 2 September in 2010. Coastal effect of the moving typhoon was investigated in terms of the surface variations of surface sediment facies and sedimentary environment. Surface topography and sediments before and after the typhoon (August - September 2010) were measured and sampled along the Dongho survey line of 23 sites, respectively. The surface topography in the mid-to-low tidal zone became low after the typhoon rather than that before the typhoon. The lower topographic change is indicative of surface sediment erosion caused by the typhoon wave. The pocket-type Dongho beach is mainly composed of fine to coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel band of fine and medium sands during three seasons of spring, fall, and winter, whereas medium sands dominated in the northern part of the study area during the summer. Before the typhoon, spatial distribution pattern of sedimentary facies showed a trend of coast-parallel bands of fine sand facies and medium sand facies, whereas that after the typhoon was partly different. Keywords: coastal effect, Typhoon Kompasu in 2010, surface sediment, macro-tide, beach Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion (KIMST) through the project grant of Tracking and Prediction on Impacts of Ancient Extreme Climatic Events in the West and South Coastal Zone of Korea and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education

  14. Metal enrichment in beach sediments from Chennai Metropolis, SE coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiya, G; Lakshumanan, C; Jonathan, M P; Roy, P D; Navarrete-Lopez, M; Srinivasalu, S; Uma-Maheswari, B; Krishnakumar, P

    2011-11-01

    A survey on the Partially Extracted Trace Metals (PETMs) concentration (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd) in beach sediments is reported for the first time from 57 different locations in Chennai Metropolitan City of Southeast coast of India. The concentration of PETMs suggests that they are mainly concentrated with organic matter in the crowded part of the industrial regions in the beaches from the northern part rather than the tourist beaches in the southern part of the city. The comparison on enrichment of trace metals indicates higher values of Pb, Ni in the beaches than lowest effect level (LEL) and effects range low (ERL) than the tourist beaches.

  15. Bathymetry--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps (see sheets 1, 2, SIM 3319) of the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area, California. The...

  16. Coastal engineering: vol II. Harbor and beach problems

    OpenAIRE

    Massie, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Ship motions, channel depth, channel width, ship maneuvering models, maneuverability improvement, total channel optimization, coastal sand transport, radiation stress, wave set-up, radiation stress gradient, tidal forces, turbulent forces, bottom friction forces, longshore current computations, early coastal transport formula, sand transport mechanisms, model coastal transport formula, coastal dynamics with single line theory, sand transport along a beach profile, coastal changes with multipl...

  17. Beach litter sourcing: A trawl along the Northern Ireland coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A T; Randerson, P; Allen, C; Cooper, J A G

    2017-09-15

    Fourteen non-recreational coastal locations in Northern Ireland were investigated as to whether beach litter deposition was related to seasonal or site specific factors. Litter items were counted in 100m width transects and 1km strand-line surveys over a five-season period (autumn to autumn). Survey sites comprised fishing ports; estuarine areas, north (high energy) and east coast (low energy) beaches. Fishing ports accumulated the most litter. In the 100m beach surveys, plastics, string and cord, bottle caps, food items, rope, and drink containers dominated. In strand-line surveys, large plastic pieces were dominant, followed by rope, string and cord, strapping bands (absent on beach surveys), cloth, wood (mainly pallets, fish boxes) and metal items. Multivariate analyses revealed major litter category differences between the ports and all other sites, with a lesser distinction between exposed and estuarine sites. There was no simple coastline trend and no apparent effect of seasonality between samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    in the intertidal zone or spray zone as well as 2 to 4 m above the present high 112 Iv t l<'igure 1. Map showing the location of beach rock exposures along the central west Clnst of India. water line. They occur as medium thick beds (3-4 m), more often as patches...

  19. Beach morphological variations over micro-time scales

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.; Sastry, J.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    and down the beach face with breakers, locations of which alternately shift landward and seaward with the rise and fall of tide are observed. The ground water table shows an oscillation with tide with a time lag of about 1 hr. When the ground water table...

  20. Influence of Tourist Pressure on Beach Litter and Microbial Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam Eshun

    and provides a better chance of surveying both clean and dirty areas (Velander & Mocogni, 1999). ... at the Microbiology Laboratory at the Water Research Institute of the Council for Scientific and Industrial .... 20 Paper drink pack. 55 .... directly on the beach front, in addition to its central location in the city, guarantee a fairly ...

  1. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  2. Mechanisms controlling the complete accretionary beach state sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubarbier, Benjamin; Castelle, B.; Ruessink, B.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/169093360; Marieu, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Accretionary downstate beach sequence is a key element of observed nearshore morphological variability along sandy coasts. We present and analyze the first numerical simulation of such a sequence using a process-based morphodynamic model that solves the coupling between waves, depth-integrated

  3. Highly Valued Degrees at California State University, Long Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) received the national award from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) for Excellence and Innovation in Student Success and Completion, recognizing record high graduation rates with a diverse student population, significantly above comparable institutions.…

  4. Source identification of beached oil at Al Zubarah, Northwestern Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Kaabi, Nasser S.; Kristensen, Mette; Zouari, Nabil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Gulf was contaminated with a large quantity of crude oil during the Gulf War in 1991. Some of the oil beached on the shorelines of the Northwest coast of Qatar. It was discovered, during a sampling campaign in 2015, that the shorelines were contaminated with both fresh oil and heavily...

  5. Modeling the Movement of Beach Alluvia in the Alongshore Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Bondareva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have worked out a design model for the dynamics of a mixed-composition beach in the vicinity of transverse structures. The model uses a modified formula for calculating alluvia, which is based on modified energy dependencies. The authors provide an algorithm for performing these calculations.

  6. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps (see sheets 1, 2, SIM 3319) of the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area, California. The...

  7. A new conceptual model for aeolian transport rates on beaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, S.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Rijn, L.; Ranasinghe, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a new conceptual model for aeolian sediment transport rates is presented. Traditional sediment transport formulations have known limitations when applied to coastal beach situations. A linear model for sediment transport rates with respect to wind speed is proposed and supported by

  8. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  9. Phragmites Management at Times Beach, Buffalo, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    APCRP-CC-20 January 2016 4 Table 2. The most common “other species” found at Times Beach. Common Name Scientific Name Native Garden yellow...loosestrife Lythrum salicaria L. N Wild mint Mentha arvensis L. N Smartweed sp. Persicaria sp. Y Broad-leaved cattail Typha latifolia L. Y Stinging

  10. Meiofauna of some sandy beaches of Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.

    Comparatively high meiofauna numbers were recorded from beaches having fine sand particles than those having coarse to medium sand particles The fauna was dominated mainly by nematodes (53.7%), harpacticoids (13.7%) and polychaetes (12.8%) On all...

  11. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness of the intertidal macroinfauna of exposed sandy beaches around South America is reviewed in relation ... The middle shore is prim

  12. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.J.; James, I.; Jennings, P.J.; Keoyers, J.E.

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of

  13. Assessing the extreme overwash regime along an embayed urban beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Tanya M.; Taborda, Rui; Carapuço, Mafalda M.; Andrade, César; Freitas, Maria C.; Duarte, João F.; Psuty, Norbert P.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal overwash is one of the most important hazards affecting the coastal zone and therefore has been the focus of several studies related to the establishment of setback lines. However, studies of extreme overwash (EO) events along urban beaches backed by a seawall or structure are scarce, and reveal the difficulties associated with its assessment, measurement and validation. The Nazaré coastal urban area (located on the west coast of Portugal) is developed adjacent to an embayed reflective beach and is subject to frequent and localized inundation due to EO events capable of overtopping the protection seawall. The current work develops a methodological approach to simulate total water levels (TWL) and seawall overtopping occurrences in time and space, with the ultimate goal of identifying the factors that govern the extreme overwash regime. The method uses multi-decadal time series of site-specific wave and tide, and high-resolution topo-bathymetric data, and recreates the TWL time series for a 36-year period. The model is successfully validated against video imagery and maximum swash line data that provide information on the reach of the water levels measured during modal and extreme TWL conditions along the studied beach. This study establishes the importance of the interaction of the modal and extreme hydrodynamic processes with the beach and backshore morphology. The Nazaré embayment is in equilibrium with the alongshore-varying modal wave conditions, resulting in higher vulnerability of the most sheltered sector during extreme events.

  14. Stability of the beaches in Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Angusamy, N.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    ) M sup(1) and this is as a result of narrow shelf topography. The present study highlights that shelf topography and river lets have acted as the controlling factors for the changes brought in by tsunami waves in the beach morphology....

  15. Surfin’ California with Whitman and The Beach Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    are haunted by and pick up on Whitman’s image of the Californian beach results in a kind of Bloomean misprision, in the sense that they (re)inscribe it in a sixties’ context of youth and consumer culture. To Whitman, the shores of the American West coast incarnate the home of perennial homelessness...

  16. Effects of Chinese herbs capable of replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation and their compatibility on differentially expressed genes of ischemic myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN HuiJun; GUO ChunYu; SHI DaZhuo

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Chinese herbs capable of replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation and their compatibility on differentially expressed genes of ischemic myocardium which were selected from differential expression profile we had established before,and to explore the underlying mechanism. The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model was established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery,then the model rats were randomly divided into the model group,the Metoprolol group,the replenishing qi nourishing yin (RN)group,the activating blood circulation (AB) group,and the replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation (RA) group. In addition,the normal group and the sham group were set up. The rats of medication groups were administered by intragastric gavage with corresponding drugs on the second day after operations,and the rats of the normal group and the sham group were given normal saline as the same time.Then the ischemic hearts were harvested on the 8th day after operation. The myocardial pathomorphological changes were observed under a light microscope. The mRNA changes of target genes such as COX5a and ATP5e were detected using Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Q-PCR),and the activities of related enzymes were detected by colorimetric assay. The main results were as follows:the histological changes were observed by HE staining,and cardiocyte swelling,inflammatory cell infiltration and cytolysis were showed in regional ischemic myocardium of the model group,while the pathomorphological changes in all medication groups did not show obvious changes.Two genes related to energy metabolism,COX5a and ATP5e,were selected as the target genes which were down-regulated at the mRNA level in the medication groups. The activities of correlative functional enzymes also decreased in the RA group compared to that in the model group accordingly (P<0.05). The results indicated

  17. Quantification of toxic metals derived from macroplastic litter on Ookushi Beach, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Etsuko; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin

    2012-09-18

    The potential risk of toxic metals that could leach into a beach environment from plastic litter washed ashore on Ookushi Beach, Goto Islands, Japan was estimated by balloon aerial photography, in situ beach surveys, and leaching experiments in conjunction with a Fickian diffusion model analysis. Chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), and lead (Pb) were detected in plastic litter collected during the beach surveys. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fishing floats contained the highest quantity of Pb. Balloon aerial photography in conjunction with a beach survey gave an estimated mass of Pb derived from plastic litter of 313 ± 247 g. Lead leaching experiments on collected PVC floats showed that Pb in the plastic litter could leach into surrounding water on the actual beach, and that plastic litter may act as a "transport vector" of toxic metals to the beach environment. Using the experimental data, the total mass of Pb that could leach from PVC plastic litter over a year onto Ookushi Beach was estimated as 0.6 ± 0.6 g/year, suggesting that toxic metals derived from plastic beach litter are a potential "pathway" to contamination of the beach environment due to their accumulation in beach soil over time.

  18. A geomorphological response of beaches to Typhoon Meari in the eastern Shandong Peninsula in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Dong; YANG Jichao; LI Guangxue; DADA Olusegun A; GONG Lixin; WANG Nan; WANG Xiangdong; ZHANG Bin

    2015-01-01

    Eight representative beach profiles on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula are observed and measured in 2011 and 2012 to determine the coastal processes under the lower tropical wind speed condition and the beach response to and recovery from the tropical storm Meari in a rare typhoon region. The results show that it is the enhancement and directional change of cross-shore and longshore sediment transports caused by Meari that leads to the beach morphological changes, and most of the sediment transports occur during the pre-Meari landing phase. The erosional scarp formation and the berm or beach face erosion are the main geomorphological responses of the beaches to the storm. The storm characteristics are more important than the beach shapes in the storm response process of the beaches on Shandong Peninsula. The typhoon is a fortuitous strong dynamic event, and the effect on the dissipative beach is more obvious than it is on the reflective beach in the study region. Furthermore, the beach trend is the main factor that controlls the storm effect intensity, and it is also closely related to the recovery of the beach profiles.

  19. Present status of effect of microorganisms from sand beach on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Velonakis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are significant components of beach sand. According to the research, all kind of microorganisms have been isolated from beach sand; certain genera and species are potential pathogens for humans and animals. In resort areas, especially during the summer, certain infections (e.g. gastroenteritis and dermatitis are usually related to polluted bathing water. Lately, the interest of scientists is also focused on the potential association of some of the above diseases with the beach sand. Relatively, recent epidemiological studies in the USA revealed positive correlation between time spent at the beach and gastroenteritis. New parameters such as wind blowing and beach users’ density are also introduced for discussion in association with the sand microbial load. Regarding the preventative measures, the microbiological quality of beach sand can be improved by raising the general level of hygiene, as well as by using simple methods, such as sweeping and aeration of the sand, together with constant beach supervision.

  20. Present status of effect of microorganisms from sand beach on public health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Velonakis; Dimitra Dimitriadi; Emmanuel Papadogiannakis; Alkiviades Vatopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are significant components of beach sand. According to the research, all kind of microorganisms have been isolated from beach sand; certain genera and species are potential pathogens for humans and animals. In resort areas, especially during the summer, certain infections (e.g. gastroenteritis and dermatitis) are usually related to polluted bathing water. Lately, the interest of scientists is also focused on the potential association of some of the above diseases with the beach sand. Relatively, recent epidemiological studies in the USA revealed positive correlation between time spent at the beach and gastroenteritis. New parameters such as wind blowing and beach users’ density are also introduced for discussion in association with the sand microbial load. Regarding the preventative measures, the microbiological quality of beach sand can be improved by raising the general level of hygiene, as well as by using simple methods, such as sweeping and aeration of the sand, together with constant beach supervision.

  1. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved.

  2. [Discussion on water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    According to the schistosomiasis endemic situation in the Poyang Lake area, this paper analyzes the relationship between the water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control, and reviews and discusses the effects of the Water Level Control Project of Poyang Lake, the Lake Dike Slope Hardening Project, and the Lifting Delta and Descending Beach Project on Oncomelania snail control.

  3. Revealing accumulation zones of plastic pellets in sandy beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fabiana T; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Barbosa, Lucas; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics such as pellets are reported worldwide on sandy beaches, and have possible direct and indirect impacts on the biota and physical characteristics of the habitats where they accumulate. Evaluations of their standing stock at different spatial scales generate data on levels of contamination. This information is needed to identify accumulation zones and the specific beach habitats and communities that are likely to be most affected. Standing stocks of plastic pellets were evaluated in 13 sandy beaches in São Paulo state, Brazil. The sampling strategy incorporated across-shore transects from coastal dunes and backshores, and vertical profiles of the accumulated pellets down to 1 m depth below the sediment surface. Accumulation zones were identified at regional (among beaches) and local (between compartments) scales. At the regional scale pellet density tended to increase at beaches on the central and southwestern coast, near ports and factories that produce and transport the largest amounts of pellets in the country. At the local scale coastal dunes showed larger accumulations of pellets than backshores. For both compartments pellets tended to occur deeper in areas where standing stocks were larger. Most of the pellets were concentrated from the surface down to 0.4 m depth, suggesting that organisms inhabiting this part of the sediment column are more exposed to the risks associated with the presence of pellets. Our findings shed light on the local and regional scales of spatial variability of microplastics and their consequences for assessment and monitoring schemes in coastal compartments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ..., Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... an air show which consist of aircraft performing aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean off of..., which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select...

  5. Beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana

    2010-05-01

    Hydrodynamic forces over the beach sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in beach systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the beach profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially beach systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the beach morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. Beach systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are beach-dune, beach-cliff and beach-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three beach systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro beaches are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, beach face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run

  6. Clinical Efficacy and Molecular Mechanism of Nourishing Shen and Supplementing Marrow Principle in Treating β-Thalassemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志奎; 方素萍; 张新华; 蔡辉国; 王蕾; 易杰; 柴立民; 吕鑫霞; 陈玉英; 黄有文; 王荣新; 陈佩珍

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating β-thalassemia, its clinical effect and molecular mechanism of the action.Methods: According to the TCM theory of"Shen producing marrow", the composite recipe, Yisui Shenxueling Granule (YSSXL), consisting of Chinese drugs for nourishing Shen and supplementing marrow (NS&SM) was given orally to 78 patients with β-thalassemia (49 of the severe type and 29 of moderate type), 3 times a day, 10 g each time (for children, the dose would be reduced properly), with 3 months as one therapeutic course, and no blood transfusion used in the course. The clinical therapeutic efficacy and hematologic parameters in patients were observed, and systemic gene analysis was conducted with PAGE, PCR, PCR-SSCP, RT-PCR and DNA sequences analysis and mRNA detection, in order to study the molecular mechanism from the relationships between genetic mutation and clinical efficacy, gene expression and its regulation. Results: YSSXL showed obvious therapeutic effect in treating β-thalassemia. Gene analysis revealed that it did not change the genetic mutation type, but could obviously increase hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin (HbF), γ/(β+γ) globin ratio, γ-globin mRNA expression and GM-CSF mRNA expression in patients, as well as the GM-CSFmRMA in marrow of mice after 60Co radiation. Conclusion: YSSXL has a remarkable therapeutic effect on β-thalassemia, and its possible mechanism is its action in unlocking γ-gene, increasing the γ-globin expression and enhancing HbF synthesis so as to compensate for the gene defect. This study has opened a new path for the treatment of β-thalassemia with TCM.

  7. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Integrated Circulation and Sediment Transport Studies. A Project Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgaris, G.; Warner, J. C.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.; Haas, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) is a cooperative research program funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and managed by the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium. The main objective of the study is to understand the factors and processes that control coastal sediment movement along the northern part of the South Carolina coast while at the same time advance our basic understanding of circulation, wave propagation and sediment transport processes. Earlier geological framework studies carried out by the same program provided detailed data on bathymetry, bottom sediment thickness and grain size distribution. They identified an extensive (10km long, 2km wide) sand body deposit located in the inner shelf that has potential use for beach nourishment. The main objectives are to: (1) identify the role of wind-driven circulation in controlling regional sediment distribution on the SC shelf; (2) examine the hypothesis that the shoal is of the "fair-weather type" with bedload being the dominant sediment transport mode and the tidally-averaged flow being at different directions at the two flanks of the shoal; (3) investigate the possibility that the sediment source for the shoal is derived from the nearshore as the result of the convergence of the longshore sediment transport; and finally, (4) quantify the control that the shoal exerts on the nearshore conditions through changes on the wave energy propagation characteristics. Field measurements and numerical modeling techniques are utilized in this project. Two deployments of oceanographic and sediment transport systems took place for a period of 6 months (October 2003 to April 2004) measuring wind forcing, vertical distribution of currents, stratification, and wave spectral characteristics. Further, bed-flow interactions were measured at two locations, with instrumented tripods equipped with pairs of ADVs for measuring turbulence, PC-ADPs for measuring vertical current profiles

  8. Geomorphology and anthropogenic impact including military constraints in a microtidal wave-dominated embayment in south western Sardinia (Porto Pino beach, SCI ITB040025, Mediterranean Sea). Implications for beach management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Buosi, Carla; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    The coastal zones of the Mediterranean have undergone increasing pressure over the last century. The intensifying coastal development and the increasing tourist impact have led to an intense transformation of the coastlines and adjacent marine areas. The beach and the coastal dune play an important role in protecting the coastline. Thus, the study of its geomorphological evolution and of its anthropic modification is fundamental in order to adopt the best management practices. In this regard, the LIFE Project (LIFE13NAT/IT/001013) SOSS DUNES (Safeguard and management Of South-western Sardinian Dunes) aims to safeguard the dune habitats and the beach system in a site belonging to the Natura 2000 network, an EUwide network of nature protection areas established under the 1992 Habitats Directive. This project is focused on a microtidal wave-dominated embayment located in south western Sardinia (Italy, Mediterranean Sea) called Porto Pino beach comprised in the SCI (Site of Community Importance) "Promontory, dunes and wetland of Porto Pino (ITB040025)". This research aims to investigate the geomorphological processes, the evolution and the main human impacts on Porto Pino beach as an useful tool for both conservation and coastal management. The coastal area of Porto Pino is represented by sandy shorelines extending for a total length of 5 km characterized by a wide primary and secondary dune systems, a backshore wetland lagoon and marsh area arranged parallel to the coastline. This littoral area can be ideally divided into three parts: the first, about 600 m long, in the north-west part characterized by the highest human pressure due to touristic activity on the foredunes and deposition of beach wrack; the second part in the south-east, about 1100 m long, characterized by a complex dune system (primary and secondary foredunes); and the third southernmost part included in a military area, about 3300 m long, characterized by transgressive dune system with low human

  9. Changes in beach shoreline due to sea level rise and waves under climate change scenarios: application to the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, Alejandra R.; Marcos, Marta; Álvarez-Ellacuría, Amaya; Orfila, Alejandro; Gomis, Damià

    2017-07-01

    This work assesses the impacts in reshaping coastlines as a result of sea level rise and changes in wave climate. The methodology proposed combines the SWAN and SWASH wave models to resolve the wave processes from deep waters up to the swash zone in two micro-tidal sandy beaches in Mallorca island, western Mediterranean. In a first step, the modelling approach has been validated with observations from wave gauges and from the shoreline inferred from video monitoring stations, showing a good agreement between them. Afterwards, the modelling set-up has been applied to the 21st century sea level and wave projections under two different climate scenarios, representative concentration pathways RCP45 and RCP85. Sea level projections have been retrieved from state-of-the-art regional estimates, while wave projections were obtained from regional climate models. Changes in the shoreline position have been explored under mean and extreme wave conditions. Our results indicate that the studied beaches would suffer a coastal retreat between 7 and up to 50 m, equivalent to half of the present-day aerial beach surface, under the climate scenarios considered.

  10. Climate-change impacts on sandy-beach biota: crossing a line in the sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, David S; Schlacher, Thomas A; Defeo, Omar

    2014-08-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are iconic assets that provide irreplaceable ecosystem services to society. Despite their great socioeconomic importance, beaches as ecosystems are severely under-represented in the literature on climate-change ecology. Here, we redress this imbalance by examining whether beach biota have been observed to respond to recent climate change in ways that are consistent with expectations under climate change. We base our assessments on evidence coming from case studies on beach invertebrates in South America and on sea turtles globally. Surprisingly, we find that observational evidence for climate-change responses in beach biota is more convincing for invertebrates than for highly charismatic turtles. This asymmetry is paradoxical given the better theoretical understanding of the mechanisms by which turtles are likely to respond to changes in climate. Regardless of this disparity, knowledge of the unique attributes of beach systems can complement our detection of climate-change impacts on sandy-shore invertebrates to add rigor to studies of climate-change ecology for sandy beaches. To this end, we combine theory from beach ecology and climate-change ecology to put forward a suite of predictive hypotheses regarding climate impacts on beaches and to suggest ways that these can be tested. Addressing these hypotheses could significantly advance both beach and climate-change ecology, thereby progressing understanding of how future climate change will impact coastal ecosystems more generally.

  11. Biofilm formation, gel and esp gene carriage among recreational beach Enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, Ahmad; Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Gires, Usup

    2014-06-12

    Biofilm production, gel and esp gene carriage was enumerated among forty six vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin susceptible enterococci (VSE) beach isolates. A higher proportion (61.54%) of biofilm producers was observed among beach sand as compared to beach water enterococci isolates (30%) indicating that enterococci within the sand column may be more dependent on biofilm production for survival than their beach water counterparts. Correlation analysis revealed strongly negative correlation (r=-0.535, p=0.015) between vancomycin resistance and biofilm formation. Given the observation of high prevalence of biofilm production among beach sand and the concomitant absence of esp gene carriage in any of the isolate, esp gene carriage may not be necessary for the production of biofilms among beach sand isolates. On the whole beach sand and water isolates demonstrated clearly different prevalence levels of vancomycin resistance, biofilm formation, esp and gel gene carriage. Application of these differences may be found useful in beach microbial source tracking studies. Tested starved cells still produced biofilm albeit at lower efficiencies. Non-dividing enterococci in beach sand can survive extended periods of environmental hardship and can resume growth or biofilm production in appropriate conditions thus making them infectious agents with potential health risk to recreational beach users.

  12. Family on the beach : Representations of romantic and bourgeois family values by realistic genre painting of nineteenth-century Scheveningen beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, JJH

    2003-01-01

    Around 1800, the desire to go to the beach developed in Europe, and Scheveningen became one of the first beach places. In the same time, poets and painters romanticized the Scheveningen fishing culture and the fishers' moral behavior A group of nineteenth-century painters rediscovered Scheveningen-a

  13. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  14. Development of a numerical 2-dimensional beach evolution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykal, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    is composed of 4 submodels: a nearshore spectral wave transformation model based on an energy balance equation including random wave breaking and diffraction terms to compute the nearshore wave characteristics, a nearshore wave-induced circulation model based on the nonlinear shallow water equations...... to compute the nearshore depth-averaged wave-induced current velocities and mean water level changes, a sediment transport model to compute the local total sediment transport rates occurring under the action of wind waves, and a bottom evolution model to compute the bed level changes in time based...... on the gradients of sediment transport rates in cross-shore and longshore directions. The developed models are applied successfully to the SANDYDUCK field experiments and to some conceptual benchmark cases including simulation of rip currents around beach cusps, beach evolution around a single shore perpendicular...

  15. Utilisation of macroalgae from the Sopot beach (Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Filipkowska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilising the macroalgae accumulating on the Sopot beach, a part of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea.During this work (2004-2006 a range of activities were undertaken: monitoring the occurrence of macroalgae, collection of plant material, taxonomic identification, laboratory analyses of contamination (metals - Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg;radionuclides - 137Cs, 40K; organic contaminants - polychlorinated biphenyls,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the stage of algal degradation and studying possible uses of the plant material collected on the beach. The most suitable way of utilising the plant material seems to be as a biofertiliser. Laboratorygrowth tests were carried out to assess this possible use; they were successful.

  16. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  17. Bryophytes of beach forests in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiangphak Sukkharak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of bryophyte diversity of three beach forests including Had Tung Prong, Had Tein Talay, and the beach forest in Thai Island and Sea Natural History Museum in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, was carried out. From 137 enumerated specimens, 16 species (6 mosses, 10 liverworts in 12 genera (5 mosses, 7 liverworts and eight families (5 mosses, 3 liverworts were found. Among those the most common families of mosses are Fissidentaceae (2 species and the most common families of liverwort are Lejeuneaceae (8 species. A comparison of species richness among the three areas revealed that the highest species richness of bryophytes was found in Had Tung Prong. Moreover, of all bryophyte species found, Weissia edentula Mitt. was the most common one.

  18. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF NOURISHING MOTHERS ABOUT BREAST FEEDING, ATTENDING URBAN HEALTH CENTRE: A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY FROM KISHANGANJ, BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Breast feeding is almost universal , but there are many barriers for proper breast feeding practices. Despite the well - recognized importance of exclusive breast feeding (EBF , this practice is not widespread i n the developing countries like India. This is mainly due to lack of understanding and poor adherence of mothers to EBF practices for the first 6 months postpartum. Also , the knowledge and practices of early breast feeding are suboptimal among mothers. OBJ ECTIVE : To know knowledge , attitude and practices of nourishing rural mothers about breast feeding and their association with demographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study was a cross - sectional study , performed in M.G.M.M.C. & L.S.K Hospital , Kishanganj , Bihar , between December - 2013 to January - 2014. A total of 129 nourishing mothers of children between 0 - 2 years of age were selected. Breast feeding knowledge of the mothers was evaluated by giving them a printed structured questionnaire containi ng different types of questions regarding breast feeding. RESULT : Among 129 nourishing mothers , 100% knew that mother’s milk is the best food for the baby. 71.3% of the mothers were having knowledge that breast feeding should be started within ½ hr. of bir th. 86.8% of the mothers were having knowledge that EBF should be given upto 6 months. CONCLUSION : This study showed a lack of understanding of the importance of breast feeding and poor adherence to EBF for the first 6 months of baby’s life. A lot of gap i s present between literate and illiterate mothers in breast feeding practices , which need to be changed

  19. Nourish Your Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acids is fatty fish (for example sardines, tuna, salmon, mackerel, and herring). Try to eat this type of fish once or twice a week.Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking vitamins or supplements. Depending on your overall health and ...

  20. Morphodynamic modeling of an embayed beach under wave group forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Roelvink, J. A.; Thornton, E. B.

    2004-01-01

    The morphodynamic response of the nearshore zone of an embayed beach induced by wave groups is examined with a numerical model. The model utilizes the nonlinear shallow water equations to phase resolve the mean and infragravity motions in combination with an advection-diffusion equation for the sediment transport. The sediment transport associated with the short-wave asymmetry is accounted for by means of a time-integrated contribution of the wave nonlinearity using stream function theory. The two-dimensional (2-D) computations consider wave group energy made up of directionally spread, short waves with a zero mean approach angle with respect to the shore normal, incident on an initially alongshore uniform barred beach. Prior to the 2-D computations, the model is calibrated with prototype flume measurements of waves, currents, and bed level changes during erosive and accretive conditions. The most prominent feature of the 2-D model computations is the development of an alongshore quasi-periodic bathymetry of shoals cut by rip channels. Without directional spreading, the smallest alongshore separation of the rip channels is obtained, and the beach response is self-organizing in nature. Introducing a small amount of directional spreading (less than 2°) results in a strong increase in the alongshore length scales as the beach response changes from self-organizing to being quasi-forced. A further increase in directional spreading leads again to smaller length scales. The hypothesized correlation between the observed rip spacing and wave group forced edge waves over the initially alongshore uniform bathymetry is not found. However, there is a correlation between the alongshore length scales of the wave group-induced quasi-steady flow circulations and the eventual alongshore spacing of the rip channels. This suggests that the scouring associated with the quasi-steady flow induced by the initial wave groups triggers the development of rip channels via a positive feedback