Sample records for be2 transition strengths

  1. Inter-band B(E2) transitions strengths in 160-170Dy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos E; Lerma, Sergio; Velázquez, Víctor


    The rare earth region of the nuclear landscape is characterized by a large collectivity observed. The microscopic studies are difficult to perform in the region due to the enormous size of the valence spaces. The use of symmetries based models avoids that problem, because the symmetry allows to choose the most relevant degrees of freedom for the system under consideration. We present theoretical results for electromagnetic properties in 160-168 Dy isotopes employing the pseudo-SU(3) model. In particular, we study the B(E2) inter-band transition strengths between the ground state, γ and, β-bands. The model succesfully describes in a systematic way rotational features in these nuclei and allows to extrapolate toward the midshell nucleus 170 Dy

  2. Polynomial expansions and transition strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.


    The subject is statistical spectroscopy applied to determining strengths and strength sums of excitation processes in nuclei. The focus will be on a ds-shell isoscalar E2 study with detailed shell-model results providing the standard for comparison; similar results are available for isovector E2 and M1 and E4 transitions as well as for single-particle transfer and ν +- decay. The present study is intended to serve as a tutorial for applications where shell-model calculations are not feasible. The problem is posed and a schematic theory for strengths and sums is presented. The theory is extended to include the effect of correlations between H, the system Hamiltonian, and theta, the excitation operator. Associated with correlation measures is a geometry that can be used to anticipate the goodness of a symmetry. This is illustrated for pseudo SU(3) in the fp-shell. Some conclusions about fluctuations and collectivity that one can deduce from the statistical results for strengths are presented

  3. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evitts L. J.


    Full Text Available Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p’ reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0, were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77−34+23 × 10−3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0 value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0 values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0 value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  4. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni (United States)

    Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Kibédi, T.; Moukaddam, M.; Alshahrani, B.; Eriksen, T. K.; Holt, J. D.; Hota, S. S.; Lane, G. J.; Lee, B. Q.; McCormick, B. P.; Palalani, N.; Reed, M. W.; Stroberg, S. R.; Stuchbery, A. E.


    Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p') reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0), were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77-34+23 × 10-3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0) value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0) values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0) value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  5. Collision strengths for transitions in Ni XIX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    atomic data (namely energy levels, radiative rates, collision strengths, excitation rates, etc.) are required in order to estimate the power loss from the walls of the reactors. Furthermore, Ni XIX, a neon-like ion, is also very useful in lasing plas- mas. Similarly many transitions, particularly within the n = 3 configurations, have.

  6. The B(E2) value of the first-excited to ground-state transition in 49Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mando, P.A.; Sona, P.; Taccetti, N.; Liberati, G.


    The B(E2) value of the 1381 keV transition connecting the J=3/2 - first excited state to the J=7/2 - ground state in 49 Ti has been determined by means of Coulomb excitation measurements. The value obtained is B(E2)=(33.5+- 4.5) e 2 fm 4

  7. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in the Stable Nickel Isotopes (United States)

    Evitts, Lee John

    A series of measurements of stable nickel isotopes were performed at the Australian National University in Canberra. Excited states in 58,60,62Ni were populated via inelastic scattering of proton beams delivered by the 14UD Pelletron accelerator. Multiple setups were used in order to determine the structure of low-lying states. The CAESAR array of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used to measure the (E2/M1) mixing ratio of transitions from angular distributions of gamma rays. The Super-e spectrometer was used to measure conversion coefficients for a number of J to J transitions. The data obtained from both devices was combined with previously measured parent lifetimes and branching ratios to determine E0 transition strengths between J-pi transitions. The E0 transition strength for the second 0+ to first 0+ transitions in 60,62Ni have been measured for the first time through internal conversion electron detection. The experimental value of 132(+59,-70) for 62Ni agrees within 2 sigma of the previous result obtained from internal pair formation. However it is likely that the previous experimental results used an outdated theoretical model for internal pair formation emission. This work also represents the first measurements of E0 transition strengths between 2+ states in Ni isotopes. There is generally large E0 strength between the 2+ states, particularly in the second 2+ to first 2+ transition, however there is also a large uncertainty in the measurements owing to the difficulties involved in measuring conversion coefficients. In 62Ni, the E0 transition strength of 172(+62,-77) for the second 2+ to first 2+ transition gives further weight to the argument against the spherical vibrator model, as an E0 transition is forbidden if there is a change of only one phonon. The large measurement also indicates the presence of shape coexistence, complementing the recent experimental work carried out in the neutron-rich Ni isotopes.

  8. Random matrix theory for transition strengths: Applications and open questions (United States)

    Kota, V. K. B.


    Embedded random matrix ensembles are generic models for describing statistical properties of finite isolated interacting quantum many-particle systems. A finite quantum system, induced by a transition operator, makes transitions from its states to the states of the same system or to those of another system. Examples are electromagnetic transitions (then the initial and final systems are same), nuclear beta and double beta decay (then the initial and final systems are different) and so on. Using embedded ensembles (EE), there are efforts to derive a good statistical theory for transition strengths. With m fermions (or bosons) in N mean-field single particle levels and interacting via two-body forces, we have with GOE embedding, the so called EGOE(1+2). Now, the transition strength density (transition strength multiplied by the density of states at the initial and final energies) is a convolution of the density generated by the mean-field one-body part with a bivariate spreading function due to the two-body interaction. Using the embedding U(N) algebra, it is established, for a variety of transition operators, that the spreading function, for sufficiently strong interactions, is close to a bivariate Gaussian. Also, as the interaction strength increases, the spreading function exhibits a transition from bivariate Breit-Wigner to bivariate Gaussian form. In appropriate limits, this EE theory reduces to the polynomial theory of Draayer, French and Wong on one hand and to the theory due to Flambaum and Izrailev for one-body transition operators on the other. Using spin-cutoff factors for projecting angular momentum, the theory is applied to nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay (NDBD). In this paper we will describe: (i) various developments in the EE theory for transition strengths; (ii) results for nuclear matrix elements for 130Te and 136Xe NDBD; (iii) important open questions in the current form of the EE theory.

  9. Effect of symmetry breaking on transition strength distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.


    The quantum numbers of over 100 states in 30 P have been determined from the ground state to 8 MeV. Previous measurements had provided complete spectroscopy in 26 Al. For these N=Z=odd nuclei, states of isospin T=0 and T=1 coexist at all energies. These spectra provide a unique opportunity to test the effect of symmetry breaking (of the approximate symmetry isospin) on the level statistics and on the transition strength distributions. The level statistics are strongly affected by the small symmetry breaking and the transition strength distributions differ from the Porter-Thomas distribution

  10. Transition-strength fluctuations and the onset of chaotic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Levine, R.D.


    The maximum-entropy formalism is used to characterize the fluctuations in transition strengths for a bound quantum-mechanical system. In the chaotic limit only one, ever present, sum rule is required as a constraint. The resulting distribution is that of Porter and Thomas, which can also be derived from random-matrix theory. For nonchaotic systems the distribution of transition strengths has a lower entropy. A possible additional constraint, operative during the onset of chaos, is proposed. The distribution of maximal entropy subject to both constraints accords with computed intensities in a system of two degrees of freedom

  11. Experimental study of muonic x-ray transitions in mercury isotopes. [Fermi distribution, B(E2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A.A.; Miller, J.P.; Powers, R.J.; Zehnder, A.; Rushton, A.M.; Welsh, R.E.; Kunselman, A.R.; Roberson, P.; Walter, H.K.


    Muonic x-ray spectra were measured for /sup 198/ /sup 199/ /sup 200/ /sup 201/ /sup 202/ and /sup 204/Hg. These data were interpreted in terms of a two parameter Fermi distribution for the charge density. The spectroscopic quadrupole moments (Q/sub s/) of some of the 2/sup +/ nuclear states were inferred. For /sup 199/Hg the spectroscopic quadrupole moments of the first two excited states and the B(E2)'s connecting these states to the ground state were determined. For /sup 201/Hg the ground state quadrupole moment was obtained as well as several other E2 moments but the interpretation of the data was hampered by a possible incomplete knowledge of the nuclear scheme of this nucleus. The muonic isotope shifts were measured and interpreted in terms of deltaR/sub k/ and are compared to electronic x-ray and optical isotope shift measurements. 41 references

  12. Oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for the intercombination transitions in Fe XXII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.


    Oscillator strengths and transition probabilities are evaluated for the intercombination transitions between the 2s 2 2p, 2s 2p 2 and 2p 3 states of Fe XXII using configuration interaction wavefunctions. The fine-structure splittings have also been calculated. Some significant differences with previous calculations are obtained

  13. Collision strengths for dipole-allowed transitions in S II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Y.K.; Henry, R.J.W.


    Calculations of collision strengths for electron-impact excitations of S II from the ground state 3p3 4S0 to excited states 3p4 4P, 3d 4F, 3d 4D, 4s 4P, and 3d 4P were carried out using the R-matrix code described by Berrington et al. (1978) and the NIEM code described by Henry et al. (1981). Results are presented for the thermally averaged collision strengths for the five-state and six-state calculations. Convergence behaviors were examined by comparison with the six-state calculations and the previously obtained two-state calculations. Uncertainties for these transitions were estimated to be within 20 percent, except for the 4S0 - 3p4 4P transition in which a 40 percent uncertainty was estimated. 22 refs

  14. Oscillator strengths and radiative rates for transitions in neutral sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, N.C.; Hibbert, A.


    We present accurate oscillator strengths and radiative rates for 2173 E1 transitions among the 120 levels belonging to 3s 2 3p 4 , 3s3p 5 , and 3s 2 3p 3 ( 4 S o , 2 D o , 2 P o )nl configurations where nl=4s,5s,6s,4p,5p,6p,3d,4d,4f,5f. A configuration interaction approach is employed through the standard CIV3 program. The 114 LS states included in the present calculation generate 250 fine-structure levels belonging to the above configurations below 100,000 cm -1 . However, results of only 120 fine-structure levels are presented due to the absence of experimental energy values for the remaining levels. Tabulations of oscillator strengths and radiative rates, and their comparison with other calculations, are presented in the first two tables. In a separate table the oscillator strengths and transition probabilities, in length and velocity gauges, are presented for 2173 E1 transitions, and are arranged in ascending order of wavelength

  15. Strength distribution of γ-transitions deexciting superdeformed rotational bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Martens, A.P.; Doesing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Korichi, A.; Hannachi, F.; Calderin, I.J.; Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fischer, S.M.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Nisius, D.; Reiter, P.; Amro, H.; Moore, E.F.


    The strength distribution of the γ rays in the decay-out from superdeformed (SD) states is investigated by applying the maximum likelihood method, with special emphasis on the influence of the lower threshold given by experimental conditions. Clear graphical solutions are found, and a careful estimation of the dispersion in the values of the number of degrees of freedom and of the average strength of the most likely χ 2 distribution is carried out. For the 194 Hg nucleus, 41 primary transitions from the decay-out of SD states are identified above 2600 keV. It is concluded that they represent the strongest 10% of the transitions selected stochastically from a Porter-Thomas distribution. This would support the scenario of a statistical decay of SD states via coupling to a compound state at normal deformation. However, the occurrence of several very strong direct one-step transitions as previously observed in 194 Hg has a very small probability of the order of 10 -4 . This may indicate special selection rules governing the decay. However, based on the absence of strong primary transitions from SD states in adjacent nuclei, the situation in 194 Hg is viewed as a very lucky incidence

  16. Lifetimes and electromagnetic transition strengths in 155Dy (United States)

    Petkov, P.; Yavahchova, M. S.; Möller, O.; Dewald, A.; Tonev, D.; Saha, B.; Fitzler, A.; Jessen, K.; Klug, T.; Heinze, S.; Jolie, J.; von Brentano, P.; Goutev, N.; Bazzacco, D.; Ur, C. A.; Farnea, E.; Axiotis, M.; Lunardi, S.; de Angelis, G.; Napoli, D. R.; Marginean, N.; Martinez, T.; Caprio, M. A.


    Recoil distance Doppler-shift and Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime measurements were carried out for levels in 155Dy through the coincident detection of γ rays. Twenty-six lifetimes, most of them for the first time, were determined using the differential decay curve method for the analysis of the data. At low and medium spins, particle-plus-triaxial-rotor calculations reveal different quadrupole deformations for the one-quasineutron bands in this transitional nucleus. At high spin, the reduced B(E2) transition probabilities confirm with a better precision the results of a previous study implying decreased collectivity with increasing spin.

  17. A differential equation for the transition probability B(E2)↑ and the resulting recursion relations connecting even-even nuclei (United States)

    Pattnaik, S.; Nayak, R. C.


    We obtain here a new relation for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ of a given nucleus in terms of its derivatives with respect to neutron and proton numbers based on a similar local energy relation in the Infinite Nuclear Matter (INM) model of atomic nuclei, which is essentially built on the foundation of the Hugenholtz-Van Hove (HVH) theorem of many-body theory. Obviously, such a relation in the form of a differential equation is expected to be more powerful than the usual algebraic difference equations. Although the relation for B(E2)↑ has been perceived simply on the basis of a corresponding differential equation for the local energy in the INM model, its theoretical foundation otherwise has been clearly demonstrated. We further exploit the differential equation in using the very definitions of the derivatives to obtain two different recursion relations for B(E2)↑, connecting in each case three neighboring even-even nuclei from lower to higher mass numbers and vice versa. We demonstrate their numerical validity using available data throughout the nuclear chart and also explore their possible utility in predicting B(E2)↑ values.

  18. Calculation of oscillator strengths of dipole transitions by the Coulomb approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takako.


    In plasma physics it is often necessary to know the values of oscillator strengths f and spontaneous transition probabilities A associated with spectral lines. In this paper the oscillator strengths were calculated for some transitions of rather highly ionized ions. The oscillator strengths and spontaneous transition probabilities can be expressed in terms of the line strengths S. The line strengths are shown by using the line factor (sup(R) line) and the multiplet factor (sup(R) mult). For LS coupling and levels without equivalent electrons, the line and multiplet factors can be defined in terms of the Racah coefficients. The radial factor I is also included in the line strengths and is related to the radial transition integral. The values of oscillator strength are listed in a table. (Kato, T.)

  19. Strengths of gamma-ray transitions in A = 6–44 nuclei (III)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    The present tables list the strengths (in Weisskopf units) of over 2400 γ-ray transitions in A = 6–44 nuclei, classified according to character (electric or magnetic, multipolarity, isospin forbiddenness). Selected transitions from unbound states are included. The strengths for isovector E1 and M1

  20. Strength distributions of electromagnetic transitions in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostin, V.Ya.; Koval', A.A.; Kopanets, E.G.; Tsytko, S.P.


    Distributions of probabilities of electromagnetic transitions from resonance levels of light nuclei with masses A=Z-40 for eight types of transition (epsilon1, epsilon2, M1, M8, isoscalar and isovector) are obtained. Recommended upper limits (RUL) of transition probabilities are determined for each type of transitions. A comparison with analogous characteristics for transitions between bound states is carried out. It has been causes found that RUL for resonance states substantially differ from RUL for transitions between bound states. Possible causes of such difference are discussed

  1. Strengths of gamma-ray transitions in A = 45–90 nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    The present tables list the strengths (in Weisskopf units) of over 1200 gamma-ray transitions in A = 45–90 nuclei, classified according to character (electric or magnetic, multipolarity). It appears that E1, M1, and M2 transitions are weaker here than in the A = 6–44 region, whereas E2 transitions


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C. E.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Scott, M. P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)


    We have carried out a 29-state R-matrix calculation in order to calculate collision strengths and effective collision strengths for the electron impact excitation of S III. The recently developed parallel RMATRX II suite of codes have been used, which perform the calculation in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths have been generated over an electron energy range of 0-12 Ryd, and effective collision strength data have been calculated from these at electron temperatures in the range 1000-100,000 K. Results are here presented for the fine-structure transitions between the ground-state configurations of 3s {sup 2}3p {sup 23} P{sub 0,1,2}, {sup 1}D{sub 2}, and {sup 1} S{sub 0}, and the values given resolve a discrepancy between two previous R-matrix calculations.

  3. Garnet Yield Strength at High Pressures and Implications for Upper Mantle and Transition Zone Rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavner, A.


    Garnet helps control the mechanical behavior of the Earth's crust, mantle, and transition zone. Here, measurements are presented suggesting that garnet, long considered to be a high-viscosity phase, is actually weaker than the other dominant components in the transition zone. The mechanical behavior of garnet at high pressures was examined using radial diffraction techniques in the diamond anvil cell. The yield strength of grossular garnet was inferred from synchrotron X-ray measurements of differential lattice strains. The differential stress was found to increase from 1.3 (±0.6) GPa at a hydrostatic pressure 5.8 (±1.1) GPa to 4.1 (±0.4) GPa at 15.7 (±1.0) GPa, where it was level to 19 GPa. The strength results are consistent with inferred strength values for majorite garnet from measurements in the diamond cell normal geometry, bolstering the idea that garnet-structured materials may all have similar strengths. In this low-temperature, high differential stress regime, garnet is shown to be significantly weaker than anhydrous ringwoodite and to have a strength similar to hydrous ringwoodite. This result suggests that the presence of water in the transition zone may not be required to explain a weak rheology, and therefore models of transition zone behavior built assuming that garnet is the high-strength phase may need to be revised.

  4. Acrylate oligomers in ultraviolet cured PSA's glass transition, molecular weight versus peel strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.


    Typically those not skilled in the art relate Glass Transition Temperature to Pressure Sensitive Adhesives. You need a low Tg material to prepare good pressure sensitive adhesives. This report deals with a wide range acrylate terminated oligomers in a standard formulation. Molecular weight, chemical structure variations are examined versus the Glass Transition of the oligomers and final peel strength. Each formulated adhesive will require unique oligomer properties to reach one hundred newtons per 100 millimeters (5.71 pounds per square inch) peel strength. Excellent peel strengths may be obtained with oligomer molecular weight ranging from six thousand to one thousand molecular weight and glass transition temperatures ranging from minus seventy four degrees centigrade up to thirteen degrees centigrade

  5. Oscillator Strengths for Rydberg Transitions in CO and Its Isotopomers (United States)

    Sheffer, Y.; Federman, S. R.; Eidelsberg, M.; Lemaire, J. L.; Fillion, J. H.; Rostas, F.; Ruiz, J.


    Precise knowledge of CO oscillator strengths (f-values) is an important ingredient in modeling this molecule's interstellar distribution, owing to line absorption that dominates CO's photodissociation. High-resolution (R = 25-60,000) FUV absorption spectroscopy from the Super-ACO synchrotron at Orsay, France, is employed to measure new f-values for three CO isotopomers: 12C16O, 13C16O, and 13C18O. We use the f-value of the E-X (0-0) band at 1076 Å as the calibrator of CO column density. A cluster of four interacting Rydberg states between 968-970 Å, K-X (0-0) + L-X (0-0) + L'-X (1-0) + E-X (6-0), is successfully disentangled and modeled by taking into account state interactions according to their mixing coefficients. The derived f-values agree with the larger values found in previous lab work, and with values derived from our FUSE interstellar spectra. Other Rydberg bands are being analysed, including W-X (v'-0; v' = 0 to 3) between 925 and 972 Å, E-X (1-0) at 1051 Å, and B-X (6-0) at 1002 Å, with the last showing marked predissociation lifetime variations from one isotopomer to another. Final f-values will be compared with available results. The authors acknowledge the support of the LURE-SuperACO synchrotron facility through time allocation and the SU5 beam-line team. This work was funded in part by NASA and the CNRS-PCMI program.

  6. Electromagnetic transition strengths in 75Kr and 79Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, M.A.; Filevich, Alberto; Garcia Bermudez, Gerardo; Achterberg, Erhard


    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear structure in light Kr and Sr isotopes have revealed a region of large quadrupole deformation. In this work, deformation properties of odd-nuclei 75 Kr and 79 Sr have been investigated. For this purpose, lifetime of excited states in both nuclei have been measured by means of the recoil distance Doppler shift technique. These nuclei were populated via the reactions: 54 Fe( 24 Mg,2pn) 75 Kr at 75 MeV and 54 Fe( 28 Si,2pn) 79 Sr at 97 MeV, the beams were provided by the Tandar accelerator. The experimental B(E2) values for these nuclei were well reproduced in the framework of the triaxial-rotor-plus quasiparticle model. In order to fix the parameters of the model a study of neighboring even-even Kr isotopes was performed. The whole N=3 and N=4 oscillator shell was used for the space configuration of the odd particle for negative and positive bands respectively. (Author) [es

  7. Oscillator strength, transition rates and lifetimes for n=3 states in Al-like ions

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, U I; Safronova, M S; Sataka, M


    Transition rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths are calculated for the 3220 possible electric-dipole (E1) transitions between the 73 even-parity 3s3p sup 2 , 3s sup 2 3d, 3p sup 2 3d, 3d sup 2 3s and 3d sup 3 states and the 75 odd-parity 3s sup 2 3p, 3p sup 3 , 3s3p3d, and 3d sup 2 3p states in Al-like ions with the nuclear charges ranging from Z=15 to 100. Relativistic many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), including the Breit interaction, is used to evaluate retarded E1 matrix elements in length and velocity forms. The calculations start from a 1s sup 2 2s sup 2 2p sup 6 Dirac-Fock potential. First-order MBPT is used to obtain intermediate coupling coefficients and second-order MBPT is used to calculate transition matrix elements. Contributions from negative-energy states are included in the second order E1 matrix elements to ensure gauge-independence of transition amplitudes. The transition energies used in the calculation of oscillator strengths and transition rates are from second-order MBPT. T...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The study of damping of rotational motion applying the rotational plane mapping (RPM) method is presented and discussed. The aim of this technique is to extract the distribution of the rotational transition strength from an analysis of the shape of the ''central valley'' of two- and

  9. Flat punch adhesion: transition from fracture-based to strength-limited pull-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yijie; Turner, Kevin T; Grierson, David S


    The adhesion of a cylindrical flat punch to a surface due to interatomic forces is a well-known problem that is important in many applications, including indentation experiments and the adhesion of fibrillar structures. Traditionally, the pull-off force has been related to the work of adhesion and punch geometry via the Kendall solution that uses a Griffith energy balance to assess crack propagation and pull-off. More recently, it has been shown that under certain conditions, notably at small punch diameters, the contact can behave in a ‘strength-limited’ fashion in which the interface separates uniformly rather than via crack propagation. Here, a Maugis-Dugdale-type analysis of power-law-shaped bodies in contact is used to examine the change in behaviour from the fracture-based Kendall solution to strength-limited pull-off for cylindrical flat punches. The transition from fracture-based to strength-limited behaviour is described in terms of a non-dimensional parameter that is similar to previous quantities used to describe the transition and is a function of the punch size, the elasticity of the contact, and the adhesion properties. The results of this relatively simple analysis compare favourably with results from more complex computational simulations. In addition, the results are used to develop a function that quantifies the transition between the Kendall solution and the strength-limited solution in order to facilitate interpretation of adhesion measurements in the transition regime between the two limits. Finally, the power-law analysis is used to assess the sensitivity of the transition to the exact shape of the punch. (paper)

  10. Large enhancement of radiative strength for soft transitions in the quasicontinuum. (United States)

    Voinov, A; Algin, E; Agvaanluvsan, U; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S


    Radiative strength functions (RSFs) for the (56,57)Fe nuclei below the separation energy are obtained from the 57Fe(3He,alphagamma)56Fe and 57Fe(3He,3He'gamma)57Fe reactions, respectively. An enhancement of more than a factor of 10 over common theoretical models of the soft (E(gamma) less than or approximately equal 2 MeV) RSF for transitions in the quasicontinuum (several MeV above the yrast line) is observed. Two-step cascade intensities with soft primary transitions from the 56Fe(n,2gamma)57Fe reaction confirm the enhancement.

  11. The stochastic transition from size dependent to size independent yield strength in metallic glasses (United States)

    Li, F. C.; Wang, S.; He, Q. F.; Zhang, H.; Sun, B. A.; Lu, Y.; Yang, Y.


    It has been an enduring and heated debate whether the yield strength of metallic glasses (MGs) is size dependent or size independent. In this work, we first develop a micromechanical model by taking into account the stochasticity for shear band initiation in microcompression. Our modeling is subsequently verified through the extensive in-situ and ex-situ microcompression experiments. Through the efforts of combined experiments and modeling, we show a size-controlled stochastic transition from the size dependent to the size independent yield strength in the MG micropillars. Such a stochastic transition is featured with a strong fluctuation in the measured yield strengths when the micropillar size is near an intrinsic length scale which varies with the chemical composition of MGs. In contrast, such a size-controlled transition appear deterministic with little data scattering in tension. At the fundamental level, our results unfold a size dependent shear band initiation process in MGs, which may be applicable to other amorphous materials of technological importance.

  12. Determination of the Oscillator Strengths for the Third and Fourth Vibrational Overtone Transitions in Simple Alcohols (United States)

    Wallberg, Jens; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.


    Absolute measurements of the weak transitions require sensitive spectroscopic techniques. With our recently constructed pulsed cavity ring down (CRD) spectrometer, we have recorded the third and fourth vibrational overtone of the OH stretching vibration in a series of simple alcohols: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), 1-propanol (1-PrOH), 2-propanol (2-PrOH) and tert-butanol (tBuOH). The CRD setup (in a flow cell configuration) is combined with a conventional FTIR spectrometer to determine the partial pressure of the alcohols from the fundamental transitions of the OH-stretching vibration. The oscillator strengths of the overtone transitions are determined from the integrated absorbances of the overtone spectra and the partial pressures. Furthermore, the oscillator strengths were calculated using vibrational local mode theory with energies and dipole moments calculated at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. We find a good agreement between the observed and calculated oscillator strengths across the series of alcohols.

  13. Theoretical oscillator strengths, transition probabilities, and radiative lifetimes of levels in Pb V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colón, C., E-mail: [Dpto. Física Aplicada. E.U.I.T. Industrial, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, 28012 Madrid (Spain); Alonso-Medina, A. [Dpto. Física Aplicada. E.U.I.T. Industrial, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, 28012 Madrid (Spain); Porcher, P. [Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquée de l’Etat Solide, CNRS-UMR 7574, Paris (France)


    Theoretical values of oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for 306 spectral lines arising from the 5d{sup 9}ns(n=7,8,9),5d{sup 9}np(n=6,7),5d{sup 9}6d, and 5d{sup 9} 5f configurations, and radiative lifetimes of 9 levels, of Pb V have been obtained. These values were obtained in intermediate coupling (IC) and using ab initio relativistic Hartree–Fock calculations including core-polarization effects. We use for the IC calculations the standard method of least squares fitting of experimental energy levels by means of computer codes from Cowan. We included in these calculations the 5d{sup 8}6s6p and 5d{sup 8}6s{sup 2} configurations. These calculations have facilitated the identification of the 214.25, 216.79, and 227.66 nm spectral lines of Pb V. In the absence of experimental results of oscillator strengths and transition probabilities, we could not make a direct comparison with our results. However, the Stark broadening parameters calculated from these values are in excellent agreement with experimental widening found in the literature. -- Highlights: •Theoretical values of transition probabilities of Pb V have been obtained. •We use for the IC calculations the standard method of least square. •The parameters calculated from these values are in agreement with the experimental values.

  14. 0(gs)+ -->2(1)+ transition strengths in 106Sn and 108Sn. (United States)

    Ekström, A; Cederkäll, J; Fahlander, C; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Ames, F; Butler, P A; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Fincke, F; Görgen, A; Górska, M; Habs, D; Hurst, A M; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Iwanicki, J; Kester, O; Köster, U; Marsh, B A; Mierzejewski, J; Reiter, P; Scheit, H; Schwalm, D; Siem, S; Sletten, G; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Wenander, F; Zielińska, M


    The reduced transition probabilities, B(E2; 0(gs)+ -->2(1)+), have been measured in the radioactive isotopes (108,106)Sn using subbarrier Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. Deexcitation gamma rays were detected by the highly segmented MINIBALL Ge-detector array. The results, B(E2;0(gs)+ -->2(1)+)=0.222(19)e2b2 for 108Sn and B(E2; 0(gs)+-->2(1)+)=0.195(39)e2b2 for 106Sn were determined relative to a stable 58Ni target. The resulting B(E2) values are approximately 30% larger than shell-model predictions and deviate from the generalized seniority model. This experimental result may point towards a weakening of the N=Z=50 shell closure.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belof, J L; Cavallo, R M; Olson, R T; King, R S; Gray, G T; Holtkamp, D B; Chen, S R; Rudd, R E; Barton, N R; Arsenlis, A; Remington, B A; Park, H; Prisbrey, S T; Vitello, P A; Bazan, G; Mikaelian, K O; Comley, A J; Maddox, B R; May, M J


    We present here the first dynamic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) strength measurement of a material undergoing solid-solid phase transition. Iron is quasi-isentropically driven across the pressure-induced bcc ({alpha}-Fe) {yields} hcp ({var_epsilon}-Fe) phase transition and the dynamic strength of the {alpha}, {var_epsilon} and reverted {alpha}{prime} phases have been determined via proton radiography of the resulting Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interface between the iron target and high-explosive products. Simultaneous velocimetry measurements of the iron free surface yield the phase transition dynamics and, in conjunction with detailed hydrodynamic simulations, allow for determination of the strength of the distinct phases of iron. Forward analysis of the experiment via hydrodynamic simulations reveals significant strength enhancement of the dynamically-generated {var_epsilon}-Fe and reverted {alpha}{prime}-Fe, comparable in magnitude to the strength of austenitic stainless steels.

  16. Ionic strength and transition metals control PrPSc protease resistance and conversion-inducing activity. (United States)

    Nishina, Koren; Jenks, Samantha; Supattapone, Surachai


    The essential component of infectious prions is a misfolded protein termed PrPSc, which is produced by conformational change of a normal host protein, PrPC. It is currently unknown whether PrPSc molecules exist in a unique conformation or whether they are able to undergo additional conformational changes. Under commonly used experimental conditions, PrPSc molecules are characteristically protease-resistant and capable of inducing the conversion of PrPC molecules into new PrPSc molecules. We describe the effects of ionic strength, copper, and zinc on the conformation-dependent protease resistance and conversion-inducing activity of PrPSc molecules in scrapie-infected hamster brains. In the absence of divalent cations, PrPSc molecules were > 20-fold more sensitive to proteinase K digestion in low ionic strength buffers than in high ionic strength buffers. Addition of micromolar concentrations of copper or zinc ions restored the protease resistance of PrPSc molecules under conditions of low ionic strength. These transition metals also controlled the conformation of purified truncated PrP-(27-30) molecules at low ionic strength, confirming that the N-terminal octapeptide repeat region of PrPSc is not required for binding to copper or zinc ions. The protease-sensitive and protease-resistant conformations of PrPSc were reversibly interchangeable, and only the protease-resistant conformation of PrPSc induced by high ionic strength was able to induce the formation of new protease-resistant PrP (PrPres) molecules in vitro. These findings show that PrPSc molecules are structurally interconvertible and that only a subset of PrPSc conformations are able to induce the conversion of other PrP molecules. Copyright 2004 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Strength functions of primary transitions following thermal neutron capture in strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, C.; Lieb, K.P.


    The primary E1, M1 and E2 γ-radiation in 87,88,89 Sr observed after thermal neutron capture was compared with the predictions of single particle and giant resonance models. The nuclei feature a wide range of neutron binding energies between 6.3 and 11.1 MeV, which makes a 5.5 MeV spectrum of primary transition energies available for investigation. The (n, γ) reaction was used to estimate the parameters of the spin-flip M1 giant resonance in strontium. The total energy weighted M1 strength of this resonance exceeds the results of shell model and random phase approximation calculations for 90 Zr by a factor of 3-4. The E1 strengths were found to agree with the established giant dipole resonance model. The few data on primary E2 transitions do not allow to differentiate between the giant quadrupole resonance and the single particle models. (orig.)

  18. Study of the correlation between yield strength variations and transition temperature in irradiations performed in EDF 1 and G1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Jimenez, Jose


    As neutron irradiation of nuclear reactor structure steel results in changes in physical and mechanical properties, notably an increase of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and of yield strength, and as a previous report addressed the study of the relationship between the increase of transition temperature and Wigner doses for some French alloys irradiated within EDF 1 and G1 graphite reactor cores, this report is a complement to this previous study. By using the same correlation method, the author studied the relationship between variations of yield strength and damage flows, as well as the interdependence with transition temperature [fr

  19. Electromagnetic Transition Strengths Studied with Doppler-Shift Techniques Across the Contours of the Valley Of Stability (United States)

    Loelius, Charles Robert

    The electromagnetic transition strengths between bound states in nuclei provide insight into nuclear structure. On one hand, from a single particle perspective the electromagnetic excitation and de-excitation of nuclei quantify the overlaps of nuclear wavefunctions, probing the internal configuration. On the other hand, in a collective model, the shape and dynamics of the nucleus are reflected in the electromagnetic transition strengths. For example, electric quadrupole transitions are sensitive to the deformation of a nucleus and distinguish between various pictures of collectivity, such as rotors and vibrators. In this work, electromagnetic transition strengths are studied through lifetime and Coulomb-excitation measurements. Nuclei across the contours of the valley of stability are studied to investigate features of nuclear structure and how they change near and far from stability. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  20. Excitation strengths and transition radii differences of one-phonon quadrupole excitations from electron scattering on {sup 92,94}Zr and {sup 94}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh Obeid, Abdulrahman


    In the framework of this thesis electron scattering experiments on low-energy excitations of {sup 92}Zr and {sup 94}Zr were performed at the S-DALINAC in a momentum transfer range q=0.3-0.6 fm{sup -1}. The nature of one-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states of {sup 92}Zr was investigated by comparison with predictions of the quasi-particle phonon model (QPM). Theoretical (e,e') cross sections have been calculated within the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) to account for Coulomb distortion effects. The reduced strengths of the one-quadrupole phonon states and the one-octupole phonon state have been extracted. The similarity of the momentum-transfer dependence of the form factors between the 2{sup +} states supports the one-phonon nature of the 2{sup +}{sub 2} state of {sup 92}Zr. A new method based on the Plane Wave Born Approximation (PWBA) for a model-independent determination of the ratio of the E2 transition strengths of fully symmetric (FSS) and mixed-symmetry (MSS) one-phonon excitations of heavy vibrational nuclei is introduced. Due to the sensitivity of electron scattering to charge distributions, the charge transition-radii difference can be determined. The basic assumptions (independence from the ratio of Coulomb corrections and from absolute values of transition radii) are tested within the Tassie model, which makes no specific assumptions about the structure of the states other than collectivity. It is shown that a PWBA analysis of the form factors, which usually fails for heavy nuclei, can nevertheless be applied in a relative analysis. This is a new promising approach to determine the ground state transition strength of the 2{sup +} MSS of vibrational nuclei with a precision limited only by the experimental information about the B(E2;2{sup +}{sub 1}→0{sup +}{sub 1}) strength. The PWBA approach furthermore provides information about differences of the proton transition radii of the respective states

  1. Lifetimes and Oscillator Strengths for Ultraviolet Transitions in P II, Cl II and Cl III (United States)

    Cheng, S.; Federman, S. R.; Schectman, R. M.; Brown, M.; Irving, R. E.; Fritts, M. C.; Gibson, N. D.


    Oscillator strengths for transitions in P II, Cl II and Cl III are derived from lifetimes and branching factions measured with beam-foil techniques. The focus is on the multiplets with a prominent interstellar line at 1153 A in P II which is seen in spectra of hot stars, and the lines at 1071 A in Cl II and 1011 A in Cl III whose lines are seen in spectra of diffuse interstellar clouds and the Io torus acquired with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. These data represent the first complete set of experimental f-values for the lines in the multiplets. Our results for P II (lambda)1153 agree well with Curtis semi-empirical predictions, as well as the large scale computations by Hibbert and by Tayal. The data for Cl II (lambda)1071 also agree very well with the most recent theoretical effort and with Morton s newest recommendations. For Cl III, however, our f-values are significantly larger than those given by Morton; instead, they are more consistent with recent large-scale theoretical calculations. Extensive tests provide confirmation that LS coupling rules apply to the transitions for the multiplets in Cl II and Cl III.

  2. Transition energies and oscillator strength calculated for d-s symmetry-forbidden electronic transition for Cu{sup +} impurities in sodium fluoride host lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, Elmar [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, CT Bloco A. Rio de Janeiro, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Leitao, Alexandre A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitario, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Rocha, Alexandre B., E-mail: [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, CT Bloco A. Rio de Janeiro, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of oscillator strengths calculated through vibronic coupling for electronic transitions of Cu{sup +} impurity in NaF host, described by embedded cluster model. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Embedded cluster model for impurity levels in the NaF:Cu{sup +} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oscillator strengths (OSs) calculated by direct vibronic coupling method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dependence of the OS on temperature is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OS and transition energies calculated at CASSCF and CASSCF/SOCI level. - Abstract: An embedded cluster model is used to describe electronic structure of Cu{sup +} ion in NaF host. Transition energies and oscillator strengths are calculated for the 3d{sup 10} {yields} 3d{sup 9}4s{sup 1} Cu{sup +} ligand field transitions. These are forbidden by dipole selection rules, which can, though, be broken by vibronic coupling. The basic model consists of a [CuF{sub 6}]{sup 5-} cluster surrounded by total ion potentials representing second, third and fourth neighbors to the central Cu{sup +}. The resulting structure is placed inside a cube of point charges to take long distance Coulomb interactions into account. Variations of this basic model needed especially to the calculation of transition energy. The oscillator strengths are calculated by the direct vibronic coupling method we have previously proposed. The effect of temperature on the value of the oscillator strength is calculated for the first time as well as their absolute value. Results are in good agreement with available experiment.

  3. CI+MBPT calculations of Ar I energies, g factors, and transition line strengths (United States)

    Savukov, I. M.


    Excited states of noble gas atoms present certain challenges to atomic theory for several reasons: first, relativistic effects are important and LS coupling is not optimal; second, energy intervals can be quite small, leading to strong mixing of states; third, many-body perturbation theory for hole states does not converge well. Previously, some attempts were made to solve this problem, using for example the all-order coupled-cluster approach and particle-hole configuration-interaction many-body perturbation theory (CI-MBPT) with modified denominators. However, while these approaches were promising, the accuracy was still limited. In this paper, we calculate Ar I energies, g factors, and transition amplitudes using ab initio CI-MBPT with eight valence electrons to avoid the problem of slow convergence of MBPT due to strong interaction between 3p and 3s states. We also included in CI many dominant states obtained by double excitations of the ground state configuration. Thus perturbation corrections were needed only for 1s, 2s, 2p core electrons non-included in valence-valence CI, which are quite small. We found that energy, g factors, and electric dipole matrix elements are in reasonable agreement with experiments. It is noteworthy that the theory agreed well with accurately measured g factors. Experimental oscillator strengths have large uncertainty, so in some cases we made a comparison with average values.

  4. Study of the strength distribution of primary γ-transitions in the decay from superdeformed states in 194Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Martens, A.P.; Doessing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Korichi, A.; Hannachi, F.; Calderin, I.J.; Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fischer, S.M.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Nisius, D.; Reiter, P.; Amro, H.; Moore, E.F.


    The strength distribution of the primary γ rays in the decay from superdeformed (SD) states is investigated by applying the maximum likelihood method. For the 194 Hg nucleus, 41 primary transitions are identified above 2600 keV. It is concluded that they represent the strongest 10% of the transitions selected stochastically from a Porter-Thomas distribution. This would support the scenario of a statistical decay of SD states via coupling to a compound state at normal deformation. However, the occurrence of several very strong 'one-step linking' transitions is found to have a very small probability. Based on the absence of strong primary transitions from SD states in adjacent nuclei, the situation in 194 Hg is viewed as a very lucky incidence

  5. Reinterpretation of the recently measured absolute generalized oscillator strength for the Ar 3p-4p transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msezane, A.Z.; Felfli, Z.; Chen, Z.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L. V.


    The recent experimental observation of the absolute generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for the Ar 3p-(4p,4p ' ) nondipole transition has been interpreted as a manifestation of quadrupole excitation [X. W. Fan and K. T. Leung, Phys. Rev. A 62, 062703 (2000)]. Contrary to the experimentalists' assignment, on the grounds of our random-phase-approximation with exchange (RPAE) calculation, we attribute the measured GOS to combined monopole, the dominant component, and quadrupole contributions. Our RPAE GOS's for the Ar dipole 3p-4s and 3p-3d,5s and the lowest nondipole transitions are compared with the measurements. The results could have significant implications for other similar transitions, previously interpreted as quadrupole excitation and for interpreting other discrete transitions

  6. Electron impact collision strengths and transition rates for extreme ultraviolet emission from Xe10+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yunfeng; Gao Cheng; Zeng Jiaolong


    The energy levels, oscillator strengths, and electron impact collision strengths are calculated for the Xe 10+ ion using the configuration interaction scheme implemented by the Flexible Atomic Code. These data pertain to the 3917 levels belonging to the following configurations: 4s 2 4p 6 4d 8 , 4s 2 4p 6 4d 7 4f, 4s 2 4p 6 4d 7 5l (l = s, p, d, or f), 4s 2 4p 5 4d 9 , 4s 2 4p 5 4d 8 4f, 4s 2 4p 5 4d 8 5l, 4s 2 4p 6 4d 6 5s5p, 4s 2 4p 6 4d 6 5p5d. Configuration interactions among these configurations are included in the calculation. Collision strengths are obtained at 10 scattered electron energies (1-1000 eV) and are tabulated here at five representative energies of 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 eV. Effective collision strengths are obtained by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at 10 temperatures ranging from 10 to 100 eV, and are tabulated at five representative temperatures of 10, 30, 50, 70 and 100 eV in this work. The whole data set should be useful for research involving extreme ultraviolet emission from Xe 10+

  7. Relativistic model-potential oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for 4fsup(n)6s-4fsup(n)6p transitions in Eu(II), Tb(II), and Ho(II) in J1j coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdalek, J.


    The lowest 4fsup(n)6s-4fsup(n)6p transitions are studied for the Eu(II) (n=7), Tb(II) (n=9), and Ho(II) (n=11) spectra, where the J 1 J coupling is an acceptable approximation. The relativistic radial integrals, required to evaluate the oscillator strengths and transition probabilities, are calculated with the model-potential method, which includes also core-polarization effects. The similarities observed in oscillator strengths for transitions with given ΔJ but different J values are discussed and explained. The computed oscillator strengths are compared with those obtained with the Coulomb approximation and it is found that the latter are only 11-12% lower. The core polarization influence on oscillator strengths is also investigated and the 19-21% decrease in oscillator strengths due to this effect is predicted. This result may, however, be overestimated because of some deficiencies in our procedure. (author)

  8. Ab initio study of ideal tensile strength and mechanical stability of transition-metal disilicides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Friák, Martin; Šob, Mojmír; Vitek, V.


    Roč. 68, č. 18 (2003), s. 184101-1 - 181101-10 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1041302; GA ČR GA202/03/1351; GA MŠk OC 523.90 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : ab initio calculations * electronic structure * theoretical tensile strength Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.962, year: 2003

  9. Strength, ductility, and ductile-brittle transition temperature for MFR candidate vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Lee, R.H.; Smith, D.L.


    The dependence of the yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction in area on temperature for the V-15Ti-7.5Cr, V-20Ti, V-15Cr-5Ti, V-12Cr-5Ti, V-10Cr-5Ti, and V-3Ti-1Si alloys was determined from tensile tests at temperatures ranging from 25 to 700 0 C. The strength of the alloys increased with an increase of the combined Cr and Ti concentration. The total elongation for the alloys ranged between 20 and 38%. The reduction in area ranged from 30 to 90%. The DBTT, which was determined from the temperature dependence of the reduction in area, was less than 25 0 C for the V-15Ti-7.5Cr, V-20Ti, and V-3Ti-1Si alloys. The DBTT for the V-10Cr-5Ti, V-12Cr-5Ti, and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys was also less than 25 0 C if these alloys were annealed to reduce the hydrogen concentration prior to the tensile test. If these latter alloys were not annealed prior to the tensile test, the DBTT ranged from 40 to 90 0 C and the DBTT increased with an increase of the Cr concentration. A Cr/Ti concentration ratio of 0-0.5 in these alloys was found to cause the alloys to be less susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. (orig.)

  10. Strength, ductility, and ductile-brittle transition temperature for MFR [magnetic fusion reactor] candidate vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Lee, R.H.; Smith, D.L.; Peterson, J.R.


    The dependence of the yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction in area on temperature for the V-15Ti-7.5Cr, V-20Ti, V-15Cr-5Ti, V-12Cr-5Ti, V-10Cr-5Ti, and V-3Ti-1Si alloys was determined from tensile tests at temperatures ranging from 25 to 700 0 C. The strength of the alloys increased with an increase of the combined Cr and Ti concentration. The total elongation for the alloys ranged between 20% and 38%. The reduction in area ranged from 30% to 90%. The DBTT, which was determined from the temperature dependence of the reduction in area, was less than 25 0 C for the V-15Ti-7.5Cr, V-20Ti, and V-3Ti-1Si alloys. The DBTT for the V-10Cr-5Ti, V-12Cr-5Ti, and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys was also less than 25 0 C if these alloys were annealed to reduce the hydrogen concentration prior to the tensile test. If these latter alloys were not annealed prior to the tensile test, the DBTT ranged from 40 0 C to 90 0 C and the DBTT increased with an increase of the Cr concentration. A Cr/Ti concentration ratio of 0 to 0.5 in these alloys was found to cause the alloys to be less susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Line strengths of rovibrational and rotational transitions within the X^3Σ {^-} ground state of NH (United States)

    Brooke, James S. A.; Bernath, Peter F.; Western, Colin M.; van Hemert, Marc C.; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.


    A new line list for rovibrational and rotational transitions, including fine structure, within the NH X^3Σ {^-} ground state has been created. It contains line intensities in the form of Einstein A and f-values, for all possible bands up to v' = 6, and for J up to between 25 and 44. The intensities are based on a new dipole moment function (DMF), which has been calculated using the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction method with an aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The programs RKR1, LEVEL, and PGOPHER were used to calculate line positions and intensities using the most recent spectroscopic line position observations and the new DMF, including the rotational dependence on the matrix elements. The Hund's case (b) matrix elements from the LEVEL output (available as Supplement 1 of the supplementary material) have been transformed to the case (a) form required by PGOPHER. New relative intensities for the (1,0) band have been measured, and the calculated and observed Herman-Wallis effects are compared, showing good agreement. The line list (see Supplement 5 of the supplementary material) will be useful for the study of NH in astronomy, cold and ultracold molecular systems, and in the nitrogen chemistry of combustion.

  12. The Strengths and Weaknesses of Communicating Climate Change through Mass Transit Advertising Spaces (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Wilson, R.; Rabkin, D.; Thompson, S. R.


    Engaging urban populations with climate change science is a difficult challenge since cities can seem so removed from the `natural environment.' However, mass transit provides an inherent means of communicating environmental messages with a cross section of the urban population. The Out of Home Media (OHM) spaces found on platforms and inside train cars provide a potentially effective means of bringing informal science learning opportunities directly to an underserved STEM audience. Our team felt that any messaging curriculum for a coastal urban subway system must complement the scary reality of the impacts of a changing climate (i.e. rising sea levels) with current examples of how the city is preparing for a more sustainable future. Urban areas such as Boston must develop adaptation and mitigation strategies that will help them not only survive, but thrive in a changing environment. In 2013-14, ran a series of 12 engaging posters and placards staring `Ozzie the Ostrich' on the Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority's Red and Orange subway lines targeting an audience of more than 400,000 riders per day. The 12 month curriculum was divided into three phases: reality, relevance, and hope. During the presentation, we will present the results of our quasi-experimental research which identifies, quantifies, and explains the observed impacts of the campaign on adult riders. The strengths and weaknesses of the communication strategy will be discussed. Finally, we will conclude with some recommendations for how this work could improve and inform other urban informal science learning initiatives.

  13. Time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy of Ag in the (1300-3600)-cm(-1) region: Transitions involving f and g states and oscillator strengths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Matulková, Irena; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Kubelík, Petr


    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), 022502 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705; GA AV ČR KAN100500652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : spectroscopy * transitions * oscillator strengths Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2010

  14. MgH Rydberg series: Transition energies from electron propagator theory and oscillator strengths from the molecular quantum defect orbital method (United States)

    Corzo, H. H.; Velasco, A. M.; Lavín, C.; Ortiz, J. V.


    Vertical excitation energies belonging to several Rydberg series of MgH have been inferred from 3+ electron-propagator calculations of the electron affinities of MgH+ and are in close agreement with experiment. Many electronically excited states with n > 3 are reported for the first time and new insight is given on the assignment of several Rydberg series. Valence and Rydberg excited states of MgH are distinguished respectively by high and low pole strengths corresponding to Dyson orbitals of electron attachment to the cation. By applying the Molecular Quantum Defect Orbital method, oscillator strengths for electronic transitions involving Rydberg states also have been determined.

  15. Method to increase the transition temperature and for the critical magnetic field strength of the known intermetallic compounds of vanadium or niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, H.


    The invention deals with a method to raise the transition temperature and critical magnetic field strength of superconducting, intermetallic compounds of vanadium and niobium. For example, a niobium alloy with 4 wt.% Al in melted in vacuum electric arc and formed into a sheet of about 1 mm thick. Strips of this sheet are electrically heated up to 1,900 0 C for one hour in a high-vacuum oven. The strips are then annealed in evacuated quartz ampoules for 120 hours at 800 0 C. These strips have a transition temperature of 24 K and a critical magnetic field strength of 600 kg; the critical current density was 5 x 10 4 A/cm 2 . (HPOE) [de

  16. Strength and rupture-life transitions caused by secondary carbide precipitation in HT-9 during high-temperature low-rate mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMelfi, R.J.; Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Hughes, T.H.


    The martensitic-ferritic alloy HT-9 is slated for long-term use as a fuel-cladding material in the Integral Fast Reactor. Analysis of published high-temperature mechanical property data suggests that secondary carbide precipitation would occur during service life causing substantial strengthening of the as-heat-treated material. Aspects of the kinetics of this precipitation process are extracted from calculations of the back stress necessary to produce the observed strengthening effect under various creep loading conditions. The resulting Arrhenius factor is shown to agree quantitatively with shifts to higher strength of crept material in reference to the intrinsic strength of HT-9. The results of very low constant strain-rate high-temperature tensile tests on as-heat-treated HT-9 that focus on the transition in strength with precipitation will be presented and related to rupture-life


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


  18. Main: 1BE2 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me=Ltp1; Synonyms=Papi; Hordeum Vulgare Molecule: Lipid Transfer Protein; Chain: Null; Synonym: Ltp Lipid Tr...ansport M.H.Lerche, F.M.Poulsen M.H.Lerche, F.M.Poulsen Two Different Binding Modes Of Palmitate In The Homologous Mai...R; T05947; T05947.|PDB; 1BE2; NMR; @=27-117.|PDB; 1JTB; NMR; @=27-117.|PDB; 1LIP; NMR; @=27-117.|InterPro; IPR003612; AAI....|InterPro; IPR000528; Plant_LTP.|Pfam; PF00234; Tryp_alpha_amyl; 1.|PRINTS; PR00382; LIPIDTRNSFER.|SMART; SM00499; AAI

  19. Synchronization transitions induced by the fluctuation of adaptive coupling strength in delayed Newman-Watts neuronal networks. (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Gong, Yubing; Wu, Yanan


    Introducing adaptive coupling in delayed neuronal networks and regulating the dissipative parameter (DP) of adaptive coupling by noise, we study the effect of fluctuations of the changing rate of adaptive coupling on the synchronization of the neuronal networks. It is found that time delay can induce synchronization transitions for intermediate DP values, and the synchronization transitions become strongest when DP is optimal. As the intensity of DP noise is varied, the neurons can also exhibit synchronization transitions, and the phenomenon is delay-dependent and is enhanced for certain time delays. Moreover, the synchronization transitions change with the change of DP and become strongest when DP is optimal. These results show that randomly changing adaptive coupling can considerably change the synchronization of the neuronal networks, and hence could play a crucial role in the information processing and transmission in neural systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying the binding strength of salicylaldoxime-uranyl complexes relative to competing salicylaldoxime-transition metal ion complexes in aqueous solution: a combined experimental and computational study. (United States)

    Mehio, Nada; Ivanov, Alexander S; Williams, Neil J; Mayes, Richard T; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S; Hancock, Robert D; Dai, Sheng


    The design of new ligands and investigation of UO2(2+) complexations are an essential aspect of reducing the cost of extracting uranium from seawater, improving the sorption efficiency for uranium and the selectivity for uranium over competing ions (such as the transition metal cations). The binding strengths of salicylaldoxime-UO2(2+) complexes were quantified for the first time and compared with the binding strengths of salicylic acid-UO2(2+) and representative amidoxime-UO2(2+) complexes. We found that the binding strengths of salicylaldoxime-UO2(2+) complexes are ∼2-4 log β2 units greater in magnitude than their corresponding salicylic acid-UO2(2+) and representative amidoxime-UO2(2+) complexes; moreover, the selectivity of salicylaldoxime towards the UO2(2+) cation over competing Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) cations is far greater than those reported for salicylic acid and glutarimidedioxime in the literature. The higher UO2(2+) selectivity can likely be attributed to the different coordination modes observed for salicylaldoxime-UO2(2+) and salicylaldoxime-transition metal complexes. Density functional theory calculations indicate that salicylaldoxime can coordinate with UO2(2+) as a dianion species formed by η(2) coordination of the aldoximate and monodentate binding of the phenolate group. In contrast, salicylaldoxime coordinates with transition metal cations as a monoanion species via a chelate formed between phenolate and the oxime N; the complexes are stabilized via hydrogen bonding interactions between the oxime OH group and phenolate. By coupling the experimentally determined thermodynamic constants and the results of theoretical computations, we are able to derive a number of ligand design principles to further improve the UO2(2+) cation affinity, and thus further increase the selectivity of salicylaldoxime derivatives.

  1. Quadrupole and monopole generalized oscillator strength for 2p-3p, 2p-4p transition of neon atomic in the velocity formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, L; Diedhiou, I; Tall, M S; Diallo, S; Diatta, C S; Niassy, B


    The quadrupole and monopole generalized oscillator strengths (GOS) as a function of momentum transfer are calculated for the 2p-3p and 2p-4p transitions of the neon atom using the analytical Hartree-Fock (HF) wavefunctions for the ground-state and the wavefunctions for the excited states which are obtained numerically from the modified HF Slater equation. Calculations are carried out by using the HF method and random phase approximation with exchange in the velocity formulation. The positions and the number of the extrema in the GOS have received particular attention in the evaluation. Our calculated monopole GOS of 2p-3p transition in velocity form reveals one maximum located between the experimental and theoretical results of other authors. The disagreement between our first maximum of the quadrupole GOS 2p-3p transition with the experimental and other theoretical ones is unimportant. The extrema of the monopole and quadrupole GOS of 2p-4p transition are given in this paper. The results of velocity form study also show that the electron correlation effects are important around the maxima and are found to influence the positions of the extrema insignificantly

  2. Strength problems and ordering of nonstoichiometric monocarbides and mononitrides of subgroup 4a i 5a transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukhin, A.V.; Lopatin, P.B.


    Consideration is given to graphical concentration dependences of flexural strength limit of TiC x and VC x monocarbides, ZrN x mononitride and to the relationship between these dependences and phenomena of nonmetallic vacancy ordering in mentioned compounds. The assumption about existence of the second ordered structure in TiC x titanium monocarbide and ordered structure in ZrN x zirconium mononitride (0.78...0.8 < x < 0.9...0.95) was supported. 15 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Benchmarking transition energies and emission strengths for X-ray astrophysics with measurements at the Livermore EBITs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hell, Natalie [Friedrich Alexander Univ., Erlangen (Germany)


    K-shell transitions in astrophysically abundant metals and L-shell transitions in Fe group elements show characteristic signatures in the soft X-ray spectrum in the energy range 0.1–10 keV. These signatures have great diagnostic value for plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, and can thus help understand the physics controlling the energetic processes in astrophysical sources. This diagnostic power increases with advances in spectral resolution and effective area of the employed X-ray observatories. However, to make optimal use of the diagnostic potential – whether through global spectral modeling or through diagnostics from local modeling of individual lines – the underlying atomic physics has to be complete and well known. With the next generation of soft X-ray observatories featuring micro-calorimeters such as the SXS on Astro- H/Hitomi and the X-IFU on Athena, broadband high-resolution spectroscopy with large effective area will become more commonly available in the next decade. With these spectrometers, the accuracy of the plasma parameters derived from spectral modeling will be limited by the uncertainty of the reference atomic data rather than by instrumental factors, as is sometimes already the case for the high-resolution grating observations with Chandra-HETG and XMM-Newton-RGS. To take full advantage of the measured spectra, assessment of the accuracy of and improvements to the available atomic reference data are therefore important. Dedicated measurements in the laboratory are essential to benchmark the theoretical calculations providing the bulk of the reference data used in astrophysics. Experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion traps (EBIT-I and SuperEBIT) have a long history of providing this service. In this work, I present new measurements of transition energies and absolute electron impact excitation cross sections geared towards currently open atomic physics data needs.

  4. Tuning Thermal Transitions in Dry and Hydrated Polyelectrolyte Layer by Layer Assemblies with Ionic Strength and pH (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Ajay; Lutkenhaus, Jodie


    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies are of significant interest for their potential applications in diverse fields such as energy and drug delivery. However, characterizing their thermal properties has remained a challenge. Here, we present the characterization of dry and of hydrated LbL films containing strong polyelectrolytes poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDAC) and poly(styrene sulfonate) PSS) using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Our results suggest that hydrated exponentially growing (assembled from 0.25-1.25 M NaCl solutions) PDAC/PSS LbL films have glass transition temperatures (Tg's) between 48-51 ^oC, while linearly growing (assembled from 0 M NaCl) films did not. Other systems explored include poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid)(PAH/PAA) LbL assemblies, which demonstrate linear/exponential growth depending on assembly pH conditions. These results support a standing hypothesis in that linear (or exponential) growth is observed for glassy (or rubbery) LbL films. We have also demonstrated for the first time, thermal transitions in thin PDAC/PSS LbL films using QCM-D by monitoring fluctuations in film hydration and viscoelasticity by probing the film's internal structure as a function of film depth.

  5. Optical absorption of carbon nanotube diodes: Strength of the electronic transitions and sensitivity to the electric field polarization (United States)

    Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Rozzi, Tullio


    Aim of this work is to model electrostatically doped carbon nanotubes (CNT), which have recently proved to perform as ideal PN diodes, also showing photovoltaic properties. The new model is able to predict the optical absorption of semiconducting CNT as function of size and chirality. We justify theoretically, for the first time, the experimentally observed capability of CNTs to detect and select not only a well defined set of frequencies, as resulting from their discrete band structure, but also the polarization of the incident radiation. The analysis develops from an approach proposed in a recent contribution. The periodic structure of CNTs is formally modeled as a photonic crystal, that is characterized by means of numerical simulators. Longitudinal and transverse components of the electric field are shown to excite distinct interband transitions between well defined energy levels. Equivalently, for a given energy of the incident radiation, absorption may show polarization ratios strongly exceeding unity.

  6. Generalized oscillator strength for the argon 3p6-3p5 4s transition: Correlation and exchange effects on the characteristic minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhifan; Msezane, Alfred Z.; Amusia, M. Ya.


    We have investigated the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for a transition of the type np→(n+1)s, where n is the principal quantum number of the outermost filled shell of the atomic ground state, using the random-phase approximation with exchange. We find that the influence of correlation and exchange effects on the position of the characteristic minimum in the GOS of Ar(n=3) is insignificant. Also, our first Born approximation predicts the position of the minimum accurately provided that accurate target wave functions are employed. Our results agree excellently with measurements and are expected to be applicable equally to the corresponding subshells of Ne(n=2), Kr(n=4), and Xe(n=5). (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  7. Generalized oscillator strength for the argon 3p{sup 6}-3p{sup 5} 4s transition: Correlation and exchange effects on the characteristic minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhifan [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, and Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States); Msezane, Alfred Z. [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, and Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States); Amusia, M. Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, (Israel)


    We have investigated the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for a transition of the type np{yields}(n+1)s, where n is the principal quantum number of the outermost filled shell of the atomic ground state, using the random-phase approximation with exchange. We find that the influence of correlation and exchange effects on the position of the characteristic minimum in the GOS of Ar(n=3) is insignificant. Also, our first Born approximation predicts the position of the minimum accurately provided that accurate target wave functions are employed. Our results agree excellently with measurements and are expected to be applicable equally to the corresponding subshells of Ne(n=2), Kr(n=4), and Xe(n=5). (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  8. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans (United States)

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil


    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  9. New technique for a simultaneous estimation of the level density and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions at E sub e sub x<=B sub n -0.5 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khitrov, V A


    The new, model-independent method to estimate simultaneously the level densities excited in the (n,gamma) reaction and the radiative strength functions of dipole transitions is developed. The method can be applied for any nucleus and reaction followed by cascade gamma-emission. It is just necessary to measure the intensities of two-step gamma-cascades depopulating one or several high-excited states and determine the quanta ordering in the main portion of the observed cascades. The method provides a sufficiently narrow interval of most probable densities of levels with given J suppi and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions populating them.

  10. The evolution of B(E2) values around the doubly-magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Thomas


    In this work the evolution of B(E2) values in nuclei around the N=82 shell closure has been studied. The reduced transition strength between ground state and rst excited 2{sup +} state is a good indicator for the collectivity in even-even nuclei. Former experimental and theoretical investigations of the region above N=82 indicated that the B(E2) values might be systematically lower than expected and questioned the current understanding of collective excitations. Since the experimental data concerning the proposed N=82 shell quenching for nuclei below {sup 132}Sn is not yet conclusive, a systematic investigation of neutron-rich nuclei both below and above this shell closure has been performed at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility REX-ISOLDE at CERN. The B(E2) values of {sup 122-126}Cd (N<82) and {sup 138-144}Xe (N>82) have been measured by Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics, applying the MINIBALL {gamma}-detector array. The values of {sup 124,126}Cd and {sup 138,142,144}Xe have been determined for the first time, whereas for {sup 140}Xe the ambiguity of the two contradicting published B(E2) values has been solved. The relative uncertainty of the B(E2) value of {sup 122}Cd could be reduced significantly. For {sup 140,142}Xe the Coulomb excitation cross section for the 2{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}4{sub 1}{sup +} transition has also been determined. Further, the deorientation e ect and the influence of the quadrupole deformation on the Coulomb excitation cross section have been taken into account for {sup 138-142}Xe. It could be shown that the latter plays an important role for the determination of the B(E2) values. Assuming only a small or even vanishing quadrupole moment, all measured B(E2) values agree with the expectations and no sign for a quenching of the N=82 gap could be seen. (orig.)

  11. A Longitudinal Study into Indicators of Mental Health, Strengths and Difficulties Reported by Boarding Students as They Transition from Primary School to Secondary Boarding Schools in Perth, Western Australia (United States)

    Mander, David J.; Lester, Leanne


    This study examined indicators of mental health, as well as strengths and difficulties, as reported by same-age boarding and non-boarding students spanning four time points over a 2-year period as they transitioned from primary to boarding school in Western Australia (i.e., at the end of Grade 7, beginning of Grade 8, end of Grade 8, and end of…

  12. Relativistic distorted-wave collision strengths for the 49 Δn=0 optically allowed transitions with n=2 in the 67 N-like ions with 26≤Z≤92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, Christopher J.; Zhang, Hong Lin


    Relativistic distorted-wave collision strengths have been calculated for the 49 Δn=0 optically allowed transitions with n=2 in the 67 N-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 26≤Z≤92. The calculations were made for the four final, or scattered, electron energies E ′ =0.20, 0.42, 0.80, and 1.40, where E ′ is in units of Z eff 2 Ry with Z eff =Z−5. In the present calculations, an improved “top-up” method, which employs relativistic plane waves, was used to obtain the high partial-wave contribution for each transition, in contrast to the partial-relativistic Coulomb–Bethe approximation used in the previous work by Zhang and Sampson [H.L. Zhang and D.H. Sampson, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 72 (1999) 153]. In that earlier work, collision strengths were also provided for N-like ions, but for a more comprehensive data set consisting of all possible 105 Δn=0 transitions, six scattered energies and the 81 ions with Z in the range 12≤Z≤92. The collision strengths covered in the present work should be more accurate than the corresponding data given by Zhang and Sampson [H.L. Zhang and D.H. Sampson, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 72 (1999) 153] and are presented here to replace those earlier results

  13. Process Evaluation of the Boost-A™ Transition Planning Program for Adolescents on the Autism Spectrum: A Strengths-Based Approach (United States)

    Hatfield, Megan; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Ciccarelli, Marina


    A process evaluation was conducted to determine the effectiveness, usability, and barriers and facilitators related to the Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A™), an online transition planning program. Adolescents on the autism spectrum (n = 33) and their parents (n = 39) provided feedback via an online questionnaire.…

  14. On the strength of the U{sub A}(1) anomaly at the chiral phase transition in N{sub f}=2 QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian B. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität,D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut für theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Francis, Anthony [Department of Physics & Astronomy, York University,4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Meyer, Harvey B. [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institut Mainz,Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Philipsen, Owe [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität,D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Robaina, Daniel; Wittig, Hartmut [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institut Mainz,Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)


    We study the thermal transition of QCD with two degenerate light flavours by lattice simulations using O(a)-improved Wilson quarks. Temperature scans are performed at a fixed value of N{sub t}=(aT){sup −1}=16, where a is the lattice spacing and T the temperature, at three fixed zero-temperature pion masses between 200 MeV and 540 MeV. In this range we find that the transition is consistent with a broad crossover. As a probe of the restoration of chiral symmetry, we study the static screening spectrum. We observe a degeneracy between the transverse isovector vector and axial-vector channels starting from the transition temperature. Particularly striking is the strong reduction of the splitting between isovector scalar and pseudoscalar screening masses around the chiral phase transition by at least a factor of three compared to its value at zero temperature. In fact, the splitting is consistent with zero within our uncertainties. This disfavours a chiral phase transition in the O(4) universality class.

  15. A demographic transition altered the strength of selection for fitness and age-specific survival and fertility in a 19th century American population. (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A


    Modernization has increased longevity and decreased fertility in many human populations, but it is not well understood how or to what extent these demographic transitions have altered patterns of natural selection. I integrate individual-based multivariate phenotypic selection approaches with evolutionary demographic methods to demonstrate how a demographic transition in 19th century female populations of Utah altered relationships between fitness and age-specific survival and fertility. Coincident with this demographic transition, natural selection for fitness, as measured by the opportunity for selection, increased by 13% to 20% over 65 years. Proportional contributions of age-specific survival to total selection (the complement to age-specific fertility) diminished from approximately one third to one seventh following a marked increase in infant survival. Despite dramatic reductions in age-specific fertility variance at all ages, the absolute magnitude of selection for fitness explained by age-specific fertility increased by approximately 45%. I show that increases in the adaptive potential of fertility traits followed directly from decreased population growth rates. These results suggest that this demographic transition has increased the adaptive potential of the Utah population, intensified selection for reproductive traits, and de-emphasized selection for survival-related traits. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.


    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  17. Na I spectra in the 1.4-14 micron range: transitions and oscillator strengths involving f-, g-, and h-states (United States)

    Civiš, S.; Ferus, M.; Kubelík, P.; Jelinek, P.; Chernov, V. E.; Zanozina, E. M.


    Context. Compared with the visible and ultraviolet ranges, fewer atomic and ionic lines are available in the infrared spectral region. Atlases of stellar spectra often provide only a short list of identified lines, and modern laboratory-based spectral features for wavelengths longer than 1 micron are not available for most elements. For the efficient use of the growing capabilities of infrared (IR) astronomy, detailed spectroscopical information on atomic line features in the IR region is needed. Aims: Parts of the infrared stellar (e.g., solar) spectra in the 1200-1800 cm-1 (5.6-8 μm) range have never been observed from the ground because of heavy contamination of the spectrum by telluric absorption lines. Such an infrared spectrum represents a great challenge for laboratory observations of new, unknown infrared atomic transitions involving the atomic levels with high orbital momentum and their comparison with the available spectra. Methods: The vapors of excited Na i atoms are produced during the ablation of the salt (sodium iodide, Na i) targets by a high-repetition rate (1.0 kHz) pulsed nanosecond ArF laser ExciStar S-Industrial V2.0 1000, pulse length 12 ns, λ = 193 nm, output energy of 15 mJ, fluence about 2-20 J/cm2 inside a vacuum chamber (average pressure 10-2 Torr). The time-resolved emission spectrum of the neutral atomic potassium (Na i) was recorded in the 700-7000 cm-1 region using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique with a resolution of 0.02 cm-1. The f-values calculated in the quantum-defect theory approximation are presented for the transitions involving the reported Na i levels. Results: This study reports precision laboratory measurements for 26 Na i lines in the range of 700-7000 cm-1 (14-1.4 μm), including 20 lines not measured previously in the laboratory. This results in newly observed 7h, 6h, and 6g levels, and improved energy determination for ten previously known levels. The doublet structure of the 4f level has been

  18. Analysis of thermo-mechanical pipe-strength for the LHC helium relief system and corresponding helium flows following a resistive transition of the magnets.

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M; Riddone, G


    The LHC cryogenic system will contain of about 100 tons of helium mostly located in underground elements of the machine. The amount of helium stored in the magnet cold masses located in one sector of the LHC machine will be of about 6400 kg. In case of a simultaneous resistive transition (quench) of the magnets of a full sector of the accelerator, the helium will be relieved to a dedicated relief system. The system will comprise header D, quench lines connected to medium pressure tanks, vent line open to environment and accessories. We analyse a dynamic behaviour of the system with respect to its thermo-mechanical properties and overall capacity. Spatial and time distribution of pressure, temperature, velocity, density and flow rates in the system elements are presented. Thermo-mechanical stresses in the critical pipe sections have been calculated.

  19. Collision strengths for transitions in Ni XIX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . 254, 436 (1992). [25] V M Burke, P G Burke and N S Scott, Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 76 (1992). [26] S S Tayal, P G Burke and A E Kingston, J. Phys. B17, 3847 (1984). [27] S S Tayal, P G Burke and A E Kingston, J. Phys. B18, 4321 (1985).

  20. Quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, S.


    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)

  1. Soft radiative strength in warm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Nelson, R O; Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Siem, S


    Unresolved transitions in the nuclear γ-ray cascade produced in the decay of excited nuclei are best described by statistical concepts: a continuous radiative strength function (RSF) and level density yield mean values of transition matrix elements. Data on the soft (E γ < 3-4 MeV) RSF for transitions between warm states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) have, however, remained elusive

  2. Families in Transition . (United States)

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.


    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  3. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths-based interve......In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths...

  4. High-precision B(E2) measurements of semi-magic 58,60,62,64Ni by Coulomb excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmond, James M [ORNL; Brown, Alex [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University; Stuchbery, Andrew E [ORNL; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Radford, David C [ORNL; Batchelder, J. C. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL


    High-precision reduced electric-quadrupole transition probabilities B(E2) have been measured from single-step Coulomb excitation of semi-magic 58,60,62,64 Ni (Z = 28) beams at 1.8 MeV per nucleon on a natural carbon target. The energy loss of the nickel beams through the carbon target were directly measured with a zero-degree Bragg detector and the absolute B(E2) values were normalized by Rutherford scattering. The B(E2) values disagree with recent lifetime studies that employed the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The present high-precision B(E2) values reveal an asymmetry about 62 Ni, midshell between N = 28 and 40, with larger values towards 56 Ni (Z = N = 28). The experimental B(E2) values are compared with shell-model calculations in the full pf model space and the results indicate a soft 56 Ni core.

  5. Charge and transition densities of samarium isotopes in the interacting Boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinester, M.A.; Alster, J.; Dieperink, A.E.L.


    The interacting boson approximation (IBA) model has been used to interpret the ground-state charge distributions and lowest 2 + transition charge densities of the even samarium isotopes for A = 144-154. Phenomenological boson transition densities associated with the nucleons comprising the s-and d-bosons of the IBA were determined via a least squares fit analysis of charge and transition densities in the Sm isotopes. The application of these boson trasition densities to higher excited 0 + and 2 + states of Sm, and to 0 + and 2 + transitions in neighboring nuclei, such as Nd and Gd, is described. IBA predictions for the transition densities of the three lowest 2 + levels of 154 Gd are given and compared to theoretical transition densities based on Hartree-Fock calculations. The deduced quadrupole boson transition densities are in fair agreement with densities derived previously from 150 Nd data. It is also shown how certain moments of the best fit boson transition densities can simply and sucessfully describe rms radii, isomer shifts, B(E2) strengths, and transition radii for the Sm isotopes. (orig.)

  6. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition....

  7. Strength Training for Girls. (United States)

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda


    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  8. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    interviews with the parents. For younger children there has been no possibility to test for strengths. In a Danish PhD project a tool to map children’s strengths was needed for children aged 6-16 and with permission from the VIA-institute ‘The Strength Compass’ was made in cooperation with The Danish...

  9. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cillator strengths, transition probabilities and lifetimes for Cr VIII ion. Use has been made of configuration interaction ... level energies and oscillator strengths for some of the transitions from 3s23p5 to. 3s3p6, 3s23p43d and 3s23p44s using MCDF ... Pnl(r)Pn'l(r)dr = δnn' , l

  10. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well......-being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable...

  11. Supporting Transition (United States)

    Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James


    Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…

  12. Potential energy curve of Be2 in its ground electronic state

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špirko, Vladimír


    Roč. 235, č. 2 (2006), s. 268-270 ISSN 0022-2852 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400550511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ground electronic state of Be2 * MR-CI ab initio potentials * reduced potential curves Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2006

  13. Transition to sarcopenia and determinants of transitions in older adults: a population-based study. (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel A; Ip, Edward H; Zhang, Qiang; Boudreau, Robert M; Cawthon, Peggy M; Newman, Anne B; Tylavsky, Frances A; Visser, Marjolein; Goodpaster, Bret H; Harris, Tamara B


    Diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia from appendicular lean mass (ALM), strength, and performance have been proposed, but little is known regarding the progression of sarcopenia. We examined the time course of sarcopenia and determinants of transitioning toward and away from sarcopenia. ALM, gait speed, and grip strength were assessed seven times over 9 years in 2,928 initially well-functioning adults aged 70-79. Low ALM was defined as less than 7.95 kg/m(2) (men) or less than 6.24 kg/m(2) (women), low performance as gait speed less than 1.0 m/s, low strength as grip strength less than 30 kg (men) or less than 20 kg (women). Presarcopenia was defined as low ALM and sarcopenia as low ALM with low performance or low strength. Hidden Markov modeling was used to characterize states of ALM, strength, and performance and model transitions leading to sarcopenia and death. Determinants of transitioning toward and away from sarcopenia were examined with logistic regression. Initially, 54% of participants had normal ALM, strength, and performance; 21% had presarcopenia; 5% had sarcopenia; and 20% had intermediate characteristics. Of participants with normal ALM, strength, and performance, 1% transitioned to presarcopenia and none transitioned to sarcopenia. The greatest transition to sarcopenia (7%) was in presarcopenic individuals. Low-functioning and sarcopenia states were more likely to lead to death (12% and 13%). Higher body mass index (p < .001) and pain (p = .05) predicted transition toward sarcopenia, whereas moderate activity predicted transition from presarcopenia to more normal states (p = .02). Pain, physical activity, and body mass index, potentially modifiable factors, are determinants of transitions. Promotion of health approaching old age is important as few individuals transition away from their initial state. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2013.

  14. Transition radiation and transition scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.


    Transition radiation is a process of a rather general character. It occurs when some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example, a charge) moves at a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and (or) nonstationary medium or near such a medium. The simplest type of transition radiation takes place when a charge crosses a boundary between two media (the role of one of the media may be played by vacuum). In the case of periodic variation of the medium, transition radiation possesses some specific features (resonance transition radiation or transition scattering). Transition scattering occurs, in particular, when a permittivity wave falls onto an nonmoving (fixed) charge. Transition scattering is closely connected with transition bremsstrahlung radiation. All these transition processes are essential for plasma physics. Transition radiation and transition scattering have analogues outside the framework of electrodynamics (like in the case of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation). In the present report the corresponding range of phenomena is elucidated, as far as possible, in a generally physical aspect. (Auth.)

  15. Be2D: A model to understand the distribution of meteoric 10Be in soilscapes (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Vanacker, Veerle; Vanderborght, Jan; Govers, Gerard


    Cosmogenic nuclides have revolutionised our understanding of earth surface process rates. They have become one of the standard tools to quantify soil production by weathering, soil redistribution and erosion. Especially Beryllium-10 has gained much attention due to its long half-live and propensity to be relatively conservative in the landscape. The latter makes 10Be an excellent tool to assess denudation rates over the last 1000 to 100 × 103 years, bridging the anthropogenic and geological time scale. Nevertheless, the mobility of meteoric 10Be in soil systems makes translation of meteoric 10Be inventories into erosion and deposition rates difficult. Here we present a coupled soil hillslope model, Be2D, that is applied to synthetic and real topography to address the following three research questions. (i) What is the influence of vertical meteoric Be10 mobility, caused by chemical mobility, clay translocation and bioturbation, on its lateral redistribution over the soilscape, (ii) How does vertical mobility influence erosion rates and soil residence times inferred from meteoric 10Be inventories and (iii) To what extent can a tracer with a half-life of 1.36 Myr be used to distinguish between natural and human-disturbed soil redistribution rates? The model architecture of Be2D is designed to answer these research questions. Be2D is a dynamic model including physical processes such as soil formation, physical weathering, clay migration, bioturbation, creep, overland flow and tillage erosion. Pathways of meteoric 10Be mobility are simulated using a two step approach which is updated each timestep. First, advective and diffusive mobility of meteoric 10Be is simulated within the soil profile and second, lateral redistribution because of lateral soil fluxes is calculated. The performance and functionality of the model is demonstrated through a number of synthetic and real model runs using existing datasets of meteoric 10Be from case-studies in southeastern US. Brute

  16. Electronic structure analysis of the ground-state potential energy curve of Be(2). (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael W; Ivanic, Joseph; Ruedenberg, Klaus


    The recently measured ground-state potential energy curve of the diatomic beryllium molecule is reproduced to within an accuracy of 20 cm(-1) by a full valence configuration interaction calculation based on augmented correlation-consistent double-, triple-, and quadruple-zeta basis sets, followed by a two-tier extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and complemented by a configuration interaction estimate of the core and core-valence correlations. The origin of binding in Be(2) as well as the unusual shape of its potential energy curve is elucidated by an in-depth analysis of the contributions of the various components of this wave function to the bonding process. Beyond the bonding region, the 6/8 London dispersion interaction is recovered.

  17. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.


    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  18. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao


    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  19. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  20. Interviewing to Understand Strengths (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.


    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  1. α-Synuclein overexpression increases dopamine toxicity in BE(2-M17 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller David W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD. A plausible source of oxidative stress in nigral dopaminergic neurons is the redox reactions that specifically involve dopamine and produce various toxic molecules, i.e., free radicals and quinone species. α-Synuclein, a protein found in Lewy bodies characteristic of PD, is also thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of PD and point mutations and multiplications in the gene coding for α-synuclein have been found in familial forms of PD. Results We used dopaminergic human neuroblastoma BE(2-M17 cell lines stably transfected with WT or A30P mutant α-synuclein to characterize the effect of α-synuclein on dopamine toxicity. Cellular toxicity was analyzed by lactate dehydrogenase assay and by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Increased expression of either wild-type or mutant α-synuclein enhances the cellular toxicity induced by the accumulation of intracellular dopamine or DOPA. Conclusions Our results suggest that an interplay between dopamine and α-synuclein can cause cell death in a neuron-like background. The data presented here are compatible with several models of cytotoxicity, including the formation of α-synuclein oligomers and impairment of the lysosomal degradation.

  2. Regular-chaos transition of the energy spectrum and electromagnetic transition intensities in 44V nucleus using the framework of the nuclear shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamoudi, A.K.; Abdul Majeed Al-Rahmani, A.


    The spectral fluctuations and the statistics of electromagnetic transition intensities and electromagnetic moments in 44 V nucleus are studied by the framework of the interacting shell model, using the FPD6 as a realistic effective interaction in the isospin formalism for 4 particles move in the fp-model space with a 40 Ca core. To look for a regular-chaos transition in 44 V nucleus, we perform shell model calculations using various interaction strengths β to the off-diagonal matrix elements of the FPD6. The nearest-neighbors level spacing distribution P(s) and the distribution of electromagnetic transition intensities [such as, B(M1) and B(E2) transitions] are found to have a regular dynamic at β=0, a chaotic dynamic at β⩾0.3 and an intermediate situation at 0 3 statistic we have found a regular dynamic at β=0, a chaotic dynamic at β⩾0.4 and an intermediate situation at 0<β<0.4. It is also found that the statistics of the squares of M1 and E2 moments, which are consistent with a Porter-Thomas distribution, have no dependence on the interaction strength β.

  3. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V


    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  4. Redetermination of clinobarylite, BaBe2Si2O7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien J. Di Domizio


    Full Text Available Clinobarylite, ideally BaBe2Si2O7 (chemical name barium diberyllium disilicate, is a sorosilicate mineral and dimorphic with barylite. It belongs to a group of compounds characterized by the general formula BaM2+2Si2O7, with M2+ = Be, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, or Cu, among which the Be-, Fe-, and Cu-members have been found in nature. The crystal structure of clinobarylite has been re-examined in this study based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected from a natural sample from the type locality (Khibiny Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The structure of clinobarylite can be considered as a framework of BeO4 and SiO4 tetrahedra, with one of the O atoms coordinated to two Be and one Si, one coordinated to two Si, and two O atoms coordinated to one Si and one Be atom. The BeO4 tetrahedra share corners, forming chains parallel to the c axis, which are interlinked by the Si2O7 units oriented parallel to the a axis. The Ba2+ cations (site symmetry m.. are in the framework channels and are coordinated by eleven O atoms in form of an irregular polyhedron. The Si—Obr (bridging O atom, at site symmetry m.. bond length, the Si—Onbr (non-bridging O atoms bond lengths, and the Si—O—Si angle within the Si2O7 unit are in marked contrast to the corresponding values determined in the previous study [Krivovichev et al. (2004. N. Jb. Miner. Mh. pp. 373–384].

  5. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao


    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...... correlation to the curing time. The experiments show no correlation between the anisotropy and the curing time and a small strength difference between the two drilling directions. The literature shows variations on which drilling direction that is strongest. Based on a Monto Carlo simulation of the expected...

  6. Transit transparency. (United States)


    Public transit agencies have employed intelligent systems for determining : schedules and routes and for monitoring the real-time location and status of their : vehicle fleets for nearly two decades. But until recently, the data generated by : daily ...

  7. What Are Strength Training Activities? (United States)

    Strength training is any practice or exercise specifically designed to increase muscle tone, strength, and fitness. Concerned that strength training will make you bulky and too muscle-y? You are not alone.

  8. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujkowski, Z. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)


    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs.

  9. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zheng-Ming


    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  10. Material Strength in Vanadium (United States)

    Pollaine, Stephen


    Preliminary results of measurements of vanadium strength at 600 kb and 1 Mb, at strain rates between 10^7/s and 10^8/s, are inconsistent with the Steinberg-Guinan [1] model, which is independent of strain rate, but can be made consistent with other models, such as PTW [2]. We compare several different strength models to the data. [1] DJ.Steinberg, S.G.Cochran, and M.W.Guinan, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1498 (1980). [2] D.L. Preston, D.L.Tonks, and D.C. Wallace, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 211 (2003).

  11. Strengths perspective among the homeless adolescents: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmejaya Samal


    Full Text Available Background: Earlier, the scholars of family studies have primarily focused on the problems and weaknesses of the families. However, during these days, there is a shift from problems to strength-based perspective. Methodology: Search of literature was carried out through internet-based Google Scholar search engine. Of the 112 titles obtained 21 titles fit the criteria of the study objectives, of which 9 full-text articles were finally selected for the purpose of this review. Results: In this review, nine full-text articles were reviewed. Nine of these researches investigated different facets of strengths perspective among the homeless adolescents. Chronologically, nine of these reviewed studies delineated the following thematic facets of strengths perspective among the homeless adolescents. These include personal strength and informal resources, personal strength in high-risk environment, strengths perspective during the transition of adolescence to adulthood, personal and social strengths that refrained the homeless adolescents form intravenous drug use, resilience and self-esteem, religion as an important strength, “hope” as a way of living among the homeless adolescents, coping strategies of street-involved youth, and usage of internet and social media as an important strength among homeless adolescents. Conclusion: Strengths perspective helps the youth to become a master of their own lives and helps to deal with all the adversities in life.

  12. Infrared transitions and oscillator strengths of Ca and Mg*

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Ferus, Martin; Chernov, Vladislav E.; Zanozina, Ekaterina M.


    Roč. 554, JUN 2013 (2013), A24 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/2302 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : atomic data - methods * laboratory - techniques * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  13. Electric and nuclear transition strength in 30,32-Mg

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chisté, V.; Gillibert, A.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Barrette, J.; Braga, F.; Cortina-Gil, M. D.; Dlouhý, Zdeněk; Lapoux, V.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Liguori Neto, R.; Lukyanov, S. M.; MacCormick, M.; Marie, F.; Mittig, W.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Orr, N. A.; Ostrowski, A. N.; Ottini, S.; Pakou, A.; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Sida, J. L.


    Roč. 514, - (2001), s. 233-239 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.377, year: 2001

  14. Gender Differences in Strength. (United States)

    Heyward, Vivian H.; And Others


    This investigation examined gender differences of 103 physically active men and women in upper and lower body strength as a function of lean body weight and the distribution of muscle and subcutaneous fat in the upper and lower limbs. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  15. Probe tests microweld strength (United States)


    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  16. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie


    and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  17. Redox Buffer Strength (United States)

    de Levie, Robert


    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  18. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent


    What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration...... of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...... transition processes. Where. Addresses design processes aimed at sustainable transition enacted in complex social settings, socio-technical systems involving many different actors and agendas. How. The chapter outlines a conceptual and analytic framework for a reflexive design practice for sustainability...

  19. Presidential Transitions (United States)


    done to facilitate the transition.52 CRS-12 53 David T. Stanley, Changing Administrations (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1965), p. 6. 54 “Pre...Conference of Mayors; Sharleen Hirsch, an educational administrator; and Jule Sugarman , a public administrator. Staff members were assigned to task forces...Issues,” Washington Post, Nov. 13, 1980, p. Al. 77 David Hoffman, “Bush Names Baker Secretary of State,” Washington Post, Nov. 10, 1988, pp. Al and

  20. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study. (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay


    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  1. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have done relativistic calculations for the evaluation of energy levels, oscillator strengths, transition probabilities and lifetimes for Cr VIII ion. Use has been made of configuration interaction technique by including Briet–Pauli approximation. The energies of various levels from the ground state to excited levels of 3s3p6, ...

  2. Rock mass classification system : transition from RMR to GSI. (United States)


    The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is expected to replace the rock mass rating : (RMR) system with the Geological Strength Index (GSI) system for classifying and estimating : engineering properties of rock masses. This transition is motivat...

  3. Study of 148-152Sm nuclei employing γ - derived from B(E2) values and level energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Aparna; Varshney, A.K.; Singh, M.; Gupta, D.K.; Singh, Yuvraj; Gupta, K.K.; Bihari, Chhail; Varshney, Mani


    The study of samarium nuclei has been a challenging theoretical problem, since they lie in the range from near spherical to well deformed shapes. 148 Sm was believed to be basically spherical while 154 Sm is thought to be well deformed nucleus and 150-15 '2Sm are transitional nuclei

  4. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.


    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  5. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie


    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  6. Electron-impact collision strengths for neutral fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliyan, K.S.; Bhatia, A.K.


    Configuration-interaction wave functions are constructed for the lowest 11 atomic target states of neutral fluorine. These wave functions are used to calculate target-state energies and absorption oscillator strengths for the dipole-allowed transitions. In general, a good agreement is found between the length and velocity forms of f values. However, f values for some transitions show significant discrepancies between these two forms. All these target states are retained in the R-matrix basis function and the (N+1)-electron collision wave functions are expanded in terms of these basis functions. The calculations are performed for the electron-impact excitation collision strengths for all transitions between these states using the R-matrix method. In the low-partial-wave region (total angular momentum L≤12) the full exchange R-matrix method is employed while a no-exchange R-matrix method is used for the calculations in the partial-wave region with 13≤L≤40. The effect of this procedure is most evident in the case of dipole-forbidden transitions for which collision strengths increase by about 10--60 % due to the contribution from higher partial waves. Beyond this value of the total angular momentum, the Burgess sum rule is applied to determine the higher partial-wave contribution to the total collision strengths for dipole-allowed transitions. The collision strengths are obtained for a wide range of incident electron energy from the first excitation threshold to 3.0 Ry. The calculations are performed in the LS-coupling scheme

  7. Strength Training and Children's Health. (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.


    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  8. Strength Development for Young Adolescents (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura


    Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…

  9. Roles of pinning strength and density in vortex melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidat, I M; Khawaja, U Al; Benkraouda, M


    We have investigated the role of pinning strength and density on the equilibrium vortex-lattice to vortex-liquid phase transition under several applied magnetic fields. This study was conducted using a series of molecular dynamic simulations on several samples with different strengths and densities of pinning sites which are arranged in periodic square arrays. We have found a single solid-liquid vortex transition when the vortex filling factor n>1. We have found that, for fixed pinning densities and strengths, the melting temperature, T m , decreases almost linearly with increasing magnetic field. Our results provide direct numerical evidence for the significant role of both the strength and density of pinning centers on the position of the melting line. We have found that the vortex-lattice to vortex-liquid melting line shifts up as the pinning strength or the pinning density was increased. The effect on the melting line was found to be more pronounced at small values of strength and density of pinning sites

  10. The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone (United States)

    Byerlee, J.D.


    The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone have been measured as a function of confining pressure and pore pressure. Both the fracture strength and the frictional strength obey the law of effective stress, that is, the strength is determined not by the confining pressure alone but by the difference between the confining pressure and the pore pressure. The fracture strength of the rock varies by as much as 20 per cent depending on the cement between the grains, but the frictional strength is independent of lithology. Over the range 0 2 kb, ??=0??5 + 0??6??n. This relationship also holds for other rocks such as gabbro, dunite, serpentinite, granite and limestone. ?? 1975.

  11. Tests of Hadronic Probes of GT Strength

    CERN Multimedia


    There are many important problems where one wishes to know the distribution of Gamow-Teller (GT) strength in circumstances where it cannot be measured directly (for example, because of energy-release limitations). Then one must rely on hadronic probes to infer the GT strength. It is therefore essential to test these probes as extensively as possible. The isospin-analog transitions in $^{37}$Ca $\\beta^{+}$ -decay and $^{37}$Cl$(p, n)$ provide an excellent ground for such a test. Recent $^{37}$Cl$ (p, n) $ studies, while qualitatively in agreement with our previous ISOLDE work on $^{37}$Ca $\\beta^{+} $ -decay, show quantitative discrepancies that appear to grow as the excitation energy in the residual nuclei increases. Because of the bulk of the GT strengh appears at these high excitation energies, it is important to extend the $\\beta$-decay data to even higher excitation energies where, because of rapidly diminishing phase-space, strong GT transitions correspond to very weak $\\beta$ -branches. We propose to do...

  12. Precision test of many-body QED in the Be$^{+} 2p$ fine structure doublet using short-lived isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Krieger, Andreas; Pachucki, Krzysztof; Puchalski, Mariusz; Blaum, Klaus; Bissell, Mark L; Frömmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Krämer, Jörg; Kreim, Kim; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Yordanov, Deyan T


    Absolute transition frequencies of the $2s\\; ^2{\\rm S}_{1/2} \\rightarrow 2p\\;^2\\mathrm{P}_{1/2,3/2}$ transitions in Be$^+$ were measured for the isotopes $^{7,9-12}$Be. The fine structure splitting of the $2p$ state and its isotope dependence are extracted and compared to results of \\textit{ab initio} calculations using explicitly correlated basis functions, including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects at the order of $m \\alpha^6$ and $m \\alpha^7 \\ln \\alpha$. Accuracy has been improved in both the theory and experiment by 2 orders of magnitude, and good agreement is observed. This represents one of the most accurate tests of quantum electrodynamics for many-electron systems, being insensitive to nuclear uncertainties.

  13. Structure of nuclear transition matrix elements for neutrinoless ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bogoliubov model; short-range correlations; .... transition strengths, as well as to reproduce the available measured (β−β−)2ν decay rates. The main objective of the ... The strength of proton–neutron (pn) component of the QQ interaction χpn is varied so ...

  14. Energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The yearly environmental conference will hold on September 2013 to evaluate the negotiations led at the national and local levels for december 2012. The government will have then to decide of an energy programming bill which will be submitted to the Parliament at the beginning of the year 2014. 30 main propositions have emerged of the decentralised debates. One of them is the ecological taxation which raise the question of the gas oil and petrol taxation. The current environmental taxes are for almost three quarters of them taxes on energy consumptions and mainly on fossil energies. The Economic, Social and Environmental Council, gives his opinion on the way to find resources to ensure the ecological and energy transition while reducing the public deficit of the State. (O.M.)

  15. Strength in numbers. (United States)

    Lakkis, S


    A case study showing the attitudes and actions reinforcing discrimination against women's rights in Lebanon is presented. The study illustrates the way in which the public¿s views and the interests of families and local dignitaries can manipulate opinions. Organizations aimed at protecting women's rights have found strength in working together. The Lebanese League, an organization comprised of 17 women's and human rights associations, has established a center and a telephone hotline to encourage abused women to disclose and discuss their situation. The center provides support in the form of legal, psychological and medical assistance. Another organization working with the Lebanese League towards the same vision is the Lebanese Physically Handicapped Union. Efforts to lobby around a Lebanese legislation discriminating against women so far had no success, but all organizations involved are aware of the need to work through a range of interventions, and to take a long-term view, before they can count on any success.

  16. K-forbidden transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.R.; Sletten, G.; Bark, R.A.; Hagemann, G.B.; Herskind, B.; Saitoh-Hashimoto, N.; Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki


    Reduced hindrance factors of K-forbidden transitions are compiled for nuclei with A∝180 where γ-vibrational states are observed. Correlations between these reduced hindrance factors and Coriolis forces, statistical level mixing and γ-softness have been studied. It is demonstrated that the K-forbidden transition probabilities are related to γ-softness. The decay of the high-K bandheads has been studied by means of the two-state mixing, which would be induced by the γ-softness, with the use of a number of K-forbidden transitions compiled in the present work, where high-K bandheads are depopulated by both E2 and ΔI=1 transitions. The validity of the two-state mixing scheme has been examined by using the proposed identity of the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios of transitions depopulating high-K bandheads and levels of low-K bands. A break down of the identity might indicate that other levels would mediate transitions between high- and low-K states. (orig.)

  17. Introduction: Transitions from Violence. Analysing the Effects of Transitional Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Buckley-Zistel


    Full Text Available Transitional justice refers to processes of dealing with the aftermath of violent conflicts and human rights abuses in order to provide for a peaceful future. It makes use of a number of instruments and mechanisms – including tribunals, truth commissions, memory work, and reparations – which aim at uncovering the truth about past crimes, putting past wrongs right, holding perpetrators accountable, vindicating the dignity of victim-survivors, and contributing to reconciliation. The objective of this focus section is to critically assess the potential of transitional justice, its achievements thus far, any conflicting goals, and the inherent or external obstacles that limit its influence and reach. Through empirical case studies from across the globe it paints a multi-faceted picture of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  18. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.


    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  19. Bridging analytical approaches for low-carbon transitions


    Geels, Frank W.; Berkhout, Frans; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.


    Low-carbon transitions are long-term multi-faceted processes. Although integrated assessment models have many strengths for analysing such transitions, their mathematical representation requires a simplification of the causes, dynamics and scope of such societal transformations. We suggest that integrated assessment model-based analysis should be complemented with insights from socio-technical transition analysis and practice-based action research. We discuss the underlying assumptions, stren...

  20. Scaling behavior in first-order quark-hadron phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.


    It is shown that in the Ginzburg-Landau description of first-order quark-hadron phase transition the normalized factorial moments exhibit scaling behavior. The scaling exponent ν depends on only one effective parameter g, which characterizes the strength of the transition. For a strong first-order transition, we find ν=1.45. For weak transition it is 1.30 in agreement with the earlier result on second-order transition

  1. Search for low lying dipole strength in the neutron rich nucleus Ne{sup 26}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibelin, J


    We carried out the Coulomb excitation, on a lead target, of an exotic beam of neutron-rich nucleus Ne{sup 26} at 58 MeV/n, in order to study the possible existence of a pygmy dipole resonance above the neutron emission threshold. The experiment was performed at the Riken Research Facility, in Tokyo (Japan) and included a gamma-ray detector, a charged fragment hodoscope and a neutron detector. Using the invariant mass method in the Ne{sup 25} + n decay channel, and by comparing the reaction cross section on the lead target and a light target of aluminum, we observe a sizable amount of E1 strength between the one neutron and the two neutron emission thresholds. The corresponding Ne{sup 26} angular distribution confirms its nature and we deduce its reduced dipole transition probability value of B(E1) = 0.54 {+-} 0.18 e{sup 2}fm{sup 2}. Our method also enables us to extract for the first time the decay pattern of a pygmy resonance. By detecting the decay photons from the excited states below the neutron emission threshold and by analyzing the angular distribution of the inelastically scattered Ne{sup 26} we deduce the reduced transition probability of the first 2{sup +} state, from the ground state. The value obtained of B(E2) = 87 {+-} 13 e{sup 2}fm{sup 4} being in disagreement with a previous result. (author)

  2. Commitee III.1 Ultimate Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher


    This report addresses the subject of ductile collapse of ships and offshore structures and their components due to buckling and excessive yielding under overload conditions. Consideration is given to load-deflection predictions for components with fabrication imperfections and in-service damage a...... and to the ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of structural systems in order to identify the reserve strength. The effect of uncertainties in the modelling on the strength predictions is highlighted in two design examples....

  3. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik


    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion...... test in persons with stroke, generally showing marked reductions in muscle strength of paretic and, to a lesser degree, nonparetic muscles when compared with healthy controls, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity....

  4. Hormonal changes in strength training


    Rafael, Gáll


    Title: Hormonal changes in strength training Objectives: Perform a systematic review of literature dealing with hormonal changes in strength training. Based on the informations from aforementioned literature, describe wheather acute hormonal response after a bout of strength training significantly influence the proces of hypertrophy or not. Hormone testosterone and changes of its concentrations is for this thesis the most important. Methods: Method of traditional review was used in this thesi...

  5. A Canonical Password Strength Measure


    Panferov, Eugene


    We notice that the "password security" discourse is missing the most fundamental notion of the "password strength" -- it was never properly defined. We propose a canonical definition of the "password strength", based on the assessment of the efficiency of a set of possible guessing attack. Unlike naive password strength assessments our metric takes into account the attacker's strategy, and we demonstrate the necessity of that feature. This paper does NOT advise you to include "at least three ...

  6. Strength layout of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moczall, K.; Schmid, H.J.


    Different properties are required from pipes of nuclear power plants according to their respective importance for the safety as well as the availability of a plant. For reasons of expediency and profitability, it has therefore been necessary to attach 5 requiremental stages to the above-mentioned as well as to all other components. Of the five stages, the first three represent those which are of major, medium or minor importance for safety of nuclear plants. The 4th stage gives in general the importance of the availability of a plant, whereas the 5th stage is provided for the rest of the pipes. The requirements of conventional, technical regulations are generally fulfilled in the 4th stage, whereas, phased accordingly, exceeding requirements are set up and specified in the first three stages. These requirements refer to the securing of the workability of plant components, to (redundant, resp. diverse) layout, and to the quality of components (qualifying of producers and production processes, preliminary checking of production papers, supervision of production, material and construction testing, documentation) as well as to strength verification (pressure test, stress-strain measurements, stress and fatigue analysis). (orig.) [de

  7. Signalling control strength. (United States)

    Westerhoff, Hans V


    Metabolic control analysis (MCA) has become what it is, largely because the special organization of living cells led to rather specific questions. These questions focused on the role of enzymes, genes, and, in subsequent generalizations, on well-defined process activities. With an emphasis on the work by Heinrich and co-workers, the theory behind MCA is summarized in a way that leads naturally to its extensions to hierarchical systems, such as gene expression and signal transduction, and to control beyond the steady state. The analysis of the control properties of signal transduction cascades is reviewed with an emphasis on the relative importance of the protein kinases and the protein phosphatases. The two types of enzyme are both important for the amplitude of signal transduction, whereas phosphatases may be more important for the later phases of signal transduction and for its duration. Novel MCA of concentrations and fluxes that vary with time is explicated. It is concluded that the clarity and operationality of concepts such as control strength (now control coefficient) plus the clear theoretical frameworks provided by Heinrich and colleagues, should enable us greatly to reduce the Babylonian confusion that could otherwise occur in the data deluges of Systems Biology.

  8. Improving Interlaminar Shear Strength (United States)

    Jackson, Justin


    To achieve NASA's mission of space exploration, innovative manufacturing processes are being applied to the fabrication of complex propulsion elements.1 Use of fiber-reinforced, polymeric composite tanks are known to reduce weight while increasing performance of propulsion vehicles. Maximizing the performance of these materials is needed to reduce the hardware weight to result in increased performance in support of NASA's missions. NASA has partnered with the Mississippi State University (MSU) to utilize a unique scalable approach of locally improving the critical properties needed for composite structures. MSU is responsible for the primary development of the concept with material and engineering support provided by NASA. The all-composite tank shown in figure 1 is fabricated using a prepreg system of IM7 carbon fiber/CYCOM 5320-1 epoxy resin. This is a resin system developed for out-of-autoclave applications. This new technology is needed to support the fabrication of large, all composite structures and is currently being evaluated on a joint project with Boeing for the Space Launch System (SLS) program. In initial efforts to form an all composite pressure vessel using this prepreg system, a 60% decrease in properties was observed in scarf joint regions. Inspection of these areas identified interlaminar failure in the adjacent laminated structure as the main failure mechanism. This project seeks to improve the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) within the prepreg layup by locally modifying the interply region shown in figure 2.2

  9. High Strength Steel Welding Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Glen


    .... These electrodes were insensitive to moderate variations in chemical composition or cooling rate, had acceptable strength and impact toughness, and exhibited more uniform mechanical properties...

  10. Grain boundary strength as point defect sink strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volobuev, A.V.; Gann, V.V.


    Sink strength of spherical grain boundary as an absolutely absorbing surface and as finite thickness wall consisting of the edge dislocations are considered. The values of the grain boundary sink strength are shown to be critically dependent on the point defect recombination degree

  11. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices. (United States)

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  12. Cancer Prevention: Distinguishing Strength of Evidence from Strength of Opinion (United States)

    Barnett S. Kramer, MD, MPH, Associate Director for Disease Prevention and Director of the Office of Medical Applications of Research in the Office of Disease Prevention, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, presented "Cancer Prevention: Distinguishing Strength of Evidence from Strength of Opinion".

  13. Atomic Transition Probabilities Scandium through Manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.A.; Fuhr, J.R.; Wiese, W.L.


    Atomic transition probabilities for about 8,800 spectral lines of five iron-group elements, Sc(Z = 21) to Mn(Z = 25), are critically compiled, based on all available literature sources. The data are presented in separate tables for each element and stage of ionization and are further subdivided into allowed (i.e., electric dipole-E1) and forbidden (magnetic dipole-M1, electric quadrupole-E2, and magnetic quadrupole-M2) transitions. Within each data table the spectral lines are grouped into multiplets, which are in turn arranged according to parent configurations, transition arrays, and ascending quantum numbers. For each line the transition probability for spontaneous emission and the line strength are given, along with the spectroscopic designation, the wavelength, the statistical weights, and the energy levels of the upper and lower states. For allowed lines the absorption oscillator strength is listed, while for forbidden transitions the type of transition is identified (M1, E2, etc.). In addition, the estimated accuracy and the source are indicated. In short introductions, which precede the tables for each ion, the main justifications for the choice of the adopted data and for the accuracy rating are discussed. A general introduction contains a discussion of our method of evaluation and the principal criteria for our judgements

  14. A multifluid mix model with material strength effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scannapieco, A. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We present a new multifluid mix model. Its features include material strength effects and pressure and temperature nonequilibrium between mixing materials. It is applicable to both interpenetration and demixing of immiscible fluids and diffusion of miscible fluids. The presented model exhibits the appropriate smooth transition in mathematical form as the mixture evolves from multiphase to molecular mixing, extending its applicability to the intermediate stages in which both types of mixing are present. Virtual mass force and momentum exchange have been generalized for heterogeneous multimaterial mixtures. The compression work has been extended so that the resulting species energy equations are consistent with the pressure force and material strength.

  15. Measurement of Magic Wavelengths for the ^{40}Ca^{+} Clock Transition. (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Liang; Huang, Yao; Bian, Wu; Shao, Hu; Guan, Hua; Tang, Yong-Bo; Li, Cheng-Bin; Mitroy, J; Gao, Ke-Lin


    We demonstrate experimentally the existence of magic wavelengths and determine the ratio of oscillator strengths for a single trapped ion. For the first time, two magic wavelengths near 396 nm for the ^{40}Ca^{+} clock transition are measured simultaneously with high precision. By tuning the applied laser to an intermediate wavelength between transitions 4s_{1/2}→4p_{1/2} and 4s_{1/2}→4p_{3/2}, the sensitivity of the clock transition Stark shift to the oscillator strengths is greatly enhanced. Furthermore, with the measured magic wavelengths, we determine the ratio of the oscillator strengths with a deviation of less than 0.5%. Our experimental method may be applied to measure magic wavelengths for other ion clock transitions. Promisingly, the measurement of these magic wavelengths paves the way to building all-optical trapped ion clocks.

  16. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman


    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  17. Strength Training and Your Child (United States)

    ... training certification and experience with kids and strength training. When teaching a new exercise, the trainer should have kids perform the exercise under his or her supervision in a hazard-free, well-lit, and ... and after strength training. Kids should begin with one set of 8– ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  19. Transition sum rules in the shell model (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Johnson, Calvin W.


    An important characterization of electromagnetic and weak transitions in atomic nuclei are sum rules. We focus on the non-energy-weighted sum rule (NEWSR), or total strength, and the energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR); the ratio of the EWSR to the NEWSR is the centroid or average energy of transition strengths from an nuclear initial state to all allowed final states. These sum rules can be expressed as expectation values of operators, which in the case of the EWSR is a double commutator. While most prior applications of the double commutator have been to special cases, we derive general formulas for matrix elements of both operators in a shell model framework (occupation space), given the input matrix elements for the nuclear Hamiltonian and for the transition operator. With these new formulas, we easily evaluate centroids of transition strength functions, with no need to calculate daughter states. We apply this simple tool to a number of nuclides and demonstrate the sum rules follow smooth secular behavior as a function of initial energy, as well as compare the electric dipole (E 1 ) sum rule against the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn version. We also find surprising systematic behaviors for ground-state electric quadrupole (E 2 ) centroids in the s d shell.

  20. Transition to Sarcopenia and Determinants of Transitions in Older Adults: A Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, R.A.; Ip, E.H.; Zhang, Q.; Boudreau, R.M.; Cawthon, P.M.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Visser, M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Harris, T.B.


    Background. Diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia from appendicular lean mass (ALM), strength, and performance have been proposed, but little is known regarding the progression of sarcopenia. We examined the time course of sarcopenia and determinants of transitioning toward and away from sarcopenia.

  1. Rural Vocational and Transition Assessment Practices for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: What Do Educators Really Know? (United States)

    Brendle, Janna; Tucker, Kathryn J.; Lock, Robin H.


    Transition planning requires quality vocational and transition assessment tailored to the student's needs, strengths, preferences and interests. Limited research is currently available that addresses assessment types and use of results that rural practitioners utilize to aid in transition planning for students with intellectual disabilities (ID).…

  2. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, Nikita [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Theory Department, TRIUMF,4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  3. The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, Nikita; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.

  4. The tensile strength of liquid helium four

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, J.A.


    In this study, a piezoelectric transducer in the form of a hemispherical shell was used to focus high-intensity ultrasound into a small volume of 4 He. The transducer was gated at its resonant frequency of 566 kHz with gate widths of less than 1 msec in order to minimize the effects of transducer heating and acoustic streaming. The onset of the nucleation was detected from the absorption of acoustic energy and the scattering of laser light from microscopic bubbles. A new theory for the diffraction of light from the focal zone of a spherical converging sound wave was developed to confirm calculations of the acoustic pressure amplitude at the focus of the piezoelectric transducer, calculations which were based on the acoustic power radiated into the liquid and the nonlinear absorption of sound. The experimental results were in agreement with homogeneous nucleation theory for a nucleation rate of approximately 10 15 critical size bubbles/sec-cm 3 . This is only the third liquid for which the theoretical tensile strength has been reached and it confirms homogeneous nucleation theory over a range three times greater than any other experiment. A noticeable decrease in the magnitude of the tensile strength was noted at temperatures near the lambda transition and a hypothesis that bubbles are being nucleated heterogeneously on quantitized vortices is presented

  5. Astrophysical relevance of γ transition energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Thomas


    The relevant γ energy range is explicitly identified where additional γ strength must be located to have an impact on astrophysically relevant reactions. It is shown that folding the energy dependences of the transmission coefficients and the level density leads to maximal contributions for γ energies of 2≤E γ ≤4 unless quantum selection rules allow isolated states to contribute. Under this condition, electric dipole transitions dominate. These findings allow us to more accurately judge the relevance of modifications of the γ strength for astrophysics

  6. Effective collision strengths for electron impact excitation of Cl III

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsbottom, C A; Keenan, F P


    Effective collision strengths for electron-impact excitation of the phosphorus-like ion Cl III are presented for all fine-structure transitions among the levels arising from the lowest 23 LS states. The collisional cross sections are computed in the multichannel close-coupling R-matrix approximation, where sophisticated configuration-interaction wave functions are used to represent the target states. The 23 LS states are formed from the basis configurations 3s sup 2 3p sup 3 , 3s3p sup 4 , 3s sup 2 3p sup 2 3d, and 3s sup 2 3p sup 2 4s, and correspond to 49 fine-structure levels, leading to a total possible 1176 fine-structure transitions. The effective collision strengths, obtained by averaging the electron collision strengths over a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities, are tabulated in this paper for all 1176 transitions and for electron temperatures in the ranges T(K)=7500-25,000 and log T(K)=4.4-5.4. The former range encompasses the temperatures of particular importance for application to gaseo...

  7. On strength of porous material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    of irregularities only scattered MOE-MOR relations (clouds) can be established from which no really results can be read.For homogeneously produced porous materials, however, like modern ceramics and high performance concretes MOE-MOR relations can be presented which are reliable. The present paper contributes...... from knowing about pore geometry, solid phase stiffness, and zero-porosity strength. Pore geometry is the very important common denominator which controls both both stiffness and strength.The accurate results obtained are finally used to suggest generalizations with respect to strength in general...

  8. Prediction of Torsional Strength for Very High Early Strength Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woraphot PRACHASAREE


    Full Text Available Very early high strength geopolymers are gaining acceptance as alternative repair materials for highways and other infrastructure. In this study, a very rapid geopolymer binder based on Metakaolin (MK and Parawood ash (PWA, developed by the authors, was experimentally tested and a prediction model for its torsional strength is proposed. The geopolymer samples were subjected to uniaxial compression, flexural beam, and torsion tests. The modulus of rupture and torsional strength in terms of compression strength were found to be well approximated by 0.7(f’c1/2 and 1/7(x2y (f’c1/2, respectively. Also an interaction relation to describe combined bending and torsion was developed in this study. In addition, the effects of aspect ratio (y/x were studied on both torsional strength and combined bending and torsion. It was found that an aspect ratio of y/x = 3 significantly reduced the torsional resistance, to about 50 % of the torsional strength of a square section.DOI:

  9. Reentrant transition in coupled noisy oscillators. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasuaki; Kori, Hiroshi


    We report on a synchronization-breaking instability observed in a noisy oscillator unidirectionally coupled to a pacemaker. Using a phase oscillator model, we find that, as the coupling strength is increased, the noisy oscillator lags behind the pacemaker more frequently and the phase slip rate increases, which may not be observed in averaged phase models such as the Kuramoto model. Investigation of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation enables us to obtain the reentrant transition line between the synchronized state and the phase slip state. We verify our theory using the Brusselator model, suggesting that this reentrant transition can be found in a wide range of limit cycle oscillators.

  10. Seniority number description of potential energy surfaces: Symmetric dissociation of water, N2, C2, and Be2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytautas, Laimutis; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Ruedenberg, Klaus


    The present study further explores the concept of the seniority number (Ω) by examining different configuration interaction (CI) truncation strategies in generating compact wave functions in a systematic way. While the role of Ω in addressing static (strong) correlation problem has been addressed in numerous previous studies, the usefulness of seniority number in describing weak (dynamic) correlation has not been investigated in a systematic way. Thus, the overall objective in the present work is to investigate the role of Ω in addressing also dynamic electron correlation in addition to the static correlation. Two systematic CI truncation strategies are compared beyond minimal basis sets and full valence active spaces. One approach is based on the seniority number (defined as the total number of singly occupied orbitals in a determinant) and another is based on an excitation-level limitation. In addition, molecular orbitals are energy-optimized using multiconfigurational-self-consistent-field procedure for all these wave functions. The test cases include the symmetric dissociation of water (6-31G), N 2 (6-31G), C 2 (6-31G), and Be 2 (cc-pVTZ). We find that the potential energy profile for H 2 O dissociation can be reasonably well described using only the Ω = 0 sector of the CI wave function. For the Be 2 case, we show that the full CI potential energy curve (cc-pVTZ) is almost exactly reproduced using either Ω-based (including configurations having up to Ω = 2 in the virtual-orbital-space) or excitation-based (up to single-plus-double-substitutions) selection methods, both out of a full-valence-reference function. Finally, in dissociation cases of N 2 and C 2 , we shall also consider novel hybrid wave functions obtained by a union of a set of CI configurations representing the full valence space and a set of CI configurations where seniority-number restriction is imposed for a complete set (full-valence-space and virtual) of correlated molecular orbitals

  11. Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula


    Rong-jian Li; Jun-ding Liu; Rui Yan; Wen Zheng; Sheng-jun Shao


    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress (Kf line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests: the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural lo...

  12. Transitions between compound states of spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmenskii, S.G.; Markushev, V.P.; Furman, V.I.


    Wigner's statistical matrices are used to study the average reduced g widths and their dispersion for g transitions from a compound state c to another state f, with a lower excitation energy but of arbitrary complexity, for spherical nuclei. It is found that the Porter--Thomas distribution holds for the g widths for all cases of practical interest. In g transitions between compound states c and c' with E/sub g/< or =2 MeV, the most important transitions are M1 transitions involving the major many-quasiparticle components of state c and E1 transitions involving the minor components of state c. It is shown that the strength functions predicted by the various theories for M1 and E1 transitions between compound states with E/sub g/< or =2 MeV are similar. Preference is assigned to the M1-transition version because of experimental results on (n,ga) reactions with thermal and resonance neutrons

  13. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.


    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  14. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness (United States)

    ... risk of falls. This can help you maintain independence as you age. Manage chronic conditions. Strength training ... 2016. Resistance training for health and fitness. American College of Sports Medicine. ...

  15. γ transitions from 30P and 32S nuclei resonance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostin, V.Ya.; Kopanets, E.G.; Koval', A.A.


    The probability distributions of dipole and quadrupole electromagnetic transitions from resonance excitation-energy range from 6.2 to 8.3 MeV and from 9.2 to 12.0 MeV respectively, were obtained. An analysis of the distributions shows that isovector dipole electic and magnetic transitions are comparable in magnitude with transitions between bound states. Isoscalar dipole transitions are stronger by an order of magnitude than transitions between bound states. This may be attributed to the increase in isospin mixing in the resonance range of excitation of atomic nuclei. Quadrupole electrical transitions have strengths comparable with those of transitions between bound states. For magnetic quadrupole transitions, a strong increase in transition probabilities compared with transitions between bound states is noted. The isospin selection rules for γ transitions in self-conjugate nuclei are discussed

  16. Investigation of level energies and B(E2) values for rotation-aligned bands in Hg isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertin, D.; Tischler, R.; Kleinrahm, A.; Kroth, R.; Huebel, H.; Guenther, C.


    High spin states in 191 192 193 195 197 199 Hg were investigated by observing γ-rays and conversion electrons in the compound reactions 192 194 198 Pt(α,xn) and 192 Pt ( 3 He,4n). In 197 Hg the decoupled band built on the 13/2 + state and the semi-decoupled negative-parity band are observed up to Isup(π)=41/2 + and 33/2 - , respectively. A careful investigation of 199 Hg revealed no new high spin states above the previously known levels with Isup(π)=25/2 + and 31/2 - . Half-lives were determined for the 10 + , 7 - , 8 - and 16 - states in 192 Hg, the 33/2 states in 191 193 Hg and the 25/2 - states in 191 193 195 197 Hg. The systematics of the level energies and B(E2) values for the positive parity ground and 13/2 + bands and the negative-parity semi-decoupled bands in 190-200 Hg is discussed. (Auth.)

  17. World strength map: preliminary results (United States)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.; Mooney, Walter


    Rheology and strength of the Earth's lithosphere have been debated since the beginning of the last century, when the concept of a strong lithosphere overlying viscous asthenosphere was introduced. The issue of strength of the lithospheric plates and their spatial and temporal variations is important for many geodynamic applications. For rocks with given mineralogical composition and microstructure, temperature is one of the most important parameters controlling rheology. We present the first world strength map obtained from global thermal and crustal models. Temperature estimates for the deeper horizons of the lithosphere, where the heat transport is mostly conductive, requires a precise knowledge of many crustal parameters (mainly thermal conductivity and heat production), which are extremely uncertain. Therefore, we use a combination of indirect approaches, such as seismic tomography and geothermal analysis. Furthermore, we implement a global crustal model on the base of previous compilations. Lithology of the upper and lower crust was classified based on tectonic maps of the World in agreement with the previous study of Tesauro et al. (2009). The results show a good correspondence between strength values and geological features. We observe some general tendency for old cratons and areas affected by the Tertiary volcanism, characterized by high and low strength values, respectively. At the same time, relevant differences in the strength distribution between similar structures are found.

  18. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork. (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien


    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  19. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy (United States)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas


    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  20. Improvement of cross-tension strength using concave electrode in resistance spot welding of high-strength steel sheets (United States)

    Watanabe, Goro; Amago, Tatsuyuki; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Takao, Hisaaki; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro


    In the spot welding of ultrahigh-strength steel sheets, the generation of expulsion could be suppressed and large-diameter nuggets could be formed by using a concave electrode. The expulsion was suppressed because the clearance for expansion was formed when using the concave electrode. Thus, nuggets with a diameter of ≥4√t (lowest for securing joint strength, t = 1 mm) were obtained without expulsion in a greater welding current range than the range when using a conventional electrode. Furthermore, nuggets with a diameter of approximately 6.5 mm were formed with a large current of 8 kA, which could not be set when using the conventional electrode. In addition, a transition from partial interfacial fracture to pullout fracture occurred as the nugget diameter increased, and the cross-tension strength (CTS) tended to increase. A value of about 8 kN was obtained for a nugget with a diameter of 6.5 mm, which is approximately 1.5 times larger than the value (approximately 5.5 kN) obtained with the conventional electrode. The electrode life test indicated little deterioration in the CTS after 1400 welds. Thus, we propose using a concave electrode to improve the joint strength in the spot welding of high-strength steel sheets.

  1. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J


    is related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG...... and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (Pstrength measures in individual patients did not differ, suggesting that the muscle...... force reported was not subject to fatigue, but reflected fixed weakness. The male patients showed a greater reduction in muscle force in all eight muscle groups than women with MG (60% vs 77% of normal, Pstrength in shoulder abductors was most affected (51% vs 62...

  2. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration (United States)


    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  3. Public Transit Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  4. Transition Matrix Cluster Algorithms


    Yevick, David; Lee, Yong Hwan


    We demonstrate that a series of simple procedures for increasing the efficiency of transition matrix calculations can be realized by integrating the standard single-spin reversal transition matrix method with global cluster inversion techniques.

  5. Transit operator absenteeism. (United States)


    A nationwide survey of transit operators indicated that absenteeism among transit operators is a significant problem and that the associated costs are substantial. The objective of the research reported here was to determine the scope of operator abs...

  6. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka


    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  7. Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.


    Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.

  8. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.


    . Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...... environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...

  9. Supersymmetric electroweak phase transition beyond perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cline, J M; Cline, James M; Kainulainen, Kimmo


    We compute the three-dimensional effective action for the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which describes the light modes of the theory near the finite-temperature electroweak phase transition, keeping the one-loop corrections from the third generation quarks and squarks. Using the lattice results of Kajantie et al. for the phase transition in the same class of 3-D models, we find that the strength of the phase transition is sufficient for electroweak baryogenesis, in much broader regions of parameter space than have been indicated by purely perturbative analyses. In particular we find that, while small values of \\tan\\beta are favored, positive results persist even for arbitrarily large values of \\tan\\beta if the mass of the A^0 boson is between 40 and 100 GeV, a region of parameters which has not been previously identified as being favorable for electroweak baryogenesis.

  10. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An `evolutionary transition in individuality' or `major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can ...

  11. Microwave stability at transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Colestock, P.L.


    The question of microwave stability at transition is revisited using a Vlasov approach retaining higher order terms in the particle dynamics near the transition energy. A dispersion relation is derived which can be solved numerically for the complex frequency in terms of the longitudinal impedance and other beam parameters. Stability near transition is examined and compared with simulation results

  12. Transit manager's handbook. (United States)


    This handbook provides an overview of public transit in Iowa and how to do business with the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) Office of Public Transit (OPT). It is intended to be a tool to assist transit managers navigate through the many...

  13. Modeling for Transition Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, Emile J L; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.


    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  14. Transit labor relations guide (United States)


    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  15. Fast electromagnetic field strength probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Serra, Ramiro


    Diode detectors and thermocouple detectors are conventionally used to measure electromagnetic field strength. Both detectors have some disadvantages for applications where a fast response and a high dynamic range is required. The diode detector is limited in dynamic range. The dynamic range is

  16. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.


    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  17. Repair strength of dental amalgams. (United States)

    Shen, Chiayi; Speigel, Jason; Mjör, Ivar A


    This study tested the hypothesis that newly triturated amalgam condensed vertically on old amalgam was essential for establishing a bond between the new and old amalgams. Twelve rectangular bars were prepared with Dispersalloy and Tytin to establish their baseline flexure strength values. An additional 12 specimens were made and separated into 24 equal halves. All fracture surfaces were abraded with a flat end fissure bur. Twelve surfaces were paired with the original amalgam, and the remaining 12 surfaces were repaired with a different amalgam. At first, freshly triturated amalgam was condensed vertically on the floor of the specimen mold (Group A). The majority of specimens repaired with Group A failed to establish bond at the repair interface. All repair surfaces were abraded again and prepared by a second method. A metal spacer was used to create a four-wall cavity to facilitate vertical condensation directly on the repair surface (Group B). The specimens were stored in ambient air for seven days prior to flexure testing. The strength of specimens repaired with Group B ranged from 26% to 54% of the baseline specimens. ANOVA showed that amalgams repaired with a different amalgam yielded higher strength values than those repaired with the original amalgam, and the baseline specimens exhibited significantly higher strength values than all the repaired specimens.

  18. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.

  19. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.


    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  20. Line strengths, A-factors and absorption cross-sections for fine structure lines in multiplets and hyperfine structure components in lines in atomic spectrometry - a user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axner, Ove; Gustafsson, Joergen; Omenetto, Nicolo; Winefordner, James D.


    This work summarizes and elucidates a number of fundamental concepts in atomic spectrometry regarding the 'strengths' of transitions between various energy levels and states in atoms. Although several of the expressions and rules for line strengths of transitions reported here can be found, in one way or another, in various books dealing with atomic structure, atomic spectrometry or quantum mechanics, the treatment in such books can be variously complex and difficult to follow for a non-experienced reader. In addition, detailed information about transition-specific 'strengths' of transitions used to be restricted to line strengths, whereas most experiments rather need transition-specific A-factors or transition-specific absorption cross-sections. This work therefore aims at pointing out the most important aspects of the concept of 'strengths' of transitions between various energy levels and states in atoms by presenting explicit expressions for not only relative and absolute line strengths but also oscillator strengths (f-values), A-factors and absorption cross-sections, for transitions between fine structure levels within a multiplet as well as for hyperfine structure components within a line (i.e. between hyperfine structure levels), including their mutual relations, in a consistent and user-friendly manner. The work also recapitulates the most important summation rules for line strengths, oscillator strengths (f-values), A-factors and absorption cross-sections for lines within multiplets and hyperfine structure components within lines. Many of the expressions are illustrated with clear and intelligible examples. For the sake of clarity and completeness, the work also comprises a short review of the nomenclature for atomic structure and transitions

  1. Experimental radiative lifetimes, branching fractions, and oscillator strengths of some levels in Tm III (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Wang, Xinghao; Li, Qiu; Gong, Yimin; Dai, Zhenwen


    Natural radiative lifetimes for 5 even-parity levels of Tm III were measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence method. The branching fraction measurements were performed based on the emission spectra of a hollow cathode lamp. By combining the measured branching fractions and the lifetime values reported in this work and in literature, experimental transition probabilities and oscillator strengths for 11 transitions were derived for the first time.

  2. Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger


    Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...

  3. Microbial community changes in methanogenic granules during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinyu; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura


    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is one of the most applied technologies for various high-strength wastewater treatments. The present study analysed the microbial community changes in UASB granules during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. Dynamicity...

  4. Isospin symmetry of T-z=+/- 3/2 ->+/- 1/2 Gamow-Teller transitions in A=41 nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujita, Y; Shimbara, Y; Adachi, T; Berg, GPA; Fujita, H; Hatanaka, K; Kamiya, J; Nakanishi, K; Sakemi, Y; Sasaki, S; Shimizu, Y; Tameshige, Y; Uchida, M; Wakasa, T; Yosoi, M


    Under the assumption that isospin T is a good quantum number, isobaric analog states and various analogous transitions are expected in isobars with mass number A. The, strengths of T-z = +/-3/2 --> 1/2 analogous Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions and analogous M1 transitions within the A = 41 isobar

  5. Atomic structure calculation of energy levels and oscillator strengths in Ti ion, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keishi


    Energy levels and oscillator strengths are calculated for 3s-3p and 3p-3d transition arrays in Ti X, isoelectronic to Al I. The energy levels are obtained by the Slater-Condon theory of atomic structure, including explicitly the strong configuration interactions. The results are presented both in numerical tables and in diagrams. In the tables, the observed data are included for comparison, where available. The calculated weighted oscillator strengths (gf-value) are also displayed in figures, where the weighted oscillator strengths are plotted as a function of wavelength. (author)

  6. E0 transitions in {sup 106}Pd: Implications for shape coexistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, E.E.; Mynk, M.G. [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry, Lexington, KY (United States); Prados-Estevez, F.M.; Chakraborty, A.; Yates, S.W. [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry, Lexington, KY (United States); University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States); Bandyopadhyay, D.; Choudry, S.N.; Crider, B.P.; Kumar, A.; Lesher, S.R.; McKay, C.J.; Orce, J.N.; Scheck, M. [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States); Garrett, P.E. [University of Guelph, Department of Physics, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Hicks, S.F. [University of Dallas, Department of Physics, Irving, TX (United States); Vanhoy, J.R. [United States Naval Academy, Department of Physics, Annapolis, MD (United States); Wood, J.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Physics, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Level lifetimes in {sup 106}Pd were measured with the Doppler-shift attenuation method following inelastic neutron scattering, and electric monopole transition strengths between low-lying 2{sup +} states were deduced. The large ρ{sup 2} (E0) values obtained provide evidence for shape coexistence, extending observation of such structures in the N = 60 isotones. Included in these results is the first determination of the E0 transition strength in the Pd nuclei between levels with K = 2. (orig.)

  7. Flocking Transition in Confluent Tissues (United States)

    Paoluzzi, Matteo; Giavazzi, Fabio; Macchi, Marta; Scita, Giorgio; Cerbino, Roberto; Manning, Lisa; Marchetti, Cristina

    The emerging of collective migration in biological tissues plays a pivotal role in embryonic morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer invasion. While many aspects of single cell movements are well established, the mechanisms leading to coherent displacements of cohesive cell groups are still poorly understood. Some of us recently proposed a Self-Propelled Voronoi (SPV) model of dense tissues that combines self-propelled particle models and vertex models of confluent cell layers and exhibits a liquid-solid transition as a function of cell shape and cell motility. We now examine the role of cell polarization on collective cell dynamics by introducing an orientation mechanism that aligns cell polarization with local cell motility. The model predicts a density-independent flocking transition tuned by the strength of the aligning interaction, with both solid and liquid flocking states existing in different regions of parameter space. MP and MCM were supported by the Simons Foundation Targeted Grant in the Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems Number: 342354 and by the Syracuse Soft Matter Program.

  8. The ideal strength and mechanical hardness of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenn, Christopher Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Relationships between intrinsic mechanical hardness and atomic-scale properties are reviewed, Hardness scales closely and linearly with shear modulus for a given class of material (covalent, ionic or metallic). A two-parameter fit and a Peierls-stress model produce a more universal scaling relationship, but no model can explain differences in hardness between the transition metal carbides and nitrides. Calculations of ''ideal strength'' (defined by the limit of elastic stability of a perfect crystal) are proposed. The ideal shear strengths of fcc aluminum and copper are calculated using ab initio techniques and allowing for structural relaxation of all five strain components other than the imposed strain. The strengths of Al and Cu are similar (8-9% of the shear modulus), but the geometry of the relaxations in Al and Cu is very different. The relaxations are consistent with experimentally measured third-order elastic constants. The general thermodynamic conditions of elastic stability that set the upper limits of mechanical strength are derived. The conditions of stability are shown for cubic (hydrostatic), tetragonal (tensile) and monoclinic (shear) distortions of a cubic crystal. The implications of this stability analysis to first-principles calculations of ideal strength are discussed, and a method to detect instabilities orthogonal to the direction of the applied stress is identified. The relaxed ideal shear and tensile strengths of bcc tungsten are also calculated using ab initio techniques and are favorably compared to recent nano-indentation measurements. The {100} tensile strength (29.5 GPa) is governed by the Bain instability. The shear strengths in the weak directions on {110}, {112}, and {123} planes are very nearly equal (~ 18 GPa) and occur at approximately the same strain (17-18%). This isotropy is a function of the linear elastic isotropy for shear in directions containing <111> in bcc and of the atomic configurations of

  9. Analog Experiments on Tensile Strength of Dusty and Cometary Matter (United States)

    Musiolik, Grzegorz; de Beule, Caroline; Wurm, Gerhard


    The tensile strength of small dusty bodies in the solar system is determined by the interaction between the composing grains. In the transition regime between small and sticky dust (μm) and non cohesive large grains (mm), particles still stick to each other but are easily separated. In laboratory experiments we find that thermal creep gas flow at low ambient pressure generates an overpressure sufficient to overcome the tensile strength. For the first time it allows a direct measurement of the tensile strength of individual, very small (sub)-mm aggregates which consist of only tens of grains in the (sub)-mm size range. We traced the disintegration of aggregates by optical imaging in ground based as well as microgravity experiments and present first results for basalt, palagonite and vitreous carbon samples with up to a few hundred Pa. These measurements show that low tensile strength can be the result of building loose aggregates with compact (sub)-mm units. This is in favour of a combined cometary formation scenario by aggregation to compact aggreates and gravitational instability of these units.

  10. Micromechanical analysis of polyacrylamide-modified concrete for improving strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zengzhi; Xu Qinwu


    This paper studies how polyacrylamide (PAM) alters the physicochemical and mechanical properties of concrete. The microstructure of PAM-modified concrete and the physicochemical reaction between PAM and concrete were studied through scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared spectrum analysis. Meanwhile, the workability and strengths of cement paste and concrete were tested. PAM's modification mechanism was also discussed. Results indicate that PAM reacts with the Ca 2+ and Al 3+ cations produced by concrete hydration to form the ionic compounds and reduce the crystallization of Ca(OH) 2 , acting as a flexible filler and reinforcement in the porosity of concrete and, therefore, improving concrete's engineering properties. PAM also significantly alters the microstructure at the aggregate-cement interfacial transition zone. Mechanical testing results indicate that the fluidity of cement paste decreases initially, then increases, and decreases again with increasing PAM content. PAM can effectively improve the flexural strength, bonding strength, dynamic impact resistance, and fatigue life of concrete, though it reduces the compressive strength to some extent

  11. Material Strength Models for Vanadium (United States)

    Pollaine, Stephen


    We have preliminary results of measurements of vanadium strength at 600 kb and 1 Mb, at strain rates between 10^7 and 10^8/s. The results are inconsistent with the Steinberg-Guinan [1] model, which is independent of strain rate, but can be made consistent with other models, such as PTW [2]. We show a variety of different strength models and compare them to the data. [1] DJ.Steinberg, S.G.Cochran, and M.W.Buinan, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1498 (1980). [2] D.L. Preston, D.L.Tonks, and D.C.wallace, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 211 (2003). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  12. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    In the northern part of Vendsyssel, Denmark, the deposits made in the late glacial time are formed by the sea. The deposits are named after two mussels: Yoldia clay and Saxicava sand. However, in the southern part of Vendsyssel and in the area of Aalborg the clay and sand deposits from the late...... glacial time are characterised by the absence of this mussel. These deposits are named Aalborg Clay and Aalborg Sand. In the city of Aalborg, a fill layer superposes Aalborg Clay. This layer is at some places found to be 6m thick. This fill layer does not provide sufficient bearing capacity, which has...... resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...

  13. Line strengths in WN stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leep, E.M.


    The author has analyzed high-dispersion spectra of over 100 WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC). Most of the spectra were obtained through 4-m telescopes (Conti, Leep, and Perry 1981). The measured strengths of the WN classification lines N III lambdalambda4634-41, N IV lambda4057, N V lambda4604 (Smith 1968) for stars on WN subtypes 2.5-8 are shown. The assignments of WN subtypes are based on visual estimates of ratios of line strengths according to the scheme of Smith (1968), except that stars appearing to be earlier than WN3 are classified as WN2 or WN2.5 as explained by van der Hucht et al. (1981) and by Conti, Leep and Perry (1981). (Auth.)

  14. Be(2+) complexing with ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrynina, N.A.; Dmitrieva, S.V.; Reshetova, L.N.; Smirnova, N.S.


    The equilibria in the BeSO 4 -CON and BeSO 4 -ATP-CON water solutions are studied through the method of the pH-metric titration with application of mathematical modeling. It is shown that the BeOH, Be(OH) 2 , Be(OH) 3 , BeATP, BeHATP and BeOHATP complexes with the (lgβ) formation constants equal to 9.05±0.2, 16.4±0.4, 18.54±5.2, 8.49±0.3, 7.51±0.32 correspondingly, are formed

  15. Studies on diametral compressive strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awaji, Hideo; Sato, Sennosuke.


    A new approach to the diametral compressive tests using circular anvils is proposed on the basis of the analytical study given in the preceding paper. In this approach, the collapse at the contact edges can be avoided. The experimental results obtained by this method for several kinds of graphite and Italian Ondagata light marble are compared with those of the uniaxial tensile strength, and the discrepancy is discussed for a wide range of brittle materials. (auth.)

  16. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.


    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  17. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics (United States)


    Forex - one particular alumina ceramic, I our own detailed crack ample, the relatively large values of r, and c* for the VI observations, and those of...particularly toughness indices, 1i71", indicating that there is sonic the c° , T parameters. However, the indentation mcth- kind of trade -o1Tbetwecn...macroscopic and microsnpic odology takes us closer to the strengths of specimens toughness levels, and that this trade -off is cont’olled by with natural

  18. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.


    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  19. Transition and Social networks


    Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, N.


    School leavers with learning disabilities often face difficulties in making a smooth transition from school to college, employment or more broadly, to adult life. The transition phase is traumatic for the young person with learning disabilities and their families as it often results in the loss of friendships, relationships and social networks. The aim of this chapter is to explore the issues of transition from adolescence to adulthood for young people with learning disabilities and its effe...

  20. Secondary Structures Associated With Alkaline Transition of Horse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The spectra of amide I region (1700-1600cm-1) of horse heart ferricytochrome c at. 20oC are reported at low ionic strength at of pH values between 7.0 and 11.5 encompassing the alkaline transition. The mid-infrared spectra can probe the protein secondary structures. The Fourier transform infrared ...

  1. Secondary Structures Associated With Alkaline Transition of Horse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spectra of amide I region (1700-1600cm-1) of horse heart ferricytochrome c at 20oC are reported at low ionic strength at of pH values between 7.0 and 11.5 encompassing the alkaline transition. The mid-infrared spectra can probe the protein secondary structures. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic technique ...

  2. Emittance measurements of FEL accelerators using optical transition radiation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, R.B.; Rule, D.W.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Tokar, R.L.; Dowell, D.H.; Sellyey, W.C.; Lowrey, A.R.


    Measurements of the emittance of the Boeing FEL accelerator operating at 107 Mev, were performed using optical transition radiation (OTR). The results of the three measurement methods: measurement of beam spot size as a function of magnetic quadrupole focusing strength, two screen beam spot measurements, and beam spot-divergence measurements using a OTR interferometer are compared and shown to be in excellent agreement

  3. What transitional justice in Zimbabwe? Women of Zimbabwe Arise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledgeable about the possibilities of transitional justice – its strengths and weaknesses – before they formulate their views. One group which is embarking on this process is the Women of Zimbabwe Arise (WOZA). WOZA is a social justice movement which has been in existence since 2003 and currently has ...

  4. Behaviour of tunnelling transition rate of argon atom exposed to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 565–573. Behaviour of tunnelling transition rate of argon atom exposed to strong low-frequency elliptical laser field. TATJANA B MILADINOVI ´C and VIOLETA M ... There are two laser field polarizations, linear and circular, as ... is the electron momentum [1], expressed using the field strength F and the parabolic.

  5. The Energy Transition Chronicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelletti, Floriane; Vallar, Jean-Pierre; Wyssling, Julia


    Energy Cities provides local authorities with support for implementing their own energy transition process. The Proposals for the energy transition of cities and towns ( are illustrated with around a hundred of inspirational examples from all over Europe. In this document composed of five case reports, Energy Cities goes further and tells the tale of energy transition success stories. Because it is important to show that energy transition is 'possible'. Why, how, with whom, for what results? We interviewed local players and decision-makers to find out more. Here are their stories

  6. Transit Benefit Program Data - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  7. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Han, X. X.; Ge, J.; Wang, C. H.


    To determine the relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material, 20 groups of geopolymer grouting materials were prepared, the compressive strength and flexural strength were determined by mechanical properties test. On the basis of excluding the abnormal values through boxplot, the results show that, the compressive strength test results were normal, but there were two mild outliers in 7days flexural strength test. The compressive strength and flexural strength were linearly fitted by SPSS, six regression models were obtained by linear fitting of compressive strength and flexural strength. The linear relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength can be better expressed by the cubic curve model, and the correlation coefficient was 0.842.

  8. Postsecondary Strengths, Challenges, and Supports Experienced by Foster Care Alumni College Graduates (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M.; Jones, Kevin R.; Emerson, John C.; Mucha, Lauren


    Young people transitioning from foster care to college experience unique identities and circumstances that make being successful in college especially challenging. We used qualitative survey data from 248 college graduates who were formerly in foster care to explore the strengths, challenges, and supports they experienced while in college that…

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths (Rauch+, 2012) (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Biemont, E.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.


    Calculated HFR oscillator strengths (log gf) and transition probabilities (gA, in 1/s) in Ge V (table2.dat) and Ge VI (table4.dat). CF is the cancellation factor as defined by Cowan (1981, In columns 3 and 6, e is written for even and o for odd. (2 data files).

  10. Electron impact excitation collision strengths for neon-like Ni XIX ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a recent paper [Pramana - J. Phys. 64, 129 (2005)] results have been presented for electron impact excitation collision strengths for transitions among the fine-structure levels of the 2s22p6 and 2s22p53s configurations of Ni XIX. In this paper we demonstrate through an independent calculation with the relativistic -matrix ...

  11. Electron impact excitation collision strengths for neon-like Ni XIX ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    presented for electron impact excitation collision strengths for transitions among the fine- structure levels of the ... configuration interaction (CI) as well as relativistic effects in a Breit–Pauli approx- imation. In the present ... among the lowest five levels only, and in a limited range of electron energy above thresholds but below ...

  12. Exploring and Leveraging Chinese International Students' Strengths for Success (United States)

    He, Ye; Hutson, Bryant


    This study used an Appreciative Education framework to explore the strengths of Chinese international students and to identify areas where support is needed during their transition to U.S. higher education settings. Using a convergent mixed methods design with data collected from surveys, interviews and focus groups, the complex nature of the…

  13. Photon strength function in the Hf-181 nucleus by method of two-step cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Le Hong Khiem


    The applicability of sum-coincidence measurements of two-step cascade gamma ray spectra determining Photon Strength Function (PSF) of Hf-181 induced from Hf-180 (n,2 gamma) Hf-181 reaction is presented. Up to 80% intensity of the primary gamma ray transitions in a wide energy range have been deduced and compared to model calculation.

  14. Investigation of the bond strength between the photo-sensitive polymer SU-8 and gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Johansson, Alicia; Sánchez Noguerón, E.


    We present the results from a thorough investigation of the bond strength between the photo-polymer SU-8 and Au. The data were obtained by pull-test experiments, below the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The different aspects that we investigated were:(i)the effect of using different...

  15. Investigation of the bond strength between the photo-sensitive polymer SU-8 and Au

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordstrom, Maria; Johansson, Alicia; Sanches-Noguerón, E.


    We present the results from a thorough investigation of the bond strength between the photo-polymer SU-8 and Au. The data were optained by pull-test experiments, below the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The different aspects that were investigated were: (i) different adhesion promot...

  16. Electron impact excitation collision strengths for neon-like Ni XIX ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In a recent paper [Pramana – J. Phys. 64, 129 (2005)] results have been presented for electron impact excitation collision strengths for transitions among the fine- structure levels of the 2s22p6 and 2s22p53s configurations of Ni XIX. In this paper we demonstrate through an independent calculation with the ...

  17. Forearm Torque and Lifting Strength: Normative Data. (United States)

    Axelsson, Peter; Fredrikson, Per; Nilsson, Anders; Andersson, Jonny K; Kärrholm, Johan


    To establish reference values for new methods designed to quantitatively measure forearm torque and lifting strength and to compare these values with grip strength. A total of 499 volunteers, 262 males and 237 females, aged 15 to 85 (mean, 44) years, were tested for lifting strength and forearm torque with the Kern and Baseline dynamometers. These individuals were also tested for grip strength with a Jamar dynamometer. Standardized procedures were used and information about sex, height, weight, hand dominance, and whether their work involved high or low manual strain was collected. Men had approximately 70% higher forearm torque and lifting strength compared with females. Male subjects aged 26 to 35 years and female subjects aged 36 to 45 years showed highest strength values. In patients with dominant right side, 61% to 78% had a higher or equal strength on this side in the different tests performed. In patients with dominant left side, the corresponding proportions varied between 41% and 65%. There was a high correlation between grip strength and forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, body height, body weight, and age showed a significant correlation to the strength measurements. In a multiple regression model sex, age (entered as linear and squared) could explain 51% to 63% of the total variances of forearm torque strength and 30% to 36% of lifting strength. Reference values for lifting strength and forearm torque to be used in clinical practice were acquired. Grip strength has a high correlation to forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, age, and height can be used to predict forearm torque and lifting strength. Prediction equations using these variables were generated. Normative data of forearm torque and lifting strength might improve the quality of assessment of wrist and forearm disorders as well as their treatments. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress, Depression, and Anxiety among Transitioning College Students: The Family as a Protective Factor (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Kasky-Hernández, Lynda M.; Ambrose, Pamm; French, Sarah


    Stress associated with the college transition can bring about depression and anxiety symptoms, but family relationships can reduce the impact of stress. We hypothesized that secure attachment to parents, comfort with talking about stressors, and family support would reduce the strength of the relationships between transition-related stress and…

  19. Allowed and forbidden transition parameters for Fe XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.


    A comprehensive set of fine structure energy levels, oscillator strengths (f), line strengths (S), and radiative decay rates (A) for bound-bound transitions in Fe XV is presented. The allowed electric dipole (E1) transitions were obtained from the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix method which is based on the close coupling approximation. A total of 507 fine structure energy levels with n ≤ 10, l ≤ 9, and 0 ≤ J ≤ 10 are found. They agree within 1% with the available observed energies. These energy levels yield a total of 27,812 E1, same-spin multiplets and intercombination transitions. The A values are in good agreement with those compiled by NIST and other existing values for most transitions. Forbidden transitions are obtained from a set of 20 configurations with orbitals ranging from 1s to 5f using the relativistic code SUPERSTRUCTURE (SS) in the Breit-Pauli approximation. From a set of 123 fine structure levels, a total of 6962 S and A values are presented for forbidden electric quadrupole (E2), electric octupole (E3), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions. The energies from SS calculations agree with observed energies to within 1-3%. A values for E2, M1 transitions agree very well with the available values for most transitions while those for M2 transitions show variable agreement. The large set of transition parameters presented should be applicable for both diagnostics and spectral modeling in the X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical regions of astrophysical plasmas.

  20. Anomalies in the coil-stretch transition of flexible polymers (United States)

    Ghosal, Aishani; Cherayil, Binny J.


    The flow-induced coil-stretch transition of high molecular weight polymers has generally been held to be of first order. But evidence of significant slowing down in the rate at which the polymers relax to equilibrium in the vicinity of the transition suggests that the thermodynamic character of the transition may be less clear-cut. The above slowing down effect is actually characteristic of a second-order transition, and it points to the existence of a broad spectrum of conformational states in the transition region, analogous to the existence of fluctuations of all length scales at a critical point. In this paper, using a path integral approach based on a free-draining finitely extensible chain model, we calculate various polymer properties as a function of elongational flow as a way of exploring different statistical mechanical details of the coil-stretch transition. These properties include the molecular weight dependence of the flow-extension curve of the polymer, the distribution of its steady-state end-to-end distances, and the characteristic relaxation time τR of these distances. Among other findings, our calculations indicate that the coil-stretch transition is discontinuous in the N → ∞ limit, that the effective free energy of the chain is unimodal at all values of the flow, becoming broad and flat in the immediate vicinity of the transition, and that the ratio of τR to the Rouse relaxation time increases abruptly at the transition before eventually reaching a plateau value at large flow strengths. These aspects of the coil-stretch transition place it among a larger class of unconventional nominally first-order single chain transitions that include the adsorption transition of surface-tethered polymers and the escape transition of compressed polymers.

  1. Youth and administrator perspectives on transition in Kentucky's state agency schools. (United States)

    Marshall, Amy; Powell, Norman; Pierce, Doris; Nolan, Ronnie; Fehringer, Elaine


    Students, a large percentage with disabilities, are at high risk for poor post-secondary outcomes in state agency education programs. This mixed-methods study describes the understandings of student transitions in state agency education programs from the perspectives of youth and administrators. Results indicated that: transition is more narrowly defined within alternative education programs; key strengths of transition practice are present in nontraditional schools; and the coordination barriers within this fluid inter-agency transition system are most apparent in students' frequent inter-setting transitions between nontraditional and home schools.

  2. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Mo XV (United States)

    El-Sayed, F.; Attia, S. M.


    Energy levels, wavelengths, transition probabilities, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and lifetimes have been calculated for transitions among the fine-structure levels belonging to the (1s22s22p6)3s23p63d10, 3s23p63d94l, 3s23p53d104l, and 3s3p63d104l (l = s, p, d, f) configurations of the Ni-like Molybdenum, Mo XV. The results for electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the lowest levels of Mo XV have been reported and compared with available NIST results.

  3. Transition and Electron Impact Excitation Collision Rates for O III (United States)

    Tayal, S. S.; Zatsarinny, O.


    Transition probabilities, electron excitation collision strengths, and rate coefficients for a large number of O III lines over a broad wavelength range, from the infrared to ultraviolet, have been reported. The collision strengths have been calculated in the close-coupling approximation using the B-spline Breit-Pauli R-matrix method. The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method in combination with B-spline expansions is employed for an accurate representation of the target wave functions. The close-coupling expansion contains 202 O2+ fine-structure levels of the 2{s}22{p}2,2s2{p}3, 2{p}4,2{s}22p3s,3p,3d, 4s,4p,4d,4f,5s, and 2s2{p}33s,3p,3d configurations. The effective collision strengths are obtained by averaging electron excitation collision strengths over a Maxwellian distribution of velocities at electron temperatures ranging from 100 to 100,000 K. The calculated effective collision strengths have been reported for the 20,302 transitions between all 202 fine-structure levels. There is an overall good agreement with the recent R-matrix calculations by Storey et al. for the transitions between all levels of the ground 2{s}22{p}2 configuration, but significant discrepancies have been found with Palay et al. for transitions to the 2{s}22{p}2 1 S 0 level. Line intensity ratios between the optical lines arising from the 2{s}22{p}2{}3{P}{0,1,2} - 1 D 2 transitions have been compared with other calculations and observations from the photoionized gaseous nebulae, and good agreement is found. The present calculations provide the most complete and accurate data sets, which should allow a more detailed treatment of the available measured spectra from different ground and space observatories.

  4. Fast All-Season Soil STrength (FASST)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankenstein, Susan; Koenig, George G


    ... (Fast All-season Soil STrength) was developed. It calculates the ground's moisture content, ice content, temperature, and freeze/thaw profiles, as well as soil strength and surface ice and snow accumulation/depletion...


    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    transition during the past three decades — in transition from dictatorship to democratic ... research under the harshest conditions of danger and privation. This is research that can prepare a stronger ... any government, IDRC would be freer than most government agencies to work in territories that did not constitute a state.

  6. Generalizing smooth transition autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail...

  7. Transitive probabilistic CLIR models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.


    Transitive translation could be a useful technique to enlarge the number of supported language pairs for a cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) system in a cost-effective manner. The paper describes several setups for transitive translation based on probabilistic translation models. The

  8. Transitivity of Preferences (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.


    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…

  9. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 15, 2014 ... was to define a major transition by identifying a pattern that is common across an otherwise diverse set of ... been many major evolutionary events that this definition of a transition excludes. The evolution of ...... fragmentation periodic, or brings it under endogenous con- trol. So the mechanisms are far from ...

  10. Development of ductile high-strength chromium alloys, phase 2 (United States)

    Filippi, A. M.


    Strength and ductility were evaluated for chromium alloys dispersion hardened with the putative TaC, TaB, CbC, and CbB compounds. TaC and TaB proved to be the most potent strengtheners, but when combined, their effect far outweighed that produced individually. Tests at 1422 K (2100 F) on an alloy containing these two compounds at the combined level of 0.5 m/o revealed a 495 MN/sq m (70 ksi) tensile strength for wrought material, and a 100 hour rupture strength of 208 MN/sq m (30 ksi) when solution annealed and aged to maximize creep resistance. These levels of high temperature strength greatly exceed that reported for any other chromium-base alloy. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the two phase strengthened alloy occurred at approximately 588 K (600 F) when heat treated to optimize creep strength and was not improved by fabrication to produce a wrought and recovered microstructure. The lowest DBTT measured on any of the alloys investigated was 422 K (300 F). Strengthening phases actually formed in Cr-Ta-B and Cr-Cb-B compositions are probable M2CrB2 (M=Ta or Cb) compounds of tetragonal crystal structure. The likely habit relationship between these compounds and chromium is postulated. Cube habit coherency was identified for TaC precipitation in chromium by electron microscopy. In another study, the maximum solubility of carbon in chromium was indicated to lie between 3/4 and 1 a/o and that of boron to be 1/2 a/o.

  11. Deep Neural Network Detects Quantum Phase Transition (United States)

    Arai, Shunta; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki


    We detect the quantum phase transition of a quantum many-body system by mapping the observed results of the quantum state onto a neural network. In the present study, we utilized the simplest case of a quantum many-body system, namely a one-dimensional chain of Ising spins with the transverse Ising model. We prepared several spin configurations, which were obtained using repeated observations of the model for a particular strength of the transverse field, as input data for the neural network. Although the proposed method can be employed using experimental observations of quantum many-body systems, we tested our technique with spin configurations generated by a quantum Monte Carlo simulation without initial relaxation. The neural network successfully identified the strength of transverse field only from the spin configurations, leading to consistent estimations of the critical point of our model Γc = J.

  12. Lost in Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Ida Sofie Gøtzsche; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Lassen, Claus

    Thinking of Transit Places, the first sites that comes to mind will probably be airports, train stations and motorways. Such places are overall mono-functional with the embedded rationales of people's desires to move (themselves or goods) from one place to another. Often different service functions...... and commerce are added to such places facilitating the accomplishment of comfortable and easy transit. Apart from those being in transit, people do not visit these places and apart from those working at such transit places, people do not stay for longer periods. Certainly people do not live or spend the whole...... of their daily lives here. This is on the contrary what many people do in cities and towns - places where people live, work and stay, and that they purposefully visit in their spare times. The article addresses what happens, when an inhabited place obtain the properties normally connected with transit...

  13. Contemporary Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo


    This article studies the contemporary expression of transitional justice, a field of practice through which global governance is exercised. It argues that transitional justice is being normalised, given the normative and empirical de-legitimisation of its premise of exceptionalism. The article...... theorises exceptionalism and normalcy in transitional justice and identifies three macro-level causes of normalisation: the legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization of the field. This argument is illustrated by a study of Uganda’s trajectory of transitional justice since 1986. Across five...... phases of transitional justice, processes of legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization have contributed to the gradual dismantling of the country’s exceptional justice. The case demonstrates, further, that normalization is a contested and incomplete process....

  14. Viscous Decoupling Transitions for Individually Dragged Particles in Systems with Quenched Disorder


    Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.


    We show that when an individual particle is dragged through an assembly of other particles in the presence of quenched disorder, a viscous decoupling transition occurs between the dragged particle and the surrounding particles which is controlled by the quenched disorder. A counterintuitive consequence of this transition is that the velocity of the dragged particle can be increased by increasing the strength or density of the quenched disorder. The decoupling transition can also occur when th...

  15. Relationship between the edgewise compression strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study were used to determine the linear regression constants in the Maltenfort model by correlating the measured board edgewise compression strength (ECT) with the predicted strength, using the paper components' compression strengths, measured with the short-span compression test (SCT) and the ...

  16. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.


    Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength

  17. Unexpectedly low tensile strength in concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, A.J.M.; Han, N.; Visser, J.H.M.


    During an extensive investigation of some 25 concrete bridges and other structures suffering from alkali-silica reaction it has been found that the uniaxial tensile strength of the concrete was extremely low in relation to both the compressive strength and the splitting tensile strength. It is known

  18. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan (United States)

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.


    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  19. Estimation of Compressive Strength of High Strength Concrete Using Non-Destructive Technique and Concrete Core Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkwan Ju


    Full Text Available Estimating the compressive strength of high strength concrete (HSC is an essential investigation for the maintenance of nuclear power plant (NPP structures. This study intends to evaluate the compressive strength of HSC using two approaches: non-destructive tests and concrete core strength. For non-destructive tests, samples of HSC were mixed to a specified design strength of 40, 60 and 100 MPa. Based on a dual regression relation between ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV and rebound hammer (RH measurements, an estimation expression is developed. In comparison to previously published estimation equations, the equation proposed in this study shows the highest accuracy and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE. For the estimation of compressive strength using concrete core specimens, three different concrete core diameters were examined: 30, 50, and 100 mm. Based on 61 measured compressive strengths of core specimens, a simple strength correction factor is investigated. The compressive strength of a concrete core specimen decreases as the core diameter reduces. Such a relation is associated with the internal damage of concrete cores and the degree of coarse aggregate within the core diameter from the extracting process of the cores. The strength estimation expressions was formulated using the non-destructive technique and the core strength estimation can be updated with further test results and utilized for the maintenance of NPP.

  20. Strength evaluation of socket joints (United States)

    Rash, Larry C.


    This report documents the development of a set of equations that can be used to provide a relatively simple solution for identifying the strength of socket joints and for most cases avoid the need of more lengthy analyses. The analytical approach was verified by comparison of the contact load distributions to results obtained from a finite element analysis. The contacting surfaces for the specific joint in this analysis are in the shape of frustrums of a cone and are representative of the tapered surfaces in the socket-type joints used to join segments of model support systems for wind tunnels. The results are in the form of equations that can be used to determine the contact loads and stresses in the joint from the given geometry and externally applied loads. Equations were determined to define the bending moments and stresses along the length of the joints based on strength and materials principles. The results have also been programmed for a personal computer and a copy of the program is included.

  1. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.


    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  2. Transition to reconstructibility in weakly coupled networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict J Lünsmann

    Full Text Available Across scientific disciplines, thresholded pairwise measures of statistical dependence between time series are taken as proxies for the interactions between the dynamical units of a network. Yet such correlation measures often fail to reflect the underlying physical interactions accurately. Here we systematically study the problem of reconstructing direct physical interaction networks from thresholding correlations. We explicate how local common cause and relay structures, heterogeneous in-degrees and non-local structural properties of the network generally hinder reconstructibility. However, in the limit of weak coupling strengths we prove that stationary systems with dynamics close to a given operating point transition to universal reconstructiblity across all network topologies.

  3. Glass/Jamming Transition in Colloidal Aggregation (United States)

    Segre, Philip N.; Prasad, Vikram; Weitz, David A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)


    We have studied colloidal aggregation in a model colloid plus polymer system with short-range attractive interactions. By varying the colloid concentration and the strength of the attraction, we explored regions where the equilibrium phase is expected to consist of colloidal crystallites in coexistance with colloidal gas (i.e. monomers). This occurs for moderate values of the potential depth, U approximately equal to 2-5 kT. Crystallization was not always observed. Rather, over an extended sub-region two new metastable phases appear, one fluid-like and one solid-like. These were examined in detail with light scattering and microscopy techniques. Both phases consist of a near uniform distribution of small irregular shaped clusters of colloidal particles. The dynamical and structural characteristics of the ergodic-nonergodic transition between the two phases share much in common with the colloidal hard sphere glass transition.

  4. Chiral crossover transition in a finite volume (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Jia, Wenbao; Sun, An; Zhang, Liping; Zong, Hongshi


    Finite volume effects on the chiral crossover transition of strong interactions at finite temperature are studied by solving the quark gap equation within a cubic volume of finite size L. With the anti-periodic boundary condition, our calculation shows the chiral quark condensate, which characterizes the strength of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, decreases as L decreases below 2.5 fm. We further study the finite volume effects on the pseudo-transition temperature {T}{{c}} of the crossover, showing a significant decrease in {T}{{c}} as L decreases below 3 fm. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475085, 11535005, 11690030, 51405027), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (020414380074), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M591808) and Open Research Foundation of State Key Lab. of Digital Manufacturing Equipment & Technology in Huazhong University of Science & Technology (DMETKF2015015)

  5. Dependence of synchronization transitions on mean field approach in two-way coupled neural system (United States)

    Shi, J. C.; Luo, M.; Huang, C. S.


    This work investigates the synchronization transitions in two-way coupled neural system by mean field approach. Results show that, there exists a critical noise intensity for the synchronization transitions, i.e., above (or below) the critical noise intensity, the synchronization transitions are decreased (or hardly change) with increasing the noise intensity. Meanwhile, the heterogeneity effect plays a negative role for the synchronization transitions, and above critical coupling strength, the heterogeneity effect on synchronization transitions can be negligible. Furthermore, when an external signal is introduced into the coupled system, the novel frequency-induced and amplitude-induced synchronization transitions are found, and there exist an optimal frequency and an optimal amplitude of external signal which makes the system to display the best synchronization transitions. In particular, it is observed that the synchronization transitions can not be further affected above critical frequency of external signal.

  6. Coordination of IVI and transit signal priority on transit evacuations. (United States)


    During an emergency evacuation, execution time is always critical to the evacuees who are : transit dependent. Transit Signal Priority (TSP) can speed up the transit services by prioritizing : the approaching bus at a signalized intersection. With th...

  7. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.


    If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  8. Elastic-plastic transition: A universal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhong


    Full Text Available Although the initial stress-strain behavior in a tensile test is often characterized as linear elastic up to a yield stress and nonlinear plastic thereafter, the pre-yield transition region is known to exhibit significant curvature and hysteresis. Hundreds of high-precision loading-unloading-loading tensile tests were performed using 26 commercial sheet alloys exhibiting a wide range of strength, ductility and crystal structure. Analysis of the results reveals the following: 1.There is no significant linear elastic region; the proportional limit is ~0 MPa when measured with sufficient sensitivity. 2.Each of the hundreds of measured transitional stress-strain curves can be characterized by a single parameter, here called the “modulus reduction rate.”The corresponding equation captures ~80% of the observed variation, a factor of 3 to 6 better than a one-parameter linear approximation. 3.Most interestingly, the transitional behavior for all alloys follows a “Universal Law” requiring no fit parameters. The law depends only upon the strength of the material and its Young’s modulus, both of which are can be measured by independent tests or adopted from handbooks. The Universal Law captures ~90% of the variation represented by the one-parameter representation and eliminates the need for mechanical testing to implement and apply. The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. The results provide a simple path to significantly improving applied constitutive models in the transitional regime. The consistency of the effect for such a wide range of metals and suggests that the origin of the behavior lies in the pile-up and relaxation of dislocation arrays.

  9. Movement velocity vs. strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C. Marques


    Full Text Available Intensity during strength training has been commonly identified with relative load (percentage of one-repetition maximum, 1RM or with performing a given maximal number of repetitions in each set (XRM: 5RM, 10RM, 15 RM, etc.. Yet, none of these methods can be appropriate for precisely monitoring the real training effort in each training session. The first approach requires coaches to individually assess the 1RM value for each athlete. We may agree that expressing intensity as a percentage of the maximum repetition has the advantage that it can be used to program strength training for multiple athletes simultaneously, the loads being later transformed in absolute values (kg for each individual. Further, another advantage is that this expression of the intensity can clearly reflect the dynamics of the evolution of the training load if we understand the percentage of 1RM as an effort, and not as a simple arithmetic calculus. Nevertheless, direct assessment of 1RM has some possible disadvantages worth noting. It may be associated with risk of injury when performed incorrectly or by novice athlete’s and it is time-consuming and impractical for large groups. Moreover, the actual RM can change quite rapidly after only a few training sessions and often the obtained value is not the subject’s true maximum. The classic way to prescribe loading intensity is to determine, through trial and error, the maximum number of repetitions that one can be performed with a given submaximal weight. For example, 5RM refers to a weight that can only be lifted five times. Some studies identified the relationship between selected percentages of 1RM and the number of repetitions to failure, establishing a repetition maximum continuum. It is believed that certain performance characteristics are best trained using specific RM load ranges. This method eliminates the need for a direct 1RM test, but it is not without drawbacks either. Using exhaustive efforts is common

  10. Quantum phase transition with dissipative frustration (United States)

    Maile, D.; Andergassen, S.; Belzig, W.; Rastelli, G.


    We study the quantum phase transition of the one-dimensional phase model in the presence of dissipative frustration, provided by an interaction of the system with the environment through two noncommuting operators. Such a model can be realized in Josephson junction chains with shunt resistances and resistances between the chain and the ground. Using a self-consistent harmonic approximation, we determine the phase diagram at zero temperature which exhibits a quantum phase transition between an ordered phase, corresponding to the superconducting state, and a disordered phase, corresponding to the insulating state with localized superconducting charge. Interestingly, we find that the critical line separating the two phases has a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the dissipative coupling strength. This result is a consequence of the frustration between (i) one dissipative coupling that quenches the quantum phase fluctuations favoring the ordered phase and (ii) one that quenches the quantum momentum (charge) fluctuations leading to a vanishing phase coherence. Moreover, within the self-consistent harmonic approximation, we analyze the dissipation induced crossover between a first and second order phase transition, showing that quantum frustration increases the range in which the phase transition is second order. The nonmonotonic behavior is reflected also in the purity of the system that quantifies the degree of correlation between the system and the environment, and in the logarithmic negativity as an entanglement measure that encodes the internal quantum correlations in the chain.

  11. Milestoning with transition memory (United States)

    Hawk, Alexander T.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.


    Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics and thermodynamics of molecular processes occurring on time scales that are not accessible to brute force molecular dynamics (MD). In milestoning, the conformation space of the system is sectioned by hypersurfaces (milestones), an ensemble of trajectories is initialized on each milestone, and MD simulations are performed to calculate transitions between milestones. The transition probabilities and transition time distributions are then used to model the dynamics of the system with a Markov renewal process, wherein a long trajectory of the system is approximated as a succession of independent transitions between milestones. This approximation is justified if the transition probabilities and transition times are statistically independent. In practice, this amounts to a requirement that milestones are spaced such that trajectories lose position and velocity memory between subsequent transitions. Unfortunately, limiting the number of milestones limits both the resolution at which a system's properties can be analyzed, and the computational speedup achieved by the method. We propose a generalized milestoning procedure, milestoning with transition memory (MTM), which accounts for memory of previous transitions made by the system. When a reaction coordinate is used to define the milestones, the MTM procedure can be carried out at no significant additional expense as compared to conventional milestoning. To test MTM, we have applied its version that allows for the memory of the previous step to the toy model of a polymer chain undergoing Langevin dynamics in solution. We have computed the mean first passage time for the chain to attain a cyclic conformation and found that the number of milestones that can be used, without incurring significant errors in the first passage time is at least 8 times that permitted by conventional milestoning. We further demonstrate that, unlike conventional milestoning, MTM permits

  12. Transition nozzle combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Maldonado, Jaime Javier


    The present application provides a combustion system for use with a cooling flow. The combustion system may include a head end, an aft end, a transition nozzle extending from the head end to the aft end, and an impingement sleeve surrounding the transition nozzle. The impingement sleeve may define a first cavity in communication with the head end for a first portion of the cooling flow and a second cavity in communication with the aft end for a second portion of the cooling flow. The transition nozzle may include a number of cooling holes thereon in communication with the second portion of the cooling flow.

  13. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  14. The Menopausal Transition. (United States)

    Bacon, Janice L


    A clear understanding of the physiology of the menopausal transition, clinical symptoms, and physical changes is essential for individualized patient management, maximizing benefits and minimizing risks for the present and the future. Menopause, defined by amenorrhea for 12 consecutive months, is determined retrospectively and represents a permanent end to menses. Many physical changes occur during the menopausal transition and beyond. Knowledge of symptoms and findings experienced by women undergoing the menopausal transition allow individualized care- improving quality of life and enhancing wellbeing for years to come. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passalacqua, Arnaud; Billes-Garabedian, Laurent; Jancovici, Jean-Marc; Arnoux, Mathieu; Auverlot, Dominique; Leguet, Benoit; Grandjean, Alain; Morel, Julien; Lambert, Quentin; Tranie, Jean-Pascal; Bureau, Dominique; Dron, Dominique; Beeker, Etienne


    This special dossier about energy transition is made of 10 contributions dealing with: thousands of years of energy transition (Jean-Marc Jancovici); a recurring problem after a thousand years of fight (Mathieu Arnoux); urban mobility: another energy story (Arnaud Passalacqua); an opportunity subjected to conditions for the French competitiveness (Dominique Auverlot, Benoit Leguet); Germany: an energy utopia or a role model? (Etienne Beeker); environment: the financing stakes (Dominique Dron); reconciling the economical, social and ecological stakes (Alain Grandjean); Sweden in the face of transportation challenge (Julien Morel, Quentin Lambert); India and China with a commitment to global warming (Jean-Pascal Tranie); training the energy transition managers (Dominique Bureau)

  16. Martensitic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J. [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)


    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.

  17. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов


    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  18. Reference Values of Grip Strength, Prevalence of Low Grip Strength, and Factors Affecting Grip Strength Values in Chinese Adults. (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Ong, Sherlin; Cheung, Osbert; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean


    The objectives of this study were to update the reference values of grip strength, to estimate the prevalence of low grip strength, and to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol on grip strength values in Chinese adults. A cross-sectional survey of Chinese men (n = 714) and women (n = 4014) aged 18-102 years was undertaken in different community settings in Hong Kong. Grip strength was measured with a digital dynamometer (TKK 5401 Grip-D; Takei, Niigata, Japan). Low grip strength was defined as grip strength 2 standard deviations or more below the mean for young adults. The effects of measurement protocol on grip strength values were examined in a subsample of 45 men and women with repeated measures of grip strength taken with a hydraulic dynamometer (Baseline; Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY), using pair t-tests, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland and Altman plots. Grip strength was greater among men than among women (P values than the Baseline hydraulic dynamometer (P values were also observed when the measurement was performed with the elbow extended in a standing position, compared with that with the elbow flexed at 90° in a sitting position, using the same dynamometer (P values of grip strength and estimated the prevalence of low grip strength among Chinese adults spanning a wide age range. These findings might be useful for risk estimation and evaluation of interventions. However, grip strength measurements should be interpreted with caution, as grip strength values can be affected by type of dynamometer used, assessment posture, and elbow position. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Consequences of acid strength for isomerization and elimination catalysis on solid acids. (United States)

    Macht, Josef; Carr, Robert T; Iglesia, Enrique


    We address here the manner in which acid catalysis senses the strength of solid acids. Acid strengths for Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) clusters and zeolites, chosen because of their accurately known structures, are described rigorously by their deprotonation energies (DPE). Mechanistic interpretations of the measured dynamics of alkane isomerization and alkanol dehydration are used to obtain rate and equilibrium constants and energies for intermediates and transition states and to relate them to acid strength. n-Hexane isomerization rates were limited by isomerization of alkoxide intermediates on bifunctional metal-acid mixtures designed to maintain alkane-alkene equilibrium. Isomerization rate constants were normalized by the number of accessible protons, measured by titration with 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine during catalysis. Equilibrium constants for alkoxides formed by protonation of n-hexene increased slightly with deprotonation energies (DPE), while isomerization rate constants decreased and activation barriers increased with increasing DPE, as also shown for alkanol dehydration reactions. These trends are consistent with thermochemical analyses of the transition states involved in isomerization and elimination steps. For all reactions, barriers increased by less than the concomitant increase in DPE upon changes in composition, because electrostatic stabilization of ion-pairs at the relevant transition states becomes more effective for weaker acids, as a result of their higher charge density at the anionic conjugate base. Alkoxide isomerization barriers were more sensitive to DPE than for elimination from H-bonded alkanols, the step that limits 2-butanol and 1-butanol dehydration rates; the latter two reactions showed similar DPE sensitivities, despite significant differences in their rates and activation barriers, indicating that slower reactions are not necessarily more sensitive to acid strength, but instead reflect the involvement of more unstable organic

  20. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations. (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H


    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  1. Cobalt: for strength and color (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.; Kropschot, S.J.


    Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures. It is also one of the essential trace elements (or "micronutrients") that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted. The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt-the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about 1735 and identified some of its valuable properties.

  2. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  3. Transit ridership, reliability, and retention. (United States)


    This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...

  4. Rural transit emergency planning guidance. (United States)


    Providing safe, reliable transportation has long been a priority at all levels of the transit industry including the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and individual transit providers. Over the l...

  5. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.


    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  6. Modeling Metropolitan Detroit transit. (United States)


    "The seven-county Southeast Michigan region, that encompasses the Detroit Metropolitan Area, : ranks fifth in population among top 25 regions in the nation. It also ranks among bottom five in : the transit service provided, measured in miles or hours...

  7. Transit management certificate program. (United States)


    TTI worked closely with the Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning Department : (LAUP) of Texas A&M University (TAMU) to develop a transit management certificate : focus for the current Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning (CTP) housed ...

  8. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe


    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  9. Superconductivity in transition metals. (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P


    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Geomagnetic polarity transitions (United States)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.


    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  11. Transition to turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeau, Y.


    In this work it is reviewed a few known types of transition to turbulence, as the cascade of period doubling and the intermittent transition. This happens in dynamical systems with a few degrees of freedom, as modelled by the iteration of non linear maps. Then it is presented specific transitions for systems with many degrees of freedom. It is condidered first the occurence of a low frequency broadband noise in large cells at the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection; then the transition by intermittent bursts in parallel flows. In this last case, one is concerned with localized and finite amplitude perturbations. Simple geometric arguments show that these fluctuations, when they are isolated and with a well definite relative speed, exist for a single value of the Reynolds number only [fr

  12. Slow-transit Constipation. (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Philips, Sidney F.


    Idiopathic slow-transit constipation is a clinical syndrome predominantly affecting women, characterized by intractable constipation and delayed colonic transit. This syndrome is attributed to disordered colonic motor function. The disorder spans a spectrum of variable severity, ranging from patients who have relatively mild delays in transit but are otherwise indistinguishable from irritable bowel syndrome to patients with colonic inertia or chronic megacolon. The diagnosis is made after excluding colonic obstruction, metabolic disorders (hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia), drug-induced constipation, and pelvic floor dysfunction (as discussed by Wald ). Most patients are treated with one or more pharmacologic agents, including dietary fiber supplementation, saline laxatives (milk of magnesia), osmotic agents (lactulose, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 3350), and stimulant laxatives (bisacodyl and glycerol). A subtotal colectomy is effective and occasionally is indicated for patients with medically refractory, severe slow-transit constipation, provided pelvic floor dysfunction has been excluded or treated.

  13. Analysis of the Catecholaminergic Phenotype in Human SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Filograna

    Full Text Available Human cell lines are often used to investigate cellular pathways relevant for physiological or pathological processes or to evaluate cell toxicity or protection induced by different compounds, including potential drugs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the differentiating activities of three agents (retinoic acid, staurosporine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 cell lines; the first cell line is largely used in the field of neuroscience, while the second is still poorly characterized. After evaluating their effects in terms of cell proliferation and morphology, we investigated their catecholaminergic properties by assessing the expression profiles of the major genes involved in catecholamine synthesis and storage and the cellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline. Our results demonstrate that the two cell lines possess similar abilities to differentiate and acquire a neuron-like morphology. The most evident effects in SH-SY5Y cells were observed in the presence of staurosporine, while in BE(2-M17 cells, retinoic acid induced the strongest effects. Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 cells are characterized by the production of both NA and DA, but their levels are considerably higher in BE(2-M17 cells. Moreover, the NAergic phenotype appears to be more pronounced in SH-SY5Y cells, while BE(2-M17 cells have a more prominent DAergic phenotype. Finally, the catecholamine concentration strongly increases upon differentiation induced by staurosporine in both cell lines. In conclusion, in this work the catecholaminergic phenotype of the human BE(2-M17 cell line upon differentiation was characterized for the first time. Our data suggest that SH-SY5Y and BE(2-M17 represent two alternative cell models for the neuroscience field.


    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    observations. Premièrement, il vaut mieux savoir précisément ce qu'on entend par. « transition » dans le cas d'un pays en développement. Il ne s'agit presque jamais d'un ... La deuxième observation tirée des données probantes présentées est que, dans un contexte de ... des perturbations propres aux transitions. Pourtant ...

  15. Global transition i sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Meyrowitsch, Dan W


    Global epidemiological transition reflected in changed patterns of death and diseases was first described by Omran; decreasing death and disease rates from infectious diseases, particularly in children and the young, are followed by decreased fertility rate and increased longevity, and by degener......Global epidemiological transition reflected in changed patterns of death and diseases was first described by Omran; decreasing death and disease rates from infectious diseases, particularly in children and the young, are followed by decreased fertility rate and increased longevity...

  16. The WFCAM Transit Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.


    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS has been obtaining data on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope since 2007. The WTS targets about 8,000 M dwarfs over several square degrees of sky, and aims to find low-mass eclipsing binaries and planets, down to the size of the Earth, transiting M dwarf stars with periods up to a few days.



    Liefert, William M.; Lohmar, Bryan; Serova, Eugenia


    This paper examines why transition from planned to market economies in the countries of the former Soviet bloc has changed their mix and volumes of food consumption. During transition, consumption of high value products, such as meat and dairy products, has plummeted, while consumption of staple foods such as bread and potatoes has remained steady, or even increased. The paper shows that in the pre-reform planned economy, planners "desired" the production and national consumption of high valu...

  18. Transitional Justice in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Payero López


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate Spanish transitional justice policy. The aspects of transitional justice put forward by L. Joinet –truth, justice and reparation– will frame this analysis. Firstly, the main deficiencies of this policy will be pointed out. Secondly, some measures to be adopted in Spain will be suggested. Their implementation would mean that international standards on the protection of human rights, as agreed within the specialized literature, would be met.

  19. Monopole strength as a probe of nuclear shape mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.


    The monopole strength, MS, within a single set of nuclear shape excitations is compared with the MS between different shapes. After misconceptions are pointed out concerning the spin dependence of B(E2) values, MS properties are juxtaposed with gamma-ray and beta-decay properties of 70 Se, 96 Zr, 102 Pd, and the N = 60 isotones to illustrate the utility of combined investigations and evidence is given for the observation of a two-phonon octupole multiplet. Finally, consideration is given to the dominance of the 3 S 1 force in producing deformation in the N > 50 1g nuclei. 23 refs., 4 figs

  20. Optical Magnetometry Using Multiphoton Transitions (United States)

    Degenkolb, Skyler M.

    Optical magnetometry plays a critical role in low-energy precision measurements and numerous other applications. In particular, permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) searches impose strict requirements on magnetic field sensitivity of the underlying atomic or molecular species. Other magnetometer properties - such as chemical reactivity, dielectric strength, and interaction cross-sections with other species - also impose limitations on experimental conditions. Here, we explore a novel approach to optical magnetometry, using multiphoton transitions of diamagnetic atoms to detect Larmor precession of polarized nuclei. Resonant probes are possible at moderate ultraviolet wavelengths, and hyperfine structure couples spin precession to fluorescence transitions with negligible backgrounds; paramagnetic rotation due to intensity-dependent dispersion may also be detectable. Nuclear spins and nonlinear optical excitation introduce new degrees of freedom, and evade limitations arising from rapid electronic decoherence. This dissertation reports progress towards two-photon optical magnetometry using ytterbium, rubidium, and xenon. We characterize the influence of probe polarization and magnetic fields on fluorescence spectra, for one- and two-photon continuous-wave (cw) excitation of ytterbium. Resolved hyperfine and isotope structure allow us to use spin-zero isotopes for diagnostics and normalization, and we develop analysis for overlapping two-photon resonances. We also report measurements of two-photon excitation in ytterbium and rubidium using picosecond laser pulses, and in xenon using a cw laser. Although hyperfine structure is unresolved, the rubidium measurements are sensitive to probe field polarization. Fluorescence spectra from two-photon excitation of ytterbium with femtosecond pulses show modulation when the repetition rate changes. Although techniques for polarizing noble gas nuclei are mature, existing cell designs are incompatible with two

  1. Analysis of Florida Department Of Transportation Transit Corridor Program/Projects: Technical Memorandum Number Three - General Recommendations (United States)


    CUTR interviewed FDOT personnel at both the Central Office and Distict Offices and agency personnel to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the overall Transit Corridor Program, including the results of specific projects, as well as the FDOT proce...

  2. Facility transition instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.


    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  3. Beta decay and strength distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.C.


    With the increasing accessibility of nuclei far from stability, experimenters find themselves faced more and more often with complex β-decay schemes: nuclei with over 5 MeV of β-decay energy, exhibiting hundreds and perhaps thousands of transitions. A detailed level-by-level exposition of such schemes - for example, by studying β-delayed γ-rays - is at best prohibitively time consuming, and at worst actually impossible with current techniques. Furthermore, even if reliable schemes are obtained experimentally, their confrontation with theory is severely limited by the absence of theories sufficiently complete to account for such complex spectra. At best, it is the details of the first few excited states and the general features of the rest that are useful for comparison. From both points of view, experimental and theoretical, there is strong motivation to find a broader perspective, emphasizing these general features without being overwhelmed by a proliferation of detail

  4. Recent progress in the global description of atomic transitions (United States)

    Bauche, J.; Bauche-Arnoult, C.


    The model of Unresolved Transition Arrays (UTA) has been proposed some years ago for modelling a transition array, without resorting to any large energy-matrix diagonalization. For each UTA, the low-order moments of the distribution of the line energies weighted by their strengths are computed exactly, in the form of compact formulae. Then, this distribution is represented in the spectrum by one Gaussian, or one skewed Gaussian, whose axis, variance and asymmetry are obtained from the calculated moments. This model is well suited to the case of emission spectra of highly-charged atomic ions, where the low configurations generally do not overlap, and where the recorded lines often coalesce into broad bands. Recently, some progress in the global approach has been made for the cases (i) where configuration-interaction effects are important and (ii) where the lines are resolved. It is now possible to propose simulations of a transition array where the total strength is corrected for the interaction with a large number of configurations, and/or where the lines are obtained by a Monte Carlo method. In such simulations, the low-order moments of the weighted and unweighted distributions of line wavelengths and amplitudes are correct, and the number of lines and the total strength in small wavelength ranges are in good agreement with a line-by-line calculation. Thus, it is possible to introduce thousands of transition arrays in the interpretation of laser-produced plasma spectra, or in the calculation of astrophysical opacities.

  5. Development of predictive equations for lifting strengths. (United States)

    Kumar, S


    The purpose of the study was to determine relationship between lifting strengths of male and female subjects and body posture, type of lift (stoop or squat) and velocity of lift. Thirty normal young adults (18 males and 12 females) volunteered for the study. All subjects were required to perform a total of 56 tasks. Of these, 28 were stoop lifts and 28 were squat lifts. In each of the categories of stoop and squat lifts, the strengths were tested in standard posture, isokinetic (linear velocity of 500 mm/s), and isometric modes at half, three-quarters and full horizontal individual reach distances in sagittal, 30 degrees lateral and 60 degrees lateral planes. The strengths were measured using a static dynamic strength tester with a load cell and an IBM microcomputer with an A/D card. The peak and average strength values were extracted and statistically compared across conditions and gender (ANOVA). Finally a multiple regression analysis was carried out to predict strength as a function of reach, posture and velocity of lift. The ANOVA revealed a highly significant effect of gender, reach, plane and velocity (p < 0.01). All regression equations (108) were significant (p < 0.01), and more than 70% of variance in lifting strength was accounted for by the anthropometric variables and sagittal plane strength values. Such an established relationship allows one to predict the human lifting strength capabilities for industrial application based on simple anthropometric and strength characteristics.

  6. Impact of thermal misfit on shear strength of veneering ceramic/zirconia composites. (United States)

    Fischer, Jens; Stawarzcyk, Bogna; Trottmann, Albert; Hämmerle, Christoph H F


    Thermal misfit is discussed as one reason for chipping of veneered zirconia restorations. The aim of the investigation was to assess the effect of thermal misfit on the shear strength of zirconia/veneering ceramic composites. Shear strengths of 12 different veneering ceramic/zirconia composites were measured (n=10). The veneering ceramics were fired onto polished Y-TZP. In order to create a strong thermal mismatch, one of the veneering ceramics was intended for use on alumina and one for the metal-ceramic technique. The glass transition temperatures of the veneering ceramics and the coefficients of thermal expansion of all ceramics were measured (n=6). Statistical analysis was performed with one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Bonferroni test (pveneer (Delta alpha) were calculated. In addition the differences between glass transition temperatures of the veneering ceramics and room temperature (Delta T) as the effective temperature range for stress formation were calculated. Highest shear strength was observed when Delta alpha Delta T approximately 1000 x 10(-6). Thermal expansion and glass transition temperature of the veneering ceramic have an impact on the shear strength of veneer/zirconia composites.

  7. Optical oscillator strengths for valence-shell and Br-3d inner-shell excitations of HCl and HBr. (United States)

    Li, Wen-Bin; Zhu, Lin-Fan; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Ke-Zun


    Absolute optical oscillator strength density spectra for valence-shell excitations of HCl and HBr, as well as for Br-3d inner-shell excitations of HBr, have been determined by high-resolution electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy method in the dipole limit. Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the discrete transitions of HCl and HBr are reported and compared with the previous results determined by the photoabsorption method.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Monte Carlo simulation and theoretical modeling are used to study the statistical failure modes in unidirectional composites consisting of elastic fibers in an elastic matrix. Both linear and hexagonal fiber arrays are considered, forming 2D and 3D composites, respectively. Failure is idealized using the chain-of-bundles model in terms of {delta}-bundles of length {delta}, which is the length-scale of fiber load transfer. Within each {delta}-bundle, fiber load redistribution is determined by local load-sharing models that approximate the in-plane fiber load redistribution from planar break clusters as predicted from 2D and 3D shear-lag models. As a result these models are 1D and 2D, respectively. Fiber elements have random strengths following either the Weibull or the power-law distribution with shape and scale parameters {rho} and {sigma}{sub {delta}}, respectively. Simulations of {delta}-bundle failure, reveal two regimes. When fiber strength variability is low (roughly {rho} > 2) the dominant failure mode is by growing clusters of fiber breaks up to instability. When this variability is high (roughly 0 < {rho} < 1) cluster formation is suppressed by a dispersed fiber failure mode. For these two cases, closed-form approximations to the strength distribution of a {delta}-bundle are developed under the local load-sharing model and an equal load-sharing model of Daniels, respectively. The results compare favorably with simulations on {delta}-bundles with up to 1500 fibers. The location of the transition in terms of {rho} is affected by the upper tail properties of the fiber strength distributions as well as the number of fibers.

  9. The relBE2Spn toxin-antitoxin system of Streptococcus pneumoniae: role in antibiotic tolerance and functional conservation in clinical isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concha Nieto


    Full Text Available Type II (proteic chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS are widespread in Bacteria and Archaea but their precise function is known only for a limited number of them. Out of the many TAS described, the relBE family is one of the most abundant, being present in the three first sequenced strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (D39, TIGR4 and R6. To address the function of the pneumococcal relBE2Spn TAS in the bacterial physiology, we have compared the response of the R6-relBE2Spn wild type strain with that of an isogenic derivative, Delta relB2Spn under different stress conditions such as carbon and amino acid starvation and antibiotic exposure. Differences on viability between the wild type and mutant strains were found only when treatment directly impaired protein synthesis. As a criterion for the permanence of this locus in a variety of clinical strains, we checked whether the relBE2Spn locus was conserved in around 100 pneumococcal strains, including clinical isolates and strains with known genomes. All strains, although having various types of polymorphisms at the vicinity of the TA region, contained a functional relBE2Spn locus and the type of its structure correlated with the multilocus sequence type. Functionality of this TAS was maintained even in cases where severe rearrangements around the relBE2Spn region were found. We conclude that even though the relBE2Spn TAS is not essential for pneumococcus, it may provide additional advantages to the bacteria for colonization and/or infection.

  10. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.


    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  11. Prediction of concrete strength in massive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Makino, H.; Nakane, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Ohike, T.


    Reinforced concrete structures of a nuclear power plant are mostly of mass concrete with cross-sectional dimensions larger than 1.0 m. The temperature of concrete inside after placement rises due to heat of hydration of cement. It is well known that concrete strengths of mass concrete structure subjected to such temperature hysteresis are generally not equal to strengths of cylinders subjected to standard curing. In order to construct a mass concrete structure of high reliability in which the specified concrete strength is satisfied by the specified age, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the strength gain property of concrete in the structure and its relationships with the water-cement ratio of the mix, strength of standard-cured cylinders and the internal temperature hysteresis. This report describes the result of studies on methods of controlling concrete strength in actual construction projects

  12. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens


    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  13. Transgender community belongingness as a mediator between strength of transgender identity and well-being. (United States)

    Barr, Sebastian M; Budge, Stephanie L; Adelson, Jill L


    This study examined transgender community belongingness as a mediator between strength of transgender identity and well-being. A total of 571 transgender adults (n = 209 transgender women, n = 217 transgender men, and n = 145 nonbinary-identified individuals) completed an online survey assessing transgender community belongingness, strength of transgender identity (operationalized as the extent to which a person self-categorizes their identity as transgender and the extent to which they believe their gender transition to be important to their self-definition), and well-being (using measures of self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being). Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. When controlling for participants' income, age, and stage of gender transition, transgender community belongingness fully mediated the relationship between strength of transgender identity and well-being. Strength of transgender identity was indirectly and positively related to well-being through community belongingness, but was not directly related to well-being. Results suggest that transgender community belongingness is an important construct in the mental health of transgender people. The strength of a person's transgender identity also appears to be a significant construct in transgender people's well-being via its relationship with transgender community belongingness. Implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Alloy and composition dependence of hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility in high-strength steel fasteners. (United States)

    Brahimi, S V; Yue, S; Sriraman, K R


    High-strength steel fasteners characterized by tensile strengths above 1100 MPa are often used in critical applications where a failure can have catastrophic consequences. Preventing hydrogen embrittlement (HE) failure is a fundamental concern implicating the entire fastener supply chain. Research is typically conducted under idealized conditions that cannot be translated into know-how prescribed in fastener industry standards and practices. Additionally, inconsistencies and even contradictions in fastener industry standards have led to much confusion and many preventable or misdiagnosed fastener failures. HE susceptibility is a function of the material condition, which is comprehensively described by the metallurgical and mechanical properties. Material strength has a first-order effect on HE susceptibility, which increases significantly above 1200 MPa and is characterized by a ductile--brittle transition. For a given concentration of hydrogen and at equal strength, the critical strength above which the ductile-brittle transition begins can vary due to second-order effects of chemistry, tempering temperature and sub-microstructure. Additionally, non-homogeneity of the metallurgical structure resulting from poorly controlled heat treatment, impurities and non-metallic inclusions can increase HE susceptibility of steel in ways that are measurable but unpredictable. Below 1200 MPa, non-conforming quality is often the root cause of real-life failures.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Hydrogen Assisted Cracking of High Strength Alloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gangloff, Richard P


    ... (Irwin and Wells, 1997; Paris, 1998). Second, materials scientists developed metals with outstanding balances of high tensile strength and high fracture toughness (Garrison, 1990; Wells, 1993; Boyer, 1993...

  16. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.


    -elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  17. Procedural Options for Measuring Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindova S.


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide alternative means of measurement and evaluation of muscle strength in rehabilitation practice and diagnostics. In the last few years many electronic devices for evaluation of muscle strength have developed. Contemporary studies have shown that in addition to the standard manual muscle testing muscle strength can be assessed more objectively and analytically using electronic dynamometers and equipment. The strain gauges are used as a tool of precision in the industry that allows measurement of mechanical loads by dynamometers. By using these tools is possible to obtain continuous digital measurement and recording of muscle strength.

  18. Strength optimized designs of thermoelastic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    For thermoelastic structures the same optimal design does not simultaneously lead to minimum compliance and maximum strength. Compliance may be a questionable objective and focus for the present paper is on the important aspect of strength, quantified as minimization of the maximum von Mises stress...... to mathematical programming, which with a large number of both design variables and strength constraints, is found non-practical, we choose simple recursive iterations to obtain uniform energy density and find by examples that the obtained designs are close to fulfilling also strength maximization. In compliance...

  19. Strength properties of separators in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danko, T. [Viskase Corp., Chicago, IL (United States)


    Battery separator non-wovens that were coated with regenerated cellulose via the viscose process were subjected to storage in 40% potassium hydroxide (KOH) over a two month period. Samples were periodically checked for wet MD tensile strength. The test showed that among the non-wovens, the polyamide retained about 93% of its initial tensile strength whereas polyvinyl alcohol and cellulosic non-wovens retained only 55% and 35%, respectively. Adding a viscose coating to the non-wovens improved tensile strength retention by 20--25% for the polyvinyl alcohol and cellulosic materials. The viscose-coated polyamide retained more than 98% of its initial tensile strength.

  20. MIBG causes oxidative stress and up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE(2c)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Voûte, P. A.; van Gennip, A. H.


    We report the effects of meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a neuroblastoma-seeking agent, on cell proliferation and several oxidative stress-related parameters in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE(2c). MIBG inhibited the proliferation of this cell line in micromolar concentrations.

  1. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems


    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  2. Phase transitions in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.


    A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented.

  3. Hugoniot equation of state and dynamic strength of boron carbide (United States)

    Grady, Dennis E.


    Boron carbide ceramics have been particularly problematic in attempts to develop adequate constitutive model descriptions for purposes of analysis of dynamic response in the shock and impact environment. Dynamic strength properties of boron carbide ceramic differ uniquely from comparable ceramics. Furthermore, boron carbide is suspected, but not definitely shown, to undergoing polymorphic phase transformation under shock compression. In the present paper, shock-wave compression measurements conducted over the past 40 years are assessed for the purpose of achieving improved understanding of the dynamic equation of state and strength of boron carbide. In particular, attention is focused on the often ignored Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hugoniot measurements performed on porous sintered boron carbide ceramic. The LANL data are shown to exhibit two compression anomalies on the shock Hugoniot within the range of 20-60 GPa that may relate to crystallographic structure transitions. More recent molecular dynamics simulations on the compressibility of the boron carbide crystal lattice reveal compression transitions that bear similarities to the LANL Hugoniot results. The same Hugoniot data are complemented with dynamic isentropic compression data for boron carbide extracted from Hugoniot measurements on boron carbide and copper granular mixtures. Other Hugoniot measurements, however, performed on near-full-density boron carbide ceramic differ markedly from the LANL Hugoniot data. These later data exhibit markedly less compressibility and tend not to show comparable anomalies in compressibility. Alternative Hugoniot anomalies, however, are exhibited by the near-full-density data. Experimental uncertainty, Hugoniot strength, and phase transformation physics are all possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. It is reasoned that experimental uncertainty and Hugoniot strength are not likely explanations for the observed differences. The notable mechanistic

  4. Blackbody radiation shift of the Ga+ clock transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yongjun; Mitroy, J


    The blackbody radiation shift of the Ga + clock transition is computed to be −0.0140 ± 0.0062 Hz at 300 K. The small shift is consistent with the blackbody radiation shifts of the clock transitions of other group III ions which are of a similar size. The polarizabilities of the Ga + states were computed using the configuration interaction method with an underlying semi-empirical core potential. Quadrupole and non-adiabatic dipole polarizabilities were also computed. A byproduct of the analysis involved calculations of the low-lying spectrum and oscillator strengths, including polarizabilities, of the Ga 2+ ion. (paper)

  5. Transitions of Creatives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjællegaard, Cecilie Bryld

    specific human capital and hourly wage. By making use of a matched employer-employee dataset from the Denmark from 1994 to 2007, wage equation are estimated. The results suggest that a transition from a creative occupation to a non-creative occupation results in an increase in the hourly wage......The degree of transferability of skills and knowledge from an creative occupation in the creative industries to the wider economy is a great point of discussion within research in the arts and cultural and creative industries. By applying human capital theory on the labor market for creatives......, this paper investigates the relationship between creative occupation and industry human capital and hourly wage after transitioning to a non-creative occupation and/ or industry. Further, it is investigated how the distance of the transition mediates the relationship between creative occupation and industry...

  6. Transition to the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao


    The rising of cloud computing has dramatically changed the way software companies provide and distribute their IT product and related services over the last decades. Today, most software is bought offthe-shelf and distributed over the Internet. This transition is greatly influencing how software...... companies operate. In this paper, we present a case study of an ERP vendor for SMB (small and mediumsize business) in making a transition towards a cloud-based business model. Through the theoretical lens of ecosystem, we are able to analyze the evolution of the vendor and its business network as a whole......, and find that the relationship between vendor and Value-added-Reseller (VAR) is greatly affected. We conclude by presenting critical issues and challenges for managing such cloud transition....

  7. To finance the transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, Yannick; Maciel, Guillaume; Zeroual, Bouchra; Leca, Christel; Guillou, Maelle; Mossalgue, Marc; Raguet, Alex; Sabot, Guillaume; Coton, Patrice; Olesen, Gunnar Boye; Friggens, Sam; Pouyet, Regis; Blanc, Nicolas; Laurent, Pierre; Ruedinger, Andreas


    A set of brief articles illustrates the emergence of innovating and operational financing tools aimed at supporting energy transition in France and in Europe. As far as France is concerned, different examples are evoked: raising local savings, crowd-funding for renewable energies, citizen investment, cooperation between industries, communities and citizens, a semi-public company with citizen participation, the case of the Nancy urban community, a joint experience by a local public company and an investment fund. As far as Europe is concerned, the following topics or examples are evoked: local policies as lever for European financing, the Danish example of citizen-based financing, crowd-funding in the UK, the European emergence of cooperatives. As far as banks and institutions are concerned, the following topics are addressed: tools implemented by the Caisse des Depots for energy transition, the roles of banks and of public institutions in the financing of energy transition

  8. Citizens in sustainable transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika


    The paper explores how local public authorities can support and facilitate citizens’ participa-tion and learning in sustainable transition in urban neighbourhoods, by supporting local in-termediaries. The role of intermediaries can be performed by a variety of actors such as public housing...... associations; NGO´s, or semi public institutions. Our claim is that intermediary actors have the potential to facilitate new platforms for citizens’ participation in urban sustainable transition due to their particular role in between public authorities and civil society. The key question of the paper is how...... the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory processes in sustainable urban transitions, and the paper explores the concept of institutional capacity building as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of creating platforms for involving citizens...

  9. Transitioning DARPA Technology (United States)


    canonical paths were used. 15 As illustrated by the HiPer -D case study in Appendix B, transition plans are generally submitted as part of a DARPA’s...initiatives studied revealed two programs that followed the DS&T transition path-the SPEAKeasy Advanced Tactical Radio System and HiPer - D (High Performance...introducing new technology into the legacy systems. For example, in the HiPer -D case, it was determined that open architecture would reduce costs over the

  10. Electronic phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopaev, YuV


    Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele

  11. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco


    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  12. Symptomatic lumbosacral transitional vertebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Emil Kongsted; Bünger, Cody; Foldager, Casper Bindzus


    or resection of the transitional articulation. Of 272 articles reviewed 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Their level of evidence were graded I-V and the clinical outcomes were evaluated. Only 1 study had high evidence level (II). The remainders were case series (level IV). Only 5 studies used validated......Bertolotti's syndrome (BS) refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV), and low back pain (LBP). Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion...

  13. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni


    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  14. Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte

    KAUST Repository

    Nair, Arun Kumar Narayanan


    Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.

  15. A roadmap for tailoring the strength and ductility of ferritic/martensitic T91 steel via thermo-mechanical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.; Sun, C.; Fan, Z.; Chen, Y.; Zhu, R.; Yu, K.Y.; Hartwig, K.T.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.


    Ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels with high strength and excellent ductility are important candidate materials for the life extension of the current nuclear reactors and the design of next generation nuclear reactors. Recent studies show that equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) was able to improve mechanical strength of ferritic T91 steels moderately. Here, we examine several strategies to further enhance the mechanical strength of T91 while maintaining its ductility. Certain thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) processes enabled by combinations of ECAE, water quench, and tempering may lead to “ductile martensite” with exceptionally high strength in T91 steel. The evolution of microstructures and mechanical properties of T91 steel were investigated in detail, and transition carbides were identified in water quenched T91 steel. This study provides guidelines for tailoring the microstructure and mechanical properties of T91 steel via ECAE enabled TMT for an improved combination of strength and ductility.

  16. Static Material Strength Determined Using a DAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynn, H; Evans, W; Klepeis, J P; Lipp, M; Liermann, P; Yang, W


    By measuring sample thickness and pressure gradient using x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction, respectively, the accurate static yield strengths of Ta and Fe were determined at high pressure. This improved method has several advantages over other similar methods to quantitatively determine static material strength.

  17. Deformed metals - structure, recrystallisation and strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Juul Jensen, Dorte


    It is shown how new discoveries and advanced experimental techniques in the last 25 years have led to paradigm shifts in the analysis of deformation and annealing structures of metals and in the way the strength of deformed samples is related to structural parameters. This is described in three...... sections: structural evolution by grain subdivision, recovery and recrystallisation and strength-structure relationships....

  18. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength (United States)

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb


    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  19. Relationship of maximum strength to weightlifting performance. (United States)

    Stone, Michael H; Sands, William A; Pierce, Kyle C; Carlock, Jon; Cardinale, Marco; Newton, Robert U


    The primary objective was to assess the relationship of maximum strength to weightlifting ability using established scaling methods. The secondary objective was to compare men and women weightlifters on strength and weightlifting ability. Two correlational observations were carried out using Pearson's r. In the first observation (N = 65) the relationship of dynamic maximum strength (one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat) was compared with weightlifting ability; in the second observation (N = 16), isometric maximum strength (midthigh pull) was studied. Scaling methods for equating maximum strength and weightlifting results were used (load x (Ht), load x kg, load x lbm(-1), allometric, and Sinclair formula) to assess the association between measures of maximum strength and weightlifting performance. Using scaled values; correlations between maximum strength and weightlifting results were generally strong in both observations (e.g., using allometric scaling for the 1RM squat vs the 1RM snatch: r = 0.84, N = 65). Men were stronger than women (e.g., 1RM squat, N = 65: men = 188.1 +/- 48.6 kg; women = 126.7 +/- 28.3 kg); differences generally held when scaling was applied (e.g., 1RM squat scaled with the Sinclair formula: men = 224.7 +/- 36.5 kg; women = 144.2 +/- 25.4 kg). When collectively considering scaling methods, maximum strength is strongly related to weightlifting performance independent of body mass and height differences. Furthermore, men are stronger than women even when body mass and height are obviated by scaling methods.

  20. Impact of Hydrodynamics on Oral Biofilm Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, E.; Kalmykowa, O. J.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Sharma, P. K.


    Mechanical removal of oral biofilms is ubiquitously accepted as the best way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Removal effectiveness strongly depends on biofilm strength. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength, we grew single- and multi-species biofilms of

  1. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces (United States)

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Milosevic, Erik; Boyce, Brad L.; Zehnder, Alan T.


    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations show that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A maturity function valid for the Ethiopian cement and its equivalent is derived from test results of strength development of concrete in relation to temperature and time. Making use of the maturity function so obtained, the time. ·for the development of strength of concrete under prevailing field temperature is converted to an.

  3. Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children. (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Milliken, Laurie A.; Westcott, Wayne L.


    Evaluated the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children age 6-12 years. Data were collected on 96 children who performed a 1RM test on one upper body and one lower body exercise using child-sized weight machines. Findings indicated that children could safely perform 1RM strength tests provided…

  4. Ionic strength sensing in living cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Boqun; Poolman, Bert; Boersma, Arnold J

    Knowledge of the ionic strength in cells is required to understand the in vivo biochemistry of the charged biomacromolecules. Here, we present the first sensors to determine the ionic strength in living cells, by designing protein probes based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). These

  5. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu


    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  6. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability (United States)

    Ball, Robert


    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  7. Surfactant effects on soil aggregate tensile strength (United States)

    Little is known regarding a soil aggregate's tensile strength response to surfactants that may be applied to alleviate soil water repellency. Two laboratory investigations were performed to determine surfactant effects on the tensile strength of 1) Ap horizons of nine wettable, agricultural soils co...

  8. The strength of glass, hidden damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.


    The strength of float glass is a necessary engineering parameter. Determining this strength is a complex problem. Earlier results have shown that statistically bending test results are not a homogeneous group. To explain this, a theoiy of "hidden damage" is proposed. The essence of this theory is

  9. Enhancing paper strength by optimizing defect configuration (United States)

    J.M. Considine; W. Skye; W. Chen; D. Matthys; David W. Vahey; K. Turner; R. Rowlands


    Poor formation in paper, as denoted by large local variation of mass, tends to reduce maximum tensile strength but has not been well characterized. The effect of grammage variation on tensile strength was studied by introducing carefully placed holes in tensile specimens made of three different paper materials. Previous researchers demonstrated that the point-stress...

  10. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ious geometric and corrosion characteristics are investigated and it is found that the aspect ratio of the plate, the average thickness diminution, the standard deviation of thickness diminution and the amount of corrosion loss have influence on the reduction of buckling strength of the corroded plates. Buckling strength of one- ...

  11. Species independent strength grading of structural timber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenshorst, G.J.P.


    Timber as a construction material has been used for millennia, but the research field covering the prediction of the strength of structural timber is still in development. Currently, the common conception is that the determination of strength properties has to be determined for every wood species

  12. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia


    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  13. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam


    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  14. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.


    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  15. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.


    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  16. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.


    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and

  17. Is grip strength a predictor for total muscle strength in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anne E.; Takken, Tim; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.


    The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether grip strength is related to total muscle strength in children, adolescents, and young adults. The second purpose was to provide reference charts for grip strength, which could be used in the clinical and research setting. This cross-sectional

  18. Character Strengths and Intellectual and Developmental Disability: A Strengths-Based Approach from Positive Psychology (United States)

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.


    There has been limited focus in the disability field on assessing and intervening to promote strengths of character. However, character strengths have received significant attention in the broader field of positive psychology. This paper provides an overview of the growing science of character strengths and explores why and how character strengths…

  19. Detection of rock strength at Branisko massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarová Edita


    Full Text Available When monitoring and optimizing the driving proces of the exploratory gallery by a computer system, conditions for verification of the interaction between desintegrating head of driving machine and rock massif were created. One of the output values of this mathematical model is the model strength at a simple pressure ótlH, which is defined as a pressure at the discus and the massif contact during the desintigration (a near limit of massif strength. By geological and geological engineering exploration, the section of length 2340 m was divided into fourty-two geological sections and five quasi-homogeneous massif enviroments. In the article, results of scleroscopic strength óCI , the strength in a simple pressure determined from the point load test and the strength at simple pressure ótlH are confronted . The main advance of the electronic geomechanical monitoring is the density of gained information. The two-seconds sample period of input and output data during the driving process makes it possible to describe driving circumstances in an almost continual way for each millimeter of the built tunnel. Then the information about changes of disintegrated rock properties, have the same density (frequency. By comparing a quantity of data gained by examining the index of point strength, scleroscopic strength and the model strength in a simple pressure from the monitoring process of driving process it is obvious that during the driving of exploratory gallery of motorway tunnel Branisko, a proportion of data number from the three “type examinations” of strength was reached and it was approximately 1:7:5000. Approximately in the same proportion, there were determined values for the 42 geologic sections (I. – XLII., which were defined in detail by the geologic, engineering geologic, hydrogeologic and geotechnic research.. The presented quantity values of presented rock mass strength for each geologic section are presented by their arithmetic average

  20. Ideal strength of bcc molybdenum and niobium (United States)

    Luo, Weidong; Roundy, D.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Morris, J. W.


    The behavior of bcc Mo and Nb under large strain was investigated using the ab initio pseudopotential density-functional method. We calculated the ideal shear strength for the {211} and {011} slip systems and the ideal tensile strength in the direction, which are believed to provide the minimum shear and tensile strengths. As either material is sheared in either of the two systems, it evolves toward a stress-free tetragonal structure that defines a saddle point in the strain-energy surface. The inflection point on the path to this tetragonal ``saddle-point'' structure sets the ideal shear strength. When either material is strained in tension along , it initially follows the tetragonal, ``Bain,'' path toward a stress-free fcc structure. However, before the strained crystal reaches fcc, its symmetry changes from tetragonal to orthorhombic; on continued strain it evolves toward the same tetragonal saddle point that is reached in shear. In Mo, the symmetry break occurs after the point of maximum tensile stress has been passed, so the ideal strength is associated with the fcc extremum as in W. However, a Nb crystal strained in becomes orthorhombic at tensile stress below the ideal strength. The ideal tensile strength of Nb is associated with the tetragonal saddle point and is caused by failure in shear rather than tension. In dimensionless form, the ideal shear and tensile strengths of Mo (τ*=τm/G111=0.12, σ*=σm/E100=0.078) are essentially identical to those previously calculated for W. Nb is anomalous. Its dimensionless shear strength is unusually high, τ*=0.15, even though the saddle-point structure that causes it is similar to that in Mo and W, while its dimensionless tensile strength, σ*=0.079, is almost the same as that of Mo and W, even though the saddle-point structure is quite different.

  1. The character strengths of class clowns. (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer


    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  2. Transition From Pediatric to Adult Care by Young Adults With Chronic Granulomatous Disease: The Patient's Viewpoint. (United States)

    Margolis, Rachel; Wiener, Lori; Pao, Maryland; Malech, Harry L; Holland, Steven M; Driscoll, Patricia


    Children with chronic illnesses are living longer, prompting health care provider attention to the transition from pediatric to adult care. Transition of care is successful when youth are independent in managing their health. The aims of this study were to identify the strengths and barriers to transition from pediatric to adult care and to determine strategies that could enhance the transition process. A survey was administered via a structured interview to 33 young adult participants (19-27 years of age), living with chronic granulomatous disease all of whom transitioned from pediatric to adult care. The participants were predominately male (88%) and Caucasian (73%). Topics covered in the survey included understanding of disease and treatment, adherence, advance care planning, and barriers to transition. Data were analyzed using a conventional content analysis approach. Seventy-six percent of the participants did not understand their disease process and only 50% understood their prophylactic medication regimen. Seventy-five percent of participants perceived their transition as uneventful. Ninety-four percent were independent in self-management skills such as making appointments and 90% in refilling prescriptions. More than half of the participants thought that the transition process needed improvement. Specific suggestions to create a practical approach to transition were offered. Gaps in disease-related knowledge and transition planning were identified by adolescents and young adults living with chronic granulomatous disease. The findings suggest the need for enhancing the transition process utilizing interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a transition policy and program. Published by Elsevier Inc.


    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    from war to peace. The goal was to better understand how IDRC gathers and shares pertinent information to inform programming and decision- making. How was the Centre alerted to impending transition? How did it ... visited Burma for a first-hand look. Aiming mostly to learn more about Burma's research organizations ...

  4. in glass transition region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    compositions of arsenic. An effort has also been made to develop an empirical model for the composition dependence of ∆H. A good agreement has been observed between the experimental values and the results of model calculation. Keywords. Glass transition temperature; activation energy; heat absorbed; composition ...

  5. the Transition and Healt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 28, 2011 ... especially intakes of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin C,. Abstract. Objective: The objective was to investigate the absolute micronutrient intake and the possibility of micronutrient dilution of added sugar in the diets of an African population in nutritional transition. Design: A cross-sectional, ...

  6. Nursing Role Transition Preceptorship (United States)

    Batory, Susan M.


    The preceptorship clinical experience in a practical nursing (PN) program at a Midwestern community college is considered crucial to the PN students' transition from novice nurse to professional nurse. However, no research has been available to determine whether the preceptorship clinical accomplishes its purpose. A case study was conducted to…

  7. paraelectric phase transition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    at% of La, x = 3, 5, 6, 10 and 12] have been measured in the frequency range 1 Hz–1 MHz using the vector impedance ... The ferroelectric phase transition is diffuse in nature and broadening of the peak increases with La content. Keywords. PLZT ..... formation from rhombohedral–tetragonal–cubic phase with increase in ...

  8. Gas contracts in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.J. [Delhi Gas Pipeline Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)


    The transition of gas marketing by producers from a regulated and structured market to an open competitive and commodity market has created new challenges for attorneys drafting gas sales contracts. This article examines the following related topics: Interruptible contracts; pricing provisions; transport imbalances.

  9. A Survey Transition Course (United States)

    Johnston, William; McAllister, Alex M.


    Successful outcomes for a "Transition Course in Mathematics" have resulted from two unique design features. The first is to run the course as a "survey course" in mathematics, introducing sophomore-level students to a broad set of mathematical fields. In this single mathematics course, undergraduates benefit from an introduction of proof…

  10. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions (United States)

    Mathews, Sarah E.


    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  11. Parametric modal transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    in the refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcome many of the limitations and we investigate the computational complexity of modal refinement checking....

  12. Plasmas for Transition Delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotsonis, M.; Boon, P.; Veldhuis, L.


    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the properties of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) actuators aimed at transition delay techniques. A wide range of geometrical configurations are tested as well as several electrical operational conditions. For the majority of the measurements

  13. Photoinduced phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Nasu, K


    A new class of insulating solids was recently discovered. Whenirradiated by a few visible photons, these solids give rise to amacroscopic excited domain that has new structural and electronicorders quite different from the starting ground state. This occurrenceis called "photoinduced phase transition", and this multi-authoredbook reviews recent theoretical and experimental studies of this newphenomenon.

  14. Variational transition state theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)


    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  15. Learning for Life Transitions (United States)

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde


    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  16. Control of entanglement transitions in quantum spin clusters (United States)

    Irons, Hannah R.; Quintanilla, Jorge; Perring, Toby G.; Amico, Luigi; Aeppli, Gabriel


    Quantum spin clusters provide a platform for the experimental study of many-body entanglement. Here we address a simple model of a single-molecule nanomagnet featuring N interacting spins in a transverse field. The field can control an entanglement transition (ET). We calculate the magnetization, low-energy gap, and neutron-scattering cross section and find that the ET has distinct signatures, detectable at temperatures as high as 5% of the interaction strength. The signatures are stronger for smaller clusters.

  17. Study of the radiative strength function in /sup 148,150/Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becvar, F.; Montero-Cabrera, M.E.; Rigol, J.; Telezhnikov, S.A.; Hiep, H.T.


    The spectra of ..gamma.. rays accompanying neutron capture by the nuclei /sup 147//sup ,//sup 149/Sm is isolated resonances have been measured by the time-of-flight method in the IBR-30 reactor. Absolute intensities have been obtained for a number of transitions. From a combination of the results of the present work and published data we have determined the radiative strength function of the nuclei /sup 148/Sm and /sup 150/Sm for E1 transitions in the ..gamma..-ray energy region 5--7.5 MeV. The values obtained are 2.8 and 1.7 times smaller than the respective values expected from extrapolation of the Lorentz curves of the giant electric dipole resonance. An analysis of the behavior of the radiative strength function of nuclei with A = 148--157 is carried out.

  18. DAC Measurement of High-Pressure Yield Strength of Vanadium using In-Situ Thickness Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepeis, J P; Cynn, H; Evans, W J; Rudd, R E; Yang, L H; Liermann, H P; Yang, W


    The pressure-dependence of the quasi-static yield strength of vanadium in polycrystalline foils and powders has been measured up to 80 GPa at room temperature using an implementation of a non-hydrostatic diamond anvil cell technique [C. Meade and R. Jeanloz, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 3261 (1988)]. A new feature of this work is the use of an in-situ determination of the sample thickness. Following an initial increase in the strength with pressure, a decrease in the strength of vanadium was observed beginning at 40-50 GPa. We have measured the yield strength of vanadium up to 80 GPa under nonhydrostatic conditions. In this study, we used x-ray diffraction and absorption techniques to make in-situ measurements of the pressure gradient and the sample thickness. These measurements were used to evaluate the pressure-dependence of the material strength. We observed a decease in the yield strength of vanadium over the pressure range of 40-50 GPa. We propose that this change in the yieldstrength pressure-dependence is an indicator of the phase transition from bcc to rhombohedral.

  19. Dual characteristics of yield and ultimate strength as applied to two grades of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddy, T.G.; Benzley, S.E.; Johnson, R.L.


    Published yield and ultimate biaxial strength data for two grades of beryllium are correlated with the use of a macroscopic failure model. Cross sections of the resulting surfaces in three-dimensional stress space are drawn to illustrate the expected transition from ductile to brittle fracture for triaxial tension states of stress. The usefulness of these models to the prediction of fracture in ductile materials is discussed. 5 tables, 8 figures, 11 references

  20. Caltrans : transit funding manual : managing the delivery of transit projects (United States)


    This manual attempts to provide a step by step transit funding process. Included in this manual : is an overview of Caltrans Division of Mass Transportation, roles and responsibilities in : assisting local agencies to deliver transit projects. Transi...

  1. Strength anomaly in B2 FeAl single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matsumoto, N. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan). Graduate School


    Strength and deformation microstructure of B2 Fe-39 and 48%Al single crystals (composition given in atomic percent), which were fully annealed to remove frozen-in vacancies, have been investigated at temperatures between room temperature and 1073K. The hardness of as-homogenized Fe-48Al is higher than that of as-homogenized Fe-39Al while after additional annealing at 698K the hardness of Fe-48Al becomes lower than that of Fe-39Al. Fe-39Al single crystals slowly cooled after homogenizing at a high temperature were deformed in compression as a function of temperature and crystal orientation. A peak of yield strength appears around 0.5T{sub m} (T{sub m} = melting temperature). The orientation dependence of the critical resolved shear stress does not obey Schmid`s law even at room temperature and is quite different from that of b.c.c. metals and B2 intermetallics at low temperatures. At the peak temperature slip transition from <111>-type to <001>-type is found to occur macroscopically and microscopically, while it is observed in TEM that some of the [111] dislocations decompose into [101] and [010] on the (1096I) plane below the peak temperature. The physical sources for the positive temperature dependence of yield stress of B2 FeAl are discussed based on the obtained results.

  2. Strength evaluation code STEP for brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi.


    In a structural design using brittle materials such as graphite and/or ceramics it is necessary to evaluate the strength of component under complex stress condition. The strength of ceramic materials is said to be influenced by the stress distribution. However, in the structural design criteria simplified stress limits had been adopted without taking account of the strength change with the stress distribution. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the strength of component on the basis of the fracture model for brittle material. Consequently, the strength evaluation program, STEP, on a brittle fracture of ceramic materials based on the competing risk theory had been developed. Two different brittle fracture modes, a surface layer fracture mode dominated by surface flaws and an internal fracture mode by internal flaws, are treated in the STEP code in order to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture. The STEP code uses stress calculation results including complex shape of structures analyzed by the generalized FEM stress analysis code, ABAQUS, so as to be possible to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture for the structures having complicate shapes. This code is, therefore, useful to evaluate the structural integrity of arbitrary shapes of components such as core graphite components in the HTTR, heat exchanger components made of ceramics materials etc. This paper describes the basic equations applying to the STEP code, code system with a combination of the STEP and the ABAQUS codes and the result of the verification analysis. (author)

  3. Geometry and gravity influences on strength capability (United States)

    Poliner, Jeffrey; Wilmington, Robert P.; Klute, Glenn K.


    Strength, defined as the capability of an individual to produce an external force, is one of the most important determining characteristics of human performance. Knowledge of strength capabilities of a group of individuals can be applied to designing equipment and workplaces, planning procedures and tasks, and training individuals. In the manned space program, with the high risk and cost associated with spaceflight, information pertaining to human performance is important to ensuring mission success and safety. Knowledge of individual's strength capabilities in weightlessness is of interest within many areas of NASA, including workplace design, tool development, and mission planning. The weightless environment of space places the human body in a completely different context. Astronauts perform a variety of manual tasks while in orbit. Their ability to perform these tasks is partly determined by their strength capability as demanded by that particular task. Thus, an important step in task planning, development, and evaluation is to determine the ability of the humans performing it. This can be accomplished by utilizing quantitative techniques to develop a database of human strength capabilities in weightlessness. Furthermore, if strength characteristics are known, equipment and tools can be built to optimize the operators' performance. This study examined strength in performing a simple task, specifically, using a tool to apply a torque to a fixture.

  4. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI (United States)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Keenan, F. P.; Msezane, A. Z.


    We report on calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 253 levels of the (1s22s22p6) 3s23p5, 3s3p6, 3s23p43d, 3s3p53d, 3s23p33d2, 3s23p44s, 3s23p44p and 3s23p44d configurations of Ti VI. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package and flexible atomic code are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 253 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. Comparisons are made with existing available results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Additionally, lifetimes for all 253 levels are listed, although comparisons with other theoretical results are limited to only 88 levels. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 1% (within 0.03 Ryd), whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20%. A reassessment of the energy level data on the National Institute of Standards and Technology website for Ti VI is suggested.

  5. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K M; Keenan, F P; Msezane, A Z


    We report on calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 253 levels of the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d, 3s3p 5 3d, 3s 2 3p 3 3d 2 , 3s 2 3p 4 4s, 3s 2 3p 4 4p and 3s 2 3p 4 4d configurations of Ti VI. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package and flexible atomic code are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 253 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. Comparisons are made with existing available results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Additionally, lifetimes for all 253 levels are listed, although comparisons with other theoretical results are limited to only 88 levels. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 1% (within 0.03 Ryd), whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20%. A reassessment of the energy level data on the National Institute of Standards and Technology website for Ti VI is suggested. (paper)

  6. Eating Disorder Behaviors, Strength of Faith, and Values in Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults: An Exploration of Associations (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.


    Adolescents entering college are often affected by eating disorders and during this transition to emerging adulthood, individuals begin to establish personal values and beliefs, which makes this population interesting when studying Eating Disorders, values, and faith. This research project seeks to examine the association among strength of…

  7. Are only Emotional Strengths Emotional? Character Strengths and Disposition to Positive Emotions. (United States)

    Güsewell, Angelika; Ruch, Willibald


    This study aimed to examine the relations between character strengths and dispositional positive emotions (i.e. joy, contentment, pride, love, compassion, amusement, and awe). A sample of 574 German-speaking adults filled in the Dispositional Positive Emotion Scales (DPES; Shiota, Keltner, & John, 2006), and the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005). The factorial structure of the DPES was examined on item level. Joy and contentment could not be clearly separated; the items of the other five emotions loaded on separate factors. A confirmatory factor analysis assuming two latent factors (self-oriented and object/situation specific) was computed on scale level. Results confirmed the existence of these factors, but also indicated that the seven emotions did not split up into two clearly separable families. Correlations between dispositional positive emotions and character strengths were positive and generally low to moderate; a few theoretically meaningful strengths-emotions pairs yielded coefficients>.40. Finally, the link between five character strengths factors (i.e. emotional strengths, interpersonal strengths, strengths of restraint, intellectual strengths, and theological strengths) and the emotional dispositions was examined. Each of the factors displayed a distinctive "emotional pattern"; emotional strengths evidenced the most numerous and strongest links to emotional dispositions. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  8. Sources of strength-training information and strength-training behavior among Japanese older adults. (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio


    The promotion of strength training is now recognized as an important component of public health initiatives for older adults. To develop successful communication strategies to increase strength-training behavior among older adults, the identification of effective communication channels to reach older adults is necessary. This study aimed to identify the information sources about strength training that were associated with strength-training behaviors among Japanese older adults. The participants were 1144 adults (60-74 years old) randomly sampled from the registry of residential addresses. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The independent variables were sources of strength-training information (healthcare providers, friends, families, radio, television, newspapers, newsletters, posters, books, magazines, booklets, the Internet, lectures, other sources), and the dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential relationships. After adjusting for demographic factors and all other information sources, strength-training information from healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet were positively related to regular strength-training behavior. The findings of the present study contribute to a better understanding of strength-training behavior and the means of successful communication directed at increasing strength training among older adults. The results suggest that healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet are effective methods of communication for increasing strength-training behaviors among older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  9. Application of the uncoupled state-specific multireference coupled cluster method to a weakly bonded system: exploring the ground state Be2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Uttam Sinha; Chattopadhyay, Sudip


    Recently, Mukherjee and co-workers (2008 Chem. Phys. 349, 115) have proposed the uncoupled state-specific multireference coupled cluster approach (UC-SSMRCC), attuned particularly for the multireference systems to provide a relaxed description of the nondynamical correlation (stemming from quasidegeneracy) in the presence of dynamical correlation. By invoking an analogue of the anonymous parentage approximation in the coupling terms of the state-specific multireference coupled cluster (SS-MRCC) theory one obtains the UC-SSMRCC method without significantly sacrificing the accuracy and simultaneously retains all the key features of the parent theory. For this very reason the UC-SSMRCC calculations using large basis sets are computationally more feasible even with the inclusion of connected triples than the parent one. As far as our knowledge is concerned, no application of either the parent SS-MRCC or UC-SSMRCC has been reported in weakly bound systems to date. Hence, we have performed a UC-SSMRCC study of a weakly bound dimer (say X 1 Σ + Be 2 ) by the singles-, doubles-, triples-1a (SDT-1a) level of approximation. Because of the strong near-degeneracy of 2s and 2p atomic orbitals, X 1 Σ + Be 2 is a very suitable benchmark problem for quantum chemistry and a critical test for new theoretical methods and procedures. This study reveals that the quality of the description of X 1 Σ + Be 2 critically depends on the level of truncation of the cluster operators (and also on the choice of basis set) and on a delicately poised treatment of dynamic and nondynamic correlation effects. Our computed spectroscopic constants are in acceptably good agreement with other previously reported current generation correlation recovery theoretical estimates, indicating that the UC-SSMRCC method with SDT-1a is capable of achieving a qualitatively correct description of the X 1 Σ + Be 2 energy surface even with the smallest reference space. The UC-SSMRCC scheme is also capable of

  10. Quantum phase transitions in random XY spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunder, J.E.; McKenzie, R.H.


    Full text: The XY spin chain in a transverse field is one of the simplest quantum spin models. It is a reasonable model for heavy fermion materials such as CeCu 6-x Au x . It has two quantum phase transitions: the Ising transition and the anisotropic transition. Quantum phase transitions occur at zero temperature. We are investigating what effect the introduction of randomness has on these quantum phase transitions. Disordered systems which undergo quantum phase transitions can exhibit new universality classes. The universality class of a phase transition is defined by the set of critical exponents. In a random system with quantum phase transitions we can observe Griffiths-McCoy singularities. Such singularities are observed in regions which have no long range order, so they are not classified as critical regions, yet they display phenomena normally associated with critical points, such as a diverging susceptibility. Griffiths-McCoy phases are due to rare regions with stronger than! average interactions and may be present far from the quantum critical point. We show how the random XY spin chain may be mapped onto a random Dirac equation. This allows us to calculate the density of states without making any approximations. From the density of states we can describe the conditions which should allow a Griffiths-McCoy phase. We find that for the Ising transition the dynamic critical exponent, z, is not universal. It is proportional to the disorder strength and inversely proportional to the energy gap, hence z becomes infinite at the critical point where the energy gap vanishes

  11. Strength properties of concrete at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freskakis, G.N.; Burrow, R.C.; Debbas, E.B.


    A study is presented concerning the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and stress-strain relationships of concrete at elevated temperatures. A review of published results provides information for the development of upper and lower bound relationships for compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity and establishes exposure conditions for a lower bound thermal response. The relationships developed from the literature review are confirmed by the results of a verification test program. The strength and elasticity relationships provide a basis for the development of design stress-strain curves for concrete exposed to elevated temperatures

  12. Unexpectedly low tensile strength in concrete structures


    Siemes, A.J.M.; Han, N.; Visser, J.H.M.


    During an extensive investigation of some 25 concrete bridges and other structures suffering from alkali-silica reaction it has been found that the uniaxial tensile strength of the concrete was extremely low in relation to both the compressive strength and the splitting tensile strength. It is known that concrete with damage due to ASR has reduced mechanical properties. The literature indicates that with an expansion of 1 0/00 a reduction of 30 % may occur. The reduction found in some of the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Górski


    Full Text Available Numerous experimental studies, including experiments performed by the authors, have shown that the part orientation during layer deposition has a very strong influence on final strength of a product manufactured by additive Fused Deposition Technology. The paper presents the results of tensile, bending and impact strength tests performed on samples of various orientations, made out of ABS material using FDM technology. The results of these tests allowed discovering a unique phenomenon – with the changing orientation, not only the values of strength indexes change, but macroscopic material behavior under load as well. The transition between a “yield point” and “brittle” material usually happens in a certain range of orientation values, named a critical orientation by the authors. The paper indicates supposed ranges of critical orientation for various types of loads.

  14. Near-ideal theoretical strength in gold nanowires containing angstrom scale twins (United States)

    Wang, Jiangwei; Sansoz, Frederic; Huang, Jianyu; Liu, Yi; Sun, Shouheng; Zhang, Ze; Mao, Scott X.


    Although nanoscale twinning is an effective means to enhance yield strength and tensile ductility in metals, nanotwinned metals generally fail well below their theoretical strength limit due to heterogeneous dislocation nucleation from boundaries or surface imperfections. Here we show that Au nanowires containing angstrom-scaled twins (0.7 nm in thickness) exhibit tensile strengths up to 3.12 GPa, near the ideal limit, with a remarkable ductile-to-brittle transition with decreasing twin size. This is opposite to the behaviour of metallic nanowires with lower-density twins reported thus far. Ultrahigh-density twins (twin thicknessdeformation represent a new type of size effect distinct from the sample size effects described previously. PMID:23612283

  15. Generalized oscillator strengths for some higher valence-shell excitations of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lin-Fan; Yuan, Hui; Jiang, Wei-Chun; Zhang, Fang-Xin; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Cheng, Hua-Dong; Xu, Ke-Zun


    The valence shell excitations of argon were investigated by an angle-resolved fast-electron energy-loss spectrometer at an incident electron energy of 2500 eV, and the transition multipolarities for the excitations of 3p→3d, 4d, 5s, and 5p were elucidated with the help of the calculated intermediate coupling coefficients using the COWAN code. The generalized oscillator strengths for the excitations to 3p 5 (3d,3d ' ), 3p 5 (5p,5p ' ), and 3p 5 (5s,4d) were measured, and the profiles of these generalized oscillator strength were analyzed. Furthermore, although the present experimental positions of the maxima for the electric-monopole and electric-quadrupole excitations in 3p→5p are in agreement with the theoretical calculations [Amusia et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 022703 (2003)], the generalized oscillator strength profiles show obvious differences. In addition, the experimental generalized oscillator strength ratios for the electric-octupole transitions in 3p→3d are different from the theoretical prediction calculated by the COWAN code

  16. Transition Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A


    We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

  17. Vacancies in transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, G.; Lannoo, M.


    A calculation of the formation energy and volume for a vacancy in transition metals is described. A tight-binding scheme is used for the d band and a Born-Mayer type potential to account for the repulsive part of the energy at small distances. The results show that the relaxation energy is small in all cases, less than 0.1 eV. This seems to be coherent with the good agreement obtained for the theoretical and experimental values of the formation energy Esub(F)sup(V) of the vacancy, without including relaxation. The center of the transitional series is found to give a contraction (Formation volume of order -0.4 at.vol.) whereas the edges are found to produce dilations. (author)

  18. Map Projection Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula


    Full Text Available Map Projection Transitions is a very successful web application about map projections. The web page ( pre­sents a world map with graticule and country borders in the oblique Aitoff projection, with the South Pole. The map is not static, but animated. The South Pole moves toward the bottom and Earth rotates around its poles. The animation lasts five seconds, after which the projection changes and movement continues for five seconds, after which the projection changes again. Names of projections appear in a separate window. There are a total of 56 projections. The South Pole eventually becomes invisible and the North Pole appears at the top. Various parts of Earth appear in the center of the map by rotating around the poles.

  19. Energy transition in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Alain


    After having recalled the main issues and stakes addressed by the French national debate on energy transition (strategic stakes, priority to a reduction of French energy consumption, options for the evolution of the French energy mix), the author comments the possible evolution of energy prices and of the energy taxing policy (evolution of oil prices, carbon price). In a second part, the author addresses the issue of financing of building and housing renovation. He shows that this operation cannot be only based on financial markets which are not efficient. This means that a public intervention is required, and different solutions are then possible. Some of them seem difficult to implement (creation of money by the central Bank, creation of a public bank which could lend money to private actors), and some others need to be further examined (creation of a financing company for energy transition, use of national savings, simplified circuits for a financing of local projects by local savings, and so on)

  20. Jamming transitions in cancer (United States)

    Oswald, Linda; Grosser, Steffen; Smith, David M.; Käs, Josef A.


    The traditional picture of tissues, where they are treated as liquids defined by properties such as surface tension or viscosity has been redefined during the last few decades by the more fundamental question: under which conditions do tissues display liquid-like or solid-like behaviour? As a result, basic concepts arising from the treatment of tissues as solid matter, such as cellular jamming and glassy tissues, have shifted into the current focus of biophysical research. Here, we review recent works examining the phase states of tissue with an emphasis on jamming transitions in cancer. When metastasis occurs, cells gain the ability to leave the primary tumour and infiltrate other parts of the body. Recent studies have shown that a linkage between an unjamming transition and tumour progression indeed exists, which could be of importance when designing surgery and treatment approaches for cancer patients.

  1. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) prevents pro-oxidant effects of H2O2 in SK-N-BE(2) human neuroblastoma cells. (United States)

    Falone, Stefano; Marchesi, Nicoletta; Osera, Cecilia; Fassina, Lorenzo; Comincini, Sergio; Amadio, Marialaura; Pascale, Alessia


    Purpose The redox milieu, together with reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, may play a role in mediating some biological effects of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF). Some of us have recently reported that a pulsed EMF (PEMF) improves the antioxidant response of a drug-sensitive human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line to pro-oxidants. Since drug resistance may affect cell sensitivity to redox-based treatments, we wanted to verify whether drug-resistant human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2) cells respond to a PEMF in a similar fashion. Materials and methods SK-N-BE(2) cells were exposed to repeated 2 mT, 75 Hz PEMF (15 min each, repeated 3 times over 5 days), and ROS production, Mn-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)-based antioxidant protection and viability were assessed after 10 min or 30 min 1 mM hydrogen peroxide. Sham controls were kept at the same time in identical cell culture incubators. Results The PEMF increased the MnSOD-based antioxidant protection and reduced the ROS production in response to a pro-oxidant challenge. Conclusions Our work might lay foundation for the development of non-invasive PEMF-based approaches aimed at elevating endogenous antioxidant properties in cellular or tissue models.

  2. Nav Status & Daily Transit Report - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Displays a breakdown of vessel transit through Eisenhower lock in Massena, NY by different types of vessels and comparing current year transits to the year previous....

  3. NPS national transit inventory, 2013 (United States)


    This document summarizes key highlights from the National Park Service (NPS) 2013 National Transit Inventory, and presents data for NPS transit systems system-wide. The document discusses statistics related to ridership, business models, fleet charac...

  4. 2008 Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    England, Gordon


    The Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP) is the Department of Defense's integrated business transformation plan, which incorporates the transition plans of the Military Services, Components and the DoD Enterprise...

  5. Energies, Wavelengths, and Transition Rates for Ga-Like Ions (Nd XXX-Tb XXXV) (United States)

    El-Sayed, Fatma; Attia, S. M.


    Energies, wavelengths, transition probabilities, oscillator strengths, and line strengths have been calculated for 4s24p-4s4p2 and 4s24p-4s24d transitions in gallium-like ions from Z = 60 to 65, for Nd XXX, Pm XXXI, Sm XXXII, Eu XXXIII, Gd XXXIV, and Tb XXXV using the fully relativistic multiconfi guration Dirac-Fock method. The correlation with the n = 4 complex and the quantum electrodynamic effects have been considered in the calculations. The obtained results have been compared with the available experimental and other theoretical results.

  6. Dissipation-driven phase transition in two-dimensional Josephson arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capriotti, Luca; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Fubini, Andrea; Tognetti, Valerio; Vaia, Ruggero


    We analyze the interplay of dissipative and quantum effects in the proximity of a quantum phase transition. The prototypical system is a resistively shunted two-dimensional Josephson junction array, studied by means of an advanced Fourier path-integral Monte Carlo algorithm. The reentrant superconducting-to-normal phase transition driven by quantum fluctuations, recently discovered in the limit of infinite shunt resistance, persists for moderate dissipation strength but disappears in the limit of small resistance. For large quantum coupling our numerical results show that, beyond a critical dissipation strength, the superconducting phase is always stabilized at sufficiently low temperature. Our phase diagram explains recent experimental findings

  7. Interference in the resonance fluorescence of two incoherently coupled transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiffner, Martin; Evers, Joerg; Keitel, Christoph H.


    The fluorescence light emitted by a four-level system in J=1/2 to J=1/2 configuration driven by a monochromatic laser field and in an external magnetic field is studied. We show that the spectrum of resonance fluorescence emitted on the π transitions shows a signature of spontaneously generated interference effects. The degree of interference in the fluorescence spectrum can be controlled by means of the external magnetic field, provided that the Lande g factors of the excited and the ground state doublet are different. For a suitably chosen magnetic field strength, the relative weight of the Rayleigh line can be completely suppressed, even for low intensities of the coherent driving field. The incoherent fluorescence spectrum emitted on the π transitions exhibits a very narrow peak whose width and weight depend on the magnetic field strength. We demonstrate that the spectrum of resonance fluorescence emitted on the σ transitions shows an indirect signature of interference. A measurement of the relative peak heights in the spectrum from the σ transitions allows us to determine the branching ratio of the spontaneous decay of each excited state into the σ channel

  8. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene


    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  9. Gamma transitions between compound states in spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmenskij, S.G.; Markushev, V.P.; Furman, V.I.


    Average values of the reduced γ widths and their dispersions are investigated, basing on the Wigner statistical matrix method, for γ transitions from a compound state c into a less-energy excited state f of an arbitrary complexity in spherical nuclei. It is shown that in all the cases of practical interest the Porter-Thomas distribution is valid for the γ widths. It is found that in the γ transitions between compound states c and c' with Esub(γ) <= 2 MeV the dominating role is played by the M1 transitions due to the main multiquasiparticle states of c, and by the E1 transitions, due to small components of the state c. In framework of the existent theoretical schemes it is shown that the strength functions of the M1 and E1 transitions between the compound states with Esub(γ) <2 MeV are close. It is deduced thet the variant of the M1 transitions is preferable in view of the experimental results on the (n, γα) reactions induced by thermal and resonance neutrons

  10. Molecular Origins of Thermal Transitions in Polyelectrolyte Assemblies (United States)

    Yildirim, Erol; Zhang, Yanpu; Antila, Hanne S.; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L.; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Aalto Team; Texas A&M Team


    Polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayers and complexes formed from oppositely charged polymers can exhibit extraordinary superhydrophobicity, mechanical strength and responsiveness resulting in applications ranging functional membranes, optics, sensors and drug delivery. Depending on the assembly conditions, PE assemblies may undergo a thermal transition from glassy to soft behavior under heating. Our earlier work using thermal analysis measurements shows a distinct thermal transition for PE layer-by-layer (LbL) systems assembled with added salt but no analogous transition in films assembled without added salt or dry systems. These findings raise interesting questions on the nature of the thermal transition; here, we explore its molecular origins through characterization of the PE aggregates by temperature-controlled all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We show via molecular simulations the thermal transition results from the existence of an LCST (lower critical solution temperature) in the PE systems: the diffusion behavior, hydrogen bond formation, and bridging capacity of water molecules plasticizing the complex changes at the transition temperature. We quantify the behavior, map its chemistry specificity through comparison of strongly and weakly charged PE complexes, and connect the findings to our interrelated QCM-D experiments.

  11. Resistive transition in disordered superconductors with varying intergrain coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, L; Carbone, A; Gilli, M


    The effect of disorder is investigated in granular superconductive materials with strong- and weak-links. The transition is controlled by the interplay of the tunneling g and intragrain g intr conductances, which depend on the strength of the intergrain coupling. For g intr , the transition first involves the grain boundary, while for g ∼ g intr the transition occurs into the whole grain. The different intergrain couplings are considered by modeling the superconducting material as a disordered network of Josephson junctions. Numerical simulations show that on increasing the disorder, the resistive transition occurs for lower temperatures and the curve broadens. These features are enhanced in disordered superconductors with strong-links. The different behavior is further checked by estimating the average network resistance for weak- and strong-links in the framework of the effective medium approximation theory. These results may shed light on long standing puzzles such as: (i) enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature of many metals in the granular states; (ii) suppression of superconductivity in homogeneously disordered films compared to standard granular systems close to the metal-insulator transition; (iii) enhanced degradation of superconductivity by doping and impurities in strongly linked materials, such as magnesium diboride, compared to weakly linked superconductors, such as cuprates.

  12. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung-chi Lihn.


    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  13. Ionization by nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, M.S.


    A phenomenological description of ionization events is given that applies to both shaking transitions of the composite nucleus-atom system and the process in which the charged particles emitted in a nuclear decay transfer energy by a relatively slow ''direct collision'' final state interaction with atomic electrons. Specific areas covered include shakeoff in internal conversion, shakeoff in electron capture, shakeoff in beta decay, and inner electron ejection in alpha decay. (5 figs., 1 table)

  14. Kondo-Anderson transitions (United States)

    Kettemann, S.; Mucciolo, E. R.; Varga, I.; Slevin, K.


    Dilute magnetic impurities in a disordered Fermi liquid are considered close to the Anderson metal-insulator transition (AMIT). Critical power-law correlations between electron wave functions at different energies in the vicinity of the AMIT result in the formation of pseudogaps of the local density of states. Magnetic impurities can remain unscreened at such sites. We determine the density of the resulting free magnetic moments in the zero-temperature limit. While it is finite on the insulating side of the AMIT, it vanishes at the AMIT, and decays with a power law as function of the distance to the AMIT. Since the fluctuating spins of these free magnetic moments break the time-reversal symmetry of the conduction electrons, we find a shift of the AMIT, and the appearance of a semimetal phase. The distribution function of the Kondo temperature TK is derived at the AMIT, in the metallic phase, and in the insulator phase. This allows us to find the quantum phase diagram in an external magnetic field B and at finite temperature T. We calculate the resulting magnetic susceptibility, the specific heat, and the spin relaxation rate as a function of temperature. We find a phase diagram with finite-temperature transitions among insulator, critical semimetal, and metal phases. These new types of phase transitions are caused by the interplay between Kondo screening and Anderson localization, with the latter being shifted by the appearance of the temperature-dependent spin-flip scattering rate. Accordingly, we name them Kondo-Anderson transitions.

  15. Energy transition. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    At the occasion of the promulgation on August 17, 2015 of law no. 2015-992 relative to energy transition, this bibliography reviews the legal, economical and political aspects of the recent evolutions in the energy domain. Basic and synthetic documents are listed first. Then follow documents dealing with: general data, energy models, sustainable agriculture, green technologies, energy conservation, waste processing, renewable energy sources, sustainable cities and buildings. The bibliography ends with a selection of relevant web sites

  16. Entrepreneurship and Economic Transition


    Ruta Aidis


    Identification of the entrepreneur's economic function has engaged economistsfor more than 200 years. In this paper we address the issue of entrepreneurship intwo distinct ways: a) as it has historically developed within the field of economicsand b) as it develops in the transitional context. In contrast to advanced westerneconomies, productive entrepreneurship cannot be taken for granted in transitioncountries. Therefore we propose a working definition and model for productiveentrepreneurshi...

  17. IPCC encourages energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier


    Dryness, floods, food insecurity, population migrations, conflicts are some of the risks that climate change would pose. These risks are listed in the second volume ('Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability') of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published on March 31, 2014. The proposed mitigation measures are presented in a third volume published on April 13, in which the IPCC proposes to accelerate the energy transition. This short paper summarizes the conclusions of the Fifth Assessment Report

  18. Semiconductor-metal transition induced by giant Stark effect in blue phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Peng-Yu; Chen, Shi-Zhang; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Ke-Qiu, E-mail:


    The electronic structures and transport properties in monolayer blue phosphorene nanoribbons (BPNRs) with transverse electric field have been studied by using density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions method. The results show that the band gaps of BPNRs with both armchair and zigzag edges are linearly decreased with the increasing of the strength of transverse electric field. A semiconductor-metal transition occurs when the electric field strength reaches to 5 V/nm. The Stark coefficient presents a linear dependency on BPNRs widths, and the slopes of both zBPNRs and aBPNRs are 0.41 and 0.54, respectively, which shows a giant Stark effect occurs. Our studies show that the semiconductor-metal transition originates from the giant Stark effect. - Highlights: • The electronic transport in blue phosphorene nanoribbons. • Semiconductor-metal transition can be observed. • The semiconductor-metal transition originates from the giant Stark effect.

  19. The energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defeuilley, Christophe


    In a first part, the author proposes an analysis of energy transition and of its consequences on the competitive environment. He recalls the main characteristics of energy transition and more particularly focuses on two aspects: the development of renewable energies and the management of demand. Thus, the author discusses the following issues: the relationship between the struggle against climate change and the low carbon economy, the development of renewable energies, the evolution and main actors of photovoltaic array and of wind turbine production, the distribution of photovoltaic and wind energy installed production among countries, and some key figures about the main renewable energy operators in Europe. He discusses how to manage consumptions, and operations performed. In a second part, the author addresses the impact of the German energy transition (Energiewende) on the business models of the main German energy operators (RWE and E.On). He recalls and comments the objective of this energy policy, presents the German electric and gas sector, comments the evolution of the electric utilities since 1998, more presently presents and discusses the activities of RWE and E.On, the evolution of their main financial indicators, and the levels of installed power with respect of energy sources

  20. Thermal phase transition with full 2-loop effective potential (United States)

    Laine, M.; Meyer, M.; Nardini, G.


    Theories with extended Higgs sectors constructed in view of cosmological ramifications (gravitational wave signal, baryogenesis, dark matter) are often faced with conflicting requirements for their couplings; in particular those influencing the strength of a phase transition may be large. Large couplings compromise perturbative studies, as well as the high-temperature expansion that is invoked in dimensionally reduced lattice investigations. With the example of the inert doublet extension of the Standard Model (IDM), we show how a resummed 2-loop effective potential can be computed without a high-T expansion, and use the result to scrutinize its accuracy. With the exception of Tc, which is sensitive to contributions from heavy modes, the high-T expansion is found to perform well. 2-loop corrections weaken the transition in IDM, but they are moderate, whereby a strong transition remains an option.

  1. Thermal phase transition with full 2-loop effective potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laine


    Full Text Available Theories with extended Higgs sectors constructed in view of cosmological ramifications (gravitational wave signal, baryogenesis, dark matter are often faced with conflicting requirements for their couplings; in particular those influencing the strength of a phase transition may be large. Large couplings compromise perturbative studies, as well as the high-temperature expansion that is invoked in dimensionally reduced lattice investigations. With the example of the inert doublet extension of the Standard Model (IDM, we show how a resummed 2-loop effective potential can be computed without a high-T expansion, and use the result to scrutinize its accuracy. With the exception of Tc, which is sensitive to contributions from heavy modes, the high-T expansion is found to perform well. 2-loop corrections weaken the transition in IDM, but they are moderate, whereby a strong transition remains an option.

  2. Fuel Pellets from Wheat Straw: The Effect of Lignin Glass Transition and Surface Waxes on Pelletizing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.


    and a high concentration of hydrophobic waxes on its outer surface that may limit the pellet strength. The present work studies the impact of the lignin glass transition on the pelletizing properties of wheat straw. Furthermore, the effect of surface waxes on the pelletizing process and pellet strength...... are investigated by comparing wheat straw before and after organic solvent extraction. The lignin glass transition temperature for wheat straw and extracted wheat straw is determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. At a moisture content of 8%, transitions are identified at 53°C and 63°C, respectively....... Pellets are pressed from wheat straw and straw where the waxes have been extracted from. Two pelletizing temperatures were chosen—one below and one above the glass transition temperature of lignin. The pellets compression strength, density, and fracture surface were compared to each other. Pellets pressed...

  3. Monopole Strength Function of Deformed Superfluid Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoitsov, M. V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kortelainen, E. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Nakatsukasa, T. [RIKEN, Japan; Losa, C. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste, Italy; Nazarewicz, Witold [ORNL


    We present an efficient method for calculating strength functions using the finite amplitude method (FAM) for deformed superfluid heavy nuclei within the framework of the nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrate that FAM reproduces strength functions obtained with the fully self-consistent quasi-particle random-phase approximation (QRPA) at a fraction of computational cost. As a demonstration, we compute the isoscalar and isovector monopole strength for strongly deformed configurations in ^{240}Pu by considering huge quasi-particle QRPA spaces. Our approach to FAM, based on Broyden's iterative procedure, opens the possibility for large-scale calculations of strength distributions in well-bound and weakly bound nuclei across the nuclear landscape.

  4. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.


    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there

  5. Pilates: Build Strength in Your Core Muscles (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Pilates may sound intimidating, but it's an accessible way to build strength in your core muscles for better posture, balance and flexibility. By Mayo Clinic Staff Pilates isn't just for fitness fanatics. It's actually ...

  6. optimizing compressive strength characteristics of hollow building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    mm2. ... is suggested therefore, that the optimum replacement of sand with granite quarry dust as fine aggregates should be. 15% of the ... Keywords: Keywords: hollow building Blocks, granite dust, sand, partial replacement, compressive strength.

  7. Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi


    Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N≥55), “low extraversion” (Epersonality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452

  8. Strength Tests on Hulls and Floats (United States)

    Matthaes, K


    The present report deals with strength tests on hulls and floats intended in part for the collection of construction data for the design of these components and in part for the stress analysis of the finished hulls and floats.

  9. Shear strength of clay and silt embankments. (United States)


    Highway embankment is one of the most common large-scale geotechnical facilities constructed in Ohio. In the past, the design of these embankments was largely based on soil shear strength properties that had been estimated from previously published e...

  10. Science Academies Refresher Course on Crustal Strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Science Academies Refresher Course on Crustal Strength Rheology and Seismicity (CSRS-2017). Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 3 March 2017 pp 328-328 ...

  11. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  12. Assessment of Shear Strength in Silty Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaniak Katarzyna


    Full Text Available The article presents a comparison of shear strength values in silty soils from the area of Poznań, determined based on selected Nkt values recommended in literature, with values of shear strength established on the basis of Nkt values recommended by the author. Analysed silty soils are characterized by the carbonate cementation zone, which made it possible to compare selected empirical coefficients both in normally consolidated and overconsolidated soils

  13. Impact Strength of Glass and Glass Ceramic (United States)

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.


    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  14. Reconstructing Transition Knowledge in Taiwan (United States)

    Cheng, Chen-chen


    Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…

  15. Origin and Propagation of Splits in High-Strength Low-Alloy Strip Steel (United States)

    Punch, Rachel; Strangwood, Martin; Davis, Claire


    A high-strength strip steel (yield strength of ~700 MPa) with a ductile-brittle transition over a wide temperature range shows splits (fissures) on the fracture surfaces in the upper transition region. The steel, hot rolled to strip thicknesses of approximately 10.0 mm and 16.8 mm, had a predominantly fine-grained ferrite microstructure with some coarse grain patches (area percent of 11 pct and 42 pct, respectively). Low-blow Charpy tests were carried out at room temperature, corresponding to the upper transition region for these strips. The low-blow tests resulted in the formation of splits without main crack propagation from the notch; therefore, the energies at which the splits initiated could be determined. Acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used during low-blow Charpy testing of the strip steels and mild steel (where no splits occur); it was found that AE was able to detect signals from the hammer impact, split formation, and ductile deformation. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray tomography were carried out, which verified the presence of splits and showed that they propagated by transgranular cleavage, preferentially following coarse-grained regions. No significant difference in the number or length of splits between the 10- and 16.8-mm strip was observed, but the 10-mm strip did produce deeper splits during the low-blow Charpy testing. The deeper splits contribute to a lower impact transition temperature for the 10-mm strip material.

  16. Hip Strength in Patients with Quadriceps Strength Deficits after ACL Reconstruction. (United States)

    Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Post, Eric G; Walden, Courtney E


    Quadriceps strength deficits persist for years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and patients with these deficits often shift torque demands away from the knee extensors to the hip during functional tasks. However, it is not clear how quadriceps strength deficits may affect hip strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in lower extremity strength in individuals with ACL reconstruction with differing levels of quadriceps strength asymmetry. Isometric strength was recorded bilaterally in 135 participants (73 control and 62 with unilateral ACL reconstruction, time from surgery = 30.9 ± 17.6 months) from the knee extensors and flexors, hip extensors and abductors, and hip internal and external rotator muscle groups. Symmetry indices (limb symmetry index (LSI)) were created based on quadriceps strength, and subjects with ACL reconstruction were subdivided (high quadriceps (LSI ≥ 90%), n = 37; low quadriceps (LSI limb (reconstructed/nondominant vs healthy/dominant) repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare strength (%BW) for each of the six joint motions of interest (knee extensors/flexors, hip abductors/extensors/external, and internal rotators) while controlling for time from surgery. An interaction was observed for quadriceps strength (P limb in the low quadriceps group was weaker than all other limbs. A main effect for group was observed with the low quadriceps group having greater hip extension (P = 0.007) strength in both limbs compared with the other groups. Knee flexion strength was weaker in the reconstructed limb of the high quadriceps group (P = 0.047) compared with all other groups and limbs. Individuals with ACL reconstruction and involved limb quadriceps weakness have greater hip extension strength in both limbs compared with patients with bilateral strength symmetry and controls.

  17. Vanadium Transitions in the Spectrum of Arcturus (United States)

    Wood, M. P.; Sneden, C.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Cowan, J. J.; Nave, G.


    We derive a new abundance for vanadium in the bright, mildly metal-poor red giant Arcturus. This star has an excellent high-resolution spectral atlas and well-understood atmospheric parameters, and it displays a rich set of neutral vanadium lines that are available for abundance extraction. We employ a newly recorded set of laboratory FTS spectra to investigate any potential discrepancies in previously reported V I log(gf) values near 900 nm. These new spectra support our earlier laboratory transition data and the calibration method utilized in that study. We then perform a synthetic spectrum analysis of weak V I features in Arcturus, deriving log ε(V) = 3.54 ± 0.01 (σ = 0.04) from 55 lines. There are no significant abundance trends with wavelength, line strength, or lower excitation energy.

  18. Miscellaneous results on the electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Schiller, A.


    We present new 4-D Monte Carlo results characterizing the strength of the finite temperature phase transition for Higgs/W mass ratios 1.0 and 0.6, obtained on isotropic lattices mainly with N s = 16, N t = 2. We discuss the distribution of a gauge invariant block spin order parameter, estimating the Higgs condensate Φ c at T c . We use the Potvin/Rebbi method in order to find the interface tension α/T c 3 . We demonstrate how the multi-histogram method (giving free energy differences) can be used to avoid the limiting procedure δ K → 0. From pure-phase histograms at K c , extrapolated with the help of this method, we estimate the latent heat Δε/T c 4 . Actual time series at lower Higgs mass require blocking in order to determine the jump of the lattice observables. (orig.)

  19. Upper extremity injuries associated with strength training. (United States)

    Haupt, H A


    Most injuries sustained during strength training are mild strains that resolve with appropriate rest. More severe injuries include traumatic shoulder dislocations, tendon ruptures of the pectoralis major, biceps, and triceps; stress fractures of the distal clavicle, humerus, radius, and ulna; traumatic fractures of the distal radius and ulna in adolescent weightlifters; and compressive and stretch neuropathies. These more severe injuries are usually the result of improperly performing a strength training exercise. Educating athletes regarding proper strength-training techniques serves to reverse established injury patterns and to prevent these injuries in the first place. Recognizing the association of anabolic steroid use to several of the injury patterns further reinforces the need for medical specialists to counsel athletes against their use. With the increasing use of supplements such as creatine, the incidence and nature of strength-training injuries may change further. Greater emphasis on the competitive performance of younger athletes undoubtedly will generate enthusiasm for strength training at earlier ages in both sexes. The importance of proper supervision of these young athletes by knowledgeable persons will increase. As the popularity of strength training grows, there will be ample opportunity to continue to catalog the injury patterns associated with this activity.

  20. Simulating the electroweak phase transition in the SU(2) Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.; Hein, J.; Jansen, K.; Jaster, A.; Montvay, I.


    Numerical simulations are performed to study the finite temperature phase transition in the SU(2) Higgs model on the lattice. In the presently investigated range of the Higgs boson mass, below 50 GeV, the phase transition turns out to be of first order and its strength is rapidly decreasing with increasing Higgs boson mass. In order to control the systematic errors, we also perform studies of scaling violations and of finite volume effects. (orig.)

  1. Polydispersity effect on solid-fluid transition in hard sphere systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, T.


    The solid-fluid transition of the hard elastic particle system with size polydispersity is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Using nonequilibrium relaxation from the mixed initial condition we determines the melting point where the first order transition between the solid, fcc crystal, and fluid states occurs. It is found that the density gap between the bistable states decreases with increasing the strength of the polydispersity and continuously approaches to zero at the critical point. © 2010.

  2. Transitioning science and technology into acquisition programs: assessing one government laboratory’s processes


    Bonano, Norman; Magidson, Laura


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This paper examined the strengths and weaknesses of the overall technology transition process between Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) and its partnered program offices in transitioning technology into established Programs of Record. This examination was a direct review and comparison of Department of Defense policies, U.S. Government Accountability Office reports and recommendations, and ARDEC and the prog...

  3. Geometric structure and information change in phase transitions (United States)

    Kim, Eun-jin; Hollerbach, Rainer


    We propose a toy model for a cyclic order-disorder transition and introduce a geometric methodology to understand stochastic processes involved in transitions. Specifically, our model consists of a pair of forward and backward processes (FPs and BPs) for the emergence and disappearance of a structure in a stochastic environment. We calculate time-dependent probability density functions (PDFs) and the information length L , which is the total number of different states that a system undergoes during the transition. Time-dependent PDFs during transient relaxation exhibit strikingly different behavior in FPs and BPs. In particular, FPs driven by instability undergo the broadening of the PDF with a large increase in fluctuations before the transition to the ordered state accompanied by narrowing the PDF width. During this stage, we identify an interesting geodesic solution accompanied by the self-regulation between the growth and nonlinear damping where the time scale τ of information change is constant in time, independent of the strength of the stochastic noise. In comparison, BPs are mainly driven by the macroscopic motion due to the movement of the PDF peak. The total information length L between initial and final states is much larger in BPs than in FPs, increasing linearly with the deviation γ of a control parameter from the critical state in BPs while increasing logarithmically with γ in FPs. L scales as |lnD | and D-1 /2 in FPs and BPs, respectively, where D measures the strength of the stochastic forcing. These differing scalings with γ and D suggest a great utility of L in capturing different underlying processes, specifically, diffusion vs advection in phase transition by geometry. We discuss physical origins of these scalings and comment on implications of our results for bistable systems undergoing repeated order-disorder transitions (e.g., fitness).

  4. How prepared are transition-age deaf and hard of hearing students for adult living? Results of the transition competence battery. (United States)

    Luft, Pamela; Huff, Kelly


    One result of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and related legislation is that most deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students attend local public schools. Although such placements may provide greater access to general education classrooms and curriculum, DHH students' specialized needs are less likely to be addressed. Using the Transition Competence Battery (TCB; Reiman, Bullis, & Davis, 1993), the researchers examined the transition strengths and needs of 53 middle and high school DHH students attending public schools. It was found that the students had substantial transition competence deficits and that none reached the recommended competence levels on more than 4 of the 6 subtests. The TCB is an important transition tool that fulfills requirements under the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act Amendments to use age-appropriate and results-oriented transition assessments that document program and intervention outcomes.

  5. Gold decorated NaYF4:Yb,Er/NaYF4/silica (core/shell/shell) upconversion nanoparticles for photothermal destruction of BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells (United States)

    Qian, Li Peng; Zhou, Li Han; Too, Heng-Phon; Chow, Gan-Moog


    Gold decorated NaYF4:Yb,Er/NaYF4/silica (core/shell/shell) upconversion (UC) nanoparticles ( 70-80 nm) were synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate and chloroauric acid in a one-step reverse microemulsion method. Gold nanoparticles ( 6 nm) were deposited on the surface of silica shell of these core/shell/shell nanoparticles. The total upconversion emission intensity (green, red, and blue) of the core/shell/shell nanoparticles decreased by 31% after Au was deposited on the surface of silica shell. The upconverted green light was coupled with the surface plasmon of Au leading to rapid heat conversion. These UC/silica/Au nanoparticles were very efficient to destroy BE(2)-C cancer cells and showed strong potential in photothermal therapy.

  6. Electron excitations in BeAl2O4, Be2SiO4 and Be3Al2Si6O18 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.Yu.; Pustovarov, V.A.; Shlygin, E.S.; Korotaev, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.


    Low-temperature (T = 7 K) time-resolved selectively photoexcited luminescence spectra (2-6 eV) and luminescence excitation spectra (8-35 eV) of wide-bandgap chrysoberyl BeAl 2 O 4 , phenacite Be 2 SiO 4 , and beryl Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 crystals have been studied using time-resolved VUV spectroscopy. Both the intrinsic luminescence of the crystals and the luminescence associated with structural defects were assigned. Energy transfer to impurity luminescence centers in alexandrite and emerald was investigated. Luminescence characteristics of stable crystal lattice defects were probed by 3.6-MeV accelerated helium ion beams [ru

  7. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.


    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  8. Correlation of postural balance and knee muscle strength in the sit-to-stand test among women with and without postmenopausal osteoporosis. (United States)

    Brech, G C; Alonso, A C; Luna, N M S; Greve, J M


    The task of standing up from a chair forms a part of daily life for all independent individuals. However, this task becomes more difficult with advancing age. Women with postmenopausal osteoporosis presented diminished knee extensor and flexor muscle strength. There was a weak correlation between knee muscle strength (greater with extensor strength) and postural balance during the act of standing up. This study aims to evaluate postural balance during the transition from sitting to standing and its relationship with knee extensor and flexor strength among women with and without postmenopausal osteoporosis. Assessments were made on 126 women (aged 55-65 years), divided into osteoporosis and control groups according to lumbar bone density. Their balance during the task of standing up from a chair was evaluated using the Balance Master® device. Knee muscle strength was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex®), in concentric/concentric mode, at a velocity of 60°/s. Spearman's correlation between the variables of muscle strength and postural balance was evaluated. Subsequently, to evaluate the association of each balance variable with the group and with muscle strength, multiple linear regression models were fitted. The significance level was set at 0.05. There was a difference in knee muscle strength between the groups (P Women with postmenopausal osteoporosis presented diminished knee extensor and flexor muscle strength. There was a weak correlation between knee muscle strength (greater with extensor strength) and postural balance during the act of standing up.

  9. The Effects of Isokinetic Strength Training on Strength at Different Angular Velocities: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Kocahan


    Conclusion: It was shown that angular velocity is important in isokinetic training, and that training at high angular velocities provides strength increases at lower angular velocities, but would not increase strength at angular velocities above the training level. For this reason, it is thought that in the preparation of an isokinetic strength training protocol, angular velocities need to be taken into account. For any athlete, the force at the angular velocity required in her/his sports branch needs to be considered.

  10. Increased cross-education of muscle strength and reduced corticospinal inhibition following eccentric strength training. (United States)

    Kidgell, D J; Frazer, A K; Daly, R M; Rantalainen, T; Ruotsalainen, I; Ahtiainen, J; Avela, J; Howatson, G


    Strength training of one limb results in a substantial increase in the strength of the untrained limb, however, it remains unknown what the corticospinal responses are following either eccentric or concentric strength training and how this relates to the cross-education of strength. The aim of this study was to determine if eccentric or concentric unilateral strength training differentially modulates corticospinal excitability, inhibition and the cross-transfer of strength. Changes in contralateral (left limb) concentric strength, eccentric strength, motor-evoked potentials, short-interval intracortical inhibition and silent period durations were analyzed in groups of young adults who exercised the right wrist flexors with either eccentric (N=9) or concentric (N=9) contractions for 12 sessions over 4weeks. Control subjects (N=9) did not train. Following training, both groups exhibited a significant strength gain in the trained limb (concentric group increased concentric strength by 64% and eccentric group increased eccentric strength by 62%) and the extent of the cross-transfer of strength was 28% and 47% for the concentric and eccentric group, respectively, which was different between groups (P=0.031). Transcranial magnetic stimulation revealed that eccentric training reduced intracortical inhibition (37%), silent period duration (15-27%) and increased corticospinal excitability (51%) compared to concentric training for the untrained limb (P=0.033). There was no change in the control group. The results show that eccentric training uniquely modulates corticospinal excitability and inhibition of the untrained limb to a greater extent than concentric training. These findings suggest that unilateral eccentric contractions provide a greater stimulus in cross-education paradigms and should be an integral part of the rehabilitative process following unilateral injury to maximize the response. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Strength Training Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Larson, Janet; Kujath, Amber; Peace, David; Rondelli, Damiano; Gaston, Lisa


    Background Patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) experience considerable reductions in physical activity and deterioration of their health status. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effects of strength training compared to usual activity on physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, health status perceptions, and quality of life following HSCT. Interventions/Methods Nineteen subjects were randomized to the exercise or control group. Moderate intensity strength training began following discharge from the hospital. Dependent variables included physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, health status perceptions and quality of life. Variables were measured prior to admission to the hospital for HSCT, day 8 following HSCT, and six weeks following discharge from the hospital. Results Significant time effects were noted for many variables with anticipated declines in physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, and health status perceptions immediately after HSCT with subsequent improvements six weeks following hospital discharge. One group effect was noted with subjects in the exercise group reporting less fatigue than subjects in the control group. Although no significant interactions were detected, the trends suggest that the exercise group may be more physically active following the intervention compared to the usual activity group. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential positive effects of strength training on physical activity, fatigue, and quality of life in people receiving high-dose chemotherapy and HSCT. Implications for Practice Preliminary evidence is provided for using strength training to enhance early recovery following HSCT. Elastic resistance bands are easy to use and relatively inexpensive. PMID:21116175

  12. Spontaneous transition rates for electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions for He-like calcium and sulfur ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Norrington, P.H.; Boone, A.W.


    The spontaneous decay rates for the electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions between all of the 1s 2 , 1s2 l and 1s3 l states have been obtained for helium-like calcium and sulfur ions. To assess the accuracy of the calculations, the transition probabilities were calculated using two sets of configuration interaction wavefunctions. One set of wavefunctions was generated using the fully relativistic GRASP code and the other was obtained using CIV3, in which relativistic effects are introduced using the Breit-Pauli approximation. The transition rates, A values, oscillator strengths and line strengths from our two calculations are found to be similar and to compare very well with other recent results for Δn=1 or 2 transitions. For Δn=0 transitions the agreement is much less good; this is mainly due to differences in the calculated excitation energies. (author)

  13. Evaluation of in-place concrete strength by core testing. (United States)


    The overall objective of the work contained in this report is to develop an ALDOT procedure to evaluate core strength results obtained under various conditions. Since there are many factors that influence the apparent strength of cores, strength corr...

  14. Short Communications Strength Properties and Groups of Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communications Strength Properties and Groups of Major Commercial Timbers Grown in Kenya. ... The strength groups developed revealed that most species in Kenya are suitable for heavy engineering works and building construction. ... strength properties, commercial timber, physical and mechanical properties

  15. A relation between dynamic strength and manual materials-handling strategy affected by knowledge of strength. (United States)

    Bartlett, Daniel; Li, Kang; Zhang, Xudong


    We studied the relation between dynamic (isokinetic) strength and the batch-assorting strategy to initiate a manual materials-handling task and the effect of knowledge of strength on that relation. The debated, complex relationship between muscular strength and the risk of injury can be better understood from a behavioral perspective by examining performance strategies in physical acts such as lifting. Thirty-two participants (16 men and 16 women) were first tested for their isokinetic strengths of trunk extension, knee extension, shoulder extension, and shoulder abduction. The participants were then divided into two groups, one provided with knowledge feedback of their strength testing results and the other not provided with such feedback. Participants subsequently performed the same load-handling task in which they carried batches of various weight plates while allowed to assort batches of more than one plate into any combination. Dynamic strength, as represented by a total isokinetic strength score, and knowledge feedback both had significant effects on measures quantifying the batch-assorting strategy. Individuals with greater strength tended to adopt a strategy corresponding to a heavier load per carry and fewer carries per batch. Receiving knowledge feedback evoked a tendency toward handling a heavier load, and this tendency was more salient in the weaker individuals. Potential applications include the use of strength testing in worker selection and training as well as in job design to promote better strategies of balancing productivity and injury prevention.

  16. Strength of precast concrete shear joints reinforced with high-strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao; Hagsten, Lars German


    This paper concerns the in-plane shear strength of connections between precast concrete wall elements reinforced with looped high-strength wire ropes. The looped wire ropes are pre-installed in so-called ‘wire boxes’ which function as shear keys. Although only a small amount of research...... on the shear strength of such connections can be found in the literature, this type of connection is increasingly being used because wire ropes are much more construction-friendly than traditional U-bars. A rigid plastic upper bound model for the shear strength of wall connections reinforced with looped wire...

  17. Advances in paediatric strength assessment: changing our perspective on strength development. (United States)

    Croix, Mark De Ste


    Our knowledge of the age and sex associated changes in strength during childhood and adolescence is relatively limited compared to other physiological parameters. However, those studies available on the age and sex associated change in strength are relatively consistent, especially for the lower limbs. Caution must be taken when transferring this knowledge to other muscle joints as the development in strength appears to be both muscle action and joint specific. Strength appears to increase in both boys and girls until about the age of 14 y where it begins to plateau in girls and a spurt is evident in boys. By 18 y there are few overlaps in strength between boys and girls. The exact age in which sex differences become apparent appears to be both muscle group and muscle action specific and there is a suggestion that sex differences in upper body strength occur earlier than lower body strength. What is less clear is the complex factors that contribute to the production of strength during childhood and adolescence. There are few well controlled longitudinal studies that have concurrently examined the influence of known variables using appropriate statistical techniques. Most studies have shown that maturation does not exert an independent effect when other factors, such as stature and body mass are accounted for. Also, the assumption that muscle cross-sectional area is the most important parameter in strength production does not hold when examined with other known variables. Consistently, stature appears to play a key role in strength development and this may be attributed to the strength spurt that has been linked to peak height velocity, and the muscle moment arm. Advances in technology have provided us with more accurate techniques to examine these explanatory variables but the complex interaction of neural, mechanical and muscular remains to be clearly identified from well controlled longitudinal studies. Key pointsThe age associated development in strength is

  18. Transitioning to digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, F., E-mail: [Pratt & Whitney Canada, Longueuil, Quebec (Canada)


    This article provides insight on the technical and business considerations necessary to implement or to transition to digital radiography Continued refinements in digital radiography technology have resulted in significant improvements in image quality and detectability of indications. These improvements have resulted in the acceptance of the technology by users and aerospace primes for final product inspection and disposition. Digital radiography has also been identified as an interesting cost reduction initiative with the potential of providing gains in productivity through increased throughput and decreased inspection lead-times and resulting costs. (author)

  19. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y


    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  20. Global transition i sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Meyrowitsch, Dan W


    , and by degenerative, and man-made diseases in ageing populations. Omran could not foresee the HIV/AIDS pandemic or the dramatic fall in longevity and fertility in, for example, Russia. But his model remains of value for health planners and politicians. We advocate for research in the interplay between diseases......Global epidemiological transition reflected in changed patterns of death and diseases was first described by Omran; decreasing death and disease rates from infectious diseases, particularly in children and the young, are followed by decreased fertility rate and increased longevity...

  1. Transition and modernization


    Krištofić Branimir


    The fall of the communist orders introduced a problem of the development of these societies and initiated a new wave of modernization theories. At the same time, the ideological proclamation of the victory of neo-liberalism resulted in the inauguration of the neo-liberal development model as the mode of modernization that will include the post-communist countries in the process of globalization. In this context, the World Bank study of the ten-year development of the transitional countries ha...

  2. Understanding quantum phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Lincoln


    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth

  3. Sexuality in transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik


    Through an investigation of a reported rape, this article suggests that we conceive sexuality as a transitional object that changes and transforms depending on space and temporality. This makes sexuality difficult to grasp within specific and stable frames of gender and power analysis. Applying...... such an approach, the complexities of sexual assault, changing power relations and unstable narratives of gender and sexuality are illuminated. The analysis shows that the traditional divide between public and private has dissolved and that public spaces of pop culture are drawn into spaces of intimacy and thereby...

  4. Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Motarab [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States); Banik, Naren L. [Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Ray, Swapan K., E-mail: [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)


    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that mostly occurs in children. Malignant neuroblastomas have poor prognosis because conventional chemotherapeutic agents are hardly effective. Survivin, which is highly expressed in some malignant neuroblastomas, plays a significant role in inhibiting differentiation and apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. We examined consequences of survivin knockdown by survivin short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid and then treatment with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, in malignant neuroblastoma cells. Our Western blotting and laser scanning confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that survivin was highly expressed in malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines and slightly in SK-N-DZ cell line. Expression of survivin was very faint in malignant neuroblastoma IMR32 cell line. We transfected SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY-5Y cells with survivin shRNA, treated with EGCG, and confirmed knockdown of survivin at mRNA and protein levels. Survivin knockdown induced morphological features of neuronal differentiation, as we observed following in situ methylene blue staining. Combination of survivin shRNA and EGCG promoted neuronal differentiation biochemically by increases in the expression of NFP, NSE, and e-cadherin and also decreases in the expression of Notch-1, ID2, hTERT, and PCNA. Our in situ Wright staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that combination therapy was highly effective in inducing, respectively, morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid to tBid, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and increases in the expression and activity of calpain and caspase-3. Combination therapy decreased migration of cells through matrigel and inhibited proliferative (p-Akt and NF-{kappa}B), invasive (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and angiogenic (VEGF and b-FGF) factors. Also, in vitro

  5. Improved High Strength Armor Steel through Texturing (United States)


    conditions. CHARPY IMPACT AND TRANSITION TEMPERATURE It has been established that cleavage is crystallographic in nature and in iron occurs on the (100...allel to the plate surface or face notched (L-S), (T-S), and (LT-S). Specimens were tested on a 217 ft-lb capacity pendulum -type machine with a striking...velocity of 17 ft/sec. The Charpy transition temperature, the lowest temperature at which 100 percent fibrosity still exists, was determined for each

  6. Some remarks on static, creep and fatigue flexural strength of satin woven CFRP laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyano, Y.; McMurry, M.K. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology (Japan); Muki, R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    This paper deals with the time-temperature dependent flexural strength of a satin-woven CFRP laminate having a matrix resin with a high glass transition temperature of T{sub g} = 236/C under static, creep and fatigue loading by 3-point bending tests. Static tests were conducted at various points in a wide range of deflection rates and temperatures. The creep and fatigue tests were carried out at various constant temperatures; the fatigue test was conducted at two frequencies. The results of the experimental study are as follows. The flexural strength of the CFRP laminates for all three loading types is time-temperature dependent even near room temperature well below T{sub g}. The time and temperature superposition principle for the matrix resin also holds for the flexural strength of the CFRP laminates. The fracture modes are almost the same for the three loading types under all conditions tested. Finally, we propose a method for predicting the flexural fatigue strength for a given number of cycles to failure at an arbitrary temperature, frequency and stress ratio based on the current experimental findings and considering the relationships among the static, creep and fatigue flexural strengths.

  7. Near-infrared intersubband transitions in InGaAs-AlAs-InAlAs double quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semtsiv, M.P.; Ziegler, M.; Masselink, W.T.; Georgiev, N.; Dekorsy, T.; Helm, M.


    Intersubband optical transitions at short wavelengths in strain-compensated In 0.70 Ga 0.30 As--AlAs double quantum wells are investigated by means of mid-infrared absorption. Trade-offs between achieving a high transition energy and a large oscillator strength of the two highest-energy intersubband transitions using our strain-compensation approach are analyzed as a function of the widths of the two wells. Two design strategies leading to relatively strong intersubband optical transitions at 800 meV, 1.55 μm, are described and the corresponding structures grown using gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy on (001)InP are investigated. The strongest intersubband transitions obtained experimentally are generally between 300 and 600 meV, 2-4 μm. Significant oscillator strength, however, also extends out to 800 meV, 1.55 μm

  8. Breaking of the SU(4) limit for the Gamow-Teller strength in N{proportional_to}Z nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, I. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Martinez-Pinedo, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Langanke, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Caurier, E. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg (France)


    We have performed large-scale shell model calculations of the Gamow-Teller strength distributions in N{proportional_to}Z pf-shell nuclei. These calculations were motivated by the experimental attempts to measure the low-lying GT strength for the even-even N=Z+2 or N=Z-2 nuclei {sup 46}Ti, {sup 50}Cr, {sup 54}Fe and {sup 62}Ge, where a sizable low-energy GT strength could be interpreted as reminiscence of SU(4) symmetry; in the limit of exact SU(4) symmetry the GT{sub -} strength would be concentrated in a single transition to the lowest T=0, J=1{sup +} state in the daughter. We confirm that the SU(4) symmetry is strongly broken by the spin-orbit interaction and by increasing neutron excess. (orig.)

  9. Strength and power predictors of sports speed. (United States)

    Cronin, John B; Hansen, Keir T


    For many sporting activities, initial speed rather than maximal speed would be considered of greater importance to successful performance. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between strength and power and measures of first-step quickness (5-m time), acceleration (10-m time), and maximal speed (30-m time). The maximal strength (3 repetition maximum [3RM]), power (30-kg jump squat, countermovement, and drop jumps), isokinetic strength measures (hamstring and quadriceps peak torques and ratios at 60 degrees .s(-1) and 300 degrees .s(-1)) and 5-m, 10-m, and 30-m sprint times of 26 part-time and full-time professional rugby league players (age 23.2 +/- 3.3 years) were measured. To examine the importance of the strength and power measures on sprint performance, a correlational approach and a comparison between means of the fastest and slowest players was used. The correlations between the 3RM, drop jump, isokinetic strength measures, and the 3 measures of sport speed were nonsignificant. Correlations between the jump squat (height and relative power output) and countermovement jump height and the 3 speed measures were significant (r = -0.43 to -0.66, p sport speed in elite players.

  10. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah


    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  11. Ureteral stents: coil strength and durometer. (United States)

    Hendlin, Kari; Dockendorf, Kelly; Horn, Christina; Pshon, Nicole; Lund, Brynn; Monga, Manoj


    To evaluate the coil strength before and after urine exposure and the stiffness of commercially available double-J ureteral stents because both properties may affect stent performance and patient comfort. Twelve commercially available 6F ureteral stents were tested for coil strength before and after 30 days of urine exposure. The proximal end of each stent was inserted through a 2-mm hole in bologna, allowed to recoil, and then pulled using a handheld force gauge. Ten different commercially available ureteral stent models were tested for tensile strength using an MTS MicroBionix Testing System and Testworks II software and a 5 N load cell. The Cook Black Silicone and Cook C-Flex stents had the strongest coil strengths before urine exposure at 0.480 +/- 0.0 lb (P Circon Double J stent and Bard InLay. Ureteral stents can be differentiated according to their coil strength and stiffness. The impact of these properties on stent performance and patient comfort deserve additional evaluation. The significant variability found in stent stiffness among stents from different lot numbers suggests poor quality assurance in biomaterials or stent processing and increases the complexity of cross-stent comparisons.

  12. Simulating Energy Transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappin, E.J.L.


    Have you ever wanted to know whether a CO2 tax outperforms the EU emissions trading scheme? Or how long it really takes markets to change and to let consumers choose differently? In this book, the author explores simulation models to provide us with answers before policy interventions are implemented and shows that, by developing agent-based models, we can simulate energy transition. Learn about a new framework that enables us to model energy infrastructure systems as complex socio-technical systems, which evolve as a result of distributed decision making by actors in the system. See how running agent-based models let the system structure and dynamics emerge from the interactions between actors and technologies. Understand how actors, who decide on operation and investment, are responsive to policy interventions, market rules, and technological development. Find out from simulations of the electricity production sector, the LNG market, and consumer lighting that interventions in these energy systems do alter their evolution -- they invoke structural, systemic change: transition. This thesis thus demonstrates that agent-based models yield a powerful tool for governments and companies: they allow them to assess the long-term effect of their policies and strategies in our complex, interconnected world.

  13. Continuous quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondhi, S.L. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Girvin, S.M.; Carini, J.P. [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Shahar, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)


    A quantum system can undergo a continuous phase transition at the absolute zero of temperature as some parameter entering its Hamiltonian is varied. These transitions are particularly interesting for, in contrast to their classical finite-temperature counterparts, their dynamic and static critical behaviors are intimately intertwined. Considerable insight is gained by considering the path-integral description of the quantum statistical mechanics of such systems, which takes the form of the {ital classical} statistical mechanics of a system in which time appears as an extra dimension. In particular, this allows the deduction of scaling forms for the finite-temperature behavior, which turns out to be described by the theory of finite-size scaling. It also leads naturally to the notion of a temperature-dependent dephasing length that governs the crossover between quantum and classical fluctuations. Using these ideas, a scaling analysis of experiments on Josephson-junction arrays and quantum-Hall-effect systems is presented. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino


    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  15. Variational transition state theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhlar, D.G.


    This project is concerned with the development and applications of generalized transition state theory and multidimensional tunneling approximations to chemical reaction rates. They have developed and implemented several practical versions of variational transition state theory (VTST), namely canonical variational theory (CVT), improved canonical variational theory (ICVT), and microcanonical variational theory (μVT). They have also developed and implemented several accurate multidimensional semiclassical tunneling approximations, the most accurate of which are the small-curvature semiclassical adiabatic (SCSA), large-curvature version-3 (LC3), and least-action (LA) approximations. They have applied the methods to thermal rate constants, using transmission coefficients based on ground-state tunneling, and they have also presented and applied adiabatic and diabatic extensions to calculated rate constants for vibrationally excited reactants. Their general goal is to develop accurate methods for calculating chemical reaction rate constants that remain practical even for reasonably complicated molecules. The approximations mentioned above yield rate constants for systems whose potential energy surface is known or assumed. Thus a second, equally important aspect of their work is the determination or modeling, semi-empirically and/or from electronic structure calculations, of potential energy surfaces

  16. Physical education in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Zoran


    Full Text Available The consequences of physical inactivity and insufficient education about its importance are affecting not only the length and the quality of life, but also the economic aspects, such as health care costs caused by the reduction in labour productivity of the Serbian population. Based on previous experiences of countries in transition and those that have well-arranged systems of education, in terms of teaching of physical education programmes, there are possibilities for the necessary reform of the curriculum, adapted to our abilities and needs. These are primarily related to the objectives of education - proper development and creation of positive habits regarding physical activity and health. So far, the reforms of physical education in Serbia have not produced results. The reform should be the transition from education focused on the program to education focused on the ultimate goals (knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards physical activity, i.e. the lifelong values. The objectives and outcomes of teaching physical education should be individualized according to the psychosomatic status and specific dimensions of that status. Therefore, the role and responsibility of teachers change and it is necessary to reform their education. Of course, government is very involved in all of this, at all levels - throughout strategies and campaigns to raise awareness of the nation and its knowledge about the importance of physical activity through all forms of education.

  17. Complex transitions between spike, burst or chaos synchronization states in coupled neurons with coexisting bursting patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hua-Guang; Chen Sheng-Gen; Li Yu-Ye


    We investigated the synchronization dynamics of a coupled neuronal system composed of two identical Chay model neurons. The Chay model showed coexisting period-1 and period-2 bursting patterns as a parameter and initial values are varied. We simulated multiple periodic and chaotic bursting patterns with non-(NS), burst phase (BS), spike phase (SS), complete (CS), and lag synchronization states. When the coexisting behavior is near period-2 bursting, the transitions of synchronization states of the coupled system follows very complex transitions that begins with transitions between BS and SS, moves to transitions between CS and SS, and to CS. Most initial values lead to the CS state of period-2 bursting while only a few lead to the CS state of period-1 bursting. When the coexisting behavior is near period-1 bursting, the transitions begin with NS, move to transitions between SS and BS, to transitions between SS and CS, and then to CS. Most initial values lead to the CS state of period-1 bursting but a few lead to the CS state of period-2 bursting. The BS was identified as chaos synchronization. The patterns for NS and transitions between BS and SS are insensitive to initial values. The patterns for transitions between CS and SS and the CS state are sensitive to them. The number of spikes per burst of non-CS bursting increases with increasing coupling strength. These results not only reveal the initial value- and parameter-dependent synchronization transitions of coupled systems with coexisting behaviors, but also facilitate interpretation of various bursting patterns and synchronization transitions generated in the nervous system with weak coupling strength. (paper)

  18. Short-term Periodization Models: Effects on Strength and Speed-strength Performance. (United States)

    Hartmann, Hagen; Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Mickel, Christoph; Sander, Andre; Szilvas, Elena


    Dividing training objectives into consecutive phases to gain morphological adaptations (hypertrophy phase) and neural adaptations (strength and power phases) is called strength-power periodization (SPP). These phases differ in program variables (volume, intensity, and exercise choice or type) and use stepwise intensity progression and concomitant decreasing volume, converging to peak intensity (peaking phase). Undulating periodization strategies rotate these program variables in a bi-weekly, weekly, or daily fashion. The following review addresses the effects of different short-term periodization models on strength and speed-strength both with subjects of different performance levels and with competitive athletes from different sports who use a particular periodization model during off-season, pre-season, and in-season conditioning. In most periodization studies, it is obvious that the strength endurance sessions are characterized by repetition zones (12-15 repetitions) that induce muscle hypertrophy in persons with a low performance level. Strictly speaking, when examining subjects with a low training level, many periodization studies include mainly hypertrophy sessions interspersed with heavy strength/power sessions. Studies have demonstrated equal or statistically significant higher gains in maximal strength for daily undulating periodization compared with SPP in subjects with a low to moderate performance level. The relatively short intervention period and the lack of concomitant sports conditioning call into question the practical value of these findings for competitive athletes. Possibly owing to differences in mesocycle length, conditioning programs, and program variables, competitive athletes either maintained or improved strength and/or speed-strength performance by integrating daily undulating periodization and SPP during off-season, pre-season and in-season conditioning. In high-performance sports, high-repetition strength training (>15) should be

  19. Viscous decoupling transitions for individually dragged particles in systems with quenched disorder. (United States)

    Olson Reichhardt, C J; Reichhardt, C


    We show that when an individual particle is dragged through an assembly of other particles in the presence of quenched disorder, a viscous decoupling transition occurs between the dragged particle and the surrounding particles which is controlled by the quenched disorder. A counterintuitive consequence of this transition is that the velocity of the dragged particle can be increased by increasing the strength or density of the quenched disorder. The decoupling transition can also occur when the external drive on the dragged particle is increased and is observable as a clear signature in the velocity-force response.

  20. Ultimate Longitudinal Strength of Composite Ship Hulls (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Huang, Lingkai; Zhu, Libao; Tang, Yuhang; Wang, Anwen


    A simple analytical model to estimate the longitudinal strength of ship hulls in composite materials under buckling, material failure and ultimate collapse is presented in this paper. Ship hulls are regarded as assemblies of stiffened panels which idealized as group of plate-stiffener combinations. Ultimate strain of the plate-stiffener combination is predicted under buckling or material failure with composite beam-column theory. The effects of initial imperfection of ship hull and eccentricity of load are included. Corresponding longitudinal strengths of ship hull are derived in a straightforward method. A longitudinally framed ship hull made of symmetrically stacked unidirectional plies under sagging is analyzed. The results indicate that present analytical results have a good agreement with FEM method. The initial deflection of ship hull and eccentricity of load can dramatically reduce the bending capacity of ship hull. The proposed formulations provide a simple but useful tool for the longitudinal strength estimation in practical design.

  1. Effectiveness of strength training in post stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Baig, U.A.


    The study was done to evaluate the effectiveness of strength training in post stroke. This was an experimental randomized study, conducted at various Physical Therapy OPD setting areas. Sample n = 30; 3 females and 12 males as experimental group and 3 females and 12 males as control group were selected through probability sampling. Mean age of 57 with middle recovery stage of post stroke were included. Different selected strength training exercises were applied on experimental group to assess spasticity, cadence and manual muscle testing. Result was taken by using Mann - Whiteny U test for outcome measures as in cadence, spasticity and manual muscle testing. The result of two outcome measure shows significant result which means the strength training is more effective than the conventional treatment for post stroke of middle recovery stage. (author)

  2. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.


    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data

  3. Development of high strength, high temperature ceramics (United States)

    Hall, W. B.


    Improvement in the high-pressure turbopumps, both fuel and oxidizer, in the Space Shuttle main engine were considered. The operation of these pumps is limited by temperature restrictions of the metallic components used in these pumps. Ceramic materials that retain strength at high temperatures and appear to be promising candidates for use as turbine blades and impellers are discussed. These high strength materials are sensitive to many related processing parameters such as impurities, sintering aids, reaction aids, particle size, processing temperature, and post thermal treatment. The specific objectives of the study were to: (1) identify and define the processing parameters that affect the properties of Si3N4 ceramic materials, (2) design and assembly equipment required for processing high strength ceramics, (3) design and assemble test apparatus for evaluating the high temperature properties of Si3N4, and (4) conduct a research program of manufacturing and evaluating Si3N4 materials as applicable to rocket engine applications.

  4. Annotation of selection strengths in viral genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCauley, Stephen; de Groot, Saskia; Mailund, Thomas


    - and intergenomic regions. The presence of multiple coding regions complicates the concept of Ka/Ks ratio, and thus begs for an alternative approach when investigating selection strengths. Building on the paper by McCauley & Hein (2006), we develop a method for annotating a viral genome coding in overlapping...... may thus achieve an annotation both of coding regions as well as selection strengths, allowing us to investigate different selection patterns and hypotheses. Results: We illustrate our method by applying it to a multiple alignment of four HIV2 sequences, as well as four Hepatitis B sequences. We...... obtain an annotation of the coding regions, as well as a posterior probability for each site of the strength of selection acting on it. From this we may deduce the average posterior selection acting on the different genes. Whilst we are encouraged to see in HIV2, that the known to be conserved genes gag...

  5. Toughness and strength of nanocrystalline graphene (United States)

    Shekhawat, Ashivni; Ritchie, Robert O.


    Pristine monocrystalline graphene is claimed to be the strongest material known with remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. However, graphene made with scalable fabrication techniques is polycrystalline and contains inherent nanoscale line and point defects—grain boundaries and grain-boundary triple junctions—that lead to significant statistical fluctuations in toughness and strength. These fluctuations become particularly pronounced for nanocrystalline graphene where the density of defects is high. Here we use large-scale simulation and continuum modelling to show that the statistical variation in toughness and strength can be understood with ‘weakest-link' statistics. We develop the first statistical theory of toughness in polycrystalline graphene, and elucidate the nanoscale origins of the grain-size dependence of its strength and toughness. Our results should lead to more reliable graphene device design, and provide a framework to interpret experimental results in a broad class of two-dimensional materials. PMID:26817712

  6. Phase transitions in ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases with a finite number of particles confined in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhui; Ma Yongli


    We generalize the scheme to characterize phase transitions of finite systems in a complex temperature plane and approach the classifications of phase transitions in ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases of a finite number of particles, confined in a cubic box of volume L 3 with different boundary conditions. For this finite ideal Bose system, by extending the classification parameters to all regions, we predict that the phase transition for periodic boundary conditions is of second order, while the transition in Dirichlet boundary conditions is of first order. For a weakly interacting Bose gas with periodic boundary conditions, we discuss the effects of finite particle numbers and inter-particle interactions on the nature of the phase transitions. We show that this homogenous weakly interacting Bose gas undergoes a second-order phase transition, which is in accordance with universality arguments for infinite systems. We also discuss the dependence of transition temperature on interaction strengths and particle numbers.

  7. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components (United States)

    Grugel, Richard


    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams

  8. Special about transition metals in alloy phase formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R E; Bennett, L H


    The d-electrons are special, though their bonding properties remain to be completely understood. It is recognized that d band broadening is the dominant term contributing to transition metal cohesion. It is also generally recognized that in compound formation between transition-metals and polyvalent metals, hybridization between d-bands and polyvalent atom p bands provides a significant contribution to the energy (for example there is such a term in Miedema's scheme). Less generally realized is that d-band hybridization leads to changes in d-electron counts at a transition metal site which are opposite in sign to the net charge transfer on or off the site. The renormalized atom picture of cohesion of the pure transition metals and consider the experimental evidence and the theoretical understanding of d charge transfer going the wrong way are reviewed. A picture of the electronegativity of transition metals based on this trend is developed. Charge transfer associated with equalizing the local chemical potentials in alloys is estimated. Friedel type model alloy calculations are reviewed. The implications of the experimental charge transfer information from Moessbauer isomer shifts to such model alloy calculations and to the strength of the Coulomb enery associated with charge transfer is considered.

  9. Polymer Semiflexibility Induces Nonuniversal Phase Transitions in Diblock Copolymers (United States)

    Mao, Shifan; MacPherson, Quinn; Spakowitz, Andrew J.


    The order-disorder phase transition and the associated phase diagrams of semiflexible diblock copolymers are investigated using the wormlike chain model, incorporating concentration fluctuations. The free energy up to quartic order in concentration fluctuations is developed with chain-rigidity-dependent coefficients, evaluated using our exact results for the wormlike chain model, and a one-loop renormalization treatment is used to account for fluctuation effects. The chain length N and the monomer aspect ratio α directly control the strength of immiscibility (defined by the Flory-Huggins parameter χ ) at the order-disorder transition and the resulting microstructures at different chemical compositions fA. When monomers are infinitely thin (i.e., large aspect ratio α ), the finite chain length N lowers the χ N at the phase transition. However, fluctuation effects become important when chains have a finite radius, and a decrease in the chain length N elevates the χ N at the phase transition. Phase diagrams of diblock copolymers over a wide range of N and α are calculated based on our fluctuation theory. We find that both finite N and α enhance the stability of the lamellar phase above the order-disorder transition. Our results demonstrate that polymer semiflexibility plays a dramatic role in the phase behavior, even for large chain lengths (e.g., N ≈100 ).

  10. Dataset of the relationship between unconfined compressive strength and tensile strength of rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Yui, Mikazu


    This report summary the dataset of the relationship between unconfined compressive strength and tensile strength of the rock mass described in supporting report 2; repository design and engineering technology of second progress report (H12 report) on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. (author)

  11. Fatigue strength of repaired cracks in welded connections made of very high strength steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akyel, A.


    For cyclically loaded structures, fatigue design becomes one of the important design criteria. The state of art shows that with modification of the conventional structural design methodology, the use of very high strength steels may have a positive effect on fatigue strength of welded connections.

  12. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity. (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing


    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p arm curl strength (β = .23, p Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  13. Does Grip Strength Reflect Isokinetic Muscle Strength in Lower Limbs in Patients with CIDP? (United States)

    Knak, Kirsten L; Andersen, Linda K; Christiansen, Ingelise; Markvardsen, Lars K


    Introduction Grip strength is a common measure of general muscle strength in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, it is important to investigate the correlation and responsiveness of grip strength compared to isokinetic muscle strength (IKS) and function of the lower limbs. Methods Seventy patients with CIDP were evaluated with grip strength, IKS and functional measures of the lower limbs. Reevaluation was done after 2 and 10/12 weeks. Correlation and response analyses were performed. Results Grip strength correlated with IKS ankle (maximum Spearman's rank correlation (R S ) = 0.58) and with walking performance (maximum R S = -0.38). IKS ankle was more responsive to detect change (Standardized Response Mean (SRM) = 0.57) than grip strength (SRM = 0.27). Discussion Grip strength does not seem to be an appropriate surrogate measure of IKS and function of the lower limbs in patients with CIDP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The effect of Nordic hamstring strength training on muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength. (United States)

    Seymore, Kayla D; Domire, Zachary J; DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick M; Kulas, Anthony S


    Hamstring strain injury is a frequent and serious injury in competitive and recreational sports. While Nordic hamstring (NH) eccentric strength training is an effective hamstring injury-prevention method, the protective mechanism of this exercise is not understood. Strength training increases muscle strength, but also alters muscle architecture and stiffness; all three factors may be associated with reducing muscle injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NH eccentric strength training on hamstring muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength. Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or control group. Control participants performed static stretching, while experimental participants performed static stretching and NH training for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included: hamstring muscle architecture and stiffness using ultrasound imaging and elastography, and maximal hamstring strength measured on a dynamometer. The experimental group, but not the control group, increased volume (131.5 vs. 145.2 cm 3 , p strength. The NH intervention was an effective training method for muscle hypertrophy, but, contrary to common literature findings for other modes of eccentric training, did not increase fascicle length. The data suggest that the mechanism behind NH eccentric strength training mitigating hamstring injury risk could be increasing volume rather than increasing muscle length. Future research is, therefore, warranted to determine if muscle hypertrophy induced by NH training lowers future hamstring strain injury risk.

  15. [Loading and strength of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses 2. Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Meijers, C.C.A.J.; Vergoossen, E.L.; Creugers, N.H.J.


    The ultimate strength of a dental prosthesis is defined as the strongest loading force applied to the prosthesis until afracture failure occurs. Important key terms are strength, hardness, toughness and fatigue. Relatively prevalent complications of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are

  16. Vocational Psychology: Using One of Counseling Psychology's Strengths to Foster Human Strength (United States)

    Robitschek, Christine; Woodson, Shelley Janiczek


    At several points in the history of their field, counseling psychologists have emphasized that fostering human strengths is part of their mission. Vocational psychology is an area of counseling psychology that has focused consistently on human strengths. In keeping with the Major Contribution's theme, this article examines the following: (a)…

  17. Dipole strength in {sup 89}Y and {sup 90}Zr up to the neutron-separation energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwengner, R.; Beyer, R.; Doenau, F.; Erhard, M.; Junghans, A.R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Nair, C.; Schilling, K.D.; Wagner, A. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Rusev, G. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)]|[Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Tsoneva, N. [Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Benouaret, N. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)]|[Universite d' Alger, 16111 Alger, Algerie (Algeria); Grosse, E. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)]|[Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)


    Dipole and quadrupole excitations in the semimagic N=50 nuclei {sup 89}Y and {sup 90}Zr were investigated at the superconducting electron linear accelerator ELBE with bremsstrahlung produced at electron energies from 9 to 13 MeV. About 200 {gamma} transitions in {sup 89}Y and 180 in {sup 90}Zr were identified up to about 11 and 12 MeV, respectively. Statistical methods were applied to estimate the contributions of inelastic transitions and to correct the intensities of the ground-state transitions for their branching ratios. The photoabsorption cross sections obtained in this way provide information about the dipole-strength function on the tail of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) towards energies below the neutron-separation energy. We observed extra dipole strength with respect to a smooth extrapolation of the GDR in the energy range from about 6 - 11 MeV. The observed extra strength is compared with results of calculations within the Quasiparticle-Phonon Model, which also make predictions about the nature of the strength.

  18. High-resolution study of Gamow-Teller transitions in the 47Ti(3He,t)47V reaction (United States)

    Ganioǧlu, E.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Algora, A.; Csatlós, M.; Deaven, J. M.; Estevez-Aguado, E.; Guess, C. J.; Gulyás, J.; Hatanaka, K.; Hirota, K.; Honma, M.; Ishikawa, D.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Matsubara, H.; Meharchand, R.; Molina, F.; Okamura, H.; Ong, H. J.; Otsuka, T.; Perdikakis, G.; Rubio, B.; Scholl, C.; Shimbara, Y.; Susoy, G.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Thies, J. H.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Zenihiro, J.


    Given the importance of Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions in nuclear structure and astrophysical nuclear processes, we have studied Tz=+3/2→+1/2, GT transitions starting from the 47Ti nucleus in the (3He,t) charge-exchange reaction at 0∘ and at an intermediate incident energy of 140 MeV/nucleon. The experiments were carried out at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka, using the high-resolution facility with a high-dispersion beam line and the Grand-Raiden spectrometer. With an energy resolution of 20 keV, individual GT transitions were observed and GT strength was derived for each state populated up to an excitation energy (Ex) of 12.5 MeV. The GT strength was widely distributed from low excitation energy up to 12.5 MeV, where we had to stop the analysis because of the high level density. The distribution of the GT strengths was compared with the results of shell model calculations using the GXPF1 interaction. The calculations could reproduce the experimental GT distributions well. The GT transitions from the ground state of 47Ti and the M1 transitions from the isobaric analog state in 47V to the same low-lying states in 47V are analogous. It was found that the ratios of GT transition strengths to the ground state, the 0.088-MeV state, and the 0.146-MeV state are similar to the ratios of the strengths of the analogous M1 transitions from the isobaric analog state (IAS) to these states. The measured distribution of the GT strengths was also compared with those starting from the Tz=+3/2 nucleus 41K to the Tz=+1/2 nucleus 41Ca.

  19. Size Effects on the Strength of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu


    The grain size effect and the specimen size effect on the strength of metals are briefly reviewed with respect to their history and current status of research. It is revealed that the fundamental strengthening mechanisms responsible for these two types of size effect are to increase the resistance...... to dislocation motion and to dislocation generation, respectively. It is shown that both strengthening mechanisms take place in some nanostructured metals, which leads to a suggestion to use these two mechanisms for optimizing the strength and ductility of nanostructured metals. This suggestion is verified...

  20. Large quantum dots with small oscillator strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Schlereth, T.W.; Höfling, S.


    We have measured the oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of excitons confined in large InGaAs quantum dots by recording the spontaneous emission decay rate while systematically varying the distance between the quantum dots and a semiconductor-air interface. The size of the quantum dots...... is measured by in-plane transmission electron microscopy and we find average in-plane diameters of 40 nm. We have calculated the oscillator strength of excitons of that size assuming a quantum-dot confinement given by a parabolic in-plane potential and a hard-wall vertical potential and predict a very large...... intermixing inside the quantum dots....