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Sample records for bcs theory

  1. Correlated BCS theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variational theory of the BCS pair-condensed state of strongly-interacting Fermi system is briefly outlined. An FHNC scheme is devised to calculate the radial distribution function and the one- and the two-body density matrices

  2. BCS theory of superconductivity: the world's largest Madoff scheme?

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, J E

    2009-01-01

    The time-tested BCS theory of superconductivity is generally accepted to be the correct theory of conventional superconductivity by physicists and, by extension, by the world at large. In a different realm of human activity, until very recently Bernard Madoff's time-tested investment operation was generally accepted as true and legitimate in the financial world. Madoff's Ponzi scheme, where old investors were being paid off by funds contributed by new investors, was fundamentally flawed, yet was able to thrive for decades because of many vested interests. `Red flags' suggesting its illegitimacy were ignored. Here I suggest that the same is true of BCS theory. There are an increasing number of `red flags' that strongly suggest the possibility that BCS theory may be fundamentally flawed. For example, an ever-growing number of superconductors are being classified as `unconventional', not described by the conventional BCS theory and each requiring a different physical mechanism. In addition, I argue that BCS theo...

  3. Umklapp scattering of pairs in BCS superconductivity theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, X. H.; Walmsley, D. G.

    2004-01-01

    The BCS theory of superconductivity is extended to recognize pairing of electrons by both normal and umklapp scattering. Application of the variational approach shows that coexistence of normal and umklapp scattering frustrates superconductivity.

  4. BCS theory of superconductivity: the world's largest Madoff scheme?

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The time-tested BCS theory of superconductivity is generally accepted to be the correct theory of conventional superconductivity by physicists and, by extension, by the world at large. In a different realm of human activity, until very recently Bernard Madoff's time-tested investment operation was generally accepted as true and legitimate in the financial world. Madoff's Ponzi scheme, where old investors were being paid off by funds contributed by new investors, was fundamentally flawed, yet ...

  5. A study of particle number fluctuation under BCS theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Particle number fluctuations in BCS theory are studied with the relativistic mean-field theory and the shell effects of particle number fluctuations are first discovered. By analyzing the relative errors of the particle number fluctuations, we find that the particle number fluctuations are relevant with the odd-even character. We later apply this method to the examination of the new shell structure, showing that N = 184 for the neutron is indeed a new closed shell.

  6. Does the isotope effect of mercury support the BCS theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, X. Q.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reexamine the results of isotope effect experiments of the conventional monoatomic superconductor (Hg). It is shown clearly that the isotopic coefficients of mercury can be largely deviated from $\\alpha=0.5$, the standard value suggested by the phonon-mediated BCS pairing theory. According to the reported experimental results of various mercury isotopes, a giant isotope effect ($\\alpha=2.896$) is numerically found in the data. This study indicates that the validity of the co...

  7. Polynomial similarity transformation theory: A smooth interpolation between coupled cluster doubles and projected BCS applied to the reduced BCS Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroote, Matthias; Henderson, Thomas M.; Zhao, Jinmo; Dukelsky, Jorge; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-03-01

    We present a similarity transformation theory based on a polynomial form of a particle-hole pair excitation operator. In the weakly correlated limit, this polynomial becomes an exponential, leading to coupled cluster doubles. In the opposite strongly correlated limit, the polynomial becomes an extended Bessel expansion and yields the projected BCS wave function. In between, we interpolate using a single parameter. The effective Hamiltonian is non-Hermitian and this polynomial similarity transformation theory follows the philosophy of traditional coupled cluster, left projecting the transformed Hamiltonian onto subspaces of the Hilbert space in which the wave function variance is forced to be zero. Similarly, the interpolation parameter is obtained through minimizing the next residual in the projective hierarchy. We rationalize and demonstrate how and why coupled cluster doubles is ill suited to the strongly correlated limit, whereas the Bessel expansion remains well behaved. The model provides accurate wave functions with energy errors that in its best variant are smaller than 1% across all interaction strengths. The numerical cost is polynomial in system size and the theory can be straightforwardly applied to any realistic Hamiltonian.

  8. Effects of broadening on BCS theory in the presence of Van Hove singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been recent suggestions that high-Tc superconductivity can be understood in terms of conventional BCS theory if there is a logarithmic Van Hove singularity in the electron density of states near the Fermi energy as suggested by band theory. We consider the effects of broadening of the singularity on theories of this type. The broadening may be caused by inhomogeneities arising from doping or structural defects, electron inelastic scattering, and three-dimensional dispersion

  9. Dynamical description of the fission process using the TD-BCS theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scamps, Guillaume, E-mail: scamps@nucl.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Simenel, Cédric [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601 (Australia); Lacroix, Denis [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    The description of fission remains a challenge for nuclear microscopic theories. The time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach with BCS pairing is applied to study the last stage of the fission process. A good agreement is found for the one-body observables: the total kinetic energy and the average mass asymmetry. The non-physical dependence of two-body observables with the initial shape is discussed.

  10. Dynamical description of the fission process using the TD-BCS theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scamps, Guillaume; Lacroix, Denis

    2015-01-01

    The description of fission remains a challenge for nuclear microscopic theories. The time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach with BCS pairing is applied to study the last stage of the fission process. A good agreement is found for the one-body observables: the total kinetic energy and the average mass asymmetry. The non-physical dependence of two-body observables with the initial shape is discussed.

  11. Further test of new pairing scheme used in overhaul of BCS theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Explanation of a new pairing scheme to overhaul BCS theory. • Prediction of superconductor properties from normal state resistivity. • Applications to Nb, Pb, Al, Ta, Mo, Ir and W, Tc between 9.5 and 0.012 K. • High accuracy compared with measured energy gap of Nb, Pb, Al and Ta. • Prediction of energy gap for Mo, Ir and W (so far not measured). - Abstract: A new electron pairing scheme, rectifying a fundamental flaw of the BCS theory, is tested extensively. It postulates that superconductivity arises solely from residual umklapp scattering when it is not in competition for the same destination electron states with normal scattering. It reconciles a long standing theoretical discrepancy in the strength of the electron–phonon interaction between the normal and superconductive states. The new scheme is exploited to calculate the superconductive electron–phonon spectral density, α2F(ν), entirely on the basis of normal state electrical resistivity. This leads to first principles superconductive properties (zero temperature energy gap and tunnelling conductance) in seven metals which turn out to be highly accurate when compared with known data; in other cases experimental verification is invited. The transition temperatures involved vary over almost three orders of magnitude: from 9.5 K for niobium to 0.012 K for tungsten

  12. The (confinement) structure of Yang-Mills-theories within a Bose-BCS-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the purpose of this talk to report on a first attempt to apply (non-perturbative) techniques of many-body theory to a field-theory of the Yang-Mills-type. The procedure is in principle analogous to lattice calculations: In order to make the field-theoretical hamiltonian a well-behaved operator in the Fock-space, a phasespace-cutoff is assumed for the definition of the field operators. The coupling constant g then becomes a function of this cutoff which is fixed by some physical property like a glue-ball mass. (orig./HSI)

  13. Conventional BCS, Unconventional BCS, and Non-BCS Hidden Dineutron Phases in Neutron Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Khodel, V A; Shaginyan, V R; Zverev, M V

    2013-01-01

    The nature of pairing correlations in neutron matter is re-examined. Working within the conventional approximation in which the $nn$ pairing interaction is provided by a realistic bare $nn$ potential fitted to scattering data, it is demonstrated that the standard BCS theory fails in regions of neutron number density where the pairing constant $\\lambda$, depending crucially on density, has a non-BCS negative sign. We are led to propose a non-BCS scenario for pairing phenomena in neutron matter that involves the formation of a hidden dineutron state. In low-density neutron matter where the pairing constant has the standard BCS sign, two phases organized by pairing correlations are possible and compete energetically: a conventional BCS phase and a dineutron phase. In dense neutron matter, where $\\lambda$ changes sign, only the dineutron phase survives and exists until the critical density for termination of pairing correlations is reached at approximately twice the neutron density in heavy atomic nuclei.

  14. Deection of BCS pairing in neutral Fermi fluids via stokes scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg Morten; Baym, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    A0530FFermion system and electron gas quantum statistical mechanics; A7420F-bcs-theory of superconductivity......A0530FFermion system and electron gas quantum statistical mechanics; A7420F-bcs-theory of superconductivity...

  15. Relativistic BCS-BEC Crossover at Quark Level

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang P.; Mao S; He L

    2010-01-01

    The non-relativistic G0G formalism of BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature is extended to relativistic fermion systems. The theory recovers the BCS mean field approximation at zero temperature and the non-relativistic results in a proper limit. For massive fermions, when the coupling strength increases, there exist two crossovers from the weak coupling BCS superfluid to the non-relativistic BEC state and then to the relativistic BEC state. For color superconductivity at moderate baryon ...

  16. Relativistic BCS-BEC Crossover at Quark Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The non-relativistic G0G formalism of BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature is extended to relativistic fermion systems. The theory recovers the BCS mean field approximation at zero temperature and the non-relativistic results in a proper limit. For massive fermions, when the coupling strength increases, there exist two crossovers from the weak coupling BCS superfluid to the non-relativistic BEC state and then to the relativistic BEC state. For color superconductivity at moderate baryon density, the matter is in the BCS-BEC crossover region, and the behavior of the pseudogap is quite similar to that found in high temperature superconductors.

  17. Main: 1BCS [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BCS 小麦 Bread Wheat ... Triticum aestivum Serine Carboxypeptidase Ii Chains A And B Name=Cbp2; Tri ... .Remington 1bcs 25 Peptide Aldehyde Complexes With Wheat ... Serine 1bcs 26 Carboxypeptidase Ii 1bcs 27to Be Pu ... Microbial Peptide Aldehyde Inhibitor 1bcs 21 CBP2_WHEAT :260,6|CBP2_WHEAT :418,266|PIR; A29639; A29639.|PDB; ...

  18. Relativistic BCS-BEC Crossover at Finite Temperature and Its Application to Color Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    He, Lianyi; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2007-01-01

    The non-relativistic $G_0 G$ formalism of BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature is extended to relativistic fermion systems. The uncondensed pairs contribute a pseudogap to the fermion excitations. The theory recovers the BCS mean field approximation at zero temperature and the non-relativistic results in a proper limit. For massive fermions, when the coupling strength increases, there exist two crossovers from the weak coupling BCS superfluid to the non-relativistic BEC state and then to t...

  19. Commonality between BCS and TCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinod P; Rădulescu, Flavian Ştefan; Miron, Dalia Simona; Yacobi, Avraham

    2016-07-25

    Both biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and topical drug classification system (TCS) are based on sound scientific principles with the aim of providing biowaiver and reducing regulatory burden without lowering the quality requirements and standards of approval for the drug products. BCS is based on the solubility and permeability properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, or drug substance) whereas the TCS is based on the qualitative and quantitative composition of the dosage form and the in vitro release rate of the active ingredient as key decision tools. Both BCS and TCS take drug release and dissolution as their guiding principle for providing biowaiver, increasing the availability and affordability of safe and effective medicines to the consumers and at the same time maintaining the drug product quality. PMID:27208656

  20. Energy Spectrum of a Degenerate Fermi Gas at the BEC-BCS Crossover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical study of the BCS-BEC crossover is presented. Starting from a two-channel Boson-Fermion resonance model, the BCS-Bogoiubov mean-field method and the Green's function method are adopted. The result shows that we can end up with a BCS-type theory but with a composite order parameter. Calculation shows that the Bose condensate of BCS Cooper pairs is proportional to the molecular BEC of Bose molecules. The resonance superfluid phase is indicated by the energy spectrum with an obvious interpretation of the transition mechanism.

  1. The BCS Model for General Pair Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hainzl, Christian; Hamza, Eman; Seiringer, Robert;

    2008-01-01

    The Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) functional has recently received renewed attention as a description of fermionic gases interacting with local pairwise interactions. We present here a rigorous analysis of the BCS functional for general pair interaction potentials. For both zero and positive...... temperature, we show that the existence of a non-trivial solution of the nonlinear BCS gap equation is equivalent to the existence of a negative eigenvalue of a certain linear operator. From this we conclude the existence of a critical temperature below which the BCS pairing wave function does not vanish...

  2. Structure of the number-projected BCS wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukelsky, J.; Pittel, S.; Esebbag, C.

    2016-03-01

    We study the structure of the number-projected BCS (PBCS) wave function in the particle-hole basis, displaying its similarities with coupled clusters theory (CCT). The analysis of PBCS together with several modifications suggested by the CCT wave function is carried out for the exactly solvable Richardson model involving a pure pairing Hamiltonian acting in a space of equally spaced, doubly degenerate levels. We point out the limitations of PBCS to describe the nonsuperconducting regime and suggest possible avenues for improvement.

  3. The Solution to the BCS Gap Equation for Superconductivity and Its Temperature Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Watanabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of operator theory, we deal with the temperature dependence of the solution to the BCS gap equation for superconductivity. When the potential is a positive constant, the BCS gap equation reduces to the simple gap equation. We first show that there is a unique nonnegative solution to the simple gap equation, that it is continuous and strictly decreasing, and that it is of class with respect to the temperature. We next deal with the case where the potential is not a constant but a function. When the potential is not a constant, we give another proof of the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the BCS gap equation, and show how the solution varies with the temperature. We finally show that the solution to the BCS gap equation is indeed continuous with respect to both the temperature and the energy under a certain condition when the potential is not a constant.

  4. Structure of the number projected BCS wave function

    CERN Document Server

    Dukelsky, J; Esebbag, C

    2016-01-01

    We study the structure of the number projected BCS (PBCS) wave function in the particle-hole basis, displaying its similarities with coupled clusters theory (CCT). The analysis of PBCS together with several modifications suggested by the CCT wave function is carried out for the exactly solvable Richardson model involving a pure pairing hamiltonian acting in a space of equally-spaced doubly-degenerate levels. We point out the limitations of PBCS to describe the non-superconducting regime and suggest possible avenues for improvement.

  5. Perturbed bifurcations in the BCS gap equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spathis, P. N.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Lazarides, Nickos

    1992-01-01

    The anisotropic BCS gap equation is applied to a tight-binding model of layered high-temperature superconductors. The possible solutions have s-, d-, and mixed s- and d-wave symmetries using nearest-neighbor intralayer singlet pairing interaction of the same strength in the x and y directions. The...

  6. Evaluated body condition score (bcs) in puerperal period

    OpenAIRE

    Ilir Dova; Ana Kapaj; Enkeleda Ozuni; Imer Haziri

    2013-01-01

    BCS provides an important evaluation of the energy status of cows in puerperal period. This evaluation method provides a subjective indication of the fat cover on cows. To evaluate BCS is used a scoring point system based on the fat deposited in external part of the cow. In this study to evaluate BCS in cows in different farms we used 1 to 9 scoring system. The data shows different BCS classes between cows in different farms. All farms included in study shows that the BCS level is lower than ...

  7. Resonant electronic Raman scattering: A BCS-like system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonarde N.; Arantes, A.; Schüller, C.; Bell, M. J. V.; Anjos, V.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we investigate the resonant intersubband Raman scattering of two-dimensional electron systems in GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells. Self-consistent calculations of the polarized and depolarized Raman cross sections show that the appearance of excitations at the unrenormalized single-particle energy are related to three factors: the extreme resonance regime, the existence of degeneracy in intersubband excitations of the electron gas, and, finally, degeneracy in the interactions between pairs of excitations. It is demonstrated that the physics that governs the problem is similar to the one that gives rise to the formation of the superconducting state in the BCS theory of normal metals. Comparison between experiment and theory shows an excellent agreement.

  8. Evaluated body condition score (bcs in puerperal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Dova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BCS provides an important evaluation of the energy status of cows in puerperal period. This evaluation method provides a subjective indication of the fat cover on cows. To evaluate BCS is used a scoring point system based on the fat deposited in external part of the cow. In this study to evaluate BCS in cows in different farms we used 1 to 9 scoring system. The data shows different BCS classes between cows in different farms. All farms included in study shows that the BCS level is lower than the ideal BCS. This proves that all farms involved in the study have a level of feeding which is not optimal. In the period up to 2 months after calving is observed a gradual reduction of BCS in dairy cows.

  9. Resonant Continuum in Extended RMF Plus BCS Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-Gang; MA Zhong-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The contribution of the resonant continuum to pairing correlations is investigated in the relativistic mean field theory plus Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS)approximation with a constant pairing strength.The resonance states with their widths in the continuum are considered explicitly.The numerical study is performed in an effective Lagrangian with the parameter set NLSH for neutron-rich nucleus 84Ni.The results show that the effect of the proper treatment of the resonant continuum on pairing correlations for nucleus close to neutron drip line is important.It is found that the problem of an unphysical particle gas could be overcome when the pairing correlation is performed by using the resonant states instead of the discretized states in the continuum.

  10. The BCS appathon challenge at Greenwich

    OpenAIRE

    Arafa, Yasmine; Boldyreff, Cornelia; Malik, Asif; Wicks, Alan; Windall, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The BCS Appathon set out to engage during one hour as many people as possible in the UK in programming an app for their mobile phones. It took place on the 9th June 2015, between 10.30 and 11.30, at a number of UK venues, one of which was the University of Greenwich. Many people now rely on their mobile phones and, daily, use a variety of apps on them, but few have any knowledge of how an app has been developed. The Appathon aimed not merely to give participants an understanding of app develo...

  11. BCS ansatz for superconductivity in the light of the Bogoliubov approach and the Richardson–Gaudin exact wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We develop a perturbation expansion for the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer Hamiltonian. ► We show that deviations from mean-field results are underextensive for relevant operators for any order of the perturbation theory. ► We discuss the relation between the BCS wave function and the exact wave function, which can be found by using Richardson approach. -- Abstract: The Bogoliubov approach to superconductivity provides a strong mathematical support to the wave function ansatz proposed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS). Indeed, this ansatz — with all pairs condensed into the same state — corresponds to the ground state of the Bogoliubov Hamiltonian. Yet, this Hamiltonian only is part of the BCS Hamiltonian. As a result, the BCS ansatz definitely differs from the BCS Hamiltonian ground state. This can be directly shown either through a perturbative approach starting from the Bogoliubov Hamiltonian, or better by analytically solving the BCS Schrödinger equation along Richardson–Gaudin exact procedure. Still, the BCS ansatz leads not only to the correct extensive part of the ground state energy for an arbitrary number of pairs in the energy layer where the potential acts — as recently obtained by solving Richardson–Gaudin equations analytically — but also to a few other physical quantities such as the electron distribution, as here shown. The present work also considers arbitrary filling of the potential layer and evidences the existence of a super dilute and a super dense regime of pairs, with a gap different from the usual gap. These regimes constitute the lower and upper limits of density-induced BEC–BCS cross-over in Cooper pair systems

  12. BEC-BCS Crossover and the Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Hot and Dense Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Meng; Schuck, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nucleon-nucleon correlations in symmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature is studied beyond BCS theory. Starting from a Hartree-Fock description of nuclear matter with the Gogny effective interaction, we add correlations corresponding to the formation of preformed pairs and scattering states above the superfluid critical temperature within the in-medium T-matrix approach, which is analogous to the Nozieres-Schmitt-Rink theory. We calculate the critical temperature for a BEC superfluid of deuterons, of a BCS superfluid of nucleons, and in the crossover between these limits. The effect of the correlations on thermodynamic properties (equation of state, energy, entropy) and the liquid-gas phase transition is discussed. Our results show that nucleon-nucleon correlations beyond BCS play an important role for the properties of nuclear matter, especially in the low-density region.

  13. Going beyond the BCS level in the superfluid path integral: A consistent treatment of electrodynamics and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brandon M.; Boyack, Rufus; Wu, Chien-Te; Levin, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this Rapid Communication we derive the full gauge-invariant electromagnetic response beyond the BCS level using the fermionic superfluid path integral. In the process we identify and redress a failure to satisfy the compressibility sum rule; this shortcoming is associated with the conventional path-integral formulation of BCS-level electrodynamics. The approach in this paper builds on an alternative saddle point scheme. At the mean field level, this leads to the well known gauge-invariant electrodynamics of BCS theory and to the satisfaction of the compressibility sum rule. Moreover, this scheme can be readily extended to address arbitrary higher order fluctuation theories (for example, at the Gaussian level.) At any level this approach will lead to a gauge invariant and compressibility sum rule consistent treatment of electrodynamics and thermodynamics.

  14. Gravitationally bound BCS state as dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephon

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility that fermionic dark matter undergoes a BCS transition to form a superfluid. This requires an attractive interaction between fermions and we describe a possible source of this interaction induced by torsion. We describe the gravitating fermion system with the Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism in the local density approximation. We solve the Poisson equation along with the equations for the density and gap energy of the fermions to find a self-gravitating, superfluid solution for dark matter halos. In order to produce halos the size of dwarf galaxies, we require a particle mass of $\\sim 200\\mathrm{eV}$. We find a maximum attractive coupling strength before the halo becomes unstable. If dark matter halos do have a superfluid component, this raises the possibility that they contain vortex lines which may be detectable via gravitational lensing.

  15. The relation between the generalised Eshelby integral and the generalised BCS and DB models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Tian-You; Fan Lei

    2011-01-01

    The generalised BCS dislocation group model and the generalised DB atomic cohesive force zone model have obtained the same results on nonlinear fracture study of some one-, two-and three-dimensional quasicrystals. This work reveals some inherent connection between the two models, and finds that their common basis is the generalised Eshelby integral based on the generalised Eshelby energy-momentum tensor for quasicrystals. Further applications of the theory in solving nonlinear fracture problems of the materials are also discussed.

  16. High temperature superconductivity in sulfur hydride under ultrahigh pressure: A complex superconducting phase beyond conventional BCS

    OpenAIRE

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Kohler, Jurgen; Whangbo, M.-H.; Bianconi, Antonio; Simon, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    The recent report of superconductivity under high pressure at the record transition temperature of Tc=203K in sulfur hydride has been identified as conventional in view of the observation of an isotope effect upon deuteration. Here it is demonstrated that conventional theories of superconductivity in the sense of BCS or Eliashberg formalisms can neither account for the observed values of Tc nor the pressure dependence of the isotope coefficient. The only way out of the dilemma is a multi-band...

  17. Superconductivity in an electron band just above the Fermi level: possible route to BCS-BEC superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, K; Ito, Y.; Ota, Y; Kotani, Y.; Shimojima, T.; Kiss, T.; Watanabe, S; C.-T. Chen; S. Niitaka; Hanaguri, T; Takagi, H.; Chainani, A.; Shin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional superconductivity follows Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS) theory of electrons-pairing in momentum-space, while superfluidity is the Bose-Einstein condensation(BEC) of atoms paired in real-space. These properties of solid metals and ultra-cold gases, respectively, are connected by the BCS-BEC crossover. Here we investigate the band dispersions in FeTe$_{0.6}$Se$_{0.4}$($T_c$ = 14.5 K $\\sim$ 1.2 meV) in an accessible range below and above the Fermi level($E_F$) using ultra-high reso...

  18. A New First-Principles Calculation of Field-Dependent RF Surface Impedance of BCS Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Binping [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    There is a need to understand the intrinsic limit of radiofrequency (RF) surface impedance that determines the performance of superconducting RF cavities in particle accelerators. Here we present a field-dependent derivation of Mattis-Bardeen theory of the RF surface impedance of BCS superconductors based on the shifted density of states resulting from coherently moving Cooper pairs. Our theoretical prediction of the effective BCS RF surface resistance (Rs) of niobium as a function of peak surface magnetic field amplitude agrees well with recently reported record low loss resonant cavity measurements from JLab and FNAL with carefully, yet differently, prepared niobium material. The surprising reduction in resistance with increasing field is explained to be an intrinsic effect.

  19. THE BIOPHARMACEUTICAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (BCS: PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhwaar Vikaas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS was introduced By Amidon et al., (1995 as a method for classifying drug substances based on their dose/solubility ratio and intestinal permeability. It allows predicting the in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of drug products. The drug can be categorized into four classes of BCS, namely, High solubility high permeability, low solubility high permeability, High solubility low permeability and low solubility low permeability. An objective of BCS approach is to determine the equilibrium solubility of drug substances under physiological environment. The BCS helps in mathematically analyzing the kinetics and dynamics of drug in gastrointestinal tract (GIT for New Drug Applications (NDA and Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA filings and biowaivers. This step reduces time in the new drug development process. Further it helps to decide when the dissolution rate is likely to be the rate determining step. It also helps in the prediction of potential of inactive ingredients in the dosage form to alter the dissolution / absorption of the drug. The present review, apart from giving a brief overview of BCS classification system, highlights these and some of the more recent applications of BCS classification system.

  20. Detecting the BCS pairing amplitude via a sudden lattice ramp in a honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesinga, Eite; Nuske, Marlon; Mathey, Ludwig

    2016-05-01

    We determine the exact time evolution of an initial Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state of ultra-cold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice. The dynamical evolution is triggered by ramping the lattice potential up, such that the interaction strength Uf is much larger than the hopping amplitude Jf. The quench initiates collective oscillations with frequency | Uf | /(2 π) in the momentum occupation numbers and imprints an oscillating phase with the same frequency on the order parameter Δ. The latter is not reproduced by treating the time evolution in mean-field theory. The momentum density-density or noise correlation functions oscillate at frequency | Uf | /(2 π) as well as its second harmonic. For a very deep lattice, with negligible tunneling energy, the oscillations of momentum occupation numbers are undamped. Non-zero tunneling after the quench leads to dephasing of the different momentum modes and a subsequent damping of the oscillations. This occurs even for a finite-temperature initial BCS state, but not for a non-interacting Fermi gas. We therefore propose to use this dephasing to detect a BCS state. Finally, we predict that the noise correlation functions in a honeycomb lattice will develop strong anti-correlations near the Dirac point. We acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation.

  1. A Number-Conserving Theory for Nuclear Pairing

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, L. Y.

    2013-01-01

    A microscopic theory for nuclear pairing is proposed through the generalized density matrix formalism. The analytical equations are as simple as that of the BCS theory, and could be solved within a similar computer time. The current theory conserves the exact particle number, and is valid at arbitrary pairing strength (including those below the BCS critical strength). These are the two main advantages over the conventional BCS theory. The theory is also of interests to other mesoscopic systems.

  2. BCS Superconductivity in Quantum Critical Metals

    OpenAIRE

    She, Jian-Huang; Zaanen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the assumption that pairing is induced by an retarded external 'bosonic glue', we reformulate the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity as a scaling theory. Conventional superconductors correspond with the asymptotically free case but the theory can be effortlessly generalized to handle quantum critical metals. We find that superconducting Tc's are strongly enhanced in the latter when retardation is strong while the coupling is weak. It appears that this simple ...

  3. BCS Theory of Hadronic Matter at High Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providencia, Constanca;

    2012-01-01

    The equilibrium between the so-called 2SC and CFL phases of strange quark matter at high densities is investigated in the framework of a simple schematic model of the NJL type. Equal densities are assumed for quarks u, d and s. The 2SC phase is here described by a color-flavor symmetric state, in...

  4. Superfluid nuclear matter in BCS theory and beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-Gang; U. Lombardo; P. Schuck

    2009-01-01

    Medium polarization effects are studied for 1S0 pairing in nuclear matter within BHF approach.The screening potential is calculated in the RPA limit, suitably renormalized to cure the low density mechanical instability of nuclear matter. The self-energy corrections are consistently included resulting in a strong depletion of the Fermi surface. The self-energy effects always lead to a quenching of the gap, whereas it is almost completely compensated by the anti-screening effect in nuclear matter.

  5. Ramsey theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hočevar, Mitja

    2015-01-01

    This BCs thesis deals with topics from graph theory. Ramsey theory in its most basic form deals with the problem of determining the minimal positive integer, such that for any edge-coloring of the complete graph of this size with a prescribed number of colors one can find a subgraph of predefined size all of whose edges are of the same colour. These minimal sizes are called Ramsey numbers. In this BCs thesis we present basic notions of graph theory needed to understand the basic theorem of...

  6. Crossover between the dense electron-hole phase and the BCS excitonic phase in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Second order perturbation theory and a Lipkin-Nogami scheme combined with an exact Monte Carlo projection after variation are applied to compute the ground-state energy of 6 ≤ N ≤ 210 electron-hole pairs confined in a parabolic two-dimensional quantum dot. The energy shows nice scaling properties as N or the confinement strength is varied. A crossover from the high-density electron-hole phase to the BCS excitonic phase is found at a density which is roughly four times the close-packing density of excitons. (author)

  7. The relation between the generalised Eshelby integral and the generalised BCS and DB models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generalised BCS dislocation group model and the generalised DB atomic cohesive force zone model have obtained the same results on nonlinear fracture study of some one-, two- and three-dimensional quasicrystals. This work reveals some inherent connection between the two models, and finds that their common basis is the generalised Eshelby integral based on the generalised Eshelby energy—momentum tensor for quasicrystals. Further applications of the theory in solving nonlinear fracture problems of the materials are also discussed. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  8. Crossover between the Dense Electron-Hole Phase and the BCS Excitonic Phase in Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Boris A.; Gonzalez, Augusto; Quiroga, Luis; Capote, Roberto; Rodriguez, Ferney

    1998-01-01

    Second order perturbation theory and a Lipkin-Nogami scheme combined with an exact Monte Carlo projection after variation are applied to compute the ground-state energy of $6\\le N\\le 210$ electron-hole pairs confined in a parabolic two-dimensional quantum dot. The energy shows nice scaling properties as N or the confinement strength is varied. A crossover from the high-density electron-hole phase to the BCS excitonic phase is found at a density which is roughly four times the close-packing de...

  9. RMF+BCS Description of Some Traditional Neutron Magic Isotones

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena G; Singh D; Kaushik M

    2014-01-01

    The traditional neutron magic nuclei with N = 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126, and those with neutron sub-magic number N = 40 are investigated within the relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF+BCS) approach. The results indicate appearance of new proton magic numbers as well as the disappearance of conventional magic numbers for nuclei with extreme isospin values. The calculated energies and densities do not indicate any tendency for the proton halo formations in any of the proton rich isotones due ...

  10. The Hartree-Fock+BCS and generator coordinate methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method to solve the Hartree-Fock+BCS equations with minimal symmetry requirements is described. It is shown that this method is very accurate, with reasonable computing time. The method can be generalized to study the nuclear dynamics within the generator coordinate method, and some applications examples are presented. (authors) 35 refs., 9 figs

  11. Software testing an ISTQB-BCS certified tester foundation guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian; Samaroo, Angelina; Thompson, Geoff; Williams, Peter; Hambling, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This practical guide provides insight into software testing, explaining the basics of the testing process and how to perform effective tests. It provides an overview of different techniques and how to apply them. It is the best-selling official textbook of the ISTQB-BCS Certified Tester Foundation Level.

  12. On the test of the modified BCS at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, N D; Dang, Nguyen Dinh; Arima, Akito

    2005-01-01

    The conclusions by Ponomarev and Vdovin [Phys. Rev. C {\\bf 72}, 034309 (2005)] are inadequate to judge the applicability of the modified BCS because they are based on the results obtained in the temperature region, where the testing systems are thermodynamically invalid.

  13. Detection of BCS pairing in neutral fermi fluids via stokes scattering. The Hebel-slichter effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg Morten

    2004-01-01

    A0530F-Fermion-systems-and-electron-gas-quantum-statistical-mechanics;A7420F-BCS-theeory-of-superconductivity......A0530F-Fermion-systems-and-electron-gas-quantum-statistical-mechanics;A7420F-BCS-theeory-of-superconductivity...

  14. BCS-Bose model of exotic superconductors: Generalized coherence length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytic expressions are derived for the root-mean-square (rms) radius of a pair of fermions in a BCS many-fermion state in one, two, and three dimensions, in terms of the BCS gap energy and the associated chemical potential. These expressions are valid for any coupling strength of any pair interaction model implying a momentum-independent gap energy. The latter holds, e.g., for an attractive δ pair potential examined in the one-dimensional (1D) case (whose N-fermion ground state can be determined exactly) or for the BCS (electron-phonon) model interaction in any dimension. Weak-coupling and/or high-density limits for the rms radius are identical in 1D, 2D, and 3D, and reduce to the familiar well-known Pippard result to within a factor of order unity. In contrast, strong-coupling and/or low-density limits coincide in 1D and 3D, but differ by a factor of order unity in the 2D limit, and in each case are essentially the size of a single, isolated pair. The 1D δ interaction McGuire-Yang-Gaudin many-fermion model is studied in detail. The interaction renormalization scheme of Miyake and of Randeria, Duan, and Shieh, and the BCS interaction model, both in 2D, are employed to analyze cuprate superconductor empirical results. Reasonable agreement between theoretical rms radii with experimental coherence lengths suggests that cuprates can be described moderately well as weakly coupled superconductors within the BCS-Bose formalism

  15. Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the 3P2−3F2 coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the 3P2−3F2 coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive

  16. Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, D; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Rios, A; Polls, A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the ${}^3P_2-{}^3F_2$ coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the ${}^3P_2-{}^3F_2$ coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive.

  17. RMF+BCS Description of Some Traditional Neutron Magic Isotones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional neutron magic nuclei with N = 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126, and those with neutron sub-magic number N = 40 are investigated within the relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF+BCS approach. The results indicate appearance of new proton magic numbers as well as the disappearance of conventional magic numbers for nuclei with extreme isospin values. The calculated energies and densities do not indicate any tendency for the proton halo formations in any of the proton rich isotones due to Coulomb interaction and different single particle spectra. However, the potential barrier provided by the Coulomb interaction and that due to the centrifugal force may cause along delay in the actual decay of proton rich nucleus resulting the extended drip line.

  18. RMF+BCS description of some traditional neutron magic isotones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional neutron magic nuclei with N = 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126, and those with neutron sub-magic number N = 40 are investigated within the relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF+BCS) approach. The results indicate appearance of new proton magic numbers as well as the disappearance of conventional magic numbers for nuclei with extreme isospin values. The calculated energies and densities do not indicate any tendency for the proton halo formations in any of the proton rich isotones due to Coulomb interaction and different single particle spectra. However, the potential barrier provided by the Coulomb interaction and that due to the centrifugal force may cause a long delay in the actual decay of proton rich nucleus resulting in the extended drip line. (authors)

  19. Continuum discretised BCS approach for weakly bound nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, J. A.; Alonso, C. E.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) formalism is extended by including the single-particle continuum in order to analyse the evolution of pairing in an isotopic chain from stability up to the drip-line. We propose a continuum discretised generalised BCS based on single-particle pseudostates (PS). These PS are generated from the diagonalisation of the single-particle Hamiltonian within a transformed harmonic oscillator basis. The consistency of the results versus the size of the basis is studied. The method is applied to neutron rich oxygen and carbon isotopes and compared with similar previous works and available experimental data. We make use of the flexibility of the proposed model in order to study the evolution of the occupation of the low-energy continuum when the system becomes weakly bound. We find an increasing influence of the non-resonant continuum as long as the Fermi level approaches the neutron separation threshold.

  20. BCS @ 50: derivation of gap equations in different lattice geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We rigorously derive BCS gap equations for a square, triangular and a honeycomb lattice using a two-dimensional t-J model. The gap equations in all the three lattice geometries look usual, with band indices appearing and a minor modification in the separable pair potential for the (two band) honeycomb lattice. In each case, the gap equation is solved (self consistently with the number equation) at low densities assuming singlet pairing. (author)

  1. BCS superconductivity of Dirac electrons in graphene layers

    OpenAIRE

    Kopnin, N. B.; Sonin, E. B.

    2008-01-01

    Possible superconductivity of electrons with the Dirac spectrum is analyzed using the BCS model. We calculate the critical temperature, the superconducting energy gap, and supercurrent as functions of the doping level and of the pairing interaction strength. Zero doping is characterized by existence of the quantum critical point such that the critical temperature vanishes below some finite value of the interaction strength. However, the critical temperature remains finite for any nonzero elec...

  2. Thermodynamics of anisotropic-gap and multiband clean BCS superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Mishonov, T.; Penev, E.

    2002-01-01

    The free energy, non-gradient terms of the Ginzburg-Landau expansion, and the jump of the specific heat of a multiband anisotropic-gap clean BCS superconductor are derived in the framework of a separable-kernel approximation. Results for a two-band superconductor, d-wave superconductor, and some recent models for MgB_2 are derived as special cases.

  3. A two-dimensional Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, Martin Gerhard

    2016-01-21

    This thesis reports on the preparation of a 2D Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover and the observation of the BKT transition into a quasi long-range ordered superfluid phase. The pair momentum distribution of the gas is probed by means of a matter-wave focusing technique which relies on time-of-flight evolution in a weak harmonic potential. This distribution holds the coherence properties of the gas. The quasi long-range ordered phase manifests itself as a sharp low-momentum peak. The temperature where it forms is identified as the transition temperature. By tuning the temperature and the interaction strength, the phase diagram of the 2D Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover is mapped out. The phase coherence is investigated in a self-interference experiment. Furthermore, algebraic decay of correlations is observed in the trap average of the first order correlation function, which is obtained from the Fourier transform of the pair momentum distribution. This is in qualitative agreement with predictions of homogeneous theory for the superfluid phase in a 2D gas. The presented results provide a foundation for future experimental and theoretical studies of strongly correlated 2D Fermi gases. They might thus help to elucidate complex systems such as the electron gas in high-T{sub c} superconductors.

  4. Competition between FFLO and BCS superconducting states in clean asymmetrical ferromagnet-superconductor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proshin, Yurii N.; Khusainov, Marat M.; Minnullin, Arthur [Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    The theory of proximity effect, based on the boundary-value problem for the Eilenberger function in view of the in-plane Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states, is proposed for thin asymmetrical structures FS, where F is a ferromagnetic metal and S is a BCS superconductor. The dependencies of critical temperature on an exchange field of the F metal, electronic correlations in the S and F metals, and thicknesses of layers F and S are calculated for four-layered FS systems and FS superlattices. A proposed classification of states includes up to 8 different states which are characterized by phase shifts between superconducting order parameters for neighboring S(F) layers and mutual orientation of magnetizations in adjacent F layers. For asymmetrical FS systems the solitary reentrant superconductivity is predicted. It is shown that the 2D-FFLO state prevails over the BCS one on the solitary peaks wings. The real candidate for observing predicted phenomena is Gd/La system, for which we found the sign and value of the constant of electronelectron interaction in gadolinium and explain the experimentally observed absence of the suppression of three dimensional superconductivity for symmetrical Gd/La superlattice. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Body condition score (BCS and metabolic status of shelter dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of 147 shelter dogs were weighted and assigned a body condition score (BCS using a 9 point scale system, in order to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in the kennel. More than 60% of the animals showed a BCS³6 (overweight and obese and this condition was mainly attributed to an excess of carbohydrates and fat in the diet. In 67/147 dogs, a blood sample was drawn and the effects of BCS, age and time spent in the shelter were evaluated on biochemical parameters. Obese dogs showed significantly higher levels of triglycerides (P<0.01, while increasing BCS determined only an increasing non significant trend on cholesterol values. Age influenced creatinine (P<0.05 and the oldest dogs scoring BCS³6 registered significant higher NEFA (P<0.05 and CK (P=0.01 levels. Time spent in the shelter did not affect any parameter. The dogs’ metabolic condition reflects the need of taking more care of the quality of feed administered in the shelters to avoid the negative health effects caused by chronic obesity.

  6. Strong-coupling superconductivity beyond BCS and the key pairing interaction in cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, A S, E-mail: a.s.alexandrov@lboro.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    It has been now over 20 years since the discovery of the first high temperature superconductor by Georg Bednorz and Alex Mueller in 1986 and yet, despite intensive effort, no universally accepted theory exists about the origin of high-temperature superconductivity. A controversial issue on whether the electron-phonon interaction (EPI) is crucial for high-temperature superconductivity or weak and inessential has been one of the most challenging problems of contemporary condensed matter physics. I briefly review our recent theoretical results, which in conjunction with a great number of experimental observations including isotope effects, angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), pump-probe and tunnelling spectroscopies, normal state diamagnetism and magnetic quantum oscillations provide the definite answer to this fundamental question. The true origin of high-temperature superconductivity is found in a significant finite-range Froehlich EPI of nonadiabatic polaronic carriers which is beyond the conventional BCS-Migdal-Eliashberg approximation.

  7. Cosmological BCS mechanism and the big bang singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a novel mechanism that resolves the big bang singularity present in Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-times without the need for ghost fields. Building on the fact that a four-fermion interaction arises in general relativity when fermions are covariantly coupled, we show that at early times the decrease in scale factor enhances the correlation between pairs of fermions. This enhancement leads to a BCS-like condensation of the fermions and opens a gap dynamically driving the Hubble parameter H to zero and results in a nonsingular bounce, at least in some special cases.

  8. Absence of coherent peaks in a Z2 fractionalized BCS superconducting state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore a Z2 fractionalized Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) superconducting state, which is a minimal extension of usual BCS framework. It is found that this state has similar thermal and transport properties, but its single-particle feature strongly deviates from the coherent quasiparticle behavior of the classic/conventional BCS superconducting state. The fingerprint of such Z2 BCS state is the absence of the BCS coherent peaks and instead a kink in the local density of state occurs, which in principle could be probed by scanning tunneling microscopy or point-contact spectroscopy experiments. The corresponding exactly soluble models that realize the desirable Z2 fractionalized BCS state are presented. In addition, we also study the extended t–U–J model by using Z2 slave-spin representation and find that the Z2 BCS state may exist when the paring structure is fully gapped or has nodes. The prototypical wave-function of such a Z2 BCS state is also proposed, which could be taken as trial wave-function in current numerical techniques. Furthermore, the pairing mechanism of Z2 BCS state is argued from both weak and strong coupling perspective. The present work may be helpful to further study the unconventional superconductivity and its relation to non-Fermi liquids

  9. The biowaiver extension for BCS class III drugs: the effect of dissolution rate on the bioequivalence of BCS class III immediate-release drugs predicted by computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-01

    The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) guidance issued by the FDA allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I drugs. However, a number of drugs within BCS class III have been proposed to be eligible for biowaivers. The World Health Organization (WHO) has shortened the requisite dissolution time of BCS class III drugs on their Essential Medicine List (EML) from 30 to 15 min for extended biowaivers; however, the impact of the shorter dissolution time on AUC(0-inf) and C(max) is unknown. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the ability of gastrointestinal simulation software to predict the oral absorption of the BCS class I drugs propranolol and metoprolol and the BCS class III drugs cimetidine, atenolol, and amoxicillin, and to perform in silico bioequivalence studies to assess the feasibility of extending biowaivers to BCS class III drugs. The drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted using physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of test drugs provided by GastroPlus (version 6.0). Virtual trials with a 200 mL dose volume at different drug release rates (T(85%) = 15 to 180 min) were performed to predict the oral absorption (C(max) and AUC(0-inf)) of the above drugs. Both BCS class I drugs satisfied bioequivalence with regard to the release rates up to 120 min. The results with BCS class III drugs demonstrated bioequivalence using the prolonged release rate, T(85%) = 45 or 60 min, indicating that the dissolution standard for bioequivalence is dependent on the intestinal membrane permeability and permeability profile throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The results of GastroPlus simulations indicate that the dissolution rate of BCS class III drugs could be prolonged to the point where dissolution, rather than permeability, would control the overall absorption. For BCS class III drugs with intestinal absorption patterns

  10. Particle–hole duality, integrability, and Russian doll BCS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bork, L.V. [Center for Fundamental and Applied Research, N. L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pogosov, W.V., E-mail: walter.pogosov@gmail.com [Center for Fundamental and Applied Research, N. L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    We address a generalized Richardson model (Russian doll BCS model), which is characterized by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry. This model is known to be exactly solvable and integrable. We point out that the Russian doll BCS model, on the level of Hamiltonian, is also particle–hole symmetric. This implies that the same state can be expressed both in the particle and hole representations with two different sets of Bethe roots. We then derive exact relations between Bethe roots in the two representations, which can hardly be obtained staying on the level of Bethe equations. In a quasi-classical limit, similar identities for usual Richardson model, known from literature, are recovered from our results. We also show that these relations for Richardson roots take a remarkably simple form at half-filling and for a symmetric with respect to the middle of the interaction band distribution of one-body energy levels, since, in this special case, the rapidities in the particle and hole representations up to the translation satisfy the same system of equations.

  11. Particle–hole duality, integrability, and Russian doll BCS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We address a generalized Richardson model (Russian doll BCS model), which is characterized by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry. This model is known to be exactly solvable and integrable. We point out that the Russian doll BCS model, on the level of Hamiltonian, is also particle–hole symmetric. This implies that the same state can be expressed both in the particle and hole representations with two different sets of Bethe roots. We then derive exact relations between Bethe roots in the two representations, which can hardly be obtained staying on the level of Bethe equations. In a quasi-classical limit, similar identities for usual Richardson model, known from literature, are recovered from our results. We also show that these relations for Richardson roots take a remarkably simple form at half-filling and for a symmetric with respect to the middle of the interaction band distribution of one-body energy levels, since, in this special case, the rapidities in the particle and hole representations up to the translation satisfy the same system of equations

  12. Particle-hole duality, integrability, and Russian doll BCS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, L. V.; Pogosov, W. V.

    2015-08-01

    We address a generalized Richardson model (Russian doll BCS model), which is characterized by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry. This model is known to be exactly solvable and integrable. We point out that the Russian doll BCS model, on the level of Hamiltonian, is also particle-hole symmetric. This implies that the same state can be expressed both in the particle and hole representations with two different sets of Bethe roots. We then derive exact relations between Bethe roots in the two representations, which can hardly be obtained staying on the level of Bethe equations. In a quasi-classical limit, similar identities for usual Richardson model, known from literature, are recovered from our results. We also show that these relations for Richardson roots take a remarkably simple form at half-filling and for a symmetric with respect to the middle of the interaction band distribution of one-body energy levels, since, in this special case, the rapidities in the particle and hole representations up to the translation satisfy the same system of equations.

  13. Variational cluster approach to the extended Falicov-Kimball model: A BCS-BEC crossover in the Excitonic insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the Coulomb-interaction induced spontaneous symmetry breaking of the excitonic insulator state in the two-dimensional extended Falicov-Kimball model. Using the variational cluster approximation, we evaluate the order parameter, single-particle excitation gap, momentum distribution functions, and anomalous Green's function as a function of U at zero temperature. We find that in the weak-to-intermediate couplinb regime, the Fermi surface is well-defined and the calculated results can be understood in the close correspondence with the BCS theory, whereas in the strong-coupling regime, the Fermi surface is ill-defined and the results are consistent with the picture of BEC.

  14. More is Different:. 50 Years of Nuclear BCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglia, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    At the basis of BCS theory, and associated symmetry breaking phenomena in gauge space, one finds Cooper pair binding. A major question in the nuclear case concerning this issue, regards the relative role played by the bare nucleon-nucleon force and by the interaction induced by the exchange of vibrations between members of Cooper pairs. The exotic nucleus 113Li8 in which two neutrons forming an extended halo, bind weakly to the 9Li core, provides an excellent testing ground to try to shed light on this issue. Theory finds that, in this case, the exchange of collective vibrations associated with the core and with the halo fields, provides an important fraction of the glue binding the pair. Inverse kinematics and active detector based experiments, combined with a quantitative description (based on absolute differential cross sections) of single Cooper pair tunneling, the specific probe of pairing in nuclei, which forces the virtual phonon into a real final state, have tested these predictions with positive results. The extension of structure and reaction studies to open shell (superfluid) nuclei (Sn-isotopes), displaying a strong alignment of quasispin in gauge space, and associated domain wall, as testified by pairing rotational bands excited in terms of single Cooper pair tunneling, provides an overall description of the data within experimental errors. This is also true in connection with pairing vibrations as observed in closed shell nuclei. Many of the concepts which are at the basis of the development associated with a quantitative treatment of the variety of phenomena associated with the spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry in nuclei have been instrumental in connection with novel studies of soft matter, namely of protein evolution and protein folding. Although the route to these subjects and associated development does not necessarily imply the nuclear physics connection, such a connection has proven qualitatively and quantitatively inspiring. In particular

  15. Prediction of solubility and permeability class membership: provisional BCS classification of the world's top oral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Miller, Jonathan M; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-12-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) categorizes drugs into one of four biopharmaceutical classes according to their water solubility and membrane permeability characteristics and broadly allows the prediction of the rate-limiting step in the intestinal absorption process following oral administration. Since its introduction in 1995, the BCS has generated remarkable impact on the global pharmaceutical sciences arena, in drug discovery, development, and regulation, and extensive validation/discussion/extension of the BCS is continuously published in the literature. The BCS has been effectively implanted by drug regulatory agencies around the world in setting bioavailability/bioequivalence standards for immediate-release (IR) oral drug product approval. In this review, we describe the BCS scientific framework and impact on regulatory practice of oral drug products and review the provisional BCS classification of the top drugs on the global market. The Biopharmaceutical Drug Disposition Classification System and its association with the BCS are discussed as well. One notable finding of the provisional BCS classification is that the clinical performance of the majority of approved IR oral drug products essential for human health can be assured with an in vitro dissolution test, rather than empirical in vivo human studies. PMID:19876745

  16. BCS Superconductivity of Dirac Electrons in Graphene Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnin, N. B.; Sonin, E. B.

    2008-06-01

    Possible superconductivity of electrons with the Dirac spectrum is analyzed using the BCS model. We calculate the critical temperature, the superconducting energy gap, and the supercurrent as functions of the doping level and of the pairing interaction strength. Zero doping is characterized by the existence of a quantum critical point such that the critical temperature vanishes below some finite value of the interaction strength. However, the critical temperature remains finite for any nonzero electron or hole doping level when the Fermi energy is shifted away from the Dirac point. As distinct from usual superconductors, the supercurrent density is not proportional to the number of electrons but is strongly decreased due to the presence of the Dirac point.

  17. Ultracold lithium-6 atoms in the BEC-BCS crossover: experiments and the construction of a new apparatus; Atomes de lithium-6 ultra froids dans la transition BEC-BCS: experiences et construction d'un montage experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, M

    2007-09-15

    We use a fermionic gas of Lithium-6 as a model system to study superfluidity. The limiting cases of superfluidity are Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and superconductivity, described by the theory by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS). In Lithium-6 gases, we can explore the whole range between the two cases, known as the BEC-BCS crossover, using a Feshbach resonance. We study the change of the momentum distribution of the gas in this cross-over and compare to theoretical models. We also investigate the hydrodynamic expansion, characteristic for a superfluid gas. We observe a sudden change of the ellipticity of the gas close to the transition to the superfluid phase. Moreover, we localized heteronuclear Feshbach resonances between {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li. We are currently constructing a second generation of the experimental setup. An new laser system, based on high power laser diodes, was developed. Changes in the vacuum chamber, including a complete reconstruction of the Zeeman slower, have increased the atomic flux, allowing us to increase the repetition rate of our experiment. Modifications of the geometry of the magnetic traps lead to a higher number of trapped atoms. (author)

  18. Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques for BCS Class II Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honey Kansara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nearly 40% of the new chemical entities (NCEs identified by pharmaceutical industry screening programs have failed to be developed because of poor water-solubility, which makes their formulation difficult or even impossible. The solubility issues complicating the delivery of these new drugs also affect the delivery of many existing drugs. The various traditional and novel techniques that that can be used for solubility enhancement of BCS Class II drugs are briefly discussed in this article. The Traditional techniques that has been discussed in this article includes use of co-solvents, Hydrotropy, Micronization, change in dielectric constant of solvent, amorphousforms, chemical modification of drug, use of surfactants, inclusion complex, alteration of pH ofsolvent, use of hydrates or solvates, use of soluble prodrugs, application of ultrasonic waves, functional polymer technology, controlled precipitation technology, evaporative precipitation in aqueous solution, use of precipitation inhibitors, solvent deposition, precipitation, selective adsorption on insoluble carriers. Novel drug delivery technologies developed in recent years for solubility enhancement of insoluble drugs are size reduction technologies, lipid based delivery system, micellar technologies,porous micro particle technology. Solid Dispersion Technique and various types of solid dispersion systems have also been explained briefly.

  19. Ultracold lithium-6 atoms in the BEC-BCS crossover: experiments and the construction of a new apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a fermionic gas of Lithium-6 as a model system to study superfluidity. The limiting cases of superfluidity are Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and superconductivity, described by the theory by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS). In Lithium-6 gases, we can explore the whole range between the two cases, known as the BEC-BCS crossover, using a Feshbach resonance. We study the change of the momentum distribution of the gas in this cross-over and compare to theoretical models. We also investigate the hydrodynamic expansion, characteristic for a superfluid gas. We observe a sudden change of the ellipticity of the gas close to the transition to the superfluid phase. Moreover, we localized heteronuclear Feshbach resonances between 6Li and 7Li. We are currently constructing a second generation of the experimental setup. An new laser system, based on high power laser diodes, was developed. Changes in the vacuum chamber, including a complete reconstruction of the Zeeman slower, have increased the atomic flux, allowing us to increase the repetition rate of our experiment. Modifications of the geometry of the magnetic traps lead to a higher number of trapped atoms. (author)

  20. A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF BCS RF SURFACE IMPEDANCE WITH MAGNETIC FIELD USING THE XIAO CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Xiao, Binping [JLAB, BNL

    2013-09-01

    A recent new analysis of field-dependent BCS rf surface impedance based on moving Cooper pairs has been presented.[1] Using this analysis coded in Mathematica TM, survey calculations have been completed which examine the sensitivities of this surface impedance to variation of the BCS material parameters and temperature. The results present a refined description of the "best theoretical" performance available to potential applications with corresponding materials.

  1. Apo- and Cellopentaose-bound Structures of the Bacterial Cellulose Synthase Subunit BcsZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, Olga; Zimmer, Jochen (UV)

    2012-10-25

    Cellulose, a very abundant extracellular polysaccharide, is synthesized in a finely tuned process that involves the activity of glycosyl-transferases and hydrolases. The cellulose microfibril consists of bundles of linear {beta}-1,4-glucan chains that are synthesized inside the cell; however, the mechanism by which these polymers traverse the cell membrane is currently unknown. In Gram-negative bacteria, the cellulose synthase complex forms a trans-envelope complex consisting of at least four subunits. Although three of these subunits account for the synthesis and translocation of the polysaccharide, the fourth subunit, BcsZ, is a periplasmic protein with endo-{beta}-1,4-glucanase activity. BcsZ belongs to family eight of glycosyl-hydrolases, and its activity is required for optimal synthesis and membrane translocation of cellulose. In this study we report two crystal structures of BcsZ from Escherichia coli. One structure shows the wild-type enzyme in its apo form, and the second structure is for a catalytically inactive mutant of BcsZ in complex with the substrate cellopentaose. The structures demonstrate that BcsZ adopts an ({alpha}/{alpha}){sub 6}-barrel fold and that it binds four glucan moieties of cellopentaose via highly conserved residues exclusively on the nonreducing side of its catalytic center. Thus, the BcsZ-cellopentaose structure most likely represents a posthydrolysis state in which the newly formed nonreducing end has already left the substrate binding pocket while the enzyme remains attached to the truncated polysaccharide chain. We further show that BcsZ efficiently degrades {beta}-1,4-glucans in in vitro cellulase assays with carboxymethyl-cellulose as substrate.

  2. Inhomogeneous condensates in dilute nuclear matter and BCS-BEC crossovers

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Martin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W; Röpke, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    We report on recent progress in understanding pairing phenomena in low-density nuclear matter at small and moderate isospin asymmetry. A rich phase diagram has been found comprising various superfluid phases that include a homogeneous and phase-separated BEC phase of deuterons at low density and a homogeneous BCS phase, an inhomogeneous LOFF phase, and a phase-separated BCS phase at higher densities. The transition from the BEC phases to the BCS phases is characterized in terms of the evolution, from strong to weak coupling, of the condensate wavefunction and the second moment of its density distribution in $r$-space. We briefly discuss approaches to higher-order clustering in low-density nuclear matter.

  3. Analysis of the superconductivity in perovskite oxides using three-square-well BCS formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G C Asomba; O Abah; O A Ogbuu; C M I Okoye

    2015-12-01

    Superconductivity in perovskite, BaKBiO, is studied in the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) model, with three-square-well potentials. Components of the new coupling are: the attractive acoustic phonon–electron, optical phonon–electron and repulsive Coulomb interactions. With these in the BCS pairing Hamiltonian, expressions for the superconducting transition temperature and isotope effect exponent are obtained. Results of our analysis are consistent with experiments. Contributions of interactions to system properties are exhibited and analysed. Acoustic phonon–electron and optical phonon–electron interactions have near-identical elevation of transition temperature, holding out possible explanations for high-. Contrastingly, optical phonon–electron and Coulomb couplings cause debilitation of isotope exponent, a possible explanation for low isotope exponent in the cuprates and other high- systems. It is found that BCS electron–phonon coupling appears synonymous with acoustic phonon–electron coupling.

  4. Cortisol and Estradiol Profile in Cross-bred Ettawa Does: The Effects of Body Condition Scoring (BCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Body Condition Scoring (BCS is an estimation of the muscle and fat development of an animal. Thin ewes that are fighting to maintain their own body weight and low concentration of cortisol are not able to ovulate as ewes in a more desirable condition due to lack of oestradiol concentration. The aims of this research are to monitor the cortisol and oestradiol profile in Cross-bred ettawa does and to determine effect of BCS on the cortisol and oestradiol profile. Eight does were used in this research. These animals were devided equally into 2 groups based on Body Condition Scoring (BCS, namely BCS 2, which body weight range between 25-30 kgs as group I ( >n=4 and BCS 3 which consists of ettawa with body weight range between 33-40 kg as group II ( n=4 . All animals were synchronized using implant of CIDR and PGF2alpha. Blood from jugular vein were collected every 3 and 6 hours as soon as oestrus until 72 hours. Serum contained cortisol and oestradiol then assayed using ELISA

method. Cortisol and oestradiol concentrations were compared between groups by T test. The results showed that average concentration of cortisol is 47.17 ± 42.19 ng/mL for BCS 2 and 112.40±74.41ng/mL for BCS 3 (P<0.05, whereas concentration of oestradiol is 72.25±30.62 pg/mL for BCS 2 and 145.72±100.18 pg/mL for BCS 3 (P<0.05.  Either cortisol or oestradiol have very synchronized wave except 2 of animals from BCS 2 (50%, which has tendency to suppress each other. It was concluded that profile of cortisol and oestradiol hormone have a very similar pattern, and BCS can affect hormone profile.

  • Phase fluctuations and BCS-LP crossover in 2D short coherence length superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effects of phase fluctuations in 2D short-coherence length superconductors on the basis of the extended Hubbard model with intersite attraction. In the Kosterlitz-Thouless scenario the critical temperatures for anisotropic pairings were determined and compared with the ones of BCS Hartree-Fock approximation. The Uemura-type plots, i.e. the critical temperature vs. zero temperature phase stiffness, were obtained for extended s-wave and dx2-y2 wave pairings. We also discuss the crossover from BCS to local pair superconductivity for d-wave pairing. (author)

  • Shell-model Monte Carlo simulations of the BCS-BEC crossover in few-fermion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Mølmer, Klaus; Özen, C.;

    2009-01-01

    strength, particle number, and temperature. The subtle question of renormalization in a finite model space is addressed and the convergence of our method and its applicability across the BCS-BEC crossover is discussed. Our findings indicate that very good quantitative results can be obtained on the BCS...

  • BCS Koolitus korraldab eesti keele kui teise keele õpetajatele tasuta arvutikoolitust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    28. mail 2003.a. kuulutati välja Integratsiooni Sihtasutuse ja Euroopa Liidu PHARE eesti keele õppe programmi konkursi võitja. Konkursi "Arvutiõpe - töölehtede ja õppeülesannete koostamise koolitus eesti keele kui teise keele õpetajatele" võitis BCS Koolitus

  • Establishing the pharmaceutical quality of Chinese herbal medicine: a provisional BCS classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Sophia Y K; Liu, Mary; Wei, Hai; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore; Lee, Vincent H L; Amidon, Gordon L; Zuo, Zhong

    2013-05-01

    The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), which is a scientific approach to categorize active drug ingredient based on its solubility and intestinal permeability into one of the four classes, has been used to set the pharmaceutical quality standards for drug products in western society. However, it has received little attention in the area of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). This is likely, in part, due to the presence of multiple active components as well as lack of standardization of CHM. In this report, we apply BCS classification to CHMs provisionally as a basis for establishing improved in vitro quality standards. Based on a top-200 drugs selling list in China, a total of 31 CHM products comprising 50 official active marker compounds (AMCs) were provisionally classified according to BCS. Information on AMC content and doses of these CHM products were retrieved from the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. BCS parameters including solubility and permeability of the AMCs were predicted in silico (ACD/Laboratories). A BCS classification of CHMs according to biopharmaceutical properties of their AMCs is demonstrated to be feasible in the current study and can be used to provide a minimum set of quality standards. Our provisional results showed that 44% of the included AMCs were classified as Class III (high solubility, low permeability), followed by Class II (26%), Class I (18%), and Class IV (12%). A similar trend was observed when CHMs were classified in accordance with the BCS class of AMCs. Most (45%) of the included CHMs were classified as Class III, followed by Class II (16%), Class I (10%), and Class IV (6%); whereas 23% of the CHMs were of mixed class due to the presence of multiple individual AMCs with different BCS classifications. Moreover, about 60% of the AMCs were classified as high-solubility compounds (Class I and Class III), suggesting an important role for an in vitro dissolution test in setting quality control standards ensuring consistent

  • The quantum pressure correction to the excitation spectrum of the trapped superfluid Fermi gases in a BEC-BCS crossover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hang; Ma Yong-Li

    2009-01-01

    Using quantum hydrodynamic approaches, we study the quantum pressure correction to the collective excitation spectrum of the interacting trapped superfluid Fermi gases in the BEC-BCS crossover. Based on a phenomenological equation of state, we derive hydrodynamic equations of the system in the whole BEC-BCS crossover regime. Beyond the Thomas-Fermi approximation, expressions of the frequency corrections of collective modes for both spherical and axial symmetric traps excited in the BEC-BCS crossover are given explicitly. The corrections of the eigenfrequencies due to the quantum pressure and their dependence on the inverse interaction strength. Anisotropic parameter and particle numbers of the condensate are discussed in detail.

  • Microscopic Derivation of Ginzburg-Landau Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    We give the first rigorous derivation of the celebrated Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, starting from the microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model. Close to the critical temperature, GL arises as an effective theory on the macroscopic scale. The relevant scaling limit is semiclassical in...

  • BEC-BCS crossover in a cold and magnetized two color NJL model

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Dyana C; Farias, R L S; Manso, Pedro H A; Ramos, Rudnei O; Scoccola, N N

    2016-01-01

    The BEC-BCS crossover for a NJL model with diquark interactions is studied in the presence of an external magnetic field. Particular attention is paid to different regularization schemes used in the literature. A thorough comparison of results is performed for the case of a cold and magnetized two-color NJL model. According to our results, the critical chemical potential for the BEC transition exhibits a clear inverse magnetic catalysis effect for magnetic fields in the range $ 1 \\lesssim eB/m_\\pi^2 \\lesssim 20 $. As for the BEC-BCS crossover, the corresponding critical chemical potential is very weakly sensitive to magnetic fields up to $eB \\sim 9\\ m_\\pi^2$, showing a much smaller inverse magnetic catalysis as compared to the BEC transition, and displays a strong magnetic catalysis from this point on.

  • Phase diagram of dilute nuclear matter: Unconventional pairing and the BCS-BEC crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a comprehensive study of the phase structure of cold, dilute nuclear matter featuring a 3S1-3D1 condensate at non-zero isospin asymmetry, within wide ranges of temperatures and densities. We find a rich phase diagram comprising three superfluid phases, namely a LOFF phase, the ordinary BCS phase, and a heterogeneous, phase-separated BCS phase, with associated crossovers from the latter two phases to a homogeneous or phase-separated Bose-Einstein condensate of deuterons. The phase diagram contains two tri-critical points (one a Lifshitz point), which may degenerate into a single tetra-critical point for some degree of isospin asymmetry.

  • Einfluss von Hilfsstoffen auf die Bioverfügbarkeit von Substanzen der BCS Klasse III

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurde der Effekt verschiedener Hilfsstoffe auf die Permeabilität von Substanzen der BCS Klasse III untersucht. Drei pharmazeutische Hilfsstoffe wurden hinsichtlich der Möglichkeit ihres Einsatzes als Permeationsverbesserer in Arzneistoffformulierungen untersucht. Außerdem wurde die Beteiligung von Gallensalzen an der Nahrungsmittel-Interaktion von Trospium untersucht.rnEs wurden Komplexe aus Trospium und λ-Carrageen hergestellt. Eine verbesserte Permeation, die höchstwahrsche...

  • BCS-BEC crossover induced by a synthetic non-Abelian gauge field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyasanakere, Jayantha P.; Zhang, Shizhong; Shenoy, Vijay B.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the ground state of interacting spin-(1)/(2) fermions in three dimensions at a finite density (ρ˜kF3) in the presence of a uniform non-Abelian gauge field. The gauge-field configuration (GFC) described by a vector λ≡(λx,λy,λz), whose magnitude λ determines the gauge coupling strength, generates a generalized Rashba spin-orbit interaction. For a weak attractive interaction in the singlet channel described by a small negative scattering length (kF|as|≲1), the ground state in the absence of the gauge field (λ=0) is a BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) superfluid with large overlapping pairs. With increasing gauge-coupling strength, a non-Abelian gauge field engenders a crossover of this BCS ground state to a BEC (Bose-Einstein condensate) of bosons even with a weak attractive interaction that fails to produce a two-body bound state in free vacuum (λ=0). For large gauge couplings (λ/kF≫1), the BEC attained is a condensate of bosons whose properties are solely determined by the Rashba gauge field (and not by the scattering length so long as it is nonzero)—we call these bosons “rashbons.” In the absence of interactions (as=0-), the shape of the Fermi surface of the system undergoes a topological transition at a critical gauge coupling λT. For high-symmetry GFCs we show that the crossover from the BCS superfluid to the rashbon BEC occurs in the regime of λ near λT. In the context of cold atomic systems, these results make an interesting suggestion of obtaining BCS-BEC crossover through a route other than tuning the interaction between the fermions.

  • Characterization of a Thermostable d-Stereospecific Alanine Amidase from Brevibacillus borstelensis BCS-1

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Dae Heoun; Kwon, Seok-Joon; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Kwak, Mi-Sun; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Song, Jae Jun; Lee, Seung-Goo; Yoon, Ki-Hong; Sung, Moon-Hee

    2003-01-01

    A gene encoding a new thermostable d-stereospecific alanine amidase from the thermophile Brevibacillus borstelensis BCS-1 was cloned and sequenced. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 199 kDa after gel filtration chromatography and about 30 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that the enzyme could be composed of a hexamer with identical subunits. The purified enzyme exhibited strong amidase activity towards d-amino acid-contai...

  • Fission barriers of odd-mass nuclei within the HF-BCS and HTDA approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within two mean-field plus correlation descriptions (Hartree-Fock plus BCS or plus Highly Truncated Diagonalization Approaches) we study here some static properties of two odd-neutron nuclei (235U, 239Pu) from the ground-state deformation to the fission isomeric well, using three different Skyrme force parametrizations. A specific study of the polarization effects due to the account of relevant time-odd density functions is performed. (authors)

  • Description of Drip-Line Nuclei within Relativistic Mean-Field Plus BCS Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, H L; Toki, H

    2004-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated, considering Ni and Ca isotopes as prototypes, that the relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF+BCS) approach wherein the single particle continuum corresponding to the RMF is replaced by a set of discrete positive energy states for the calculation of pairing energy provides a good approximation to the full relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) description of the ground state properties of the drip-line neutron rich nuclei. The applicability of RMF+BCS is essentially due to the fact that the main contribution to the pairing correlations is provided by the low-lying resonant states. General validity of this approach is demonstrated by the detailed calculations for the ground state properties of the chains of isotopes of O, Ca, Ni, Zr, Sn and Pb nuclei. The TMA and NL-SH force parameter sets have been used for the effective mean-field Lagrangian. Comprehensive results for the two neutron separation energy, rms radii, single particle pairing gaps and pairing energies etc. are pres...

  • Atypical BCS-BEC crossover induced by quantum-size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanenko, A. A.; Croitoru, M. D.; Vagov, A. V.; Axt, V. M.; Perali, A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2012-09-01

    Quantum-size oscillations of the basic physical characteristics of a confined fermionic condensate are a well-known phenomenon. Its conventional understanding is based on the single-particle physics, whereby the oscillations follow variations in the single-particle density of states driven by the size quantization. Here we present a study of a cigar-shaped ultracold superfluid Fermi gas, which demonstrates an important many-body aspect of the quantum-size coherent effects, overlooked previously. The many-body physics is revealed here in the atypical crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) induced by the size quantization of the particle motion. The single-particle energy spectrum for the transverse dimensions is tightly bound, whereas for the longitudinal direction it resembles a quasi-free dispersion. This results in the formation of a series of single-particle subbands (shells) so that the aggregate fermionic condensate becomes a coherent mixture of subband condensates. Each time when the lower edge of a subband crosses the chemical potential, the BCS-BEC crossover is approached in this subband, and the aggregate condensate contains both BCS and BEC-like components.

  • Study of neutron magic drip-line nuclei within relativistic mean-field plus BCS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encouraged by the success of relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF + BCS) approach for the description of the ground state properties of the chains of isotopes of proton magic nuclei with proton number Z = 8, 20, 28, 50 and 82 as well as those of proton sub-magic nuclei with Z = 40, we have further employed it, in an analogous manner, for a detailed calculations of the ground state properties of the neutron magic isotones with neutron number N = 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126 as well as those of neutron sub-magic isotones with N = 40 using the TMA force parametrizations in order to explore low lying resonance and other exotic phenomenon near drip-lines. The results of these calculations for wave function, single particle pairing gaps etc. are presented here to demonstrate the general validity of our RMF + BCS approach. It is found that, in some of the proton-rich nuclei in the vicinity of the proton drip-line, the main contribution to the pairing correlations is provided by the low-lying resonant states, in addition to the contributions coming from the states close to the Fermi surface, which results extended proton drip-line for isotonic chain. (author)

  • Spin-polarized neutron matter: Critical unpairing and BCS-BEC precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W.

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the critical magnetic field required for complete destruction of S -wave pairing in neutron matter, thereby setting limits on the pairing and superfluidity of neutrons in the crust and outer core of magnetars. We find that for fields B ≥1017 G the neutron fluid is nonsuperfluid—if weaker spin 1 superfluidity does not intervene—a result with profound consequences for the thermal, rotational, and oscillatory behavior of magnetars. Because the dineutron is not bound in vacuum, cold dilute neutron matter cannot exhibit a proper BCS-BEC crossover. Nevertheless, owing to the strongly resonant behavior of the n n interaction at low densities, neutron matter shows a precursor of the BEC state, as manifested in Cooper-pair correlation lengths being comparable to the interparticle distance. We make a systematic quantitative study of this type of BCS-BEC crossover in the presence of neutron fluid spin polarization induced by an ultrastrong magnetic field. We evaluate the Cooper-pair wave function, quasiparticle occupation numbers, and quasiparticle spectra for densities and temperatures spanning the BCS-BEC crossover region. The phase diagram of spin-polarized neutron matter is constructed and explored at different polarizations.

    1. BCS, Nambu-Jona-Lasinio, and Han-Nambu: A sketch of Nambu's works in 1960-1965

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fujikawa, Kazuo

      2016-06-01

      The years 1960-1965 were a remarkable period for Yoichiro Nambu. Starting with a reformulation of BCS theory with emphasis on gauge invariance, he recognized the realization of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in particle physics as evidenced by the Goldberger-Treiman relation. A concrete model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio illustrated the essence of the Nambu-Goldstone theorem and the idea of soft pions. After the proposal of the quark model by Gell-Mann, he together with Han constructed an alternative model of integrally charged quarks with possible non-Abelian gluons. All these remarkable works were performed during the years 1960-1965. Here I briefly review those works following the original papers of Nambu chronologically, together with a brief introduction to a formulation of Noether's theorem and the Ward-Takahashi identities using path integrals. This article is mostly based on a lecture given at the Nambu Memorial Symposium held at Osaka City University in September 2015, where Nambu started his professional career.

    2. BCS, Nambu-Jona-Lasinio, and Han-Nambu -- A sketch of Nambu's works in 1960-1965

      CERN Document Server

      Fujikawa, Kazuo

      2016-01-01

      The years of 1960-1965 were a remarkable period for Yoichiro Nambu. Starting with a reformulation of BCS theory with emphasis on gauge invariance, he recognized the realization of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in particle physics as is evidenced by the Goldberger-Treiman relation. A concrete model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio illustrated the essence of the Nambu-Goldstone theorem and the idea of soft pions. After the proposal of the quark model by Gell-Mann, he together with Han constructed an alternative model of integrally charged quarks with possible non-Abelian gluons. All those remarkable works were performed during the years 1960-1965. Here I briefly review those works following the original papers of Nambu chronologically, together with a brief introduction to a formulation of Neother's theorem and Ward-Takahashi identities using path integrals. This article is mostly based on a lecture given at the Nambu Memorial Symposium held at Osaka City University in September 2015, where Nambu started his pr...

    3. Introduction of biopharmaceutics classification system(BCS)and its application progress%生物药剂分类系统(BCS)及应用进展介绍

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      张宁; 平其能

      2008-01-01

      生物药剂分类系统是根据药物的溶解性和渗透性对药物进行分类的一种科学框架,目前FDA、WHO和EMEA都接受了这种分类概念.文中比较了不同管理当局对于生物药剂分类系统(BCS)的定义以及BCS在药品注册申报中支持生物等效免除的应用情况,综述了不同管理当局对于BCS的认识并提出了展望.

    4. Non-equilibrium Properties of a Pumped-Decaying Bose-Condensed Electron-Hole Gas in the BCS-BEC Crossover Region

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hanai, R.; Littlewood, P. B.; Ohashi, Y.

      2016-05-01

      We theoretically investigate a Bose-condensed exciton gas out of equilibrium. Within the framework of the combined BCS-Leggett strong-coupling theory with the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism, we show how the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of excitons is suppressed to eventually disappear, when the system is in the non-equilibrium steady state. The supply of electrons and holes from the bath is shown to induce quasi-particle excitations, leading to the partial occupation of the upper branch of Bogoliubov single-particle excitation spectrum. We also discuss how this quasi-particle induction is related to the suppression of exciton BEC, as well as the stability of the steady state.

    5. Turismo y Sustentabilidad en Pequeñas Localidades Localidades Costeras de Baja California Sur (BCS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Reyna Ibañez Pérez

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available El fomento del turismo se realiza en sitios que, aunque pequeños, cuentan con atractivos naturales y culturales, tal es el caso de las zonas costeras. Tan solo en México, se estima que existen más de 1,100 comunidades que dependen directamente de dicha actividad, esta te ndencia se refleja, de igual manera, en pequeñas localidades costeras de Baja California Sur (BCS. En este sentido, el objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un an álisis exploratorio que permitió detectar a las comunidades costeras de BCS, donde el turismo genera un aporte importante a su economía local, además , se buscó identificar la problemática general que éstas enfrentan. Para realizar dicho estudio se revisó literatura, se organizó información estadística y se elaboró un análisis Fortalezas, Oportunidades, Debilidades y Amenazas (FODA. Los resultad os apuntan a que, en BCS, existen más de 35 localidades ru rales vinculadas con dicha actividad que comparten como problemática la escasa in fraestructura y la carencia de medidas de control de la afluencia turística. La principal recomendación es desarrollar líneas de investigación que permitan aportar elementos para medir la sustentabilidad turística a nivel local y, co n base en ello, diseñar medidas para la adecuada conducción de tan importante actividad.

    6. Thermodynamics of normal and BCS systems at the Fermi energy near the logarithmic singularity of DOS

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The thermodynamics of Fermi particles in the band with the central logarithmic peak of DOS is discussed. This is accomplished if the absolute value of the difference of the Fermi energy and the energy of the peak of DOS is much smaller or much bigger than the temperature T, in units of energy. The T-dependence of the chemical potential is obtained, for s and p paired BCS systems, for low and subcritical T, as well as for normal systems. It leads, for superconducting systems, to a first order phase transition and to deviation of the Fermi surface caused by pairing

    7. Importance of the single-particle continuum in BCS pairing with a pseudostate basis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lay J. A.

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available In a recent work [arXiv:1510.03185] the use of the Transformed Harmonic Oscillator (THO basis for the discretization of the singleparticle continuum into a Generalized Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS formalism was proposed for the description of weakly bound nuclei. We make use of the flexibility of this formalism to study the evolution of the pairing when the nucleus becomes more and more weakly bound. Specifically we focus on the evolution of the occupation of the different partial waves in 22O when the Fermi level approaches zero.

    8. Josephson effect in fermionic superfluids across the BEC-BCS crossover.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Valtolina, Giacomo; Burchianti, Alessia; Amico, Andrea; Neri, Elettra; Xhani, Klejdja; Seman, Jorge Amin; Trombettoni, Andrea; Smerzi, Augusto; Zaccanti, Matteo; Inguscio, Massimo; Roati, Giacomo

      2015-12-18

      The Josephson effect is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon that reveals the broken symmetry associated with any superfluid state. Here we report on the observation of the Josephson effect between two fermionic superfluids coupled through a thin tunneling barrier. We show that the relative population and phase are canonically conjugate dynamical variables throughout the crossover from the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid regime. For larger initial excitations from equilibrium, the dynamics of the superfluids become dissipative, which we ascribe to the propagation of vortices through the superfluid bulk. Our results highlight the robust nature of resonant superfluids. PMID:26680193

    9. Turismo y Sustentabilidad en Pequeñas Localidades Localidades Costeras de Baja California Sur (BCS)

      OpenAIRE

      Reyna Ibañez Pérez

      2014-01-01

      El fomento del turismo se realiza en sitios que, aunque pequeños, cuentan con atractivos naturales y culturales, tal es el caso de las zonas costeras. Tan solo en México, se estima que existen más de 1,100 comunidades que dependen directamente de dicha actividad, esta te ndencia se refleja, de igual manera, en pequeñas localidades costeras de Baja California Sur (BCS). En este sentido, el objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un an álisis exploratorio que permitió detectar a las comunidades c...

    10. Collective Rabi oscillations and solitons in a time-dependent BCS pairing problem

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Motivated by recent efforts to achieve cold fermions pairing, we study the nonadiabatic regime of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer state formation. After the interaction is turned on, at times shorter than the quasiparticle energy relaxation time, the system oscillates between the superfluid and normal state. The collective nonlinear evolution of the BCS-Bogoliubov amplitudes up, vp, along with the pairing function Δ, is shown to be an integrable dynamical problem which admits single soliton and soliton train solitons. We interpret the collective oscillations as Bloch precession of Anderson pseudospins, where each soliton causes a pseudospin 2π Rabi rotation

    11. Study of two-proton radioactivity within the relativstic mean-field plus bcs approach

      OpenAIRE

      Singh, D.; Saxena, G.; Kaushik, M.; Yadav, H. L.; Toki, H.

      2013-01-01

      Encouraged by the success of RMF+BCS approach for the description of the ground state properties of the chains of isotopes of proton magic nuclei with proton number \\textit{Z}=8, 20, 28, 50 and 82 as well as those of proton sub-magic nuclei with \\textit{Z}=40, we have further employed it, in an analogous manner, for a detailed calculations of the ground state properties of the neutron magic isotones with neutron number \\textit{N} = 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126 as well as those of neutron sub-mag...

    12. Study of Neutron Magic Drip-Line Nuclei within Relativistic Mean Field plus BCS Approach

      OpenAIRE

      Saxena, G.; Singh, D.; Kaushik, M.; Yadav, H. L.; Toki, H.

      2013-01-01

      Encouraged by the success of RMF+BCS approach for the description of the ground state properties of the chains of isotopes of proton magic nuclei with proton number Z=8, 20, 28, 50 and 82 as well as those of proton sub-magic nuclei with Z=40, we have further employed it, in an analogous manner, for a detailed calculations of the ground state properties of the neutron magic isotones with neutron number N = 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126 as well as those of neutron sub-magic isotones with N = 40 usi...

    13. Spectral splits of neutrinos as a BCS-BEC crossover type phenomenon

      CERN Document Server

      Pehlivan, Y; Ghazanfari, N; Birol, S; Yüksel, H

      2016-01-01

      We show that the phenomenon of neutrino spectral split, which might be observed in the next galactic supernova neutrino signal, is analogous to the BCS-BEC crossover already observed in ultra cold atomic gas experiments. Although these two phenomena belong to two very different domains of physics, the propagation of neutrinos from highly interacting inner regions to the vacuum is reminiscent of the evolution of Cooper pairs between weak and strong interaction regimes. The Hamiltonians and the corresponding ground states undergo very similar transformations if one replaces the pair quasispin of the latter with the neutrino isospin of the former.

    14. Propagation of sound and supersonic bright solitons in superfluid Fermi gases in BCS-BEC crossover

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wen, Wen; Shen, Shun-Qing; Huang, Guoxiang

      2010-01-01

      We investigate the linear and nonlinear sound propagations in a cigar-shaped superfluid Fermi gas with a large particle number. We first solve analytically the eigenvalue problem of linear collective excitations and provide explicit expressions of all eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, which are valid for all superfluid regimes in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensation (BCS-BEC) crossover. The linear sound speed obtained agrees well with that of a recent experimental measurement. We then consider a weak nonlinear excitation and show that the time evolution of the excitation obeys a Korteweg de Vries equation. Different from the result obtained in quasi-one-dimensional case studied previously, where subsonic dark solitons are obtained via the balance between quantum pressure and nonlinear effect, we demonstrate that bright solitons with supersonic propagating velocity can be generated in the present three-dimensional system through the balance between a waveguidelike dispersion and the interparticle interaction. The supersonic bright solitons obtained display different physical properties in different superfluid regimes and hence can be used to characterize superfluid features of the BCS-BEC crossover.

    15. Prediction of positive food effect: Bioavailability enhancement of BCS class II drugs.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Raman, Siddarth; Polli, James E

      2016-06-15

      High-throughput screening methods have increased the number of poorly water-soluble, highly permeable drug candidates. Many of these candidates have increased bioavailability when administered with food (i.e., exhibit a positive food effect). Food is known to impact drug bioavailability through a variety of mechanisms, including drug solubilization and prolonged gastric residence time. In vitro dissolution media that aim to mimic in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) conditions have been developed to lessen the need for fed human bioequivalence studies. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro lipolysis model to predict positive food effect of three BCS Class II drugs (i.e., danazol, amiodarone and ivermectin) in previously developed lipolysis media. This in vitro lipolysis model was comparatively benchmarked against FeSSIF and FaSSIF media that were modified for an in vitro lipolysis approach, as FeSSIF and FaSSIF are widely used in in vitro dissolution studies. The in vitro lipolysis model accurately predicted the in vivo positive food effect for three model BCS class II drugs. The in vitro lipolysis model has potential use as a screening test of drug candidates in early development to assess positive food effect. PMID:27067239

    16. Study of two-proton radioactivity within the relativstic mean-field plus bcs approach

      CERN Document Server

      Singh, D; Kaushik, M; Yadav, H L; Toki, H

      2013-01-01

      Encouraged by the success of RMF+BCS approach for the description of the ground state properties of the chains of isotopes of proton magic nuclei with proton number \\textit{Z}=8, 20, 28, 50 and 82 as well as those of proton sub-magic nuclei with \\textit{Z}=40, we have further employed it, in an analogous manner, for a detailed calculations of the ground state properties of the neutron magic isotones with neutron number \\textit{N} = 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126 as well as those of neutron sub-magic isotones with \\textit{N} = 40 using the TMA force parameterizations in order to explore low lying resonance and other exotic phenomenon near drip-lines. The results of these calculations for wave-function, single particle pairing gaps etc. are presented here to demonstrate the general validity of our RMF+BCS approach. It is found that, in some of the proton-rich nuclei in the vicinity of the proton drip-line, the main contribution to the pairing correlations is provided by the low-lying resonant states, in addition to ...

    17. The bioelectronic connectional system (BCS): a therapeutic target for non ionizing radiation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bistolfi, F

      1990-01-01

      Among cells and extracellular matrix have been demonstrated reciprocal interactions of oriented morphogenesis. As collagen fibers of the matrix, keratin filaments of desmosomes and the cytoskeleton elements are all piezoelectric substances, with particular biophysical characters, it is possible that these three classes of biostructures are the morphological expressions of a large and unitary cooperative system for coherent communication among cells, by means of piezoelectric interactions and photon/phonon transduction of electromagnetic signals, both endogenous and exogenous. The Author has proposed in 1989 to classify this morphofunctional complex as a bioelectronic connectional system (BCS), in which connective tissue is largely included, but the functions of which go well beyond its classical mechanical ones. The hypothesis is consistent both with the model of Welch and Berry (protonic energy continuum) and with the concept of bioplasma (Inyushin, Sedlak et al.). Physiology and pathology of BCS could also work as a starting point for experimental research aiming at inducing order in biostructures by means of non ionizing radiation. PMID:2263396

    18. Spin-polarized neutron matter: critical unpairing and BCS-BEC precursor

      CERN Document Server

      Stein, Martin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W

      2015-01-01

      We obtain the critical magnetic field required for complete destruction of $S$-wave pairing in neutron matter, thereby setting limits on the pairing and superfluidity of neutrons in the crust and outer core of magnetars. We find that for fields $B \\ge 10^{17}$ G the neutron fluid is non-superfluid, a result with profound consequences for the thermal, rotational, and oscillatory behavior of magnetars. Since the dineutron is not bound in vacuum, cold dilute neutron matter cannot exhibit a proper BCS-BEC crossover. Nevertheless, owing to the strongly resonant behavior of the $nn$ interaction at low densities, neutron matter shows a precursor of the BEC state, as manifested in Cooper-pair correlation lengths being comparable to the interparticle distance. We make a systematic quantitative study of this type of BCS-BEC crossover in the presence of neutron fluid spin-polarization induced by an ultra-strong magnetic field. We evaluate the Cooper pair wave-function, quasiparticle occupation numbers, and quasiparticle...

    19. Proposed experimental test of the theory of hole superconductivity

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hirsch, J. E.

      2016-06-01

      The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in the reversible transition between normal and superconducting phases in the presence of a magnetic field there is charge flow in direction perpendicular to the normal-superconductor phase boundary. In contrast, the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity predicts no such charge flow. Here we discuss an experiment to test these predictions.

    20. Quantifying the Chasm: Exploring the Impact of the BCS on Total Football Revenues for Division One Football Programs from 2002-2012

      Science.gov (United States)

      Caro, Cary A.

      2014-01-01

      The Bowl Championship Series served as a collection of bowl games that were designed to crown the national champion in Division One football. The BCS created two classifications of institutions in Division football, those that were granted automatic access (AQ) to the post-season games, and those that were not (non-AQ). The BCS also generated…

    1. Fifteen years of seismic monitoring at the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field; Quince anos de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Ortiz Prieto, Irais; Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia.lorenzo@cfe.gob.mx

      2009-07-15

      Seismic monitoring at the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field started in 1992 with an analog station of vertical components detecting a large number of earthquakes of varying magnitudes. In February 1993, a seismic network was installed, composed of six digital stations DR-2000-with S-6000 and S-5000 sensors and three registration channels (N-S, E-W and vertical). This was the basis for the development of a program to correct arrival-time data for P and S waves due to instrument drift. From January to April 1994 and May to August 1995, based on the 170 seismic events recorded, a velocity model was proposed. From December 1995 to July 1996, seismic data were processed and interpreted, and zones of occurrence were determined for events according to magnitude and the predominant noise in the field. From September 2003 to December 2004, 10 seismic stations (permanent and temporary) were installed and monitored and it was concluded the most active fault system was El Volcan. From September to December 2004, production wells LV-4 and LV-13 were acid-stimulated and seismic monitoring during this period allowed for the definition of two important seismic zones, both related to the El Volcan fault system and to injection well LV-8. After reopening these production wells, it was concluded an increase in seismic activity had occurred. From May to August 2006, information was compiled from the seismic network and it was concluded El Partido had became the most active fault system. Presently the seismic network in this field is composed of one SARA station and four K2 units. The SARA station is telemetrically connected to the base station. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, el monitoreo sismico empezo a partir de 1992 con una sola estacion analogica de registro vertical, la cual detecto una gran cantidad de temblores de distintas magnitudes. En febrero de 1993 se instalo una red sismica con seis estaciones digitales DR-2000 con sensores S-6000 y S

    2. Scattering length of composite bosons in the three-dimensional BCS-BEC crossover

      Science.gov (United States)

      Salasnich, L.; Bighin, G.

      2015-03-01

      We study the zero-temperature grand potential of a three-dimensional superfluid made of ultracold fermionic alkali-metal atoms in the BCS-BEC crossover. In particular, we analyze the zero-point energy of both fermionic single-particle excitations and bosonic collective excitations. The bosonic elementary excitations, which are crucial to obtain a reliable equation of state in the Bose-Einstein condensate regime, are obtained with a low-momentum expansion up to the forth order of the quadratic (Gaussian) action of the fluctuating pairing field. By performing a cutoff regularization and renormalization of Gaussian fluctuations, we find that the scattering length aB of composite bosons, bound states of fermionic pairs, is given by aB=(2 /3 ) aF , where aF is the scattering length of fermions.

    3. Purely in silico BCS classification: science based quality standards for the world's drugs.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dahan, Arik; Wolk, Omri; Kim, Young Hoon; Ramachandran, Chandrasekharan; Crippen, Gordon M; Takagi, Toshihide; Bermejo, Marival; Amidon, Gordon L

      2013-11-01

      BCS classification is a vital tool in the development of both generic and innovative drug products. The purpose of this work was to provisionally classify the world's top selling oral drugs according to the BCS, using in silico methods. Three different in silico methods were examined: the well-established group contribution (CLogP) and atom contribution (ALogP) methods, and a new method based solely on the molecular formula and element contribution (KLogP). Metoprolol was used as the benchmark for the low/high permeability class boundary. Solubility was estimated in silico using a thermodynamic equation that relies on the partition coefficient and melting point. The validity of each method was affirmed by comparison to reference data and literature. We then used each method to provisionally classify the orally administered, IR drug products found in the WHO Model list of Essential Medicines, and the top-selling oral drug products in the United States (US), Great Britain (GB), Spain (ES), Israel (IL), Japan (JP), and South Korea (KR). A combined list of 363 drugs was compiled from the various lists, and 257 drugs were classified using the different in silico permeability methods and literature solubility data, as well as BDDCS classification. Lastly, we calculated the solubility values for 185 drugs from the combined set using in silico approach. Permeability classification with the different in silico methods was correct for 69-72.4% of the 29 reference drugs with known human jejunal permeability, and for 84.6-92.9% of the 14 FDA reference drugs in the set. The correlations (r(2)) between experimental log P values of 154 drugs and their CLogP, ALogP and KLogP were 0.97, 0.82 and 0.71, respectively. The different in silico permeability methods produced comparable results: 30-34% of the US, GB, ES and IL top selling drugs were class 1, 27-36.4% were class 2, 22-25.5% were class 3, and 5.46-14% were class 4 drugs, while ∼8% could not be classified. The WHO list

    4. Structure of a quantized vortex near the BCS-BEC crossover in an atomic Fermi gas

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In order to clarify the structure of a singly quantized vortex in a superfluid fermion gas near the Feshbach resonance, we numerically solve the generalized Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation in the boson-fermion model. The superfluid gap, which contains contributions from both condensed fermion pairs and condensed bosons, is self-consistently determined, and the quasiparticle excitation levels bound in the vortex core are explicitly shown. We find that the boson condensate contributes to enhance the matter density depletion and the discreteness of localized quasiparticle spectrum inside the core. It is predicted that the matter density depletion and the discrete core levels are detectable in the vicinity of the BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover point

    5. Bose-Einstein to BCS crossover as a model for high-Tc cuprate superconductors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Crossover from Bose-Einstein (BE) to BCS condensation can be a guiding principle in understanding the evolution of high-Tc cuprate superconductors as a function of carrier doping. This picture is developed by combining two experimental results: (1) the ''universal correlations'' between Tc and ns/m* (superconducting carrier density/effective mass) found in μSR measurements of the magnetic field penetration depth λ and (2) the ''pseudo gap'' behavior observed in NMR, neutron scattering, dc- and optical conductivity, specific heat, and most-recently in angle-resolved photo-emission (ARPES) measurements. Here we provide a critical review of these experimental results and the relevant theoretical work in order to elucidate the essential features of this crossover picture and to discuss condensation mechanisms in the cuprates. (orig.)

    6. BEC-BCS Crossover and the EoS of Strongly Interacting Systems

      CERN Document Server

      Ferrer, Efrain J

      2013-01-01

      We show that at sufficiently strong coupling, quarks form a BEC system that does not collapse into a pressureless gas at zero temperature only if the diquark-diquark repulsion is self-consistently taken into account. It is found that there is a critical value of the coupling constant of the diquark-diquark interaction beyond which the tendency at zero temperature of the strongly interacting diquark gas to condense into the system ground state with zero momentum is compensated by the repulsion between diquarks so keeping a positive pressure with no significant variation along the whole strongly interacting region. We discuss possible implications of the diquark-diquark interaction for the astrophysics of compact stars. Also we analyze the effect of a strong magnetic field for the BEC-BCS crossover.

    7. RMF+BCS description of two-proton radioactivity in 2442Cr

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Inspired by recent experimental studies of two-proton radioactivity in the light-medium mass region, relativistic mean-field plus state dependent BCS approach has been employed including deformation degree of freedom to study the ground state properties of selected even-Z nuclei in the region 20 ≤ Z ≤ 40. The results of our extensive calculations show that the nuclei 38Ti, 42Cr, 60Ge, 63,64Se, 68Kr, 72Sr and 76Zr satisfy the criteria Sp > 0 and S2p < 0. These nuclei are, therefore, expected to be the potential candidates for exhibiting the two-proton radioactivity in the region 20 ≤ Z ≤ 40

    8. Present status of the theory of high Tc cuprates

      OpenAIRE

      Anderson, Philip W.

      2005-01-01

      The Gutzwiller-projected mean field theory, also called Plain Vanilla or RMFT, is explained and its successes and possible extensions in describing the phenomenology of the cuprate superconductors are discussed. Throughout we emphasize that while this is a Hartree-Fock-BCS based theory, it embodies fundamental differences from conventional perturbative many-body theory which may be characterized by calling it a theory of the doped Mott insulator.

    9. The low/high BCS permeability class boundary: physicochemical comparison of metoprolol and labetalol.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zur, Moran; Gasparini, Marisa; Wolk, Omri; Amidon, Gordon L; Dahan, Arik

      2014-05-01

      Although recognized as overly conservative, metoprolol is currently the common low/high BCS permeability class boundary reference compound, while labetalol was suggested as a potential alternative. The purpose of this study was to identify the various characteristics that the optimal marker should exhibit, and to investigate the suitability of labetalol as the permeability class reference drug. Labetalol's BCS solubility class was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in vitro and in vivo in rats, considering the complexity of the whole of the small intestine. Labetalol was found to be unequivocally a high-solubility compound. In the pH range throughout the small intestine (6.5-7.5), labetalol exhibited pH-dependent permeability, with higher permeability at higher pH values. While in vitro octanol-buffer partitioning (Log D) values of labetalol were significantly higher than those of metoprolol, the opposite was evident in the in vitro PAMPA permeability assay. The results of the in vivo perfusion studies in rats lay between the two contradictory in vitro studies; metoprolol was shown to have moderately higher rat intestinal permeability than labetalol. Theoretical distribution of the ionic species of the drugs was in corroboration with the experimental in vitro and the in vivo data. We propose three characteristics that the optimal permeability class reference drug should exhibit: (1) fraction dose absorbed in the range of 90%; (2) the optimal marker drug should be absorbed largely via passive transcellular permeability, with no/negligible carrier-mediated active intestinal transport (influx or efflux); and (3) the optimal marker drug should preferably be nonionizable. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that neither metoprolol nor labetalol can be regarded as optimal low/high-permeability class boundary standard. While metoprolol is too conservative due to its complete absorption

    10. Development of self emulsifying lipid formulations of BCS class II drugs with low to medium lipophilicity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jannin, Vincent; Chevrier, Stéphanie; Michenaud, Matthieu; Dumont, Camille; Belotti, Silvia; Chavant, Yann; Demarne, Frédéric

      2015-11-10

      Lipid-based formulations can be effective drug delivery systems for poorly water-soluble chemical entities, provided they are designed with careful selection of the excipients, based on their role in the delivery system and in relation to drug properties. The primary factor leading to increased bioavailability is the administration of the drug in a pre-dissolved state thereby avoiding the dissolution limiting step. All model drugs tested (piroxicam, curcumin and nifedipine) belong to the same chemical space--small BCS class II molecules with logP ranging from 2 to 3. These drugs, exhibiting low to medium logP, are not soluble in lipophilic lipid-based excipients (e.g., vegetable oils). Water-soluble and water-dispersible surfactants are able to dissolve the target dose of each drug in the dosage form and efficiently keep it in solution during dispersion. In vitro digestion testing was necessary to discriminate formulations and enable selection of the most robust one. For each molecule, the system with the best performance during dispersion/digestion tests did not comprise the surfactant which delivered the highest solvent capacity for the drug. This study demonstrates the potential of surfactant-based formulations - i.e., Type IV systems from the lipid formulation classification system - for this type of hydrophobic drug. PMID:26364710

    11. Techniques used to Enhance Bioavailability of BCS Class II Drugs: A Review

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Honey Kansara

      2015-03-01

      Full Text Available Traditionally, nearly 40% of the new chemical entities (NCEs identified by pharmaceutical industry screening programs have failed to be developed because of poor water-solubility, which makes their formulation difficult or even impossible. The solubility issues complicating the delivery of these new drugs also affect the delivery of many existing drugs. The various traditional and novel techniques that that can be used for solubility enhancement of BCS Class II drugs are briefly discussed in this article. The Traditional techniques that has been discussed in this article includes use of co-solvents, Hydrotropy, Micronization, change in dielectric constant of solvent, amorphous forms, chemical modification of drug, use of surfactants, inclusion complex, alteration of pH of solvent, use of hydrates or solvates, use of soluble prodrugs, application of ultrasonic waves, functional polymer technology, controlled precipitation technology, evaporative precipitation in aqueous solution, use of precipitation inhibitors, solvent deposition, precipitation, selective adsorption on insoluble carriers. Novel drug delivery technologies developed in recent years for solubility enhancement of insoluble drugs are size reduction technologies, lipid based delivery system, micellar technologies, porous micro particle technology. Solid Dispersion Technique and various types of solid dispersion systems have also been explained briefly.

    12. Vortex line of spin-orbit coupled Fermi superfluid through BCS to BEC Crossover

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yao, Juan; Zhang, Shizhong

      Superfluid Fermi gases with spin-orbit interaction provides a unique opportunity to investigate possible effects of strong interaction in a topological superfluid. It has been suggested that with addition of Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling, a two-component Fermi gas with strong s-wave interaction can become a topological superfluid with zero-energy bound state at the core of the vortex. In this talk, I discuss the evolution of vortex structure in a spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas through the BCS-BEC crossover within Bogoliubov-de Genne formalism. We find that the largest critical current occurs in the BEC side of the resonance, in contradiction to the usual crossover without spin-orbit coupling where it occurs at unitarity. Furthermore, we discuss the core structure of the vortex by calculating the spin and density distribution around the vortex. Department of Physics and Centre of Theoretical and Computational Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

    13. SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF FENOFIBRATE, A BCS CLASS II DRUG, BY SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M.Sunitha Reddy

      2011-11-01

      Full Text Available The present work was aimed at the enhancement of solubility of Fenofibrate a BCS class II drug by Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery systems (SEDDS. The solubility of Fenofibrate in various excipients was determined. The excipients were screened for maximum solubility and compatibility. SEDDS formulations of Fenofibrate were developed using different Oils, Surfactants and Co-Surfactant combinations. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were drawn using Triplot software and by applying Pseudoternary phase diagrams, microemulsification area was evaluated.Formulations were screened based on visual observances and phase diagrams. Seven formulations were selected for further evaluations like stability, effect of dilution, freeze-thawing, emulsion droplet size and zeta potential. Among the seven formulations three were optimized and In-Vitro dissolution was performed. The dissolution rate of SEDDS was compared with plain Fenofibrate (API. The study confirmed that the solubility and dissolution rate of Fenofibrate were remarkably increased when compared to that of plain drug. Hence SEDDS formulations can be a potential alternative to traditional oral drug delivery systems of Fenofibrate to improve its bioavailability.

    14. Trends in Energy Management Technology: BCS Integration Technologies - Open Communications Networking

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Webster, Tom

      2002-09-18

      Our overall purpose in writing this series of articles is to provide Federal energy managers some basic informational tools to assist their decision making process relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential. Since Federal buildings rely on energy management systems more than their commercial counterparts, it is important for energy practitioners to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex systems. This is the second article in a series and will focus on building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and an assessment of current approaches to open communications protocols. This is important because networking is a complex subject and the networks form the basic infrastructure for energy management functions and for integrating a wide variety of OEM equipment into a complete EMCIS. The first article [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. Future topics will concentrate on more practical aspects including applications software, product offerings, networking strategies, and case studies of actual installations. Please refer to the first article for a more complete overview of the purpose and background for this series.

    15. Application of BCS technology in pulverized coal furnace%BCS技术在煤粉炉上的应用

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      高瑞峰; 于现军

      2015-01-01

      BCS是应用于燃烧过程的通用优化控制技术,已成功应用于链条炉、 CFB锅炉、高炉热风炉、轧钢加热炉等多种炉型。在此基础上, BCS首次在某热电厂3台65 t/h煤粉炉上得到应用,并取得了良好的运行效果。%BCS is a sort of general optimization control technology for combustion process, which has been successfully applied to CFB boiler , chain boiler, hot stove for blast furnace, and reheating fur-nace for rolling etc.The optimization control system based on BCS was first put into use for 3 ×65t/h pulverized coal boiler and gets good results.

    16. From BCS-like superconductivity to condensation of local pairs: A numerical study of the attractive Hubbard model

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We investigate the two-dimensional attractive Hubbard model with quantum Monte Carlo techniques to reveal the crossover from a BCS-type superconductivity in the weak-coupling regime to a superconductivity properly described by a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of local, preformed pairs. The crossover from BCS to BEC is particularly well exposed in the temperature dependence of both the spin susceptibility and the double occupancy, as well as by the appearance of a pseudogap in the density of states far above Tc. These features are also mirrored in the shape of the specific-heat peak around Tc, the separation of the temperature regimes where pair formation and their condensation occur, and in the transfer of spectral weight from the single-particle excitation branch to a pair band in the normal state. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

    17. Strong-coupling BCS superconductivity in noncentrosymmetric BaPtSi3: a low-temperature study

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We report on measurements of the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth of a high-quality sample of BaPtSi3 (Tc = 2.25 K). We observe a temperature-independent behaviour below T ≃ 0.2 Tc, which is firm evidence for the presence of an isotropic superconducting gap in this material. In the whole temperature range the superfluid density is described well by a strong-coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model with an isotropic gap Δ0 ≈ 2kBTc. Our results provide further support for conventional BCS superconductivity in the nonmagnetic members of the noncentrosymmetric family of superconductors that crystallize with the BaNiSn3-type tetragonal structure. (paper)

    18. Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

      2012-10-01

      A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations. PMID:22782559

    19. Systematic study of even-even nuclei with Hartree-Fock+BCS method using Skyrme SIII force

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Tajima, Naoki; Takahara, Satoshi; Onishi, Naoki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Arts and Sciences

      1997-03-01

      We have applied the Hartree-Fock+BCS method with Skyrme SIII force formulated in a three-dimensional Cartesian-mesh representation to even-even nuclei with 2 {<=} Z {<=} 114. We discuss the results concerning the atomic masses, the quadrupole (m=0, 2) and hexadecapole (m=0, 2, 4) deformations, the skin thicknesses, and the halo radii. We also discuss the energy difference between oblate and prolate solutions and the shape difference between protons and neutrons. (author)

    20. In Silico Prediction of Drug Dissolution and Absorption with variation in Intestinal pH for BCS Class II Weak Acid Drugs: Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen§

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L.

      2012-01-01

      The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS Class III and BCS class II have been proposed, particularly, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo- BE results and in vitro- dissolution results for a BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH=6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in the low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol L-1/pH) was dramatically reduced compared to the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol L -1/pH). Thus these predictions for oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns largely depend on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be carefully considered for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard. PMID:22815122

    1. In silico prediction of drug dissolution and absorption with variation in intestinal pH for BCS class II weak acid drugs: ibuprofen and ketoprofen.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L

      2012-10-01

      The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS class III and BCS class II have been proposed, in particular, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo BE results and in vitro dissolution results for BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH of 6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in a low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol l (-1) /pH) was dramatically reduced compared with the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol l (-1) /pH). Thus these predictions for the oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns depend largely on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be considered carefully for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be a very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard. PMID:22815122

    2. CRITICAL POINTS IN THE FEEDING OF HIGH YIELDING DAIRY COWS IN ASSOCIATION WITH BCS AND METABOLIC PROFILE TEST

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Z. GERGÁCZ

      2013-07-01

      Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between the body condition and the results of metabolic profile tests done in the milk (DIM of dairy cows in different days. Moreover, critical points in the early pre- and postpartum period were also analysed. In the experiment, blood and urine samples were taken from 1984 clinically healthy cows (from 49 large scale dairy farms in Hungary, selected randomly from various groups of cows with different physiological stage of lactation and gestation, 3-5 hours after the morning feeding. During the experiment body condition scoring (BCS was measured on 1-5 scale, as well. It was concluded, that the BCS (body condition score decreased from the 1st day of lactation (3.48 onwards till the 44th day (2.65 and slightly increased till the day 218 (2.89. The haemoglobin value and the glucose concentration in blood samples were ranging within the physiological range and followed the tendency of BCS and the relationship between them and DIM was (P<0.001. There was a close negative correlation between the NEFA (non-esterified-fatty-acid concentration in blood samples and BCS change and it was found that these values were significantly different (P<0.01 compared to the DIM. The aceto-acetic acid concentration exceeded the upper limit of the physiological range indicating hyperketonaemia at DIM 18. The AST (aspartate aminotransferase, liver-enzyme activity value exceeded the upper limit of physiological range and followed the tendency of BCS change . The urea concentration in the blood exceeded the upper limit of the physiological range in all cows. The NABE (net acid-base empty value in the urine samples indicated acid load in the first two groups of samples (pre-, and post calving. During factor analysis I could differentiate three group factors and one individual. The most important factor is the acid-based factor (with urine pH and NEBA. The results of the present study also confirm that the body

    3. Solution-state polymer assemblies influence BCS class II drug dissolution and supersaturation maintenance.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dalsin, Molly C; Tale, Swapnil; Reineke, Theresa M

      2014-02-10

      Spray dried dispersions (SDDs), solid dispersions of polymer excipients and active pharmaceuticals, are important to the field of oral drug delivery for improving active stability, bioavailability, and efficacy. Herein, we examine the influence of solution-state polymer assemblies on amorphous spray-dried dispersion (SDD) performance with two BCS II model drugs, phenytoin and probucol. These drugs were spray dried with 4 model polymer excipients consisting of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP), N,N,-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), or 2-methacrylamido glucopyranose (MAG): amphiphilic diblock ter- and copolymers, PEP-P(DMA-grad-MAG) and PEP-PDMA, and their respective hydrophilic analogues, P(DMA-grad-MAG) and PDMA. Selective and nonselective solvents for the hydrophilic block of the diblock ter- and copolymers were used to induce or repress solution-state assemblies prior to spray drying. Prespray dried solution-state assemblies of these four polymers were probed with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and showed differences in solution assembly size and structure (free polymer versus aggregates versus micelles). Solid-state structures of spray dried dispersions (SDDs) showed a single glass transition event implying a homogeneous mixture of drug/polymer. Crystallization temperatures and enthalpies indicated that the drugs interact mostly with the DMA-containing portions of the polymers. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine SDD particle size and morphology for the various polymer-drug pairings. In vitro dissolution tests showed excellent performance for one system, spray-dried PEP-PDMA micelles with probucol. Dissolution structures were investigated through DLS to determine drug-polymer aggregates that lead to enhanced SDD performance. Forced aggregation of the polymer into regular micelle structures was found to be a critical factor to increase the dissolution rate and supersaturation maintenance of SDDs, and may be an attractive platform to exploit in excipient

    4. Functional renormalization group approach to conventional theory of superfluidity and beyond

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Fermionic functional renormalization group (FRG) is applied to describe the superfluid phase transition of the two-component fermionic system with attractive contact interaction. Connection between the fermionic FRG approach and the Bardeen-Cooper- Schrieffer (BCS) theory with its Gorkov and Melik-Barkhudarov (GMB) correction is made clear, and the FRG flow of the fermion self-energy is also studied to go beyond the BCS+GMB theory. The superfluid transition temperature and the associated chemical potential are calculated in the region of the negative scattering length using fermionic FRG.

    5. Mean-field plus various types of pairing interactions and an exact boson mapping of the reduced BCS pairing interaction

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Exact solutions of Nilsson mean-field plus various type of pairing interactions are briefly reviewed. Some even-odd mass differences and moment of inertia of low-lying states for rare earth and actinide nuclei calculated in nearest-orbit pairing and extended pairing models and comparison with the corresponding experimental data are shown. An exact boson mapping of the reduced BCS pairing Hamiltonian is reported. In the mapping, fermion pair operators are mapped exactly to the corresponding bosons. The image of the mapping results in a Bose-Hubbard model with level dependent hopping. (author)

    6. Strong-coupling corrections to spin susceptibility in the BCS-BEC-crossover regime of a superfluid Fermi gas

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tajima, Hiroyuki; Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji

      2016-01-01

      We theoretically investigate the uniform spin susceptibility χ in the superfluid phase of an ultracold Fermi gas in the region of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein-condensate (BCS-BEC) crossover. In our previous paper [H. Tajima et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 033617 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.033617], including pairing fluctuations within an extended T -matrix approximation (ETMA), we showed that strong pairing fluctuations cause the so-called spin-gap phenomenon, where χ is anomalously suppressed even in the normal state near the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc. In this paper, we extend this work to the superfluid phase below Tc, to clarify how this many-body phenomenon is affected by the superfluid order. From the comparison of the ETMA χ with the Yosida function describing the spin susceptibility in a weak-coupling BCS superfluid, we identify the region where pairing fluctuations crucially affect this magnetic quantity below Tc in the phase diagram with respect to the strength of a pairing interaction and the temperature. This spin-gap regime is found to be consistent with the previous pseudogap regime determined from the pseudogapped density of states. We also compare our results with a recent experiment on a 6Li Fermi gas. Since the spin susceptibility is sensitive to the formation of spin-singlet preformed pairs, our results would be useful for the study of pseudogap physics in an ultracold Fermi gas on the viewpoint of the spin degrees of freedom.

    7. Study of the double beta decay of 70≤A≤100 nuclei within the RQRPA and the self-consistent BCS + RQRPA formalisms

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We have used a newly presented self-consistent version of the BCS+RQRPA method for a nucleus-by-nucleus study of the double beta decay in the medium-heavy region. The results have been compared to the previously used approaches, namely the QRPA and the RQRPA approximations. We have shown that inclusion of the quasiparticle correlations at the BCS level reduces ground state correlations in the particle-particle channel of the proton-neutron interaction, resulting in the systematic reduction of the double beta decay matrix elements

    8. Speed of Sound of a Spin-Balanced Fermi Gas with s- and d-Wave Pairings Across the BCS-BEC Evolution

      Science.gov (United States)

      Koinov, Zlatko; Mendoza, Rafael

      2016-06-01

      The authors of a recent paper (Phys Rev A 87:013613, 2013) argued that in fermionic systems with d-wave pairing the speed of sound is nonanalytic across the BCS-BEC crossover at the point where the chemical potential vanishes, regardless of the specific details of the interaction potential. On the contrary, the numerical results reported here suggest that the speed of sound across the BCS-BEC evolution of atomic Fermi gases with s- and d-wave pairings in two-dimensional square lattices is a smooth analytic function at the vanishing chemical potential.

    9. BCS-like gap structure of HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} tunnel junctions

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Chen, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Zasadzinski, J.F.; Gray, K.E.; Wagner, J.L.; Hinks, D.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kouznetsov, K.; Coffey, L. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)

      1994-12-01

      The authors report point-contact tunneling into polycrystalline HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} superconductors with a T{sub c} onset of 97 K using a superconducting Nb counterelectrode. These SIS tunnel junctions are of unusually high quality for cuprate superconductors, exhibiting low and flat sub-gap conductances and sharp conductance peaks as expected from a BCS density of states. These features are obtained reproducibly and are consistent with earlier published SIN results using an Au counterelectrode. Use of experimental data to simulate the performance of a quasiparticle mixer indicates that HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} may be suitable for use in low noise heterodyne receivers operating at a few THz.

    10. Ultracold fermions in real or fictitious magnetic fields: BCS-BEC evolution and type-I-type-II transition

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We study ultracold neutral fermion superfluids in the presence of fictitious magnetic fields, as well as charged fermion superfluids in the presence of real magnetic fields. Charged fermion superfluids undergo a phase transition from type-I to type-II superfluidity, where the magnetic properties of the superfluid change from being a perfect diamagnet without vortices to a partial diamagnet with the emergence of the Abrikosov vortex lattice. The transition from type-I to type-II superfluidity is tuned by changing the scattering parameter (interaction) for fixed density. We also find that neutral fermion superfluids such as 6Li and 40K are extreme type-II superfluids and are more robust to the penetration of a fictitious magnetic field in the BCS-BEC crossover region near unitarity, where the critical fictitious magnetic field reaches a maximum as a function of the scattering parameter (interaction).

    11. Effects of PEGylated lipid nanoparticles on the oral absorption of one BCS II drug: a mechanistic investigation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zhang XW

      2014-11-01

      Full Text Available Xingwang Zhang,* Guijiang Chen,* Tianpeng Zhang, Zhiguo Ma, Baojian WuDivision of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Lipid nanocarriers are becoming a versatile platform for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. In this article, we aimed to explore the gastrointestinal behaviors of lipid nanoparticles and the effect of PEGylation on oral absorption of fenofibrate (FN, a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS II model drug. FN-loaded PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (FN-PLNs were prepared by the solvent-diffusion method and characterized by particle size distribution, morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and drug release. Lipolytic experiments were performed to assess the resistance of lipid nanoparticles against pancreatic lipase. Pharmacokinetics was evaluated in rats after oral administration of FN preparations. The obtained FN-PLNs were 186.7 nm in size with an entrapment efficiency of >95%. Compared to conventional lipid nanoparticles, PLNs exhibited slower drug release in the lipase-containing medium, strikingly reduced mucin binding, and suppressed lipolysis in vitro. Further, oral absorption of FN was significantly enhanced using PLNs with relative bioavailability of 123.9% and 157.0% to conventional lipid nanoparticles and a commercial formulation (Lipanthyl®, respectively. It was demonstrated that reduced mucin trapping, suppressed lipolysis, and/or improved mucosal permeability were responsible for increased oral absorption. These results facilitated a better understanding of the in vivo fate of lipid nanoparticles, and suggested the potential of PLNs as oral carriers of BCS II drugs.Keywords: fenofibrate, lipid nanoparticles, PEGylation, oral bioavailability, absorption mechanism

    12. The influence of magnetic field on the superconducting properties and the BCS-BEC crossover in systems with local fermion pairing

      CERN Document Server

      Kujawa-Cichy, Agnieszka

      2013-01-01

      The aim of this Ph.D. thesis was to investigate superconducting properties in the presence of Zeeman magnetic field in systems with local fermion pairing on the lattice. The study also concerned the evolution from the weak coupling (BCS-like) limit to the strong coupling limit of tightly bound local pairs (BEC) with increasing attraction, both in the ground state and at finite temperatures, within the spin-polarized extended Hubbard model. The analysis was also extended to the case of spin dependent hopping integrals (mass imbalance), with special attention paid to the BCS-BEC crossover physics in the ground state. The methods used included: the mean field approximation (BCS-Stoner type) and the estimation of the phase coherence temperature within the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) scenario in two dimensions. The BCS-BEC crossover was also analyzed in three dimensions, at finite temperatures, within the spin polarized Attractive Hubbard Model (AHM), going beyond the mean field approximation. In this case, the criti...

    13. Vortex structures and zero-energy states in the BCS-to-BEC evolution of p-wave resonant Fermi gases

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Multiply quantized vortices in the BCS-to-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) evolution of p-wave resonant Fermi gases are investigated theoretically. The vortex structure and the low-energy quasiparticle states are discussed, based on the self-consistent calculations of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes and gap equations. We reveal the direct relation between the macroscopic structure of vortices, such as particle densities, and the low-lying quasiparticle state. In addition, the net angular momentum for multiply quantized vortices with a vorticity κ is found to be expressed by a simple equation, which reflects the chirality of the Cooper pairing. Hence, the observation of the particle density depletion and the measurement of the angular momentum will provide the information on the core-bound state and p-wave superfluidity. Moreover, the details on the zero energy Majorana state are discussed in the vicinity of the BCS-to-BEC evolution. It is demonstrated numerically that the zero energy Majorana state appears in the weak coupling BCS limit only when the vortex winding number is odd. The κ branches of the core-bound states for a vortex state with vorticity κ exist; however, only one of them can be the zero energy. This zero energy state vanishes at the BCS-BEC topological phase transition because of interference between the core-bound and edge-bound states.

    14. Structure of even-odd spherical nuclei using the BCS approximations and the ACQPV model: application to isotones with N=82 and Ni, Zn and Cs'' isotopes

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Calculations of the (E,JΠ) spectra and the electromagnetic properties (fe,Q,BEZ,BM1) are made for Ni odd isotopes, and odd isotones with N=82, using the Shell Model (SM), the usual BCS approximation (one and three quasiparticles), blocking BCS (BBCS) and projected BCS (PBCS). The importance of the five quasiparticle correlations and of the correlation introduced in BCS are examined in detail. The collective degrees of freedom of the core are introduced through the quasiparticle-cluster-vibrator coupling (QPCVC), so that this formalism permits as well the inclusion of blocking as the projection in number of particles in the cluster of one and three quasiparticles. Comparative calculations are made between the version with blocking (BQPCV) and with projection (PQPCV) for spectra and electromagnetic properties of Zn old isotopes. The projected version is applied to the cesium isotopes in the description of the 5/2+ states generated by the anomalous coupling. In all examined cases, the comparison with the available experimental data is also shown. (L.C.)

    15. G.L. Amidon, H. Lennernas, V.P. Shah, and J.R. Crison. A Theoretical Basis for a Biopharmaceutic Drug Classification: The Correlation of In Vitro Drug Product Dissolution and In Vivo Bioavailability, Pharm Res 12, 413–420, 1995—Backstory of BCS

      OpenAIRE

      Shah, Vinod P.; Amidon, Gordon L.

      2014-01-01

      The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has become widely accepted today in the academic, industrial, and regulatory world. While the initial application of the BCS was to regulatory science bioequivalence (BE) issues and related implications, it has come to be utilized widely by the pharmaceutical industry in drug discovery and development as well. This brief manuscript will relate the story of the BCS development. While much of the ground work for the BCS goes back to the pharmacok...

    16. Superconductivity theory applied to the periodic table of the elements

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The modern theory of superconductivity, based upon the BCS to Bose-Einstein transition, is applied to the periodic table of the elements, in order to isolate the essential features of high temperature superconductivity and to predict its occurrence within the periodic table. It is predicted that Sodium-Ammonia, Sodium Zinc Phosphide and Bismuth (I) Iodide are promising materials for experimental explorations of high temperature superconductivity

    17. Superconductivity theory applied to the periodic table of the elements

      Science.gov (United States)

      Elifritz, Thomas Lee

      1995-01-01

      The modern theory of superconductivity, based upon the BCS to Bose-Einstein transition is applied to the periodic table of the elements, in order to isolate the essential features of of high temperature superconductivity and to predict its occurrence with the periodic table. It is predicted that Sodium-Ammonia, Sodium Zinc Phosphide and Bismuth (I) Iodide are promising materials for experimental explorations of high temperature superconductivity.

    18. Superconductivity theory applied to the periodic table of the elements

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Elifritz, T.L. [Information Corporation, Madison, WI (United States)

      1994-12-31

      The modern theory of superconductivity, based upon the BCS to Bose-Einstein transition, is applied to the periodic table of the elements, in order to isolate the essential features of high temperature superconductivity and to predict its occurrence within the periodic table. It is predicted that Sodium-Ammonia, Sodium Zinc Phosphide and Bismuth (I) Iodide are promising materials for experimental explorations of high temperature superconductivity.

    19. Chiral random matrix theory for two-color QCD at high density

      OpenAIRE

      Kanazawa, Takuya; Wettig, Tilo; Yamamoto, Naoki

      2009-01-01

      We identify a non-Hermitian chiral random matrix theory that corresponds to two-color QCD at high density. We show that the partition function of the random matrix theory coincides with the partition function of the finite-volume effective theory at high density, and that the Leutwyler-Smilga-type spectral sum rules of the random matrix theory are identical to those derived from the effective theory. The microscopic Dirac spectrum of the theory is governed by the BCS gap, rather than the conv...

    20. Renormalization group theory impact on experimental magnetism

      CERN Document Server

      Köbler, Ulrich

      2010-01-01

      Spin wave theory of magnetism and BCS theory of superconductivity are typical theories of the time before renormalization group (RG) theory. The two theories consider atomistic interactions only and ignore the energy degrees of freedom of the continuous (infinite) solid. Since the pioneering work of Kenneth G. Wilson (Nobel Prize of physics in 1982) we know that the continuous solid is characterized by a particular symmetry: invariance with respect to transformations of the length scale. Associated with this symmetry are particular field particles with characteristic excitation spectra. In diamagnetic solids these are the well known Debye bosons. This book reviews experimental work on solid state physics of the last five decades and shows in a phenomenological way that the dynamics of ordered magnets and conventional superconductors is controlled by the field particles of the infinite solid and not by magnons and Cooper pairs, respectively. In the case of ordered magnets the relevant field particles are calle...

    1. Solubility enhancement of BCS Class II drug by solid phospholipid dispersions: Spray drying versus freeze-drying.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Ibisogly, Asiye; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

      2015-12-30

      The poor aqueous solubility of BCS Class II drugs represents a major challenge for oral dosage form development. Using celecoxib (CXB) as model drug, the current study adopted a novel solid phospholipid nanoparticle (SPLN) approach and compared the effect of two commonly used industrial manufacturing methods, spray- and freeze-drying, on the solubility and dissolution enhancement of CXB. CXB was formulated with Phospholipoid E80 (PL) and trehalose at different CXB:PL:trehalose ratios, of which 1:10:16 was the optimal formulation. Spherical amorphous SPLNs with average diameters solid PL dispersion with larger particle sizes were prepared by freeze-drying. Formulations from both methods significantly enhanced the dissolution rates, apparent solubility, and molecularly dissolved concentration of CXB in phosphate buffer (PBS, pH 6.5) and in biorelevant fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF, pH 6.5) (p<0.05). While similar dissolution rates were found, the spray-dried SPLNs had a larger enhancement in apparent solubility (29- to 132-fold) as well as molecular solubility (18-fold) of CXB at equilibrium (p<0.05). The strong capability of the spray-dried SPLNs to attain 'true' supersaturation state makes them a promising approach for bioavailability enhancement of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:26468038

    2. Unified description of neutron superfluidity in the neutron-star crust with analogy to anisotropic multiband BCS superconductors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The neutron superfluidity in the inner crust of a neutron star has traditionally been studied considering either homogeneous neutron matter or a small number of nucleons confined inside the spherical Wigner-Seitz cell. Drawing analogies with the recently discovered multiband superconductors, we have solved the anisotropic multiband BCS gap equations with Bloch boundary conditions, thus providing a unified description taking consistently into account both the free neutrons and the nuclear clusters. Calculations have been carried out using the effective interaction underlying our recent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov nuclear mass model HFB-16. We have found that even though the presence of inhomogeneities lowers the neutron pairing gaps, the reduction is much less than that predicted by previous calculations using the Wigner-Seitz approximation. We have studied the disappearance of superfluidity with increasing temperature. As an application we have calculated the neutron specific heat, which is an important ingredient for modeling the thermal evolution of newly born neutron stars. This work provides a new scheme for realistic calculations of superfluidity in neutron-star crusts.

    3. Theory of superconductivity. II. Excited Cooper pairs. Why does sodium remain normal down to 0 K?

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Based on a generalized BCS Hamiltonian in which the interaction strengths (V11, V22, V12) among and between electron (12) and hole (2) Cooper pairs are differentiated, the thermodynamic properties of a type-I superconductor below the critical temperature Tc are investigated. An expression for the ground-state energy, W - W0, relative to the unperturbed Block system is obtained. The usual BCS formulas are obtained in the limits: (all) Vjl = V0, N1(0) = N2(0). Any excitations generated through the BCS interaction Hamiltonian containing Vjl must involve Cooper pairs of antiparallel spins and nearly opposite momenta. The nonzero momentum or excited Cooper pairs below Tc are shown to have an excitation energy band minimum lower than the quasi-electrons, which were regarded as the elementary excitations in the original BCS theory. The energy gap var-epsilon g (T) defined relative to excited and zero-momentum Copper pairs (when Vjl > 0) decreases from var-epsilon g(0) to 0 as the temperature T is raised from 0 to Tc. If electrons only are available as in a monovalent metal like sodium (V12 = 0), the energy constant Δ1 is finite but the energy gap vanishes identically for all T. In agreement with the BCS theory, the present theory predicts that a pure nonmagnetic metal in any dimensions should have a Cooper-pair ground state whose energy is lower than that of the Bloch ground state. Additionally it predicts that a monovalent metal should remain normal down to 0 K, and that there should be no strictly one-dimensional superconductor

    4. Case Studies for Practical Food Effect Assessments across BCS/BDDCS Class Compounds using In Silico, In Vitro, and Preclinical In Vivo Data

      OpenAIRE

      Heimbach, Tycho; Xia, Binfeng; Lin, Tsu-Han; He, Handan

      2012-01-01

      Practical food effect predictions and assessments were described using in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo preclinical data to anticipate food effects and Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)/Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) class across drug development stages depending on available data: (1) limited in silico and in vitro data in early discovery; (2) preclinical in vivo pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism data at candidate selection; and (3) ph...

    5. The XMM-BCS galaxy cluster survey: I. The X-ray selected cluster catalog from the initial 6 deg$^2$

      CERN Document Server

      Šuhada, R; Böhringer, H; Mohr, J J; Chon, G; Finoguenov, A; Fassbender, R; Desai, S; Armstrong, R; Zenteno, A; Barkhouse, W A; Bertin, E; Buckley-Geer, E J; Hansen, S M; High, F W; Lin, H; Mühlegger, M; Ngeow, C C; Pierini, D; Pratt, G W; Verdugo, M; Tucker, D L

      2011-01-01

      The XMM-Newton - Blanco Cosmology Survey project (XMM-BCS) is a coordinated X-ray, optical and mid-infrared cluster survey in a field also covered by Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect surveys by the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The aim of the project is to study the cluster population in a 14 deg$^2$ field. In this work, we present a catalog of 46 X-ray selected clusters from the initial 6 deg$^2$ survey core. We describe the XMM-BCS source detection pipeline and derive physical properties of the clusters. We provide photometric redshift estimates derived from the BCS imaging data and spectroscopic redshift measurements for a low redshift subset of the clusters. We derive the cluster log N - log S relation using an approximation to the survey selection function and find it in good agreement with previous studies. We carry out an initial comparison between X-ray luminosity derived masses and masses from optical estimators from the Southern Cosmology Survey for a subset of the cluster sampl...

    6. Research in the theory of condensed matter and elementary particles. Progress report

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Progress is described on research concerned with problems occupying the common ground between quantum field theory and statistical mechanics. Research was conducted on conformal field theory and two dimensional critical phenomena; on formation of large scale structures in dynamical systems; on fermion-boson mass relations in BCS type theories; on properties of quark-gluon plasmas; on random walks in random environments; on chiral symmetry breaking in lattice gauge theories, on supersymmetric derivations of anomaly formulas and index theorems; and on the problems of exact chiral symmetry in lattice fermion theories. Publications are listed. 46 references

    7. The interacting boson model, BSC-RPA theory and the theory of pairing interactions applied to Ge nuclei

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The low lying states and especialy the extraordinary behaviour of the first excited O+ state as a function of neutron number in the sequence of nuclei, 68Ge, 70Ge, 72Ge, 74Ge, 76Ge, are described (except for 76Ge) by introducing a s'-boson into the interacting boson model (IBM) which usually involves only s- and d-bosons. This introduction could be understood by considering results from BCS-RPA calculations in the neutron configuration only. BCS-RPA theory is, however, shown to be a poor approximation in the case under consideration. Results from the exact diagonalisation of the Hamiltonian for the charge independant pairing interaction in both the proton and neutron configuration are discussed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 21 refs

    8. Preparation and characterization of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose films containing stable BCS Class II drug nanoparticles for pharmaceutical applications.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sievens-Figueroa, Lucas; Bhakay, Anagha; Jerez-Rozo, Jackeline I; Pandya, Natasha; Romañach, Rodolfo J; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena; Iqbal, Zafar; Bilgili, Ecevit; Davé, Rajesh N

      2012-02-28

      The design and feasibility of a simple process of incorporating stable nanoparticles into edible polymer films is demonstrated with the goal of enhancing the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. Nanosuspensions produced from wet stirred media milling (WSMM) were transformed into polymer films containing drug nanoparticles by mixing with a low molecular weight hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC E15LV) solution containing glycerin followed by film casting and drying. Three different BCS Class II drugs, naproxen (NPX), fenofibrate (FNB) and griseofulvin (GF) were studied. The influence of the drug molecule on the film properties was also investigated. It was shown that film processing methodology employed has no effect on the drug crystallinity according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Differences in aggregation behavior of APIs in films were observed through SEM and NIR chemical imaging analysis. NPX exhibited the strongest aggregation compared to the other drugs. The aggregation had a direct effect on drug content uniformity in the film. Mechanical properties of the film were also affected depending on the drug-polymer interaction. Due to strong hydrogen bonding with the polymer, NPX exhibited an increase in Young's Modulus (YM) of approximately 200%, among other mechanical properties, compared to GF films. A synergistic effect between surfactant/polymer and drug/polymer interactions in the FNB film resulted in an increase of more than 600% in YM compared to the GF film. The enhancement in drug dissolution rate of films due to the large surface area and smaller drug particle size was also demonstrated. PMID:22178619

    9. Proposed experimental test of an alternative electrodynamic theory of superconductors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Highlights: • A new experimental test of electric screening in superconductors is proposed. • The electric screening length is predicted to be much larger than in normal metals. • The reason this was not seen in earlier experiments is explained. • This is not predicted by the conventional BCS theory of superconductivity. - Abstract: An alternative form of London’s electrodynamic theory of superconductors predicts that the electrostatic screening length is the same as the magnetic penetration depth. We argue that experiments performed to date do not rule out this alternative formulation and propose an experiment to test it. Experimental evidence in its favor would have fundamental implications for the understanding of superconductivity

    10. Theoretical Approach to the Gauge Invariant Linear Response Theories for Ultracold Fermi Gases with Pseudogap

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hao Guo

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available Recent experimental progress allows for exploring some important physical quantities of ultracold Fermi gases, such as the compressibility, spin susceptibility, viscosity, optical conductivity, and spin diffusivity. Theoretically, these quantities can be evaluated from suitable linear response theories. For BCS superfluid, it has been found that the gauge invariant linear response theories can be fully consistent with some stringent consistency constraints. When the theory is generalized to stronger than BCS regime, one may meet serious difficulties to satisfy the gauge invariance conditions. In this paper, we try to construct density and spin linear response theories which are formally gauge invariant for a Fermi gas undergoing BCS-Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC crossover, especially below the superfluid transition temperature Tc. We adapt a particular t-matrix approach which is close to the G0G formalism to incorporate noncondensed pairing in the normal state. We explicitly show that the fundamental constraints imposed by the Ward identities and Q-limit Ward identity are indeed satisfied.

    11. CO2 Flux from a Subtropical Mangrove Ecosystem in Magdalena Bay BCS, Mexico Josediego Uribe, Walter C. Oechel

      Science.gov (United States)

      Uribe, J.; Oechel, W. C.

      2012-12-01

      Mangrove forests are among the most productive ecosystems within the tropical and subtropical coastlines of the world. There is currently limited research on mangrove carbon sequestration potentials but with ongoing climate change and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, an understanding of carbon exchange in mangroves forests and the environmental controls influencing fluxes is extremely important for understanding their role in the global carbon cycle and their potential as stores of CO2. In this study, CO2 flux was evaluated for a subtropical mangrove ecosystem in the arid region of Magdalena Bay BCS, Mexico. Measurements were taken using an eddy covariance system above the canopy during January 8 to the 30, and currently from June 21 to August 28, in 2012. The mangrove forest is located (N25° 15'75", W112° 04'79") near the town of Puerto Lopez Mateos, Mexico. During this time period environmental variables such as Net Radiation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, humidity, ground heat flux, soil temperature and tidal height were measured together with the CO2 flux in order to determine the environmental influence on the fluxes. Preliminary results showed a clear diurnal pattern in CO2 flux that showed high sinks when light availability was high. During January, the winter dry season environmental conditions remained relatively cool with an average air temperature of 17 oC and consistently cloudless days. During this period CO2 flux was -1.3 μmol C m-2s-1, which means that for the month of January, there was a net uptake of carbon by the mangrove ecosystem. For the summer period the development of the data collection for a longer term as well as further correlation analysis with environmental data is currently underway, however expectations are that seasonal variations of CO2 flux can be seen due to longer and more intense periods of solar irradiance as well as the effect of high temperature (+30° C) days. Indirect effects

    12. BCS Ground State and XXZ Antiferromagnetic Model as SU(2),SU(1,1) Coherent States:AN Algebraic Diagonalization Method

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      XIEBing_Hao; ZHANGHong-Biao; 等

      2002-01-01

      An algebraic diagonalization method is proposed.As two examples,the Hamiltonians of BCS ground state under mean-field approximation and XXZ antiferromagnetic model in linear spin-wave frame have been diagonalized by using SU(2),SU(1,1) Lie algebraic method,respectively.Meanwhile,the eignenstates of the above two models are revealed to be SU(2),SU(1,1) coherent states,respectively,The relation between the usual Bogoliubov-Valatin transformation and the algebraic method in a special case is also discussed.

    13. Some Applications of Eliashberg Theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Akis, Richard J.

      Eliashberg theory, which was formulated assuming that the electron-phonon interaction is the mechanism for superconductivity, has been very successful in explaining the physical properties of most superconductors. Eliashberg theory is an extension of BCS theory, the original microscopic theory of superconductivity. BCS theory is recovered from Eliashberg theory in the weak electron-boson coupling limit. Recently, a new challenge to Eliashberg theory has been brought forth by the discovery of a new class of superconductors known as the high T_{c} oxides. As of this writing, the question of what is the superconducting mechanism for these materials is still unanswered. In this thesis, many superconducting properties have been calculated mainly in an effort to see if Eliashberg theory may still be applicable to these materials. The approach of this effort has depended on the property being studied. In this case of the critical temperature and the isotope effect, a great deal of work has been put in to fit actual experimental results, particularly for the isotope effect. We shall show that two distinct models, one with an additional electronic mechanism along with the phonons and the other with a very large coulomb repulsion, may be able to explain the experimental results. For the electronic specific heat, maxima that should not be exceeded by an Eliashberg superconductor are established for several quantities associated with this physical property. Unfortunately, some experimental values for these quantities appear to exceed these maxima. In the case of the the nuclear spin relaxation, which has not been very extensively studied in the past, we shall look at how the coherence peak in the relaxation rate can be reduced as a function of coupling strength and draw conclusions that are applicable to conventional superconductors. The behaviour of this property in the oxides is not ignored however, and some fitting of experiment including anisotrophy as well as

    14. Impact of a PV system interconnected to the electric network of a High Consumption Domestic user's demand in BCS; Impacto de un sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a red en la demanda electrica de un usuario DAC en BCS

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Jimenez Grajales, H. R.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Munguia del Rio, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

      2010-11-15

      forma de produccion de electricidad es al dia de hoy una opcion bastante madura, en razon de los beneficios que esta modalidad de produccion de electricidad aporta tanto al usuario como a la red electrica. En Mexico cada vez son mas los usuarios del servicio electrico que se ven motivados a invertir en este tipo de sistemas. En este articulo se analiza el caso particular de un usuario de tarifa DAC (Demanda de Alto Consumo) en la ciudad de La Paz, Baja California Sur (BCS), quien cuenta con un SFVI monofasico de 6 kWp instalado en el techo de su casa. Los resultados que se reportan provienen de datos obtenidos por el IIE durante un periodo de monitoreo de tres anos de la operacion del sistema. Los resultados incluyen informacion climatologica, balances de energia y potencia, potencias maximas, produccion y perdidas normalizadas, eficiencia del generador fotovoltaico y de los inversores; entre otros indices de desempeno. El documento resalta el impacto que tiene el SFVI sobre el consumo electrico en el inmueble y en el monto de la factura que el usuario finalmente paga a la compania suministradora del servicio electrico.

    15. SLAP和BCS方法处理对关联的比较%Comparison for the treatment of paring correlations in SLAP and BCS methods

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      曹向阳; 黄海; 郭建友

      2015-01-01

      The shell‐model‐like approach (SLAP) and BCS methods were used to treat the pairing correlations for an ideal model .The total energy ,pairing energy ,particle energy and particle occupation together with their evolutions with the pairing strength were obtained . The research indicated that the phase transition from the super fluid to the normal reflected by BCS was clearer ,but SLAP might be more reasonable method for describing physics parameters w hich had obvious relations with the particle number .%基于能级均匀分布的理想模型,分别用SLAP和BCS方法处理对关联,计算体系的总能量、对能、单粒子能量及其占据几率,展示总能量、对能和单粒子能量随对力强度因子变化的情况,比较SLAP和BCS方法计算结果的差异。研究表明:BCS方法能够明显地反映从超流态到正常态的相变,SLAP方法更适合描述与粒子数关系明显的物理量。

    16. Effect of Gastric Fluid Volume on the In Vitro Dissolution and In Vivo Absorption of BCS Class II Drugs: a Case Study with Nifedipine.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nader, Ahmed M; Quinney, Sara K; Fadda, Hala M; Foster, David R

      2016-07-01

      Nifedipine is a BCS Class II drug used for treatment of hypertension and preterm labor. Large inter-patient variability in nifedipine absorption results in variable exposure among different patients. We conducted in vitro dissolution studies to compare nifedipine dissolution from immediate release (IR) capsules with different volumes of dissolution media. Results from dissolution studies were used to design a crossover study in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effect of coadministered water volume with nifedipine 10 mg IR capsules on nifedipine pharmacokinetics, especially absorption (C max, t max, and AUC0-6). Dissolution studies demonstrated that larger gastric fluid volumes result in enhanced nifedipine dissolution from 10 mg IR cosolvent capsules (73 vs. 17% in 200 and 100 mL simulated gastric fluid, respectively, at 30 min). The pharmacokinetic crossover study in healthy volunteers (N = 6) did not show a significant effect of the water volume administered with the capsule (50 vs. 250 mL) on C max, t max, or AUC0-6 of orally administered nifedipine IR capsules (10 mg). However, administration of large water volumes resulted in lower variability in nifedipine C max (47 vs. 70% for 250 and 50 mL, respectively). Administration of large water volumes with nifedipine 10 mg IR cosolvent capsules may reduce inter-individual variability in plasma exposure. Evaluation of similar effects in other BCS Class II drugs is recommended. PMID:27106837

    17. GMRT Radio Halo Survey in galaxy clusters at z = 0.2 -- 0.4. II.The eBCS clusters and analysis of the complete sample

      CERN Document Server

      Venturi, T; Dallacasa, D; Cassano, R; Brunetti, G; Bardelli, S; Setti, G

      2008-01-01

      We present the results of the GMRT cluster radio halo survey. The main purposes of our observational project are to measure which fraction of massive galaxy clusters in the redshift range z=0.2--0.4 hosts a radio halo, and to constrain the expectations of the particle re--acceleration model for the origin of the non--thermal radio emission. We selected a complete sample of 50 clusters in the X-ray band from the REFLEX (27) and the eBCS (23) catalogues. In this paper we present Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations at 610 MHz for all clusters still lacking high sensitivity radio information, i.e. 16 eBCS and 7 REFLEX clusters, thus completing the radio information for the whole sample. The typical sensitivity in our images is in the range 1$\\sigma \\sim 35-100 \\mu$Jy b$^{-1}$. We found a radio halo in A697, a diffuse peripheral source of unclear nature in A781, a core--halo source in Z7160, a candidate radio halo in A1682 and ``suspect'' central emission in Z2661. Including the literature informat...

    18. Evaluación rural participativa: uso de los recursos naturales en la reserva de la biosfera El Vizcaíno, BCS, México

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Magdalena Lagunas-Vázquez

      2008-01-01

      Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la experiencia de investigación participativa donde se destaca la importancia de la vinculación entre los actores sociales (en este caso de áreas rurales protegidas, el sector académico y las organizaciones no gubernamentales. Se analizan los resultados de una evaluación rural participativa (ERP llevada a cabo en la Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaíno, BCS, México. Además de identificar lo que los actores sociales perciben como problemas y las formas en que proponen vías de solución, se logró obtener información acerca del uso de los recursos naturales por parte de los residentes de las comunidades y se formuló un plan comunitario de uso de los mismos.

    19. Metabolite profiles reveal energy failure and impaired beta-oxidation in liver of mice with complex III deficiency due to a BCS1L mutation.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Heike Kotarsky

      Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver is a target organ in many mitochondrial disorders, especially if the complex III assembly factor BCS1L is mutated. To reveal disease mechanism due to such mutations, we have produced a transgenic mouse model with c.232A>G mutation in Bcs1l, the causative mutation for GRACILE syndrome. The homozygous mice develop mitochondrial hepatopathy with steatosis and fibrosis after weaning. Our aim was to assess cellular mechanisms for disease onset and progression using metabolomics. METHODS: With mass spectrometry we analyzed metabolite patterns in liver samples obtained from homozygotes and littermate controls of three ages. As oxidative stress might be a mechanism for mitochondrial hepatopathy, we also assessed H(2O(2 production and expression of antioxidants. RESULTS: Homozygotes had a similar metabolic profile at 14 days of age as controls, with the exception of slightly decreased AMP. At 24 days, when hepatocytes display first histopathological signs, increases in succinate, fumarate and AMP were found associated with impaired glucose turnover and beta-oxidation. At end stage disease after 30 days, these changes were pronounced with decreased carbohydrates, high levels of acylcarnitines and amino acids, and elevated biogenic amines, especially putrescine. Signs of oxidative stress were present in end-stage disease. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest an early Krebs cycle defect with increases of its intermediates, which might play a role in disease onset. During disease progression, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism deteriorate leading to a starvation-like condition. The mouse model is valuable for further investigations on mechanisms in mitochondrial hepatopathy and for interventions.

    20. Clarification of the properties of low-density neutron matter by lattice calculation using effective field theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Recent development of the neutron matter research, especially on the low-density region where S wave components are dominant, is reported based on the first principle calculations of the lattice effective field theory. Second order perturbation is taken into account in the Hamiltonian form on the lattice which does not include π mesons. Determinant Quantum Monte Carlo calculation based on the grand canonical ensemble is used. Physical quantities are calculated considering their corresponding correlation functions. Results on the S-wave super fluidity pairing gap near absolute zero, on the super- and normal-fluidity phase transition temperature and on the pairing temperature scale related to the pseudogaps are described. They are finally extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit or continuity. Results of the pairing gap are in agreement with the recent Green function Monte Carlo calculations as well as the path integral ones within the statistical errors. The results are lower, on the other hand, compared to the results of weak coupling BCS theory using realistic forces. It further becomes clear that it is not so significantly suppressed as suggested by the numbers of beyond BCS theory in the recent years. Phase diagram at finite temperature is discussed. It is shown that the pseudo gap exists for neutron matter even at very low density region and it is in the BCS-BEC crossover state. (S. Funahashi)

    1. A unified theory of superconductivity

      CERN Document Server

      Huang, Xiuqing

      2008-01-01

      In this work, we argue that the phonon-mediated BCS theory may be incorrect. Two kinds of glues, pairing (pseudogap) glue and superconducting glue, are suggested based on a real space Coulomb confinement effect. The scenarios provide a unified explanation of the pairing symmetry, pseudogap and superconducting states, spin--charge stripe order, magic doping fractions and vortex structures in conventional and unconventional (the high-Tc cuprates, MgB2 and the newly-discovered Fe-based family) superconductors. The theory agrees with the existence of a pseudogap in high-temperature superconductors, while no pseudogap feature could be observed in MgB2, iron-based and most of the conventional superconductors. Our results indicate that the superconducting phase can coexist with a triangular vortex lattice in pure MgB2 single crystal with a charge carrier density n=1.49*10^22/cm3. For iron-based superconductors, the relationship between the superconducting vortex phases and the optimal doping levels are analytically ...

    2. Factors of influence on acute skin toxicity of breast cancer patients treated with standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after breast conserving surgery (BCS)

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Standard 3D-CRT after BCS may cause skin toxicity with a wide range of intensity including acute effects like erythema or late effects. In order to reduce these side effects it is mandatory to identify potential factors of influence in breast cancer patients undergoing standard three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of the breast and modern systemic therapy. Between 2006 and 2010 a total of 211 breast cancer patients (median age 52,4 years, range 24–77) after BCS consecutively treated in our institution with 3D-CRT (50 Gy whole breast photon radiotherapy followed by 16 Gy electron boost to the tumorbed) were evaluated with special focus on documented skin toxicity at the end of the 50 Gy-course. Standardized photodocumentation of the treated breast was done in each patient lying on the linac table with arms elevated. Skin toxicity was documented according to the common toxicity criteria (CTC)-score. Potential influencing factors were classified in three groups: patient-specific (smoking, age, breast size, body mass index = BMI, allergies), tumor-specific (tumorsize) and treatment-specific factors (antihormonal therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, chemotherapy). Uni- and multivariate statistical analyses were done using IBM SPSS version 19. After 50 Gy 3D-CRT to the whole breast 28.9% of all 211 patients had no erythema, 62.2% showed erythema grade 1 (G1) and 8.5% erythema grade 2. None of the patients had grade 3/4 (G3/4) erythema. In univariate analyses a significant influence or trend on the development of acute skin toxicities (erythema G0 versus G1 versus G2) was observed for larger breast volumes (p=0,004), smoking during radiation therapy (p=0,064) and absence of allergies (p=0,014) as well as larger tumorsize (p=0,009) and antihormonal therapy (p=0.005). Neither patient age, BMI nor choice of chemotherapy showed any significant effect on higher grade toxicity. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with higher grade

    3. Use of conventional surfactant media as surrogates for FaSSIF in simulating in vivo dissolution of BCS class II drugs.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lehto, Paula; Kortejärvi, Hanna; Liimatainen, Anni; Ojala, Krista; Kangas, Heli; Hirvonen, Jouni; Tanninen, Veli Pekka; Peltonen, Leena

      2011-08-01

      The usefulness of selected conventional surfactant media to enhance dissolution of BCS class II drugs similarly to fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and to predict the absorption of drugs in vivo was evaluated. Dissolution behavior of danazol (Danol), spironolactone (Spiridon) and N74 (phase I compound) was compared between FaSSIF, containing physiological levels of sodium taurocholate (STC) and lecithin, and dissolution media containing various concentrations of anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or non-ionic surfactant, polysorbate (Tween) 80. Although these media differed largely in their solubilization ability, micelle size, diffusivity and surface tension, similar dissolution enhancing levels were achieved between FaSSIF and drug-specific concentrations of conventional surfactants. The dissolution enhancement was shown, however, to be important only for danazol and N74, molecules that are characterized by high hydrophobicity. An in vivo pharmacokinetic dog study was carried out with N74. Comparison of observed plasma profiles with simulated profiles obtained using compartmental absorption and transit model (CAT) indicated that 0.1% SLS medium was the best to predict in vivo plasma profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max) and AUC). This study demonstrates the potential of substituting FaSSIF with more simple and cost-effective conventional surfactant media. Use of in vivo prognostic amounts of synthetic surfactants in dissolution testing could largely assist in industrial drug development as well as in quality control purposes. PMID:21329757

    4. Ion pairing with bile salts modulates intestinal permeability and contributes to food-drug interaction of BCS class III compound trospium chloride.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Heinen, Christian A; Reuss, Stefan; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

      2013-11-01

      In the current study the involvement of ion pair formation between bile salts and trospium chloride (TC), a positively charged Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class III substance, showing a decrease in bioavailability upon coadministration with food (negative food effect) was investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry provided evidence of a reaction between TC and bile acids. An effect of ion pair formation on the apparent partition coefficient (APC) was examined using (3)H-trospium. The addition of bovine bile and bile extract porcine led to a significant increase of the APC. In vitro permeability studies of trospium were performed across Caco-2-monolayers and excised segments of rat jejunum in a modified Ussing chamber. The addition of bile acids led to an increase of trospium permeation across Caco-2-monolayers and rat excised segments by approximately a factor of 1.5. The addition of glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) was less effective than taurodeoxycholate (TDOC). In the presence of an olive oil emulsion, a complete extinction of the permeation increasing effects of bile salts was observed. Thus, although there are more bile acids in the intestine in the fed state compared to the fasted state, these are not able to form ion pairs with trospium in fed state, because they are involved in the emulsification of dietary fats. In conclusion, the formation of ion pairs between trospium and bile acids can partially explain its negative food effect. Our results are presumably transferable to other organic cations showing a negative food effect. PMID:23750707

    5. The chemical potential for the inhomogeneous electron liquid in terms of its kinetic and potential parts with special consideration of the surface potential step and BCS-BEC crossover

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The chemical potential μ of a many-body system is valuable since it carries fingerprints of phase changes. Here, we summarize results for μ for a three-dimensional electron liquid in terms of average kinetic and potential energies per particle. The difference between μ and the energy per particle is found to be exactly the electrostatic potential step at the surface. We also present calculations for an integrable one-dimensional many-body system with delta function interactions, exhibiting a BCS-BEC crossover. It is shown that in the BCS regime the chemical potential can be expressed solely in terms of the ground-state energy per particle. A brief discussion is also included of the strong coupling BEC limit

    6. A unified microscopic theory of superfluidity and superconductivity

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A consistent and unified microscopic theory of a novel two-stage Fermi-Bose liquid (FBL) scenarios of superfluidity and superconductivity is developed as a combined theory of Fermi- and superfluid (SF) Bose-liquid. Modified and generalized BCS like pairing theory of fermions is presented. In analogy to that a detail boson pairing theory is developed. The single particle (SPC) and pair condensation (PC) features of an attracting 3d- and 2d-Bose gas as a function of the interboson coupling constant in the complete range 0 ≤ T ≤ Tc is studied in detail. It is shown that such SPC and PC of an attracting composite bosons (Cooper pairs, bipolarons, holons, 4He atoms, deuterons, alpha particles) lies on the basis of superfluidity both in Fermi and Bose systems. It is argued that the coexistence of the order parameters of attracting fermions ΔF and bosons ΔB leads to the superfluidity and superconductivity by two FBL scenarios. One of these scenarios is realized in so-called fermion superconductors (FSC) and other -in boson one (BSC) in which the gapless superconductivity is caused by absence of the gap ΔSF in the excitation spectrum of bosons and not by presence of point or line nodes of the BCS-like gap ΔF. The new adequate determination for basic superconducting parameters of FSC and BSC are given. The necessary and sufficient microscopic criterions for a superfluidity is formulated. The theory proposed is consistent with the different experimental data available in 4He, 3He, superconductors, nucleis, neutron stars and others. (author). 133 refs, 14 figs

    7. 基于BCS的链条炉燃烧优化控制系统%An optimum control system based on BCS technology for the combustion in chain furnaces

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      于现军

      2005-01-01

      详细描述了通用燃烧优化控制技术(BCS)以及用BCS来改造链条炉并获得显著效果的应用情况,解决了中小企业普遍使用的链条炉存在的燃烧效率低、污染环境等问题.

    8. Crecimiento económico, desarrollo sustentable y turismo: Una aproximación del posicionamiento de Baja California Sur (BCS en el Barómetro de Sustentabilidad

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Reyna Ibáñez Pérez

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available Uno de los mayores anhelos de toda sociedad es alcanzar un nivel económico elevado; otro es el de tener la oportunidad de disfrutar eternamente de los servicios proporcionados por la madre naturaleza. Sin embargo, las tendencias indican que se experimenta un deterioro importante en el ambiente, a la par, de una elevada concentración de pobreza. Esto, aunado a la dependencia que algunas entidades y países han desarrollado en relación a actividades -como la turística- se ha convertido en una de las preocupaciones centrales de los gobiernos, el establecer mediciones para determinar si las pautas de crecimiento y desarrollo, van acorde con el cuidado del ambiente y el bienestar de las personas. Por ello, dentro de este artículo se analizan la evolución del crecimiento económico y posicionamiento de Baja California Sur (BCS -un estado con importante actividad turística- en el Barómetro de Sustentabilidad. En la introducción, se aprecia la evolución del concepto de crecimiento y desarrollo, para continuar con la caracterización de la zona de estudio. Posteriormente, se detalla la metodología empleada. Enseguida, se estudia la situación actual del sector turístico en BCS y la evolución del crecimiento y desarrollo económico. En el análisis de resultados, se describen los factores que ubican a BCS en un nivel Medio de sustentabilidad. Finalmente, se presentan algunas reflexiones en relación a los retos que en materia de turismo, crecimiento económico, desarrollo sustentable afronta BCS.

    9. Mathematical methods of many-body quantum field theory

      CERN Document Server

      Lehmann, Detlef

      2004-01-01

      Mathematical Methods of Many-Body Quantum Field Theory offers a comprehensive, mathematically rigorous treatment of many-body physics. It develops the mathematical tools for describing quantum many-body systems and applies them to the many-electron system. These tools include the formalism of second quantization, field theoretical perturbation theory, functional integral methods, bosonic and fermionic, and estimation and summation techniques for Feynman diagrams. Among the physical effects discussed in this context are BCS superconductivity, s-wave and higher l-wave, and the fractional quantum Hall effect. While the presentation is mathematically rigorous, the author does not focus solely on precise definitions and proofs, but also shows how to actually perform the computations.Presenting many recent advances and clarifying difficult concepts, this book provides the background, results, and detail needed to further explore the issue of when the standard approximation schemes in this field actually work and wh...

    10. Field theory of Mottness

      Science.gov (United States)

      Choy, Ting-Pong

      One of the leading problems in condensed matter physics is what state of matter obtain when there is a strong Coulomb repulsion between the electrons. One of the exotic examples is the high temperature superconductivity which was discovered in copper-oxide ceramics (cuprates) over twenty years ago. Thus far, a satisfactory theory is absent. In particular, the nature of the electron state outside the superconducting phase remains controversial. In analogy with the BCS theory of a conventional superconductor, in which the metal is well known to be a Fermi liquid, a complete understanding of the normal state of cuprate is necessary prior to the study of the superconducting mechanism in the high temperature superconductors. In this thesis, we will provide a theory for these exotic normal state properties by studying the minimal microscopic model which captures the physics of strong electron correlation. Even in such a simple microscopic model, striking properties including charge localization and presence of a Luttinger surface resemble the normal state properties of cuprate. An exact low energy theory of a doped Mott insulator will be constructed by explicitly integrating (rather than projecting) out the degrees of freedom far away from the chemical potential. The exact low energy theory contains degrees of freedom that cannot be obtained from projective schemes. In particular, a charge 2e bosonic field which is not made out of elemental excitations emerges at low energies. Such a field accounts for dynamical spectral weight transfer across the Mott gap. At half-filling, we show that two such excitations emerge which play a crucial role in preserving the Luttinger surface along which the single-particle Green function vanishes. We also apply this method to the Anderson-U impurity and show that in addition to the Kondo interaction, bosonic degrees of freedom appear as well. We show that many of the normal state properties of the cuprates can result from this new charge

    11. Comparison of the permeability of metoprolol and labetalol in rat, mouse, and Caco-2 cells: use as a reference standard for BCS classification.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Incecayir, Tuba; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

      2013-03-01

      The purpose of this study was to investigate labetalol as a potential high permeability reference standard for the application of Biopharmaceutics Classification Systems (BCS). Permeabilities of labetalol and metoprolol were investigated in animal intestinal perfusion models and Caco-2 cell monolayers. After isolating specific intestinal segments, in situ single-pass intestinal perfusions (SPIP) were performed in rats and mice. The effective permeabilities (Peff) of labetalol and metoprolol, an FDA standard for the low/high Peff class boundary, were investigated in two different segments of rat intestine (proximal jejunum and distal ileum) and in the proximal jejunum of mouse. No significant difference was found between Peff of metoprolol and labetalol in the jejunum and ileum of rat (0.33 ± 0.11 × 10(-4) vs 0.38 ± 0.06 × 10(-4) and 0.57 ± 0.17 × 10(-4) vs 0.64 ± 0.30 × 10(-4) cm/s, respectively) and in the jejunum of mouse (0.55 ± 0.05 × 10(-4) vs 0.59 ± 0.13 × 10(-4) cm/s). However, Peff of metoprolol and labetalol were 1.7 and 1.6 times higher in the jejunum of mouse, compared to the jejunum of rat, respectively. Metoprolol and labetalol showed segmental-dependent permeability through the rat intestine, with increased Peff in the distal ileum in comparison to the proximal jejunum. Most significantly, Peff of labetalol was found to be concentration-dependent. Decreasing concentrations of labetalol in the perfusate resulted in decreased Peff compared to Peff of metoprolol. The intestinal epithelial permeability of labetalol was lower than that of metoprolol in Caco-2 cells at both apical pH 6.5 and 7.5 (5.96 ± 1.96 × 10(-6) vs 9.44 ± 3.44 × 10(-6) and 15.9 ± 2.2 × 10(-6) vs 23.2 ± 7.1 × 10(-6) cm/s, respectively). Labetalol exhibited higher permeability in basolateral to apical (BL-AP) compared to AP-BL direction in Caco-2 cells at 0.1 times the highest dose strength (HDS) (46.7 ± 6.5 × 10(-6) vs 14.2 ± 1.5 × 10(-6) cm/s). The P

    12. Comparison of the Permeability of Metoprolol and Labetalol in Rat, Mouse and Caco-2 Cells: Use as a Reference Standard for BCS Classification

      Science.gov (United States)

      Incecayir, Tuba; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L.

      2013-01-01

      The purpose of this study was to investigate labetalol as a potential high permeability reference standard for the application of Biopharmaceutics Classification Systems (BCS). Permeabilities of labetalol and metoprolol were investigated in animal intestinal perfusion models and Caco-2 cell monolayers. After isolating specific intestinal segments, in situ single-pass intestinal perfusions (SPIP) were performed in rats and mice. The effective permeabilities (Peff) of labetalol and metoprolol, an FDA standard for the low/high Peff class boundary, were investigated in two different segments of rat intestine (proximal jejunum and distal ileum), and in the proximal jejunum of mouse. No significant difference was found between Peff of metoprolol and labetalol in the jejunum and ileum of rat (0.33±0.11 ×10−4 vs. 0.38±0.06 ×10−4 and 0.57±0.17 ×10−4 vs. 0.64±0.30 ×10−4 cm/s, respectively) and in the jejunum of mouse (0.55±0.05 ×10−4 vs. 0.59±0.13 ×10−4 cm/s). However, Peff of metoprolol and labetalol were 1.7 and 1.6 times higher in the jejunum of mouse, compared to the jejunum of rat, respectively. Metoprolol and labetalol showed segmental dependent permeability through the rat intestine, with increased Peff in the distal ileum in comparison to the proximal jejunum. Most significantly, Peff of labetalol was found to be concentration dependent. Decreasing concentrations of labetalol in the perfusate resulted in decreased Peff compared to Peff of metoprolol. The intestinal epithelial permeability of labetalol was lower than that of metoprolol in Caco-2 cells at both apical pH 6.5 and 7.5 (5.96±1.96 ×10−6 vs. 9.44±3.44 ×10−6 and 15.9±2.2 ×10−6 vs. 23.2±7.1 ×10−6 cm/s, respectively). Labetalol exhibited higher permeability in basolateral to apical (BL-AP) compared to AP-BL direction in Caco-2 cells at 0.1 times the highest dose strength (HDS) (46.7±6.5 ×10−6 vs. 14.2±1.5 ×10−6 cm/s). The P-gp inhibitor, verapamil significantly

    13. Population-imbalanced lattice fermions near the BCS-BEC crossover: Thermal physics of the breached pair and Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phases

      Science.gov (United States)

      Karmakar, Madhuparna; Majumdar, Pinaki

      2016-05-01

      We study s -wave superconductivity in the two-dimensional attractive Hubbard model in an applied magnetic field, assume the extreme Pauli limit, and examine the role of spatial fluctuations in the coupling regime corresponding to BCS-BEC crossover. We use a decomposition of the interaction in terms of an auxiliary pairing field, retain the static mode, and sample the pairing field via a Monte Carlo approach. The method requires iterative solution of the Bogoliubov-de-Gennes equations for amplitude- and phase-fluctuating configurations of the pairing field. We establish the full thermal phase diagram of this strong-coupling problem. At low field we observe the magnetized but homogeneous "breached pair" superfluid phase. It reveals that Tc scales an order of magnitude below the mean-field estimate, spontaneous inhomogeneity in the field-induced magnetization, and a strong nonmonotonicity in the temperature dependence of the low-energy density of states. We compare our results to the experimental phase diagram of the imbalanced Fermi gas at unitarity. At higher field we obtain the modulated Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phases. The thermal transition from the FFLO phases to the normal state is strongly first order. We track the fermionic momentum distribution, the density of states, and the pairing structure factor deep into the normal state. The pairing structure factor retains weak signature of finite momentum pairing to a high temperature despite the low Tc itself, while the spin-resolved density of states changes from the "pseudogapped" FFLO character to gapless and pseudogapped again with increasing temperature.

    14. Shape Transition in Rare-Earth Nuclei in Relativistic Mean Field Theory

      OpenAIRE

      B K Agrawal; Sil, Tapas; Samaddar, S. K.; De, J. N.

      2000-01-01

      A systematic study of the temperature dependence of the shapes and pairing gaps of some isotopes in the rare-earth region is made in the relativistic Hartree-BCS theory. Thermal response to these nuclei is always found to lead to a phase transition from the superfluid to the normal phase at a temperature $T_{\\Delta}\\sim 0.4 - 0.8$ MeV and a shape transition from prolate to spherical shapes at $T_c\\sim 1.0 - 2.5$ MeV. These shape transition temperatures are appreciably higher than the correspo...

    15. Pairing and seniority in an equations-of-motion approach to nuclear structure theory

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Covello, A.; Andreozzi, F.; Gargano, A.; Porrino, A. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy))

      1990-01-01

      In this paper, some achievements of an equations-of-motion approach to nuclear structure theory are discussed. As an introduction to the main subject, a brief survey of some early work is given. We then describe a formalism for treating the pairing-force problem and show, by numerical appllications, that at the lowest order of approximation it provides an advantageous alternative to the BCS method. Finally, we discuss how to treat a general shell-model Hamiltonian within the framework of the seniority scheme. This makes it possible to further reduce seniority-truncated shell-model spaces, as is illustrated by examples. (orig.).

    16. Waltz's Theory of Theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Wæver, Ole

      2009-01-01

      Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and......-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of...

    17. Ring Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

      1988-01-01

      The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

    18. String theory

      OpenAIRE

      Marino Beiras, Marcos

      2001-01-01

      We give an overview of the relations between matrix models and string theory, focusing on topological string theory and the Dijkgraaf--Vafa correspondence. We discuss applications of this correspondence and its generalizations to supersymmetric gauge theory, enumerative geometry and mirror symmetry. We also present a brief overview of matrix quantum mechanical models in superstring theory.

    19. Effective shell model Hamiltonians from density functional theory: quadrupolar and pairing correlations

      CERN Document Server

      Rodriguez-Guzman, R; Bertsch, George F

      2007-01-01

      We describe a procedure for mapping a self-consistent mean-field theory (also known as density functional theory) into a shell model Hamiltonian that includes quadrupole-quadrupole and monopole pairing interactions in a truncated space. We test our method in the deformed N=Z sd-shell nuclei Ne-20, Mg-24 and Ar-36, starting from the Hartree-Fock plus BCS approximation of the USD shell model interaction. A similar procedure is then followed using the SLy4 Skyrme energy density functional in the particle-hole channel plus a zero-range density-dependent force in the pairing channel. Using the ground-state solution of this density functional theory at the Hartree-Fock plus BCS level, an effective shell model Hamiltonian is constructed. We use this mapped Hamiltonian to extract quadrupolar and pairing correlation energies beyond the mean field approximation. The rescaling of the mass quadrupole operator in the truncated shell model space is found to be almost independent of the coupling strength used in the pairing...

    20. Geographical Theories

      OpenAIRE

      Golledge, Reginald G.

      2001-01-01

      The emergence of geographical theory was an inevitable product of the desire to systematize existing geographic knowledge and to use that systematized base to explore new areas of knowledge. Although the usefulness of theory and predictive models in geography is by now a matter of record, it was not always the case. The usefulness and need for theories was often disputed, despite the oft-repeated argument that theories of location explained the laws of spatial distributions, theories of inter...

    1. String theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)

    2. Evaluation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the p53 Binding Protein 1 (TP53BP1) Gene in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole-Breast Irradiation (BCS + RT)

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Purpose: TP53BP1 is a key component of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of a known common single nucleotide polymorphism in this gene (rs560191) in patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation (BCS + RT). Methods and Materials: The population consisted of 176 premenopausal women treated with BCS + RT (median follow-up, 12 years). Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was processed by use of TaqMan assays. Each allele for rs560191 was either C or G, so each patient was therefore classified as CC, CG, or GG. Patients were grouped as GG if they were homozygous for the variant G allele or CC-CG if they carried at least one copy of the common C allele (CC or CG). Results: Of the 176 women, 124 (71%) were CC-CG and 52 (29%) were GG. The mean age was 44 years for GG vs. 38 years for CC-CG (p < 0.001). GG was more common in African-American women than white women (69% vs. 13%, p < 0.001) and more commonly estrogen receptor negative (70% vs. 49%, p = 0.02). There were no significant correlations of rs560191 with other critical variables. Despite the fact that GG patients were older, the 10-year rate of local relapses was higher (22% for GG vs. 12% for CC-CG, p = 0.04). Conclusions: This novel avenue of investigation of polymorphisms in radiation repair/response genes in patients treated with BCS + RT suggests a correlation to local relapse. Additional evaluation is needed to assess the biological and functional significance of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, and larger confirmatory validation studies will be required to determine the clinical implications.

    3. CUPRAC-BCS酶标仪法测定凉茶的抗氧化性%Determination of antioxidant activity of herbal tea by CUPRAC-BCS assay with microplate reader

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      何秋彤; 余以刚; 肖性龙; 吴聪俊; 李志波; 吴晖

      2011-01-01

      The reaction conditions and analytical parameters of the copper(II)reduction assay with bathocuproinedisulfonic acid disodium salt(BCS)as chelating agent(the CUPRAC-BCS assay)were optimized by the microplate reader.The best factors for analysis at 490nm were as followed:1mmol/L CuSO4,2mmol/L BCS,pH7.4 and reaction time 20min.The antioxidant capacities of 16 herbal tea samples were detected by this novel method.The results showed that CUPRAC-BCS assay was significantly correlated with total phenolic content,DPPH and Fe3+reducing power assay(P0.05 for all).The linear range of this method was between 0.1 ~ 0.5mmol/L Trolox equivalents,R2=0.9965.The results showed that CUPRAC-BCS was a fast,simple,suitable and high throughput method for antioxidant capacity assessment.%利用酶标仪对铜离子还原能力法Cu-BCS体系(CUPRAC-BCS法)的测定参数进行了优化,确定的检测条件为:CuSO4溶液浓度为1mmol/L、BCS溶液为2mmol/L、体系pH7.4、反应时间20min,490nm检测。应用新建立的"CUPRAC-BCS酶标仪法"对16组凉茶样品抗氧化性进行检测,结果表明该法的测定结果与总酚含量(TPC)、DPPH、Fe3+还原能力法的相关性均达到显著水平(P〈0.05)。此方法线性范围为0.1~0.5mmol/LTrolox当量,R2=0.9965,是一种快速、简

    4. Supergravity theories

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Of all supergravity theories, the maximal, i.e., N = 8 in 4-dimension or N = 1 in 11-dimension, theory should perform the unification since it owns the highest degree of symmetry. As to the N = 1 in d = 11 theory, it has been investigated how to compactify to the d = 4 theories. From the phenomenological point of view, local SUSY GUTs, i.e., N = 1 SUSY GUTs with soft breaking terms, have been studied from various angles. The structures of extended supergravity theories are less understood than those of N = 1 supergravity theories, and matter couplings in N = 2 extended supergravity theories are under investigation. The harmonic superspace was recently proposed which may be useful to investigate the quantum effects of extended supersymmetry and supergravity theories. As to the so-called Kaluza-Klein supergravity, there is another possibility. (Mori, K.)

    5. Handbook of high-temperature superconductivity theory and experiment

      CERN Document Server

      Brooks, James S

      2007-01-01

      Since the 1980s, a general theme in the study of high-temperature superconductors has been to test the BCS theory and its predictions against new data. At the same time, this process has engendered new physics, new materials, and new theoretical frameworks. Remarkable advances have occurred in sample quality and in single crystals, in hole and electron doping in the development of sister compounds with lower transition temperatures, and in instruments to probe structure and dynamics. Handbook of High-Temperature Superconductvity is a comprehensive and in-depth treatment of both experimental and theoretical methodologies by the the world's top leaders in the field. The Editor, Nobel Laureate J. Robert Schrieffer, and Associate Editor James S. Brooks, have produced a unified, coherent work providing a global view of high-temperature superconductivity covering the materials, the relationships with heavy-fermion and organic systems, and the many formidable challenges that remain.

    6. Agency Theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

      2015-01-01

      Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

    7. Agency Theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

      Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

    8. String theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This article is devoted to a nontechnical review on the present status of string theory towards an ultimate unification of all fundamental interactions including gravity. In particular, we emphasize the importance of string theory as a new theoretical framework in which the long-standing conflict between quantum theory and general relativity is resolved. (author)

    9. Packaging Theory.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Williams, Jeffrey

      1994-01-01

      Considers the recent flood of anthologies of literary criticism and theory as exemplifications of the confluence of pedagogical concerns, economics of publishing, and other historical factors. Looks specifically at how these anthologies present theory. Cites problems with their formatting theory and proposes alternative ways of organizing theory…

    10. Ring theory

      CERN Document Server

      Rowen, Louis H

      1991-01-01

      This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non

    11. Atomic theories

      CERN Document Server

      Loring, FH

      2014-01-01

      Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

    12. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

      2006-07-15

      From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

    13. Translating Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Jaques, Thomas

      2010-01-01

      Generative Linguistics can and should be engaged by those with an interest in Translation Studies while developing their own positions on literary theory in general, but translation theory in particular. Generative theory provides empirical evidence for a free, creative mind that can comprehend, read, speak and translate a language. What is being proposed here contrasts radically with the dominant position of this generation's Translation Studies specialists, who freely incorporate Post-struc...

    14. Viability Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

      2011-01-01

      Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

    15. Graph Theory

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

      2005-12-27

      Graph theory is a branch of discrete combinatorial mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The theory was pioneered by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 18th century, commenced its formal development during the second half of the 19th century, and has witnessed substantial growth during the last seventy years, with applications in areas as diverse as engineering, computer science, physics, sociology, chemistry and biology. Graph theory has also had a strong impact in computational linguistics by providing the foundations for the theory of features structures that has emerged as one of the most widely used frameworks for the representation of grammar formalisms.

    16. Elastoplasticity theory

      CERN Document Server

      Hashiguchi, Koichi

      2009-01-01

      This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..

    17. Galois Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Cox, David A

      2012-01-01

      Praise for the First Edition ". . .will certainly fascinate anyone interested in abstract algebra: a remarkable book!"—Monatshefte fur Mathematik Galois theory is one of the most established topics in mathematics, with historical roots that led to the development of many central concepts in modern algebra, including groups and fields. Covering classic applications of the theory, such as solvability by radicals, geometric constructions, and finite fields, Galois Theory, Second Edition delves into novel topics like Abel’s theory of Abelian equations, casus irreducibili, and the Galo

    18. Quantum Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Manning, Phillip

      2011-01-01

      The study of quantum theory allowed twentieth-century scientists to examine the world in a new way, one that was filled with uncertainties and probabilities. Further study also led to the development of lasers, the atomic bomb, and the computer. This exciting new book clearly explains quantum theory and its everyday uses in our world.

    19. Concept theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hjørland, Birger

      2009-01-01

      , evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

    20. Perturbation theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references

    1. Uncertainty theory

      CERN Document Server

      Liu, Baoding

      2015-01-01

      When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...

    2. Potential Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

      1988-01-01

      Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

    3. Field theory

      CERN Document Server

      Kleiss, Ronald H P

      1999-01-01

      In these lectures I will build up the concept of field theory using the language of Feynman diagrams. As a starting point, field theory in zero spacetime dimensions is used as a vehicle to develop all the necessary techniques: path integral, Feynman diagrams, Schwinger-Dyson equations, asymptotic series, effective action, renormalization etc. The theory is then extended to more dimensions, with emphasis on the combinatorial aspects of the diagrams rather than their particular mathematical structure. The concept of unitarity is used to, finally, arrive at the various Feynman rules in an actual, four-dimensional theory. The concept of gauge-invariance is developed, and the structure of a non-abelian gauge theory is discussed, again on the level of Feynman diagrams and Feynman rules.

    4. 32nd Annual Conference of the Gesellschaft für Klassifikation e.V., Joint Conference with the British Classification Society (BCS) and the Dutch/Flemish Classification Society (VOC), Helmut-Schmidt-University

      CERN Document Server

      Lausen, Berthold; Seidel, Wilfried; Ultsch, Alfred

      2010-01-01

      Data Analysis, Data Handling and Business Intelligence are research areas at the intersection of computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, and statistics. They cover general methods and techniques that can be applied to a vast set of applications such as in marketing, finance, economics, engineering, linguistics, archaeology, musicology, medical science, and biology. This volume contains the revised versions of selected papers presented during the 32nd Annual Conference of the German Classification Society (Gesellschaft für Klassifikation, GfKl). The conference, which was organized in cooperation with the British Classification Society (BCS) and the Dutch/Flemish Classification Society (VOC), was hosted by Helmut-Schmidt-University, Hamburg, Germany, in July 2008.

    5. In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

      2014-10-01

      Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product. PMID:24848760

    6. Quantum theory

      CERN Document Server

      Bohm, David

      1951-01-01

      This superb text by David Bohm, formerly Princeton University and Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at Birkbeck College, University of London, provides a formulation of the quantum theory in terms of qualitative and imaginative concepts that have evolved outside and beyond classical theory. Although it presents the main ideas of quantum theory essentially in nonmathematical terms, it follows these with a broad range of specific applications that are worked out in considerable mathematical detail. Addressed primarily to advanced undergraduate students, the text begins with a study of t

    7. Plasticity theory

      CERN Document Server

      Lubliner, Jacob

      2008-01-01

      The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

    8. Number theory

      CERN Document Server

      Andrews, George E

      1994-01-01

      Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

    9. Martingale Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Victor, Oluwafemi Oludu

      2015-01-01

      From ages to ages there had been expectation of individuals on a specific predictions and future occurrences. So also in a game, different participant that involves in those specified game have their various expectations of the results or the output of the game they are involved in. That is why we need a mathematical theory that helps in prediction of the future expectations in our day to day activities. Therefore the Martingale Theory is a very good theory that explains and dissects the expe...

    10. G.L. Amidon, H. Lennernas, V.P. Shah, and J.R. Crison. A theoretical basis for a biopharmaceutic drug classification: the correlation of in vitro drug product dissolution and in vivo bioavailability, Pharm Res 12, 413-420, 1995--backstory of BCS.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shah, Vinod P; Amidon, Gordon L

      2014-09-01

      The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has become widely accepted today in the academic, industrial, and regulatory world. While the initial application of the BCS was to regulatory science bioequivalence (BE) issues and related implications, it has come to be utilized widely by the pharmaceutical industry in drug discovery and development as well. This brief manuscript will relate the story of the BCS development. While much of the ground work for the BCS goes back to the pharmacokinetic and drug absorption research by Gordon Amidon (GLA) in the 1970s and 1980s, the realization of the need for a classification or categorization of drug and drug products for setting dissolution standards became apparent to GLA during his 1990-1991 sabbatical year at the FDA. Initiated at the invitation of the then CEDR director, Dr. Carl Peck, to become a visiting scientist at the FDA, the goal was to promote regulatory research at the FDA, in my case, in biopharmaceutics, and to develop a science-based system to simplify regulatory requirements. PMID:24961917

    11. [Nuclear theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This report discusses concepts in nuclear theory such as: neutrino nucleosynthesis; double beta decay; neutrino oscillations; chiral symmetry breaking; T invariance; quark propagator; cold fusion; and other related topics

    12. Model theory

      CERN Document Server

      Hodges, Wilfrid

      1993-01-01

      An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

    13. Continuity theory

      CERN Document Server

      Nel, Louis

      2016-01-01

      This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

    14. Plasma theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A series of lectures on plasma theory with the main headings: introduction; charged particles moving in em fields; the liquid model; transport phenomena in the plasma; wave propagation in plasmas; plasma instabilities. 57 figs. (qui)

    15. Graph theory

      CERN Document Server

      Gould, Ronald

      2012-01-01

      This introduction to graph theory focuses on well-established topics, covering primary techniques and including both algorithmic and theoretical problems. The algorithms are presented with a minimum of advanced data structures and programming details. This thoroughly corrected 1988 edition provides insights to computer scientists as well as advanced undergraduates and graduate students of topology, algebra, and matrix theory. Fundamental concepts and notation and elementary properties and operations are the first subjects, followed by examinations of paths and searching, trees, and networks. S

    16. Quantum Theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Murdin, P.

      2000-11-01

      A theory based on the premise that, on the microscopic scale, physical quantities have discrete, rather than a continuous range of, values. The theory was devised in the early part of the twentieth century to account for certain phenomena that could not be explained by classical physics. In 1900, the German physicist, Max Planck (1858-1947), was able precisely to describe the previously unexplaine...

    17. Effective theories of universal theories

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang

      2016-01-01

      It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably S and T parameters) are generally speaking only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. In the effective field theory (EFT) framework, the oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. We work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16 parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the h 3, hf f , hV V vertices, 3 parameters for hV V vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order y f 2 . All these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-independent way, allowing for consistent constraints on the universal theories parameter space from precision electroweak and Higgs data.

    18. Possibility Theory versus Probability Theory in Fuzzy Measure Theory

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Parul Agarwal

      2015-05-01

      Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare probability theory with possibility theory, and to use this comparison in comparing probability theory with fuzzy set theory. The best way of comparing probabilistic and possibilistic conceptualizations of uncertainty is to examine the two theories from a broader perspective. Such a perspective is offered by evidence theory, within which probability theory and possibility theory are recognized as special branches. While the various characteristic of possibility theory within the broader framework of evidence theory are expounded in this paper, we need to introduce their probabilistic counterparts to facilitate our discussion.

    19. Biocultural Theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Carroll, Joseph; Clasen, Mathias; Jonsson, Emelie;

      2015-01-01

      Biocultural theory is an integrative research program designed to investigate the causal interactions between biological adaptations and cultural constructions. From the biocultural perspective, cultural processes are rooted in the biological necessities of the human life cycle: specifically human...... ideological beliefs, and artistic practices such as music, dance, painting, and storytelling. Establishing biocultural theory as a program that self-consciously encompasses the different particular forms of human evolutionary research could help scholars and scientists envision their own specialized areas of...... research as contributions to a coherent, collective research program. This article argues that a mature biocultural paradigm needs to be informed by at least 7 major research clusters: (a) gene-culture coevolution; (b) human life history theory; (c) evolutionary social psychology; (d) anthropological...

    20. Application of SPCALC for chemical and thermodynamic speciation of fluids -example for wells LV-4A, LV-11 and LV-13, Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS; Aplicacion del SPCALC en la especiacion quimica y termodinamica de fluidos: ejemplo del caso de los pozos LV-4A, LV-11 y LV-13, del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Viggiano Guerra, J.C.; Sandoval Medina, F.; Flores Armenta, M.C. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.sandoval@cfe.gob.mx, E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx; Perez, R.J. [Universidad de Calgary (Canada); Gonzalez Partida, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Geociencias, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

      2009-01-15

      SPCALC is an excellent software application providing chemical and multi-phase speciation for geothermal fluids. Recently it was acquired by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) through a contract with the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the University of Calgary, Canada. Software methodology consists of calculating thermodynamic variables, such as activity (a) and fugacity (f) of chemical species, as well as the saturation indices (log Q/K) of mineral phases of the reservoir. In other words, it models the thermodynamic conditions of the reservoir (pH among other) and simulates the fluid-corrosion rate. This allows the software to foresee scaling and corrosion. In this paper, pervasive fluids in Cretaceous granitic rocks penetrated by wells LV-4A, LV-11 and LV-13 in Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, are modeled, starting with chemical analyses. The more important ratios among activities [those which influence the fluid-rock interaction (i.e. {sup a}K{sup +}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Ca{sup ++}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Na{sup +}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Mg{sup ++}/{sup a}H{sup +}) and whose results are the minerals visible under a microscope] are graphed in balance diagrams compatible with the pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions in the reservoir. Epidote (zoisite) is the mineral found in congruent equilibrium with the system. The main mineral association at those conditions (200-250 degrees Celsius and {approx}18 bar), as observed in the well cuttings, is calcite+illite-quartz{+-}epidote, which is explained by the hydrolithic reactions that form replacement calcite in the presence of CO{sub 2}, thus restricting the formation of epidote and eventually eliminating it. The process enhances the CO{sub 2} molarity in the residual fluid, even up to {sup m}CO{sub 2} 1, which means the CO{sub 2} can be diluted back into fluid and intervene again in the process of calcite formation (2HCO{sub 3}{sup -} + Ca{sup ++} = calcite + H{sub 2}O

    1. Galois theory

      CERN Document Server

      Stewart, Ian

      2003-01-01

      Ian Stewart's Galois Theory has been in print for 30 years. Resoundingly popular, it still serves its purpose exceedingly well. Yet mathematics education has changed considerably since 1973, when theory took precedence over examples, and the time has come to bring this presentation in line with more modern approaches.To this end, the story now begins with polynomials over the complex numbers, and the central quest is to understand when such polynomials have solutions that can be expressed by radicals. Reorganization of the material places the concrete before the abstract, thus motivating the g

    2. Quantum theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This textbook for students of physics is oriented in the selection of matter by the contents of a two-semester course about quantum theory. Thereby the foundations of quantum theory, among them the quantum-mechanical measurement process, the mathematical formalism, and Bell's inequalities, are extensively treated. Also modern concepts like feynman's path integral are regarded. This work is equally suited for a self-study, as course-accompanying lecture, and for preparations of examina. Application examples, supplementary explanations, and numerous illustration take car for a good understanding of the theoretical contents

    3. Effective theories of universal theories

      CERN Document Server

      Wells, James D

      2015-01-01

      It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably $S$ and $T$ parameters) are only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. In the effective field theory (EFT) framework, the oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. We work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16 parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the $h^3$, $hff$, $hVV$ vertices, 3 parameters for $hVV$ vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order $y_f^2$. All these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-indepen...

    4. Theory summary

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This is a summary of the advances in magnetic fusion energy theory research presented at the 17th International Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Energy Conference from 19 24 October, 1998 in Yokohama, Japan. Theory and simulation results from this conference provided encouraging evidence of significant progress in understanding the physics of thermonuclear plasmas. Indeed, the grand challenge for this field is to acquire the basic understanding that can readily enable the innovations which would make fusion energy practical. In this sense, research in fusion energy is increasingly able to be categorized as fitting well the 'Pasteur's Quadrant' paradigm, where the research strongly couples basic science ('Bohr's Quadrant') to technological impact ('Edison's Quadrant'). As supported by some of the work presented at this conference, this trend will be further enhanced by advanced simulations. Eventually, realistic three-dimensional modeling capabilities, when properly combined with rapid and complete data interpretation of results from both experiments and simulations, can contribute to a greatly enhanced cycle of understanding and innovation. Plasma science theory and simulation have provided reliable foundations for this improved modeling capability, and the exciting advances in high-performance computational resources have further accelerated progress. There were 68 papers presented at this conference in the area of magnetic fusion energy theory

    5. Theory U

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de; Statler, Matt

      2014-01-01

      The recent Carnegie report (Colby, et al., 2011) characterizes the goal of business education as the development of practical wisdom. In this chapter, the authors reframe Scharmer’s Theory U as an attempt to develop practical wisdom by applying certain European philosophical concepts. Specifically...

    6. Scattering theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Written by the author of the widely acclaimed textbook. Theoretical Atomic Physics Includes sections on quantum reflection, tunable Feshbach resonances and Efimov states. Useful for advanced students and researchers. This book presents a concise and modern coverage of scattering theory. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible, and deeper questions related to mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. The book should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. It is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.

    7. Combinatorial Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Hall, Marshall

      2011-01-01

      Includes proof of van der Waerden's 1926 conjecture on permanents, Wilson's theorem on asymptotic existence, and other developments in combinatorics since 1967. Also covers coding theory and its important connection with designs, problems of enumeration, and partition. Presents fundamentals in addition to latest advances, with illustrative problems at the end of each chapter. Enlarged appendixes include a longer list of block designs.

    8. Mapping Theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Smith, Shelley

      This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research p...

    9. Matching theory

      CERN Document Server

      Plummer, MD

      1986-01-01

      This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.

    10. Electricity Theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The text book composed of five parts, which are summary of this book, arrangement of electricity theory including electricity nad magnetism, a direct current, and alternating current. It has two dictionary electricity terms for a synonym. The last is an appendix. It is for preparing for test of officer, electricity engineer and fire fighting engineer.

    11. Gauge theories

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      An introduction to the unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is given. The ingredients of gauge theories and symmetries and conservation laws lead to discussion of local gauge invariance and QED, followed by weak interactions and quantum flavor dynamics. The construction of the standard SU(2)xU(1) model precedes discussion of the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions and weak neutral current couplings in this model. Presentation of spontaneous symmetry breaking and spontaneous breaking of a local symmetry leads to a spontaneous breaking scheme for the standard SU(2)xU(1) model. Consideration of quarks, leptons, masses and the Cabibbo angles, of the four quark and six quark models and CP violation lead finally to grand unification, followed by discussion of mixing angles in the Georgi-Glashow model, the Higgses of the SU(5) model and proton/ neutron decay in SU(5). (JIW)

    12. Elastoplasticity theory

      CERN Document Server

      Hashiguchi, Koichi

      2014-01-01

      This book was written to serve as the standard textbook of elastoplasticity for students, engineers and researchers in the field of applied mechanics. The present second edition is improved thoroughly from the first edition by selecting the standard theories from various formulations and models, which are required to study the essentials of elastoplasticity steadily and effectively and will remain universally in the history of elastoplasticity. It opens with an explanation of vector-tensor analysis and continuum mechanics as a foundation to study elastoplasticity theory, extending over various strain and stress tensors and their rates. Subsequently, constitutive equations of elastoplastic and viscoplastic deformations for monotonic, cyclic and non-proportional loading behavior in a general rate and their applications to metals and soils are described in detail, and constitutive equations of friction behavior between solids and its application to the prediction of stick-slip phenomena are delineated. In additi...

    13. Potential theory

      CERN Document Server

      Helms, Lester L

      2014-01-01

      Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

    14. Operator theory

      CERN Document Server

      2015-01-01

      A one-sentence definition of operator theory could be: The study of (linear) continuous operations between topological vector spaces, these being in general (but not exclusively) Fréchet, Banach, or Hilbert spaces (or their duals). Operator theory is thus a very wide field, with numerous facets, both applied and theoretical. There are deep connections with complex analysis, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and electrical engineering, to name a few. Fascinating new applications and directions regularly appear, such as operator spaces, free probability, and applications to Clifford analysis. In our choice of the sections, we tried to reflect this diversity. This is a dynamic ongoing project, and more sections are planned, to complete the picture. We hope you enjoy the reading, and profit from this endeavor.

    15. Communication theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

      2011-01-01

      ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school......Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...

    16. MOND theory

      OpenAIRE

      Milgrom, Mordehai

      2014-01-01

      A general account of MOND theory is given. I start with the basic tenets of MOND, which posit departure from standard dynamics in the limit of low acceleration -- below an acceleration constant a0 -- where dynamics become scale invariant. I list some of the salient predictions of these tenets. The special role of a0 and its significance are then discussed. In particular, I stress its coincidence with cosmologically relevant accelerations. The deep-MOND limit and the consequences of its scale ...

    17. Game theory

      CERN Document Server

      Petrosjan, L A

      1996-01-01

      Game theory is a branch of modern applied mathematics that aims to analyze various problems of conflict between parties that have opposed, similar or simply different interests.Games are grouped into several classes according to some important features. In this volume zero-sum two-person games, strategic n-person games in normal form, cooperative games, games in extensive form with complete and incomplete information, differential pursuit games and differential cooperative n-person games are considered.

    18. Scattering theory

      CERN Document Server

      Friedrich, Harald

      2016-01-01

      This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

    19. Finite-density phase diagram of a (1+1)-d non-abelian lattice gauge theory with tensor networks

      CERN Document Server

      Silvi, Pietro; Dalmonte, Marcello; Tschirsich, Ferdinand; Montangero, Simone

      2016-01-01

      We investigate the finite-density phase diagram of a non-abelian SU(2) lattice gauge theory, encoding Yang-Mills microscopical dynamics, in (1+1)-dimensions using tensor network methods. We numerically characterise the phase diagram as a function of the filling and of the matter-field coupling, individuating different phases, some of them appearing only at finite densities. At unit filling, we find a meson BCS liquid phase, which at strong coupling undergoes a phase transition to a charge density wave of single-site (spin-0) mesons via spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. At finite densities, the chiral symmetry is restored almost everywhere, and the meson BCS liquid becomes a simple liquid at strong couplings, with the exception of filling two-thirds, where a charge density wave of mesons spreading over neighbouring sites appears. Finally, we individuate two tri-critical points between the chiral and the two liquid phases which are compatible with a SU(2)$_2$ Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model.

    20. Residuation theory

      CERN Document Server

      Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

      1972-01-01

      Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

    1. Graph theory

      CERN Document Server

      Diestel, Reinhard

      2012-01-01

      HauptbeschreibungThis standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fourth edition, combinesthe authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmarkof active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yetreliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methodsin each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail.The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduatetext, and for self-study. Rezension"Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the

    2. Circuit theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This book is divided into fourteen chapters, which deals with circuit theory of basis, sinusoidal alternating current on cycle and frequency, basics current circuit about R.L, C circuit and resonant circuit, current power, general linear circuit, inductive coupling circuit and vector locus on an alternating current bridge and mutual inductance and coupling coefficient, multiphase alternating current and method of symmetrical coordinates, non-sinusoidal alternating current, two terminal network, four terminal network, transient of circuits, distributed line circuit constant, frequency characteristic and a filter and Laplace transformation.

    3. Options theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

    4. Sustainablegrowth theories

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      With reference to highly debated sustainable growth strategies to counter pressing interrelated global environmental and socio-economic problems, this paper reviews economic and resource development theories proposed by classical and neoclassical economists. The review evidences the growing debate among public administration decision makers regarding appropriate methods to assess the worth of natural resources and ecosystems. Proposed methods tend to be biased either towards environmental protection or economic development. Two major difficulties in the effective implementation of sustainable growth strategies are also evidenced - the management of such strategies would require appropriate revisions to national accounting systems, and the dynamic flow of energy and materials between an economic system and the environment would generate a sequence of unstable structures evolving in a chaotic and unpredictable way

    5. Number Theories

      CERN Document Server

      St-Amant, Patrick

      2010-01-01

      We will see that key concepts of number theory can be defined for arbitrary operations. We give a generalized distributivity for hyperoperations (usual arithmetic operations and operations going beyond exponentiation) and a generalization of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic for hyperoperations. We also give a generalized definition of the prime numbers that are associated to an arbitrary n-ary operation and take a few steps toward the development of its modulo arithmetic by investigating a generalized form of Fermat's little theorem. Those constructions give an interesting way to interpret diophantine equations and we will see that the uniqueness of factorization under an arbitrary operation can be linked with the Riemann zeta function. This language of generalized primes and composites can be used to restate and extend certain problems such as the Goldbach conjecture.

    6. Graph theory

      CERN Document Server

      Diestel, Reinhard

      2000-01-01

      This book is a concise, yet carefully written, introduction to modern graph theory, covering all its major recent developments. It can be used both as a reliable textbook for an introductory course and as a graduate text: on each topic it covers all the basic material in full detail, and adds one or two deeper results (again with detailed proofs) to illustrate the more advanced methods of that field. This second edition extends the first in two ways. It offers a thoroughly revised and updated chapter on graph minors, which now includes full new proofs of two of the central Robertson-Seymour theorems (as well as a detailed sketch of the entire proof of their celebrated Graph Minor Theorem). Second, there is now a section of hints for all the exercises, to enhance their value for both individual study and classroom use.

    7. Ordinal Recursion Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Chong, Chi Tat; Friedman, Sy D.

      1996-01-01

      In this article, intended for the Handbook of Recursion Theory, we survey recursion theory on the ordinal numbers, with sections devoted to $\\alpha$-recursion theory, $\\beta$-recursion theory and the study of the admissibility spectrum.

    8. What is String Theory?

      OpenAIRE

      Polchinski, Joseph

      1994-01-01

      The first part is an introduction to conformal field theory and string perturbation theory. The second part deals with the search for a deeper answer to the question posed in the title. Contents: 1. Conformal Field Theory 2. String Theory 3. Vacua and Dualities 4. String Field Theory or Not String Field Theory 5. Matrix Models

    9. Capacidad de carga turÍstica como base para el manejo sustentable de actividades ecoturísticas en Unidades de Manejo Ambiental (UMA de Baja California Sur (BCS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Reyna Ibañez Pérez

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Existen zonas ejidales con UMA ́s, que desean incursionar en el turismo alternativo; tal es el caso del Nuevo Centro Poblacional Ejidal (NCPE, Ley Federal de Aguas Número 3, que se extiende a tres municipios de Baja California Sur (BCS, posee una UMA y se destaca por buscar opciones para reactivar su economía. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un estudio de Capacidad de Carga Turística (CCT, realizada en dos senderos de ese ejido, mediante la aplicación de la metodología de Cifuentes, que busca establecer el número máximo de visitas que puede recibir un área con base en sus condiciones físicas, biológicas y de manejo; cuya estimación, requirió de la revisión de censos de flora y fauna, de información geológica, climatológica, geográfica, ambiental, social, económica, turística, así como trabajo de campo. Los resultados indican que, en el NCPE, Ley Federal de Aguas Número 3, existen dos senderos con potencialidad turística para los cuales, se ha estimado una Capacidad de Carga Efectiva (CCE de 18 visitantes/día para el sendero del arroyo El Camarón y de 10 visitantes/día sendero del arroyo El Saucito. Las cifras anteriores, son un referente para el establecimiento de medidas de control de las visitas en ambos senderos

    10. Determining the polymer threshold amount for achieving robust drug release from HPMC and HPC matrix tablets containing a high-dose BCS class I model drug: in vitro and in vivo studies.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Klančar, Uroš; Baumgartner, Saša; Legen, Igor; Smrdel, Polona; Kampuš, Nataša Jeraj; Krajcar, Dejan; Markun, Boštjan; Kočevar, Klemen

      2015-04-01

      It is challenging to achieve mechanically robust drug-release profiles from hydrophilic matrices containing a high dose of a drug with good solubility. However, a mechanically robust drug release over prolonged period of time can be achieved, especially if the viscosity and amount of the polymer is sufficiently high, above the "threshold values." The goal of this research was to determine the hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer threshold amount that would enable robust drug release from matrix tablets containing a high dose of levetiracetam as a class I model drug according to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). For this purpose, formulations containing HPC or HPMC of similar viscosity range, but in different amounts, were prepared. Based on the dissolution results, two final formulations were selected for additional in vitro and in vivo evaluation to confirm the robustness and to show bioequivalence. Tablets were exposed to various stress conditions in vitro with the use of different mechanically stress-inducing dissolution methods. The in vitro results were compared with in vivo results obtained from fasted and fed bioequivalence studies. Under both conditions, the formulations were bioequivalent and food had a negligible influence on the pharmacokinetic parameters C max and area under the curve (AUC). It was concluded that the drug release from both selected formulations is mechanically robust and that HPC and HPMC polymers with intrinsic viscosities above 9 dL/g and in quantities above 30% enable good mechanical resistance, which ensures bioequivalence. In addition, HPC matrices were found to be more mechanically robust compared to HPMC. PMID:25331194

    11. Rate theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This chapter presents the basic principles of cluster dynamics as a particular case of mesoscopic rate theory models developed to investigate fuel behaviour under irradiation such as in UO2. It is shown that as this method simulates the evolution of the concentration of every type of point or aggregated defect in a grain of material. It produces rich information that sheds light on the mechanisms involved in microstructure evolution and gas behaviour that are not accessible through conventional models but yet can provide for improvements in those models. Cluster dynamics parameters are mainly the energetic values governing the basic evolution mechanisms of the material (diffusion, trapping and thermal resolution). In this sense, the model has a general applicability to very different operational situations (irradiation, ion-beam implantation, annealing) provided that they rely on the same basic mechanisms, without requiring additional data fitting, as is required for more empirical conventional models. This technique, when applied to krypton implanted and annealed samples, yields a precise interpretation of the release curves and helps assess migration mechanisms and the krypton diffusion coefficient, for which data is very difficult to obtain due to the low solubility of the gas. (authors)

    12. Mesonic states in the generalised Nambu-Jona-Lasinio theories

      CERN Document Server

      Nefediev, A V

      2004-01-01

      For any Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of QCD with arbitrary nonlocal, instantaneous, quark current-current confining kernels, we use a generalised Bogoliubov technique to go beyond BCS level (in the large-Nc limit) so as to explicitly build quark-antiquark compound operators for creating/annihilating mesons. In the Hamiltonian approach, the mesonic bound-state equations appear (from the generalised Bogoliubov transformation) as mass-gap-like equations which, in turn, ensure the absence, in the Hamiltonian, of mesonic Bogoliubov anomalous terms. We go further to demonstrate the one-to-one correspondence between Hamiltonian and Bethe-Salpeter approaches to non-local NJL-type models for QCD and give the corresponding "dictionary" necessary to "translate" the amplitudes built using the graphical Feynman rules to the terms of the Hamiltonian, and vice versa. We comment on the problem of multiple vacua existence in such type of models and argue that mesonic states in the theory should be prescribed to have an extra inde...

    13. A quantized adiabatic time dependent mean field theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Usually collective motion of the nucleus is essentially governed by a few dynamical parameters q like e.g. elongation necking etc. in case of fission. Microscopic approaches often aim to calculate, outgoing from the motion of the single nucleons, the Hamiltonian for the collective motion. To this end they use as a basic ingredient the collective path which is a set of Slater-determinants or BCS states, representing the various shapes of the system during the collective motion. In practice, the choice bears much arbitrariness in guessing the evolution of the collective deformation. It is therefore highly desirable to have a theory which extracts the collective path from a proper equation of motion rather than imposing it on the system. Such equations for the optimal collective path are derived by requiring slow motion and by defining collective coordinates by means of minimizing the coupling term. Assuming the collective path to consist out of Slater determinants this amounts to an adiabatic expansion of the TDHF equations and finally leads to a differential equation for the path. (orig./AH)

    14. Theory of novel normal and superconducting states in doped oxide high-Tc superconductors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A consistent and complete theory of the novel normal and superconducting (SC) states of doped high-Tc superconductors (HTSC) is developed by combining the continuum model of carrier self-trapping, the tight-binding model and the novel Fermi-Bose-liquid (FBL) model. The ground-state energy of carriers in lightly doped HTSC is calculated within the continuum model and adiabatic approximation using the variational method. The destruction of the long-range antiferromagnetic (AF) order at low doping x≥ xcl≅0.015, the formation of the in-gap states or bands and novel (bi)polaronic insulating phases at xc2≅0.06-0.08, and the new metal- insulator transition at x≅xc2 in HTSC are studied within the continuum model of impurity (defect) centers and large (bi)polarons by using the appropriate tight-binding approximations. It is found that the three-dimensional (3d) large (bi)polarons are formed at ε∞/ε0≤0.1 and become itinerant when the (bi)polaronic insulator-to-(bi)polaronic metal transitions occur at x xc2. We show that the novel pseudogapped metallic and SC states in HTSC are formed at xc2≤x≤xp≅0.20-0.24. We demonstrate that the large polaronic and small BCS-like pairing pseudogaps opening in the excitation spectrum of underdoped (xc2BCS=0.125), optimally doped (xBCSo≅0.20) and overdoped (x>xo) HTSC above Tc are unrelated to superconductivity and they are responsible for the observed anomalous optical, transport, magnetic and other properties of these HTSC. We develop the original two-stage FBL model of novel superconductivity describing the combined novel BCS-like pairing scenario of fermions and true superfluid (SF) condensation scenario of composite bosons (i.e. bipolarons and cooperons) in any Fermi-systems, where the SF condensate gap ΔB and the BCS-like pairing pseudogap ΔF have different origins. The pair and single particle condensations of attracting 3d and two- dimensional (2d) composite bosons are responsible for the observed second- and

    15. THEORIES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sorin Nicolae BORLEA

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major objective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at resource dependence theory, transaction cost theory and political theory. Later, to these theories was added ethics theory, information asymmetry theory or the theory of efficient markets. These theories are defined based on the causes and effects of variables such as: the configuration of the board of directors, audit committee, independence of managers, the role of top management and their social relations beyond the legal regulatory framework. Effective corporate governance requires applying a combination

    16. BCS Glossary of Computing and ICT

      CERN Document Server

      Panel, BCS Education and Training Expert; Burkhardt, Diana; Cumming, Aline; Hunter, Alan; Hurvid, Frank; Jaworski, John; Ng, Thomas; Scheer, Marianne; Southall, John; Vella, Alfred

      2008-01-01

      A glossary of computing designed to support those taking computer courses or courses where computers are used, including GCSE, A-Level, ECDL and 14-19 Diplomas in Functional Skills, in schools and Further Education colleges. It helps the reader build up knowledge and understanding of computing.

    17. Relativistic mean field theory with density dependent coupling constants for nuclear matter and finite nuclei with large charge asymmetry

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H. [Sektion Physik, Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

      1998-06-01

      Nuclear matter and ground state properties for (proton and neutron) semi-closed shell nuclei are described in relativistic mean field theory with coupling constants which depend on the vector density. The parametrization of the density dependence for {sigma}-, {omega}- and {rho}-mesons is obtained by fitting to properties of nuclear matter and some finite nuclei. The equation of state for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. Finite nuclei are described in Hartree approximation, including a charge and an improved center-of-mass correction. Pairing is considered in the BCS approximation. Special attention is directed to the predictions for properties at the neutron and proton driplines, e.g. for separation energies, spin-orbit splittings and density distributions. (orig.)

    18. Theory and Vocational Education.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Swanson, Gordon I.

      1988-01-01

      The search for an explanation of day-to-day problems is the appropriate framework for describing theory. Theory and research have reciprocal relationships: Theory gives direction to research and research refines theory. Vocational education occurs in the context of many theoretical frames. Understanding this theory relatedness is important to…

    19. Copter: Cosmological perturbation theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Carlson, Jordan

      2013-04-01

      Copter is a software package for doing calculations in cosmological perturbation theory. Specifically, Copter includes code for computing statistical observables in the large-scale structure of matter using various forms of perturbation theory, including linear theory, standard perturbation theory, renormalized perturbation theory, and many others. Copter is written in C++ and makes use of the Boost C++ library headers.

    20. String theory: an update

      OpenAIRE

      de Boer, Jan

      2002-01-01

      An overview of some of the developments in string theory over the past two years is given, focusing on four topics: realistic (standard model like) models from string theory, geometric engineering and theories with fluxes, the gauge theory-gravity correspondence, and time dependent backgrounds and string theory. Plenary talk at ICHEP'02, Amsterdam, July 24-31, 2002.

    1. K-theory and representation theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This contribution includes K-theory of orders, group-rings and modules over EI categories, equivariant higher algebraic K-theory for finite, profinite and compact Lie group actions together with their relative generalisations and applications

    2. Intuitionistic fixed point theories over set theories

      OpenAIRE

      Arai, Toshiyau

      2013-01-01

      In this paper we show that the intuitionistic fixed point theory FiX^{i}(X) over set theories T is a conservative extension of T if T can manipulate finite sequences and has the full foundation schema.

    3. Decidability of formal theories and hyperincursivity theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Grappone, Arturo G.

      2000-05-01

      This paper shows the limits of the Proof Standard Theory (briefly, PST) and gives some ideas of how to build a proof anticipatory theory (briefly, PAT) that has no such limits. Also, this paper considers that Gödel's proof of the undecidability of Principia Mathematica formal theory is not valid for axiomatic theories that use a PAT to build their proofs because the (hyper)incursive functions are self-representable.

    4. Euclidean Field Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Guerra, Francesco

      2005-01-01

      A coincise review about Euclidean (Quantum) Field Theory is presented. It deals with the general structural properties, the connections with Quantum Field Theory, the exploitation in Constructive Quantum Field Theory, and the physical interpretation.

    5. Decoding the architectural theory

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Gu Mengchao

      2008-01-01

      Starting from the illustration of the definition and concept of the architectural theory, the author established his unique understanding about the framework of the architectural theory and the innovation of the architectural theory underlined by Chinese characteristics.

    6. Review of Hydroelasticity Theories

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Chen, Xu-jun; Wu, You-sheng; Cui, Wei-cheng;

      2006-01-01

      Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two-dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS)......) are reviewed and discussed in details. Special emphasis is placed on papers from China and Japan (in native languages) as these papers are not generally publicly known in the rest of the world....

    7. THEORIES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

      OpenAIRE

      Sorin Nicolae BORLEA; Monica-Violeta ACHIM

      2013-01-01

      This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major objective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at re...

    8. Foundations for a theory of gravitation theories

      Science.gov (United States)

      Thorne, K. S.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.

      1972-01-01

      A foundation is laid for future analyses of gravitation theories. This foundation is applicable to any theory formulated in terms of geometric objects defined on a 4-dimensional spacetime manifold. The foundation consists of (1) a glossary of fundamental concepts; (2) a theorem that delineates the overlap between Lagrangian-based theories and metric theories; (3) a conjecture (due to Schiff) that the Weak Equivalence Principle implies the Einstein Equivalence Principle; and (4) a plausibility argument supporting this conjecture for the special case of relativistic, Lagrangian-based theories.

    9. Supersymmetric Gauge Theories from String Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Metzger, Steffen

      2005-01-01

      The subject of this thesis are various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain subcycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. In particular, the low energy effective superpotential...

    10. New Trade Theory Takes Over Monetary Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Gani, M.

      2004-01-01

      Prevailing trade theory is a neglected stepchild of economics. Micro rejects the sole reason for trade’s occurrence. It declares zero profit in equilibrium. Monetary theory and macroeconomics dismiss concerns of trade financing. They assert that money has nothing to do with traded output, but everything to do with storing value. But now a new trade theory takes over monetary theory, by reducing money into a mere tool of trade, as just a means of payment. It takes over theory of exchange, abol...

    11. Elementary particle theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references

    12. Local homotopy theory

      CERN Document Server

      Jardine, John F

      2015-01-01

      This monograph on the homotopy theory of topologized diagrams of spaces and spectra gives an expert account of a subject at the foundation of motivic homotopy theory and the theory of topological modular forms in stable homotopy theory. Beginning with an introduction to the homotopy theory of simplicial sets and topos theory, the book covers core topics such as the unstable homotopy theory of simplicial presheaves and sheaves, localized theories, cocycles, descent theory, non-abelian cohomology, stacks, and local stable homotopy theory. A detailed treatment of the formalism of the subject is interwoven with explanations of the motivation, development, and nuances of ideas and results. The coherence of the abstract theory is elucidated through the use of widely applicable tools, such as Barr's theorem on Boolean localization, model structures on the category of simplicial presheaves on a site, and cocycle categories. A wealth of concrete examples convey the vitality and importance of the subject in topology, n...

    13. Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      J. Nicolas Kaufmann

      1998-06-01

      Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.

    14. Game theory in philosophy

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      de Bruin, B.P.

      2005-01-01

      Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals

    15. Descriptive set theory

      CERN Document Server

      Moschovakis, YN

      1987-01-01

      Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

    16. Game Theory: 5 Questions

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hendricks, Vincent F.

      Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

    17. Quantum Game Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Lassig, Michael

      2011-01-01

      A systematic theory is introduced that describes stochastic effects in game theory. In a biological context, such effects are relevant for the evolution of finite populations with frequency-dependent selection. They are characterized by quantum Nash equilibria, a generalization of the well-known Nash equilibrium points in classical game theory. The implications of this theory for biological systems are discussed in detail.

    18. A theory of everything?

      CERN Multimedia

      't Hooft, Gerardus; Witten, Edward

      2005-01-01

      In his later years, Einstein sought a unified theory that would extend general relativity and provide an alternative to quantum theory. There is now talk of a "theory of everything"; fifty years after his death, how close are we to such a theory? (3 pages)

    19. Lattice String Field Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Bursa, Francis; Kroyter, Michael

      2010-01-01

      String field theory is a candidate for a full non-perturbative definition of string theory. We aim to define string field theory on a space-time lattice to investigate its behaviour at the quantum level. Specifically, we look at string field theory in a one dimensional linear dilaton background. We report the first results of our simulations.

    20. An Invitation to Theory

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      梁景宏

      2010-01-01

      In this essay, I wish to invite young scholars to learn, use, and contribute to accounting theory. In this invitation, I argue theory has lineage, is important and can be fun. Its lineage comes from the post-WWII scientific revolution in management education and research. Theory is important because it is the successful interaction between theory and empirical work that ultimately advances an academic discipline. Theory can be fun because when done well, learning, using and contributing to theory can be an enjoyable activity for all scholars, either as consumers or as producers of theory.

    1. String theory for dummies

      CERN Document Server

      Zimmerman Jones, Andrew

      2010-01-01

      Making Everything Easier!. String Theory for Dummies. Learn:. The basic concepts of this controversial theory;. How string theory builds on physics concepts;. The different viewpoints in the field;. String theory's physical implications. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Physics Guide, About.com. with Daniel Robbins, PhD in Physics. Your plain-English guide to this complex scientific theory. String theory is one of the most complicated sciences being explored today. Not to worry though! This informative guide clearly explains the basics of this hot topic, discusses the theory's hypotheses and prediction

    2. Quantum Theory is an Information Theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      D'Ariano, Giacomo M.; Perinotti, Paolo

      2016-03-01

      In this paper we review the general framework of operational probabilistic theories (OPT), along with the six axioms from which quantum theory can be derived. We argue that the OPT framework along with a relaxed version of five of the axioms, define a general information theory. We close the paper with considerations about the role of the observer in an OPT, and the interpretation of the von Neumann postulate and the Schrödinger-cat paradox.

    3. Introduction to game theory

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2003-01-01

      The basic ideas of game theory were originated from the problems of maximum and minimum given by J.Yon Neumann in 1928. Later, wars accelerated the study of game theory, there are many developments that contributed to the advancement of game theory, many problems of optimum appeared in economic development process. Scientists applied mathematic methods to studying game theory to make the theory more profound and perfect. The axiomatic structure of game theory was nearly complete in 1944. The path of the development of game theory started from finite to infinite, from two players to many players, from expressing gains with quantity to showing the ending of game theory with abstract result, and from certainty problems to random problems. Thus development of game theory is closely related to the economic development. In recent years, the research on the non-differentiability of Shapley value posed by Belgian Mertens is one of the advanced studies in game theory.

    4. Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S4 - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)

    5. Nonrelativistic closed string theory

      OpenAIRE

      Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi

      2001-01-01

      We construct a Galilean invariant nongravitational closed string theory whose excitations satisfy a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. This theory can be obtained by taking a consistent low energy limit of any of the conventional string theories, including the heterotic string. We give a finite first order worldsheet Hamiltonian for this theory and show that this string theory has a sensible perturbative expansion, interesting high energy behavior of scattering amplitudes and a Hagedorn tra...

    6. Why string theory?

      CERN Document Server

      Conlon, Joseph

      2016-01-01

      Is string theory a fraud or one of the great scientific advances? Why do so many physicists work on string theory if it cannot be tested? This book provides insight into why such a theory, with little direct experimental support, plays such a prominent role in theoretical physics. The book gives a modern and accurate account of string theory and science, explaining what string theory is, why it is regarded as so promising, and why it is hard to test.

    7. Grounded Theory approach

      OpenAIRE

      Ali Rabbani Khorasghani; Mohammad Abbaszadeh

      2010-01-01

      AbstractAccording to social changes in global level, social scientist introduced new theories to explanation of socialphenomena. According to appearance new theories, research methods have changed. The Idea is that,Simultaneity with Appearance post positivist theories, research approaches such a grounded theory hasestablished. This method, acts in the base of qualitative methods and use systematic complex of multipleProcedures to gathering data for theory development upon induction. This meth...

    8. Uniformly hyperbolic control theory

      OpenAIRE

      Kawan, Christoph

      2015-01-01

      This paper gives a summary of a body of work at the intersection of control theory and smooth nonlinear dynamics. The main idea is to transfer the concept of uniform hyperbolicity, central to the theory of smooth dynamical systems, to control-affine systems. Combining the strength of geometric control theory and the hyperbolic theory of dynamical systems, it is possible to deduce control-theoretic results of non-local nature that reveal remarkable analogies to the classical hyperbolic theory ...

    9. Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication

      Science.gov (United States)

      Noland, Carey

      2014-01-01

      The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…

    10. Elements of a theory of algebraic theories

      OpenAIRE

      Hyland, Martin

      2013-01-01

      Kleisli bicategories are a natural environment in which the combinatorics involved in various notions of algebraic theory can be handled in a uniform way. The setting allows a clear account of comparisons between such notions. Algebraic theories, symmetric operads and nonsymmetric operads are treated as examples.

    11. [Topics in field theory and string theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In the past year, I have continued to investigate the relations between conformal field theories and lattice statistical mechanical models. I have also tried to extend some of these results to higher dimensions and to find applications in string theories and other contexts

    12. Generalizability theory and item response theory

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Glas, C.A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

      2012-01-01

      Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a s

    13. Neo-newtonian theories

      CERN Document Server

      Fabris, J C

      2015-01-01

      General Relativity is the modern theory of gravitation. It has replaced the newtonian theory in the description of the gravitational phenomena. In spite of the remarkable success of the General Relativity Theory, the newtonian gravitational theory is still largely employed, since General Relativity, in most of the cases, just makes very small corrections to the newtonian predictions. Moreover, the newtonian theory is much simpler, technically and conceptually, when compared to the relativistic theory. In this text, we discuss the possibility of extending the traditional newtonian theory in order to incorporate typical relativistic effects, but keeping the simplicity of the newtonian framework. We denominate these extensions neo-newtonian theories. These theories are discussed mainly in the contexts of cosmology and compact astrophysical objects.

    14. Grounded Theory approach

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ali Rabbani Khorasghani

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available AbstractAccording to social changes in global level, social scientist introduced new theories to explanation of socialphenomena. According to appearance new theories, research methods have changed. The Idea is that,Simultaneity with Appearance post positivist theories, research approaches such a grounded theory hasestablished. This method, acts in the base of qualitative methods and use systematic complex of multipleProcedures to gathering data for theory development upon induction. This method with characteristics as ifflexibility, reflexivity, has caused many of researchers used it. In the present article, we paid to introductionof grounded theory and its critics.

    15. Nursing concepts and theories

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Regina Szylit Bousso

      2014-02-01

      Full Text Available The theory framework of nursing science is built in a dynamic process that arises from practice and is reproduced through research, mainly by analysis and development of concepts and theories. This study presents a theory reflection on nursing knowledge construction and points out subsidies for future studies in the area. The interrelation among theory, research, and clinical practice is required for continuous development of nursing as a profession and science. Ideally, the practice must be based on theory that is validated by research. Therefore, theory, research, and practice affect each other reciprocally and continuously.

    16. Supersymmetric gauge theories from string theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This thesis presents various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain sub-cycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. Even if the Calabi-Yau geometry is too complicated to evaluate the geometric integrals explicitly, one can then always use matrix model perturbation theory to calculate the effective superpotential. The second part of this work covers the generation of four-dimensional super-symmetric gauge theories, carrying several important characteristic features of the standard model, from compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity on G2-manifolds. If the latter contain conical singularities, chiral fermions are present in the four-dimensional gauge theory, which potentially lead to anomalies. We show that, locally at each singularity, these anomalies are cancelled by the non-invariance of the classical action through a mechanism called 'anomaly inflow'. Unfortunately, no explicit metric of a compact G2-manifold is known. Here we construct families of metrics on compact weak G2-manifolds, which contain two conical singularities. Weak G2-manifolds have properties that are similar to the ones of proper G2-manifolds, and hence the explicit examples might be useful to better understand the generic situation. Finally, we reconsider the relation between eleven-dimensional supergravity and the E8 x E8-heterotic string. This is done by carefully studying the anomalies that appear if the supergravity theory is formulated on a ten-manifold times the interval. Again we find that the anomalies cancel locally at the boundaries of the interval through anomaly inflow, provided one suitably modifies the classical action. (author)

    17. Introduction to percolation theory

      CERN Document Server

      Stauffer, Dietrich

      1991-01-01

      Percolation theory deals with clustering, criticallity, diffusion, fractals, phase transitions and disordered systems. This book covers the basic theory for the graduate, and also professionals dealing with it for the first time

    18. Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced

    19. Making HCI Theory Work

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Clemmensen, Torkil; Kaptelinin, Victor; Nardi, Bonnie

      2016-01-01

      This paper reports a study of the use of activity theory in human–computer interaction (HCI) research. We analyse activity theory in HCI since its first appearance about 25 years ago. Through an analysis and meta-synthesis of 109 selected HCI activity theory papers, we created a taxonomy of 5...... different ways of using activity theory: (1) analysing unique features, principles, and problematic aspects of the theory; (2) identifying domain-specific requirements for new theoretical tools; (3) developing new conceptual accounts of issues in the field of HCI; (4) guiding and supporting empirical...... analyses of HCI phenomena; and (5) providing new design illustrations, claims, and guidelines. We conclude that HCI researchers are not only users of imported theory, but also theory-makers who adapt and develop theory for different purposes....

    20. Combinatorics and field theory

      OpenAIRE

      Bender, Carl M.; Brody, Dorje C.; Meister, Bernhard K.

      2006-01-01

      For any given sequence of integers there exists a quantum field theory whose Feynman rules produce that sequence. An example is illustrated for the Stirling numbers. The method employed here offers a new direction in combinatorics and graph theory.

    1. Basic analytic number theory

      OpenAIRE

      Farmer, David W.

      2004-01-01

      Comment: 11 pages, to appear in the proceedings of the school ``Recent Perspectives in Random Matrix Theory and Number Theory'' held at the Isaac Newton Institute, April 2004. Added appendix on big-O and

    2. Theory of calorimetry

      CERN Document Server

      Zielenkiewicz, Wojciech

      2004-01-01

      The purpose of this book is to give a comprehensive description of the theoretical fundamentals of calorimetry. The considerations are based on the relations deduced from the laws and general equations of heat exchange theory and steering theory.

    3. Theories of Career Development. A Comparison of the Theories.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Osipow, Samuel H.

      These seven theories of career development are examined in previous chapters: (1) Roe's personality theory, (2) Holland's career typology theory, (3) the Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrod, and Herma Theory, (4) psychoanalytic conceptions, (5) Super's developmental self-concept theory, (6) other personality theories, and (7) social systems theories.…

    4. Quantum algorithmic information theory

      OpenAIRE

      Svozil, Karl

      1995-01-01

      The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...

    5. Topological field theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We begin with a general discussion of topological field theories, their defining properties, and classification. The first model we consider in detail (section 3) is supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Topological sigma models, their observables, and the associated mathematics of complex geometry and intersection theory are presented in section 4. Following this, topological gauge theories are discussed in section 5, with particular emphasis on Donaldson theory. The matematics here is necessarily much more sophisticated than at any other point in this report, and to bridge this gap, a mathematical review of gauge theory and moduli spaces has been included. An analysis of the geometry underlying Donaldson theory gives a general recipe for constructing field theories associated to moduli spaces in arbitrary dimensions, and as an example, we analyze in detail the super BF theories associated with flat connections. Chern-Simons theory and related BF models are the subject of section 6. The connections with knot theory are briefly reviewed and the link with 2D conformal field theory is sketched. We also consider 3D gravity from the Chern-Simons point of view. A presentation of the metric and gauge theory approaches to topological gravity in two dimensions is given. As in all quantum field theories, the issues of renormalization needs to be addressed, and one is obliged to show that the formal topological properties of these theories survive quantization. This point is considered in section 8. We present a detailed analysis of the beta function in certain Witten type theories, and compute one-loop effects in Chern-Simons theory. (orig./HSI)

    6. Topological field theory

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Birmingham, D. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.); Blau, M. (CNRS, 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique NIKHEF-H, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Rakowski, M.; Thompson, G. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik)

      1991-12-01

      We begin with a general discussion of topological field theories, their defining properties, and classification. The first model we consider in detail (section 3) is supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Topological sigma models, their observables, and the associated mathematics of complex geometry and intersection theory are presented in section 4. Following this, topological gauge theories are discussed in section 5, with particular emphasis on Donaldson theory. The matematics here is necessarily much more sophisticated than at any other point in this report, and to bridge this gap, a mathematical review of gauge theory and moduli spaces has been included. An analysis of the geometry underlying Donaldson theory gives a general recipe for constructing field theories associated to moduli spaces in arbitrary dimensions, and as an example, we analyze in detail the super BF theories associated with flat connections. Chern-Simons theory and related BF models are the subject of section 6. The connections with knot theory are briefly reviewed and the link with 2D conformal field theory is sketched. We also consider 3D gravity from the Chern-Simons point of view. A presentation of the metric and gauge theory approaches to topological gravity in two dimensions is given. As in all quantum field theories, the issues of renormalization needs to be addressed, and one is obliged to show that the formal topological properties of these theories survive quantization. This point is considered in section 8. We present a detailed analysis of the beta function in certain Witten type theories, and compute one-loop effects in Chern-Simons theory. (orig./HSI).

    7. Review of Fission Theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A survey of the present state of fission theory is attempted. The basic requirements of a theory of a physical process are outlined and against this background the state of fission theory is summarized, with special emphasis on developments in the past few years. An attempt is made to bring out the most important outstanding problems to be settled by future experiments and theory. (author)

    8. Experimental game theory

      OpenAIRE

      Güth, Werner

      2000-01-01

      Whereas orthodox game theory relies on the unrealistic assumption of (commonly known) perfect rationality, participants in game playing experiments are at best boundedly rational. This makes it necessary to supplement orthodox game theory by a behavioral theory of game playing. We first point out that this applies also to (one person-) decision theory. After reviewing the influential experiments based on repeated games and the ultimatum game the typical reactions to the striking experimental ...

    9. E-gravity theory

      OpenAIRE

      Linker, Patrick

      2016-01-01

      A couple of quantum gravity theories were proposed to make theoretical predictions about the behavior of gravity. The most recent approach to quantum gravity, called E-theory, is proposed mathematical, but there is not formulated much about what dynamics of gravity this theory proposes. This research paper treats the main results of the application of E-theory to General relativity involving conservation laws and scattering of particles in presence of gravity. Also the low-energy limit of thi...

    10. Problems in particle theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Areas of emphasis include acceleration algorithms for the Monte Carlo analysis of lattice field and gauge theories, quaternionic generalizations of complex quantum mechanics and field theory, application of the renormalization group to the QCD phase transition, the quantum Hall effect, and black holes. Other work involved string theory, statistical properties of energy levels in integrable quantum systems, baryon asymmetry and the electroweak phase transition, anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, and theory of superconductors

    11. Vygotsky theories & meaningful relationships

      OpenAIRE

      Robert, Michelle Suzanne

      2005-01-01

      This Project contains two main topics: "The Vygotsky Theories" and "Meaningful Relationships". Both were selected to be taught to teachers, principals, managing officials and supervisors in Mexico's context, all of which will be done in workshops under my supervision and care. The first theme: "The Vygotsky's Theories" explains his Theories and Notions on "Early Childhood Education", "Social Development Theory"; "Learning and Development of Preschool Children" and "The Zone of Proximal Develo...

    12. Combustion theory and modeling

      OpenAIRE

      Buckmaster, J; Clavin, Paul; Liñán Martínez, Amable; Matalon, M.; Peters, N; Sivashinsky, G.; Williams, F. A.

      2005-01-01

      In honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the Combustion Institute, we are asked to assess accomplishments of theory in combustion over the past fifty years and prospects for the future. The title of our article is chosen to emphasize that development of theory necessarily goes hand-in-hand with specification of a model. Good conceptual models underlie successful mathematical theories. Models and theories are discussed here for deflagrations, detonations, diffusion flames, ignition, propellant ...

    13. Graphs Theory and Algorithms

      CERN Document Server

      Thulasiraman, K

      2011-01-01

      This adaptation of an earlier work by the authors is a graduate text and professional reference on the fundamentals of graph theory. It covers the theory of graphs, its applications to computer networks and the theory of graph algorithms. Also includes exercises and an updated bibliography.

    14. Comparing Measurement Theories.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schumacker, Randall E.

      In comparing measurement theories, it is evident that the awareness of the concept of measurement error during the time of Galileo has lead to the formulation of observed scores comprising a true score and error (classical theory), universe score and various random error components (generalizability theory), or individual latent ability and error…

    15. Positioning Theory in Paradigms

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      FU Xiao-qiu

      2015-01-01

      This article discusses the importance of theory and paradigm to a researcher. It starts from introducing and analyzing the definition of the two terms, by using the theories in the field of intercultural communication as examples. To a good researcher, he needs not only clarifying the paradigm his research is positioned, but also integrating the theories in his paradigm.

    16. Reflections on Activity Theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bakhurst, David

      2009-01-01

      It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

    17. Topological Domain Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Battenfeld, Ingo

      2008-01-01

      This thesis presents Topological Domain Theory as a powerful and flexible framework for denotational semantics. Topological Domain Theory models a wide range of type constructions and can interpret many computational features. Furthermore, it has close connections to established frameworks for denotational semantics, as well as to well-studied mathematical theories, such as topology and computable analysis.

    18. What genre theory does

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Andersen, Jack

      2015-01-01

      Purpose To provide a small overview of genre theory and its associated concepts and to show how genre theory has had its antecedents in certain parts of the social sciences and not in the humanities. Findings The chapter argues that the explanatory force of genre theory may be explained with its ...

    19. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

    20. Gauge theories and gravity

      OpenAIRE

      Sobreiro, R. F.; Tomaz, A. A.; Otoya, V. J. Vasquez

      2012-01-01

      Pure gauge theories for de Sitter, anti de Sitter and orthogonal groups, in four-dimensional Euclidean spacetime, are studied. It is shown that, if the theory is asymptotically free and a dynamical mass is generated, then an effective geometry may be induced and a gravity theory emerges.

    1. Renormalizable Tensor Field Theories

      CERN Document Server

      Geloun, Joseph Ben

      2016-01-01

      Extending tensor models at the field theoretical level, tensor field theories are nonlocal quantum field theories with Feynman graphs identified with simplicial complexes. They become relevant for addressing quantum topology and geometry in any dimension and therefore form an interesting class of models for studying quantum gravity. We review the class of perturbatively renormalizable tensor field theories and some of their features.

    2. Frankl's Theory and Therapy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria

      This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…

    3. Superspace conformal field theory

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

      2013-07-15

      Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

    4. Introduction to number theory

      CERN Document Server

      Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

      2007-01-01

      One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

    5. Analytic number theory

      CERN Document Server

      Matsumoto, Kohji

      2002-01-01

      The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

    6. Activity Theory and Ontology

      Science.gov (United States)

      Peim, Nick

      2009-01-01

      This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

    7. Superspace conformal field theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

    8. Modern Theories of Language.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Davis, Philip W.

      This volume explores objectively the essential characteristic of nine twentieth-century linguistic theories with the theoretical variant for discussion based on one closely representative of work within a given approach or usually associated with the name of the theory. First, the theory of Ferdinand de Saussure is discussed based on his book,…

    9. La theorie autrement (Theory in Another Light).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bertocchini, Paola; Costanzo, Edwige

      1985-01-01

      Outlines a technique using articles from "Le Francais dans le Monde" to teach reading comprehension and theory simultaneously to teachers of French as a second language. Describes a program in Italy using this approach. (MSE)

    10. Model theory and modules

      CERN Document Server

      Prest, M

      1988-01-01

      In recent years the interplay between model theory and other branches of mathematics has led to many deep and intriguing results. In this, the first book on the topic, the theme is the interplay between model theory and the theory of modules. The book is intended to be a self-contained introduction to the subject and introduces the requisite model theory and module theory as it is needed. Dr Prest develops the basic ideas concerning what can be said about modules using the information which may be expressed in a first-order language. Later chapters discuss stability-theoretic aspects of module

    11. Special theory of relativity

      CERN Document Server

      Kilmister, Clive William

      1970-01-01

      Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit

    12. Game theory an introduction

      CERN Document Server

      Barron, E N

      2013-01-01

      An exciting new edition of the popular introduction to game theory and its applications The thoroughly expanded Second Edition presents a unique, hands-on approach to game theory. While most books on the subject are too abstract or too basic for mathematicians, Game Theory: An Introduction, Second Edition offers a blend of theory and applications, allowing readers to use theory and software to create and analyze real-world decision-making models. With a rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of mathematics, the book focuses on results that can be used to

    13. Extremal graph theory

      CERN Document Server

      Bollobas, Bela

      2004-01-01

      The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

    14. f(R Theories

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antonio De Felice

      2010-06-01

      Full Text Available Over the past decade, f(R theories have been extensively studied as one of the simplest modifications to General Relativity. In this article we review various applications of f(R theories to cosmology and gravity – such as inflation, dark energy, local gravity constraints, cosmological perturbations, and spherically symmetric solutions in weak and strong gravitational backgrounds. We present a number of ways to distinguish those theories from General Relativity observationally and experimentally. We also discuss the extension to other modified gravity theories such as Brans–Dicke theory and Gauss–Bonnet gravity, and address models that can satisfy both cosmological and local gravity constraints.

    15. Duality in String Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Förste, S; Forste, Stefan; Louis, Jan

      1996-01-01

      In this lecture we review some of the recent developments in string theory on an introductory and qualitative level. In particular we focus on S-T-U dualities of toroidally compactified ten-dimensional string theories and outline the connection to M-theory. Dualities among string vacua with less supersymmetries in six and four space-time dimensions is discussed and the concept of F-theory is briefly presented. (Lecture given by J. Louis at the Workshop on Gauge Theories, Applied Supersymmetry and Quantum Gravity, Imperial College, London, UK, July 5--10, 1996.)

    16. Handbook of graph theory

      CERN Document Server

      Gross, Jonathan L

      2003-01-01

      The Handbook of Graph Theory is the most comprehensive single-source guide to graph theory ever published. Best-selling authors Jonathan Gross and Jay Yellen assembled an outstanding team of experts to contribute overviews of more than 50 of the most significant topics in graph theory-including those related to algorithmic and optimization approaches as well as ""pure"" graph theory. They then carefully edited the compilation to produce a unified, authoritative work ideal for ready reference.Designed and edited with non-experts in mind, the Handbook of Graph Theory makes information easy to fi

    17. Applied number theory

      CERN Document Server

      Niederreiter, Harald

      2015-01-01

      This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

    18. Introduction to bifurcation theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Bifurcation theory is a subject with classical mathematical origins. The modern development of the subject starts with Poincare and the qualitative theory of differential equations. In recent years, the theory has undergone a tremendous development with the infusion of new ideas and methods from dynamical systems theory, singularity theory, group theory, and computer-assisted studies of dynamics. As a result, it is difficult to draw the boundaries of the theory with any confidence. In this review, the objects in question will be parameterized families of dynamical systems (vector fields or maps). In the sciences these families commonly arise when one formulates equations of motion to model a physical system. We specifically analyze how the time evolution near an equilibrium can change as parameters are varied; for simplicity we consider the case of a single parameter only

    19. Computational invariant theory

      CERN Document Server

      Derksen, Harm

      2015-01-01

      This book is about the computational aspects of invariant theory. Of central interest is the question how the invariant ring of a given group action can be calculated. Algorithms for this purpose form the main pillars around which the book is built. There are two introductory chapters, one on Gröbner basis methods and one on the basic concepts of invariant theory, which prepare the ground for the algorithms. Then algorithms for computing invariants of finite and reductive groups are discussed. Particular emphasis lies on interrelations between structural properties of invariant rings and computational methods. Finally, the book contains a chapter on applications of invariant theory, covering fields as disparate as graph theory, coding theory, dynamical systems, and computer vision. The book is intended for postgraduate students as well as researchers in geometry, computer algebra, and, of course, invariant theory. The text is enriched with numerous explicit examples which illustrate the theory and should be ...

    20. String Theory Without Branes

      CERN Document Server

      Johnson, C V

      2006-01-01

      We present a class of solvable models that resemble string theories in many respects but have a strikingly different non-perturbative sector. In particular, there are no exponentially small contributions to perturbation theory in the string coupling, which normally are associated with branes and related objects. Perturbation theory is no longer an asymptotic expansion, and so can be completely re-summed to yield all the non-perturbative physics. We examine a number of other properties of the theories, for example constructing and examining the physics of loop operators, which can be computed exactly, and gain considerable understanding of the difference between these new theories and the more familiar ones, including the possibility of how to interpolate between the two types. Interestingly, the models we exhibit contain a family of zeros of the partition function which suggest a novel phase structure. The theories are defined naturally by starting with models that yield well-understood string theories and al...

    1. A Reconciliation of Collision Theory and Transition State Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Yi, Y. G.

      2001-01-01

      A statistical-mechanical treatment of collision leads to a formal connection with transition-state theory, suggesting that collision theory and transition-state theory might be joined ultimately as a collision induced transition state theory.

    2. Gauge Theories of Gravitation

      CERN Document Server

      Blagojević, Milutin

      2012-01-01

      During the last five decades, gravity, as one of the fundamental forces of nature, has been formulated as a gauge field theory of the Weyl-Cartan-Yang-Mills type. The resulting theory, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity, encompasses Einstein's gravitational theory as well as the teleparallel theory of gravity as subcases. In general, the spacetime structure is enriched by Cartan's torsion and the new theory can accommodate fermionic matter and its spin in a perfectly natural way. The present reprint volume contains articles from the most prominent proponents of the theory and is supplemented by detailed commentaries of the editors. This guided tour starts from special relativity and leads, in its first part, to general relativity and its gauge type extensions a la Weyl and Cartan. Subsequent stopping points are the theories of Yang-Mills and Utiyama and, as a particular vantage point, the theory of Sciama and Kibble. Later, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory and its generalizations are explored and specific topi...

    3. Supersymmetry and String Theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dine, Michael

      2016-01-01

      Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; A note on choice of metric; Text website; Part I. Effective Field Theory: The Standard Model, Supersymmetry, Unification: 1. Before the Standard Model; 2. The Standard Model; 3. Phenomenology of the Standard Model; 4. The Standard Model as an effective field theory; 5. Anomalies, instantons and the strong CP problem; 6. Grand unification; 7. Magnetic monopoles and solitons; 8. Technicolor: a first attempt to explain hierarchies; Part II. Supersymmetry: 9. Supersymmetry; 10. A first look at supersymmetry breaking; 11. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model; 12. Supersymmetric grand unification; 13. Supersymmetric dynamics; 14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking; 15. Theories with more than four conserved supercharges; 16. More supersymmetric dynamics; 17. An introduction to general relativity; 18. Cosmology; 19. Astroparticle physics and inflation; Part III. String Theory: 20. Introduction; 21. The bosonic string; 22. The superstring; 23. The heterotic string; 24. Effective actions in ten dimensions; 25. Compactification of string theory I. Tori and orbifolds; 26. Compactification of string theory II. Calabi–Yau compactifications; 27. Dynamics of string theory at weak coupling; 28. Beyond weak coupling: non-perturbative string theory; 29. Large and warped extra dimensions; 30. The landscape: a challenge to the naturalness principle; 31. Coda: where are we headed?; Part IV. The Appendices: Appendix A. Two-component spinors; Appendix B. Goldstone's theorem and the pi mesons; Appendix C. Some practice with the path integral in field theory; Appendix D. The beta function in supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory; References; Index.

    4. Matrix String Theory As A Generalized Quantum Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Minic, Djordje

      1997-01-01

      Matrix String Theory of Banks, Fischler, Shenker and Susskind can be understood as a generalized quantum theory (provisionally named "quansical" theory) which differs from Adler's generalized trace quantum dynamics. The effective Matrix String Theory Hamiltonian is constructed in a particular fermionic realization of Matrix String Theory treated as an example of "quansical" theory.

    5. Class field theory from theory to practice

      CERN Document Server

      Gras, Georges

      2003-01-01

      Global class field theory is a major achievement of algebraic number theory, based on the functorial properties of the reciprocity map and the existence theorem. The author works out the consequences and the practical use of these results by giving detailed studies and illustrations of classical subjects (classes, idèles, ray class fields, symbols, reciprocity laws, Hasse's principles, the Grunwald-Wang theorem, Hilbert's towers,...). He also proves some new or less-known results (reflection theorem, structure of the abelian closure of a number field) and lays emphasis on the invariant (/cal T) p, of abelian p-ramification, which is related to important Galois cohomology properties and p-adic conjectures. This book, intermediary between the classical literature published in the sixties and the recent computational literature, gives much material in an elementary way, and is suitable for students, researchers, and all who are fascinated by this theory. In the corrected 2nd printing 2005, the author improves s...

    6. The theories on inequality: class theory

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ali Arslan

      2006-11-01

      Full Text Available This stduy aims to analyse  class theory and its major expansions. In addition, the problems and dilemmas of class theory are discussed. Social inequality, either socially or economically, is one of the most common features of capitalist societies. Some people or some social groups have more money, more prestige, more privilege and more influence on the decision making process.               Two main strategies have been used for analysing and explaining inequalities. The first and most popular strategy is “class theory” which stresses ownership and control to explain class differentiation. It concentrates on the inequalities based mainly on the ownership or non-ownership of economic resources. Class theory was fathered by Karl Marx and especially developed by Marxist writers. Class analysts focus on identification of classes as the major social forces of society. There are two main schools of thought in class theory with their variations within each school: a Marxist Class Theory, b Weberian Class Theory  If the Marxist class analysis and Weberian class analysis are examined it will be seen that, two approaches are incompatible and it is impossible to synthesise them. Nevertheless, Hindess sees Weber’s view as the correction of and supplement to Marx’s ideas rather than an alternative. When the ideas of Marx and Weber are compared, it will be clearly seen that both Marx and Weber explain classes in relation to the economy. Nevertheless, while Marx defines classes in terms of the relations of production, Weber defines them in relation to the market. 

    7. Lattice gauge theories

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In the last few years lattice gauge theory has become the primary tool for the study of nonperturbative phenomena in gauge theories. The lattice serves as an ultraviolet cutoff, rendering the theory well defined and amenable to numerical and analytical work. Of course, as with any cutoff, at the end of a calculation one must consider the limit of vanishing lattice spacing in order to draw conclusions on the physical continuum limit theory. The lattice has the advantage over other regulators that it is not tied to the Feynman expansion. This opens the possibility of other approximation schemes than conventional perturbation theory. Thus Wilson used a high temperature expansion to demonstrate confinement in the strong coupling limit. Monte Carlo simulations have dominated the research in lattice gauge theory for the last four years, giving first principle calculations of nonperturbative parameters characterizing the continuum limit. Some of the recent results with lattice calculations are reviewed

    8. Effective field theories

      CERN Document Server

      Petrov, Alexey A

      2016-01-01

      This book is a broad-based text intended to help the growing student body interested in topics such as gravitational effective theories, supersymmetric effective theories, applications of effective theory techniques to problems in condensed matter physics (superconductivity) and quantum chromodynamics (such as soft-collinear effective theory). It begins with a review of the use of symmetries to identify the relevant degrees of freedom in a problem, and then presents a variety of methods that can be used to solve physical problems. A detailed discussion of canonical examples of effective field theories with increasing complexity is then conducted. Special cases such as supersymmetry and lattice EFT are discussed, as well as recently-found applications to problems in gravitation and cosmology. An appendix includes various factoids from group theory and other topics that are used throughout the text, in an attempt to make the book self-contained.

    9. Algebraic quantum field theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The basic assumption that the complete information relevant for a relativistic, local quantum theory is contained in the net structure of the local observables of this theory results first of all in a concise formulation of the algebraic structure of the superselection theory and an intrinsic formulation of charge composition, charge conjugation and the statistics of an algebraic quantum field theory. In a next step, the locality of massive particles together with their spectral properties are wed for the formulation of a selection criterion which opens the access to the massive, non-abelian quantum gauge theories. The role of the electric charge as a superselection rule results in the introduction of charge classes which in term lead to a set of quantum states with optimum localization properties. Finally, the asymptotic observables of quantum electrodynamics are investigated within the framework of algebraic quantum field theory. (author)

    10. Basis Tensor Gauge Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Chung, Daniel J H

      2016-01-01

      We reformulate gauge theories in analogy with the vierbein formalism of general relativity. More specifically, we reformulate gauge theories such that their gauge dynamical degrees of freedom are local fields that transform linearly under the dual representation of the charged matter field. These local fields, which naively have the interpretation of non-local operators similar to Wilson lines, satisfy constraint equations. A set of basis tensor fields are used to solve these constraint equations, and their field theory is constructed. A new local symmetry in terms of the basis tensor fields is used to make this field theory local and maintain a Hamiltonian that is bounded from below. The field theory of the basis tensor fields is what we call the basis tensor gauge theory.

    11. Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.

      2015-01-01

      This paper is the first of two papers on the history of rotor aerodynamics with special emphasis on the role of Joukowsky. The present one focuses on the development of the momentum theory while the second one surveys the development of vortex theory for rotors. Joukowsky has played a major role in...... Momentum still is the basis of current rotor design codes. He applied some assumptions limiting the validity to moderate and high tip speed ratios. Sorensen and van Kuik published a solution for wind turbines with very low tip speed ratios, which is now expanded to propellers as well, with one remaining...

    12. Theory and context / Theory in context

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

      2014-01-01

      trans-disciplinary manner. Consideration needs to be given as well to connected scholarship focusing on imagination, innova-tion, and improvisation. Last but not least, an expanded the-ory of context cannot ignore the institutional context of doing research on creativity. Creativity scholars are facing......It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...

    13. Almost quantum theory

      OpenAIRE

      Schumacher, Benjamin; Westmoreland, Michael D.

      2012-01-01

      Modal quantum theory (MQT) is a "toy model" of quantum theory in which amplitudes are elements of a general field. The theory predicts, not the probabilities of a measurement result, but only whether or not a result is possible. In this paper we review MQT and extend it to include mixed states, generalized measurements and open system dynamics. Even though MQT does not have density operators, superoperators or any concept of "positivity", we can nevertheless establish a precise analogue to th...

    14. A Theory of Enclaves

      OpenAIRE

      Vinokurov, Evgeny

      2007-01-01

      The manuscript represents a comprehensive theory of enclaves and exclaves. The theory comprises both political and economic aspects. It is the first general book on the world’s enclaves and exclaves. Due to its comprehensive and pioneer character, it has a potential to become a book of reference for the nascent and promising research field. In its attempt to provide a fully-fledged theory of enclaves and exclaves, it covers a wide scope of regions and territories throughout the world. Basical...

    15. Theory Modeling and Simulation

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Shlachter, Jack [Los Alamos National Laboratory

      2012-08-23

      Los Alamos has a long history in theory, modeling and simulation. We focus on multidisciplinary teams that tackle complex problems. Theory, modeling and simulation are tools to solve problems just like an NMR spectrometer, a gas chromatograph or an electron microscope. Problems should be used to define the theoretical tools needed and not the other way around. Best results occur when theory and experiments are working together in a team.

    16. Supergravity for Effective Theories

      OpenAIRE

      Daniel Baumann; Daniel Green(Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, U.S.A.)

      2011-01-01

      Higher-derivative operators are central elements of any effective field theory. In supersymmetric theories, these operators include terms with derivatives in the K\\"ahler potential. We develop a toolkit for coupling such supersymmetric effective field theories to supergravity. We explain how to write the action for minimal supergravity coupled to chiral superfields with arbitrary numbers of derivatives and curvature couplings. We discuss two examples in detail, showing how the component actio...

    17. stakeholder theory in perspective

      OpenAIRE

      Damak-Ayadi, Salma; Pesqueux, Yvon

      2005-01-01

      Those who use stakeholder theory as a reference are both underlining the correlation between facts and a certain conceptualisation thereof (Section 1) and trying to make the necessary shift from a “panoptic” analysis akin to a panoramic vision of texts and positions (Section 2) to an “in-depth” one geared towards an understanding of their foundations (Section 3). As a “theory of organisations”, stakeholder theory helps to nourish a relational model of organisations by revisiting questions abo...

    18. Economic selection theory

      OpenAIRE

      Thorbj, rn Knudsen

      2002-01-01

      The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of eco...

    19. Relevance Theory in Translation

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Shao Jun; Jiang Min

      2008-01-01

      In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

    20. Accounting and Economic Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Martin Shubik

      2003-01-01

      This paper deals with the changing relationship between economic theory and accounting practice and theory. It argues that many of the basic problems encountered in practice cannot be avoided in any attempt to construct an economic theory adequate to handle dynamics. In particular problems of timing become critical. furthermore, there are several critical problems concerning profit maximization, the nature of the rate of interest, agency problems within the firm and the payment of dividends w...

    1. Game Theory in Oligopoly

      OpenAIRE

      Marx Boopathi

      2012-01-01

      The game theory techniques are used to find the equilibrium of a market. Game theory refers to the ways in which strategic interactions among economic agents produce outcomes with respect to the preferences (or utilities) of those agents, where the outcomes in question might have been intended by none of the agents. The oligopolistic market structures are taken and how game theory applies to them is explained.

    2. Supergravity from Gauge Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Berkowitz, Evan

      2016-01-01

      Gauge/gravity duality is the conjecture that string theories have dual descriptions as gauge theories. Weakly-coupled gravity is dual to strongly-coupled gauge theories, ideal for lattice calculations. I will show precision lattice calculations that confirm large-N continuum D0-brane quantum mechanics correctly reproduces the leading-order supergravity prediction for a black hole's internal energy---the first leading-order test of the duality---and constrains stringy corrections.

    3. Introduction to superstring theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS5 x S5. (author)

    4. Behavioral Contract Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Botond Koszegi

      2014-01-01

      This review provides a critical survey of psychology-and-economics ("behavioral-economics") research in contract theory. First, I introduce the theories of individual decision making most frequently used in behavioral contract theory, and formally illustrate some of their implications in contracting settings. Second, I provide a more comprehensive (but informal) survey of the psychology-and-economics work on classical contract-theoretic topics: moral hazard, screening, mechanism design, and i...

    5. A beautiful theory

      OpenAIRE

      Ed Nosal; Peter Rupert

      2002-01-01

      It wasn’t A Beautiful Mind—the book or the movie—that made John Forbes Nash, Jr., famous. It was his work in game theory, a theory that models strategic interactions between people as games. Before Nash, the only games theorists could get a handle on were artificial ones with no real-world applications. Nash’s insights enabled economists to expand the use of game theory to interesting practical problems.

    6. The theory of flotation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ostwald, Wolfgang

      1988-01-01

      A brief summary of the fundamentals of the Linear theory of flotation is given. The theory by no means contradicts the previous Laminar theory or even the thermodynamics (Wark-Siedler), rather it is a refinement of the known Hardy-Langmuir-Harkin conceptions for the case when there are not two phases and phase boundaries, but rather three phases and corresponding phase boundary edges. The appearance of such three-phase boundaries (ore, water, air) is characteristic for modern flotation methods.

    7. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Monahan, Christopher

      2014-11-01

      I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

    8. Introductory graph theory

      CERN Document Server

      Chartrand, Gary

      1984-01-01

      Graph theory is used today in the physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and other areas. Introductory Graph Theory presents a nontechnical introduction to this exciting field in a clear, lively, and informative style. Author Gary Chartrand covers the important elementary topics of graph theory and its applications. In addition, he presents a large variety of proofs designed to strengthen mathematical techniques and offers challenging opportunities to have fun with mathematics. Ten major topics - profusely illustrated - include: Mathematical Models, Elementary Concepts of Grap

    9. Lectures on String Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Tong, David

      2009-01-01

      This is a one semester course on bosonic string theory aimed at beginning graduate students. The lectures assume a working knowledge of quantum field theory and general relativity. Contents: 1. The Classical String 2. The Quantum String 3. Open Strings and D-Branes 4. Introducing Conformal Field Theory 5. The Polyakov Path Integral and Ghosts 6. String Interactions 7. The Low-Energy Effective Action 8. Compactification and T-Duality

    10. Introduction to superstring theory

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

      2009-07-01

      This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS{sub 5} x S5. (author)

    11. Risk Theory and Reinsurance

      OpenAIRE

      Griselda Deelstra; Guillaume Plantin

      2014-01-01

      Reinsurance is an important production factor of non-life insurance. The efficiency and the capacity of the reinsurance market directly regulate those of insurance markets. The purpose of this book is to provide a concise introduction to risk theory, as well as to its main application procedures to reinsurance. The first part of the book covers risk theory. It presents the most prevalent model of ruin theory, as well as a discussion on insurance premium calculation principles and the mathemat...

    12. Risk Theory and Reinsurance

      OpenAIRE

      Deelstra, Griselda; Plantin, Guillaume

      2014-01-01

      Reinsurance is an important production factor of non-life insurance. The efficiency and the capacity of the reinsurance market directly regulate those of insurance markets. The purpose of this book is to provide a concise introduction to risk theory, as well as to its main application procedures to reinsurance. The first part of the book covers risk theory. It presents the most prevalent model of ruin theory, as well as a discussion on insurance premium calculation principles and the math...

    13. Hypergraph theory an introduction

      CERN Document Server

      Bretto, Alain

      2013-01-01

      This authored monograph presents hypergraph theory and covers both traditional elements of the theory as well as more original concepts such as entropy of hypergraph, similarities and kernels. Moreover, the author gives a detailed account to applications of the theory, including, but not limited to, applications for telecommunications and modeling of parallel data structures. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and practitioners in applied sciences but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

    14. Extended Theories of Gravitation

      CERN Document Server

      Fatibene, Lorenzo

      2016-01-01

      In this paper we shall review the equivalence between Palatini$-f(\\mathcal R)$ theories and Brans- Dicke (BD) theories at the level of action principles. We shall define the Helmholtz Lagrangian associated to Palatini$-f(\\mathcal R)$ theory and we will define some transformations which will be useful to recover Einstein frame and Brans-Dicke frame. We shall see an explicit example of matter field and we will discuss how the conformal factor affects the physical quantities.

    15. Teaching slowing down theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Some of the difficulties and limitations encountered when teaching neutron slowing down theory to nuclear engineering students, are examined. Specific problems in teaching the kinetics of the slowing down of neutrons, the neutron balance equation, resonance escape probabilities, and the continuous slowing down theory, are considered and it is suggested that, as far as possible, use should be made, by analogy, of the work already done with the students in deriving diffusion theory and its one group equation. (U.K.)

    16. Effective quantum field theories

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Certain dimensional parameters play a crucial role in the understanding of weak and strong interactions based on SU(2) x U(1) and SU(3) symmetry group theories and of grand unified theories (GUT's) based on SU(5). These parameters are the confinement scale of quantum chromodynamics and the breaking scales of SU(2) x U(1) and SU(5). The concepts of effective quantum field theories and renormalisability are discussed with reference to the economics and ethics of research. (U.K.)

    17. Information systems theory

      CERN Document Server

      Dwivedi, Yogesh K; Schneberger, Scott L

      2011-01-01

      The overall mission of this book is to provide a comprehensive understanding and coverage of the various theories and models used in IS research. Specifically, it aims to focus on the following key objectives: To describe the various theories and models applicable to studying IS/IT management issues. To outline and describe, for each of the various theories and models, independent and dependent constructs, reference discipline/originating area, originating author(s), seminal articles, level of analysis (i.e. firm, individual, industry) and links with other theories. To provide a critical revie

    18. Portfolio Theory Forward Testing

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marcus Davidsson

      2013-05-01

      Full Text Available Portfolio Theory has during many decades been considered as the holy grail of investment despite the fact that very few empirical studies in the public domain have shown that portfolio theory outperforms a random equal weighted portfolio. We will in this paper empirically investigate how successful portfolio theory is when it comes to generating large positive returns with low return volatility. The dataset that is used consists of approximately 4000 US stocks. We find weak support that portfolio theory by itself would have generated any returns different than a random portfolio allocation. In general optimized historical cumulative returns are not the same as forward cumulative returns.

    19. Ostwald ripening theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Baird, J. K.

      1986-01-01

      The Ostwald-ripening theory is deduced and discussed starting from the fundamental principles such as Ising model concept, Mayer cluster expansion, Langer condensation point theory, Ginzburg-Landau free energy, Stillinger cutoff-pair potential, LSW-theory and MLSW-theory. Mathematical intricacies are reduced to an understanding version. Comparison of selected works, from 1949 to 1984, on solution of diffusion equation with and without sink/sources term(s) is presented. Kahlweit's 1980 work and Marqusee-Ross' 1954 work are more emphasized. Odijk and Lekkerkerker's 1985 work on rodlike macromolecules is introduced in order to simulate interested investigators.

    20. Theory of colours

      CERN Document Server

      Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

      2006-01-01

      The wavelength theory of light and color had been firmly established by the time the great German poet published his Theory of Colours in 1810. Nevertheless, Goethe believed that the theory derived from a fundamental error, in which an incidental result was mistaken for a elemental principle. Far from affecting a knowledge of physics, he maintained that such a background would inhibit understanding. The conclusions Goethe draws here rest entirely upon his personal observations.This volume does not have to be studied to be appreciated. The author's subjective theory of colors permits him to spe

    1. Surveys on surgery theory

      CERN Document Server

      Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan

      2014-01-01

      Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. There have been some extraordinary accomplishments in that time, which have led to enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source that surveys surgery theory and its applications. Indeed, no one person could write such a survey. The sixtieth birthday of C. T. C. Wall, one of the leaders of the founding generation of surgery theory, provided an opportunity to rectify the situation and produce a

    2. Surveys on surgery theory

      CERN Document Server

      Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan

      2014-01-01

      Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. The sixtieth birthday (on December 14, 1996) of C.T.C. Wall, a leading member of the subject''s founding generation, led the editors of this volume to reflect on the extraordinary accomplishments of surgery theory as well as its current enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source surveying surgery theory and its applications. Because no one person could write such a survey, the editors ask

    3. Generalized etale cohomology theories

      CERN Document Server

      Jardine, John F

      1997-01-01

      A generalized etale cohomology theory is a theory which is represented by a presheaf of spectra on an etale site for an algebraic variety, in analogy with the way an ordinary spectrum represents a cohomology theory for spaces. Examples include etale cohomology and etale K-theory. This book gives new and complete proofs of both Thomason's descent theorem for Bott periodic K-theory and the Nisnevich descent theorem. In doing so, it exposes most of the major ideas of the homotopy theory of presheaves of spectra, and generalized etale homology theories in particular. The treatment includes, for the purpose of adequately dealing with cup product structures, a development of stable homotopy theory for n-fold spectra, which is then promoted to the level of presheaves of n-fold spectra.   This book should be of interest to all researchers working in fields related to algebraic K-theory. The techniques presented here are essentially combinatorial, and hence algebraic. An extensive background in traditional stable hom...

    4. Tornado plasma theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The formation mechanism and plasma theory of tornado are proposed. Tornado is considered as a gas discharge. Electrical fields, currents, electromagnetic forces and velocities fields have been obtained

    5. Radical theory of rings

      CERN Document Server

      Gardner, JW

      2003-01-01

      Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

    6. Theory in Social Marketing

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hastings, Gerard; Brown, Abraham; Anker, Thomas Boysen

      2010-01-01

      The chapter looks at three important theories which help social marketers to think more systematically about the key questions they need to address:  (i) how does the target group or population feel about a particular behaviour (Stages of Change Theory); (ii) what social and contextual factors...... influence this positioning (Social Cognitive Theory and Social Norms) and; (iii) what offerings might encourage them to change their behaviour – or, those in a position to do so, to make the social context more conducive to change (Exchange Theory). Moreover, the chapter outlines how social marketers might...... benefit from a social epistemological approach....

    7. Handbook of game theory

      CERN Document Server

      Young, Petyon

      2014-01-01

      The ability to understand and predict behavior in strategic situations, in which an individual's success in making choices depends on the choices of others, has been the domain of game theory since the 1950s. Developing the theories at the heart of game theory has resulted in 8 Nobel Prizes and insights that researchers in many fields continue to develop. In Volume 4, top scholars synthesize and analyze mainstream scholarship on games and economic behavior, providing an updated account of developments in game theory since the 2002 publication of Volume 3, which only covers work through the mi

    8. Elements of set theory

      CERN Document Server

      Enderton, Herbert B

      1977-01-01

      This is an introductory undergraduate textbook in set theory. In mathematics these days, essentially everything is a set. Some knowledge of set theory is necessary part of the background everyone needs for further study of mathematics. It is also possible to study set theory for its own interest--it is a subject with intruiging results anout simple objects. This book starts with material that nobody can do without. There is no end to what can be learned of set theory, but here is a beginning.

    9. Games, theory and applications

      CERN Document Server

      Thomas, L C

      2011-01-01

      Anyone with a knowledge of basic mathematics will find this an accessible and informative introduction to game theory. It opens with the theory of two-person zero-sum games, two-person non-zero sum games, and n-person games, at a level between nonmathematical introductory books and technical mathematical game theory books. Succeeding sections focus on a variety of applications - including introductory explanations of gaming and meta games - that offer nonspecialists information about new areas of game theory at a comprehensible level. Numerous exercises appear with full solutions, in addition

    10. Empirical comparison of theories

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The book represents the first, comprehensive attempt to take an empirical approach for comparative assessment of theories in sociology. The aims, problems, and advantages of the empirical approach are discussed in detail, and the three theories selected for the purpose of this work are explained. Their comparative assessment is performed within the framework of several research projects, which among other subjects also investigate the social aspects of the protest against nuclear power plants. The theories analysed in this context are the theory of mental incongruities and that of the benefit, and their efficiency in explaining protest behaviour is compared. (orig./HSCH)

    11. Berry Fermi Liquid Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Chen, Jing-Yuan

      2016-01-01

      We develop an extension of the Landau Fermi liquid theory to systems of interacting fermions with non-trivial Berry curvature. We propose a kinetic equation and a constitutive relation for the electromagnetic current that together encode the linear response of such systems to external electromagnetic perturbations, to leading and next-to-leading orders in the expansion over the frequency and wave number of the perturbations. We analyze the Feynman diagrams in a large class of interacting quantum field theories and show that, after summing up all orders in perturbation theory, the current-current correlator exactly matches with the result obtained from the kinetic theory.

    12. RELATIVISTIC TRANSPORT-THEORY

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      MALFLIET, R

      1993-01-01

      We discuss the present status of relativistic transport theory. Special emphasis is put on problems of topical interest: hadronic features, thermodynamical consistent approximations and spectral properties.

    13. [Topics in field theory and string theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In the past year, I have continued to investigate the relations between conformal field theories and lattice statistical mechanical models, and in particular have been studying two dimensional models coupled to quantum gravity. I have continued as well to consider possible extension of these results to higher dimensions and potential applications in other contexts

    14. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Anna Voigt

      2008-03-01

      Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

    15. String Theory and Gauge Theories (Strings, Gravity, and the Large N Limit of Gauge Theories)

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We will see how gauge theories, in the limit that the number of colors is large, give string theories. We will discuss some examples of particular gauge theories where the corresponding string theory is known precisely, starting with the case of the maximally supersymmetric theory in four dimensions which corresponds to ten dimensional string theory. We will discuss recent developments in this area.

    16. Entanglement in Theory Space

      OpenAIRE

      Yamazaki, Masahito

      2013-01-01

      We propose a new concept of entanglement for quantum systems: entanglement in theory space. This is defined by decomposing a theory into two by an un-gauging procedure. We provide two examples where this newly-introduced entanglement is closely related with conventional geometric entropies: deconstruction and AGT-type correspondence.

    17. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Glaz, Adam

      2010-01-01

      The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

    18. Introduction to gauge theories

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In these lectures we present the key ingredients of theories with local gauge invariance. We introduce gauge invariance as a starting point for the construction of a certain class of field theories, both for abelian and nonabelian gauge groups. General implications of gauge invariance are discussed, and we outline in detail how gauge fields can acquire masses in a spontaneous fashion. (orig./HSI)

    19. Superluminality in Quantum Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Fantasia, Giovanni Andrea

      2003-01-01

      In the present work we investigate the possibility of superluminal information transmission in quantum theory. We give simple and general arguments to prove that the general structure (Hilbert's space plus instantaneous state reduction) of the theory allows the existence of superluminal communication. We discuss how this relates with existing no-signalling theorems.

    20. Politics, Security, Theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Wæver, Ole

      2011-01-01

      distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...

    1. Einstein-Aether Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Eling, C; Mattingly, D

      2004-01-01

      We review the status of "Einstein-Aether theory", a generally covariant theory of gravity coupled to a dynamical, unit timelike vector field that breaks local Lorentz symmetry. Aspects of waves, stars, black holes, and cosmology are discussed, together with theoretical and observational constraints. Open questions are stressed.

    2. Discourse theory and analysis

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Molder, te H.F.M.

      2009-01-01

      Available in both print and electronic formats, the Encyclopedia of Communication Theory provides students and researchers with a comprehensive two-volume overview of contemporary communication theory. Reference librarians report that students frequently approach them seeking a source that will prov

    3. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Michelsen, Aage U.

      2004-01-01

      Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

    4. Rewriting the Opportunity Theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Korsgaard, Steffen T.

      The aim of this paper is to further the discussion of opportunity theory by discussing its ontological and epistemological underpinnings, which have been neglected in previous discussions. The idea that opportunities have an objective component is critically examined drawing on insights from social...... constructionism. It is argued that opportunity theory needs to be rewritten....

    5. Elementary Particle Theory

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Catterall, Simon [Syracuse University; Hubisz, Jay [Syracuse University; Balachandran, Aiyalam [Syracuse University; Schechter, Joe [Syracuse University

      2013-01-05

      This final report describes the activities of the high energy theory group at Syracuse University for the period 1 January 2010 through April 30 2013. The research conducted by the group includes lattice gauge theory, non-commutative geometry, phenomenology and mathematical physics.

    6. Multisource Algorithmic Information Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Shen, Alexander

      2006-01-01

      Multisource information theory is well known in Shannon setting. It studies the possibilities of information transfer through a network with limited capacities. Similar questions could be studied for algorithmic information theory and provide a framework for several known results and interesting questions.

    7. Worldviews for Design Theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Galle, Per

      I suspect that the growing 'body' of design theory may be infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design researchers. Taking my clue from Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basics metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critical...

    8. Science and information theory

      CERN Document Server

      Brillouin, Leon

      2013-01-01

      A classic source for exploring the connections between information theory and physics, this text is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The author, a giant of 20th-century mathematics, applies the principles of information theory to a variety of issues, including Maxwell's demon, thermodynamics, and measurement problems. 1962 edition.

    9. Evolution: Theory or Dogma?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mayer, William V.

      In this paper the author examines the question of whether evolution is a theory or a dogma. He refutes the contention that there is a monolithic scientific conspiracy to present evolution as dogma and suggests that his own presentation might be more appropriately entitled "Creationism: Theory or Dogma." (PEB)

    10. Theory of relativity revisited

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A clear-cut and definitive experiment is outlined to test the theory of relativity. Wave versus particle theory, infinite to finite, the foundations, nonsimulaniety, inertia and acceleration, and space--time curvature are treated. Essays are included on the uncertainty principle, invariance, and four-dimensional analysis. 64 references

    11. Game Theory .net.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shor, Mikhael

      2003-01-01

      States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

    12. Theory in practice

      CERN Multimedia

      2003-01-01

      With the start of next year, CERN's Theory Division and Experimental Physics Division will merge to form the new Department of Physics. The Bulletin looks back at an era, has a closer a look at what the Theory Division is and what makes it so special.

    13. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.

      2011-01-01

      A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…

    14. Greek Atomic Theory.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Roller, Duane H. D.

      1981-01-01

      Focusing on history of physics, which began about 600 B.C. with the Ionian Greeks and reaching full development within three centuries, suggests that the creation of the concept of the atom is understandable within the context of Greek physical theory; so is the rejection of the atomic theory by the Greek physicists. (Author/SK)

    15. The Learning Theory Jungle

      Science.gov (United States)

      Minter, Robert L.

      2011-01-01

      This article addresses the myriad of pedagogical and andragogical issues facing university educators in the student learning process. It briefly explores the proliferation of learning theories in an attempt to develop awareness among faculty who teach at the university/college levels that not all theories of learning apply to the adult learner. In…

    16. Axiomatic set theory

      CERN Document Server

      Suppes, Patrick

      1972-01-01

      This clear and well-developed approach to axiomatic set theory is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, finite sets and cardinal numbers, rational and real numbers, and other subjects. 1960 edition.

    17. String field theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The hystory, main ideas, motivations for developing string field theory are reported. The connection between the first and second quantization for a system of point particles, strings and membranes is analysed. The main features of superstring theory are discussed. Free bosonic strings and string field algebra are considered

    18. Institute for Nuclear Theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This report briefly discussion the following programs of the Institute for Nuclear Theory: fundamental interactions in nuclei; strangeness in hadrons and nuclei; microscopic nuclear structure theory; nuclear physics in atoms and molecules; phenomenology and lattice QCD; and large amplitude collective motion

    19. Reimagining Critical Theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto

      2011-01-01

      This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments at a…

    20. Put Theory into Practice

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany; Thornton, Courtney; Rockenbach, Alyssa B.; Gayles, Joy G.; Haley, Karen J.

      2013-01-01

      When making decisions that impact student learning, college educators often consider previous experiences, precedent, common sense, and advice from colleagues. But how often do they consider theory? At a recent state-level educators' meeting, the authors of this article asked 50 student affairs educators about the use of theory in their practice.…

    1. Fluxbranes in String Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Gutperle, M; Gutperle, Michael; Strominger, Andrew

      2001-01-01

      A flux p-brane in D dimensions has (p+1)-dimensional Poincare invariance and a nonzero rank (D-p-1) field strength tangent to the transverse dimensions. We find a family of such solutions in string theory and M-theory and investigate their properties.

    2. Universality and string theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bachlechner, Thomas Christian

      The first run at the Large Hadron Collider has deeply challenged conventional notions of naturalness, and CMB polarization experiments are about to open a new window to early universe cosmology. As a compelling candidate for the ultraviolet completion of the standard model, string theory provides a prime opportunity to study both early universe cosmology and particle physics. However, relating low energy observations to ultraviolet physics requires knowledge of the metastable states of string theory through the study of vacua. While it is difficult to directly obtain infrared data from explicit string theory constructions, string theory imposes constraints on low energy physics. The study of ensembles of low energy theories consistent with ultra-violet constraints provides insight on generic features we might expect to occur in string compactifications. In this thesis we present a statistical treatment of vacuum stability and vacuum properties in the context of random supergravity theories motivated by string theory. Early universe cosmology provides another avenue to high energy physics. From the low energy perspective large field inflation is typically considered highly unnatural: the scale relevant for the diameter of flat regions in moduli space is sub-Planckian in regions of perturbative control. To approach this problem, we consider generic Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory and find that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains in fact arise generically. We further demonstrate that such super-Planckian flat regions are plausibly consistent with theWeak Gravity Conjecture.

    3. Properties and structure of N=Z nuclei within relativistic mean field theory

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      GAO Yuan; DONG Jian-Min; ZHANG Hong-Fei; ZUO Wei; LI Jun-Qing

      2009-01-01

      The axially deformed relativistic mean field theory with the force NLSH has been performed in the blocked BCS approximation to investigate the properties and structure of N=Z nuclei from Z=20 to Z=48.Some ground state quantities such as binding energies, quadrupole deformations, one/two-nucleon separation energies, root-mean-square (rms) radii of charge and neutron, and shell gaps have been calculated.The results suggest that large deformations can be found in medium-heavy nuclei with N=Z=38-42.The charge and neutron rms radii increase rapidly beyond the magic number N=Z=28 until Z=42 with increasing nucleon number, which is similar to isotope shift, yet beyond Z=42, they decrease dramatically as the structure changes greatly from Z=42 to Z=43.The evolution of shell gaps with proton number Z can be clearly observed.Besides the appearance of possible new shell closures, some conventional shell closures have been found to disappear in some region.In addition, we found that the Coulomb interaction is not strong enough to breakdown the shell structure of protons in the current region.

    4. Statistical theory and inference

      CERN Document Server

      Olive, David J

      2014-01-01

      This text is for  a one semester graduate course in statistical theory and covers minimal and complete sufficient statistics, maximum likelihood estimators, method of moments, bias and mean square error, uniform minimum variance estimators and the Cramer-Rao lower bound, an introduction to large sample theory, likelihood ratio tests and uniformly most powerful  tests and the Neyman Pearson Lemma. A major goal of this text is to make these topics much more accessible to students by using the theory of exponential families. Exponential families, indicator functions and the support of the distribution are used throughout the text to simplify the theory. More than 50 ``brand name" distributions are used to illustrate the theory with many examples of exponential families, maximum likelihood estimators and uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimators. There are many homework problems with over 30 pages of solutions.

    5. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

      2016-01-01

      types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning with...... coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

    6. Theory of gravitational interactions

      CERN Document Server

      Gasperini, Maurizio

      2013-01-01

      This reference textbook is an up-to-date and self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field. A second, advanced part then discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the gauge theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap which is present in the context of the traditional approach to general relativity, and which usually makes students puzzled about the role of gravity. The necessary notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, leaving more room for those aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational interactions of spinors, and the supersymmetric and higher-dimensional generalization of the Einstein equations. Theory of Gravitational Interactions will be o...

    7. Between Theory and Practice

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Dindler, Christian; Dalsgaard, Peter

      2014-01-01

      We present the notion of ‘bridging concepts’ as a particular form of intermediary knowledge in HCI research, residing between theory and practice. We argue that bridging concepts address the challenge of facilitating exchange between theory and practice in HCI, and we compare it to other intermed...... constituents specify how bridging concepts, as a form of knowledge, are accountable to both theory and practice. We present an analysis of the concept of ‘peepholes’ as an example of a bridging concept aimed at spurring user curiosity and engagement.......We present the notion of ‘bridging concepts’ as a particular form of intermediary knowledge in HCI research, residing between theory and practice. We argue that bridging concepts address the challenge of facilitating exchange between theory and practice in HCI, and we compare it to other...

    8. Dual Double Field Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Bergshoeff, Eric A; Penas, Victor A; Riccioni, Fabio

      2016-01-01

      We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for "exotic" dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

    9. Reducing conspiracy theory beliefs

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Stojanov Ana

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available This study aimed to look at possible ways to reduce beliefs in conspiracy theories and increase the intention to have a fictitious child vaccinated. One hundred and sixty participants answered an online questionnaire. Three groups were used. The control group did not read any text prior to answering whereas the two experimental groups read either only debunking information or information about the motives of the conspiracists and the fallacy in their reasoning in addition to the debunking paragraph. The second experimental manipulation was effective in reducing medical conspiracy theories beliefs, but not belief in conspiracy theories in general. Neither intervention was effective in increasing the likelihood to have a fictitious child vaccinated. Those not intending to vaccinate a fictitious child endorsed conspiracy theories to a greater degree. A positive correlation between beliefs in conspiracy theories and the experiential/intuitive information processing system was found.

    10. Constructor Theory of Life

      CERN Document Server

      Marletto, Chiara

      2014-01-01

      Neo-Darwinian evolution theory explains how organisms with their appearance of purposive design came into existence without being designed. The centrepiece of the explanation is a physical object, the gene, and the processes it undergoes: mainly, replication and natural selection. The compatibility of that theory with the laws of physics has been challenged, by claims that self-reproduction of living cells, essential to gene replication, is incompatible with quantum theory. Wigner, notably, argued that it would require design-bearing laws of physics. Here I show that self-reproduction is compatible with no-design laws of physics, in particular with quantum theory, by expressing self-reproduction, replication and the appearance of design clearly within physics, using the recently proposed constructor theory. I also show that aside from sufficient resources such as time and energy, the only requirement on the laws of physics for evolution to be possible is that they permit digital information.

    11. G2 gauge theories

      CERN Document Server

      Maas, Axel

      2012-01-01

      QCD can be formulated using any gauge group. One particular interesting choice is to replace SU(3) by the exceptional group G2. Conceptually, this group is the simplest group with a trivial center. It thus permits to study the conjectured relevance of center degrees of freedom for QCD. Practically, since all its representation are real, it is possible to perform lattice simulations for this theory also at finite baryon densities. It is thus an excellent environment to test methods and to investigate general properties of gauge theories at finite densities. We review the status of our understanding of gauge theories with the gauge group G2, including Yang-Mills theory, Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, and QCD both in the vacuum and in the phase diagram.

    12. Quantal density functional theory

      CERN Document Server

      Sahni, Viraht

      2016-01-01

      This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...

    13. Dempster-Shafer theory and connections to information theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Peri, Joseph S. J.

      2013-05-01

      The Dempster-Shafer theory is founded on probability theory. The entire machinery of probability theory, and that of measure theory, is at one's disposal for the understanding and the extension of the Dempster-Shafer theory. It is well known that information theory is also founded on probability theory. Claude Shannon developed, in the 1940's, the basic concepts of the theory and demonstrated their utility in communications and coding. Shannonian information theory is not, however, the only type of information theory. In the 1960's and 1970's, further developments in this field were made by French and Italian mathematicians. They developed information theory axiomatically, and discovered not only the Wiener- Shannon composition law, but also the hyperbolic law and the Inf-law. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the mathematical connections between the Dempster Shafer theory and the various types of information theory. A simple engineering example will be used to demonstrate the utility of the concepts.

    14. Nambu-Jona-Lasinio theory and dynamical breaking of supersymmetry

      Science.gov (United States)

      Maru, Nobuhito

      2016-06-01

      A recently proposed new mechanism of D-term-triggered dynamical supersymmetry breaking is reviewed. Supersymmetry is dynamically broken by a nonvanishing D-term vacuum expectation value, which is realized as a nontrivial solution of the gap equation in the self-consistent approximation, as in the case of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and BCS superconductivity.

    15. Design Theory in Information Systems

      OpenAIRE

      Shirley Gregor

      2002-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to explore an important category of information systems knowledge that is termed “design theory”. This knowledge is distinguished as the fifth of five types of theory: (i) theory for analysing and describing, (ii) theory for understanding, (iii) theory for predicting, (iv) theory for explaining and predicting, and (v) theory for design and action. Examples of design theory in information systems are provided, with associated research methods. The limited understanding...

    16. Quantum Theory and Beyond

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bastin, Ted

      2009-07-01

      List of participants; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. The function of the colloquium - editorial; 2. The conceptual problem of quantum theory from the experimentalist's point of view O. R. Frisch; Part II. Niels Bohr and Complementarity: The Place of the Classical Language: 3. The Copenhagen interpretation C. F. von Weizsäcker; 4. On Bohr's views concerning the quantum theory D. Bohm; Part III. The Measurement Problem: 5. Quantal observation in statistical interpretation H. J. Groenewold; 6. Macroscopic physics, quantum mechanics and quantum theory of measurement G. M. Prosperi; 7. Comment on the Daneri-Loinger-Prosperi quantum theory of measurement Jeffrey Bub; 8. The phenomenology of observation and explanation in quantum theory J. H. M. Whiteman; 9. Measurement theory and complex systems M. A. Garstens; Part IV. New Directions within Quantum Theory: What does the Quantum Theoretical Formalism Really Tell Us?: 10. On the role of hidden variables in the fundamental structure of physics D. Bohm; 11. Beyond what? Discussion: space-time order within existing quantum theory C. W. Kilmister; 12. Definability and measurability in quantum theory Yakir Aharonov and Aage Petersen; 13. The bootstrap idea and the foundations of quantum theory Geoffrey F. Chew; Part V. A Fresh Start?: 14. Angular momentum: an approach to combinatorial space-time Roger Penrose; 15. A note on discreteness, phase space and cohomology theory B. J. Hiley; 16. Cohomology of observations R. H. Atkin; 17. The origin of half-integral spin in a discrete physical space Ted Bastin; Part VI. Philosophical Papers: 18. The unity of physics C. F. von Weizsäcker; 19. A philosophical obstacle to the rise of new theories in microphysics Mario Bunge; 20. The incompleteness of quantum mechanics or the emperor's missing clothes H. R. Post; 21. How does a particle get from A to B?; Ted Bastin; 22. Informational generalization of entropy in physics Jerome Rothstein; 23. Can life explain quantum mechanics? H. H

    17. Field-theory methods in coagulation theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Coagulating systems are systems of chaotically moving particles that collide and coalesce, producing daughter particles of mass equal to the sum of the masses involved in the respective collision event. The present article puts forth basic ideas underlying the application of methods of quantum-field theory to the theory of coagulating systems. Instead of the generally accepted treatment based on the use of a standard kinetic equation that describes the time evolution of concentrations of particles consisting of a preset number of identical objects (monomers in the following), one introduces the probability W(Q, t) to find the system in some state Q at an instant t for a specific rate of transitions between various states. Each state Q is characterized by a set of occupation numbers Q = (n1, n2, ..., ng, ...), where ng is the total number of particles containing precisely g monomers. Thereupon, one introduces the generating functional Ψ for the probability W(Q, t). The time evolution of Ψ is described by an equation that is similar to the Schrödinger equation for a one-dimensional Bose field. This equation is solved exactly for transition rates proportional to the product of the masses of colliding particles. It is shown that, within a finite time interval, which is independent of the total mass of the entire system, a giant particle of mass about the mass of the entire system may appear in this system. The particle in question is unobservable in the thermodynamic limit, and this explains the well-known paradox of mass-concentration nonconservation in classical kinetic theory. The theory described in the present article is successfully applied in studying the time evolution of random graphs.

    18. theories of class

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gaiotto, Davide; Razamat, Shlomo S.

      2015-07-01

      We construct classes of superconformal theories elements of which are labeled by punctured Riemann surfaces. Degenerations of the surfaces correspond, in some cases, to weak coupling limits. Different classes are labeled by two integers ( N, k). The k = 1 case coincides with A N - 1 theories of class and simple examples of theories with k > 1 are orbifolds of some of the A N - 1 class theories. For the space of theories to be complete in an appropriate sense we find it necessary to conjecture existence of new strongly coupled SCFTs. These SCFTs when coupled to additional matter can be related by dualities to gauge theories. We discuss in detail the A 1 case with k = 2 using the supersymmetric index as our analysis tool. The index of theories in classes with k > 1 can be constructed using eigenfunctions of elliptic quantum mechanical models generalizing the Ruijsenaars-Schneider integrable model. When the elliptic curve of the model degenerates these eigenfunctions become polynomials with coefficients being algebraic expressions in fugacities, generalizing the Macdonald polynomials with rational coefficients appearing when k = 1.

    19. Modern graph theory

      CERN Document Server

      Bollobás, Béla

      1998-01-01

      The time has now come when graph theory should be part of the education of every serious student of mathematics and computer science, both for its own sake and to enhance the appreciation of mathematics as a whole. This book is an in-depth account of graph theory, written with such a student in mind; it reflects the current state of the subject and emphasizes connections with other branches of pure mathematics. The volume grew out of the author's earlier book, Graph Theory -- An Introductory Course, but its length is well over twice that of its predecessor, allowing it to reveal many exciting new developments in the subject. Recognizing that graph theory is one of several courses competing for the attention of a student, the book contains extensive descriptive passages designed to convey the flavor of the subject and to arouse interest. In addition to a modern treatment of the classical areas of graph theory such as coloring, matching, extremal theory, and algebraic graph theory, the book presents a detailed ...

    20. Set theory and physics

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Svozil, K. [Univ. of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

      1995-11-01

      Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

    1. Gauge field theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This lecture is devoted to the discussion of gauge field theory permitting from the single point of view to describe all the interactions of elementary particles. The authors used electrodynamics and the Einstein theory of gravity to search for a renormgroup fixing a form of Lagrangian. It is shown that the gauge invariance added with the requirement of the minimum number of arbitraries in Lagrangian fixes unambigously the form of the electromagnetic interaction. The generalization of this construction for more complicate charge spaces results in the Yang-Mills theory. The interaction form in this theory is fixed with the relativity principle in the charge space. A quantum scheme of the Yang-Mills fields through the explicit separation of true dynamic variables is suggested. A comfortable relativistically invariant diagram technique for the calculation of a producing potential for the Green functions is described. The Ward generalized identities have been obtained and a procedure of the elimination of ultraviolet and infrared divergencies has been accomplished. Within the framework of QCD (quantum-chromodynamic) the phenomenon of the asymptotic freedom being the most successful prediction of the gauge theory of strong interactions was described. Working methods with QCD outside the framework of the perturbation theory have been described from a coupling constant. QCD is represented as a single theory possessing both the asymptotical freedom and the freedom retaining quarks

    2. Set theory and physics

      Science.gov (United States)

      Svozil, K.

      1995-11-01

      Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible “solution of supertasks,” and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvatages for physical applications are discussed: Canlorian “naive” (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author's opinion, an attitude of “suspended attention” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to “bizarre” or “mindboggling” new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the lime of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

    3. Theory of intermolecular forces

      CERN Document Server

      Margenau, H; Ter Haar, D

      1971-01-01

      Theory of Intermolecular Forces deals with the exposition of the principles and techniques of the theory of intermolecular forces. The text focuses on the basic theory and surveys other aspects, with particular attention to relevant experiments. The initial chapters introduce the reader to the history of intermolecular forces. Succeeding chapters present topics on short, intermediate, and long range atomic interactions; properties of Coulomb interactions; shape-dependent forces between molecules; and physical adsorption. The book will be of good use to experts and students of quantum mechanics

    4. Theory of simple liquids

      CERN Document Server

      Hansen, Jean-Pierre

      1986-01-01

      This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

    5. Quantum field theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This book is composed of 10 chapters. It starts by introducing classical principle of action. It adds quantal principle of action, which is divided into two cases that the degree of freedom is limited and limitless. It continues to basic quantum field theories, Green's function and functional differential equation toward green sources, solvable models, formal value of functional differential equation: quantization method of path integral formulation, approximate calculation of greens function, Representation Method of Schrodinger of quantum field theory and expansion of quantum field theory.

    6. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

      CERN Document Server

      Brush, Stephen G

      2013-01-01

      Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

    7. Advanced number theory

      CERN Document Server

      Cohn, Harvey

      1980-01-01

      ""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts

    8. Quantum electronics basic theory

      CERN Document Server

      Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

      1969-01-01

      Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

    9. Baudrillard's Theory of Value

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Zander, Pär Ola

      2014-01-01

      Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly......) postmodernism, with specific focus on his value theory, in order to understand his own reasons for abandoning his previous position. I then follow the marginal stream of scholars who are making use of the early Baudrillard. I find his value theory promising but still a mere sketch rather than an actual general...

    10. Theory of Markov processes

      CERN Document Server

      Dynkin, E B

      1960-01-01

      Theory of Markov Processes provides information pertinent to the logical foundations of the theory of Markov random processes. This book discusses the properties of the trajectories of Markov processes and their infinitesimal operators.Organized into six chapters, this book begins with an overview of the necessary concepts and theorems from measure theory. This text then provides a general definition of Markov process and investigates the operations that make possible an inspection of the class of Markov processes corresponding to a given transition function. Other chapters consider the more c

    11. Theory of conjectural variations

      CERN Document Server

      Jean-Marie, Alain

      2004-01-01

      We have witnessed in recent years a revival of Conjectural Variations in Game Theory. This reincarnation of an old idea, using a dynamic point of view, aims at combining the adequacy with facts to the requirements of a firmly grounded theory. This book presents, for the first time, a comprehensive account of conjectural variations equilibria in their static inceptions, featuring new comparative results of equilibria with regard to efficiency. It then describes several advances in Dynamic Game Theory, allowing to understand Conjectural Variations Equilibria as dynamic equilibria. The question o

    12. Principles of copula theory

      CERN Document Server

      Durante, Fabrizio

      2015-01-01

      Principles of Copula Theory explores the state of the art on copulas and provides you with the foundation to use copulas in a variety of applications. Throughout the book, historical remarks and further readings highlight active research in the field, including new results, streamlined presentations, and new proofs of old results.After covering the essentials of copula theory, the book addresses the issue of modeling dependence among components of a random vector using copulas. It then presents copulas from the point of view of measure theory, compares methods for the approximation of copulas,

    13. Theory of distributions

      CERN Document Server

      Georgiev, Svetlin G

      2015-01-01

      This book explains many fundamental ideas on the theory of distributions. The theory of partial differential equations is one of the synthetic branches of analysis that combines ideas and methods from different fields of mathematics, ranging from functional analysis and harmonic analysis to differential geometry and topology. This presents specific difficulties to those studying this field. This book, which consists of 10 chapters, is suitable for upper undergraduate/graduate students and mathematicians seeking an accessible introduction to some aspects of the theory of distributions. It can also be used for one-semester course.

    14. Handbook of graph theory

      CERN Document Server

      Gross, Jonathan L; Zhang, Ping

      2013-01-01

      In the ten years since the publication of the best-selling first edition, more than 1,000 graph theory papers have been published each year. Reflecting these advances, Handbook of Graph Theory, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of the main topics in pure and applied graph theory. This second edition-over 400 pages longer than its predecessor-incorporates 14 new sections. Each chapter includes lists of essential definitions and facts, accompanied by examples, tables, remarks, and, in some cases, conjectures and open problems. A bibliography at the end of each chapter provides an ex

    15. Generalized Supersymmetric Perturbation Theory

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      B. G(o)n(ǖ)l

      2004-01-01

      @@ Using the basic ingredient of supersymmetry, a simple alternative approach is developed to perturbation theory in one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The formulae for the energy shifts and wavefunctions do not involve tedious calculations which appear in the available perturbation theories. The model applicable in the same form to both the ground state and excited bound states, unlike the recently introduced supersymmetric perturbation technique which, together with other approaches based on logarithmic perturbation theory, are involved within the more general framework of the present formalism.

    16. Superstring perturbation theory

      OpenAIRE

      Adam, I.

      2009-01-01

      The state of superstring perturbation theory is reviewed with an emphasis on the state of the pure spinor superstring perturbation theory. We begin with a brief summary of the state of perturbation theory in the Ramond–Neveu–Schwarz and in the Green–Schwarz formulations of the superstring. Then we proceed to a quick review of the minimal and non-minimal pure spinor formulations of the superstring and discuss the multi-loop amplitude prescriptions in each of them. We end with a summary and ope...

    17. Chiral perturbation theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      After a general introduction to the structure of effective field theories, the main ingredients of chiral perturbation theory are reviewed. Applications include the light quark mass ratios and pion-pion scattering to two-loop accuracy. In the pion-nucleon system, the linear σ model is contrasted with chiral perturbation theory. The heavy-nucleon expansion is used to construct the effective pion-nucleon Lagrangian to third order in the low-energy expansion, with applications to nucleon Compton scattering. (author)

    18. Handbook of knot theory

      CERN Document Server

      Menasco, William

      2005-01-01

      This book is a survey of current topics in the mathematical theory of knots. For a mathematician, a knot is a closed loop in 3-dimensional space: imagine knotting an extension cord and then closing it up by inserting its plug into its outlet. Knot theory is of central importance in pure and applied mathematics, as it stands at a crossroads of topology, combinatorics, algebra, mathematical physics and biochemistry.* Survey of mathematical knot theory* Articles by leading world authorities* Clear exposition, not over-technical* Accessible to readers with undergraduate background in mathematics

    19. A Theory of Armament

      OpenAIRE

      Ido Oren

      1998-01-01

      I develop a theory explaining how states decide how much armament to acquire. The theory treats states as unitary optimizers choosing between guns and butter, and it offers a novel exposition of the role intentions play in armament decisions-how they are perceived, and how their assessment interacts with the assessment of power. One of the results deduced from the theory is that if statesmen worry about intentions more than about power, then high arms levels possessed by one state will be mat...

    20. Anthropology and social theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Thomassen, Bjørn

      2013-01-01

      hopeless project of positing ‘primitive’ or ‘traditional’ society as the opposite of modernity. In contemporary debates, it is becoming increasingly recognized that social theory needs history, back to the axial age and beyond. The possible role of anthropology in theorizing modernity receives far less......This article argues that anthropology may represent untapped perspectives of relevance to social theory. The article starts by critically reviewing how anthropology has come to serve as the ‘Other’ in various branches of social theory, from Marx and Durkheim to Parsons to Habermas, engaged in a...

    1. Theory of relations

      CERN Document Server

      Fraïssé, R

      2011-01-01

      The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning.The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criter

    2. Economic Selection Theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Knudsen, Thorbjørn

      2003-01-01

      The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian...... principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of economic evolution, Alchian's and Nelson and Winter's, are used to illustrate how this could be achieved....

    3. Documentary and Cognitive Theory

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Bondebjerg, Ib

      2014-01-01

      This article deals with the benefits of using cognitive theory in documentary film studies. The article outlines general aspects of cognitive theory in humanities and social science, however the main focus is on the role of narrative, visual style and emotional dimensions of different types of...... documentaries. Dealing with cognitive theories of film and media and with memory studies, the article analyses how a cognitive approach to documentaries can increase our under-standing of how documentaries influence us on a cognitive and emotional level and contribute to the forming of our social and cultural...

    4. Splines and control theory

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zhang, Zhimin; Tomlinson, John; Martin, Clyde

      1994-01-01

      In this work, the relationship between splines and the control theory has been analyzed. We show that spline functions can be constructed naturally from the control theory. By establishing a framework based on control theory, we provide a simple and systematic way to construct splines. We have constructed the traditional spline functions including the polynomial splines and the classical exponential spline. We have also discovered some new spline functions such as trigonometric splines and the combination of polynomial, exponential and trigonometric splines. The method proposed in this paper is easy to implement. Some numerical experiments are performed to investigate properties of different spline approximations.

    5. Elementary matrix theory

      CERN Document Server

      Eves, Howard

      1980-01-01

      The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

    6. Almost ring theory - sixth release

      OpenAIRE

      Gabber, Ofer; Ramero, Lorenzo

      2002-01-01

      We develop almost ring theory, which is a domain of mathematics somewhere halfway between ring theory and category theory (whence the difficulty of finding appropriate MSC-class numbers). We apply this theory to valuation theory and to p-adic analytic geometry. You should really have a look at the introductions (each chapter has one).

    7. Iterative q difference Galois Theory

      CERN Document Server

      Hardouin, Charlotte

      2009-01-01

      We propose in this paper a Galois theory of $q$-difference equations where q is a root of unity. This theory is the q difference analogue of the Galois theory of iterative differential equations, that is differential equations over fields of positive characteristic. This theory contains and generalizes the Galois theory of q difference equations developed by Singer and van der Put.

    8. To theory of gravitational interaction

      OpenAIRE

      Minkevich, A. V.

      2008-01-01

      Some principal problems of general relativity theory and attempts of their solution are discussed. The Poincare gauge theory of gravity as natural generalization of Einsteinian gravitation theory is considered. The changes of gravitational interaction in the frame of this theory leading to the solution of principal problems of general relativity theory are analyzed.

    9. A Unified Beta Pricing Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Connor, Gregory

      1984-01-01

      This paper derives Ross's mutual fund separation theory and a new, equilibrium version of Ross's arbitrage pricing theory as special cases of a general theory. The paper also reveals that the two theories are identical in their predictions of asset prices and portfolio returns. The capital asset pricing model (a restricted case of the mutual fund separation theory) receives special treatment.

    10. Intelligence: Pre-Theory and Post-Theory

      OpenAIRE

      James R. Flynn

      2014-01-01

      Defining “intelligence” exemplifies a mistake that has historical precedent: confusing the role of pre-theory and post-theory definitions. In every area, pre-theory concepts give broad directions for investigation: are the movements of heavenly bodies affected by the existence of other heavenly bodies? Post-theory concepts add precision and predictability. The mistake occurs when a successful theory like Newton’s demands that its peculiar and precise theory-imbedded concept forbids competing ...

    11. Beyond generalized Proca theories

      CERN Document Server

      Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji

      2016-01-01

      We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the maximally symmetric space-time, we perform the Hessian and Hamiltonian analysis and show the presence of a second-class constraint that removes the would-be ghost associated with the temporal component of the vector field. Furthermore, we study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the homogeneous and isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories. Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar per...

    12. Theory of polymer blends

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We have recently developed a new theoretical approach to the study of polymer liquids. The theory is based on the ''reference interaction site model'' (RISM theory) of Chandler and Andersen, which has been successful in describing the structure of small molecule liquids. We have recently extended our polymer RISM theory to the case of polymer blends. In the present investigation we have applied this theory to two special binary blends: (1) the athermal mixture where we isolate structural effects, and (2) the isotopic mixture in which structurally identical polymer chains interact with dissimilar attractive interactions. By studying these two special cases we are able to obtain insights into the molecular factors which control the miscibility in polymer mixtures. 18 refs., 2 figs

    13. Extremal Infinite Graph Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Stein, Maya

      2011-01-01

      We survey various aspects of infinite extremal graph theory and prove several new results. The lead role play the parameters connectivity and degree. This includes the end degree. Many open problems are suggested.

    14. Nonlocality in string theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We discuss an aspect of string theory which has been tackled from many different perspectives, but incompletely: the role of nonlocality in the theory and its relation to the geometric shape of the string. In particular, we will describe in quantitative terms how one can zoom out from an extended object such as a string in such a way that, at sufficiently large scales, it appears structureless. Since there are no free parameters in free-string theory, the notion of large scales will be unambiguously determined. In other words, we will be able to answer the question: how and at which scale can the string be seen as a particle? In doing so, we will employ the concept of spectral dimension in a new way with respect to its usual applications in quantum gravity. The operational notions of worldsheet and target spacetime dimension in string theory are also clarified and found to be in mutual agreement. (paper)

    15. Plasma kinetic theory

      CERN Document Server

      Swanson, Donald Gary

      2008-01-01

      Developed from the lectures of a leading expert in plasma wave research, Plasma Kinetic Theory provides the essential material for an introductory course on plasma physics as well as the basis for a more advanced course on kinetic theory. Exploring various wave phenomena in plasmas, it offers wide-ranging coverage of the field. After introducing basic kinetic equations and the Lenard–Balescu equation, the book covers the important Vlasov–Maxwell equations. The solutions of these equations in linear and quasilinear approximations comprise the majority of kinetic theory. Another main topic in kinetic theory is to assess the effects of collisions or correlations in waves. The author discusses the effects of collisions in magnetized plasma and calculates the different transport coefficients, such as pressure tensor, viscosity, and thermal diffusion, that depend on collisions. With worked examples and problem sets that enable sound comprehension, this text presents a detailed, mathematical approach to app...

    16. Theory of electroelasticity

      CERN Document Server

      Kuang, Zhen-Bang

      2014-01-01

      Theory of Electroelasticity analyzes the stress, strain, electric field and electric displacement in electroelastic structures such as sensors, actuators and other smart materials and structures. This book also describes new theories such as the physical variational principle and the inertial entropy theory. It differs from the traditional method by using the physical variational principle to derive the governing equations of the piezoelectric material, whereas the Maxwell stress is obtained automatically. By using the inertial entropy theory, the temperature wave equation is obtained very easily. The book is intended for scientists, researchers and engineers in the areas of mechanics, physics, smart material and control engineering as well as mechanical, aeronautical and civil engineering, etc. Zhen-Bang Kuang is a professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

    17. Cognitive load theory

      OpenAIRE

      Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

      2010-01-01

      Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

    18. Einstein's theory of relativity

      CERN Document Server

      Born, Max

      2012-01-01

      Semi-technical account includes a review of classical physics (origin of space and time measurements, Ptolemaic and Copernican astronomy, laws of motion, inertia, more) and of Einstein's theories of relativity.

    19. Wormholes in string theory

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We discuss the wormhole effective interactions in string theory, thought of as a sum over two-dimensional field theories on different world sheets. The effective interactions are calculated in the ''dilute wormhole approximation,'' initially by considering the Green's functions on higher-genus Riemann surfaces, and then by calculating the effect of a complete basis of wave functions on scattering amplitudes for a surface with a boundary. The sum over wormholes is equivalent to having a world sheet of trivial topology and summing over different space-time and matter-field backgrounds. To leading order these consist of the massless fluctuations, since the tachyon cancels out when a sum is done over different spin structures going through the wormhole. In this way we recover quantized general relativity as an effective theory, from a sum over field theories on higher-genus Riemann surfaces

    20. Theory Meets Practice

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Schlamovitz, Jesper

      2015-01-01

      Process thinking and process-based theory are receiving increased attention in the field of organization studies and organization theory development (Tsoukas & Chia, 2002; Langley & Tsoukas, 2010; Hernes, 2014). The aim has been to study processes rather than structures, in organizations. This has...... recently inspired research on the organizing of projects and the development of a (new) theory of temporary organizations (Bakker, 2010; Blomquist et al. 2010; Söderlund, 2013). These theories are still under development and need empirical studies that can show their relevance for practice. This paper will...... give an overview of this theoretical development and discuss the consequences for the practice of project management. The paper finds that the focus on processes such as time and temporality, meaning structures, and articulation are covered in project management research, but sparsely documented...