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Sample records for bch bao frcs

  1. BAO Cosmography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazkoz, Ruth; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sendra, Irene [Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, Bilbao, 48080 (Spain); Alcaniz, Jailson, E-mail: ruth.lazkoz@ehu.es, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br, E-mail: celia_escamilla@ehu.es, E-mail: vincenzo.salzano@ehu.es, E-mail: irene.sendra@ehu.es [Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro - RJ, 20921–400 (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    Cosmography provides a model-independent way to map the expansion history of the Universe. In this paper we simulate a Euclid-like survey and explore cosmographic constraints from future Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) observations. We derive general expressions for the BAO transverse and radial modes and discuss the optimal order of the cosmographic expansion that provides reliable cosmological constraints. Through constraints on the deceleration and jerk parameters, we show that future BAO data have the potential to provide a model-independent check of the cosmic acceleration as well as a discrimination between the standard ΛCDM model and alternative mechanisms of cosmic acceleration.

  2. BAO in Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, N.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.

    2017-07-01

    According to ΛCDM paradigm, in the early universe the radiation and baryonic matter were coupled due to Thomson scattering. While, dark matter density fluctuations caused gravitational instabilities. These two competing forces caused baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) to appear. As the universe continued expanding and cooling, the formation of atoms led to the recombination epoch and decoupling. Afterwards, the oscillations were no longer subject to radiation pressure causing them to stop. Hence, an imprint in the distribution of matter must be present. The scale of this imprint is around 150Mpc and it is used as a standard ruler. A way to study the clustering of matter distribution is through the power spectrum. It measures it through oscillation modes, i. e., a single mode includes all possible information about at a specific scale. Then, BAO can be found as an oscillation present at certain scales. For a cosmological simulation, it is necessary to construct the density field for a point masses distribution. In the present work, the CIC window is used for such task. From this, it is possible to construct the power spectrum through a fast fourier transform. Several corrections as shot noise and aliasing have to be performed for the power spectrum calculation. In this work, the power spectrum was calculated for the MDPL Multidark simulation, as well as, for different halo populations obtained from MDPL simulations, i.e., M>=1e11 M⊙, 1e12 M⊙ and 1e13 M⊙. As a main result, we have shown the BAO signal estimated for the MDPL Multidark simulation. The power spectrum for different halo populations indicates that the tracer halo population affects the BAO signal. It is expected that the amplitude of the BAO increases with the scale of the population studied, although this has to be further quantified.

  3. A robust BAO extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Eugenio; Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    We define a procedure to extract the oscillating part of a given nonlinear Power Spectrum, and derive an equation describing its evolution including the leading effects at all scales. The intermediate scales are taken into account by standard perturbation theory, the long range (IR) displacements are included by using consistency relations, and the effect of small (UV) scales is included via effective coefficients computed in simulations. We show that the UV effects are irrelevant in the evolution of the oscillating part, while they play a crucial role in reproducing the smooth component. Our "extractor" operator can be applied to simulations and real data in order to extract the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) without any fitting function and nuisance parameter. We conclude that the nonlinear evolution of BAO can be accurately reproduced at all scales down to 0z= by our fast analytical method, without any need of extra parameters fitted from simulations.

  4. Stability model for one-dimensional FRCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Hewitt, T.G.; Lewis, H.R.; Seyler, C.E.; Symon, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of transport near the separatrix in FRC devices is important for determining the performance to be expected from an FRC reactor or from FRC experiments. A computer code was constructed for studying the micro-stability properties of FRCs near the separatrix as a first step in obtaining quasilinear transport coefficients that can be used in a transport code. We consider collisionless ions and electrons, without an expansion in powers of a parameter, like the electron or ion gyroradius, and we approximate the equilibrium with an infinitely long axially and translationally symmetric equilibrium. Thus, in our equilibria, there are only an axial magnetic field and a radial electric field. Our equilibria are collisionless, two-species, diffuse-profile, one-dimensional, theta-pinch equilibria. We allow the possibility that there be a magnetic field null in order to be able to model FRC devices more realistically

  5. Internal field probing of translating FRCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; Milroy, R.D.

    1984-11-01

    Magnetic field probes have been employed to study the internal field structure of Field-Reversed Configurations (FRCs) translating past the probes in the FRX-C/T device. Internal closed flux surfaces can be studied in this manner with minimal perturbation because of the rapid transit of the plasma (translation velocity v/sub z/ approx. 10 cm/μs). Data have been taken using a 5-mtorr-D 2 gas-puff mode of operation in the FRC source coil which yields an initial plasma density of approx. 1 x 10 15 cm -3 and x/sub s/ approx. 0.40. FRCs translate from the approx. 25 cm radius source coil into a 20 cm radius metal translation vessel. Of many translation conditions studied, the condition considered here is translation into a weak guide field resulting in expansion of the FRC to conditions of density approx. 3 x 10 14 and x/sub s/ approx. 0.7. The expected reversed B/sub z/ structure is observed. Evidence of island structure is also observed. Fluctuating levels of B/sub THETA/ are observed with amplitudes less than or equal to B 0 /3 and values of flux approx. 4 x the poloidal flux. Values of β on the separatrix of β/sub s/ approx. = 0.3 (indexed to the external field) are implied from the field measurements. This decrease of β/sub s/ with increased x/sub s/ is expected, and desirable for improved plasma confinement

  6. Quantum BCH Codes Based on Spectral Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ying; Zeng Guihua

    2006-01-01

    When the time variable in quantum signal processing is discrete, the Fourier transform exists on the vector space of n-tuples over the Galois field F 2 , which plays an important role in the investigation of quantum signals. By using Fourier transforms, the idea of quantum coding theory can be described in a setting that is much different from that seen that far. Quantum BCH codes can be defined as codes whose quantum states have certain specified consecutive spectral components equal to zero and the error-correcting ability is also described by the number of the consecutive zeros. Moreover, the decoding of quantum codes can be described spectrally with more efficiency.

  7. BChPT x 1/Nc: masses and currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goity, Jose L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Fernando, Ishara P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2018-04-01

    A summary of the implementation of the combined BChPT X 1/Nc expansion for three flavors is presented, along with its applications to the octet and decuplet baryon masses, SU(3) charges and axial couplings.

  8. Development of Compact Toroid Injector for C-2 FRCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Gota, Hiroshi; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Smith, Brett; Morehouse, Mark; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    Collaborative research project with Tri Alpha Energy has been started and we have developed a new compact toroid (CT) injector for the C-2 device, mainly for fueling field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylinder electrodes; a spheromak-like plasma is generated by discharge and pushed out from the gun by Lorentz force. The inner diameter of outer electrode is 83.1 mm and the outer diameter of inner electrode is 54.0 mm. The surface of the inner electrode is coated with tungsten in order to reduce impurities coming out from the electrode. The bias coil is mounted inside of the inner electrode. We have recently conducted test experiments and achieved a supersonic CT translation speed of up to ~100 km/s. Other typical plasma parameters are as follows: electron density ~ 5 × 1021 m-3, electron temperature ~ 40 eV, and the number of particles ~0.5-1.0 × 1019. The CT injector is now planned to be installed on C-2 and the first CT injection experiment will be conducted in the near future. The detailed MCPG design as well as the test experimental results will be presented.

  9. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...

  10. Performance of FSO-OFDM based on BCH code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Xiao-lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As contrasted with the traditional OOK (on-off key system, FSO-OFDM system can resist the atmospheric scattering and improve the spectrum utilization rate effectively. Due to the instability of the atmospheric channel, the system will be affected by various factors, and resulting in a high BER. BCH code has a good error correcting ability, particularly in the short-length and medium-length code, and its performance is close to the theoretical value. It not only can check the burst errors but also can correct the random errors. Therefore, the BCH code is applied to the system to reduce the system BER. At last, the semi-physical simulation has been conducted with MATLAB. The simulation results show that when the BER is 10-2, the performance of OFDM is superior 4dB compared with OOK. In different weather conditions (extension rain, advection fog, dust days, when the BER is 10-5, the performance of BCH (255,191 channel coding is superior 4~5dB compared with uncoded system. All in all, OFDM technology and BCH code can reduce the system BER.

  11. BAO extractor: bias and redshift space effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimichi, Takahiro; Noda, Eugenio; Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    We study a new procedure to measure the sound horizon scale via Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). Instead of fitting the measured power spectrum (PS) to a theoretical model containing the cosmological informations and all the nonlinear effects, we define a procedure to project out (or to "extract") the oscillating component from a given nonlinear PS. We show that the BAO scale extracted in this way is extremely robust and, moreover, can be reproduced by simple theoretical models at any redshift. By using N-body simulations, we discuss the effect of the nonlinear evolution of the matter field, of redshift space distortions and of scale-dependent halo bias, showing that all these effects can be reproduced with sub-percent accuracy. We give a one-parameter theoretical model based on a simple (IR) modification of 1-loop perturbation theory, which reproduces the BAO scale from measurements of halo clustering in redshift space at better than 0.1% level and does not need any external UV input, such as coefficients measured from N-body simulations.

  12. Blind Recognition of Binary BCH Codes for Cognitive Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm of blind recognition of Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH codes is proposed to solve the problem of Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM in cognitive radio systems. The recognition algorithm is based on soft decision situations. The code length is firstly estimated by comparing the Log-Likelihood Ratios (LLRs of the syndromes, which are obtained according to the minimum binary parity check matrixes of different primitive polynomials. After that, by comparing the LLRs of different minimum polynomials, the code roots and generator polynomial are reconstructed. When comparing with some previous approaches, our algorithm yields better performance even on very low Signal-Noise-Ratios (SNRs with lower calculation complexity. Simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Phases of New Physics in the BAO Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2017-11-01

    We show that the phase of the spectrum of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) is immune to the effects of nonlinear evolution. This suggests that any new physics that contributes to the initial phase of the BAO spectrum, such as extra light species in the early universe, can be extracted reliably at late times. We provide three arguments in support of our claim: first, we point out that a phase shift of the BAO spectrum maps to a characteristic sign change in the real space correlation function and that this feature cannot be generated or modified by nonlinear dynamics. Second, we confirm this intuition through an explicit computation, valid to all orders in cosmological perturbation theory. Finally, we provide a nonperturbative argument using general analytic properties of the linear response to the initial oscillations. Our result motivates measuring the phase of the BAO spectrum as a robust probe of new physics.

  14. Mutational analysis of three bchH paralogs in (bacterio-)chlorophyll biosynthesis in Chlorobaculum tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Aline; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A

    2009-01-01

    unsuccessful. This result suggested that BchT alone is unable to support the minimal (B)Chl synthesis requirements of cells required for viability. The pigment compositions of the various mutant strains varied significantly. The BChl c content of the bchS mutant was only approximately 10% of that of the wild...

  15. Cocrystallization studies of full-length recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with cocaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin Ajibola; Asojo, Oluyomi Adebola; Ngamelue, Michelle N.; Homma, Kohei; Lockridge, Oksana (Nebraska-Med)

    2011-09-16

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8) is a 340 kDa tetrameric glycoprotein that is present in human serum at about 5 mg l{sup -1} and has well documented therapeutic effects on cocaine toxicity. BChE holds promise as a therapeutic that reduces and finally eliminates the rewarding effects of cocaine, thus weaning an addict from the drug. There have been extensive computational studies of cocaine hydrolysis by BChE. Since there are no reported structures of BChE with cocaine or any of the hydrolysis products, full-length monomeric recombinant wild-type BChE was cocrystallized with cocaine. The refined 3 {angstrom} resolution structure appears to retain the hydrolysis product benzoic acid in sufficient proximity to form a hydrogen bond to the active-site Ser198.

  16. Novel BCH Code Design for Mitigation of Phase Noise Induced Cycle Slips in DQPSK Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, M. Y.; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead......We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead...

  17. Inductive Sustainment of Oblate FRCs with the Assistance of Magnetic Diffusion, Shaping and Finite-Lamor Radius Stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, S.; Belova, E.V.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Inomoto, M.; Jacobson, C.M.; Maqueda, R.; McGeehan, B.; Ren, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Oblate field-reversed configurations FRCs have been sustained for >300 (micro)s, or >15 magnetic diffusion times, through the use of an inductive solenoid. These argon FRCs can have their poloidal flux sustained or increased, depending on the timing and strength of the induction. An inward pinch is observed during sustainment, leading to a peaking of the pressure profile and maintenance of the FRC equilibrium. The good stability observed in argon (and krypton) does not transfer to lighter gases, which develop terminal co-interchange instabilities. The stability in argon and krypton is attributed to a combination of external field shaping, magnetic diffusion, and finite-Larmor radius effects.

  18. Cardioprotective roles of the Chinese medicinal formula Bao-Xin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bao-Xin-Tang (BXT) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula used for the treatment of coronary heart disease and known to have favorable therapeutic benefits. The current study was designed to determine whether BXT has a cardioprotective role for acute myocardial infarction. The underlying mechanisms ...

  19. The influence of FRCs reinforcement on marginal adaptation of CAD/CAM composite resin endocrowns after simulated fatigue loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocca, G.T.; Sarrati, C.M.; Poncet, A.; Feilzer, A.J.; Krejci, I.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the marginal adaptation of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM composite resin endocrowns either with or without reinforcement by fibre reinforced composites (FRCs), used in different configurations. 32 human endodontically treated molars were cut 2 mm over the CEJ. Two

  20. Fundamental uncertainty in the BAO scale from isocurvature modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunckel, C., E-mail: caroline.zunckel@gmail.co [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Astrophysics Department, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, NJ 08544 (United States); Okouma, P. [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, CSIR Campus, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Muya Kasanda, S.; Moodley, K. [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, CSIR Campus, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); Bassett, B.A. [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, CSIR Campus, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2011-02-14

    Small fractions of isocurvature perturbations correlated with the dominant adiabatic mode are shown to be a significant primordial systematic for Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) surveys which must be accounted for in future surveys. Isocurvature modes distort the standard ruler distance by broadening and shifting the peak in the galaxy correlation function. While a single isocurvature mode does not significantly degrade dark energy constraints, the general case with multiple isocurvature modes leads to biases that exceed 7{sigma} on average in the dark energy parameters even for isocurvature amplitudes undetectable by PLANCK. Accounting for all isocurvature modes corrects for this bias but degrades the dark energy figure of merit by at least 50% in the case of the BOSS experiment. However the BAO data in turn provides significantly stronger constraints on the nature of the primordial perturbations. Future large galaxy surveys will thus be powerful probes of exotic physics in the early Universe in addition to helping pin down the nature of dark energy.

  1. A decoding method of an n length binary BCH code through (n + 1n length binary cyclic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARIQ SHAH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For a given binary BCH code Cn of length n = 2 s - 1 generated by a polynomial of degree r there is no binary BCH code of length (n + 1n generated by a generalized polynomial of degree 2r. However, it does exist a binary cyclic code C (n+1n of length (n + 1n such that the binary BCH code Cn is embedded in C (n+1n . Accordingly a high code rate is attained through a binary cyclic code C (n+1n for a binary BCH code Cn . Furthermore, an algorithm proposed facilitates in a decoding of a binary BCH code Cn through the decoding of a binary cyclic code C (n+1n , while the codes Cn and C (n+1n have the same minimum hamming distance.

  2. BAO from Angular Clustering: Optimization and Mitigation of Theoretical Systematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocce, M.; et al.

    2018-01-13

    We study the theoretical systematics and optimize the methodology in Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) detections using the angular correlation function with tomographic bins. We calibrate and optimize the pipeline for the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 dataset using 1800 mocks. We compare the BAO fitting results obtained with three estimators: the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), Profile Likelihood, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The MLE method yields the least bias in the fit results (bias/spread $\\sim 0.02$) and the error bar derived is the closest to the Gaussian results (1% from 68% Gaussian expectation). When there is mismatch between the template and the data either due to incorrect fiducial cosmology or photo-$z$ error, the MLE again gives the least-biased results. The BAO angular shift that is estimated based on the sound horizon and the angular diameter distance agree with the numerical fit. Various analysis choices are further tested: the number of redshift bins, cross-correlations, and angular binning. We propose two methods to correct the mock covariance when the final sample properties are slightly different from those used to create the mock. We show that the sample changes can be accommodated with the help of the Gaussian covariance matrix or more effectively using the eigenmode expansion of the mock covariance. The eigenmode expansion is significantly less susceptible to statistical fluctuations relative to the direct measurements of the covariance matrix because the number of free parameters is substantially reduced [$p$ parameters versus $p(p+1)/2$ from direct measurement].

  3. Bao-yu: a mental disorder or a cultural icon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Flora; Gillett, Grant

    2014-06-01

    The embodied human subject is dynamically connected to his or her historico-sociocultural context, the soil from which a person's psyche is nourished as multiplex meanings are absorbed and enable personal development. In each culture certain towering artistic works embody this perspective. The Dream of the Red Chamber introduces Jia Bao-yu--a scion of the prestigious Jia family--and his relationships with a large cast of characters. Bao-yu is controversial but, at the time of the family's tragic collapse, he can be seen as embodying a spiritual struggle in which his instinct, nature, sensitivity, and creativity are grounded in his transcendent relationship with a fragment of the world stone, an eternal source of energy and creativity. We are invited to draw on a metaphysical level of thought to consider his struggles with man-made hierarchies and a situated historico-sociocultural order in such a way as to live out his spiritual being. As such, the novel is closely relevant to questions of spirituality in bioethics. Through personal experiences, passions, creativity, and relationships with others, the body is inscribed, forming the soul, which may be misconstrued (for instance, through a medical or Cartesian reformulation of events) but which can be seen as the site of ethical and spiritual thought.

  4. Cosmology with phase statistics: parameter forecasts and detectability of BAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggemeier, Alexander; Smith, Robert E.

    2017-04-01

    We consider an alternative to conventional three-point statistics such as the bispectrum, which is purely based on the Fourier phases of the density field: the line correlation function. This statistic directly probes the non-linear clustering regime and contains information highly complementary to that contained in the power spectrum. In this work, we determine, for the first time, its potential to constrain cosmological parameters and detect baryon acoustic oscillations (hereafter BAOs). We show how to compute the line correlation function for a discrete sampled set of tracers that follow a local Lagrangian biasing scheme and demonstrate how it breaks the degeneracy between the amplitude of density fluctuations and the bias parameters of the model. We then derive analytic expressions for its covariance and show that it can be written as a sum of a Gaussian piece plus non-Gaussian corrections. We compare our predictions with a large ensemble of N-body simulations and confirm that BAOs do indeed modulate the signal of the line correlation function for scales 50-100 h-1Mpc and that the characteristic S-shape feature would be detectable in upcoming Stage IV surveys at the level of ˜4σ. We then focus on the cosmological information content and compute Fisher forecasts for an idealized Stage III galaxy redshift survey of volume V ˜ 10 h-3 Gpc3 and out to z = 1. We show that combining the line correlation function with the galaxy power spectrum and a Planck-like microwave background survey yields improvements up to a factor of 2 for parameters such as σ8, b1 and b2, compared with using only the two-point information alone.

  5. Promosi Manajemen Nyeri Nonfarmakologi Oleh Keluarga Pada Pasien Post Operasi Di Ruang BCH RSUPN Dr.Ciptomangun Kusumo Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmiasih, Reni

    2013-01-01

    Promosi Manajemen Nyeri Nonfarmakologi oleh Keluarga pada Pasien Post Operasi di Ruang BCH RSUPN Dr.Ciptomangun Kusumo JakartaNonpharmacological Pain Management Promotion by family to the Post Surgery Patients in BCH Ward of RSUPN Dr.Ciptomangun Kusumo JakartaReni IlmiasihFakultas Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Muhammadiyah MalangJl. Bendungan Sutami 188A Malang 65145E-mail : anajemen nyeri non farmakologi perlu dilakukan oleh perawat di ruang bedah meskipun sering d...

  6. E-commerce business in the Chinese Market - A Case Study of Tao Bao

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract E-commerce in China has become a fast developing business in recent years. Many e-commerce companies have been set up to survive and benefit from the profitable business. Tao Bao, established in 2003, is the one of leading companies in e-commerce business. In the past few years, Tao Bao has become the favorite of the majority of customers in China and grown quickly. The purpose of the study was to make a marketing analysis of Tao Bao and enable the company to get better grow...

  7. Dimensioning BCH codes for coherent DQPSK systems with laser phase noise and cycle slips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Miu Yoong; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    these statistics to parameterize a bivariate binomial model that describes the distribution of bit errors. In this way, we relate pre-FEC statistics to post-FEC BER and BCH codes. Our method is applicable to pre-FEC BER around 10-3 and any post-FEC BER. Using numerical simulations, we evaluate the accuracy of our...... approach for a target post-FEC BER of 10-5. Codes dimensioned with our bivariate binomial model meet the target within 0.2-dB signal-to-noise ratio....

  8. Information-Dispersion-Entropy-Based Blind Recognition of Binary BCH Codes in Soft Decision Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A method of blind recognition of the coding parameters for binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH codes is proposed in this paper. We consider an intelligent communication receiver which can blindly recognize the coding parameters of the received data stream. The only knowledge is that the stream is encoded using binary BCH codes, while the coding parameters are unknown. The problem can be addressed on the context of the non-cooperative communications or adaptive coding and modulations (ACM for cognitive radio networks. The recognition processing includes two major procedures: code length estimation and generator polynomial reconstruction. A hard decision method has been proposed in a previous literature. In this paper we propose the recognition approach in soft decision situations with Binary-Phase-Shift-Key modulations and Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN channels. The code length is estimated by maximizing the root information dispersion entropy function. And then we search for the code roots to reconstruct the primitive and generator polynomials. By utilizing the soft output of the channel, the recognition performance is improved and the simulations show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Tension between SNeIa and BAO: current status and future forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla-Rivera, Celia [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWD, Kebble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lazkoz, Ruth; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sendra, Irene, E-mail: celia_escamilla@ehu.es, E-mail: ruth.lazkoz@ehu.es, E-mail: vincenzo.salzano@ehu.es, E-mail: irene.sendra@ehu.es [Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-09-01

    Using real and synthetic Type Ia SNe (SNeIa) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) data representing current observations forecasts, this paper investigates the tension between those probes in the dark energy equation of state (EoS) reconstruction considering the well known CPL model and Wang's low correlation reformulation. In particular, here we present simulations of BAO data from both the the radial and transverse directions. We also explore the influence of priors on Ω{sub m} and Ω{sub b} on the tension issue, by considering 1σ deviations in either one or both of them. Our results indicate that for some priors there is no tension between a single dataset (either SNeIa or BAO) and their combination (SNeIa+BAO). Our criterion to discern the existence of tension (σ-distance) is also useful to establish which is the dataset with most constraining power; in this respect SNeIa and BAO data switch roles when current and future data are considered, as forecasts predict and spectacular quality improvement on BAO data. We also find that the results on the tension are blind to the way the CPL model is addressed: there is a perfect match between the original formulation and that by the correlation optimized proposed in Wang (2008), but the errors on the parameters are much narrower in all cases of our exhaustive exploration, thus serving the purpose of stressing the convenience of this reparametrization.

  10. Closed-loop, non-linear feedback control simulations of beam-driven field-reversed configurations (FRCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, N.; Onofri, M.; Barnes, D.; Romero, J.; the TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    The C-2U device has recently demonstrated sustainment of an advanced, beam-driven FRC over time scales longer than the characteristic times for confinement, fast ion slow-down, and wall current decay. In anticipation of further advances in plasma lifetime, we are developing feedback control techniques for major FRC parameters and resistive instabilities. The LamyRidge code solves the time-dependent extended MHD equations in axisymmetric geometry. In the Q2D code, LamyRidge is combined with a 3-D kinetic code that tracks fast ions and runs in parallel with LamyRidge. Periodically, the background fields in the kinetic code are updated from the MHD simulation and the averaged fast particle distribution is integrated into the fluid equations. Recently, we have added the capability to run Q2D simulations as subordinate processes in Simulink, giving us the ability to run non-linear, closed-loop simulations using control algorithms developed in Simulink. The same Simulink models can be exported to real-time targets (CPU or FPGA) to perform feedback control in experiments. We present closed-loop simulations of beam-driven FRCs under magnetically-actuated feedback control. Results for positionally unstable FRCs are compared with the predictions of a linearized rigid-plasma model. Plasmas predicted to be passively stabilized by the linear model are found to exhibit Alfvenic growth in several cases. Feedback gains predicted to be stabilizing in the linear model are generally found to be insufficient in non-linear simulations, and vice versa. Control of separatrix geometry is demonstrated.

  11. Errores sistemáticos en la escala de las BAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scóccola, C. G.

    2016-08-01

    The large current and future galaxy surveys require very precise theoretical predictions of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). In this contribution article I briefly comment on the physical processes that lead to these oscillations, and review a work where we use large -body cosmological simulations to study any systematic shift and damping of the BAO due to non-linear effects in the growth of structure. The precision of the simulations used for this work allows to resolve the dark matter subhalos, which enable to study with great accuracy (better than 0.02 for dark matter and 0.07 for low bias halos) small shifts toward larger wavenumbers (), and a non-linear damping of the BAO in the power spectrum.

  12. BigBOSS: The Ground-Based Stage IV BAO Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, David; Bebek, Chris; Heetderks, Henry; Ho, Shirley; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael; Mostek, Nick; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Perlmutter, Saul; Roe, Natalie; Sholl, Michael; Smoot, George; White, Martin; Dey, Arjun; Abraham, Tony; Jannuzi, Buell; Joyce, Dick; Liang, Ming; Merrill, Mike; Olsen, Knut; Salim, Samir

    2009-04-01

    The BigBOSS experiment is a proposed DOE-NSF Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with an all-sky galaxy redshift survey. The project is designed to unlock the mystery of dark energy using existing ground-based facilities operated by NOAO. A new 4000-fiber R=5000 spectrograph covering a 3-degree diameter field will measure BAO and redshift space distortions in the distribution of galaxies and hydrogen gas spanning redshifts from 0.2< z< 3.5. The Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit (DETF FoM) for this experiment is expected to be equal to that of a JDEM mission for BAO with the lower risk and cost typical of a ground-based experiment.

  13. Spontaneous and artificial generation of sheared flow in oblate FRCs in TS-3 and 4 FRC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, T.; Kawamori, E.; Ono, Y.; Tsuruda, M.; Sato, K.; Yamanoue, T.; Arimoto, K.; Itagaki, T.; Katsurai, M.

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous formation of toroidal flow was measured for the first time in oblate FRCs produced in TS-3 and 4 experiments. The toroidal ion flow (V i ∼10km/sec) was found to peak around the magnetic axis, indicating formation of high flow shear inside the separatrix. The toroidal flow was observed to deform the magnetic field lines of the FRC, producing bipolar toroidal field profile. In high-s FRC (averaged number of ion gyro-radius 's'=4.5) with slow flow, its n=1 mode kept growing, causing collapse of the whole configuration. However, in low-s FRC (s=3) with fast flow, the rotating n=2 mode (saturated) became dominant after n=1 mode saturation. The spontaneous formation of flow shear possibly transformed the n=1 mode into the n=2 mode, suggesting a new sheared flow stabilization of n=1 mode. The flow shear was also generated artificially using the 'sling shot' effect of the counter helicity reconnection. The n=1 and 2 mode amplitudes were reduced down to 1/5-1/10 due to the generated flow shear. A new method for continuous sheared-flow generation was proposed for stabilization and heating of FRC by use of intermittent merging of spheromaks with opposing B t . (author)

  14. cardioprotective roles of the chinese medicinal formula bao-xin-tang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bao-Xin-Tang (BXT) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula used for the treatment of coronary heart disease and known to have favorable therapeutic benefits. The current study was designed to determine whether BXT has a cardioprotective role for acute myocardial infarction. The underlying mechanisms ...

  15. Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions with BaO and MgO/BaO barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rogge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We succeed to integrate BaO as a tunneling barrier into Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs. By means of Auger electron spectroscopy it could be proven that the applied annealing temperatures during BaO deposition and afterwards do not cause any diffusion of Ba neither into the lower Heusler compound lead nor into the upper Fe counter electrode. Nevertheless, a negative tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR ratio of -10% is found for Co2FeAl (24 nm / BaO (5 nm / Fe (7 nm MTJs, which can be attributed to the preparation procedure and can be explained by the formation of Co- and Fe-oxides at the interfaces between the Heusler and the crystalline BaO barrier by comparing with theory. Although an amorphous structure of the BaO barrier seems to be confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, it cannot entirely be ruled out that this is an artifact of TEM sample preparation due to the sensitivity of BaO to moisture. By replacing the BaO tunneling barrier with an MgO/BaO double layer barrier, the electric stability could effectively be increased by a factor of five. The resulting TMR effect is found to be about +20% at room temperature, although a fully antiparallel state has not been realized.

  16. Numerical solutions of anharmonic vibration of BaO and SrO molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudito, Sidikrubadi; Sanjaya, Nugraha Wanda; Sumaryada, Tony

    2016-03-01

    The Morse potential is a potential model that is used to describe the anharmonic behavior of molecular vibration between atoms. The BaO and SrO molecules, which are two almost similar diatomic molecules, were investigated in this research. Some of their properties like the value of the dissociation energy, the energy eigenvalues of each energy level, and the profile of the wavefunctions in their correspondence vibrational states were presented in this paper. Calculation of the energy eigenvalues and plotting the wave function's profiles were performed using Numerov method combined with the shooting method. In general we concluded that the Morse potential solved with numerical methods could accurately produce the vibrational properties and the wavefunction behavior of BaO and SrO molecules from the ground state to the higher states close to the dissociation level.

  17. Influence of BaO in perovskite electrodes for the electrochemical reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Vibe Louise Ernlund; Johnsen, M.M.; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Using the point electrode method, the effect of BaO on electrochemical reduction of NO (x) was investigated using the perovskites La0.85Sr0.15MnO3 (LSM15) and La0.85Sr0.15CoO3 (LSCo15) as electrode materials. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range 400-600 degrees C in 1% NO and...

  18. Optimized Clustering Estimators for BAO Measurements Accounting for Significant Redshift Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ashley J. [Portsmouth U., ICG; Banik, Nilanjan [Fermilab; Avila, Santiago [Madrid, IFT; Percival, Will J. [Portsmouth U., ICG; Dodelson, Scott [Fermilab; Garcia-Bellido, Juan [Madrid, IFT; Crocce, Martin [ICE, Bellaterra; Elvin-Poole, Jack [Jodrell Bank; Giannantonio, Tommaso [Cambridge U., KICC; Manera, Marc [Cambridge U., DAMTP; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio [Madrid, CIEMAT

    2017-05-15

    We determine an optimized clustering statistic to be used for galaxy samples with significant redshift uncertainty, such as those that rely on photometric redshifts. To do so, we study the BAO information content as a function of the orientation of galaxy clustering modes with respect to their angle to the line-of-sight (LOS). The clustering along the LOS, as observed in a redshift-space with significant redshift uncertainty, has contributions from clustering modes with a range of orientations with respect to the true LOS. For redshift uncertainty $\\sigma_z \\geq 0.02(1+z)$ we find that while the BAO information is confined to transverse clustering modes in the true space, it is spread nearly evenly in the observed space. Thus, measuring clustering in terms of the projected separation (regardless of the LOS) is an efficient and nearly lossless compression of the signal for $\\sigma_z \\geq 0.02(1+z)$. For reduced redshift uncertainty, a more careful consideration is required. We then use more than 1700 realizations of galaxy simulations mimicking the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 sample to validate our analytic results and optimized analysis procedure. We find that using the correlation function binned in projected separation, we can achieve uncertainties that are within 10 per cent of of those predicted by Fisher matrix forecasts. We predict that DES Y1 should achieve a 5 per cent distance measurement using our optimized methods. We expect the results presented here to be important for any future BAO measurements made using photometric redshift data.

  19. Galileon gravity in light of ISW, CMB, BAO and H {sub 0} data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, Janina [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Zumalacárregui, Miguel [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Montanari, Francesco [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Barreira, Alexandre, E-mail: janina.renk@fysik.su.se, E-mail: miguelzuma@berkeley.edu, E-mail: francesco.montanari@helsinki.fi, E-mail: barreira@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    Cosmological models with Galileon gravity are an alternative to the standard ΛCDM paradigm with testable predictions at the level of its self-accelerating solutions for the expansion history, as well as large-scale structure formation. Here, we place constraints on the full parameter space of these models using data from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) (including lensing), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. We pay special attention to the ISW effect for which we use the cross-spectra, C {sub ℓ}{sup Tg}, of CMB temperature maps and foreground galaxies from the WISE survey. The sign of C {sub ℓ}{sup Tg} is set by the time evolution of the lensing potential in the redshift range of the galaxy sample: it is positive if the potential decays (like in ΛCDM), negative if it deepens. We constrain three subsets of Galileon gravity separately known as the Cubic, Quartic and Quintic Galileons. The cubic Galileon model predicts a negative C {sub ℓ}{sup Tg} and exhibits a 7.8σ tension with the data, which effectively rules it out. For the quartic and quintic models the ISW data also rule out a significant portion of the parameter space but permit regions where the goodness-of-fit is comparable to ΛCDM. The data prefers a non zero sum of the neutrino masses (∑ m {sub ν} ≈ 0.5eV) with ∼ 5σ significance in these models. The best-fitting models have values of H {sub 0} consistent with local determinations, thereby avoiding the tension that exists in ΛCDM. We also identify and discuss a ∼ 2σ tension that Galileon gravity exhibits with recent BAO measurements. Our analysis shows overall that Galileon cosmologies cannot be ruled out by current data but future lensing, BAO and ISW data hold strong potential to do so.

  20. Constraints on reconstructed dark energy model from SN Ia and BAO/CMB observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamon, Abdulla Al [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal (India); Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India); Bamba, Kazuharu [Fukushima University, Division of Human Support System, Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima (Japan); Das, Sudipta [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India)

    2017-01-15

    The motivation of the present work is to reconstruct a dark energy model through the dimensionless dark energy function X(z), which is the dark energy density in units of its present value. In this paper, we have shown that a scalar field φ having a phenomenologically chosen X(z) can give rise to a transition from a decelerated to an accelerated phase of expansion for the universe. We have examined the possibility of constraining various cosmological parameters (such as the deceleration parameter and the effective equation of state parameter) by comparing our theoretical model with the latest Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation observations. Using the joint analysis of the SN Ia+BAO/CMB dataset, we have also reconstructed the scalar potential from the parametrized X(z). The relevant potential is found, a polynomial in φ. From our analysis, it has been found that the present model favors the standard ΛCDM model within 1σ confidence level. (orig.)

  1. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural's many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc.) reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines) an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect the actual state of

  2. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural’s many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc. reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect

  3. The bchU gene of Chlorobium tepidum encodes the C-20 methyltransferase in bacteriochlorophyll c biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Julia A; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Aline; Ponsatí, Marta Ros

    2004-01-01

    Bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) c and d, two of the major light-harvesting pigments in photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria, differ only by the presence of a methyl group at the C-20 methine bridge position in BChl c. A gene potentially encoding the C-20 methyltransferase, bchU, was identified...

  4. Status on Bidimensional Dark Energy Parameterizations Using SNe Ia JLA and BAO Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Escamilla-Rivera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using current observations of forecast type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia Joint Lightcurve Analysis (JLA and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO, in this paper we investigate six bidimensional dark energy parameterizations in order to explore which has more constraining power. Our results indicate that for parameterizations that contain z 2 -terms, the tension (σ-distance between these datasets seems to be reduced and their behaviour is <1σ compatible with the concordance model (ΛCDM. Also, the results obtained by performing their Bayesian evidence show a striking evidence in favour of the ΛCDM model, but only one parameterization can be distinguished by around 1 % from the other models when the combination of datasets are considered.

  5. A cosmographic analysis of the transition to acceleration using SN-Ia and BAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukrishna, Daniel; Parkinson, David, E-mail: d.muthukrishna@uq.edu.au, E-mail: d.parkinson@uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2016-11-01

    We explore the distance-redshift relation using a cosmographic methodology, and show how the cosmographic parameters can be used to determine the redshift of transition from deceleration to acceleration. Such a transition at a low redshift occupies only a small region of the available parameter space, and the prior assumption of an early period of deceleration can significantly change the posterior constraints. We use available type Ia Supernovae (SN-Ia) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) data sets to determine the cosmographic deceleration q {sub 0}, jerk j {sub 0}, snap s {sub 0} and lerk l {sub 0} parameters. The parameters are consistent with the ΛCDM model for a flat universe within 2-sigma. We derive constraints on the redshift of transition from deceleration to acceleration for the different expansions, and find z {sub acc} > 0.14 at 95% confidence in the most conservative case.

  6. Growth and lattice dynamics of ultrathin BaO films on Pt(0 0 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goian, Veronica; Schumann, Florian O.; Widdra, Wolf

    2018-03-01

    We report on the surface phonons of long-range ordered BaO thin films grown on Pt(0 0 1). In the thickness range between 4 and 28 ML, we find unstrained BaO(0 0 1)-(1×1 ) bulk-like terminated films which coincide with a Pt(0 0 1)-c(2×2 ) lattice periodicity. The dipole-active lattice vibrations were determined using high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. For all BaO film thicknesses, a single Fuchs–Kliewer phonon-polariton is observed. Its intensity increases and its frequency softens with increasing film thickness. These thickness-dependent properties and the spectral shape are quantitatively discussed on the basis of dielectric theory, where a proper modeling requires three components: the dielectric response of the BaO film itself, the plasmonic response of the metallic substrate, and a weak damping due to a defect-induced doping within the oxide film. For a full description, also the quantization of the phonon wavevector due to the confinement within the film of finite thickness has to be taken into account.

  7. Electronic structure of the BaO molecule with dipole moments and ro-vibrational calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohamed; Korek, Mahmoud

    2018-03-01

    The twenty-three low-lying electronic states (singlet and triplet) of the BaO molecule have been studied by using an ab initio method. These electronic states have been investigated by using the Complete Active Apace Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) followed by multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI + Q) with Davidson correction. The potential energy curves, the internuclear distance Re, the harmonic frequency ωe, the rotational constant Be, the electronic energy with respect to the ground state Te and the static and transition dipole moment have been investigated. The Einstein spontaneous and induced emission coefficients A21 and B21ω as well as the spontaneous radiative lifetime τspon, emission wavelength λ21 and oscillator strength f21 have been calculated by using the transition dipole moment between some doublet electronic states. The calculation of the eigenvalues Ev, the rotational constant Bv, the centrifugal distortion constant Dv, and the abscissas of the turning points Rmin and Rmax have been done by using the canonical functions approach. A very good agreement is shown by comparing the values of our work to those found in the literature for many electronic states. Eighteen new electronic states have been studied here for the first time.

  8. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Galaxy Sample for BAO Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocce, M.; et al.

    2017-12-17

    We define and characterise a sample of 1.3 million galaxies extracted from the first year of Dark Energy Survey data, optimised to measure Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the presence of significant redshift uncertainties. The sample is dominated by luminous red galaxies located at redshifts $z \\gtrsim 0.6$. We define the exact selection using color and magnitude cuts that balance the need of high number densities and small photometric redshift uncertainties, using the corresponding forecasted BAO distance error as a figure-of-merit in the process. The typical photo-$z$ uncertainty varies from $2.3\\%$ to $3.6\\%$ (in units of 1+$z$) from $z=0.6$ to $1$, with number densities from $200$ to $130$ galaxies per deg$^2$ in tomographic bins of width $\\Delta z = 0.1$. Next we summarise the validation of the photometric redshift estimation. We characterise and mitigate observational systematics including stellar contamination, and show that the clustering on large scales is robust in front of those contaminants. We show that the clustering signal in the auto-correlations and cross-correlations is generally consistent with theoretical models, which serves as an additional test of the redshift distributions.

  9. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: galaxy mock catalogues for BAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, S.; et al.

    2017-12-17

    Mock catalogues are a crucial tool in the analysis of galaxy surveys data, both for the accurate computation of covariance matrices, and for the optimisation of analysis methodology and validation of data sets. In this paper, we present a set of 1800 galaxy mock catalogues designed to match the Dark Energy Survey Year-1 BAO sample (Crocce et al. 2017) in abundance, observational volume, redshift distribution and uncertainty, and redshift dependent clustering. The simulated samples were built upon HALOGEN (Avila et al. 2015) halo catalogues, based on a $2LPT$ density field with an exponential bias. For each of them, a lightcone is constructed by the superposition of snapshots in the redshift range $0.45

  10. [Analysis of characteristics of road traffic injuries in Bao'an District, Shenzhen from 2004 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-hua; Li, Li-ping; Zhou, Zhi-ming; Liang, Jin-feng; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Gang; Deng, Shao-jie

    2012-12-18

    To analyze the characteristics of road traffic accidents in Bao'an District, Shenzhen from 2004 to 2011, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of traffic accidents. The traffic injury cases recorded by Shenzhen traffic police from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed, including the time (year, month, date); the space (crossings and road segments, road type); the injury of patients (injuries, death). A total of 422 730 accidents from road traffic occurred in Bao'an District, Shenzhen from 2004 to 2011, with 63 809 people injured and 2 790 people died, and the mortality ratio was 22.87:1. Traffic accidents occurred in Bao'an District showed an increasing trend, especially in 2010, and the highest number up to 90 358, while the most deaths occurred in 2007, up to 473 people. As to the single month, the highest traffic accident rate was in August, accounting for 9.77% of the total, while the lowest was in February, accounting for 5.39% of the total; mortality rate in December reached 9.02%. As to one single day, the peaks of accidents occurred in two periods: 9:00-11:00 and 15:00-18:00, and 3:00-6:00 had the smallest number. Traffic injuries often occurred in the intersection, straight line, main road and the section only marked marking. According to the characteristics of regional traffic injury, we should enhance the populace traffic safe awareness, efficiently arrange the human resources, such as emergency personnel, traffic management personnel, set scientific preventive measures, and modify the emergency system and service mode. All of these are essential measures for the prevention and control of traffic injuries.

  11. Function and regulation of cholecystokinin octapeptide, β-endorp hin and gastrin in anorexic infantile rats treated with ErBao Granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Ping; Zhang, Yue-Ping; Wang, Shou-Chuan; Shi, Jian; Wu, Shao-Hua

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), β-endorphin (β-EP), and gastrin in an anorexic infantile rat model and no subsequent regulation of nose peptides by the Yunpi complex prescription ErBao Granule. METHODS: We fed infantile rats with special prepared forage. A liquid extract of ErBao Granule was administered to the rats daily for 3 weeks, CCK-8, β-EP, and gastrin concentrations in hypothalamus, gastric antrum, and plasma of the rats were measured by radioimmunoassay, and were compared with controls. RESULTS: Treatment of rats with ErBao Granule inhibited CCK-8 secretion and increased β-EP and gastrin secretion. CCK-8 concentration in hypothalamus and plasma of model control group increased significantly and correlated negatively with food intake of models, respectively. β-EP concentration in gastric antrum and plasma of model control group decreased significantly and showed a positive correlation with food intake of models, respectively. Hypothalamus concentration of β-EP was similar in models and controls. Gastrin concentration in gastric antrum of models was lower than in the blank control group, and correlated positively to food intake of models. Finally, CCK-8 concentrations in plasma of rats showed a positive correlation with plasma β-EP (r = -0.68, P anorexic rat models produced by special forage. ErBao Granule can reverse these changes, which may be the major mechanisms of ErBao Granule simulating feeding. PMID:11819774

  12. Interacting scalar tensor cosmology in light of SNeIa, CMB, BAO and OHD observational data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiei, Sayed Wrya; Saaidi, Khaled [Faculty of Science University of Kurdistan, Department of Physics, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikhahmadi, Haidar [Faculty of Science University of Kurdistan, Department of Physics, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Advance Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS) Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghamohammadi, Ali [Sanandaj Branch Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this work, an interacting chameleon-like scalar field scenario, by considering SNeIa, CMB, BAO, and OHD data sets, is investigated. In fact, the investigation is realized by introducing an ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state, which mimics the behavior of chameleon-like models. Based on this assumption, some cosmological parameters, including the Hubble, deceleration, and coincidence parameters, in such a mechanism are analyzed. It is realized that, to estimate the free parameters of a theoretical model, by regarding the systematic errors it is better that the whole of the above observational data sets would be considered. In fact, if one considers SNeIa, CMB, and BAO, but disregards OHD, it maybe leads to different results. Also, to get a better overlap between the contours with the constraint χ{sub m}{sup 2} ≤ 1, the χ{sub T}{sup 2} function could be re-weighted. The relative probability functions are plotted for marginalized likelihood L(Ω{sub m0}, ω{sub 1}, β) according to the two dimensional confidence levels 68.3, 90, and 95.4%. Meanwhile, the value of the free parameters which maximize the marginalized likelihoods using the above confidence levels are obtained. In addition, based on these calculations the minimum value of χ{sup 2} based on the free parameters of the ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state is achieved. (orig.)

  13. Self-Similar Bumps and Wiggles: Isolating the Evolution of the BAO Peak with Powerlaw Initial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Chris; Weinberg, David

    2011-04-01

    Future observations of a subtle dark matter clustering feature known as Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) will play a key role in unraveling the mystery of dark energy. Originally detected in galaxy clustering data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Two-Degree Field Survey, by observing this feature the cosmological distance to galaxies at a particular redshift can be accurately determined and the expansion history of the universe constrained with high precision. A complication of this analysis, however, is that the clustering feature changes over time -- the "bump" feature broadens and is shifted slightly. We investigate a simplified model of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations using cosmological N-body simulations to better understand the underlying physics of how this feature evolves. We model our simulation results both phenomenologically and compare with ab initio predictions from perturbation theory, yielding useful insights for more physically-motivated cosmological models. The simplicity of our setup also allows interesting self-similar numerical tests that indicate that modern simulation methods and resolutions robustly capture the non-linear evolution of the BAO feature.

  14. Perturbation theory for BAO reconstructed fields: One-loop results in the real-space matter density field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikage, Chiaki; Koyama, Kazuya; Heavens, Alan

    2017-08-01

    We compute the power spectrum at one-loop order in standard perturbation theory for the matter density field to which a standard Lagrangian baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) reconstruction technique is applied. The BAO reconstruction method corrects the bulk motion associated with the gravitational evolution using the inverse Zel'dovich approximation (ZA) for the smoothed density field. We find that the overall amplitude of one-loop contributions in the matter power spectrum substantially decreases after reconstruction. The reconstructed power spectrum thereby approaches the initial linear spectrum when the smoothed density field is close enough to linear, i.e., the smoothing scale Rs≳10 h-1 Mpc . On smaller Rs, however, the deviation from the linear spectrum becomes significant on large scales (k ≲Rs-1 ) due to the nonlinearity in the smoothed density field, and the reconstruction is inaccurate. Compared with N-body simulations, we show that the reconstructed power spectrum at one-loop order agrees with simulations better than the unreconstructed power spectrum. We also calculate the tree-level bispectrum in standard perturbation theory to investigate non-Gaussianity in the reconstructed matter density field. We show that the amplitude of the bispectrum significantly decreases for small k after reconstruction and that the tree-level bispectrum agrees well with N-body results in the weakly nonlinear regime.

  15. Comparative study of silicate glasses containing Bi2O3, PbO and BaO: Radiation shielding and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirdsiri, K.; Kaewkhao, J.; Chanthima, N.; Limsuwan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We change Bi 2 O 3 , PbO and BaO concentration in silicate glasses. → The densities of Bi 2 O 3 glasses more than PbO glasses and BaO glasses. → The Um of Bi 2 O 3 glasses and PbO glasses are comparable and more than BaO glasses. → This suggests that Bi 2 O 3 can replace PbO in radiation shielding glasses. - Abstract: The radiation shielding and optical properties of xBi 2 O 3 :(100-x)SiO 2 , xPbO:(100-x)SiO 2 and xBaO:(100-x)SiO 2 glass systems (where 30 ≤ x ≤ 70 is the composition by weight%) have been investigated. Total mass attenuation coefficients (μ m ) of glasses at 662 keV were improved by increasing their Bi 2 O 3 and PbO content, which raised the photoelectric absorption in glass matrices. Raising the BaO content to the same fraction range, however, brought no significant change to μ m . These results indicate that photon is strongly attenuated in Bi 2 O 3 and PbO containing glasses, and but not in BaO containing glass. The results from the optical absorption spectra show an edge that was not sharply defined; clearly indicating the amorphous nature of glass samples. It is observed that the cutoff wavelength for Bi 2 O 3 containing glass was longer than PbO and BaO containing glasses.

  16. CARDIOPROTECTIVE ROLES OF THE CHINESE MEDICINAL FORMULA BAO-XIN-TANG ON ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Weihao; Peng, Weijun; Liu, Weiping; Cai, Weijun; Xia, Zian; Zhang, Honggeng; Xing, And Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Bao-Xin-Tang (BXT) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula used for the treatment of coronary heart disease and known to have favorable therapeutic benefits. The current study was designed to determine whether BXT has a cardioprotective role for acute myocardial infarction. The underlying mechanisms were also explored. The Sprague-Dawley rat model of acute myocardial infarction was established by occluding the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. After a 3-h ischemic period, we determined the myocardial infarction size, inflammatory components, and antioxidant activities. The data showed that BXT could reduce the infarction size and lower the levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and myeloperoxidase, and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10. These results indicate that administration of BXT, following acute myocardial infarction, could reduce infarct size. The effects of BXT may be related to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties.

  17. Atomic Center interactions in BaO; Al2O3; B2O3 glasses containing silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontuschka, W.M.; Piccini, A.

    1979-01-01

    The EPR study of borate glasses, with 30% of BaO and 5% mole of silver, X-irradiated at 77 0 K, showed Ag 0 and Ag ++ centers. In addition were detected the boron electron center (BEC) and the boron hole center. The silver centers and BEC were studied in detail and the spin Hamiltonian parameters are given. The different Al 2 O 3 concentrations exerted only little influence on the tabulated constants. The Ag + 2 center was not observed, indicating that the collisions between Ag atoms are not very frequent in these glasses, even during the process of thermal bleaching. The hfs of the boron electron center suffered severe variation as one compared the spectra of base glasses and those containing silver. This is an evidence of the action of silver as a glass modifier like the alkali atoms [pt

  18. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: A Precise H0 Measurement from DES Y1, BAO, and D/H Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, T.M.C.; et al.

    2017-11-01

    We combine Dark Energy Survey Year 1 clustering and weak lensing data with Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) experiments to constrain the Hubble constant. Assuming a flat $\\Lambda$CDM model with minimal neutrino mass ($\\sum m_\

  19. NO and NO{sub 2} adsorption on subsurface doped MgO (100) and BaO (100) surfaces. A density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Añez, Rafael, E-mail: ranez@ivic.gob.ve [Laboratorio de Química Física y Catálisis Computacional, Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 21827, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sierraalta, Aníbal [Laboratorio de Química Física y Catálisis Computacional, Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 21827, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Soto, Lenin J. Díaz [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Física, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, CT Bloco A sala 412, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949-900 (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Subsurface doped BaO(100) and MgO(100) surfaces. • NO and NO{sub 2} adsorption on doped BaO(100) and MgO(100) surfaces. • Surface distortion produced by the doped improves the interaction with the surface. • NO and NO{sub 2} adsorption energies displayed good correlation with the transferred charge. - Abstract: A periodic DFT approach was used to study the energetic, electronic and structural changes produced by the V, Fe and Ni sub layer doped of the MgO (100) and BaO (100) surfaces and the effect of these changes over the adsorption of NO and NO{sub 2}. Results indicate that the higher capacity of donating charge of the transition metal atoms improves the ability of the surfaces to transfer charge to the molecules. The charge transferred goes to NO and NO{sub 2} antibonding orbitals which makes them more reactive hence the interaction becomes stronger. A good lineal correlation between the charge transferred and the calculated adsorption energy was found, that is, as the charge transferred increases the adsorption energy increases. The interaction between the NO or NO{sub 2} molecule on doped surfaces not only depends of the charge transferred, surface structural changes produced by the doping with transition metal atoms increase the adsorption energy specially on the BaO (100) surface where the surface structural changes were more noticeable. Calculated stretching frequency of a NO in a η{sup 1} –N configuration indicates that this is the most stable specie found for the adsorption of NO on terraces of the MgO (100) surface around 77 K and that the sub layer Ni doped BaO (100) surface could be a promising material for the decomposition of NO{sub 2}.

  20. Carotenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: In vitro studies of a crt/bch transcription factor from Rhodobacter capsulatus and carotenoid enzymes from Erwinia herbicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, D.A.

    1992-11-01

    A putative transcription factor in Rhodobactor capsulatus which binds upstream of the crt and bch pigment biosynthesis operons and appears to play a role in the adaptation of the organism from the aerobic to the anaerobic-photosynthetic growth mode was characterized. Chapter 2 describes the identification of this factor through an in vitro mobility shift assay, as well as the determination of its binding properties and sequence specificity. Chapter 3 focuses on the isolation of this factor. Biochemistry of later carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes derived from the non-photosynthetic bacterium, Erwinia herbicola. Chapter 4 describes the separate overexpression and in vitro analysis of two enzymes involved in the main sequence of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, lycopene cyclase and 5-carotene hydroxylase. Chapter 5 examines the overexpression and enzymology of functionally active zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase, an enzyme which carries out a more unusual transformation, converting a carotenoid into its more hydrophilic mono- and diglucoside derivatives. In addition, amino acid homology with other glucosyltransferases suggests a putative binding site for the UDP-activated glucose substrate.

  1. Biogeochemical characteristics of Kuan-Tzu-Ling, Chung-Lun and Bao-Lai hot springs in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Nath, Bibhash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Jiann-Hong; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Hot springs are the important natural sources of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust. Kuan-Tzu-Ling (KTL), Chung-Lun (CL) and Bao-Lai (BL) are well-known hot springs in southern Taiwan. Fluid and mud (sediments) samples were collected from the eruption points of three hot springs for detailed biogeochemical characterization. The fluid sample displays relatively high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO(2) (-), and SO(4) (2-), suggesting a possible marine origin. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn were significantly higher in the mud sediments compared with fluids, whereas high concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Se, Sr and Rb were observed in the fluids. This suggests that electronegative elements were released during sediment-water interactions. High As concentration in the fluids was observed to be associated with low redox (Eh) conditions. The FTIR spectra of the humic acid fractions of the sediments showed the presence of possible functional groups of secondary amines, ureas, urethanesm (amide), and silicon. The sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium 99% similar to Desulfovibrio psychrotolerans (GU329907) were rich in the CL hot spring while mesophilic, proteolytic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacterium that 99% similar to Clostridium sulfidigenes (GU329908) were rich in the BL hot spring.

  2. The Semi-Quantitative Study of Magnetization Process on Milling and Reannealing of Barium Hexaferrite (BaO.6Fe2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaferrite (BaO.6Fe2O3 is as a hard magnetic material with good chemical stability which has been intensively used as permanent magnet components. Many works have been done in order to improve their magnetic properties either through chemical process or powders metallurgy technique. In this work, commercial BaO.6Fe2O3 was milled using high-energy milling machine for 10, 20 and 30 hours and followed by reannealing for 3 hours at 1000⁰C in air. X-ray diffraction pattern indicate no phase decomposition occurred caused the mill processing, annealing of milled powders recovered the crystal system and promoted crystallite growth. The magnetic hysteresis curve measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM shows the coercivity of annealed BaO.6Fe2O3 increases to two times higher than the original one. By using Jiles-Atherton model, all the hysteresis parameters Ms, k, α, a and c, have been determined adopted to the Genetic Algorithm (GA. The analyzed hysteretic parameters obtained from this work is congruent to the change of magnetic properties of as-milled and annealed powders of barium hexaferrite.

  3. Evaluating the non-lethal effects of organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides on the yabby (Cherax destructor) using cholinesterase (AChE, BChE), Glutathione S-Transferase and ATPase as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ben; Miranda, Ana; Allinson, Graeme; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2017-09-01

    The toxicity of two organophosphorus insecticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF), malathion (MAL), and one carbamate insecticide, methomyl (METH), to the yabby (Cherax destructor) was assessed by measuring cholinesterase (AChE, BChE), Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) and Na + /K + ATPase activity after 96h of exposure. Yabbies exposed to all three insecticides at 2 and 5µgL -1 exhibited significant AChE, BChE, GST and Na + /K + ATPase inhibition. Based on these enzyme inhibition tests, the toxicity of the three insecticides to C. destructor was CPF > MAL > METH. After 14 days of recovery the yabbies enzymatic activities of AChE, BChE, GST and Na + /K + ATPase was measured. Recovery of The enzyme activity recovery was faster after the exposure to METH than for the yabbies exposed to CPF and MAL. Slow recovery of enzyme activity could affect the physical activities of organisms and produce indirect effects on populations if such crayfish are less able to elude predators or search for food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Manufacture of barium hexaferrite (BaO3.98Fe2O3) from iron oxide waste of grinding process by using calcination process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idayanti, N.; Dedi; Kristiantoro, T.; Mulyadi, D.; Sudrajat, N.; Alam, G. F. N.

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of iron oxide waste of grinding process as raw materials for making barium hexaferrite has been completed by powder metallurgy method. The iron oxide waste was purified by roasting at 800 °C temperature for 3 hours. The method used varying calcination temperature at 1000, 1100, 1200, and 1250 °C for 3 hours. The starting iron oxide waste (Fe2O3) and barium carbonate (BaCO3) were prepared by mol ratio of Fe2O3:BaCO3 from the formula BaO3.98Fe2O3. Some additives such as calcium oxide (CaO), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were added after calcination process. The samples were formed at the pressure of 2 ton/cm2 and sintered at the temperature of 1250 °C for 1 hour. The formation of barium hexaferrite compounds after calcination is determined by X-Ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were observed by Permagraph-Magnet Physik with the optimum characteristic at calcination temperature of 1250 °C with the induction of remanence (Br) = 1.38 kG, coercivity (HcJ) = 4.533 kOe, product energy maximum (BHmax) = 1.086 MGOe, and density = 4.33 g/cm3.

  5. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (Pend-line survey found that feeding practices had improved significantly following the intervention. An enabling policy and regulatory environment in which CFSs are defined and parameters for appropriate marketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices. © 2011 Blackwell

  6. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  7. Impact du BAO électronique sur l’intention d’achat du consommateur:Le rôle modérateur de l’âge et du genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hamouda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Les variables sociodémographiques tels que l’âge et le genre sont considérées comme des variables très importantes en comportement du consommateur que ce soit dans un contexte réel ou dans un environnement virtuel. A cet égard, cette recherche se propose d’étudier le rôle de l’âge et du genre dans la relation entre l’intention d’achat du consommateur et le Bouche à oreille électronique (BAO électronique. Les données utilisées dans cette recherche ont été collectées à travers une étude empirique menée sur un échantillon de 204 internautes. Les résultats indiquent que le genre et l’âge constituent deux variables susceptibles de modérer l’intention d’achat du consommateur suite à une exposition à un BAO électronique. Les implications inhérentes pour les chercheurs ainsi que pour les praticiens ont été par ailleurs suggérées.

  8. Study of photon interactions and shielding properties of silicate glasses containing Bi2O3, BaO and PbO in the energy region of 1 keV to 100 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanthima, N.; Kaewkhao, J.; Limsuwan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Interaction photon with of silicate glasses containing PbO, BaO and Bi 2 O 3 studied. ► All interactions were changed with energy and composition of glasses. ► Shielding properties of glasses are better than some standard shielding materials. - Abstract: The mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Z eff ), effective electron density (N e,eff ) and half-value layer (HVL) of xR m O n :(1 − x)SiO 2 glass system (where R m O n are Bi 2 O 3 , PbO and BaO, with 0.3 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.7 is fraction by weight) have been calculated by theoretical approach using WinXCom program in the energy region from 1 keV to 100 GeV. Also, the HVL of these glass samples has been compared with some standard shielding concretes. The variations of μ/ρ, Z eff , N e,eff and HVL with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It has been observed that the value of these parameters has been changed with energy and composition of the silicate glasses. The better shielding properties of glass samples were obtained compared with some standard shielding concretes. These results indicated that glasses in the present study can be used as radiation shielding materials.

  9. Study of the New Glass and Glass Ceramic Stoichiometric and Gd3+ -loaded BaO*2SiO2 (DSB:Ce) Scintillation Material for Future Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, R. W.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Borisevich, A.; Dormenev, V.; Korjik, M.; Zaunick, H.-G.; Zimmermann, S.

    2017-11-01

    In the last forty years, application of crystalline materials in ionizing radiation detectors has played a crucial role in the discovery of matter properties and promoted a continuous progress in the detecting technique. Further concepts of the detectors at HEP experiments will require an unique combination of the material features, particularly in case of collider experiments. Crucially important becomes a minimal level of radiation damage effects under the electromagnetic part of ionizing radiation and energetic hadrons as well: low deterioration of the optical transmission, low level of afterglow and low level of radioluminescence due to radio-nuclides being generated due to secondary nuclear reactions in the detector material itself. A systematic study of the radiation hardness of inorganic optical and scintillation materials have been performed. We concluded that both oxide and fluoride crystals which consist of atoms with atomic number less than 60 will be reasonably survivable in the irradiation environment of future experiments at colliders. In this study we focused on the study of cheap, capable for a mass production glass (BaO*2SiO2) and DSB: Ce glass ceramics obtained from this glass. We also made this glass more heavy by admixing gadolinium oxide into the matrix. Glass with Gd3+ admixture possesses two times larger light yield than pure (BaO*2SiO2) glass and glass ceramics. Both types of the materials were produced as fibre and blocks of larger volume.

  10. Ion kinetic effects on the tilt mode in FRCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Seyler, C.E.; Barnes, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Theory and simulations have shown that field reversed configurations (FRG's) should be unstable magnetohydrodynamically to the tilting mode, yet tilting seldom is seen in the experiments. Profile effects (within MHD) and ion finite larmor radius (FLR) effects have been prosed to explain the observed stability of FRC's. The present work seeks to test both of these effects

  11. Biographical Sketch: Baron Joseph Lister, FRCS, 1827–1912

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    This biographical sketch on Baron Joseph Lister corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery (1867), available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1320-x.

  12. Biographical Sketch: Baron Joseph Lister, FRCS, 1827-1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Richard A

    2010-08-01

    This biographical sketch on Baron Joseph Lister corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery (1867), available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1320-x .

  13. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  14. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  15. Self-healing FRCs: A New Approach to Damage Tolerant Cryotanks, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Composite cryotanks, or Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs), offer advantages over currently used aluminum-lithium cryotanks, particularly with respect to...

  16. Updating FRCS, the Fuel Reduction Cost Simulator, for national biomass assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis Dykstra; Bruce Hartsough; Bryce. Stokes

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 the USDA and DOE jointly published a report concluding that it would be technically feasible to supply a billion dry tons of biomass annually from farms and forests throughout the United States in support of an emerging bioenergy and bioproducts industry. The report was criticized because it defined "supply" largely in terms of physical availability...

  17. Corrosion resistance and in-vitro bioactivity of BaO containing Na2O-CaO-P2O5 phosphate glass-ceramic coating prepared on 316 L, duplex stainless steel 2205 and Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edathazhe, Akhila B.; Shashikala, H. D.

    2018-03-01

    The phosphate glass with composition 11Na2O-15BaO-29CaO-45P2O5 was coated on biomedical implant materials such as stainless steel 316 L, duplex stainless steel (DSS) 2205 and Ti6Al4V alloy by thermal enamelling method. The structural properties and composition of glass coated substrates were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The coatings were partially crystalline in nature with porous structure and pore size varied from micro to nanometer range. The polarization curve was obtained for uncoated and coated substrates from electrochemical corrosion test which was conducted at 37 °C in Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS). The corrosion resistance of 316 L substrate increased after coating, whereas it decreased in case of DSS 2205 and Ti6Al4V. The XRD and SEM/EDS studies indicated the bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer formation on all the coated surfaces after electrochemical corrosion test, which improved the corrosion resistance. The observed electrochemical corrosion behavior can be explained based on protective HAp layer formation, composition and diffusion of ions on glass coated surfaces. The in-vitro bioactivity test was carried out at 37 °C in HBS solution for 14 days under static conditions for uncoated and coated substrates. pH and ion release rate measurements from the coated samples were conducted to substantiate the electrochemical corrosion test. The lower ion release rates of Na+ and Ca2+ from coated 316 L supported its higher electrochemical corrosion resistance among coated samples. Among the uncoated substrates, DSS showed higher electrochemical corrosion resistance. Amorphous calcium-phosphate (ACP) layer formation on all the coated substrates after in-vitro bioactivity test was confirmed by XRD, SEM/EDS and ion release measurements. The present work is a comparative study of corrosion resistance and bioactivity of glass coated and uncoated

  18. Low-complexity BCH codes with optimized interleavers for DQPSK systems with laser phase noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Miu Yoong; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    The presence of high phase noise in addition to additive white Gaussian noise in coherent optical systems affects the performance of forward error correction (FEC) schemes. In this paper, we propose a simple scheme for such systems, using block interleavers and binary Bose...... simulations. For a target post-FEC BER of 10−6, codes selected using our method result in BERs around 3× target and achieve the target with around 0.2 dB extra signal-to-noise ratio....

  19. Sir Stanford Cade KBE CB FRCS (1895-1973): a pioneer in the modern treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Gerald; Ellis, Harold

    2009-02-01

    Stanford Cade, born in Tsarist Russia, trained in Medicine first in Brussels and then in London at King's College and Westminster Hospital. His potential as a brilliant clinician was recognized by his appointment to the surgical staff at Westminster at the early age of 29. Here he was one of the first in the UK to use radium in the treatment of a wide variety of tumours. His interests covered the broad spectrum of malignant diseases including the head and neck, breast, bone and soft tissues. He was an early exponent of the multidisciplinary approach to the management of cancer.

  20. Bao et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2012) 9(4):548-552

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    The Chinese herbal formula consisting of Astragalus membranaceus, Epimedium brevicornum,. Paeoniae Alba Radix and Radix Ophiopogonis in proper proportions were adopted in order to investigate the immunoenhancing properties of the herbal formula. Fifty ICR mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (NS,.

  1. Reversible Decomposition of Secondary Phases in BaO Infiltrated LSM Electrodes-Polarization Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund; McIntyre, Melissa D.; Norrman, Kion

    2016-01-01

    potential. A changing electrode surface is observed during operation as the Ba3Mn2O8 secondary phase decomposes and manganese oxide accumulates on the electrode surface during cathodic polarization. The observed changes are reversible. These results suggest that the formation of Ba3Mn2O8 is responsible...... and Raman spectroscopy reveal the formation of a secondary phase, Ba3Mn2O8, on the electrode. During the in operando Raman investigation of the BaO-infiltrated La0.85Sr0.15MnO3±δ electrodes, experiments are performed at 300 and 500 °C with oxygen partial pressure 0.1 atm and with −1 or +1 V Applied...... for the reduced polarization resistance observed at open Circuit voltage (OCV) in an oxygen containing atmosphere. Furthermore, the results illustrate the dramatic differences between the electrode surface composition at OCV and during cathodic polarization. Overall, the results highlight the dynamic interactions...

  2. Monitoring LongBao Wetland Ecosystem in Tibetan Plateau using time-series SAR and Optical dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, B.; Wei, Q.; Xie, C.; Shao, Y.; Tian, B.; Li, K.

    2017-12-01

    As a highly productive and sensitive ecosystem, plateau wetlands provide indispensable habitats for the black-necked crane, an endangered species of crane. In this research, we focus on Longbao plateau wetland, the only habitat of black-necked crane in Tibetan Plateau, located in Yushu, Qinghai province, with an area of about 100 km2 and elevation about 4100 4200m. Monitoring Longbao wetland during the past 30 years using time series SAR and optical dataset and analysis its effect on black-necked crane have great significance for endangered species protection. Water and vegetation resources are two important indicators of wetland productivity. In this study, we aim at providing the open water area dynamics and the variation of vegetation during the past 30 years using SAR and optical imageries and analyzing their effect on black-necked cranes. The changes of the open water area and NDVI reflect the environment variety of Longbao wetland. And the relationship between these biological parameters and climates were analyzed, especially their influence on the black-necked cranes, which is the only kind of crane in the world that grows and breeds in the plateau. The method of level set segmentation with KummerU distribution was applied to open water bodies (wetlands) delimitation using time series SAR dataset, including Envisat-ASAR acquired from 2003 to 2010 and Radasat-2 from 2013 to 2014. Also the NDVI is calculated from Landsat images (acquired during 2003-2015) using google earth engine which is a cloud-based platform for planetary-scale environmental data analysis.The results indicate that the open water area fluctuates with seasons and reaches the maximum in summer. While in the spring and winter the wetland is usually covered by ice and snow. The highest values of NDVI occurred in years with a sufficient amount of precipitation. The abundant vegetation, water and suitable temperature of Longbao wetland in summer effectively promote the boost and growth of the chicks of black-necked cranes. The results of this study show that the open water area of Longbao wetland has expanded from 3.50km2 to 3.97km2 slowly from 2003 to 2014. The open water area has stronger correlation with precipitation than other climate factors. We will continue to analyze the change of NDVI and how they affect the black-necked crane.

  3. Multibeam collection for BCH1101E: Multibeam data collected aboard Bowditch from 2011-05-05 to 2011-06-04, Unknown Port to Unknown Port

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Study of NOx Adsorption on CGO10 Impregnated with K2O or BaO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund; Härelind Ingelsten, H.; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2012-01-01

    In the present work Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy is applied to study the adsorption of NOx at 300-500 °C in different atmospheres on gadolinium doped ceria (CGO), an important material in electrodes investigated for electrochemical NOx removal. Furthermore...

  5. Determination and pharmacokinetic properties of arsenic speciation in Xiao-Er-Zhi-Bao-Wan by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Luo, Jiaoyang; Zhou, Wenju; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2016-10-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography with a Hamilton PRP-X100 ion-exchange column (250 × 4.1 mm id, 10 μm) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed to generate a full concentration-time profile of arsenic speciation after oral administration. The results exhibited good linearity and revealed that, in the pills, the average arsenic concentration was 10105.4 ± 380.7 mg/kg, and in the water extraction solution, the inorganic As(III) and As(V) concentrations were 220.1 ± 12.6 and 45.5 ± 2.3 mg/kg, respectively. No trace of monomethyl arsenic acid was detected in any of the plasma samples. We then successfully applied the established methodology to examine the pharmacokinetics of arsenic speciation. The resulting data revealed that, after oral administration in rats, the plasma concentration of each arsenic species reached C max shortly after initial dosing, and that the distribution and elimination of As(V) was faster than that of As(III) and dimethyl arsenic acid. Additionally, the t 1/2 values of As(V), As(III), and dimethyl arsenic acid were 3.4 ± 1.6, 14.3 ± 4.0, and 19.9 ± 1.6 h, respectively. This study provides references for the determination of arsenic speciation in mineral-containing medicines and could serve as a useful tool in measuring the true toxicity in traditional medicines that contain them. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Electrochemical reduction of NO with propene in the presence of oxygen on LSCoM/CGO porous cell stacks impregnated with BaO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    of up to 30 % was achieved. In the presence of propene, the electrochemical promotion on the NOx conversion decreased and only 13 % was removed. A propene oxidation of 35 % was achieved as the highest at 400 °C. The propene acted as a reducing agent on the barium nitrates and caused a greater reduction...

  7. Elisabeth L. Engebretsen et William F. Schroeder, avec Hongwei Bao (éds.), Queer/Tongzhi China: New Perspectives on Research, Activism and Media Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Tiantian

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume collects works from activists, scholars, and artists from China and beyond to address the issue of social activism and community-building among the LGBTQ population in China. Employing diverse methodologies from disciplines such as anthropology, cultural and media studies, Chinese studies, literature, and sociology, this volume presents the voices and perspectives of LGBTQ artists, scholars, and activists who organise communities and disseminate ideas through myriad cultura...

  8. Structures and textures of electrodeposited Zn-Ni alloys from chloride baths. Estructuras y textura de la aleaciones Zn-Ni electrodepositadas con baos de cloruros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcel, A.C.; Ferrer-Gimenez, C.

    1993-01-01

    Structures and surface textures of electrodeposited Zn-Ni alloys have been identified by an XRD method. Alloys in the range 0-30% Ni were obtained onto deep drawing steel sheet from chloride baths at high current densities. Two-Phase [eta] + [gamma] structures were identified below 10.20% Ni, and only [gamma] phase was detected in layers with nickel content between 10,20 to 30%, showing significant changes in surface textures. A high density of (411) planes laying parallel to surface were detected in the range of maximum corrosion resistance 11-14% Ni. Textures also affect surface aspect, which changes from typical matter grey to bright when nickel content exceeds 15%. In addition to (411) planes, both (422) and (222) planes parallel to surface were detected for these alloys. (Author)

  9. Nonparametric Study of the Evolution of the Cosmological Equation of State with SNeIa, BAO, and High-redshift GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, S.; Dainotti, M. G.; Hernandez, X.; Capozziello, S.

    2014-03-01

    We study the dark energy equation of state as a function of redshift in a nonparametric way, without imposing any a priori w(z) (ratio of pressure over energy density) functional form. As a check of the method, we test our scheme through the use of synthetic data sets produced from different input cosmological models that have the same relative errors and redshift distribution as the real data. Using the luminosity-time LX -Ta correlation for gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows (the Dainotti et al. correlation), we are able to utilize GRB samples from the Swift satellite as probes of the expansion history of the universe out to z ≈ 10. Within the assumption of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe and combining supernovae type Ia (SNeIa) data with baryonic acoustic oscillation constraints, the resulting maximum likelihood solutions are close to a constant w = -1. If one imposes the restriction of a constant w, we obtain w = -0.99 ± 0.06 (consistent with a cosmological constant) with the present-day Hubble constant as H 0 = 70.0 ± 0.6km s-1 Mpc-1 and density parameter as ΩΛ0 = 0.723 ± 0.025, while nonparametric w(z) solutions give us a probability map that is centered at H 0 = 70.04 ± 1km s-1 Mpc-1 and ΩΛ0 = 0.724 ± 0.03. Our chosen GRB data sample with a full correlation matrix allows us to estimate the amount, as well as quality (errors), of data needed to constrain w(z) in the redshift range extending an order of magnitude beyond the farthest SNeIa measured.

  10. BH3-Amine and B(CH3)3-Amine Adducts as Additives for Liquid/Gel Hypergols and Solid Hybrid Rocket Motor Fuels: Property and Performance Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and solid monopropellants. In a related approach, DeSain et al. (2007) added the strong reducing agent lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) to paraffin...nonetheless react readily with fieldable oxidizers—one is led to hydrides or 3 organic compounds of aluminum (Al) and boron (B). Having a relatively low...Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan ,1984, 57, 3269–3273. Ismail, I.; Hawkins, T. Kinetics of Thermal Decomposition of Aluminum Hydride in

  11. In silico modeling of the specific inhibitory potential of thiophene-2,3-dihydro-1,5-benzothiazepine against BChE in the formation of β-amyloid plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsoom Saima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease, known to be associated with the gradual loss of memory, is characterized by low concentration of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and cortex part of the brain. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase has successfully been used as a drug target to treat Alzheimer's disease but drug resistance shown by butyrylcholinesterase remains a matter of concern in treating Alzheimer's disease. Apart from the many other reasons for Alzheimer's disease, its association with the genesis of fibrils by β-amyloid plaques is closely related to the increased activity of butyrylcholinesterase. Although few data are available on the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase, studies have shown that that butyrylcholinesterase is a genetically validated drug target and its selective inhibition reduces the formation of β-amyloid plaques. Rationale We previously reported the inhibition of cholinesterases by 2,3-dihydro-1, 5-benzothiazepines, and considered this class of compounds as promising inhibitors for the cure of Alzheimer's disease. One compound from the same series, when substituted with a hydroxy group at C-3 in ring A and 2-thienyl moiety as ring B, showed greater activity against butyrylcholinesterase than to acetylcholinesterase. To provide insight into the binding mode of this compound (Compound A, molecular docking in combination with molecular dynamics simulation of 5000 ps in an explicit solvent system was carried out for both cholinesterases. Conclusion Molecular docking studies revealed that the potential of Compound A to inhibit cholinesterases was attributable to the cumulative effects of strong hydrogen bonds, cationic-π, π-π interactions and hydrophobic interactions. A comparison of the docking results of Compound A against both cholinesterases showed that amino acid residues in different sub-sites were engaged to stabilize the docked complex. The relatively high affinity of Compound A for butyrylcholinesterase was due to the additional hydrophobic interaction between the 2-thiophene moiety of Compound A and Ile69. The involvement of one catalytic triad residue (His438 of butyrylcholinesterase with the 3'-hydroxy group on ring A increases the selectivity of Compound A. C-C bond rotation around ring A also stabilizes and enhances the interaction of Compound A with butyrylcholinesterase. Furthermore, the classical network of hydrogen bonding interactions as formed by the catalytic triad of butyrylcholinesterase is disturbed by Compound A. This study may open a new avenue for structure-based drug design for Alzheimer's disease by considering the 3D-pharmacophoric features of the complex responsible for discriminating these two closely-related cholinesterases.

  12. Acorenone B: AChE and BChE Inhibitor as a Major Compound of the Essential Oil Distilled from the Ecuadorian Species Niphogeton dissecta (Benth. J.F. Macbr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Calva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition, physical proprieties, biological activity, and enantiomeric analysis of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Niphogeton dissecta (culantrillo del cerro from Ecuador, obtained by steam distillation. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oil was realized by gas chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS and GC-FID. Acorenone B was identified by GC-MS and NMR experiments. The enantiomeric distribution of some constituents has been assessed by enantio-GC through the use of a chiral cyclodextrin-based capillary column. We identified 41 components that accounted for 96.46% of the total analyzed, the major components were acorenone B (41.01% and (E-β-ocimene (29.64%. The enantiomeric ratio of (+/(−-β-pinene was 86.9:13.1, while the one of (+/(−-sabinene was 80.9:19.1. The essential oil showed a weak inhibitory activity, expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC 10 mg/mL and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 5 mg/mL. Furthermore, it inhibited butyrylcholinesterase with an IC50 value of 11.5 μg/mL. Pure acorenone B showed inhibitory activity against both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, with IC50 values of 40.8 μg/mL and 10.9 μg/mL, respectively.

  13. Catalytic Turnover Triggers Exchange of Subunits of the Magnesium Chelatase AAA+ Motor Unit*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Joakim; Braumann, Ilka; Kurowska, Marzena; Müller, André H.; Hansson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-dependent insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX is the first committed step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The reaction is catalyzed by magnesium chelatase, which consists of three gene products: BchI, BchD, and BchH. The BchI and BchD subunits belong to the family of AAA+ proteins (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) and form a two-ring complex with six BchI subunits in one layer and six BchD subunits in the other layer. This BchID complex is a two-layered trimer of dimers with the ATP binding site located at the interface between two neighboring BchI subunits. ATP hydrolysis by the BchID motor unit fuels the insertion of Mg2+ into the porphyrin by the BchH subunit. In the present study, we explored mutations that were originally identified in semidominant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutants. The resulting recombinant BchI proteins have marginal ATPase activity and cannot contribute to magnesium chelatase activity although they apparently form structurally correct complexes with BchD. Mixing experiments with modified and wild-type BchI in various combinations showed that an exchange of BchI subunits in magnesium chelatase occurs during the catalytic cycle, which indicates that dissociation of the complex may be part of the reaction mechanism related to product release. Mixing experiments also showed that more than three functional interfaces in the BchI ring structure are required for magnesium chelatase activity. PMID:23836887

  14. African Health Sciences - Vol 1, No 1 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BOOK REVIEW: Neurosurgery in the Tropics: A practical approach to common problems By Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld MBBS, MS, FRACS, FRCS (Ed), FACS, FACTM and David A.K Watters ChM, FRACS, FRCS (Ed) Macmillan Education LTD 2000, Price $ 50 US ISBN 0-333-68412-5 · EMAIL FREE ... Andrew D Weeks, 36-41 ...

  15. Review of CD Rom: The Virtual Surgeon: ACL Reconstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE VIRTUAL SURGEON: ACL RECONSTRUCTION Professor George Bentley ChM FRCS, Russell E LVindsor MD, Mr Andrew Williams FRCS(0rth); 4150 + VAT(UK) The Virtual Surgeon - 3D Anatomy of the Knee 469 + VAT(UK). TVF Multimedia Ltd, 375 City Road, London, EClV lNB, UK ...

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Neurosurgery in the Tropics: A practical approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BOOK REVIEW: Neurosurgery in the Tropics: A practical approach to common problems By Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld MBBS, MS, FRACS, FRCS (Ed), FACS, FACTM and David A.K Watters ChM, FRACS, FRCS (Ed) Macmillan Education LTD 2000, Price $ 50 US ISBN 0-333-68412-5.

  17. Evidence for the presence of key chlorophyll-biosynthesis-related proteins in the genus Rubrobacter (Phylum Actinobacteria) and its implications for the evolution and origin of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S; Khadka, Bijendra

    2016-02-01

    Homologs showing high degree of sequence similarity to the three subunits of the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase enzyme complex (viz. BchL, BchN, and BchB), which carries out a central role in chlorophyll-bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) biosynthesis, are uniquely found in photosynthetic organisms. The results of BLAST searches and homology modeling presented here show that proteins exhibiting a high degree of sequence and structural similarity to the BchB and BchN proteins are also present in organisms from the high G+C Gram-positive phylum of Actinobacteria, specifically in members of the genus Rubrobacter (R. x ylanophilus and R. r adiotolerans). The results presented exclude the possibility that the observed BLAST hits are for subunits of the nitrogenase complex or the chlorin reductase complex. The branching in phylogenetic trees and the sequence characteristics of the Rubrobacter BchB/BchN homologs indicate that these homologs are distinct from those found in other photosynthetic bacteria and that they may represent ancestral forms of the BchB/BchN proteins. Although a homolog showing high degree of sequence similarity to the BchL protein was not detected in Rubrobacter, another protein, belonging to the ParA/Soj/MinD family, present in these bacteria, exhibits high degree of structural similarity to the BchL. In addition to the BchB/BchN homologs, Rubrobacter species also contain homologs showing high degree of sequence similarity to different subunits of magnesium chelatase (BchD, BchH, and BchI) as well as proteins showing significant similarity to the BchP and BchG proteins. Interestingly, no homologs corresponding to the BchX, BchY, and BchZ proteins were detected in the Rubrobacter species. These results provide the first suggestive evidence that some form of photosynthesis either exists or was anciently present within the phylum Actinobacteria (high G+C Gram-positive) in members of the genus Rubrobacter. The significance of these results concerning the

  18. A High-Throughput UHPLC-MS/MS Method for the Quantification of Five Aged Butyrylcholinesterase Biomarkers from Human Exposure to Organophosphorus Nerve Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Leigh Ann; Johnson, Darryl; Carter, Melissa D.; Stout, Emily G.; Erol, Huseyin A.; Isenberg, Samantha L.; Mathews, Thomas P.; Thomas, Jerry D.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2017-01-01

    Organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) are toxic compounds that are classified as prohibited Schedule 1 chemical weapons. In the body, OPNAs bind to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) to form nerve agent adducts (OPNA-BChE). OPNA-BChE adducts can provide a reliable, long-term protein biomarker for assessing human exposure. A major challenge facing OPNA-BChE detection is hydrolysis (aging), which can continue to occur after a clinical specimen has been collected. During aging, the o-alkyl phosphoester bond hydrolyzes, and the specific identity of the nerve agent is lost. To better identify OPNA exposure events, a high throughput method for the detection of five aged OPNA-BChE adducts was developed. This is the first diagnostic panel to allow for the simultaneous quantification of any Chemical Weapons Convention Schedule 1 OPNA by measuring the aged adducts methyl phosphonate (MeP-BChE), ethyl phosphonate (EtP-BChE), propyl phosphonate (PrP-BChE), ethyl phosphoryl (ExP-BChE), phosphoryl (P-BChE), and unadducted BChE. The calibration range for all analytes is 2.00 – 250. ng/mL, which is consistent with similar methodologies used to detect unaged OPNA-BChE adducts. Each analytical run is three minutes making the time to first unknown results, including calibration curve and quality controls, less than one hour. Analysis of commercially purchased individual serum samples demonstrated no potential interferences with detection of aged OPNA-BChE adducts, and quantitative measurements of endogenous levels of BChE were similar to those previously reported in other OPNA-BChE adduct assays. PMID:27572107

  19. Identification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase in human plasma using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, Uma K.; Lin, Chiann Tso; Kim, Jong Seo; Heibeck, Tyler H.; Wang, Jun; Qian, Weijun; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-04-20

    Paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate) is an active metabolite of the common insecticide parathion and is acutely toxic due to the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the nervous systems. The Inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity by paraoxon is due to the formation of phosphorylated BChE adduct, and the detection of the phosphorylated BChE adduct in human plasma can serve as an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. In this study, we performed immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for identifying phosphorylated BChE in human plasma treated by paraoxon. BChE was captured by biotinylated anti-BChE polyclonal antibodies conjugated to streptavidin magnetic beads. Western blot analysis showed that the antibody was effective to recognize both native and modified BChE with high specificity. The exact phosphorylation site of BChE was confirmed on Serine 198 by MS/MS with a 108 Da modification mass and accurately measured parent ion masses. The phosphorylated BChE peptide was also successfully detected in the immunoaffinity purified sample from paraoxon treated human plasma. Thus, immunoaffinity purification combined with mass spectrometry represents a viable approach for the detection of paraoxon-modified BChE and other forms of modified BChE as exposure biomarkers of organophosphates and nerve agents.

  20. Evolution of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase in the Vertebrates: An Atypical Butyrylcholinesterase from the Medaka Oryzias latipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzementi, Leo; Nachon, Florian; Chatonnet, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are thought to be the result of a gene duplication event early in vertebrate evolution. To learn more about the evolution of these enzymes, we expressed in vitro, characterized, and modeled a recombinant cholinesterase (ChE) from a teleost, the medaka Oryzias latipes. In addition to AChE, O. latipes has a ChE that is different from either vertebrate AChE or BChE, which we are classifying as an atypical BChE, and which may resemble a transitional form between the two. Of the fourteen aromatic amino acids in the catalytic gorge of vertebrate AChE, ten are conserved in the atypical BChE of O. latipes; by contrast, only eight are conserved in vertebrate BChE. Notably, the atypical BChE has one phenylalanine in its acyl pocket, while AChE has two and BChE none. These substitutions could account for the intermediate nature of this atypical BChE. Molecular modeling supports this proposal. The atypical BChE hydrolyzes acetylthiocholine (ATCh) and propionylthiocholine (PTCh) preferentially but butyrylthiocholine (BTCh) to a considerable extent, which is different from the substrate specificity of AChE or BChE. The enzyme shows substrate inhibition with the two smaller substrates but not with the larger substrate BTCh. In comparison, AChE exhibits substrate inhibition, while BChE does not, but may instead show substrate activation. The atypical BChE from O. latipes also shows a mixed pattern of inhibition. It is effectively inhibited by physostigmine, typical of all ChEs. However, although the atypical BChE is efficiently inhibited by the BChE-specific inhibitor ethopropazine, it is not by another BChE inhibitor, iso-OMPA, nor by the AChE-specific inhibitor BW284c51. The atypical BChE is found as a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored) amphiphilic dimer (G2a), which is unusual for any BChE. We classify the enzyme as an atypical BChE and discuss its implications for the evolution of AChE and BChE and for

  1. Evolution of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in the vertebrates: an atypical butyrylcholinesterase from the Medaka Oryzias latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Pezzementi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE are thought to be the result of a gene duplication event early in vertebrate evolution. To learn more about the evolution of these enzymes, we expressed in vitro, characterized, and modeled a recombinant cholinesterase (ChE from a teleost, the medaka Oryzias latipes. In addition to AChE, O. latipes has a ChE that is different from either vertebrate AChE or BChE, which we are classifying as an atypical BChE, and which may resemble a transitional form between the two. Of the fourteen aromatic amino acids in the catalytic gorge of vertebrate AChE, ten are conserved in the atypical BChE of O. latipes; by contrast, only eight are conserved in vertebrate BChE. Notably, the atypical BChE has one phenylalanine in its acyl pocket, while AChE has two and BChE none. These substitutions could account for the intermediate nature of this atypical BChE. Molecular modeling supports this proposal. The atypical BChE hydrolyzes acetylthiocholine (ATCh and propionylthiocholine (PTCh preferentially but butyrylthiocholine (BTCh to a considerable extent, which is different from the substrate specificity of AChE or BChE. The enzyme shows substrate inhibition with the two smaller substrates but not with the larger substrate BTCh. In comparison, AChE exhibits substrate inhibition, while BChE does not, but may instead show substrate activation. The atypical BChE from O. latipes also shows a mixed pattern of inhibition. It is effectively inhibited by physostigmine, typical of all ChEs. However, although the atypical BChE is efficiently inhibited by the BChE-specific inhibitor ethopropazine, it is not by another BChE inhibitor, iso-OMPA, nor by the AChE-specific inhibitor BW284c51. The atypical BChE is found as a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored amphiphilic dimer (G(2 (a, which is unusual for any BChE. We classify the enzyme as an atypical BChE and discuss its implications for the evolution of ACh

  2. Twist of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions Hongqi Zhang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    twisted field (current helicity) in the photosphere (Seehafer 1990; Pevtsov et al. 1995;. Bao & Zhang 1998). Bao & Zhang (1998) and Zhang & Bao (1999) computed the photospheric current helicity parameter h|| for 422 active regions, including most of the large ones observed in the period of 1988 1997 at Huairou Solar ...

  3. Association between butyrylcholinesterase K variant and mild cognitive impairment in the Thai community-dwelling patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongthanaracht, Natsalil; Yanarojana, Somchai; Pinthong, Darawan; Unchern, Supeenun; Thithapandha, Amnuay; Assantachai, Prasert; Supavilai, Porntip

    2017-01-01

    To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K) and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai community-dwelling patients. One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman's method. The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12%) was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%), suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity. Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.

  4. Molecular genetic and molecular evolutionary studies on the bacteriochlorophyll synthesis genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke-Agueero, Donald H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Rhodobacter capsulatus, purple bacterium capable of either aerobic or photosynthetic growth, has proven to be very useful in genetic studies of photosynthesis. Forty-four genes clustered together within a 46 kilobase region are required to establish photosynthetic ability in R. capsulatus. Approximately twenty of these genes are involved in bacteriochlorophyll synthesis of which eight ``bch`` genes are the subject of this thesis. Six of these genes were found to code for the two ring reductases. The first converts protochlorophyllide (PChlide) into a chlorin, the immediate precursor to chlorophyll a, and then into a bacteriochlorin. Each reductase is shown to be made up of three subunits. PChlide reductase is coded by the genes bchN, bchB, and bchL. Proteins with amino acid sequences markedly similar to those of bchN and bchL have been shown in other organisms to be required for chlorophyll synthesis; hence, their designation as chlN and chlB. A third chloroplast-encoded gene of heretofore unknown function shares amino acid identities with bchB and is probably the third subunit of the plant PChlide reductase. The bchA locus, which encodes the chlorin reductase, is found to be made up of three separate, translationally coupled genes, referred to as bchX, bchY, and bchZ. Amino acid similarities between bchX, bchL, and the nitrogenase reductase protein nifH suggest that all three classes of proteins share certain three-dimensional structural features, including elements that are central to the enzymatic mechanism of nifH. PChlide reductase and chlorin reductase are clearly derived from a common ancestor. Several lines of analysis suggests the ancestor of both enzyme systems reduced PChlide twice to produce bacteriochlorophyll supporting the concept bacteriochlorophyll as the ancestral reaction center pigment.

  5. Molecular genetic and molecular evolutionary studies on the bacteriochlorophyll synthesis genes of Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke-Agueero, D.H.

    1992-08-01

    Rhodobacter capsulatus, purple bacterium capable of either aerobic or photosynthetic growth, has proven to be very useful in genetic studies of photosynthesis. Forty-four genes clustered together within a 46 kilobase region are required to establish photosynthetic ability in R. capsulatus. Approximately twenty of these genes are involved in bacteriochlorophyll synthesis of which eight bch'' genes are the subject of this thesis. Six of these genes were found to code for the two ring reductases. The first converts protochlorophyllide (PChlide) into a chlorin, the immediate precursor to chlorophyll a, and then into a bacteriochlorin. Each reductase is shown to be made up of three subunits. PChlide reductase is coded by the genes bchN, bchB, and bchL. Proteins with amino acid sequences markedly similar to those of bchN and bchL have been shown in other organisms to be required for chlorophyll synthesis; hence, their designation as chlN and chlB. A third chloroplast-encoded gene of heretofore unknown function shares amino acid identities with bchB and is probably the third subunit of the plant PChlide reductase. The bchA locus, which encodes the chlorin reductase, is found to be made up of three separate, translationally coupled genes, referred to as bchX, bchY, and bchZ. Amino acid similarities between bchX, bchL, and the nitrogenase reductase protein nifH suggest that all three classes of proteins share certain three-dimensional structural features, including elements that are central to the enzymatic mechanism of nifH. PChlide reductase and chlorin reductase are clearly derived from a common ancestor. Several lines of analysis suggests the ancestor of both enzyme systems reduced PChlide twice to produce bacteriochlorophyll supporting the concept bacteriochlorophyll as the ancestral reaction center pigment.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to human butyrylcholinesterase reactive with butyrylcholinesterase in animal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong; Brimijoin, Stephen; Hrabovska, Anna; Krejci, Eric; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Rudolph C.; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Five mouse anti-human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) monoclonal antibodies bind tightly to native human BChE with nanomolar dissociation constants. Pairing analysis in the Octet system identified the monoclonal antibodies that bind to overlapping and independent epitopes on human BChE. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 4 monoclonal antibodies are deposited in GenBank. Our goal was to determine which of the 5 monoclonal antibodies recognize BChE in the plasma of animals. Binding of monoclonal antibodies 11D8, B2 18-5, B2 12-1, mAb2 and 3E8 to BChE in animal plasma was measured using antibody immobilized on Pansorbin cells and on Dynabeads Protein G. A third method visualized binding by the shift of BChE activity bands on nondenaturing gels stained for BChE activity. Gels were counterstained for carboxylesterase activity. The three methods agreed that B2 18-5 and mAb2 have broad species specificity, but the other monoclonal antibodies interacted only with human BChE, the exception being 3E8, which also bound chicken BChE. B2 18-5 and mAb2 recognized BChE in human, rhesus monkey, horse, cat, and tiger plasma. A weak response was found with rabbit BChE. Monoclonal mAb2, but not B2 18-5, bound pig and bovine BChE. Gels stained for carboxylesterase activity confirmed that plasma from humans, monkey, pig, chicken, and cow does not contain carboxylesterase, but plasma from horse, cat, tiger, rabbit, guinea pig, mouse, and rat has carboxylesterase. Rabbit plasma carboxylesterase hydrolyzes butyrylthiocholine. In conclusion monoclonal antibodies B2 18-5 and mAb2 can be used to immunoextract BChE from the plasma of humans, monkey and other animals. PMID:26585590

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Is diagnostic tonsillectomy indicated in all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-19

    SA), MMed (Otol). Department of Paediatric Otolaryngology, University of Cape Town. C A J Prescott, MB ChB, FRCS (Eng). Department of Pathology, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and Univer- sity of Cape Town.

  8. Actively Cooled Ceramic Composite Nozzle Material, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I Project demonstrated the capability of the Pyrowave? manufacturing process to produce fiber-reinforced ceramics (FRCs) with integral metal features, such...

  9. Mittra, Dr Indraneel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Delhi), Ph.D. (London), FRCS (England), FNA Council Service: 2004-2006. Date of birth: 28 June 1943. Specialization: Cancer Surgery, Cancer Biology and Cancer Prevention Address: Professor Emeritus, Translational Research Laboratory, ...

  10. Fibroblastic reticular cells and their role in viral hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Keith E; Anderson, Arthur O; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2009-05-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by Ebola, Marburg and Lassa viruses often manifest as multiple organ dysfunction and hemorrhagic shock with high mortality. These viruses target numerous cell types, including monocytes and dendritic cells, which are primary early targets that mediate critical pathogenetic processes. This review focuses on fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), another prevalent infected cell type that is known as a key regulator of circulatory and immune functions. Viral infection of FRCs could have debilitating effects in secondary lymphoid organs and various other tissues. FRCs may also contribute to the spread of these deadly viruses throughout the body. Here, we review the salient features of these VHFs and the biology of FRCs, emphasizing the potential role of these cells in VHFs and the rapid deterioration of immune and hemovascular sytems that are characteristic of such acute infections.

  11. Gastric luminal epidermal growth factor is affected by diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , L Mapele, K 0 Awotedu ... This study looked at the associations between intragastric epidermal growth factor level, diet and ... Department of Surgery, Gloucestershire Royal Hospital, UK. AM Sammon MD, FRCS. December 2004, Vol. 94, No.

  12. Quantitative assessment of sterol traffic in living cells by dual labeling with dehydroergosterol and BODIPY-cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wustner, D.; Solanko, L.; Sokol, Olena

    2011-01-01

    kinetics. This transport pathway was strongly reduced after energy depletion of cells or expression of the dominant-negative clathrin heavy chain. The partitioning into lipid droplets of BHK and HeLa cells was higher for BCh2 than for DHE. Within droplets, the photodegradation of BCh2 was enhanced...... simultaneous imaging of both sterols in model membranes and living cells. BCh2 had a lower affinity than DHE for the biologically relevant liquid-ordered phase in model membranes. Still, DHE and BCh2 trafficked from the plasma membrane to the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) of BHK cells with identical...... and followed a stretched exponential decay, while the fluorescence lifetime of BCh2 was comparable in various cellular regions. Our results indicate that BCh2 is suitable for analyzing sterol uptake pathways and inter-organelle sterol flux in living cells. The BODIPY-moiety affects lipid phase preference...

  13. Identification of the chlE gene encoding oxygen-independent Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Kaori; Minamizaki, Kei; Fujita, Yuichi

    2015-08-07

    The fifth ring (E-ring) of chlorophyll (Chl) a is produced by Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MPE) cyclase. There are two evolutionarily unrelated MPE cyclases: oxygen-independent (BchE) and oxygen-dependent (ChlA/AcsF) MPE cyclases. Although ChlA is the sole MPE cyclase in Synechocystis PCC 6803, it is yet unclear whether BchE exists in cyanobacteria. A BLAST search suggests that only few cyanobacteria possess bchE. Here, we report that two bchE candidate genes from Cyanothece strains PCC 7425 and PCC 7822 restore the photosynthetic growth and bacteriochlorophyll production in a bchE-lacking mutant of Rhodobacter capsulatus. We termed these cyanobacterial bchE orthologs "chlE." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adiabatic invariants for field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Lewis, H.R.; Seyler, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Field reversed configurations (FRCs) are characterized by azimuthal symmetry, so two exact constants of the particle motion are the total particle energy E and the canonical angular momentum P/sub theta/. For many purposes it is desirable to construct a third (diabatic) constant of the motion if this is possible. It is shown that for parameters characteristic of current FRCs that the magnetic moment μ is a poor adiabatic invariant, while the radial action J is conserved rather well

  15. Fanconi anaemia in black South African patients heterozygous for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T Wainstein,1 MSc (Med); R Kerr,1 PhD; C L Mitchell,1 MSc (Med);S Madaree,1 BSc (Hons); F B Essop,1 MSc (Med); E Vorster,1 BSc. (Hons); R Wainwright,2 MB BCh; J Poole,3 MB BCh; A Krause,1 MB BCh, PhD ..... Grompe M, D'Andrea AD. Fanconi anaemia and DNA repair. Hum Mol Genet 2001;10(20)2253-2259.

  16. Two novel mutations in the BCHE gene in patients with prolonged duration of action of mivacurium or succinylcholine during anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gätke, Mona R; Bundgaard, Jens R; Viby-Mogensen, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) hydrolyses the neuromuscular blocking agents, succinylcholine and mivacurium used during general anaesthesia. Hereditary low BChE activity may result in an extensively prolonged duration of action of these drugs, especially in patients who are homozygous for the atypi......Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) hydrolyses the neuromuscular blocking agents, succinylcholine and mivacurium used during general anaesthesia. Hereditary low BChE activity may result in an extensively prolonged duration of action of these drugs, especially in patients who are homozygous...

  17. Molecular characterization and polymorphisms of butyrylcholinesterase in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Mahadhi, Hassan M D; Ohura, Kayoko; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Imai, Teruko

    2018-06-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme essential for drug metabolism, has been investigated as antidotes against organophosphorus nerve agents, and the efficacy and safety have been studied in cynomolgus macaques. BChE polymorphisms partly account for variable BChE activities among individuals in humans, but have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques. Molecular characterization was carried out by analyzing primary sequence, gene, tissue expression, and genetic variants. In cynomolgus and human BChE, phylogenetically closely related, amino acid residues important for enzyme function were conserved, and gene and genomic structure were similar. Cynomolgus BChE mRNA was most abundantly expressed in liver among the 10 tissue types analyzed. Re-sequencing found 26 non-synonymous genetic variants in 121 cynomolgus and 23 rhesus macaques, indicating that macaque BChE is polymorphic, although none of these variants corresponded to the null or defective alleles of human BChE. These results suggest molecular similarities of cynomolgus and human BChE. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Silencing of Carotenoid β-Hydroxylases by RNA Interference in Different Maize Genetic Backgrounds Increases the β-Carotene Content of the Endosperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Judit; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Sandmann, Gerhard; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a staple food in many parts of Africa, but the endosperm generally contains low levels of the pro-vitamin A carotenoid β-carotene, leading to vitamin A deficiency disease in populations relying on cereal-based diets. However, maize endosperm does accumulate high levels of other carotenoids, including zeaxanthin, which is derived from β-carotene via two hydroxylation reactions. Blocking these reactions could therefore improve the endosperm β-carotene content. Accordingly, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the endogenous ZmBCH1 and ZmBCH2 genes, which encode two non-heme di-iron carotenoid β-hydroxylases. The genes were silenced in a range of maize genetic backgrounds by introgressing the RNAi cassette, allowing us to determine the impact of ZmBCH1/ZmBCH2 silencing in diverse hybrids. The β-carotene content of the endosperm increased substantially in all hybrids in which ZmBCH2 was silenced, regardless of whether or not ZmBCH1 was silenced simultaneously. However, the β-carotene content did not change significantly in C17 hybrids (M7 × C17 and M13 × C17) compared to C17 alone, because ZmBCH2 is already expressed at negligible levels in the C17 parent. Our data indicate that ZmBCH2 is primarily responsible for the conversion of β-carotene to zeaxanthin in maize endosperm. PMID:29186806

  19. Improving the performance of the EPT Index to accommodate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... BCH across all sites, irrespective of the level of disturbance, reduced the sensitivity of the EPT index in the studied streams. The removal of the BCH families enhanced the sensitivity of the index to multiple stressors in Afrotropical streams and rivers. Keywords: biomonitoring, EPT index, macroinvertebrates, urban streams, ...

  20. Functional divergence outlines the evolution of novel protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... found in almost all major groups of bacteria including few methanogenic archaea and is carried .... no acid sequences was produced to assess the evolution of various members of the NifH/BchL family ... involved in the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, namely, protochlorophyllide reductase (BchL or ...

  1. Anticholinesterase and Antityrosinase Activities of Ten Piper Species from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan Salleh

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that P. erecticaule and P. porphyrophyllum have potential AChE/BChE and tyrosinase inhibition activities. The respective extracts can be explored further for the development of novel lead as AChE/BChE and tyrosinase inhibitors in therapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease.

  2. Point-of-care estimation of haemoglobin concentration in neonates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Point-of-care estimation of haemoglobin concentration in neonates and infants. Elise Schapkaitz, MB BCh, FCPath (Haem), MMed (Haem). Johnny Ndoni Mahlangu, BSc, MB BCh, FCPath (Haem), MMed (Haem), Cert Clin Haem. Department of Haematology and Molecular Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand and ...

  3. PERBANDINGAN BIT ERROR RATE KODE REED-SOLOMON DENGAN KODE BOSE-CHAUDHURI-HOCQUENGHEM MENGGUNAKAN MODULASI 32-FSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Yovita Dwi Utami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kode Reed-Solomon (RS dan kode Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH merupakan kode pengoreksi error yang termasuk dalam jenis kode blok siklis. Kode pengoreksi error diperlukan pada sistem komunikasi untuk memperkecil error pada informasi yang dikirimkan. Dalam makalah ini, disajikan hasil penelitian kinerja BER sistem komunikasi yang menggunakan kode RS, kode BCH, dan sistem yang tidak menggunakan kode RS dan kode BCH, menggunakan modulasi 32-FSK pada kanal Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN, Rayleigh dan Rician. Kemampuan memperkecil error diukur menggunakan nilai Bit Error Rate (BER yang dihasilkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kode RS seiring dengan penambahan nilai SNR, menurunkan nilai BER yang lebih curam bila dibandingkan sistem dengan kode BCH. Sedangkan kode BCH memberikan keunggulan saat SNR bernilai kecil, memiliki BER lebih baik daripada sistem dengan kode RS.

  4. The EUCLID-NIS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, M.

    Obtaining a measure of the baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) is among the top goals of cosmology in the beginning of the twenty-first century. Detection of BAOs offers the possibility to test the standard cosmological model, by providing strong constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The EUCLID-NIS mission proposes to measure BAOs by mapping the 3D distribution of baryons at intermediate redshift, 1 micromirror devices (DMD) from Texas Instruments.

  5. Association between butyrylcholinesterase K variant and mild cognitive impairment in the Thai community-dwelling patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongthanaracht N

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natsalil Pongthanaracht,1 Somchai Yanarojana,1 Darawan Pinthong,1 Supeenun Unchern,1 Amnuay Thithapandha,1 Prasert Assantachai,2 Porntip Supavilai11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, 2Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandObjective: To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Thai community-dwelling patients.Methods: One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman’s method.Results: The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12% was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%, suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity.Conclusion: Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.Keywords: butyrylcholinesterase K variant, butyrylcholinesterase activity, mild cognitive impairment, Thai community-dwelling patients

  6. Pretreatment with human serum butyrylcholinesterase alone prevents cardiac abnormalities, seizures, and death in Göttingen minipigs exposed to sarin vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ashima; Sun, Wei; Dabisch, Paul A; Hulet, Stanley W; Hastings, Nicholas B; Jakubowski, Edward M; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2011-12-15

    Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger that is being developed as a prophylactic countermeasure against organophosphorus nerve agents. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Hu BChE against whole-body inhalation exposure to a lethal dose of sarin (GB) vapor. Male Göttingen minipigs were subjected to: air exposure, GB vapor exposure, or pretreatment with Hu BChE followed by GB vapor exposure. Hu BChE was administered by i.m. injection 24 h prior to exposure to 4.1 mg/m(3) of GB vapor for 60 min. Electrocardiograms (ECG), electroencephalograms (EEG), and pupil size were recorded throughout exposure. Blood drawn before and throughout exposure was analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, acetylcholinesterase and BChE activities, and amount of GB present. Untreated animals exposed to GB vapor exhibited cardiac abnormalities and generalized seizures, ultimately succumbing to respiratory failure. Pretreatment with 3.0 or 6.5 mg/kg of Hu BChE delayed blood gas and acid-base disturbances and the onset of cardiac and neural toxic signs, but failed to increase survivability. Pretreatment with 7.5 mg/kg of Hu BChE, however, completely prevented toxic signs, with blood chemistry and ECG and EEG parameters indistinguishable from control during and after GB exposure. GB bound in plasma was 200-fold higher than plasma from pigs that did not receive Hu BChE, suggesting that Hu BChE scavenged GB in blood and prevented it from reaching other tissues. Thus, prophylaxis with Hu BChE alone not only increased survivability, but also prevented cardiac abnormalities and neural toxicity in minipigs exposed to a lethal dose of GB vapor. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Cytotoxicity of coated and uncoated fibre-reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Cornelia; Wolff, Diana; Zingler, Sebastian; Krueger, Tanja; Stucke, Kathrin; Lux, Christopher J; Staehle, Hans Joerg; Erber, Ralf

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are many fibre-reinforced composites (FRCs) available which differ in the type and volume fraction of fibres, pre-treatment of fibres and matrix composition. The aims of this in vitro investigation were to determine whether there is a difference in biocompatibility of FRCs and if coating FRCs with resin composites influences their cytotoxic potential. Five different FRC materials were tested which were either uncoated or coated with flowable or viscous resin composite. Artificial saliva extracts were prepared according to USP-XXIII and ISO-10993 to determine cytotoxicity by testing cell viability and growth of primary human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) using MTT assay, LIVE/DEAD(®) assay and cell proliferation assay. The influence of eluates on fibres of the cytoskeleton was investigated by vimentin, tubulin and actinin immunostainings. A two-way ANOVA followed by Scheffe's post-hoc test, which included the factors FRC material and coating procedure, was performed to assess cytotoxicity. All extracts of FRC materials displayed minor cytotoxic potential on HGF cell viability, cell proliferation and integrity of the cytoskeleton. The type of FRC material significantly influenced cell viability (MTT assay) (p material resulted in altered cell viability. Distribution and organization of cytosolic fibres was not affected after HGF exposure to eluates. There is a lack of knowledge about the leaching behaviour of commonly available fully pre-impregnated FRCs and their interactions with coating materials. The coating of FRCs with resin composite materials did not impact biocompatibility.

  8. Simultaneous detection of dual biomarkers from humans exposed to organophosphorus pesticides by combination of immunochromatographic test strip and ellman assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingming; Zhao, Yuting; Wang, Limin; Paulsen, Michael; Simpson, Christopher D; Liu, Fengquan; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2018-05-01

    A novel sandwich immunoassay based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) has been developed for simultaneously measuring both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and the total amount of BChE (including inhibited and active enzyme) from 70 μLpost-exposure human plasma sample. The principle of this method is based on the BChE monoclonal antibody (MAb) capable of acting as both capture antibody and detection antibody. The BChE MAb which was immobilized on the test line was able to recognize both organophosphorus BChE adducts (OP-BChE) and BChE and provided equal binding affinity, permitting detection of the total enzyme amount in post-exposure human plasma samples. The formed immunocomplexes on the test line can further be excised from the test-strip for subsequent off-line measurement of BChE activity using the Ellman assay. Therefore, dual biomarkers of BChE activity and phosphorylation (OP-BChE) will be obtained simultaneously. The whole sandwich-immunoassay was performed on one ICTS, greatly reducing analytical time. The ICTS sensor showed excellent linear responses for assaying total amount of BChE and active BChE ranging from 0.22 to 3.58nM and 0.22-7.17nM, respectively. Both the signal detection limits are 0.10nM. We validated the practical application of the proposed method to measure 124 human plasma samples from orchard workers and cotton farmers with long-term exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). The results were in highly agreement with LC/MS/MS which verified our method is extremely accurate. Combining the portability and rapidity of test strip and the compatibility of BChE MAb as both capture antibody and detection antibody, the developed method provides a baseline-free, low-cost and rapid tool for in-field monitoring of OP exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical thrombectomy for basilar artery thrombosis: a comparison of outcomes with anterior circulation occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso de Leciñana, María; Kawiorski, Michal M; Ximénez-Carrillo, Álvaro; Cruz-Culebras, Antonio; García-Pastor, Andrés; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Fernández-Prieto, Andrés; Caniego, José Luis; Méndez, Jose Carlos; Zapata-Wainberg, Gustavo; De Felipe-Mimbrera, Alicia; Díaz-Otero, Fernando; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Frutos, Remedios; Bárcena-Ruiz, Eduardo; Fandiño, Eduardo; Marín, Begoña; Vivancos, José; Masjuan, Jaime; Gil-Nuñez, Antonio; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Fuentes, Blanca

    2017-12-01

    The benefits of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in basilar artery occlusions (BAO) have not been explored in recent clinical trials. We compared outcomes and procedural complications of MT in BAO with anterior circulation occlusions. Data from the Madrid Stroke Network multicenter prospective registry were analyzed, including baseline characteristics, procedure times, procedural complications, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and mortality at 3 months. Of 479 patients treated with MT, 52 (11%) had BAO. The onset to reperfusion time lapse was longer in patients with BAO (median (IQR) 385 min (320-540) vs 315 min (240-415), p<0.001), as was the duration of the procedures (100 min (40-130) vs 60 min (39-90), p=0.006). Moreover, the recanalization rate was lower (75% vs 84%, p=0.01). A trend toward more procedural complications was observed in patients with BAO (32% vs 21%, p=0.075). The frequency of SICH was 2% vs 5% (p=0.25). At 3 months, patients with BAO had a lower rate of independence (mRS 0-2) (40% vs 58%, p=0.016) and higher mortality (33% vs 12%, p<0.001). The rate of futile recanalization was 50% in BAO versus 35% in anterior circulation occlusions (p=0.05). Age and duration of the procedure were significant predictors of futile recanalization in BAO. MT is more laborious and shows more procedural complications in BAO than in anterior circulation strokes. The likelihood of futile recanalization is higher in BAO and is associated with greater age and longer procedure duration. A refinement of endovascular procedures for BAO might help optimize the results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Experimental Study on the Fire Performance of Tubular Steel Columns with Membrane Protections for Prefabricated and Modular Steel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research was conducted to study the fire resistance of steel tubular columns used in prefabricated and modular construction. In order to achieve high-efficient prefabrication and fast on-site installation, membrane protections using board products and thermal insulation blankets are adopted as the favorable protection method. Three protected tubular columns were tested in a full-scale column furnace with axial load applied. The study variables were different membranes, including fiber reinforced calcium silicate (FRCS boards, rock wool and aluminum silica (Fiberfrax insulations. The results suggest that one layer of 12 mm FRCS board with rock wool insulation has insufficient fire protection. However, steel columns protected with two layers of 12 mm FRCS boards with insulation appeared to have good fire resistances and could achieve a fire resistance rating as high as 2.5~3.0 h.

  11. Effects of physical exercise on butyrylcholinesterase in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela M.W. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 12 week program of physical exercise (PE on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE in obese adolescents. This study compared obese adolescents (N = 54 before and after PE, regarding the relative intensity (RI and activity of different molecular forms (G1, G2, G4 and G1-ALB of BChE found in plasma. Waist circumference (WC and lipid profile were also assessed before and after PE. It was shown that before PE, mean plasma BChE activity was significantly higher in obese than in non-obese adolescents and that it was significantly reduced after PE, becoming similar to that found in non-obese adolescents. Lipid profile and WC also changed in response to PE. These results are consistent with studies that found a correlation between BChE and lipid metabolism and suggest that PE may have led to a physiological regularization of plasma BChE activity. Although mean BChE activity of each isoform was significantly reduced by PE, their RI did not change. This is in accordance with a previous suggestion that this proportion is maintained under factors such as obesity, and may therefore be important for BChE functions.

  12. Effects of physical exercise on butyrylcholinesterase in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isabela M W; Leite, Neiva; Boberg, Dellyana; Chaves, Thais J; Eisfeld, Gerusa M; Eisfeld, Gisele M; Bono, Gleyse F; Souza, Ricardo L R; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 12 week program of physical exercise (PE) on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in obese adolescents. This study compared obese adolescents (N = 54) before and after PE, regarding the relative intensity (RI) and activity of different molecular forms (G1, G2, G4 and G1-ALB) of BChE found in plasma. Waist circumference (WC) and lipid profile were also assessed before and after PE. It was shown that before PE, mean plasma BChE activity was significantly higher in obese than in non-obese adolescents and that it was significantly reduced after PE, becoming similar to that found in non-obese adolescents. Lipid profile and WC also changed in response to PE. These results are consistent with studies that found a correlation between BChE and lipid metabolism and suggest that PE may have led to a physiological regularization of plasma BChE activity. Although mean BChE activity of each isoform was significantly reduced by PE, their RI did not change. This is in accordance with a previous suggestion that this proportion is maintained under factors such as obesity, and may therefore be important for BChE functions.

  13. Comparison of Efficiency of Purification (from Human Plasma) of a Nerve Agent Adduct of Butyrylcholinesterase Between the Affinity Gel Method and Immunomagnetic Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Young

    2018-03-01

    O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent because it inhibits cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the nervous system. Inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity by VX is due to formation of a phosphorylated BChE adduct; this adduct in human plasma can serve as a biomarker of exposure to nerve agents. We compared purification efficiency between the procainamide affinity gel method and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for the nerve agent adduct of BChE in plasma and then optimized the sample preparation by purifying BChE to measure biomarkers of human exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents. The purification efficiency of IMS was 5-fold greater than that of the procainamide affinity gel method because the antibody conjugate with protein G magnetic beads ensured highly selective capture and high recovery of VX-inhibited BChE from plasma. Protein isolation and extraction of the adduct of VX-inhibited BChE from plasma were made more specific by IMS. A 50 µL of the IMS solution was enough to bind VX-inhibited BChE in up to 0.5 mL of plasma. Nonetheless, the IMS method has a limitation in terms of reutilization of the complexes antibody-magnetic beads. We expect that this approach can be used to quantify other types of organophosphorus adducts in human plasma, thus serving as a possible general assay for biomarkers of exposure to nerve agents.

  14. Human butyrylcholinesterase as a general scavenging antidote for nerve agents toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashani, Y.; Grunwald, J.; Grauer, E.; Brandeis, R.; Cohen, E.

    1993-05-13

    Butyrylcholinesterase purified from human plasma (HuBChE) was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo as a single prophylactic antidote against multiples of i.v. LD(50) doses of nerve agents (NA) (GA, GB, GD, and VX). Significant therapeutic concentrations of HuBChE were observed in blood even 48 hrs following either i.v. or i.m. injection in mice, rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys. High levels of protection were also demonstrated in a small number of animals exposed to GD vapors. The stoichiometry of the in vivo sequestration of the anti-ChE toxicants was consistent with HuBChE/NA ratio of the molar concentration required to inhibit 100% enzyme activity in vitro. Further, linear correlation was demonstrated between blood level of HuBChE and the extent of protection obtained against the toxicity of NA. It was estimated that in order to obtain reasonable protection, exogenously administered HuBChE should be able to reduce the concentration of the NA to a level below its LD(50) value within less than one blood circulation time. HuBChE significantly prevented GD-induced behavioral deficits. The enzyme itself did not alter performance of cognitive tasks. Thus, HuBChE not only increased survival after NA exposure, but also alleviated post exposure symptoms. without the need for any additional therapeutic drugs (e. g., atropine, pralidoxime chloride, diazepam).

  15. Tribological and thermal stability study of nanoporous amorphous boron carbide films prepared by pulsed plasma chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liza, Shahira; Ohtake, Naoto; Akasaka, Hiroki; Munoz-Guijosa, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the thermal stability and the oxidation and tribological behavior of nanoporous a -BC:H films are studied and compared with those in conventional diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. a -BC:H films were deposited by pulsed plasma chemical vapor deposition using B(CH 3 ) 3 gas as the boron source. A DLC interlayer was used to prevent the a -BC:H film delamination produced by oxidation. Thermal stability of a -BC:H films, with no delamination signs after annealing at 500 °C for 1 h, is better than that of the DLC films, which completely disappeared under the same conditions. Tribological test results indicate that the a -BC:H films, even with lower nanoindentation hardness than the DLC films, show an excellent boundary oil lubricated behavior, with lower friction coefficient and reduce the wear rate of counter materials than those on the DLC film. The good materials properties such as low modulus of elasticity and the formation of micropores from the original nanopores during boundary regimes explain this better performance. Results show that porous a -BC:H films may be an alternative for segmented DLC films in applications where severe tribological conditions and complex shapes exist, so surface patterning is unfeasible.

  16. Influence of thermal cycling on flexural properties of composites reinforced with unidirectional silica-glass fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriç, Gökçe; Ruyter, I Eystein

    2008-08-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effect of water storage and thermal cycling on the flexural properties of differently sized unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) containing different quantities of fibers. The effect of fiber orientation on the thermal expansion of FRCs as well as how the stresses in the composites can be affected was considered. An experimental polymeric base material was reinforced with silica-glass fibers. The cleaned and silanized fibers were sized with either linear PBMA-size or crosslinked PMMA-size. For the determination of flexural properties and water uptake, specimens were processed with various quantities of differently sized unidirectional fibers. Water uptake of FRC was measured. Water immersed specimens were thermally cycled for 500 and 12,000 cycles (5 degrees C/55 degrees C). Flexural properties of "dry" and wet specimens with and without thermal cycling were determined by a three-point bending test. The linear coefficients of thermal expansion (LCTE) for FRC samples with different fiber orientations were determined using a thermomechanical analyzer. Water uptake of the FRC specimens increased with a decrease in fiber content of the FRC. Flexural properties of FRCs improved with increasing fiber content, whereas the flexural properties were not influenced significantly by water and thermal cycling. Fiber orientation had different effects on LCTE of FRCs. Unidirectional FRCs had two different LCTE in longitudinal and transverse directions whereas bidirectional FRCs had similar LCTE in two directions and a higher one in the third direction. The results of the study suggest that the surface-treated unidirectional silica-glass FRC can be used for long-term clinical applications in the oral cavity.

  17. Mesenteric lymph node stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles contribute to peripheral de novo induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasztoi, Maria; Pezoldt, Joern; Beckstette, Michael; Lipps, Christoph; Wirth, Dagmar; Rohde, Manfred; Paloczi, Krisztina; Buzas, Edit Iren; Huehn, Jochen

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal regulatory T cells (Tregs) are fundamental in peripheral tolerance toward commensals and food-borne antigens. Accordingly, gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) represent a site of efficient peripheral de novo Treg induction when compared to skin-draining peripheral LNs (pLNs), and we had recently shown that LN stromal cells substantially contribute to this process. Here, we aimed to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms and generated immortalized fibroblastic reticular cell lines (iFRCs) from mLNs and pLNs, allowing unlimited investigation of this rare stromal cell subset. In line with our previous findings, mLN-iFRCs showed a higher Treg-inducing capacity when compared to pLN-iFRCs. RNA-seq analysis focusing on secreted molecules revealed a more tolerogenic phenotype of mLN- as compared to pLN-iFRCs. Remarkably, mLN-iFRCs produced substantial numbers of microvesicles (MVs) that carried elevated levels of TGF-β when compared to pLN-iFRC-derived MVs, and these novel players of intercellular communication were shown to be responsible for the tolerogenic properties of mLN-iFRCs. Thus, stromal cells originating from mLNs contribute to peripheral tolerance by fostering de novo Treg induction using TGF-β-carrying MVs. This finding provides novel insights into the subcellular/molecular mechanisms of de novo Treg induction and might serve as promising tool for future therapeutic applications to treat inflammatory disorders. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Butyrylcholinesterase as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvesh, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    The serine hydrolase butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), like the related enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), co-regulates metabolism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In the human brain BChE is mainly expressed in white matter and glia and in distinct populations of neurons in regions that are important in cognition and behavior, functions compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia with no cure nor means for definitive diagnosis during life. In AD, BChE is found in association with pathology, such as β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, particularly in the cerebral cortex where BChE is not normally found in quantity. Up to 30% of cognitively normal older adults have abundant Aβ deposition in the brain. We have designed an imaging agent that can detect, through autoradiography, BChE-associated Aβ plaques in the cerebral cortex of AD brains, but does not visualize Aβ plaques in brains of cognitively normal individuals. Furthermore, in an AD mouse model with BChE gene knocked out, there are up to 70% fewer fibrillar Aβ brain plaques, suggesting diminished BChE activity could prove beneficial as a curative approach to AD. To that end, we have examined numerous N-10-carbonyl phenothiazines that are specific inhibitors of human BChE, revealing important details of the enzyme's active site gorge. These phenothiazines can be designed without potential side effects caused by neurotransmitter receptor interactions. In conclusion, BChE is potentially an important target for diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  19. A novel method to establish a rat ED model using internal iliac artery ligation combined with hyperlipidemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate a novel method, namely using bilateral internal iliac artery ligation combined with a high-fat diet (BCH, for establishing a rat model of erectile dysfunction (ED that, compared to classical approaches, more closely mimics the chronic pathophysiology of human ED after acute ischemic insult. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty 4-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly placed into five groups (n = 8 per group: normal control (NC, bilateral internal iliac artery ligation (BIIAL, high-fat diet (HFD, BCH, and mock surgery (MS. All rats were induced for 12 weeks. Copulatory behavior, intracavernosal pressure (ICP, ICP/mean arterial pressure, hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, serum lipid levels, and endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunohistochemical staining of the cavernous smooth muscle and endothelium were assessed. Data were analyzed by SAS 8.0 for Windows. RESULTS: Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the HFD and BCH groups than the NC and MS groups. High density lipoprotein levels were significantly lower in the HFD and BCH groups than the NC and MS groups. The ICP values and mount and intromission numbers were significantly lower in the BIIAL, HFD, and BCH groups than in the NC and MS groups. ICP was significantly lower in the BCH group than in the BIIAL and HFD groups. Cavernous smooth muscle and endothelial damage increased in the HFD and BCH groups. Cavernous smooth muscle to collagen ratio, nNOS and eNOS staining decreased significantly in the BIIAL, HFD, and BCH groups compared to the NC and MS groups. CONCLUSIONS: The novel BCH model mimics the chronic pathophysiology of ED in humans and avoids the drawbacks of traditional ED models.

  20. A frameshift in the coding region of a novel tomato class I basic chitinase gene makes it a pseudogene with a functional wound-responsive promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Ulku; Moyne, Anne-Laure; Tuzun, Sadik

    2006-07-05

    A putative class I basic chitinase gene, assigned as psiBCH, was cloned from a tomato breeding line NC 24E. The gene contains a coding region with two introns. The predicted psiBCH open reading frame (ORF) is 971 bp and exhibits 81-88% identity at the nucleotide level with known class I basic chitinase genes from the Solanaceae family. However, the presence of a stop codon caused by a frameshift in the ORF of psiBCH makes it unusual among the other class I plant basic chitinases. This stop codon might be involved in the lower accumulation of fully spliced psiBCH RNA caused by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), which is an RNA surveillance system universally found in eukaryotes. Sequence analysis of the 1883-bp 5'-flanking region of the psiBCH gene revealed the presence of potential wound-response promoter elements. To study the transcriptional regulation of the psiBCH gene, its 5'-flanking region containing the putative promoter was fused to the gus reporter gene and introduced into the tobacco genome via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants were functionally assayed for beta-glucuronidase activity. The psiBCH promoter drives the reporter gene expression in response to wounding stimuli. psiBCH promoter-GUS analysis indicates that wound-response of the tobacco transgene was rapid and localized in the wounded area following mechanical wounding. Therefore, our results suggest that the psiBCH promoter can provide targeted expression of genes, such as protease inhibitors in response to pest attack.

  1. Engineering design of the FRX-C experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Bartsch, R.R.; Siemon, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Research on Compact Toroid (CT) configurations has been greatly accelerated in the last few years because of their potential for providing a practical and economical fusion system. Los Alamos research is being concentrated on two types of configurations: (1) magnetized-gun-produced Spheromaks (configurations that contain a mixture of toroidal and poloidal fields); and (2) field-reversed configurations (FRCs) that contain purely poloidal magnetic field. This paper describes the design of FRX-C, a field-reversed theta pinch used to form FRCs

  2. Twist of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions Hongqi Zhang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    in active regions also shows the butterfly pattern through the solar cycle. And, less than 30% of the active regions do not follow the general trend (Zhang & Bao 1998). The longitudinal distribution of current helicity parameter h|| of active regions in both the hemispheres in the last decade was presented by Zhang & Bao ...

  3. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Liu Zhong-bao. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 2 June 2016 pp 12. Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections and Support Vector Machine · Liu Zhong-bao · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  4. Dansk Kolinesterase Kartotek udreder patienter med forlænget paralyse efter suxamethon og mivacurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Katrine Zwicky; Gätke, Mona Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Cholinesterase Research Unit (DCRU) is a nationwide unit for patients carrying mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE). BChE hydrolyzes the neuromuscular blocking drugs succinylcholine and mivacurium. Patients with mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase gene are at risk of...... of experiencing a prolonged effect of the drugs, such as weakness or paralysis for hours. In order to diagnose the referred patients correctly, DCRU combines results such as BChE activity, genotyping, pedigree and clinical reactions to succinylcholine or mivacurium....

  5. Dansk Kolinesterase Kartotek udreder patienter med forlænget paralyse efter suxamethon og mivacurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Katrine Zwicky; Gätke, Mona Ring

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Cholinesterase Research Unit (DCRU) is a nationwide unit for patients carrying mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE). BChE hydrolyzes the neuromuscular blocking drugs succinylcholine and mivacurium. Patients with mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase gene are at risk of...... of experiencing a prolonged effect of the drugs, such as weakness or paralysis for hours. In order to diagnose the referred patients correctly, DCRU combines results such as BChE activity, genotyping, pedigree and clinical reactions to succinylcholine or mivacurium....

  6. Nové cholinesterázové inhibitory na bázi karbamátů a thiokarbamátů

    OpenAIRE

    Krátký, Martin; Štěpánková, Šárka; Vorčáková, Katarína; Švarcová, Markéta; Vinšová, Jarmila

    2016-01-01

    Based on the presence of carbamoyl moiety, twenty salicylanilide N,N-disubstituted (thio)carbamates were investigated using Ellman’s method for their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). O-Aromatic (thio)carbamates exhibited weak to moderate inhibition of both cholinesterases with IC50 values within the range of 1.60 to 311.0 μM. IC50 values for BChE were mostly lower than those obtained for AChE; four derivatives showed distinct selectivity for BCh...

  7. Effects of physical exercise on butyrylcholinesterase in obese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Isabela M.W.; Leite, Neiva; Boberg, Dellyana; Chaves, Thais J.; Eisfeld, Gerusa M.; Eisfeld, Gisele M.; Bono, Gleyse F.; Souza, Ricardo L.R.; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 12 week program of physical exercise (PE) on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in obese adolescents. This study compared obese adolescents (N = 54) before and after PE, regarding the relative intensity (RI) and activity of different molecular forms (G1, G2, G4 and G1-ALB) of BChE found in plasma. Waist circumference (WC) and lipid profile were also assessed before and after PE. It was shown that before PE, mean plasma BChE activity was s...

  8. Celiac Family Health Education Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us Giving to Boston Children's Newsroom Quality and Patient Safety Research + Innovation Videos Contact Us Boston Children's Hospital 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 For Patients: 617-355-6000 For Referring Providers: 844-BCH- ...

  9. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for the butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of furanocoumarins from Angelica archangelica L. roots and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wszelaki, Natalia; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Jamróz, Marta K; Granica, Sebastian; Kiss, Anna K

    2011-09-14

    Isolation and identification of the inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), obtained from the extracts of roots and fruits of Angelica archangelica L., are reported. Our results confirmed the weak inhibitory effect of Angelica roots on acetylcholinesterase activity. BChE inhibition was much more pronounced at a concentration of 100 μg/mL for hexane extracts and attained a higher rate than 50%. The TLC bioautography guided fractionation and spectroscopic analysis led to the isolation and identification of imperatorin from the fruit's hexane extract and of heraclenol-2'-O-angelate from the root's hexane extract. Both compounds showed significant BChE inhibition activity with IC(50) = 14.4 ± 3.2 μM and IC(50) = 7.5 ± 1.8 μM, respectively. Only C8-substituted and C5-unsubstituted furanocoumarins were active, which could supply information about the initial structures of specific BChE inhibitors.

  10. Cholinesterase inhibitory activity versus aromatic core multiplicity: a facile green synthesis and molecular docking study of novel piperidone embedded thiazolopyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Alireza; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Osman, Hasnah; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Kia, Yalda; Hooda, Alysha; Parsons, Richard B

    2014-01-15

    Novel thiazolopyrimidine derivatives have been synthesized via microwave assisted, domino cascade methodology in ionic liquid and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities. Among the newly synthesized compounds 6d, 6a, 6e and 6b displayed higher AChE inhibitory activity than standard drug, galanthamine, with IC50 values of 0.53, 1.47, 1.62 and 2.05μM, respectively. Interestingly, all the compounds except for 6m-r and 6x displayed higher BChE inhibitory potentials than galanthamine with IC50 values ranging from 1.09 to 18.56μM. Molecular docking simulations for 6d possessing the most potent AChE and BChE inhibitory activities, disclosed its binding interactions at the active site gorge of AChE and BChE enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. WRAIR Protocols for Soldier Status and Readiness to Organophosphate Exposure: Unprocessed Whole Blood Cholinesterase and Pyridostigmine Bromide Quantification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Gregory E; Feaster, Shawn R; Moorad, Deborah R; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Gordon, Richard K; Clark, Connie R; Smith, J. R; Lukey, Brian J; Reitstetter, Raven E

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to nerve agents, OPs, pesticides, anesthetics, terrorists' chemical agents, and drugs of abuse such as cocaine, heroin, and some neuro-degenerative disease states selectively reduces AChE and/or BChE activity...

  12. WRAIR Protocols for Soldier Status and Readiness to Organophosphate Exposure: Unprocessed Whole Blood Cholinesterase and Pyridostigmine Bromide Quantification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Gregory E; Feaster, Shawn R; Moorad, Deborah R; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Gordon, Richard K; Clark, Connie R; Smith, J. R; Lukey, Brian J; Reitstetter, Raven E

    2003-01-01

    ..., decontamination, and treatment measures. Thus, we developed a semi-automated medical diagnostic microplate procedure capable of screening unprocessed whole blood samples for the concentrations of AChE and BChE...

  13. Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of β-Carboline and Quinoline Alkaloids Derivatives from the Plants of Genus Peganum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that the main chemical constituents in plants of genus Peganum were a serial of β-carboline and quinoline alkaloids. These alkaloids were quantitatively assessed for selective inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE by in vitro Ellman method. The results indicated that harmane was the most potent selective AChE inhibitor with an IC50 of 7.11 ± 2.00 μM and AChE selectivity index (SI, IC50 of BChE/IC50 of AChE of 10.82. Vasicine was the most potent BChE inhibitor with feature of dual AChE/BChE inhibitory activity, with an IC50 versus AChE/BChE of 13.68 ± 1.25/2.60 ± 1.47 μM and AChE SI of 0.19. By analyzing and comparing the IC50 and SI of those chemicals, it was indicated that the β-carboline alkaloids displayed more potent AChE inhibition but less BChE inhibition than quinoline alkaloids. The substituent at the C7 position of the β-carboline alkaloids and C3 and C9 positions of quinoline alkaloids played a critical role in AChE or BChE inhibition. The potent inhibition suggested that those alkaloids may be used as candidates for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The analysis of the quantitative structure-activity relationship of those compounds investigated might provide guidance for the design and synthesis of AChE and BChE inhibitors.

  14. New Insights into Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay: Serum Dilution Factor as a Crucial Parameter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jońca

    Full Text Available Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE activity assay and inhibitor phenotyping can help to identify patients at risk of prolonged paralysis following the administration of neuromuscular blocking agents. The assay plays an important role in clinical chemistry as a good diagnostic marker for intoxication with pesticides and nerve agents. Furthermore, the assay is also commonly used for in vitro characterization of cholinesterases, their toxins and drugs. There is still lack of standardized procedure for measurement of BChE activity and many laboratories use different substrates at various concentrations. The purpose of this study was to validate the BChE activity assay to determine the best dilution of human serum and the most optimal concentration of substrates and inhibitors. Serum BChE activity was measured using modified Ellman's method applicable for a microplate reader. We present our experience and new insights into the protocol for high-throughput routine assays of human plasma cholinesterase activities adapted to a microplate reader. During our routine assays used for the determination of BChE activity, we have observed that serum dilution factor influences the results obtained. We show that a 400-fold dilution of serum and 5mM S-butyrylthiocholine iodide can be successfully used for the accurate measurement of BChE activity in human serum. We also discuss usage of various concentrations of dibucaine and fluoride in BChE phenotyping. This study indicates that some factors of such a multicomponent clinical material like serum can influence kinetic parameters of the BChE. The observed inhibitory effect is dependent on serum dilution factor used in the assay.

  15. Schwann cells sense and control acetylcholine spillover at the neuromuscular junction by α7 nicotinic receptors and butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Konstantin A; Girard, Emmanuelle; Nikitashina, Alexandra D; Colasante, Cesare; Bernard, Véronique; Nurullin, Leniz; Leroy, Jacqueline; Samigullin, Dmitry; Colak, Omer; Nikolsky, Evgenii; Plaud, Benoit; Krejci, Eric

    2014-09-03

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) are key components of the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ). How the TSCs sense the synaptic activity in physiological conditions remains unclear. We have taken advantage of the distinct localization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at the NMJ to bring out the function of different ACh receptors (AChRs). AChE is clustered by the collagen Q in the synaptic cleft and prevents the repetitive activation of muscle nicotinic AChRs. We found that BChE is anchored at the TSC by a proline-rich membrane anchor, the small transmembrane protein anchor of brain AChE. When BChE was specifically inhibited, ACh release was significant depressed through the activation of α7 nAChRs localized on the TSC and activated by the spillover of ACh. When both AChE and BChE were inhibited, the spillover increased and induced a dramatic reduction of ACh release that compromised the muscle twitch triggered by the nerve stimulation. α7 nAChRs at the TSC may act as a sensor for spillover of ACh adjusted by BChE and may represent an extrasynaptic sensor for homeostasis at the NMJ. In myasthenic rats, selective inhibition of AChE is more effective in rescuing muscle function than the simultaneous inhibition of AChE and BChE because the concomitant inhibition of BChE counteracts the positive action of AChE inhibition. These results show that inhibition of BChE should be avoided during the treatment of myasthenia and the pharmacological reversal of residual curarization after anesthesia. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411870-14$15.00/0.

  16. Small-scale purification of butyrylcholinesterase from human plasma and implementation of a μLC-UV/ESI MS/MS method to detect its organophosphorus adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Breyer, Felicitas; Schmidt, Christian; Mizaikoff, Boris; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst

    2015-10-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) is a serine hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.8) present in all mammalian tissues and the bloodstream. Similar to acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme reacts with organophosphorus compounds (OP) like nerve agents or pesticides that cause enzyme inhibition (BChE adducts). These adducts represent valuable biomarkers for analytical verification of OP exposure. For establishment of these mass spectrometry based methods sufficient amounts of hBChE in high purity are required. Unfortunately, commercial lots are of inappropriate purity thus favouring in-house isolation. Therefore, we developed a small scale procedure to isolate hBChE from citrate plasma. After precipitation by polyethylene glycol (8% w/v and 20% w/v PEG 6000) hBChE was purified from plasma by four consecutive chromatographic steps including anion exchange, affinity extraction and size exclusion. Protein elution was monitored on-line by UV-absorbance (280 nm) followed by continuous fractionation for off-line analysis of (1) hBChE enzyme activity by Ellman assay, (2) protein purity by gel electrophoresis, and (3) protein identity by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Numerous major impurities separated from hBChE were identified. The purified material was used for in vitro incubation with diverse OP to establish a μ-liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection/electrospray ionization tandem-mass spectrometric method (μLC-UV/ESI MS/MS) for detection of hBChE adducts suitable for verification analysis. Analytical data for diverse OP pesticides including deuterated analogues as well as G- and V-type nerve agents and their precursor are summarized. This method was successfully applied to plasma samples provided by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for the 4th Biomedical Exercise. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Resistance to organophosphorus agent toxicity in transgenic mice expressing the G117H mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxia; Ticu Boeck, Andreea; Duysen, Ellen G.; Van Keuren, Margaret; Saunders, Thomas L.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2004-01-01

    Organophosphorus toxicants (OP) include chemical nerve agents and pesticides. The goal of this work was to find out whether an animal could be made resistant to OP toxicity by genetic engineering. The human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutant G117H was chosen for study because it has the unusual ability to hydrolyze OP as well as acetylcholine, and it is resistant to inhibition by OP. Human G117H BChE, under the control of the ROSA26 promoter, was expressed in all tissues of transgenic mice. A stable transgenic mouse line expressed 0.5 μg/ml of human G117H BChE in plasma as well as 2 μg/ml of wild-type mouse BChE. Intestine, kidneys, stomach, lungs, heart, spleen, liver, brain, and muscle expressed 0.6-0.15 μg/g of G117H BChE. Transgenic mice were normal in behavior and fertility. The LD50 dose of echothiophate for wild-type mice was 0.1 mg/kg sc. This dose caused severe cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality in wild-type mice, but caused no deaths and only mild toxicity in transgenic animals. The mechanism of protection was investigated by measuring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BChE activity. It was found that AChE and endogenous BChE were inhibited to the same extent in echothiophate-treated wild type and transgenic mice. This led to the hypothesis that protection against echothiophate toxicity was not explained by hydrolysis of echothiophate. In conclusion, the transgenic G117H BChE mouse demonstrates the factors required to achieve protection from OP toxicity in a vertebrate animal

  18. Butyrylcholinesterase Genetic Variants: Association with Cocaine Dependence and Related Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Negr?o, Andr? Brooking; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Guindalini, Camila; Santos, Hadassa Campos; Messas, Guilherme Peres; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Vallada, Homero

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The search for genetic vulnerability factors in cocaine dependence has focused on the role that neuroplasticity plays in addiction. However, like many other drugs, the ability of an individual to metabolize cocaine can also influence susceptibility to dependence. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) metabolizes cocaine, and genetic variants of the BChE gene (BCHE) alter its catalytic activity. Therefore, we hypothesize that cocaine users with polymorphisms in BCHE can show diverse addictiv...

  19. Tandon, Prof. Prakash Narain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1983 Section: Medicine. Tandon, Prof. Prakash Narain M.B.B.S. (Lucknow), M.S., D.Sc. (h.c.), FRCS, FNA, FNASc, FTWAS, FAMS. Date of birth: 13 August 1928. Specialization: Neurosciences and Neurosurgery Address: No. 1, Jagriti Enclave, Vikas Marg Extension, Delhi 110 092, ...

  20. Valiathan, Prof. Marthanda Varma Sankaran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Valiathan, Prof. Marthanda Varma Sankaran Ch.M. (Liverpool), FRCS (England, Edinburgh & Canada), FRCP (London), D.Sc. (h.c.), FNA, FNASc, FNAE, FAMS, FTWAS Council Service: 1980-91; Vice-President: 1986-91. Date of birth: 24 May 1934. Specialization: Cardiac Surgery, Cardiovascular Materials and Ayurveda

  1. Ananthanarayanan, L K

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ananthanarayanan, L K M.S. (Madras), Ph.D. (Poona), FRCS. Date of birth: 17 December 1916. Date of death: 1978. Specialization: General Surgery, Orthopaedics Last known address: Office of DG, Armed Forces Medical Services, M-Block, Church Road, New ...

  2. Focus Area Science Technology Summer Fellowship (FAST-SF)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1989 Section: Medicine. Sethi, Prof. Pramod Karan MBBS & MS(Agra),, D.Sc. (h.c.), FRCS (Edinburgh). Date of birth: 28 November 1927. Date of death: 6 January 2008. Specialization: Orthopaedic Surgery, Prosthetics and Orthotics Address: B-10, Vivekanand Marg, Jaipur 302 ...

  3. Introduction to algorithms for managing the common trauma patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injured. In the meantime, in SA, better care of the injured must be a higher priority for a health system traditionally vertically orientated to HIV/. AIDS and TB. Effective ... the common trauma patient. L Wallis, MB ChB, MD, DIMCRCSEd, Dip Sport Med, FRCS (Edin), FRCP (Edin), FRCEM, FCEM (SA), FEMSSA, FIFEM. Division ...

  4. Authikesavalu, Dr Munisamy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1948 Section: Medicine. Authikesavalu, Dr Munisamy MBBS (Madras), MS (Minneapolis), FRCS. Date of birth: 16 August 1906. Date of death: 22 September 1973. Specialization: Experimental Surgery, Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology Address: 5-C, Lavelle Cross Road, Bengaluru ...

  5. Valiathan, Prof. Marthanda Varma Sankaran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1977 Section: Medicine. Valiathan, Prof. Marthanda Varma Sankaran Ch.M. (Liverpool), FRCS (England, Edinburgh & Canada), FRCP (London), D.Sc. (h.c.), FNA, FNASc, FNAE, FAMS, FTWAS Council Service: 1980-91; Vice-President: 1986-91. Date of birth: 24 May 1934

  6. Spot-Bonding and Full-Bonding Techniques for Fiber Reinforced Composite (FRC) and Metallic Retainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Paola; Tessera, Paola; Vallittu, Pekka K.; Lassila, Lippo; Sfondrini, Maria Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Fiber reinforced Composite (FRC) retainers have been introduced as an aesthetic alternative to conventional metallic splints, but present high rigidity. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate bending and fracture loads of FRC splints bonded with conventional full-coverage of the FRC with a composite compared with an experimental bonding technique with a partial (spot-) resin composite cover. Stainless steel rectangular flat, stainless steel round, and FRC retainers were tested at 0.2 and 0.3 mm deflections and at a maximum load. Both at 0.2 and 0.3 mm deflections, the lowest load required to bend the retainer was recorded for spot-bonded stainless steel flat and round wires and for spot-bonded FRCs, and no significant differences were identified among them. Higher force levels were reported for full-bonded metallic flat and round splints and the highest loads were recorded for full-bonded FRCs. At the maximum load, no significant differences were reported among spot- and full-bonded metallic splints and spot-bonded FRCs. The highest loads were reported for full bonded FRCs. The significant decrease in the rigidity of spot-bonded FRC splints if compared with full-bonded retainers suggests further tests in order to propose this technique for clinical use, as they allow physiologic tooth movement, thus presumably reducing the risk of ankylosis. PMID:28976936

  7. Development of Fracture Energy of FRC Materials. Freeze-Thaw Resistance of FRC Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklund Larsen, E.

    in this SBI Bulletin in order to give more direct information about two of the most important aspects in connection with FRCs. The SBI Bulletin contains two oral presentations given at the Fourth RILEM International Symposium on Fibre Reinforced Cement and Concrete which was held at the University...

  8. Absent testis: does it exist in 46,XY males?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Pediatric Surgery 2013, 9:79–80. Keywords: absent testis, undescended testis, vanishing testis. Al Noor Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Correspondence to Mohamed Amin ElGohary, FRCS, Al Noor Hospital,. PO Box 48481, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Tel: + 971 506 225 532; fax: + 971 249 44470; e-mail: amingoh@gmail.com.

  9. Boekbesprekings •• Book Reviews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boekbesprekings •• Book Reviews. THE PALMAR FASCIA. The Palmar Fascia. By H. Graham Stack, FR.C.S. (Eng.). Pp. vii + 236. Illustrated. £8,00. Edinburgh and London: Churchill Livingstone. 1973. AvaIlable from Longman. Southern Africa. Paardeneiland, Cape. The author has made a most meticulous and detailed ...

  10. New Fellows and Honorary Fellow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravi Martanda M.B.B.S. (Madras), D.Sc. (h.c.), FRCS Council Service: 1971-76; Vice-President: 1974-76. Date of birth: 7 September 1922. Date of death: 10 March 2015. Specialization: Neurosurgery Last known address: A-803, Vaishnavi Splendour, 6th Cross, 80 Feet Road, RMV Extension, Sanjay Nagar, Bengaluru 560 ...

  11. Spot-Bonding and Full-Bonding Techniques for Fiber Reinforced Composite (FRC and Metallic Retainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Scribante

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced Composite (FRC retainers have been introduced as an aesthetic alternative to conventional metallic splints, but present high rigidity. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate bending and fracture loads of FRC splints bonded with conventional full-coverage of the FRC with a composite compared with an experimental bonding technique with a partial (spot- resin composite cover. Stainless steel rectangular flat, stainless steel round, and FRC retainers were tested at 0.2 and 0.3 mm deflections and at a maximum load. Both at 0.2 and 0.3 mm deflections, the lowest load required to bend the retainer was recorded for spot-bonded stainless steel flat and round wires and for spot-bonded FRCs, and no significant differences were identified among them. Higher force levels were reported for full-bonded metallic flat and round splints and the highest loads were recorded for full-bonded FRCs. At the maximum load, no significant differences were reported among spot- and full-bonded metallic splints and spot-bonded FRCs. The highest loads were reported for full bonded FRCs. The significant decrease in the rigidity of spot-bonded FRC splints if compared with full-bonded retainers suggests further tests in order to propose this technique for clinical use, as they allow physiologic tooth movement, thus presumably reducing the risk of ankylosis.

  12. Spot-Bonding and Full-Bonding Techniques for Fiber Reinforced Composite (FRC) and Metallic Retainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribante, Andrea; Gandini, Paola; Tessera, Paola; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo; Sfondrini, Maria Francesca

    2017-10-04

    Fiber reinforced Composite (FRC) retainers have been introduced as an aesthetic alternative to conventional metallic splints, but present high rigidity. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate bending and fracture loads of FRC splints bonded with conventional full-coverage of the FRC with a composite compared with an experimental bonding technique with a partial (spot-) resin composite cover. Stainless steel rectangular flat, stainless steel round, and FRC retainers were tested at 0.2 and 0.3 mm deflections and at a maximum load. Both at 0.2 and 0.3 mm deflections, the lowest load required to bend the retainer was recorded for spot-bonded stainless steel flat and round wires and for spot-bonded FRCs, and no significant differences were identified among them. Higher force levels were reported for full-bonded metallic flat and round splints and the highest loads were recorded for full-bonded FRCs. At the maximum load, no significant differences were reported among spot- and full-bonded metallic splints and spot-bonded FRCs. The highest loads were reported for full bonded FRCs. The significant decrease in the rigidity of spot-bonded FRC splints if compared with full-bonded retainers suggests further tests in order to propose this technique for clinical use, as they allow physiologic tooth movement, thus presumably reducing the risk of ankylosis.

  13. Chandy, Dr Jacob

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1961 Section: Medicine. Chandy, Dr Jacob MBBS (Madras), FRCS (c) Council Service: 1962-70. Date of birth: 23 January 1910. Date of death: 23 June 2007. Specialization: Neurology, Neurosurgery and Medical Education Last known address: Paarra, Matteethra, Kottayam 686 ...

  14. Nageswara Rao, Dr Gullapalli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nageswara Rao, Dr Gullapalli M.D. (Opthal.) (AIIMS), FAMS, FACS, FRCS, FNASc. Date of birth: 1 September 1945. Specialization: Cornea, Community Eye Health and Eye Care Policy & Planning Address: Distinguished Chair of Eye Health, LV Prasad Eye Institute, LV Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad 500 034, A.P.

  15. Chandy, Dr Jacob

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1961 Section: Medicine. Chandy, Dr Jacob MBBS (Madras), FRCS (c) Council Service: 1962-70. Date of birth: 23 January 1910. Date of death: 23 June 2007. Specialization: Neurology, Neurosurgery and Medical Education Last known address: Paarra, Matteethra, Kottayam 686 004. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook ...

  16. THE mSTORY OF GROIN HERNIA*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-07-03

    Jul 3, 1971 ... Kahn, J. 1.. and Koiransky H. (1933): Amer. J. Dis. Child.. 46, 40. THE mSTORY OF GROIN HERNIA*. SIMO I. WAPNICK, M.D., FR.C.S., Lecturer in Surgery, University of Rhodesia, Salisbury. SUMMARY. In The first century AD Cefsus described a method of recognition of groin hernia. It was not until Casper.

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Parkar, MBBS, MMed, Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist, PO. Box 520-00606, Nairobi, Kenya, W.]. ... MMed, Consultant Anaesthetist, PO. Box 19990-00202, Nairobi, Kenya and R. Baraza, MBChB, FRCS, Consultant ... which is to maintain minimal trauma. Because of these difficulties the method used by.

  18. Comparative study on the inhibitory effect of caffeic and chlorogenic acids on key enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease and some pro-oxidant induced oxidative stress in rats' brain-in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Agunloye, Odunayo M; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Adefegha, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    This study sought to investigate and compare the interaction of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and some pro-oxidants (FeSO(4), sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid) induced oxidative stress in rat brain in vitro. The result revealed that caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid inhibited AChE and BChE activities in dose-dependent manner; however, caffeic acid had a higher inhibitory effect on AChE and BChE activities than chlorogenic acid. Combination of the phenolic acids inhibited AChE and BChE activities antagonistically. Furthermore, pro-oxidants such as, FeSO(4), sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid caused increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the brain which was significantly decreased dose-dependently by the phenolic acids. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities slows down acetylcholine and butyrylcholine breakdown in the brain. Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the phenolic acids exert their neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting AChE and BChE activities as well as preventing oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, esterification of caffeic acid with quinic acid producing chlorogenic acid affects these neuroprotective properties.

  19. Treating Cocaine Addiction, Obesity, and Emotional Disorders by Viral Gene Transfer of Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brimijoin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, a plasma enzyme that hydrolyses the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine relatively well, with far lower efficiency than acetylcholinesterase (AChE but with the capability to degrade a broad range of bioactive esters. AChE is universally understood as essential to cholinergic neurotransmission, voluntary muscle performance, and cognition, among other roles, and its catalytic impact is essential for life. A total absence of BChE activity, whether by enzyme inhibition or simple lack of enzyme protein is not only compatible with life, but does not lead to obvious physiologic disturbance. However, very recent studies at Mayo Clinic have amassed support for the concept that BChE does have a true physiological role as a “ghrelin hydrolase” and, pharmacologically, as a cocaine hydrolase. Human subjects and animal mutations that lack functional BChE show higher than normal levels of ghrelin, an acylated peptide that drives hunger and feeding, along with certain emotional behaviors. Mice treated by viral gene transfer of BChE show higher plasma levels of enzyme and lower levels of ghrelin. Ghrelin is acknowledged as a driver of food-seeking and stress. This brief review examines some key phenomena and considers means of modulating BChE as treatments for cocaine addiction, anxiety, aggression, and obesity.

  20. Clinical assessment and C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) values of brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstruction before and after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planellas, Marta; Cuenca, Rafaela; Tabar, Maria-Dolores; Bertolani, Coralie; Poncet, Cyrill; Closa, Josep M; Lorente, Juan; Cerón, José J; Pastor, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalic dogs have unique upper respiratory anatomy with abnormal breathing patterns that are similar to those in humans with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The objectives of this multicenter prospective study were to assess the effects of surgical correction on clinical signs in dogs with brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome (BAOS) and to evaluate the levels of several biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP); haptoglobin (Hp), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI)] used to determine systemic inflammation and myocardial damage. This study was conducted on 33 dogs with BAOS that were evaluated before and 1 to 2 mo after surgical correction. Palatoplasty was carried out by means of 2 different surgical techniques: carbon dioxide (CO2) laser (n = 12) and electrical scalpel (n = 21). Biomarker levels (CRP, Hp, and cTnI) were determined before and after surgery. There was a significant reduction in respiratory and gastrointestinal signs in dogs with BAOS after surgical treatment (P dogs with BAOS reduces clinical signs, regardless of the anatomical components present. Surgical treatment for BAOS is not useful to reduce CRP and Hp levels, probably because BAOS does not induce as obvious an inflammatory process in dogs as in human patients with OSAS. No reduction in cTnI levels was observed 1 mo after surgery in dogs with BAOS, which suggests that some degree of myocardial damage remains.

  1. Clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors of ovarian fibrosarcoma: the results of a multi-center retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Ling-Min

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian fibrosarcomas are very rare tumors, and therefore, few case studies have evaluated the prognostic factors of this disease. To our knowledge, this study represents the largest study to evaluate the clinical and pathologic factors associated with ovarian fibrosarcoma patients. Methods Thirty-one cases of ovarian fibrosarcoma were retrospectively reviewed, which included medical records for eight patients, and 23 published case reports from 1995 through 2009. Patient treatment regimens included total hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy and an omentectomy (BAO (n = 9, oophorectomy (OR (n = 8, chemotherapy (CT (n = 1, BAO followed by chemotherapy (BAO+CT (n = 11, BAO followed by radiotherapy (BAO+RT (n = 1, and oophorectomy followed by radiotherapy (OR + RT (n = 1. Results The patients of this cohort were staged according to the guidelines of the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO, with 15, 6, 9, and 1 stage I-IV cases identified, respectively. Mitotic count values were also evaluated from 10 high-power fields (HPFs, and 3 cases had an average mitotic count P = 0.007 and treatment (P = 0.008 were predictive of poor prognosis. Furthermore, patients with stage I tumors that received BAO+CT were associated with a better prognosis. Conclusions Mitotic activity, and cells positive for Ki-67 were identified as important factors in the diagnosis of ovarian fibrosarcoma. Furthermore, FIGO stage and treatment modalities have the potential to be prognostic factors of survival, with BAO followed by adjuvant chemotherapy associated with an improved treatment outcome.

  2. The clustering of the SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR14 quasar sample: Anisotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillations measurements in Fourier-space with optimal redshift weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Yuting; Percival, Will J.; Ruggeri, Rossana; Zhu, Fangzhou; Tojeiro, Rita; Myers, Adam D.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Baumgarten, Falk; Zhao, Cheng; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ross, Ashley J.; Burtin, Etienne; Zarrouk, Pauline; Bautista, Julian; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Dawson, Kyle; Brownstein, Joel R.; de la Macorra, Axel; Schneider, Donald P.; Shafieloo, Arman

    2018-03-01

    We present a measurement of the anisotropic and isotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 14 quasar sample with optimal redshift weights. Applying the redshift weights improves the constraint on the BAO dilation parameter α(zeff) by 17%. We reconstruct the evolution history of the BAO distance indicators in the redshift range of 0.8 < z < 2.2. This paper is part of a set that analyses the eBOSS DR14 quasar sample.

  3. Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Characteristics of Barium Oxide and Zinc Sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Branton, Alice; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Trivedi, Dahryn; Nayak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Barium oxide (BaO) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) are well known for their applications in electrical, optical and chemical industries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powder. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of BaO and ZnS were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier t...

  4. Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Characteristics of Barium Oxide and Zinc Sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton

    2015-01-01

    Barium oxide (BaO) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) are well known for their applications in electrical, optical and chemical industries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powder. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi's biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of BaO and ZnS were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier t...

  5. [Evaluation of the efficacy of two successive protocols on pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia with E2A-PBX1 fusion gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan-yan; Gao, Chao; Cui, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-xi; Zhao, Wei; Li, Wei-jing; Wang, Kai-ling; Jiang, Jin; Zhang, Rui-dong; Xie, Jing; Shi, Hui-wen; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yong-hong; Ma, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Xuan; Wu, Min-yuan; Li, Zhi-gang

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of BCH-03 and CCLG-08 protocols in treating E2A-PBX1 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). From January 2003 to January 2011, 59 ALL patients identified as E2A-PBX1 were analyzed in a retrospective study. There were 37 and 22 patients treated with Protocol BCH-03 and CCLG-08, respectively. The clinical characteristics at diagnosis, response to early treatment, the time of relapse, relapse-free survival (RFS) and event-free survival (EFS) in the two groups were analyzed. There were no significant differences in gender, age, initial white blood cell count, the central nervous system involvement, immunophenotype, prednisone response, the rate of complete remission, and the time of relapse between the two groups (P > 0.05). The only difference in induction therapy of the two protocols existed in the glucocorticoids used, that is, BCH-03 used 60 mg/m(2) prednisolone and CCLG-08 used 6 mg/m(2) dexamethasone. The doses of vincristine, daunorubicin and L-asparaginase were the same in the two groups. At the end of induction therapy, the MRD negativity rate in BCH-03 group was significantly higher than that in CCLG-08 group (84.2% vs. 47.1%, P = 0.018). The incidences of severe infection of the two groups during induction of remission were similar (P = 0.135). The EFS of BCH-03 group was significantly superior to that of CCLG-08 group (94.5% vs. 71.5%, P = 0.010), and the RFS of BCH-03 group tended to be better than that of CCLG-08 group (94.5% vs. 78.6%, P = 0.059). Compared to Protocol CCLG-08, Protocol BCH-03 was more effective for pediatric E2A-PBX1 ALL, and 60 mg/m(2) prednisolone was more suitable for the induction therapy of this subtype of pediatric ALL.

  6. Prophylaxis with human serum butyrylcholinesterase protects Göttingen minipigs exposed to a lethal high-dose of sarin vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ashima; Hastings, Nicholas B; Sun, Wei; Dabisch, Paul A; Hulet, Stanley W; Jakubowski, Edward M; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2015-08-05

    Serum-derived human butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger that is being developed as a potential prophylactic nerve agent countermeasure. Previously, we reported the prophylactic efficacy of Hu BChE in Göttingen minipigs against a whole-body exposure to 4.1mg/m(3) of sarin (GB) vapor, which produced lethality over 60min. Since the toxicity of nerve agent is concentration-dependent, in the present study, we investigated the toxic effects of an almost 3-fold higher rate of GB vapor exposure and the ability of Hu BChE to protect minipigs against this exposure. Male minipigs were subjected to: (1) air exposure; (2) GB vapor exposure; or (3) pretreatment with 7.5mg/kg of Hu BChE by i.m. injection, 24h prior to whole-body exposure to 11.4mg/m(3) of GB vapor for 10min. Electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, and pupil size were monitored throughout exposure. Blood drawn before and throughout exposure was analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, acetylcholinesterase and BChE activities, and amount of GB bound to red blood cells and plasma. A novel finding was that saline-treated animals exposed to GB vapor did not develop any seizures, but manifested a variety of cardiac and whole blood toxic signs and rapidly died due to respiratory failure. Strikingly, pre-treatment with 7.5mg/kg of Hu BChE not only prevented lethality, but also avoided all cardiac toxic signs manifested in the non-treated cohort. Thus, Hu BChE alone can serve as an effective prophylactic countermeasure versus a lethal high-dose exposure to GB vapor. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. 2-Arylbenzofurans from Artocarpus lakoocha and methyl ether analogs with potent cholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdaung, Umalee; Athipornchai, Anan; Khammee, Thongchai; Kuno, Mayuso; Suksamrarn, Sunit

    2018-01-01

    In vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of the Artocarpus lakoocha root-bark extracts revealed interesting results. Bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of two new (1 and 2) and six known 2-arylbenzofurans 3-8, along with one stilbenoid 9 and one flavonoid 10. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 4, 6 and 7 exhibited more potent AChE inhibitory activity (IC 50  = 0.87-1.10 μM) than the reference drug, galantamine. Compounds 4, 8 and 9 displayed greater BChE inhibition than the standard drug. The preferential inhibition of BChE over AChE indicated that 4 also showed a promising dual AChE and BChE inhibitor. The synthetic mono-methylated analogs 4a-c and 6a-b were found to be good BChE inhibitors with IC 50 values ranging between 0.31 and 1.11 μM. Based on the docking studies, compounds 4 and 6 are well-fitted in the catalytic triad of AChE. Compounds 4 and 6 showed different binding orientations on BChE, and the most potent BChE inhibitor 4 occupied dual binding to both CAS and PAS more efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. BDML Datasets: 3 [SSBD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antella, A., Khairy, K., Bao, Z., Wittbrodt, J., and Stelzer, E.H.K. Philipp J. Keller, European Molecular Biology... Laboratory, Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, Stelzer Laboratory See details in Keller et al. (2010)

  9. Conditional QTL mapping of protein content in wheat with respect to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-12-05

    , The Netherlands. Zhao C. H., Cui F., Zong H., Wang Y. H., Bao Y. G., Hao Y. F. et al. 2009 Transmission of the chromosome 1R in winter wheat germplasm Aimengniu and its derivatives revealed by molecular markers. Agric.

  10. RNA PROFILES OF EJACULATED HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    RNA Profiles of Ejaculated Human SpermatozoaKary E. Thompson, Wenjun Bao, Sally D. Perreault, Hongzu Ren, John C. Rockett, Judith E. Schmid, Lillian F. Strader, David J. DixReproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory...

  11. Transcranial color-coded duplex sonography in suspected acute basilar artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermer, Pawel; Wellmer, Andreas; Crome, Olaf; Mohr, Alexander; Knauth, Michael; Bähr, Mathias

    2006-03-01

    Transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCDS) is a noninvasive, quick and inexpensive diagnostic tool used routinely to assess vascular abnormalities in cerebral ischemia. The value of TCDS for diagnosis and follow-up of acute basilar artery (BA) ischemia in comparison/combination with spiral CT angiography (CTA) and/or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has not yet been studied. We prospectively studied 15 consecutive patients with clinically suspected acute BA occlusion (BAO) by TCDS as well as 3 to 5 d later in those with proven BAO. BA ischemia was verified in 11 patients. During follow-up, all BAO patients showed recanalization of the BA independent of thrombolytic treatment. In conclusion, TCDS appears to be an efficient method for BAO diagnosis when immediate angiography is not available. Together with CTA it increases diagnostic safety before performing an invasive and cost-intensive DSA.

  12. Identification of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in Urticales ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Morus notabilis), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea). Xing Huang Yaning Bao Bo Wang Lijun Liu Jie Chen Lunjin Dai Sana Ullah Baloch Dingxiang Peng. Research Article Volume 95 Issue 1 March 2016 pp 119-129 ...

  13. Gas exchange and morpho-physiological response of soybean to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gas exchange and morpho-physiological response of soybean to straw mulching under drought conditions. Lan-lan Xue, Long-chang Wang, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Ming-chen Bao, Asif Saeed, Muhammad Faisal Bilal ...

  14. MicroRNA-144 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. HONGBIN BAO1 XINGUO LI1 HENGLI LI1 HONGLI XING1 BINGHUI XU1 XIANFENG ZHANG1 ZHAOMING LIU1. Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Harrison International Peace Hospital, Hengshui City, Hebei province, PR of China ...

  15. Baryonic acoustic oscillations from 21 cm intensity mapping: the Square Kilometre Array case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Alonso, David; Viel, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    We quantitatively investigate the possibility of detecting baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) using single-dish 21 cm intensity mapping observations in the post-reionization era. We show that the telescope beam smears out the isotropic BAO signature and, in the case of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) instrument, makes it undetectable at redshifts z ≳ 1. We however demonstrate that the BAO peak can still be detected in the radial 21 cm power spectrum and describe a method to make this type of measurements. By means of numerical simulations, containing the 21 cm cosmological signal as well as the most relevant Galactic and extra-Galactic foregrounds and basic instrumental effect, we quantify the precision with which the radial BAO scale can be measured in the 21 cm power spectrum. We systematically investigate the signal to noise and the precision of the recovered BAO signal as a function of cosmic variance, instrumental noise, angular resolution and foreground contamination. We find that the expected noise levels of SKA would degrade the final BAO errors by ˜5 per cent with respect to the cosmic-variance limited case at low redshifts, but that the effect grows up to ˜65 per cent at z ˜ 2-3. Furthermore, we find that the radial BAO signature is robust against foreground systematics, and that the main effect is an increase of ˜20 per cent in the final uncertainty on the standard ruler caused by the contribution of foreground residuals as well as the reduction in sky area needed to avoid high-foreground regions. We also find that it should be possible to detect the radial BAO signature with high significance in the full redshift range. We conclude that a 21 cm experiment carried out by the SKA should be able to make direct measurements of the expansion rate H(z) with measure the expansion with competitive per cent level precision on redshifts z ≲ 2.5.

  16. Binary mixtures of hydrogen-bonded ferroelectric liquid crystals. Thermal span enhancement in smectic X* phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangameswari, Gopal; Prabu, Nataraj Pongali Sathya; Madhu Mohan, Mathukumalli Lakshmi Narayana [Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam (India). Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory (LCRL)

    2015-07-01

    Thermotropic hydrogen-bonded ferroelectric binary liquid crystal mixtures comprising of N-carbamyl-l-glutamic acid (CGA) and p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acids (BAO) are investigated. Variation in the molar proportion of X and Y (where X=CGA+5BAO and Y=CGA+9BAO, CGA+10BAO, CGA+11BAO, and CGA+12BAO) comprising of four series yielded 36 binary mixtures. Optical and thermal properties of these mixtures are meticulously studied in the present article. In addition to the traditional phases, a novel smectic ordering namely smectic X* is observed in all the four series. The aim of the investigation is to obtain abundance occurrence of smectic X* with a large thermal span, and hence, the proportions of the binary mixtures are so chosen that the prelude task is accomplished. Optical tilt angle in smectic X* and smectic C* phases is experimentally determined, and a theoretical fit is performed. Phase diagrams of the four series are constructed from the data obtained from the differential scanning calorimetry and correlated with the phases recorded by the polarising optical microscope studies. Thermal stability factor and thermal equilibrium are also premeditated.

  17. Substantially improved pharmacokinetics of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase by fusion to human serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierson Janice

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human butyrylcholinesterase (huBChE has been shown to be an effective antidote against multiple LD50 of organophosphorus compounds. A prerequisite for such use of huBChE is a prolonged circulatory half-life. This study was undertaken to produce recombinant huBChE fused to human serum albumin (hSA and characterize the fusion protein. Results Secretion level of the fusion protein produced in vitro in BHK cells was ~30 mg/liter. Transgenic mice and goats generated with the fusion constructs expressed in their milk a bioactive protein at concentrations of 0.04–1.1 g/liter. BChE activity gel staining and a size exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC revealed that the fusion protein consisted of predominant dimers and some monomers. The protein was confirmed to have expected molecular mass of ~150 kDa by Western blot. The purified fusion protein produced in vitro was injected intravenously into juvenile pigs for pharmacokinetic study. Analysis of a series of blood samples using the Ellman assay revealed a substantial enhancement of the plasma half-life of the fusion protein (~32 h when compared with a transgenically produced huBChE preparation containing >70% tetramer (~3 h. In vitro nerve agent binding and inhibition experiments indicated that the fusion protein in the milk of transgenic mice had similar inhibition characteristics compared to human plasma BChE against the nerve agents tested. Conclusion Both the pharmacokinetic study and the in vitro nerve agent binding and inhibition assay suggested that a fusion protein retaining both properties of huBChE and hSA is produced in vitro and in vivo. The production of the fusion protein in the milk of transgenic goats provided further evidence that sufficient quantities of BChE/hSA can be produced to serve as a cost-effective and reliable source of BChE for prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment.

  18. An Implementation of Error Minimization Data Transmission in OFDM using Modified Convolutional Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Briantoro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents about error minimization in OFDM system. In conventional system, usually using channel coding such as BCH Code or Convolutional Code. But, performance BCH Code or Convolutional Code is not good in implementation of OFDM System. Error bits of OFDM system without channel coding is 5.77%. Then, we used convolutional code with code rate 1/2, it can reduce error bitsonly up to 3.85%. So, we proposed OFDM system with Modified Convolutional Code. In this implementation, we used Software Define Radio (SDR, namely Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP NI 2920 as the transmitter and receiver. The result of OFDM system using Modified Convolutional Code with code rate is able recover all character received so can decrease until 0% error bit. Increasing performance of Modified Convolutional Code is about 1 dB in BER of 10-4 from BCH Code and Convolutional Code. So, performance of Modified Convolutional better than BCH Code or Convolutional Code. Keywords: OFDM, BCH Code, Convolutional Code, Modified Convolutional Code, SDR, USRP

  19. Comparison of the Binding of Reversible Inhibitors to Human Butyrylcholinesterase and Acetylcholinesterase: A Crystallographic, Kinetic and Calorimetric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrone L. Rosenberry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE hydrolyze the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and, thereby, function as coregulators of cholinergic neurotransmission. Although closely related, these enzymes display very different substrate specificities that only partially overlap. This disparity is largely due to differences in the number of aromatic residues lining the active site gorge, which leads to large differences in the shape of the gorge and potentially to distinct interactions with an individual ligand. Considerable structural information is available for the binding of a wide diversity of ligands to AChE. In contrast, structural data on the binding of reversible ligands to BChE are lacking. In a recent effort, an inhibitor competition approach was used to probe the overlap of ligand binding sites in BChE. Here, we extend this study by solving the crystal structures of human BChE in complex with five reversible ligands, namely, decamethonium, thioflavin T, propidium, huprine, and ethopropazine. We compare these structures to equivalent AChE complexes when available in the protein data bank and supplement this comparison with kinetic data and observations from isothermal titration calorimetry. This new information now allows us to define the binding mode of various ligand families and will be of importance in designing specific reversible ligands of BChE that behave as inhibitors or reactivators.

  20. In vivo and in vitro evaluations of intestinal gabapentin absorption: effect of dose and inhibitors on carrier-mediated transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Frølund, Sidsel; Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Garmer, Mats; Kreilgaard, Mads; Holm, René

    2015-03-01

    Gabapentin exhibits saturable absorption kinetics, however, it remains unclear which transporters that are involved in the intestinal transport of gabapentin. Thus, the aim of the current study was to explore the mechanistic influence of transporters on the intestinal absorption of gabapentin by both in vivo and in vitro investigations Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined following a range of intravenous (5-100 mg/kg) and oral doses (10-200 mg/kg) in rats. Transepithelial transport (50 μM-50 mM) and apical uptake of gabapentin (0.01-50 mM) were investigated in Caco-2 cells. The effect of co-application of the LAT-inhibitor, BCH, and the b(0,+)-substrate, L-lysine, on intestinal transport of gabapentin was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Gabapentin showed dose-dependent oral absorption kinetics and dose-independent disposition kinetics. Co-application of BCH inhibited intestinal absorption in vivo and apical uptake in vitro, whereas no effect was observed following co-application of L-lysine. The present study shows for the first time that BCH was capable of inhibiting intestinal absorption of gabapentin in vivo. Furthermore, in Caco-2 cell experiments BCH inhibited apical uptake of gabapentin. These findings may imply that a BCH-sensitive transport-system was involved in the apical and possibly the basolateral transport of gabapentin across the intestinal wall.

  1. Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus parasiticus present in the diet of quails increase the activities of cholinesterase and adenosine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Santurio, Janio M; Roza, Lenilson F; Bottari, Nathieli B; Galli, Gabriela M; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Baldissera, Matheus D; Stefani, Lenita M; Radavelli, Willian M; Tomasi, Thainã; Boiago, Marcel M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aflatoxins on cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in quails. For this, twenty male quails were randomly distributed into two groups (n = 10 each): the group A was composed by quails that received feed without aflatoxin (the control group); while the group B was composed by quails that received feed contaminated with 200 ppm/kg of feed of aflatoxin. On day 20, the animals were euthanized to measure the activities of AChE (total blood and brain), BChE (serum) and ADA (serum, liver, and brain), as well as for histopathological analyses (liver and intestine). AChE, BChE, and ADA levels increased in animals intoxicated by aflatoxin compared to the control group. The presence of aflatoxin lead to severe hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes and small focus of hepatocyte necrosis. In conclusion, aflatoxins poisoning increased AChE, BChE, and ADA activities, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes during this type of intoxication, in addition to the fact that they are well known molecules that participate in physiological and pathological events as inflammatory mediators. In summary, increased AChE, BChE and ADA activities contribute directly to the inflammatory process and tissue damage, and they might be involved in disease development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 Nanoparticles-based Test Strip Immunosensing Device for Rapid Detection of Phosphorylated Butyrylcholinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2013-12-15

    An integrated magnetic nanoparticles-based test-strip immunosensing device was developed for rapid and sensitive quantification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the biomarker of exposure to organophosphous pesticides (OP), in human plasma. In order to overcome the difficulty in scarce availability of OP-specific antibody, here magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 nanoparticles were used and adsorbed on the test strip through a small magnet inserted in the device to capture target OP-BChE through selective binding between TiO2 and OP moiety. Further recognition was completed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and anti-BChE antibody (Ab) co-immobilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Their strong affinities among Fe3O4@TiO2, OP-BChE and HRP/Ab-GNPs were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) measurements. After cutting off from test strip, the resulted immunocomplex (HRP/Ab-GNPs/OP-BChE/Fe3O4@TiO2) was measured by SWV using a screen printed electrode under the test zone. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by introduction of GNPs to link enzyme and antibody at high ratio, which amplifies electrocatalytic signal significantly. Moreover, the use of test strip for fast immunoreactions reduces analytical time remarkably. Coupling with a portable electrochemical detector, the integrated device with advanced nanotechnology displays great promise for sensitive, rapid and in-filed on-site evaluation of OP poisoning.

  3. Structural and functional analysis of glycoprotein butyrylcholinesterase using atomistic molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Austen; Faller, Roland

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) has proven to be a powerful tool for studying the structure and dynamics of biological systems on nanosecond to microsecond time scales and nanometer length scales. In this work we study the effects of modifying the glycan distribution on the structure and function of full length monomeric butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). BChE exists as a monomer, dimer, or tetramer, and is a therapeutic glycoprotein with nine asparagine glycosylation sites per monomer. Each monomer acts as a stoichiometric scavenger for organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents (e.g. sarin, soman). Glycan distributions are highly heterogeneous and have been shown experimentally to affect certain glycoproteins' stability and reactivity. We performed structural analysis of various biologically relevant glycoforms of BChE using classical atomistic MD. Functional analysis was performed through binding energy simulations using umbrella sampling with BChE and OP cofactors. Additionally, we assess the quality of the glycans' conformational sampling. We found that the glycan distribution has a significant effect on the structure and function of BChE on timescales available to atomistic MD. This project is funded by the DTRA Grant HDTRA1-15-1-0054.

  4. Assessment of platelets morphological changes and serum butyrylcholinesterase activity in children with diabetic ketoacidosis: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Suzan Omar; Sayed, Samira Zein; Moussa, Mahmoud Mohammed; Hassan, Ahmed Hamdy

    2017-04-04

    Many studies indicated that mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) may be valuable in the diagnosis and management of clinical disorders; also, serum butyrylcholinesterase activity (BChE) was suggested to be linked to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Limited studies measured these readily available markers in children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Our objectives were to measure MPV, PDW and BChE in children with DKA; and to assess if any of these markers reflects the severity of DKA. Our study included: 30 children with DKA (DKA group), 30 diabetic children (Non-DKA group) and 30 apparently healthy children (control group). MPV, PDW and BChE were measured in all children. Additional blood samples were withdrawn from the DKA group to assess these markers at discharge from hospital. MPV, PDW and BChE were significantly altered in the DKA group than the other two groups; and their levels improved significantly at discharge of the DKA group (p  0.05). DKA in children is associated with changes in MPV, PDW and BChE activity, which improve after resolution of the condition. Elevated MPV can be a suitable risk marker for DKA. None of the studied markers correlated with the severity of DKA.

  5. Human butyrylcholinesterase efficacy against nerve agent exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beth A; Sabourin, Carol L; Lenz, David E

    2017-05-01

    Acetylcholinesterase is vital for normal operation of many processes in the body. Following exposure to organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, death can ensue without immediate medical intervention. Current therapies mitigate the cholinergic crisis caused by nerve agents but do not fully prevent long-term health concerns, for example, brain damage following seizures. Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger being investigated as an antidote for OP nerve agent poisoning. HuBChE sequesters OP nerve agent in the bloodstream preventing the nerve agent from reaching critical target organ systems. HuBChE was effective when used as both a pre-treatment and as a post-exposure therapy. HuBChE has potential for use in both military settings and to protect civilian first responders in situations where nerve agent usage is suspected. We reviewed various animal models studies evaluating the efficacy of HuBChE against nerve agent exposure, pursuant to its submission for approval under the FDA Animal Rule. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Photography by Cameras Integrated in Smartphones as a Tool for Analytical Chemistry Represented by an Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2015-06-11

    Smartphones are popular devices frequently equipped with sensitive sensors and great computational ability. Despite the widespread availability of smartphones, practical uses in analytical chemistry are limited, though some papers have proposed promising applications. In the present paper, a smartphone is used as a tool for the determination of cholinesterasemia i.e., the determination of a biochemical marker butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The work should demonstrate suitability of a smartphone-integrated camera for analytical purposes. Paper strips soaked with indoxylacetate were used for the determination of BChE activity, while the standard Ellman's assay was used as a reference measurement. In the smartphone-based assay, BChE converted indoxylacetate to indigo blue and coloration was photographed using the phone's integrated camera. A RGB color model was analyzed and color values for the individual color channels were determined. The assay was verified using plasma samples and samples containing pure BChE, and validated using Ellmans's assay. The smartphone assay was proved to be reliable and applicable for routine diagnoses where BChE serves as a marker (liver function tests; some poisonings, etc.). It can be concluded that the assay is expected to be of practical applicability because of the results' relevance.

  7. Preclinical studies on neurobehavioral and neuromuscular effects of cocaine hydrolase gene therapy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vishakantha; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; LeBrasseur, Nathan; White, Thomas; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Cocaine hydrolase gene transfer of mutated human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is evolving as a promising therapy for cocaine addiction. BChE levels after gene transfer can be 1,500-fold above those in untreated mice, making this enzyme the second most abundant plasma protein. Because mutated BChE is approximately 70 % as efficient in hydrolyzing acetylcholine as wild-type enzyme, it is important to examine the impact on cholinergic function. Here, we focused on memory and cognition (Stone T-maze), basic neuromuscular function (treadmill endurance and grip strength), and coordination (Rotarod). BALB/c mice were given adeno-associated virus vector or helper-dependent adenoviral vector encoding mouse or human BChE optimized for cocaine. Age-matched controls received saline or luciferase vector. Despite high doses (up to 10(13) particles per mouse) and high transgene expression (1,000-fold above baseline), no deleterious effects of vector treatment were seen in neurobehavioral functions. The vector-treated mice performed as saline-treated and luciferase controls in maze studies and strength tests, and their Rotarod and treadmill performance decreased less with age. Thus, neither the viral vectors nor the large excess of BChE caused observable toxic effects on the motor and cognitive systems investigated. This outcome justifies further steps toward an eventual clinical trial of vector-based gene transfer for cocaine abuse.

  8. Butyrylcholinesterase gene transfer in obese mice prevents postdieting body weight rebound by suppressing ghrelin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2017-10-10

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate but treatment options remain limited. Despite initial success, weight loss by calorie restriction (CR) often fails because of rebound weight gain. Postdieting hyperphagia along with altered hypothalamic neuro-architecture appears to be one direct cause of this undesirable outcome. In response to calorie deficiency the circulating levels of the appetite-promoting hormone, acyl-ghrelin, rise sharply. We hypothesize that proper modulation of acyl-ghrelin and its receptor's sensitivity will favorably impact energy intake and reprogram the body weight set point. Here we applied viral gene transfer of the acyl-ghrelin hydrolyzing enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Our results confirmed that BChE overexpression decreased circulating acyl-ghrelin levels, suppressed CR-provoked ghrelin signaling, and restored central ghrelin sensitivity. In addition to maintaining healthy body weights, BChE treated mice had modest postdieting food intake and showed normal glucose homeostasis. Spontaneous activity and energy expenditure did not differ significantly between treated and untreated mice after body weight rebound, suggesting that BChE gene transfer did not alter energy expenditure in the long term. These findings indicate that combining BChE treatment with CR could be an effective approach in treating human obesity and aiding lifelong weight management.

  9. The effect of nanoclay filler loading on the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Results: For groups with the same concentration of nanoparticles, PMMA-grafted filler-loaded group showed significantly higher flexural strength, except for 0.2% wt. For groups that contain PMMA-grafted nanoclay fillers, the 2% wt had the highest flexural strength value with significant difference to other subgroups. 1% wt and 2% wt showed significantly higher values compared to control (P 0.05. Flexural modulus of 2%, 5% wt PMMA-grafted and 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% wt unmodified nanoclay particles-loaded subgroups decreased significantly compared to control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: PMMA-grafted nanoclay filler loading may enhance the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of unmodified nanoparticles cannot significantly improve the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of both unmodified and PMMA-grafted nanoclay particles in some concentrations decreased the flexural modulus.

  10. Recent FRC translation experiments on FRX-C/T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; Hugrass, W.N.; Klingner, P.L.; McKenna, K.F.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    Since the last CT Symposium, several accomplishments have been realized from the FRC translation studies on the FRX-C/T device: (1) FRCs have been launched into, and trapped in, a dc magnetic guide field region without the use of any pulsed ''gate'' coils; (2) detailed studies of translation dynamics have been performed which are consistent with energy conservation, adiabatic compression theory, and 2-D MHD simulations; (3) the confinement properties of translated FRC has been evaluated; (4) translation through either puff or static deuterium gas fill has been demonstrated; (5) higher density (n less than or equal to 4 x 10 15 cm -3 ) FRCs have been translated over 10-m lengths; (6) the n = 2 rotational instability has been stabilized by FRC translation into a weak helical quadrupole field

  11. Problems encountered with conventional fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landel, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    Preparational, computational, and operational problems associated with fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) are reviewed. Initial preparation of FRCs is shown to involve consideration of the type of prepreg, the setting time, cure conditions and cycles, and cure temperatures. The effects of the choice of bonding agents, the fiber transfer length, and individual fiber responses to bonding agents are noted to have an impact on fiber strength, moisture uptake, and fatigue resistance. The deformation prior to failure and the failure region are modeled through models of mini-, micro- and macro mechanics formulations employing a stiffness matrix, failure criterion, or fracture mechanics. The detection, evaluation, and repair of defects comprises the operational domain, and it is stressed that no good repair techniques exist for FRCs.

  12. Review of the Los Alamos FRX-C experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.; Armstrong, W.T.; Barnes, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The FRX-C device is a large field-reversed theta pinch experiment, with linear dimensions twice those of its FRX-A and FRX-B predecessors. It is used to form field-reversed configurations (FRCs), which are high-beta, highly prolate compact toroids. FRX-C has demonstrated an R 2 scaling for particle confinement in FRCs, indicating particles are lost by diffusive processes. Particle losses were also observed to dominate the energy balance. FRC lifetimes exceeding 300 μs were observed when weak quadrupole fields were applied to stabilize the n = 2 rotational mode. Detailed studies of the FRC equilibrium were performed using multi-chord and holographic interferometry. Measurements of electron temperature by Thomson scattering showed a flat profile and substantial losses through the electron channel. The loss rate of the internal poloidal flux of the FRC was observed to be anomalous and to scale less strongly with temperature than predicted from classical resistivity

  13. Design and Synthesis of New Dual Binding Site Cholinesterase Inhibitors: in vitro Inhibition Studies with in silico Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar, Muhammad; Bajda, Marek; Mehmood, Rana Atif; Sidra, Lala Rukh; Ullah, Nisar; Shahzadi, Lubna; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ismail, Tayaba; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Mahmood, Nasir

    2014-03-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) play a vital role in the regulation of cholinergic transmission. The inhibition of ChEs is considered to be involved in increasing acetylcholine level in the brain and thus has been implicated in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We have designed and synthesized a series of novel indole derivatives and screened them for inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Most of the tested compounds exhibited inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE. Among them 4f and 6e showed the highest AChE inhibitory activity with IC 50 91.21±0.06 and 68.52±0.04 μM, respectively. However compound 5a exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against BChE (IC 50 55.21±0.12 μM).

  14. In vivo and In vitro Evaluations of Intestinal Gabapentin Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Frølund, Sidsel; Nøhr, Martha Kampp

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Gabapentin exhibits saturable absorption kinetics, however, it remains unclear which transporters that are involved in the intestinal transport of gabapentin. Thus, the aim of the current study was to explore the mechanistic influence of transporters on the intestinal absorption...... cells. The effect of co-application of the LAT-inhibitor, BCH, and the b(0,+)-substrate, L-lysine, on intestinal transport of gabapentin was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Gabapentin showed dose-dependent oral absorption kinetics and dose-independent disposition kinetics. Co-application of BCH...... inhibited intestinal absorption in vivo and apical uptake in vitro, whereas no effect was observed following co-application of L-lysine. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows for the first time that BCH was capable of inhibiting intestinal absorption of gabapentin in vivo. Furthermore, in Caco-2 cell...

  15. Reactivation of Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibited by Leptophos-Oxon with Different Oxime Reactivators in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Bostik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated in vitro the potency of 23 oximes to reactivate human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibited by racemic leptophos-oxon (O-[4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl]-O-methyl phenyl-phosphonate, a toxic metabolite of the pesticide leptophos. Compounds were assayed in concentrations of 10 and 100 µM. In case of leptophos-oxon inhibited AChE, the best reactivation potency was achieved with methoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime and oxime K027. The most potent reactivators of inhibited BChE were K033, obidoxime, K117, bis-3-PA, K075, K074 and K127. The reactivation efficacy of tested oximes was lower in case of leptophos-oxon inhibited BChE.

  16. Oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of taurine in sprague-dawley rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Bjerg, Maria; Ulaganathan, Nithiya

    2017-01-01

    Taurine is involved in various physiological processes, and one of the most abundant amino acids in human. The aim was to investigate the mechanism for intestinal absorption of taurine in vivo using also in vitro mechanistic studies. Taurine absorption was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 10...... (BCH) (200 mg/kg). BCH is not an inhibitor of PAT1 or the taurine transporter, TauT, hence it was included as a negative control. In vitro studies investigating the transport mechanism of taurine were conducted in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The pharmacokinetic investigations showed that intestinal...... taurine absorption was not saturable at the investigated doses, but that the time (tmax) to reach the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) increased with dose. Furthermore, Sar and Pro, but not BCH, decreased taurine Cmax. In vitro it was clearly shown that PAT1 mediated the cellular uptake of taurine...

  17. Serum butyrylcholinesterase activity in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, A; Ceron, J J; Caldin, M

    2012-06-01

    Increased serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity is a feature of diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans and rats. The objective of this study was to evaluate serum BChE activity in diabetic dogs. The activity of the enzyme was assessed in three cohorts of animals: (1) dogs with naturally occurring DM (n=74); (2) clinically normal dogs (n=74); and (3) dogs with various other diseases (n=74). A statistically significant increase in BChE activity was found in the diabetic dogs (7.59 ± 2.9 kUI/L) compared with the clinically normal animals (6.12 ± 1.94 kUI/L; Pdogs with other diseases (5.55 ± 2.06 kUI/L; P<0.01). Such increased activity could be the result of the altered glucose and lipid metabolism that occurs in DM. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Meet Our Editorial Board Member

    OpenAIRE

    Burnstock, Prof. Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Professor Geoffrey Burnstock is a neuroscientist and he received his PhD Degree from University College London. He is President of the Autonomic Neuroscience Centre, University College Medical School. His work has been recognised by various honours, such as ?Award for Lifetime Achievement in Digestive Sciences? a 2000 Janssen Award in Gastroenterology?, Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (FRCP) and Surgeons (FRCS), Fellow of the Royal Society and Royal Society Royal Gold Medal...

  19. A realistic validation study of a new nitrogen multiple-breath washout system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Singer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For reliable assessment of ventilation inhomogeneity, multiple-breath washout (MBW systems should be realistically validated. We describe a new lung model for in vitro validation under physiological conditions and the assessment of a new nitrogen (N(2MBW system. METHODS: The N(2MBW setup indirectly measures the N(2 fraction (F(N2 from main-stream carbon dioxide (CO(2 and side-stream oxygen (O(2 signals: F(N2 = 1-F(O2-F(CO2-F(Argon. For in vitro N(2MBW, a double chamber plastic lung model was filled with water, heated to 37°C, and ventilated at various lung volumes, respiratory rates, and F(CO2. In vivo N(2MBW was undertaken in triplets on two occasions in 30 healthy adults. Primary N(2MBW outcome was functional residual capacity (FRC. We assessed in vitro error (√[difference](2 between measured and model FRC (100-4174 mL, and error between tests of in vivo FRC, lung clearance index (LCI, and normalized phase III slope indices (S(acin and S(cond. RESULTS: The model generated 145 FRCs under BTPS conditions and various breathing patterns. Mean (SD error was 2.3 (1.7%. In 500 to 4174 mL FRCs, 121 (98% of FRCs were within 5%. In 100 to 400 mL FRCs, the error was better than 7%. In vivo FRC error between tests was 10.1 (8.2%. LCI was the most reproducible ventilation inhomogeneity index. CONCLUSION: The lung model generates lung volumes under the conditions encountered during clinical MBW testing and enables realistic validation of MBW systems. The new N(2MBW system reliably measures lung volumes and delivers reproducible LCI values.

  20. Operative fixation of fractures in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-16

    Feb 16, 1991 ... cations; time to fracture union;'limb function at follow-up;. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Natal and Addington Hospital, Durban. A. C. CLARKE, F.C.S.(S.A.)(ORTH.) R. F. SPENCER, M.D., F.C.S. (SA) (ORTH.), F.R.C.S.. Accepted 21 Mar 1990. Reprint requests to: Mr R. F. Spencet, Dept of ...

  1. Electrodeposition of Nanocrystalline Co-P Coatings as a Hard Chrome Alternative (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    Strippants evaluated and downselected (3) nitro -organic oxidizers with amino compounds 0.001”-0.004”/hr removal rates MacDermid METEX SCB Electroless Nickel...composition of electroplate Optimize coating properties Applied simulation to a complex geometry – T45 Pivot Assembly Electrochemical Modeling T-45 Pivot...FRCs) Estimated NAVAIR P2 Savings over 10 Yrs 38 ASETS Defense Conference – 10 February 2011 Cobalt Environment & Worker Safety Cobalt Air Emissions

  2. FRC [field-reversed configuration] translation studies on FRX-C/LSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.; Barnes, G.; Baron, M.

    1989-01-01

    In preparation for upcoming compression-heating experiments, field-reversed configurations (FRCs) have been translated out of the FRX-C/LSM θ-pinch source, and into the 0.4-m-id, 6.7-m-long translation region formerly used on FRX-C/T. Unlike earlier experiments FRCs are generated without magnetic tearing in the larger FRX-C/LSM source (nominal coil id = 0.70 m, length = 2 m); larger, lower-energy-density FRCs are formed: r/sub s/ ≅ 0.17 m, B/sub ext/ ≅ 0.35 T, ≅ 7 /times/ 10 20 m/sup /minus/3/ and T/sub e/ + T/sub i/ ≅ 400 eV. An initial 3-mtorr D 2 pressure is introduced by either static or puff fill. Asymmetric fields from auxiliary end coils (used for non-tearing formation) provide the accelerating force on the FRC, thereby eliminating the need for a conical θ-pinch coil. An important feature is the abrupt 44% decrease in the flux-conserving wall radius at the transition between the θ-pinch and translation region, similar to that in the compressor. In this paper we review a variety of issues addressed by the recent translation experiments: translation dynamics; translation through a modulated magnetic field; stabilization of the n = 2 rotational instability by weak helical quadrupole fields; and confinement properties. Results from internal magnetic field measurements in translating FRCs may be found in a companion paper. 10 refs., 5 figs

  3. -116A and K BCHE gene variants associated with obesity and hypertriglyceridemia in adolescents from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Thaís Jannuzzi; Leite, Neiva; Milano, Gerusa Eisfeld; Milano, Gisele Eisfeld; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen Rodrigues; Chautard-Freire-Maia, Eleidi Alice; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2013-03-25

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) has been associated to body mass index (BMI), weight, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. -116A (rs1126680) and K (A539T, 1615A, rs1803274) BCHE gene variants had previously been associated to BChE activity, weight and BMI variance in adults. The present study examined -116A and K variants, BChE activity, anthropometric and biochemical variables associated with obesity in adolescents (120 obese and 150 non-obese from Curitiba, Brazil). Both -116A and K variants were found with significantly lower frequencies (pobese adolescents when compared with non-obese adolescents and with the general population. Mean BChE activity (KU/L) was significantly higher in obese adolescents when compared with non-obese adolescents and with the general population. Analyzing only the obese adolescents, it was found that carriers of the -116A variant showed lower BChE activity and higher triglyceride levels than homozygotes for the usual allele. Indeed, obese carriers of the -116A variant had triglyceride levels considered high according to reference values for serum triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents. These results show: (1) a protective effect of -116A and K variants on juvenile obesity risk, suggesting a role for the BCHE gene on juvenile onset obesity different from that observed on adult onset obesity and (2) an association of the -116A variant with hypertriglyceridemia in obese adolescents probably because of its effect on lowering BChE activity and consequently diminishing the enzyme capability of maintaining homeostasis on lipid metabolism during the metabolic stress caused by obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Criteria referenced student self-assesment in restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookhan, V; Becker, L H; Oosthuizen, M P

    2005-05-01

    The application of criteria referenced assessment has been previously reported, however, criteria referenced self-assessment has not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to develop and use clear and explicit criteria, linked to a level of competency and a score, as well as a checklist, for student self-assessment in Restorative Dentistry. A comparison of student self-assessment and supervisor-assessment was also undertaken to determine the validity and reliability of the criteria. Six levels of competency were adapted from the literature and a criterion was developed for each level of competency and used for student self-assessment of clinical procedures in Restorative Dentistry (BChD IV and BChD V). Each level of competency was given a score: U = Unqualified (0), NBQ = Not becoming Qualified (1), BQB = Becoming Qualified as a Beginner (2), BQL = Becoming Qualified as a Learner (3), Q = Qualified (4), E = Exceptional (5). The students used the criteria on the assessment form, to assess themselves accordingly (U, NBQ, BQB, BQL, Q, E) and this was compared to the supervisor assessment using the same criteria. The results were subjected to a Spearman Rank-Order Correlation test. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient for the BChD V group was 0.882 and 0.927 for the BChD IV group in the first semester and 0.923 for the BChD V group and 0.900 for the BChD IV group in the second semester. The results were highly significant (pDentistry is valid and reliable.

  5. Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Danchin-Burge

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH, Blanc du Massif Central (BMC, Charollais (CHA and Limousin (LIM; the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH and Solognot (SOL. Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount. The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH, 144 (BMC, 112 (CHA, 69 (LIM, 40 (RLH and 49 (SOL. Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH, +0.045 (CHA, +0.036 (LIM, +0.098 (RLH and +0.062 (SOL. The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.

  6. Bacteriochlorophyll f: properties of chlorosomes containing the “forbidden chlorophyll”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajetan Vogl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chlorosomes of green sulfur bacteria (GSB are mainly assembled from one of three types of bacteriochlorophylls (BChls, BChls c, d, and e. By analogy to the relationship between BChl c and BChl d (20-desmethyl-BChl c, a fourth type of BChl, BChl f (20-desmethyl-BChl e, should exist but has not yet been observed in nature. The bchU gene (bacteriochlorophyllide C-20 methyltransferase of the brown-colored green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum limnaeum was inactivated by conjugative transfer from Eshcerichia coli and homologous recombination of a suicide plasmid carrying a portion of the bchU. The resulting bchU mutant was greenish brown in color and synthesized BChl fF. The chlorosomes of the bchU mutant had similar size and polypeptide composition as those of the wild type (WT, but the Qy absorption band of the BChl f aggregates was blue-shifted 16 nm (705 nm vs. 721 nm for the WT. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that energy transfer to the baseplate was much less efficient in chlorosomes containing BChl f than in WT chlorosomes containing BChl e. When cells were grown at high irradiance with tungsten or fluorescent light, the WT and bchU mutant had identical growth rates. However, the WT grew about 40% faster than the bchU mutant at low irradiance (10 μmol photons m−2 s-1. Less efficient energy transfer from BChl f aggregates to BChl a in the baseplate, the much slower growth of the strain producing BChl f relative to the WT, and competition from other phototrophs, may explain why BChl f is not observed naturally.

  7. Preparation, characterization of Fe3O4 at TiO2 magnetic nanoparticles and their application for immunoassay of biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Hongbo; Yang, Chunming; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2013-03-15

    Novel Fe3O4 at TiO2 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and developed for a new nanoparticle-based immunosensor for electrochemical quantification of organophosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma, a specific biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) agents. The Fe3O4 at TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis of tetrabutyltitanate on the surface of Fe3O4 magnetic nanospheres, and characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectra, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The functional Fe3O4 at TiO2 nanoparticles were performed as capture antibody to selectively enrich phosphorylated moiety instead of phosphoserine antibody in the traditional sandwich immunoassays. The secondary recognition was served by quantum dots (QDs)-tagged anti-BChE antibody (QDs-anti-BChE). With the help of a magnet, the resulting sandwich-like complex, Fe3O4 at TiO2/OP-BChE/QDs-anti-BChE, was easily isolated from sample solutions and the released cadmium ions were detected on a disposable screen-printed electrode (SPE). The binding affinities were investigated by both surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). This method not only avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody but also amplifies detection signal by QDs-tags together with easy separation of samples by magnetic forces. The proposed immunosensor yields a linear response over a broad OP-BChE concentrations range from 0.02 to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.01 nM. Moreover, the disposable nanoparticle-based immunosensor has been validated with human plasma samples. It offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive screening/evaluating exposure to OP pesticides.

  8. A comprehensive evaluation of novel oximes in creation of butyrylcholinesterase-based nerve agent bioscavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalinić, Maja; Maček Hrvat, Nikolina; Baumann, Krešimir; Morasi Piperčić, Sara; Makarić, Sandro; Tomić, Srđanka; Jović, Ozren; Hrenar, Tomica; Miličević, Ante; Jelić, Dubravko; Žunec, Suzana; Primožič, Ines; Kovarik, Zrinka

    2016-11-01

    A well-considered treatment of acute nerve agents poisoning involves the exogenous administration of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) as a stoichiometric bioscavenger efficient in preventing cholinergic crises caused by acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition. An additional improvement in medical countermeasures would be to use oximes that could reactivate BChE as well to upgrade bioscavenging from stoichiometric to oxime-assisted catalytic. Therefore, in this paper we investigated the potency of 39 imidazolium and benzimidazolium oximes (36 compounds synthesized for the first time) to be considered as the reactivators specifically designed for reactivation of phosphylated human BChE. Their efficiency in the reactivation of paraoxon-, VX-, and tabun-inhibited human BChE, as well as human AChE was tested and compared with the efficiencies of HI-6 and obidoxime, used in medical practice today. A comprehensive analysis was performed for the most promising oximes defining kinetic parameters of reactivation as well as interactions with uninhibited BChE. Furthermore, experimental data were compared with computational studies (docking, QSAR analysis) as a starting point in future oxime structure refinement. Considering the strict criteria set for in vivo applications, we determined the cytotoxicity of lead oximes on two cell lines. Among the tested oxime library, one imidazolium compound was selected for preliminary in vivo antidotal study in mice. The obtained protection in VX poisoning outlines its potential in development oxime-assisted OP-bioscavenging with BChE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coupled transport in field-reversed configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Berk, H. L.; TAE Team

    2018-02-01

    Coupled transport is the close interconnection between the cross-field and parallel fluxes in different regions due to topological changes in the magnetic field. This occurs because perpendicular transport is necessary for particles or energy to leave closed field-line regions, while parallel transport strongly affects evolution of open field-line regions. In most toroidal confinement systems, the periphery, namely, the portion with open magnetic surfaces, is small in thickness and volume compared to the core plasma, the portion with closed surfaces. In field-reversed configurations (FRCs), the periphery plays an outsized role in overall confinement. This effect is addressed by an FRC-relevant model of coupled particle transport that is well suited for immediate interpretation of experiments. The focus here is particle confinement rather than energy confinement since the two track together in FRCs. The interpretive tool yields both the particle transport rate χn and the end-loss time τǁ. The results indicate that particle confinement depends on both χn across magnetic surfaces throughout the plasma and τǁ along open surfaces and that they provide roughly equal transport barriers, inhibiting particle loss. The interpretation of traditional FRCs shows Bohm-like χn and inertial (free-streaming) τǁ. However, in recent advanced beam-driven FRC experiments, χn approaches the classical rate and τǁ is comparable to classic empty-loss-cone mirrors.

  10. Bending Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composites Retainers Bonded with Spot-Composite Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Paola; Tessera, Paola; Lassila, Lippo

    2017-01-01

    Orthodontic and periodontal splints are prepared with round or flat metallic wires. As these devices cannot be used in patients with allergy to metals or with aesthetic demands, fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retainers have been introduced. Stiffness of FRC materials could reduce physiologic tooth movement. In order to lower rigidity of conventional FRC retainers, a modified construction technique that provided a partial (spot) composite coverage of the fiber has been tested and compared with metallic splints and full-bonded FRCs. Flat (Bond-a-Braid, Reliance Orthodontic Products) and round (Penta-one 0155, Masel Orthodontics) stainless steel splints, conventional FRC splints, and experimental spot-bonded FRC retainers (Everstick Ortho, StickTech) were investigated. The strength to bend the retainers at 0.1 mm deflection and at maximum load was measured with a modified Frasaco model. No significant differences were reported among load values of stainless steel wires and experimental spot-bonded FRC retainers at 0.1 mm deflection. Higher strength values were recoded for conventional full-bonded FRCs. At maximum load no significant differences were reported between metallic splints (flat and round) and experimental spot-bonded FRCs, and no significant differences were reported between spot- and full-bonded FRC splints. These results encourage further tests in order to evaluate clinical applications of experimental spot-bonded FRC retainers. PMID:29130047

  11. Involvement of citizens in hazardous waste management and use of recycling centres in the city of Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, María José; Martínez, Elvira; Piñeiro, Concepción; Palavecinos, Mireya; Benayas, Javier; Toribio, M Angeles

    2012-07-01

    In Spain, hazardous household waste management by citizens occurs via fixed recycling centres (FRC) and mobile recycling centres (MRC) which usually depend on local governments. This paper addresses a request by the Madrid City Council, in an attempt to improve the service it provides to the city of Madrid. The aim of the study involved analysing the information people possess in relation to hazardous waste and to the use of available equipment, and conducting a post-evaluation of the effectiveness of an environmental communication campaign conducted by the Madrid City Council and aimed at providing awareness of the existence of new FRCs and MRCs. To this end, a questionnaire was conducted with 5644 inhabitants of the city of Madrid. Qualitative data was categorized using content analysis followed by chi-squared tests, considering some socio-demographic characteristics of the sample, such as age or place of residence (district). Communication campaigns influenced citizen awareness of what constituted hazardous waste, of how to properly separate waste and of the existence of FRCs and MRCs. However, few citizens actually used FRCs or MRC (18% across four districts), a fact that might be related to a lack of knowledge of downstream waste treatment issues, or to self-limiting hindrances to householders, such as distance to recycling centres. It is recommended that future communication campaigns investigate householder needs and pre-conceptions in relation to recycling, as well as tailored education aimed at addressing the barriers, perceived or otherwise, facing citizens.

  12. Mechanical Properties Comparing Composite Fiber Length to Amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard C; Liu, Perng-Ru

    Photocure fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) with varying chopped quartz-fiber lengths were incorporated into a dental photocure zirconia-silicate particulate-filled composite (PFC) for mechanical test comparisons with a popular commercial spherical-particle amalgam. FRC lengths included 0.5-mm, 1.0 mm, 2.0 mm, and 3.0 mm all at a constant 28.2 volume percent. Four-point fully articulated fixtures were used according to American Standards Test Methods with sample dimensions of 2×2×50 mm 3 across a 40 mm span to provide sufficient Euler flexural bending and prevent top-load compressive shear error. Mechanical properties for flexural strength, modulus, yield strength, resilience, work of fracture, critical strain energy release, critical stress intensity factor, and strain were obtained for comparison. Fiber length subsequently correlated with increasing all mechanical properties, p amalgam than all composites, all FRCs and even the PFC had higher values than amalgam for all other mechanical properties. Because amalgams provide increased longevity during clinical use compared to the standard PFCs, modulus would appear to be a mechanical property that might sufficiently reduce margin interlaminar shear stress and strain-related microcracking that could reduce failure rates. Also, since FRCs were tested with all mechanical properties that statistically significantly increased over the PFC, new avenues for future development could be provided toward surpassing amalgam in clinical longevity.

  13. Bending Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composites Retainers Bonded with Spot-Composite Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Gandini, Paola; Tessera, Paola; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo; Scribante, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Orthodontic and periodontal splints are prepared with round or flat metallic wires. As these devices cannot be used in patients with allergy to metals or with aesthetic demands, fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retainers have been introduced. Stiffness of FRC materials could reduce physiologic tooth movement. In order to lower rigidity of conventional FRC retainers, a modified construction technique that provided a partial (spot) composite coverage of the fiber has been tested and compared with metallic splints and full-bonded FRCs. Flat (Bond-a-Braid, Reliance Orthodontic Products) and round (Penta-one 0155, Masel Orthodontics) stainless steel splints, conventional FRC splints, and experimental spot-bonded FRC retainers (Everstick Ortho, StickTech) were investigated. The strength to bend the retainers at 0.1 mm deflection and at maximum load was measured with a modified Frasaco model. No significant differences were reported among load values of stainless steel wires and experimental spot-bonded FRC retainers at 0.1 mm deflection. Higher strength values were recoded for conventional full-bonded FRCs. At maximum load no significant differences were reported between metallic splints (flat and round) and experimental spot-bonded FRCs, and no significant differences were reported between spot- and full-bonded FRC splints. These results encourage further tests in order to evaluate clinical applications of experimental spot-bonded FRC retainers.

  14. Bending Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composites Retainers Bonded with Spot-Composite Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francesca Sfondrini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic and periodontal splints are prepared with round or flat metallic wires. As these devices cannot be used in patients with allergy to metals or with aesthetic demands, fiber-reinforced composite (FRC retainers have been introduced. Stiffness of FRC materials could reduce physiologic tooth movement. In order to lower rigidity of conventional FRC retainers, a modified construction technique that provided a partial (spot composite coverage of the fiber has been tested and compared with metallic splints and full-bonded FRCs. Flat (Bond-a-Braid, Reliance Orthodontic Products and round (Penta-one 0155, Masel Orthodontics stainless steel splints, conventional FRC splints, and experimental spot-bonded FRC retainers (Everstick Ortho, StickTech were investigated. The strength to bend the retainers at 0.1 mm deflection and at maximum load was measured with a modified Frasaco model. No significant differences were reported among load values of stainless steel wires and experimental spot-bonded FRC retainers at 0.1 mm deflection. Higher strength values were recoded for conventional full-bonded FRCs. At maximum load no significant differences were reported between metallic splints (flat and round and experimental spot-bonded FRCs, and no significant differences were reported between spot- and full-bonded FRC splints. These results encourage further tests in order to evaluate clinical applications of experimental spot-bonded FRC retainers.

  15. A Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff solution by differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Keun

    2009-01-01

    We propose a procedure to figure out the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) solution, ln e X e Y , when the exponent is a linear combination of the spin operator along a direction and its ladder operators. The procedure converts the manipulation of the BCH formula into that of a differential equation. It is shown that the fixed point of the differential equation leads to the solution we are looking for. We also remark that the validity of the present method is restricted to the case when the solution branch can be determined in the complex plane

  16. Premature awakening and underuse of neuromuscular monitoring in a registry of patients with butyrylcholinesterase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J L; Nielsen, C V; Palmqvist, D F

    2015-01-01

    if neuromuscular monitoring was not applied before awakening. METHODS: We retrospectively included patients referred to the Danish Cholinesterase Research Unit between 2004 and 2012 on suspicion of BChE deficiency. We collected data on genotype, BChE activity, neuromuscular blocking agents administered......, neuromuscular monitoring, and postoperative respiratory complications, defined as arterial oxygen desaturation ... paralysed. RESULTS: We included 123 patients. Neuromuscular monitoring was applied before awakening in 48 (39%) patients. A nerve stimulator was never used or only after attempted awakening in the remaining 75 (61%) patients. Premature awakening occurred in 75 (100%) and 14 (29%) of the unmonitored...

  17. State-wide hospital clinical laboratory plan for measuring cholinesterase activity for individuals suspected of exposure to nerve agent chemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alan H B; Smith, Andrew; McComb, Robert; Bowers, George N; Makowski, Gregory S; McKay, Charles A; Vena, Jason; McDonagh, John; Hopfer, Sidney; Sena, Salvatore F; Malkus, Herbert; Forte, Elaine; Kelly, Katherine

    2008-02-01

    Hospital laboratories currently lack the capacity to provide emergency determination of cholinesterase activity. We have developed a hospital-based 3-tiered system to test plasma for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and whole blood for red cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity using available technology and personnel. Interagency communications, toxidrome definition, and patient triage will be coordinated by the Connecticut Department of Public Health and the Poison Control Center. Initial BChE data documents good precision between institutions (coefficient of variation terrorism or large scale HazMat events.

  18. Hupresin Retains Binding Capacity for Butyrylcholinesterase and Acetylcholinesterase after Sanitation with Sodium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Onder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hupresin is a new affinity resin that binds butyrylcholinesterase (BChE in human plasma and acetylcholinesterase (AChE solubilized from red blood cells (RBC. Hupresin is available from the CHEMFORASE company. BChE in human plasma binds to Hupresin and is released with 0.1 M trimethylammonium bromide (TMA with full activity and 10–15% purity. BChE immunopurified from plasma by binding to immobilized monoclonal beads has fewer contaminating proteins than the one-step Hupresin-purified BChE. However, when affinity chromatography on Hupresin follows ion exchange chromatography at pH 4.5, BChE is 99% pure. The membrane bound AChE, solubilized from human RBC with 0.6% Triton X-100, binds to Hupresin and remains bound during washing with sodium chloride. Human AChE is not released in significant quantities with non-denaturing solvents, but is recovered in 1% trifluoroacetic acid. The denatured, partially purified AChE is useful for detecting exposure to nerve agents by mass spectrometry. Our goal was to determine whether Hupresin retains binding capacity for BChE and AChE after Hupresin is washed with 0.1 M NaOH. A 2 mL column of Hupresin equilibrated in 20 mM TrisCl pH 7.5 was used in seven consecutive trials to measure binding and recovery of BChE from 100 mL human plasma. Between each trial the Hupresin was washed with 10 column volumes of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. A similar trial was conducted with red blood cell AChE in 0.6% Triton X-100. It was found that the binding capacity for BChE and AChE was unaffected by washing Hupresin with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Hupresin could be washed with sodium hydroxide at least seven times without losing binding capacity.

  19. 'Turbo' coding for deep space applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1995-01-01

    The performance of the `turbo' coding scheme is measured and an error floor is discovered. These residual errors are corrected with an outer BCH code. The complexity of the system is discussed, and for low data rates a realizable system operating at Eb/N0 below 0.2 dB is presented......The performance of the `turbo' coding scheme is measured and an error floor is discovered. These residual errors are corrected with an outer BCH code. The complexity of the system is discussed, and for low data rates a realizable system operating at Eb/N0 below 0.2 dB is presented...

  20. Two new cholinesterase inhibitors asiatoates A and B from Buddleja asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Afzal, Masood; Samad, Abdul; Khan, Shafi Ullah; Ali, Irshad

    2013-01-01

    Two new benzoates, asiatoate A (1) and asiatoate B (2), have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Buddleja asiatica whole plant. Their structures were elucidated with the help of spectroscopic data. Both showed significant inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylcholinesterase (BChE) in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values of compounds 1-2 were 5.54 and 8.34 μM against AChE while 30.94 and 35.94 μM against BChE, respectively.

  1. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  2. Uncertainty incorporated beam angle optimization for IMPT treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino J; Lee, Andrew; Li, Yupeng; Liu, Wei; Ronald Zhu, X; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2012-08-01

    Beam angle optimization (BAO) by far remains an important and challenging problem in external beam radiation therapy treatment planning. Conventional BAO algorithms discussed in previous studies all focused on photon-based therapies. Impact of BAO on proton therapy is important while proton therapy increasingly receives great interests. This study focuses on potential benefits of BAO on intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) that recently began available to clinical cancer treatment. The authors have developed a novel uncertainty incorporated BAO algorithm for IMPT treatment planning in that IMPT plan quality is highly sensitive to uncertainties such as proton range and setup errors. A linear programming was used to optimize robust intensity maps to scenario-based uncertainties for an incident beam angle configuration. Unlike conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy with photons (IMXT), the search space for IMPT treatment beam angles may be relatively small but optimizing an IMPT plan may require higher computational costs due to larger data size. Therefore, a deterministic local neighborhood search algorithm that only needs a very limited number of plan objective evaluations was used to optimize beam angles in IMPT treatment planning. Three prostate cancer cases and two skull base chordoma cases were studied to demonstrate the dosimetric advantages and robustness of optimized beam angles from the proposed BAO algorithm. Two- to four-beam plans were optimized for prostate cases, and two- and three-beam plans were optimized for skull base cases. By comparing plans with conventional two parallel-opposed angles, all plans with optimized angles consistently improved sparing at organs at risks, i.e., rectum and femoral heads for prostate, brainstem for skull base, in either nominal dose distribution or uncertainty-based dose distributions. The efficiency of the BAO algorithm was demonstrated by comparing it with alternative methods including simulated

  3. Esteatose hepática não alcoólica: relação com a síndrome metabólica e os fatores de risco cardiovascular em adolescentes obesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wener Barbosa Resende

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre esteatose hepática não alcoólica (EHNA, síndrome metabólica (SM e fatores de risco cardiovascular (FRCs em adolescentes obesos. Métodos: Estudo observacional do tipo transversal com abordagem quantitativa, realizado de junho a agosto de 2011. Os voluntários foram aleatoriamente selecionados e encaminhados para avaliação clínica no setor de endocrinologia e cardiologia do hospital de clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Participaram 34 adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos, acima do percentil 95 da curva de crescimento. A EHNA foi analisada por ultrassonografia. A SM e os FRCs foram identificados pelos critérios da International Diabetes Federation. Resultados: A amostra foi composta de 14 indivíduos do sexo masculino e 20 do sexo feminino, com idade (16,8±1,6 e índice de massa corporal (IMC (35,7±3,9. A ocorrência de EHNA e SM foi de 76,5% (n=26 e 50% (n=17, respectivamente. O sexo masculino apresentou maior ocorrência de EHNA (78,6%, n=11, SM (64,3%, n=09 e associação de EHNA com SM (50%, n=07. Em relação aos FRCs 100% (n=34, 61,8% (n=21 e 52,9% (n=18 dos adolescentes apresentaram valores aumentados da circunferência da cintura (CC, da lowdensity- lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C e pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, respectivamente, e 52,9% (n=18 apresentaram baixos valores de high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Houve correlações entre SM e triglicerídeos, PAS e diastólica e HDL-C, e entre EHNA, IMC e CC. Conclusão: Observou-se uma alta ocorrência de EHNA, SM e FRCs em adolescentes obesos. Uma forte correlação foi observada entre EHNA e SM, e entre FRCs com EHNA e SM.

  4. Evaluation of C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and cardiac troponin 1 levels in brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstructive syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planellas, Marta; Cuenca, Rafaela; Tabar, Maria-Dolores; Bertolani, Coralie; Poncet, Cyrill; Closa, Josep M; Lorente, Juan; Cerón, Jose J; Pastor, Josep

    2012-08-31

    Brachycephalic dogs have unique upper respiratory anatomy with abnormal breathing patterns similar to those in humans with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anatomical components, clinical signs and several biomarkers, used to determine systemic inflammation and myocardial damage (C-reactive protein, CRP; Haptoglobin, Hp; cardiac troponin I, cTnI), in dogs with brachycephalic upper airway obstructive syndrome (BAOS). Fifty brachycephalic dogs were included in the study and the following information was studied: signalment, clinical signs, thoracic radiographs, blood work, ECG, components of BAOS, and CRP, Hp and cTnI levels. A high proportion of dogs with BAOS (88%) had gastrointestinal signs. The prevalence of anatomic components of BAOS was: elongated soft palate (100%), stenotic nares (96%), everted laryngeal saccules (32%) and tracheal hypoplasia (29.1%). Increased serum levels of biomarkers were found in a variable proportion of dogs: 14% (7/50) had values of CRP > 20 mg/L, 22.9% (11/48) had values of Hp > 3 g/L and 47.8% (22/46) had levels of cTnI > 0.05 ng/dl. Dogs with everted laryngeal saccules had more severe respiratory signs (pdogs with BAOS that can be detected by cTnI concentration.

  5. Streaming Velocities and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, Jonathan A; McEwen, Joseph E; Hirata, Christopher M

    2016-03-25

    At the epoch of decoupling, cosmic baryons had supersonic velocities relative to the dark matter that were coherent on large scales. These velocities subsequently slow the growth of small-scale structure and, via feedback processes, can influence the formation of larger galaxies. We examine the effect of streaming velocities on the galaxy correlation function, including all leading-order contributions for the first time. We find that the impact on the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak is dramatically enhanced (by a factor of ∼5) over the results of previous investigations, with the primary new effect due to advection: if a galaxy retains memory of the primordial streaming velocity, it does so at its Lagrangian, rather than Eulerian, position. Since correlations in the streaming velocity change rapidly at the BAO scale, this advection term can cause a significant shift in the observed BAO position. If streaming velocities impact tracer density at the 1% level, compared to the linear bias, the recovered BAO scale is shifted by approximately 0.5%. This new effect, which is required to preserve Galilean invariance, greatly increases the importance of including streaming velocities in the analysis of upcoming BAO measurements and opens a new window to the astrophysics of galaxy formation.

  6. Signatures of the Primordial Universe from Its Emptiness: Measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from Minima of the Density Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; McBride, Cameron; Percival, Will J; Ross, Ashley J; Sánchez, Ariel G; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-04-29

    Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but it is clearly detected from overlapping voids. The latter represent an estimate of all troughs of the density field. We compute them from the empty circumsphere centers constrained by tetrahedra of galaxies using Delaunay triangulation. Our theoretical models based on an unprecedented large set of detailed simulated void catalogues are remarkably well confirmed by observational data. We use the largest recently publicly available sample of luminous red galaxies from SDSS-III BOSS DR11 to unveil for the first time a >3σ BAO detection from voids in observations. Since voids are nearly isotropically expanding regions, their centers represent the most quiet places in the Universe, keeping in mind the cosmos origin and providing a new promising window in the analysis of the cosmological large-scale structure from galaxy surveys.

  7. Streaming Velocities and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, Jonathan A.; McEwen, Joseph E.; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2016-03-01

    At the epoch of decoupling, cosmic baryons had supersonic velocities relative to the dark matter that were coherent on large scales. These velocities subsequently slow the growth of small-scale structure and, via feedback processes, can influence the formation of larger galaxies. We examine the effect of streaming velocities on the galaxy correlation function, including all leading-order contributions for the first time. We find that the impact on the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak is dramatically enhanced (by a factor of ˜5 ) over the results of previous investigations, with the primary new effect due to advection: if a galaxy retains memory of the primordial streaming velocity, it does so at its Lagrangian, rather than Eulerian, position. Since correlations in the streaming velocity change rapidly at the BAO scale, this advection term can cause a significant shift in the observed BAO position. If streaming velocities impact tracer density at the 1% level, compared to the linear bias, the recovered BAO scale is shifted by approximately 0.5%. This new effect, which is required to preserve Galilean invariance, greatly increases the importance of including streaming velocities in the analysis of upcoming BAO measurements and opens a new window to the astrophysics of galaxy formation.

  8. Impairment in biochemical indices in sprayers exposed to commonly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of spraying organophosphate, carbamate and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides on biochemical parameters viz., red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities, oxidative stress parameters viz., plasma T-BARs, catalase ...

  9. Membrane function alterations in erythrocytes from mood disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and bipolar subjects. Control subjects (randomly selected volunteers). Results: The most significant results were a duration dependent decrease in the TPL/CHL ratio (mole:mole),changes in both the substrate and temperature kinetics properties of AChE and elevated plasma BChE activity in the mood disorder patients.

  10. Afrique Science: Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OFDM codée pour le haut débit en fibre optique avec les codes correcteurs convolutifs, BCH, RS et LDPC · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S R Sanou, F Zougmoré, Z Koalaga, M Kebré, 1-16 ...

  11. Gene : CBRC-CREM-01-1327 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1327 Novel UN C UNKNOWN BCH2_RHOCA 0.12 27% ref|YP_705999.1| possible ABC antibiotics... transporter [Rhodococcus sp. RHA1] gb|ABG97841.1| possible ABC antibiotics transporter [Rhod

  12. Drugs for the paediatric heart

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drugs for the paediatric heart. A scenario-based guide to practice. John Lawrenson, MB BCh, MMed, FCP (SA). Head, Paediatric Cardiology Service of the Western Cape, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University. John Lawrenson is a reformed adult cardiologist who spends his days looking after ...

  13. New Cinchona Oximes Evaluated as Reactivators of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibited by Organophosphorus Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Katalinić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For the last six decades, researchers have been focused on finding efficient reactivators of organophosphorus compound (OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. In this study, we have focused our research on a new oxime scaffold based on the Cinchona structure since it was proven to fit the cholinesterases active site and reversibly inhibit their activity. Three Cinchona oximes (C1, C2, and C3, derivatives of the 9-oxocinchonidine, were synthesized and investigated in reactivation of various OP-inhibited AChE and BChE. As the results showed, the tested oximes were more efficient in the reactivation of BChE and they reactivated enzyme activity to up to 70% with reactivation rates similar to known pyridinium oximes used as antidotes in medical practice today. Furthermore, the oximes showed selectivity towards binding to the BChE active site and the determined enzyme-oxime dissociation constants supported work on the future development of inhibitors in other targeted studies (e.g., in treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Also, we monitored the cytotoxic effect of Cinchona oximes on two cell lines Hep G2 and SH-SY5Y to determine the possible limits for in vivo application. The cytotoxicity results support future studies of these compounds as long as their biological activity is targeted in the lower micromolar range.

  14. 40 S.-A. MEDIESE TYDSKRIF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C.S. (Edm.) and R. E.. Smith, M.A., M.B., B.Ch., F.R.C.P. Pp. xvii + 240. Illustrated. RI2,OO. London and Durban: Butterworths. 1972. The organizors of the Coventry Conference are to be con- !!ratulated on their production of this comprehensive book. The subject matter is very well and authoritatively covered. Especially ...

  15. Transplantation for diabetic nephropathy at Groote Schuur Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicine and Surgery, University ofCape Town. E. R. LEMMER, M.B. B.CH. ... rally considered to be the therapy of choice! Improved survival and .... Candidiasis (local). Septicaemia. Surgical. Ureteric obstruction. Other. Poor diabetic control. Duodenal ulcer. Demyelinating neuropathy. Worsening congenital ptosis. Cataract.

  16. Medicinal plants with cholinesterase inhibitory activity: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A potential source of AChE and BChE inhibitors is provided by the abundance of plants in nature, and natural products continue to provide useful drugs and templates for the development of other compounds. The present work constitutes a review of the literature on 123 species of medicinal plants that have been tested for ...

  17. Relationship Between Pathological Findings and Cholinesterase Activity and Nitric Oxide Levels in Cattle Infected Naturally by Eurytrema coelomaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertz, C I; do Carmo, G M; Bottari, N B; da Silva, E S; Gabriel, M E; Lucca, N J; Guarda, N dos S; Moresco, R N; Machado, G; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C; Stefani, L M; Mendes, R E; Da Silva, A S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (in the serum and pancreas), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (in the whole blood and pancreas) and nitric oxide (NO) (in the serum and pancreas) in cattle infected naturally by Eurytrema coelomaticum. Fifty-one cattle were studied, including 33 infected by E. coelomaticum and 18 uninfected animals. Significantly greater AChE activity was found in the pancreas of infected animals (P <0.01); however, these cattle had lower AChE activity in whole blood. BChE activity was greater in the sera of infected animals (P = 0.05), but was less in pancreatic samples. NO levels were significantly higher in the sera (P <0.05) and pancreas (P <0.001) of infected cattle compared with uninfected animals. A positive correlation was found between AChE activity in the pancreas and parasite load, but there was negative correlation between pancreatic BChE activity and parasitic load. Expression of AChE, BChE and NO is therefore linked to the inflammation caused by E. coelomaticum in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. AcEST: DK958200 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase regul... 33 1.6 sp|Q6IUP1|SOLH1_MOUSE Spermatogenesis- and oogenesis-specific ba... 31 4.5 sp|Q9RFD5|BCH...ry: 68 FLFCLVKMFAFL 33 LF L AFL Sbjct: 591 -LFELHVHQAFL 601 >sp|Q6IUP1|SOLH1_MOUSE Spermatogenesis- and oogenesis

  19. On The Designed And Constructed Feedback Shift-Register Encoder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An encoder capable of cyclical shifting of data, and which can therefore be used for Bose-Chaudhuri and Hocquenghem (BCH) coding, has been designed and constructed using discrete components. It comprises basically four bistable multivibrators and an exclusive-OR device. On completion, the encoder performed ...

  20. Natural control in cabbage root fly populations and influence of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Yaman, I.K.

    1960-01-01

    To facilitate studies on the natural and chemical control of Hylemya (Erioischia) brassicae (Bch.) in Holland, the bionomics and abundance of the Anthomyiid were investigated in 1959-9 in fields in which cauliflower was grown. The numbers of eggs and larvae were estimated by scrutiny of

  1. Glycaemic control in a cardiothoracic surgical population: Exploring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study involving the review of ICU charts of all post-cardiac surgery patients ≥16 years admitted to the cardiothoracic. ICU during March 2011. ... study, an average of. 21 cardiac operations were performed monthly (>16-year age group) ... population: Exploring the protocol-practice gap. D Maharaj,1 MB BCh, ...

  2. On the epireflective hull of topological nearness groups in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To find the specific nature of the objects that are in the epireflective hull of the symmetric topological spaces in the category of nearness spaces is a long open problem. See [BCH05]for more information. Here we consider topological nearness groups as a full subcategory of nearness groups and ask the analogous question ...

  3. Variability of Outer Membrane Protein P1 and Its Evaluation as a Vaccine Candidate against Experimental Otitis Media due to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: an Unambiguous, Multifaceted Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Gilles R.; Bouchet, Valérie; Jiang, Ru-Zhang; Geisselsoder, Janet; Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Rice, Peter A.; Pelton, Stephen I.; Goldstein, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Candidate vaccine antigens for preventing otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) should possess one or more conserved epitopes. We sought to evaluate the candidacy of P1, a surface-expressed outer membrane protein knowing that this antigen is subject to diversifying selection. Therefore, we selected NTHI strains from among >500 phylogenically variant isolates representative of the diversity found in natural populations of H. influenzae. Twenty-three variants of P1 (≤95% similarity) were identified among 42 strains. When chinchillas were immunized with recombinant P1 (rP1) obtained from one of these isolates (BCH-3), all animals developed antibodies specific for rP1. Immunized animals were protected against disease when challenged with BCH-3, but not with an ompP1 mutant of BCH-3 or a strain (BCH-2) possessing a heterologous P1 (91% identity). We conclude that (i) while P1 induces protection against NTHI-mediated otitis media, development of a polyvalent vaccine reflecting the variability of P1 would be necessary to construct an efficacious vaccine and (ii) use of a phylogenically characterized collection of representative isolates in concert with gene sequencing, cloning, gene inactivation, and animal testing offers an efficient, rational, and rigorous strategy for evaluating the potential problems associated with variability of vaccine targets and specificity of related immune responses. PMID:10899849

  4. CASE REPORT CASE Multimodality imaging and interventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sequestration was considered at this stage. An angiogram was thereafter performed to further characterise the vascularity, as well as allow embolisation of the lesion prior to surgery. (Fig. 5). Multimodality imaging and interventional management of a complex congenital vascular malformation. Aadil Ahmed, MB BCh, FCRad ...

  5. Negroes of a southern African absence stature In evidence on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-21

    Jul 21, 1990 ... Department of Anatomy and Human Biology and Palaeo- anthropology Research Unit, University of the Witwaters- rand,1ohannesburg. P. V. TOBIAS, M.B. B.CH., PH.D., D.Se., HON. Se.D. (CANTAB.), HON. D.Se. (NATAL, U. WEST ONTARIO, ALBERTA, CAPE TOWN, GUELPH), HON. F.R.S.. S.M., FOR.

  6. CT scanning may adversely influence choice of surgery in paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • July 2005. CT scanning may adversely influence choice of surgery in paediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma - a note of caution. S Andronikou. MB BCh, FCRad (Diag) (SA), FRCR (Lond). Formerly: Department of Paediatric Radiology. Red Cross Children's Hospital and. University of Cape ...

  7. Sorption of Antimony from Organic Solutions on Inorganic Sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dessouky, S.I.; Zakaria, N.; Alian, A.

    2000-01-01

    Sorption of 124 Sb(III) from its complexes in benzene, toluene, o-xylene and chloroform on an artificial inorganic exchanger (chabazite, a) and on bone charcoal (b.ch) was investigated using the static method. Complexes pf Sb(III) with these non-polar organic liquids were prepared by extraction of its chloride by each liquid from 12 M H 2 SO 4 . For the various liquids the order of the uptake in case of chabazite is o-xylene> toluene > benzene> chloroform and in case of b.ch the order is benzene> toluene > chloroform> o-xylene. This suggests different sorption mechanisms for the two studied sorbents, one of them (chabazite) being purely an inorganic sorbent. In general the uptake of Sb(III) from all solvents studied is much higher by b.ch than by chabazite. The uptake of Sb(III) from these non-aqueous solvents by b.ch is also much higher than its uptake by four previously studied sorbents: ashless filter paper cellulose, pyrolysis residue from domestic waste, bentonite elay from upper Egypt and fly ash from a thermal electricity station. The desorption of Sb(III) from the loaded sorbents by 1M HCI was also studied and found maximum within 30 minutes

  8. Advanced oral HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma with facial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... S Afr Fam Pract 2012;54(6):545-547. Advanced oral HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma with facial lymphoedoema as an indicator of poor prognosis. Feller L, DMD, MDent, Head of Department; Essop R, BCom, BChD, Part-Time Lecturer. Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, School of Oral Health ...

  9. Butyrylcholinesterase gene mutations in patients with prolonged apnea after succinylcholine for electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Hannah Malthe; Gätke, M R

    2011-01-01

    patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often receive succinylcholine as part of the anesthetic procedure. The duration of action may be prolonged in patients with genetic variants of the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE), the most common being the K- and the A-variants. The aim...

  10. Similarity Approach to QSAR. Application to Antimycobacterial Benzoxazines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gallegos, A.; Carbó-Dorca, R.; Ponec, Robert; Waisser, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 269, č. 1 (2004), s. 51-60 ISSN 0378-5173 Grant - others:GA(CZ) 234/2000/BCH Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : quantum molecular similarity * theoretical QSAR models * antimycobacterial benzoxazines Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.039, year: 2004

  11. Embedding intensity image into a binary hologram with strong noise resistant capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhaoyong; Jiao, Shuming; Zou, Wenbin; Li, Xia

    2017-11-01

    A digital hologram can be employed as a host image for image watermarking applications to protect information security. Past research demonstrates that a gray level intensity image can be embedded into a binary Fresnel hologram by error diffusion method or bit truncation coding method. However, the fidelity of the retrieved watermark image from binary hologram is generally not satisfactory, especially when the binary hologram is contaminated with noise. To address this problem, we propose a JPEG-BCH encoding method in this paper. First, we employ the JPEG standard to compress the intensity image into a binary bit stream. Next, we encode the binary bit stream with BCH code to obtain error correction capability. Finally, the JPEG-BCH code is embedded into the binary hologram. By this way, the intensity image can be retrieved with high fidelity by a BCH-JPEG decoder even if the binary hologram suffers from serious noise contamination. Numerical simulation results show that the image quality of retrieved intensity image with our proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art work reported.

  12. Situs inversus with renal neoplasm: a case report.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Situs inversus with renal neoplasm: a case report. Je\\vell J MCS FACCP. Senior Consultant. Bowa K hlBChB hlsc (Glasgonl). Regstrar. Uni~ersity~Teaching Hospital, School of hledicine. University of Zambia. Correspondence to: Dr. Jewel1 J, Dept. of Surgery, UTH, P 0 Box 501 10, LUSAICA, ZAhlBIX. This is a case report ...

  13. Workshop report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-02

    May 2, 2015 ... Rhona K Baingana, MSc, is a lecturer with Makerere University College of Health Sciences and the co-ordinator of MESAU Consortium Community-based Education, Research, and Service. Evaluation, Kampala, Uganda. Ian D Couper, MB BCh, MFamMed, is professor and director, Centre for Rural Health ...

  14. sequential low cost interventions double hand hygiene rates among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... BCh, Assistant Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Yale University School of Medicine,. New Haven, CT, USA and Visiting faculty, Department of ... Subjects: Medical teams comprising students, residents and consultant physicians. Interventions: During week one, baseline hand sanitising rate ...

  15. Chemotherapy in eye cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemotherapy in eye cancer. Chemotherapy is one of several treatment strategies used to halt the uncontrolled division, proliferation and unpredictable growth patterns of malignant cells. R Dolland, BSc, MB BCh, FC Ophth (SA). Consultant, St John Eye Hospital, Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Neurosciences, ...

  16. medical history taking among the bantu tribes of south africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . K. P. MOKHOBo, M.B., B.CH., F.c.P. (S.A.), Physician, .... history unnecessary or objectionable, namely, cultural prejudice and late presentation. ... tural outlook must provide the mirror through which the clinical picture is viewed. The success of ...

  17. Long-Term Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Sarin, Alone and With Stress or Other Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abou-Donia, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    ...) and stress on the development of chronic and neurologic deficits. An important finding from our studies is that brain AChE and plasma BChE inhibition might be used as a biomarker for exposure, not for sarin-induced neurologic deficits...

  18. Maxillofacial injury: A retrospective analysis of time lapse between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    1,2 BDS, MB BCh, PhD, DSc, FCD. 1 Division of .... where a large force to the body is required (i.e. a serious ... SAJS 141. Table 3. Frequency distribution for the five time groups (days) by study year and for all years combined.

  19. Million Fekadu and Hailu Ayele Journal of BABA, Vol 18, 2001

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AN ADAPTIVE CODING SCHEME FOR EFFECTIVE BANDWIDTH AND POWER. UTILIZATION ... An adaptive coding scheme using three fixed-rate BCH codes was developed and implemented on a computer. The results obtained in transmitting a given text over a ...... results obtained from repeated tests performed on.

  20. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... protochlorophyllide reductase (BchL), a photosynthesis-related metalloenzyme belonging to the same protein family. We performed a ... selection at the amino acid level had a role to play in this functional divergence. Finally ... divergence (θ) and the posterior probability for the functional divergence were ...

  1. Florence Jessie MacWilliams (1917-1990)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preeti Shankar

    in 1917 in Stoke-on-Trent, England. Her early college education was at Cambridge, where she obtained her BA in 1938, and her MA the following year. ... Her husband had already been working there after the war. During that time, R C Bose. (one of the co-inventers of the Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquengham (BCH) codes) ...

  2. 'They dropped the blanket of their fear': Reflections on HIV medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'They dropped the blanket of their fear': Reflections on HIV medicine in South. Africa, 2014. J Marshall, MB BCh, DA (SA), DOH (Wits). Corresponding author: J Marshall (gavinjoyce@telkomsa.net). Coming from a community health background in KwaZulu-Natal and the informal settlements around the Grasmere toll plaza, ...

  3. Myelodysplasia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    425 CME Nov/Dec 2012 Vol. 30 No. 11. Myelodysplasia. Peter Jacobs, MB BCh, MD, PhD (Med), DSc (Med Sci), FRCP (Edin), MACP, FCP (SA), FRCPath (UK), IFCAP,. MASSAf, FRSSAf .... Myelodysplastic syndrome, unclassified. Swerdlow, et al.2 .... risks of infection and infusion-related side- effects that should not be ...

  4. Drug Pollution - The Problem of Abuse*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. D. BE SUSA , M.B., B.CH., Department at Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. SUMMARY. Some of the aetiological ... at least once is truly shocking. The former Director of the Institute for Mental Health reports .... formance from the effects of marijuana smoking has been done by Manno et al."''''' It has ...

  5. THE USE OF PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES (CHYMORAL) IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *. W. F. (ROB) RATHGEBER, M.B., B.CH. (RAND), DI/rban. TABLE t. SITES OF INJURIES. On entry into the trial full details of the nature and site of injury were entered on the patient's record card, together with emergency treatment given.

  6. Study of chaperone-like activity of human haptoglobin: conformational changes under heat shock conditions and localization of interaction sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettrich, R.; Brandt, W.; Kopecký ml., V.; Baumruk, V.; Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Pavlíček, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 383, č. 10 (2002), s. 1667-1676 ISSN 1431-6730 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 220/2000/B-CH; Volkswagen Foundation(DE) I/74679 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : chaperone * haptoglobin * molecular modeling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.548, year: 2002

  7. Endovascular treatment for acute basilar thrombosis via a transradial approach: Initial experience and future considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oselkin, M; Satti, S R; Sundararajan, S H; Kung, D; Hurst, R W; Pukenas, B A

    2018-02-01

    Acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) secondary to emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) has an extremely poor natural history, with a reported mortality rate up to 95%. Mechanical thrombectomy in the setting of ELVO is generally performed via a transfemoral approach. However, radial access is increasingly being utilized as an alternative. We report our initial multi-institutional experience using primary radial access in the treatment of acute BAO in nine consecutive cases. Technical success defined as a TICI score of 2B or 3 was achieved in 89% of cases. Average puncture to revascularization time was 35.8 minutes. There were no complications related to radial artery catheterization. We contend radial access should potentially be considered as the first-line approach given inherent advantages over femoral access for mechanical thrombectomy for BAO.

  8. A Measurement of the Hubble Constant Using Galaxy Redshift Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuting; Xu, Lixin; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2017-11-01

    We perform a measurement of the Hubble constant, H 0, using the latest baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements from galaxy surveys of 6dFGS, SDSS DR7 Main Galaxy Sample, BOSS DR12 sample, and eBOSS DR14 quasar sample, in the framework of a flat ΛCDM model. Based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence, we examine the consistency of H 0 values derived from various data sets. We find that our measurement is consistent with that derived from Planck and with the local measurement of H 0 using the Cepheids and type Ia supernovae. We perform forecasts on H 0 from future BAO measurements, and find that the uncertainty of H 0 determined by future BAO data alone, including complete eBOSS, DESI, and Euclid-like, is comparable with that from local measurements.

  9. Resistência química de vitro-cerâmicos pertencentes a sistemas Li2O-ZrO2-BaO-SiO2 frente ao tratamento com soluções ácidas e básicas Chemical durability of the Li2O-ZrO2-BaO-SiO2 glass-ceramic treated with acidic and basic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Denofre de Campos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical durability of the Li2O-ZrO2-BaO-SiO2 system was examined by determination of the Vickers hardness. The dependence of hardness and of the chemical resistance with BaO addition was investigated. The experimental results indicate that the hardness increases with the BaO content. The samples surface's morphology submitted to the chemical treatment in acidic (H2SO4 and basic (KOH solution was accompanied by scanning electron microscopy. The chemical durability of the materials with BaO showed better than the glass ceramic without this content. These materials treated with H2SO4 solution showed a preferential attack to the silica rich sites.

  10. Influence of ionic Bismuth on intrinsic defects in ZnO varistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Chen; Gang, Fu

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the dielectric dissipation factor D(tan δ) and frequency in the varistors of ZnO-Sb 2O 3-BaO and ZnO-Bi 2O 3-Sb 2O 3-BaO system ceramics has been investigated. A new dielectric dissipation peak was found near 1.5 MHz at room temperature in the ZnO-Sb 2O 3-BaO system, and the corresponding electron trapping level is about 0.18 eV. The dissipation peak was considered to result from the intrinsic defect Znirad rad . The additive Bi 2O 3 may play a suppressing effect on the formation of Znirad rad . This assumption was consistent with the experimental fact that degradation phenomenon of varistor ceramics under long-term load voltage is improved by the increasing amount of Bi 2O 3 additive.

  11. Infrared Resummation for Biased Tracers in Redshift Space arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Mikhail M.

    We incorporate the effects of redshift space distortions and non-linear bias in time-sliced perturbation theory (TSPT). This is done via a new method that allows to map cosmological correlation functions from real to redshift space. This mapping preserves a transparent infrared (IR) structure of the theory and provides us with an efficient tool to study non-linear infrared effects altering the pattern of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in redshift space. We give an accurate description of the BAO by means of a systematic resummation of Feynman diagrams guided by well-defined power counting rules. This establishes IR resummation within TSPT as a robust and complete procedure and provides a consistent theoretical model for the BAO feature in the statistics of biased tracers in redshift space.

  12. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: theoretical systematics and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Ho, Shirley; Cuesta, Antonio J.; O'Connell, Ross; Ross, Ashley J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Percival, Will J.; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Beutler, Florian; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Rossi, Graziano; Seo, Hee-Jong; Brownstein, Joel R.; Olmstead, Matthew; Thomas, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the potential sources of theoretical systematics in the anisotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) distance scale measurements from the clustering of galaxies in configuration space using the final Data Release (DR12) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We perform a detailed study of the impact on BAO measurements from choices in the methodology such as fiducial cosmology, clustering estimators, random catalogues, fitting templates, and covariance matrices. The theoretical systematic uncertainties in BAO parameters are found to be 0.002 in the isotropic dilation α and 0.003 in the quadrupolar dilation ɛ. The leading source of systematic uncertainty is related to the reconstruction techniques. Theoretical uncertainties are sub-dominant compared with the statistical uncertainties for BOSS survey, accounting 0.2σstat for α and 0.25σstat for ɛ (σα, stat ˜0.010 and σɛ, stat ˜ 0.012 respectively). We also present BAO-only distance scale constraints from the anisotropic analysis of the correlation function. Our constraints on the angular diameter distance DA(z) and the Hubble parameter H(z), including both statistical and theoretical systematic uncertainties, are 1.5% and 2.8% at zeff = 0.38, 1.4% and 2.4% at zeff = 0.51, and 1.7% and 2.6% at zeff = 0.61. This paper is part of a set that analyzes the final galaxy clustering dataset from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are cross-checked with other BAO analysis in Alam et al. (2016). The systematic error budget concerning the methodology on post-reconstruction BAO analysis presented here is used in Alam et al. (2016). to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  13. Armenia as a Regional Centre for Astronomy for Development activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO, Armenia, http://www.bao.am) are among the candidate IAU Regional Nodes for Astronomy for Development activities. It is one of the main astronomical centers of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East region. At present there are 48 qualified researchers at BAO, including six Doctors of Science and 30 PhDs. Five important observational instruments are installed at BAO, the larger ones being 2.6m Cassegrain (ZTA-2.6) and 1m Schmidt (the one that provided the famous Markarian survey). BAO is regarded as a national scientific-educational center, where a number of activities are being organized, such as: international conferences (4 IAU symposia and 1 IAU colloquium, JENAM-2007, etc.), small workshops and discussions, international summer schools (1987, 2006, 2008 and 2010), and Olympiads. BAO collaborates with scientists from many countries. The Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS, http://www.aras.am/) is an NGO founded in 2001; it has 93 members and it is rather active in the organization of educational, amateur, popular, promotional and other matters. The Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, http://www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) is one of the 17 national VO projects forming the International Virtual Observatories Alliance (IVOA) and is the only VO project in the region serving also for educational purposes. A number of activities are planned, such as management, coordination and evaluation of the IAU programs in the area of development and education, establishment of the new IAU endowed lectureship program and organization of seminars and public lectures, coordination and initiation of fundraising activities for astronomy development, organization of regional scientific symposia, conferences and workshops, support to Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP), production/publication of educational and promotional materials, etc.

  14. Effects of manipulations to detect sliding hiatal hernia in dogs with brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broux, Olivier; Clercx, Cécile; Etienne, Anne-Laure; Busoni, Valeria; Claeys, Stéphanie; Hamaide, Annick; Billen, Frédéric

    2018-02-01

    To determine the influence of manipulations aimed at increasing the transdiaphragmatic pressure gradient on the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) of dogs with brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome (BAOS), and to identify the manipulation that most improves the detection of GEJ abnormalities and sliding hiatal hernia (SHH) in dogs with BAOS. In vivo experimental pilot study and prospective clinical study. Five purpose-bred Beagles and 20 dogs diagnosed with BAOS. Respiratory and digestive clinical signs as well as respiratory and GEJ abnormalities were scored. The presence of SHH was investigated using radiography and endoscopy in standard conditions. Endoscopic investigation was repeated after manipulations including manual pressure on the cranial abdomen (MP), Trendelenburg position (30°), or temporary complete endotracheal tube obstruction (ETO). No SHH was detected in any normal dog under any condition. Sixty-five percent of dogs with BAOS presented with digestive clinical signs, including vomiting and/or regurgitation. SHH was observed in only one dog via radiography and was not detected via endoscopy. Manipulations during endoscopy influenced GEJ abnormalities and allowed the detection of SHH in 2 (30°), 4 (ETO), and 5 (MP) dogs, respectively. Digestive clinical signs correlated with GEJ abnormalities observed only in dogs with ETO (P = .02). Manipulations aimed at increasing the transdiaphragmatic pressure gradient during endoscopy in BAOS dogs allowed the detection of GEJ abnormalities and SHH that were not detected under standard conditions. Although MP allowed detection of SHH in more dogs than ETO, scores under MP did not correlate with digestive clinical signs. Therefore, ETO may be more accurate manipulation for the detection of GEJ abnormalities in BAOS dogs. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Evaluation of C-reactive protein, Haptoglobin and cardiac troponin 1 levels in brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstructive syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planellas Marta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachycephalic dogs have unique upper respiratory anatomy with abnormal breathing patterns similar to those in humans with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anatomical components, clinical signs and several biomarkers, used to determine systemic inflammation and myocardial damage (C-reactive protein, CRP; Haptoglobin, Hp; cardiac troponin I, cTnI, in dogs with brachycephalic upper airway obstructive syndrome (BAOS. Results Fifty brachycephalic dogs were included in the study and the following information was studied: signalment, clinical signs, thoracic radiographs, blood work, ECG, components of BAOS, and CRP, Hp and cTnI levels. A high proportion of dogs with BAOS (88% had gastrointestinal signs. The prevalence of anatomic components of BAOS was: elongated soft palate (100%, stenotic nares (96%, everted laryngeal saccules (32% and tracheal hypoplasia (29.1%. Increased serum levels of biomarkers were found in a variable proportion of dogs: 14% (7/50 had values of CRP > 20 mg/L, 22.9% (11/48 had values of Hp > 3 g/L and 47.8% (22/46 had levels of cTnI > 0.05 ng/dl. Dogs with everted laryngeal saccules had more severe respiratory signs (p Conclusions According to the low percentage of patients with elevated levels of CRP and Hp, BAOS does not seem to cause an evident systemic inflammatory status. Some degree of myocardial damage may occur in dogs with BAOS that can be detected by cTnI concentration.

  16. Local salt substitutes “Obu-otoyo” activate acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and induce lipid peroxidation in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi Ayodele J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has shown that ingestion of heavy metals can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the neurotoxic potential of salt substitutes (Obu-Otoyo; salt A (made by burning palm kernel shaft then soaked in water overnight and the extract from the resulting residue is used as the salt substitute and salt B (an unrefined salt mined from a local site at Ilobu town, Osun-State, Nigeria by assessing their effect on some key enzymes linked with neurodegenerative disease [acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE activities] as well as on malondialdehyde (MDA content of the rat brain. Salt substitutes were fed to normal rats as dietary inclusion at doses of 0.5 and 1.0% for 30 days. Thereafter, the effect of the salt substitutes on AChE and BChE activities as well as on MDA level in the rat brain was determined. The results revealed that the salt substitutes caused a significant (p<0.05 increase in both AChE and BChE activity and also induced lipid peroxidation in the brain of rats in vivo as well as under in vitro condition in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of the salt substitutes on AChE and BChE activities could be attributed to the presence of some toxic heavy metals. Therefore, the ability of the salt substitutes to induce lipid peroxidation and activate AChE and BChE activities could provide some possible mechanism for their neurotoxic effect.

  17. Lactation performance of transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyryl-cholinesterase in the milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Hernan; Hockley, Duncan K; Doré, Monique; Brochu, Eric; Hakier, Bernard; Zhao, Xin; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2008-02-01

    The production of recombinant proteins in the milk of transgenic animals has attracted significant interest in the last decade, as a valuable alternative for the production of recombinant proteins that cannot be or are inefficiently produced using conventional systems based on microorganisms or animal cells. Several recombinant proteins of pharmaceutical and biomedical interest have been successfully expressed in high quantities (g/l) in the milk of transgenic animals. However, this productivity may be associated with a compromised mammary physiology resulting, among other things, from the extraordinary demand placed on the mammary secretory cells. In this study we evaluated the lactation performance of a herd of 50 transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyryl-cholinesterase (rBChE) in the milk. Our findings indicate that high expression levels of rBChE (range 1-5 g/l) are produced in these animals at the expense of an impaired lactation performance. The key features characterizing these transgenic performances were the decreased milk production, the reduced milk fat content which was associated with an apparent disruption in the lipid secretory mechanism at the mammary epithelium level, and a highly increased presence of leukocytes in milk which is not associated with mammary infection. Despite of having a compromised lactation performance, the amount of rBChE produced per transgenic goat represents several orders of magnitude more than the amount of rBChE present in the blood of hundreds of human donors, the only other available source of rBChE for pharmaceutical and biodefense applications. As a result, this development constitutes another successful example in the application of transgenic animal technology.

  18. Novel Cholinesterase Inhibitors Based on O-Aromatic N,N-Disubstituted Carbamates and Thiocarbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Krátký

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the presence of carbamoyl moiety, twenty salicylanilide N,N-disubstituted (thiocarbamates were investigated using Ellman’s method for their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. O-Aromatic (thiocarbamates exhibited weak to moderate inhibition of both cholinesterases with IC50 values within the range of 1.60 to 311.0 µM. IC50 values for BChE were mostly lower than those obtained for AChE; four derivatives showed distinct selectivity for BChE. All of the (thiocarbamates produced a stronger inhibition of AChE than rivastigmine, and five of them inhibited BChE more effectively than both established drugs rivastigmine and galantamine. In general, 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl-phenyl]benzamide, 2-hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamide as well as N-methyl-N-phenyl carbamate derivatives led to the more potent inhibition. O-{4-Chloro-2-[(4-chlorophenylcarbamoyl]phenyl} dimethylcarbamothioate was identified as the most effective AChE inhibitor (IC50 = 38.98 µM, while 2-(phenylcarbamoylphenyl diphenylcarbamate produced the lowest IC50 value for BChE (1.60 µM. Results from molecular docking studies suggest that carbamate compounds, especially N,N-diphenyl substituted representatives with considerable portion of aromatic moieties may work as non-covalent inhibitors displaying many interactions at peripheral anionic sites of both enzymes. Mild cytotoxicity for HepG2 cells and consequent satisfactory calculated selectivity indexes qualify several derivatives for further optimization.

  19. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-10

    ZHONGGUO JIXIE BAO, 30 Jul 88] 82 New World-Class Chinese Planer [ZHONGGUO JIXIE BAO, 9 Aug 88] 84 New Hobbing Machine [Lei Wenfu; JISHU SHICHANG...H ■H «-I CO CO UJH ►J CO •H S _ 01 01 H CO g u ■ HOB ^H B 1 u u St! CO 4J 01 •M CO O. C EC •H a O ■< EC...the technique of electromagnetic induction is used in the dataglove, the operator who wears it can, for instance, operate from the earth a robot hand

  1. Mechanical Properties Comparing Composite Fiber Length to Amalgam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocure fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs with varying chopped quartz-fiber lengths were incorporated into a dental photocure zirconia-silicate particulate-filled composite (PFC for mechanical test comparisons with a popular commercial spherical-particle amalgam. FRC lengths included 0.5-mm, 1.0 mm, 2.0 mm, and 3.0 mm all at a constant 28.2 volume percent. Four-point fully articulated fixtures were used according to American Standards Test Methods with sample dimensions of 2×2×50 mm3 across a 40 mm span to provide sufficient Euler flexural bending and prevent top-load compressive shear error. Mechanical properties for flexural strength, modulus, yield strength, resilience, work of fracture, critical strain energy release, critical stress intensity factor, and strain were obtained for comparison. Fiber length subsequently correlated with increasing all mechanical properties, p<1.1×10-5. Although the modulus was significantly statistically higher for amalgam than all composites, all FRCs and even the PFC had higher values than amalgam for all other mechanical properties. Because amalgams provide increased longevity during clinical use compared to the standard PFCs, modulus would appear to be a mechanical property that might sufficiently reduce margin interlaminar shear stress and strain-related microcracking that could reduce failure rates. Also, since FRCs were tested with all mechanical properties that statistically significantly increased over the PFC, new avenues for future development could be provided toward surpassing amalgam in clinical longevity.

  2. FRKAS: knowledge acquisition using a fuzzy rule base approach to insight of DNA-binding domains/proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ling; Chang, Fang-Lin; Ho, Shinn-Jang; Shu, Li-Sun; Huang, Wen-Lin; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2013-03-01

    Numerous prediction methods of DNA-binding domains/proteins were proposed by identifying informative features and designing effective classifiers. These researches reveal that the DNA-protein binding mechanism is complicated and existing accurate predictors such as support vector machine (SVM) with position specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) are regarded as black-box methods which are not easily interpretable for biologists. In this study, we propose an ensemble fuzzy rule base classifier consisting of a set of interpretable fuzzy rule classifiers (iFRCs) using informative physicochemical properties as features. In designing iFRCs, feature selection, membership function design, and fuzzy rule base generation are all simultaneously optimized using an intelligent genetic algorithm (IGA). IGA maximizes prediction accuracy, minimizes the number of features selected, and minimizes the number of fuzzy rules to generate an accurate and concise fuzzy rule base. Benchmark datasets of DNA-binding domains are used to evaluate the proposed ensemble classifier of 30 iFRCs. Each iFRC has a mean test accuracy of 77.46%, and the ensemble classifier has a test accuracy of 83.33%, where the method of SVM with PSSMs has the accuracy of 82.81%. The physicochemical properties of the first two ranks according to their contribution are positive charge and Van Der Waals volume. Charge complementarity between protein and DNA is thought to be important in the first step of recognition between protein and DNA. The amino acid residues of binding peptides have larger Van Der Waals volumes and positive charges than those of non-binding ones. The proposed knowledge acquisition method by establishing a fuzzy rule-based classifier can also be applicable to predict and analyze other protein functions from sequences.

  3. Tearing relaxation and the globalization of transport in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, Loren; Barnes, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Tearing instability of field-reversed configurations (FRC) is investigated using the method of neighboring equilibria. It is shown that the conducting wall position in experiment lies very close to the location needed for tearing stability. This strongly suggests that vigorous but benign tearing modes, acting globally, are the engine of continual self-organization in FRCs, i.e., tearing relaxation. It also explains the ''profile consistency'' and anomalous loss rate of magnetic flux. In effect, tearing globalizes the effect of edge-driven transport.

  4. Kinetic Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.V. Belova; R.C. Davidson; H. Ji; and M. Yamada

    2002-01-01

    New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is an innovative confinement approach that offers a unique fusion reactor potential because of its compact and simple geometry, translation properties, and high plasma beta. One of the most important issues is FRC stability with respect to low-n (toroidal mode number) MHD modes. There is a clear discrepancy between the predictions of standard MHD theory that many modes should be unstable on the MHD time scale, and the observed macroscopic resilience of FRCs in experiments

  5. Development of Fracture Energy of FRC Materials. Freeze-Thaw Resistance of FRC Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklund Larsen, E.

    in this SBI Bulletin in order to give more direct information about two of the most important aspects in connection with FRCs. The SBI Bulletin contains two oral presentations given at the Fourth RILEM International Symposium on Fibre Reinforced Cement and Concrete which was held at the University......During the past four years research has been carried out at the Danish Building Research Institute on different aspects of the long term performance of fibre reinforced cementitious composites (FRC) exposed to climate stresses. Some of the most important results have been brought together...

  6. The Paediatric Cardiology Hall of Fame – Donald Nixon Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Donald Nixon Ross, FRCS (4 October 1922 to 7 July 2014) was a South African-born British cardiothoracic surgeon, who developed the pulmonary autograft, known as the Ross procedure, for the treatment of aortic valve disease, and also performed the first heart transplant in the United Kingdom in 1968. This paper, written by Jane Somerville, Professor of Cardiology [Retired], Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, provides the personal recollections about Donald Ross from Jane Somerville, and thus provides a unique snapshot of cardiac surgical history.

  7. Mechanical thrombectomy in basilar artery thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fesl, Gunther; Holtmannspoetter, Markus; Patzig, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Multiple endovascular devices have been used for mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in basilar artery occlusion (BAO) for >10 years. Based on a single-center experience during the course of one decade, we present data on safety and efficacy of previous MT devices compared with modern stent...

  8. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Zhao Wen-juan. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 38 Issue 2 June 2017 pp 21 Research Article. Classification of Stellar Spectra with Fuzzy Minimum Within-Class Support Vector Machine · Liu Zhong-bao Song Wen-ai Zhang Jing ...

  9. Hpa1 harpin needs nitroxyl terminus to promote vegetative growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... Biol. 77 185–. 201. Dong H, Delaney TP, Bauer DW and Beer SV 1999 Harpin induces disease resistance in Arabidopsis through the systemic acquired resistance pathway mediated by salicylic acid and the NIM1 gene. Plant J. 20 207–215. Dong HP, Peng J, Bao Z, Meng X, Bonasera JM, Chen G, Beer SV.

  10. QTL detection of rice grain quality traits by microsatellite markers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing, and the temperature at which starch irreversibly loses its crystalline order ... Umemoto et al. (2002) confirmed this and demonstrated that the alk locus encodes the enzyme soluble starch synthase IIa. Bao et al. (2002) and Lanceras et al. (2000) found the .... with minor modification (Williams et al. 1958; Perez and Ju-.

  11. BKR 26(3) pp. 94-98 (Yousuf)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2014-09-30

    Sep 30, 2014 ... Transitional elements form coordinate covalent bonds, with a unique ability to form stable coordination complexes or chelates. The primary chelated minerals used in livestock production include iron, manganese, zinc, copper, cobalt and nickel. (Adeloye and Yousuf, 2001; Bao et al. 2007). Chelated.

  12. Preparation of Ultra-fine Calcium Carbonate by a Solvent-free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2008-09-19

    Sep 19, 2008 ... aSchool of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyan, Sichuan 621010, People's Republic of China. bSchool of Chemistry and ... and as a consequence might be applied in industry. .... 8 G.T. Li, Q.F. Hu and X.J. Bao, Non-Metallic Mines, 2000, 23, 34–39.

  13. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saket

    amines and o-amino/mercaptan/hydroxyanilines: Elemental sulfur as a highly efficient and traceless oxidizing agent Org. Lett. 14 5948. 2. Mayo M S, Yu X, Zhou X, Feng X, Yamamoto Y, Bao M 2014 Convenient synthesis of benzothiazoles and benzimidazoles through brønsted acid catalyzed cyclization of 2-amino.

  14. Short-temporal variation of soil organic carbon in different land use ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L C López-Teloxa

    2017-10-06

    Oct 6, 2017 ... usage alternatives. It is well known that flooded soils, which are characteristic of wetlands, are an important reservoir of organic carbon (Bao et al. 2011; Yu et al. 2012 ... as conservation, adaptation and reduction of cli- mate change ..... irrigation with plastic mulch in an arid region of northwest. China; J. Arid ...

  15. Helicity of Solar Active Regions from a Dynamo Model Piyali ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is an indicator of how stressed the active region flux system is and it is known to play an important role in the flaring .... P. C. acknowledges CSIR for financial support. References. Abramenko, V. I., Wang, T., Yurchishin, V. B. 1997, Solar Phys., 174, 291. Bao, S., Zhang, H. 1998, ApJ, 496, L43. Canfield, R. C., Pevtsov, A. A. ...

  16. Molecular Engineering for Mechanically Resilient and Stretchable Electronic Polymers and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    phrases identifying major concepts in the report. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION. Enter security classification in accordance with security classification...Alex L. Chortos, Gregor Schwartz, Victor Tse, Darren J. Lipomi, H.-S. Philip Wong, Michael V. McConnell , and Zhenan Bao, 2014. Continuous wireless

  17. On distinguishing different models of a class of emergent Universe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A specific class of singularity-free cosmological model has recently been considered in light of different observational data such as observed Hubble data, BAO data from luminous red galaxy survey by Slowan digital sky survey (SDSS) and CMB data from WMAP. However, it is observed that only 12–14 data points are used ...

  18. Recent observational constraints on generalized Chaplygin gas in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Its EoS parameters are constrained using (i) dimensionless age parameter ( H 0 t 0 ) and (ii) the observed Hubble (H(z) − z) data (OHD) + baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data + cosmic microwavebackground (CMB) shift data + supernovae (Union2.1) data. Dimensionless age parameter puts loose bounds on the EoS ...

  19. MicroRNA-144 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... [Bao H, Li X, Li H, Xing H, Xu B, Zhang X and Liu Z 2017 MicroRNA-144 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation, invasion and migration by targeting ZFX. J. Biosci. 42 103–111]. 1. Introduction. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide (Tang et al. 2013).

  20. Broad-Band Spectral Indices Variability of BL Lacertae by Wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by Wavelet Method. Hao-Jing Zhang1,2,∗, Jing-Ming Bai1, Yu-Ying Bao3 & Xiong Zhang2. 1Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, ... broad-band spectral indices—periodic variation—methods: numerical: .... corrected for the galactic extinction and the host galaxy contribution has been sub-.

  1. Allelopathic potential of Polypogon monspeliensis L. against two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... effects of Cymbopogon citratus volatile and its chemical components. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao., 16:763-767. Maciel CDG, Correa MR, Alves E, Negrisoli E, Velini ED, Rodrigues JD,. Ono EO, Boaro CSF (2003). Influencia do manejo de palhada de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens) sobre o ...

  2. 5,7-Dimethoxycoumarin inhibits neuronal apoptosis by targeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke 1989; 20: 84-91. 21. Ouyang L, Shi Z, Zhao S, Wang FT, Zhou TT, Liu B, Bao. JK. Programmed cell death pathways in cancer: A review of apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis. Cell Prolif 2012; 45: 487-498. 22. Charriaut-Marlangue C. Apoptosis: A target for neuroprotection. Therapie 2004; 59: 185-190.

  3. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 97, Online resources. March 2018, pages e1-e52. pp e1-e12 ONLINE RESOURCES. Association mapping and favourable QTL alleles for fibre quality traits in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) CHENG-GUANG DONG JUAN WANG YU YU BAO-CHENG LI QUAN-JIA CHEN · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  4. Chemiluminescence from the reaction of Ba 3D with nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.A.; Solarz, R.W.; Dubrin, J.W.; Brotzmann, R.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction of laser excited Ba*( 3 D) states with nitric oxide is presented. BaO product is not detected, although the channel is thermodynamically open, and instead chemiluminescence is observed. Experiments which suggest that radiative recombination, Ba + NO → BaNO* → BaNO, is the observed reaction channel will also be presented

  5. Anti-Thrombotic Effect of Carthamus tinctorius Linn Extracts in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    from:http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_ animals/legislation_en..htm. 11. Liu XG, Xu LN. A rat middle cerebral artery thrombosis model for evaluation of thrombolytic and antithrombotic agents. Yao Xue Xue Bao 1995; 30: 662-667. 12. Zhang Y, Gu D, Mao S, Chen W. Protective effects of. Ginkgo biloba extract on ...

  6. Polymorphism of the VEGF gene and its association with growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Street, J., Bao, M., Deguzman, L., Bunting, S., Peale, F.V., Ferrara, N., Steinmetz, H., Hoeffel, J., Cleland,. J.L. & Daugherty, A., 2002. Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates bone repair by promoting angiogenesis and bone turnover. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa. 99, 9656-9661. The South African Journal of Animal Science ...

  7. jinping feng

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JINPING FENG. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 671-681 Article. MiR-876-5p suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer by directly down-regulating bone morphogenetic protein 4 · LIANG BAO LEI LV JINPING FENG ...

  8. Endovascular therapy for acute basilar artery occlusion: Comparison between patients with and without underlying intracranial atherosclerotics stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gun Soo; Kim, Seul Kee; Baek, Byeong Hyeon; Lee, Youn Young; Yoon, Woong [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To compare the characteristics and outcomes of multimodal endovascular therapy (EVT) in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) with and without underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). We retrospectively analyzed the data from 50 patients with acute BAO who were treated with EVT. The baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without ICAS were compared. Patients with ICAS underwent intracranial angioplasty or stenting after mechanical thrombectomy. Thirty percent of the patients (15/50) had underlying ICAS at the occlusion site. On pretreatment diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), bilateral thalamic infarction was less frequently found in patients with ICAS (0% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.03). Occlusion in the proximal segment of the basilar artery was more common in patients with ICAS (60% vs. 5.7%, p < 0.001), whereas occlusion in the distal segment of the basilar artery was more common in patients without ICAS (26.7% vs. 91.4%, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the rates of successful revascularization, 3-month modified Rankin Scale scores of 0–2, symptomatic hemorrhage, and mortality between the two groups. ICAS was common in patients with acute stroke due to BAO. The occlusion site and the presence or absence of bilateral thalamic infarction on pretreatment DWI might help predict the underlying ICAS in patients with acute BAO.

  9. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel dwarf wheat line with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-08

    Jan 8, 2012 ... 2State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of. Genetics and ... [Chen G, Zheng Q, Bao Y, Liu S, Wang H and Li X 2012 Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel dwarf wheat line with introgressed. Thinopyrum ..... tance to diseases and pests: Current status. Eyphytica 91 ...

  10. SAJCH 678.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    portion estimates in the Medical Research Council's (MRC's) Dietary. Assessment Education Kit (DAEK)[24] and SA Food ... From the average intakes and estimated portion sizes, the mean added sugar content from these purchased food ..... 22. Nicklas TA, Bao W, Webber LS, Berenson GS. Breakfast consumption affects.

  11. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 77 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L Wang, Y Zhang, L Wang, J Yang, Z Zhou, Y Gai, L Qiu, L Song, 17678-17689 ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. X Jiang-bao, Z Shu-Yong, Z Guang-Can, X Wen-Jun, L Zhao-Hua, 17748-17754 ...

  12. Whole genome analysis of a Vietnamese trio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DANG THANH HAI, NGUYEN DAI THANH, PHAM THI MINH TRANG, LE SI QUANG,. PHAN THI THU HANG, DANG CAO CUONG, HOANG KIM PHUC, NGUYEN HUU DUC,. DO DUC DONG, BUI QUANG MINH, PHAM BAO SON and LE SY VINH http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci. J. Biosci. 40(1), March 2015, 113–124, © Indian ...

  13. Educational Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The third session of IT@EDU98 consisted of five papers on educational software and was chaired by Tran Van Hao (University of Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). "Courseware Engineering" (Nguyen Thanh Son, Ngo Ngoc Bao Tran, Quan Thanh Tho, Nguyen Hong Lam) briefly describes the use of courseware. "Machine Discovery Theorems in Geometry: A…

  14. Formation of hydroxyapatite coating on titanium at 200 C through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C (Bao et al 2005; Johnson et al. 2006). Lower temperatures lead to the formation of amor- phous calcium phosphates and non-stoichiometric apatites in the coatings. These phases will undergo faster resorption in vivo and adversely affect the clinical success of the implant. Depending on the deposition parameters and ...

  15. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with gelatin functionalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Zhou Y, Bao Q L, Tang L A L, Zhong Y L and Loh K P 2009. Chem. Mater. 21 2950. 29. Sun Z Y, Liu Z M, Wang Y, Han B X, Du J M and Zhang J L. 2005 J. Mater. Chem. 15 4497. 30. Gunckel S, Santander P, Cordano G, Ferreira J, Munoz S,.

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. SHUGUANG HAN. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 671-681 Article. MiR-876-5p suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer by directly down-regulating bone morphogenetic protein 4 · LIANG BAO LEI LV JINPING ...

  17. Measuring the 2D baryon acoustic oscillation signal of galaxies in WiggleZ: cosmological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Samuel R.; Kazin, Eyal; Davis, Tamara M.; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Glazebrook, Karl; Jurek, Russell J.; Parkinson, David; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Poole, Gregory B.; Pracy, Michael; Woods, David

    2017-02-01

    We present results from the 2D anisotropic baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal present in the final data set from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We analyse the WiggleZ data in two ways: first using the full shape of the 2D correlation function and secondly focusing only on the position of the BAO peak in the reconstructed data set. When fitting for the full shape of the 2D correlation function we use a multipole expansion to compare with theory. When we use the reconstructed data we marginalize over the shape and just measure the position of the BAO peak, analysing the data in wedges separating the signal along the line of sight from that parallel to the line of sight. We verify our method with mock data and find the results to be free of bias or systematic offsets. We also redo the pre-reconstruction angle-averaged (1D) WiggleZ BAO analysis with an improved covariance and present an updated result. The final results are presented in the form of Ωc h2, H(z), and DA(z) for three redshift bins with effective redshifts z = 0.44, 0.60, and 0.73. Within these bins and methodologies, we recover constraints between 5 and 22 per cent error. Our cosmological constraints are consistent with flat ΛCDM cosmology and agree with results from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey.

  18. On Modeling of Adversary Behavior and Defense for Survivability of Military MANET Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    and environment/failure conditions to be specified and analyzed, including node mobility patterns (random is considered in this work), capture...USA, Sept. 2012, pp. 1-6. [35] I. R. Chen, J. Guo, and F. Bao, "Trust Management for SOA - based IoT and Its Application to Service Composition," IEEE

  19. Electrochemical NOx reduction on an LSM/CGO symmetric cell modified by NOx adsorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2013-01-01

    were prepared and tested: a blank cell, a cell impregnated with BaO, and a cell coated with a BaO/Pt/Al2O3 layer. The electrochemical reduction of NOx on the three cells was studied by conversion measurement, degradation testing, and microstructure characterization. The modification, either...

  20. The People in the PLA: Recruitment, Training, and Education in China’s Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Lanzhou MAC ,” Jiefangjun Bao (Internet Version), August 27, 2007, in OSC CPP20070827702002. 38. “Group Army of Lanzhou MAC Builds Up Remote...mainly because Deng shifted China away from Mao’s project of revolution and class struggle to a nation-building program couched in the notion of four

  1. Song Wen-ai

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Song Wen-ai. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 38 Issue 2 June 2017 pp 21 Research Article. Classification of Stellar Spectra with Fuzzy Minimum Within-Class Support Vector Machine · Liu Zhong-bao Song Wen-ai Zhang Jing Zhao ...

  2. Purification and characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme of Bacillus subtilis DC33, isolated from Chinese traditional Douchi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.T.; Ji, B.P.; Li, B.; Nout, M.J.R.; Li, P.L.; Ji, H.; Chen, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis DC33 producing a novel fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated from Ba-bao Douchi, a traditional soybean-fermented food in China. The strong fibrin-specific enzyme subtilisin FS33 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using the combination of various chromatographic steps. The

  3. Poly[μ-aqua-aqua-μ4-naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylato-barium]: a layer structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ba(C12H6O4(H2O2]n, is represented by a layer-like structure built of BaO8 polyhedra. The asymmetric unit contains a Ba2+ ion, half a coordinating water molecule and half a μ4-bridging naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylate (1,8-nap ligand, the whole structure being generated by twofold rotational symmetry. The carboxylate groups of the 1,8-nap ligands act as bridges linking four Ba2+ ions, while each Ba2+ ion is eight-coordinated by O atoms from four 1,8-nap ligands and two coordinating water molecules. In the crystal, there are O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the water molecules and carboxylate O atoms in the BaO8 polyhedra. Each BaO8 polyhedron is connected via corner-sharing water O atoms or edge-sharing ligand O atoms, forming a sheet parallel to the bc plane. These sheets stack along the a-axis direction and are connected via van der Waals forces only. The naphthalene groups protrude above and below the layers of the BaO8 polyhedra and there are voids of ca 208 Å3 bounded by these groups. No residual electron density was found in this region. The crystal studied was twinned by pseudo-merohedry, with a refined twin component ratio of 0.5261 (1:0.4739 (1.

  4. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat– Thinopyrum ponticum translocation line resistant to powdery mildew · FANG HE YINGUANG BAO XIAOLEI QI YINGXUE MA XINGFENG LI HONGGANG WANG · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 70) serves as a valuable gene pool for wheat ...

  5. Fisher Matrix Predictions for Detecting the Cosmological 21-cm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our entire analysis is based on the assumption that the visibility data contains only the signal and the noise, and the foregrounds and radio-frequency interference have been completely removed from the data. The BAO feature is within the baseline range covered by OWFA (Ali & Bharadwaj. 2014). However, the frequency ...

  6. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yan, Z · Hong-zhang, Chen · HongBao, W · Hongbo, S · Hongbo, Shao · Hongbo, W · Hongbo, Yu · Honghui, L · Honghui, Y · Hongjun, H · Hongsheng, Lu · Hongtrakul, V · Hongtrakul, Vipa · Hongwei, Li · Hongxia, Miao · Hongxiang, S · Hongxu, L

  7. Development and Translation of Hybrid Optoacoustic/Ultrasonic Tomography for Early Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    window for (a) and (b) is [−45, 0] dB. WANG ET AL.: WAVEFORM INVERSION WITH SOURCE ENCODING 487 B. Data Pre-Processing Forty-eight bad channels were...tomography (MSOT). Biomaterials . 2015;37:415-24. 12. Bao C, Beziere N, del Pino P, Pelaz B, Estrada G, Tian F, et al. Gold nanoprisms as optoacoustic

  8. 469-475

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Binary sources, individual. X-ray measurements of black hole X-ray binary .... Twist of magnetic fields in solar active regions (Hongqi Zhang, Lirong Tian,. Shudong Bao & Mei Zhang), 245. Emergence .... Stokes polarimetry at the Kodaikanal tower tunnel telescope (K. Sankarasubramanian,. G. Srinivasulu, A.V. Ananth & P.

  9. Association between the IFN-γ and IL-1 genetic polymorphisms and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-24

    Apr 24, 2014 ... RESEARCH NOTE. Association between the IFN-γ and IL-1 genetic polymorphisms and colorectal cancer in the Chinese Han population. BAO-YING FEI1∗, HUO-XIANG LV2, ... and immune regulation, such as antiviral, antimicrobal, and ... Some studies reported that cytokines polymorphisms af- fected the ...

  10. Destructive Adsorption of Carbon Tetrachloride on Alkaline Earth Metal Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Mestl, Gerhard; Rosynek, Michael P.; Krawietz, Thomas R.; Haw, James F.; Lunsford, Jack H.

    1998-01-01

    The destructive adsorption of CCl4 on MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO has been studied as a function of the reaction temperature and the amount of CCl4 injected. The reaction was followed using in situ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 13 C

  11. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    helped in decreased environmental pollution (Geng 2006;. Cao et al 2007; Li et al 2007). Hydrated calcium borates are still in the research and development stage, nowadays (Wang and Feng 2003; Zhao et al 2004; Bao et al 2010). Several techniques have been developed to synthesize bulk hydrated calcium borate.

  12. xinhua wang

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. XINHUA WANG. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 671-681 Article. MiR-876-5p suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer by directly down-regulating bone morphogenetic protein 4 · LIANG BAO LEI LV JINPING ...

  13. Inhibition of cholinesterase activity by extracts, fractions and compounds from Calceolaria talcana and C. integrifolia (Calceolariaceae: Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Carlos L; Muñoz, Evelyn; Salazar, Juan R; Yamaguchi, Lydia; Werner, Enrique; Alarcon, Julio; Kubo, Isao

    2013-12-01

    Extracts, fractions and compounds from Calceolaria talcana and C. integrifolia exhibited strong inhibitory effects of the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes using the in vitro Ellman's method. The most active samples were from the ethyl acetate extract, which caused a mixed-type inhibition against AChE (69.8% and 79.5% at 100 and 200 μg/ml, respectively) and against BChE (98.5% and 99.8% at 100 and 200 μg/ml, respectively) and its major components verbascoside 8 (50.9% and 70.0% at 200 μg/ml, against AChE and BChE, respectively), martynoside 9, and fraction F-7 (which corresponds to a mixture of 8, 9, and other phenylethanoids and phenolics that remain unidentified) (80.2% and 85.3% at 100 and 200 μg/ml, against AChE, respectively and 99.1% and 99.7% at 100 and 200 μg/ml, against BChE, respectively) inhibited the acetylcholinesterase enzyme competitively. The most polar fraction F-5 from n-hexane extract (a mixture of naphthoquinones: 2-hydroxy-3-(1,1-dimethylallyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) 6, α-dunnione 7 and other polar compounds that remain unidentified) showed a mixed-type inhibition (71.5% and 72.1% against AChE and BChE at 200 μg/ml, respectively). Finally, the methanol-soluble residue presented a complex, mixed-type inhibition (39.9% and 67.9% against AChE and BChE at 200 μg/ml, respectively). The mixture F-3 with diterpenes was obtained from the n-hexane extract: (1,10-cyclopropyl-9-epi-ent-isopimarol) 1, 19-α-hydroxy-abietatriene 2, and F-4 a mixture of triterpenes α-lupeol 3, β-sitosterol 4, ursolic acid 5 together with a complex mixture of terpenes that did not show activity. In summary, extracts and natural compounds from C. talcana and C. integrifolia were isolated, identified and characterized as cholinesterase inhibitors.

  14. Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope (ADEPT). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we proposed to NASA a detailed concept study of ADEPT (the Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope), a potential space mission to reliably measure the time-evolution of dark energy by conducting the largest effective volume survey of the universe ever done. A peer-review panel of scientific, management, and technical experts reported back the highest possible 'excellent' rating for ADEPT. We have since made substantial advances in the scientific and technical maturity of the mission design. With this Department of Energy (DOE) award we were granted supplemental funding to support specific extended research items that were not included in the NASA proposal, many of which were intended to broadly advance future dark energy research, as laid out by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF). The proposed work had three targets: (1) the adaptation of large-format infrared arrays to a 2 micron cut-off; (2) analytical research to improve the understanding of the dark energy figure-of- merit; and (3) extended studies of baryon acoustic oscillation systematic uncertainties. Since the actual award was only for ∼10% of the proposed amount item (1) was dropped and item (2) work was severely restricted, consistent with the referee reviews of the proposal, although there was considerable contradictions between reviewer comments and several comments that displayed a lack of familiarity with the research. None the less, item (3) was the focus of the work. To characterize the nature of the dark energy, ADEPT is designed to observe baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in a large galaxy redshift survey and to obtain substantial numbers of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The 2003 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) made a precise determination of the BAO 'standard ruler' scale, as it was imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at z ∼ 1090. The standard ruler was also imprinted on the pattern of galaxies, and was first detected in 2005 in Sloan Digital

  15. Standard rulers, candles, and clocks from the low-redshift universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-12

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9±2.3h⁻¹ Mpc. The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3±2.1h⁻¹ Mpc). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8±3.7 Mpc), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9±1.9h⁻¹ Mpc). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be N(eff)=3.53±0.32, independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics.

  16. Probing the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe Through Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Abhishek

    The study of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) has become a key tool for exploring the nature of Dark Energy. BAO refers to periodic fluctuations in the density of baryonic matter in the universe that were caused by acoustic oscillations created by radiation pressure differences. Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have played a vital role in the detection of BAO. These are the most massive galaxies in the z˜1 universe, showing a characteristic 4000A break in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). This thesis establishes a new algorithm for selecting high redshift LRGs for spectroscopic surveys like SDSS-IV/eBOSS and DESI, which aim to precisely measure the BAO signal at high redshifts. We further adapt these methods for assembling the next generation eBOSS LRG sample and explain these methods in detail. These methods have been used by other international teams to assemble high redshift LRG sample for various investigations. Large-scale clustering measurements are prone to systematic uncertainties associated with imaging surveys. This thesis establishes modern statistical techniques to overcome these challenges. A multivariate regression analysis, primarily applied on the eBOSS LRG and quasar samples, is presented for a better understanding of the systematic uncertainties and their effects on the clustering measurements. Another key aspect of this work is the development of a machine learning algorithm for estimating photometric redshifts. Applying this machinery yields accurate estimates of the distances of galaxies using their photometric properties alone, i.e., their colors and magnitudes. This work culminates with new clustering measurements that use these photometric redshifts in an attempt to detect BAO in the eBOSS LRG sample. We also presented initial results from an ongoing effort to measure the clustering of LRGs around quasars using the first two years of spectroscopic data from eBOSS.

  17. The Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography Score for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion Treated with Mechanical Thrombectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haihua; Ma, Ning; Liu, Lian; Gao, Feng; Mo, Dapeng; Miao, Zhongrong

    2018-02-05

    Recently, the Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography (BATMAN) score predicts clinical outcome of acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO), yet there is no extensive external validation. The purpose of this study was to validate the prognostic value of BATMAN scoring system for the prediction of clinical outcome in patients with acute BAO treated with endovascular mechanical thrombectomy by using cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We analyzed the clinical and angiographic data of consecutive patients with acute BAO from March 2012 to November 2016. The BATMAN scoring system was used to assess the collateral status and thrombus burden. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score 2b-3 was defined as successful recanalization. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the area under the curve (AUC) and the optimum cutoff value. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the predictor of clinical outcome. This study included 63 patients with acute BAO who underwent mechanical thrombectomy. Of these patients, 90.5% (57/63) achieved successful recanalization (TICI, 2b-3) and 34.9% (22/63) had a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2). ROC analysis indicated that the AUC of the BATMAN score was .722 (95% confidence interval [CI], .594-.827), and the optimal cutoff value was 3 (sensitivity = 72.73, specificity = 63.41). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the BATMAN score higher than 3 was associated with favorable outcome (odds ratio, 5.214; 95% CI, 1.47-18.483; P = .011). The BATMAN score on DSA seems to predict the functional outcome in patients of acute BAO treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced performance of thermal-assisted electron field emission based on barium oxide nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yunkang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Institute of technology, Nanjing, 211167 (China); Chen, Jing, E-mail: chenjingmoon@gmail.com [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Zhang, Yuning; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei; Di, Yunsong [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Zhang, Zichen, E-mail: zz241@ime.ac.cn [Integrated system for Laser applications Group, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100029, Beijing (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A possible mechanism for thermal-assisted electric field was demonstrated. • A new path for the architecture of the novel nanomaterial and methodology for its potential application in the field emission device area was provided. • The turn-on field, the threshold field and the field emission current density were largely related to the temperature of the cathode. • The relationship between the work function of emitter material and the temperature of emitter was found. - Abstract: In this paper, thermal-assisted field emission properties of barium oxide (BaO) nanowire synthesized by a chemical bath deposition method were investigated. The morphology and composition of BaO nanowire were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) respectively. The turn-on field, threshold field and the emission current density could be affected relatively due to the thermal-assisted effect when the electric field was applied, in the meanwhile, the turn-on field for BaO nanowire was measured to be decreased from 1.12 V/μm to 0.66 V/μm when the temperature was raised from 293 K to 593 K, whereas for the threshold field was found to decrease from 3.64 V/μm to 2.12 V/μm. The improved performance was demonstrated due to the reduced work function of the BaO nanowire as the agitation temperature increasing, leading to the higher probability of electrons tunneling through the energy barrier and enhancement of the field emission properties of BaO emitters.

  19. Structural approach to the aging of phosphylated cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Patrick; Nachon, Florian; Lockridge, Oksana

    2010-09-06

    Phosphylated cholinesterases (ChE) can undergo a side reaction that progressively decreases their reactivatability. This process, termed "aging", results from dealkylation of the adduct and depends on the structure of the organophosphyl moiety. Aged ChEs are resistant to reactivation by oximes. Owing to the toxicological importance of OPs, the molecular mechanism of aging has been the subject of research for decades. It was not clear whether aging involves the same bond breakage regardless the type of OP or is a scission of P-O-C bonds (P-O or O-C) in phosphates/phosphonates, P-N-C bonds in phosphoramidates, and P-S-C bonds in phosphonothionates. It was assumed that the resulting negatively charged atom on phosphorus of the aged adduct prevented nucleophilic attack by oximates, but studies on negatively charged model molecules do not support this hypothesis. Decrease in conformational flexibility of aged enzymes may contribute to their non-reactivatability by preventing proper adjustment of reactivators in the active site gorge. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of phosphylated human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) in water and in (18)O-water provided evidence that aging results from O-C breakage, i.e. O-dealkylation. In contrast, the isomalathion-BChE conjugate ages mostly through P-S bond cleavage, but a minor product results from O-C and/or S-C breakage. The crystal structures of hBChE and hAChE inhibited by tabun showed that aging of tabun-ChE conjugates results from O-dealkylation. However, depending on the nature of O-alkyl and N-alkyl chains, aging of BChE inhibited by other phosphoramidates results either from O-C breakage or deamination, i.e. P-N breakage. It was found that dealkylation of branched alkoxy involves a transient carbocation. Dealkylation of OP-ChE conjugates is accompanied by enzyme conformational changes. Urea, organic solvent, heat and pressure denaturation of human BChE showed that the conformational stability of aged OP-BChE conjugates is

  20. Anticholinesterase activity of standardized extract of Illicium verum Hook. f. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kumar, N Satheesh; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2011-04-01

    Illicium verum is a well known spice in traditional Indian system for its therapeutic potential. The present study was aimed to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory (BChE) activity of standardized extracts of I. verum and its oil. Present study confirmed that anethole contributed to the anticholinesterase activity of I. verum, with more specificity towards AChE. IC(50) for AChE and BChE inhibitory activity of anethole was 39.89±0.32 μg/mL and 75.35±1.47 μg/mL, whereas for the oil, 36.00±0.44 μg/mL and 70.65±0.96 μg/mL respectively. Therefore I. verum can be a good lead as anti-cholinesterase agent from natural resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of viologen-phosphorus dendrimers on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepluch, Karol; Weber, Monika; Katir, Nadia; Caminade, Anne-Marie; El Kadib, Abdelkrim; Klajnert, Barbara; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is the first step in checking whether new compounds can be considered as drugs for treating neurodegenerative diseases. The effect of viologen-phosphorus dendrimers on AChE and BChE activities was studied. The results show that the effects on the cholinesterase activities depend on dendrimer type and size. Viologen dendrimers can interact with the enzymes in two ways: they can bind either to a peripheral site of the enzyme or to amino acids located near the active site, inhibiting catalysis by both cholinesterases. All tested non-toxic viologen-phosphorus dendrimers inhibited the activities of both cholinesterases, showing their potential as new drugs for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical LDPC decoders for beyond 100 Gbits/s optical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2009-05-01

    We present an optical low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoder suitable for implementation above 100 Gbits/s, which provides large coding gains when based on large-girth LDPC codes. We show that a basic building block, the probabilities multiplier circuit, can be implemented using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and we propose corresponding probabilistic-domain sum-product algorithm (SPA). We perform simulations of a fully parallel implementation employing girth-10 LDPC codes and proposed SPA. The girth-10 LDPC(24015,19212) code of the rate of 0.8 outperforms the BCH(128,113)xBCH(256,239) turbo-product code of the rate of 0.82 by 0.91 dB (for binary phase-shift keying at 100 Gbits/s and a bit error rate of 10(-9)), and provides a net effective coding gain of 10.09 dB.

  3. Anticholinesterases and antioxidant alkamides from Piper nigrum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yanbei; Zhong, Yujiao; Du, Hongjian; Luo, Wei; Wen, Yaya; Li, Qin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yanfang

    2016-09-01

    The anticholinesterase and antioxidant effects of five different extracts of Piper nigrum were evaluated. Twenty-one known alkamides were isolated from active ethyl acetate extract and investigated for their cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects. Among them, piperine (2), piperettine (5) and piperettyline (20) exhibited dual inhibition against AChE and BChE, and feruperine (18) was the most potent selective inhibitor of BChE. Molecular docking simulation was performed to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. In addition, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (3) contributed to the strongest DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The self-induced Aβ aggregation inhibition of 2, 5 and 18 was further evaluated. Results indicated that some alkamides could be multifunctional lead candidates for Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  4. Novel Iris Biometric Watermarking Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris biometric watermarking scheme is proposed focusing on iris recognition instead of the traditional watermark for increasing the security of the digital products. The preprocess of iris image is to be done firstly, which generates the iris biometric template from person's eye images. And then the templates are to be on discrete cosine transform; the value of the discrete cosine is encoded to BCH error control coding. The host image is divided into four areas equally correspondingly. The BCH codes are embedded in the singular values of each host image's coefficients which are obtained through discrete cosine transform (DCT. Numerical results reveal that proposed method can extract the watermark effectively and illustrate its security and robustness.

  5. Nucleon mass and sigma term from lattice QCD with two light fermion flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bali, G.S.; Bruns, P.C.; Collins, S.

    2012-06-01

    We analyze N f =2 nucleon mass data with respect to their dependence on the pion mass down to m π =157 MeV and compare it with predictions from covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory (BChPT). A novel feature of our approach is that we fit the nucleon mass data simultaneously with the directly obtained pion-nucleon σ-term. Our lattice data below m π =435 MeV is well described by O(p 4 ) BChPT and we find σ 37(8)(6)MeV for the σ-term at the physical point. Using the nucleon mass to set the scale we obtain a Sommer parameter of r 0 =0.501(10)(11) fm. (orig.)

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 8, No 3 (2012), OFDM codée pour le haut débit en fibre optique avec les codes correcteurs convolutifs, BCH, RS et LDPC, Abstract PDF. S R Sanou, F Zougmoré, Z Koalaga, M Kebré. Vol 1, No 1 (2005), On the preparation and growth of a-Si:H thin films by Hg-sensitised photoche mical vapor deposition at low ...

  7. Comparison of neurological health outcomes between two adolescent cohorts exposed to pesticides in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A Ismail

    Full Text Available Pesticide-exposed adolescents may have a higher risk of neurotoxic effects because of their developing brains and bodies. However, only a limited number of studies have addressed this risk among adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare neurological outcomes from two cohorts of Egyptian adolescents working as pesticide applicators. In 2005 and 2009, two cohorts of male adolescents working as pesticide applicators for the cotton crop were recruited from Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. The same application schedule and pesticides were used at both times, including both organophosphorus, and pyrethroid compounds. Participants in both cohorts completed three neurobehavioral tests, health and exposure questionnaires, and medical and neurological screening examinations. In addition, blood samples were collected to measure butyryl cholinesterase (BChE activity. Pesticide applicators in both cohorts reported more neurological symptoms and signs than non-applicators, particularly among participants in the 2005 cohort (OR ranged from 1.18 to 15.3. Except for one test (Trail Making B, there were no significant differences between either applicators or non-applicators of both cohorts on the neurobehavioral outcome measures (p > 0.05. The 2005 cohort showed greater inhibition of serum BChE activity than the 2009 cohort (p < 0.05. In addition, participants with depressed BChE activity showed more symptoms and signs than others without BChE depression (p < 0.05. Our study is the first to examine the consistency of health outcomes associated with pesticide exposure across two cohorts tested at different times from the same geographical region in rural Egypt. This similar pattern of findings across the two cohorts provides strong evidence of the health impact of exposure of adolescents to pesticides.

  8. Development of Peptide Nanotube-Modified Biosensors for Gas-Phase Organophosphate Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    as DNA, RNA, and ATP. 4 Synthetically, organophosphates are used in a wide variety of products such as flame retardants, solvents and lubricants ...successfully developed and tested a Prussian blue- modified silver SPE using butyrylthiocholine (BTCh) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in the presence of...Research. Media were dried using a Fisher Scientific Isotemp Vacuum Oven, model 280A, and centrifuged using an Eppendorf Centrifuge 5810R. Peptide

  9. SAJS 1005 - CASE REPORT.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marianne Kuehnast, M.B. Ch.B., D.A. (S.A.). Savvas Andronikou, M.B. B.Ch., F.C. Rad. (S.A.), F.R.C.R. (Lond.), Ph.D., Visiting Professor. Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Summary. A patient with the 'whirl sign' on computed tomography is 25.3.

  10. Butyrylcholinesterase gene mutations in patients with prolonged apnea after succinylcholine for electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Hannah Malthe; Gätke, M R

    2011-01-01

    patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often receive succinylcholine as part of the anesthetic procedure. The duration of action may be prolonged in patients with genetic variants of the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE), the most common being the K- and the A-variants. The aim of ...... of the study was to assess the clinical significance of genetic variants in butyrylcholinesterase gene (BCHE) in patients with a suspected prolonged duration of action of succinylcholine after ECT....

  11. Aspirin hydrolysis in plasma is a variable function of butyrylcholinesterase and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b2 (PAFAH1b2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K; Hartiala, Jaana; Hazen, Stanley L; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W H Wilson; McIntyre, Thomas M

    2013-04-26

    Aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed within erythrocytes by a heterodimer of PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 but also in plasma by an unidentified activity. Hydrolysis in both compartments was variable, with a 12-fold variation in plasma among 2226 Cleveland Clinic GeneBank patients. Platelet inhibition by aspirin was suppressed in plasma that rapidly hydrolyzed aspirin. Plasma aspirin hydrolysis was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease compared with control subjects (16.5 ± 4.4 versus 15.1 ± 3.7 nmol/ml/min; p = 3.4 × 10(-8)). A genome-wide association study of 2054 GeneBank subjects identified a single locus immediately adjacent to the BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) gene associated with plasma aspirin hydrolytic activity (lead SNP, rs6445035; p = 9.1 × 10(-17)). However, its penetrance was low, and plasma from an individual with an inactivating mutation in BCHE still effectively hydrolyzed aspirin. A second aspirin hydrolase was identified in plasma, the purification of which showed it to be homomeric PAFAH1b2. This is distinct from the erythrocyte PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 heterodimer. Inhibitors showed that both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PAFAH1b2 contribute to aspirin hydrolysis in plasma, with variation primarily reflecting non-genetic variation of BChE activity. Therefore, aspirin is hydrolyzed in plasma by two enzymes, BChE and a new extracellular form of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, PAFAH1b2. Hydrolytic effectiveness varies widely primarily from non-genetic variation of BChE activity that affects aspirin bioavailability in blood and the ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation.

  12. Detection of a Low Power Communication Signal in the Presence of a Strong Co-Channel TV Broadcast Interference Using a Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Television Systems Committee AWGN additive white Gaussian noise BCH Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquengham bps bits per second CIR channel impulse response... impulse responses (CIRs) are used both for equalization in the respective DVB-T2 receivers and in the KF to estimate the state of the DVB-T2 signal...if a communication system can operate reliably in the presence of a strong, co-channel interference, then there is no need to buy spectrum, an

  13. Bioscavenger is effective as a delayed therapeutic intervention following percutaneous VX poisoning in the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, T M; Price, M E; Whitmore, C L; Perrott, R L; Laws, T R; McColm, R R; Emery, E R; Tattersall, J E H; Green, A C; Rice, H

    2017-11-26

    The prolonged systemic exposure that follows skin contamination with low volatility nerve agents, such as VX, requires treatment to be given over a long time due to the relatively short half-lives of the therapeutic compounds used. Bioscavengers, such as butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), have been shown to provide effective post-exposure protection against percutaneous nerve agent when given immediately on signs of poisoning and to reduce reliance on additional treatments. In order to assess the benefits of administration of bioscavenger at later times, its effectiveness was assessed when administration was delayed for 2h after the appearance of signs of poisoning in guinea-pigs challenged with VX (4×LD 50 ). VX-challenged animals received atropine, HI-6 and avizafone on signs of poisoning and 2h later the same combination with or without bioscavenger. Five out of 6 animals which received BChE 2h after the appearance of signs of poisoning survived to the end of the study at 48h, compared with 6 out of 6 which received BChE immediately on signs. All the animals (n=6+6) that received only MedCM, without the addition of BChE, died within 10h of poisoning. The toxicokinetics of a sub-lethal challenge of percutaneous VX were determined in untreated animals. Blood VX concentration peaked at approximately 4h after percutaneous dosing with 0.4×LD 50 ; VX was still detectable at 36h and had declined to levels below the lower limit of quantification (10pg/mL) by 48h in 7 of 8 animals, with the remaining animal having a concentration of 12pg/mL. These studies confirm the persistent systemic exposure to nerve agent following percutaneous poisoning and demonstrate that bioscavenger can be an effective component of treatment even if its administration is delayed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Biochemical Markers for Exposure to Low Doses of Organophosphorus Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    disappear with regard to soman toxicity (Maxwell et al., 1987). The pharmacokinetic profile for irinotecan in carboxylesterase deficient mice more closely...butyrylcholinesterase enzyme activity: correlations with SN-38 pharmacokinetics during a prolonged infusion of irinotecan. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 47:283...BChE was purified by affinity chromatography Murachi et al., 1965). The rat M2 muscarinic acetylcholine and digested with pepsin . The peptides were

  15. Butyrylcholinesterase gene mutations in patients with prolonged apnea after succinylcholine for electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Hannah Malthe; Gätke, M R

    2011-01-01

    patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often receive succinylcholine as part of the anesthetic procedure. The duration of action may be prolonged in patients with genetic variants of the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE), the most common being the K- and the A-variants. The aim...... of the study was to assess the clinical significance of genetic variants in butyrylcholinesterase gene (BCHE) in patients with a suspected prolonged duration of action of succinylcholine after ECT....

  16. Interception of Cocaine by Enzyme or Antibody Delivered with Viral Gene Transfer: A Novel Strategy for Preventing Relapse in Recovering Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Brimijoin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in enzyme engineering has led to versions of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) that hydrolyze cocaine efficiently in plasma, reduce concentrations reaching reward neurocircuity in the brain, and weaken behavioral responses to this drug. Along with enzyme advances, increasingly avid anti-cocaine antibodies and potent anti-cocaine vaccines have also been developed. Here we review these developments and consider the potential advantages along with the risks of delivering drug-in...

  17. Thermal stability of the human blood serum acid alpha(1)-glycoprotein in acidic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Kopecký ml., Vladimír; Sýkora, J.; Karpenko, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 1 (2003), s. 25-33 ISSN 0301-4622 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) No.220/2000/B-CH Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM113100001; CEZ:MSM113200001; CEZ:MSM123100001 Keywords : orosomucoid * thermal stability * UV-spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.728, year: 2003

  18. JCSC_129_05_0647_0656_SI.docx

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sanjeev

    UV-Vis spectra were recorded on Perkin Elmer Lambda 35 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Fluorescence spectra were recorded on Horiba ZobinYovan Fluoromax-4 instrument. The geometries of monomeric PYBI moieties 1a-b and their anion complexes (1a.F-, 1b.F-, 1b.CH3COO-, 1b.H2PO4-) were fully optimized at the ...

  19. Synthesis and bioactivity of several new hetaryl sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimi, Parham; Sujayev, Afsun; Mamedova, Sevgi; Kalın, Pınar; Gulçin, İlhami; Sadeghian, Nastaran; Beydemir, Sukru; Kufrevioglu, O Irfan; Alwasel, Saleh H; Farzaliyev, Vagif; Mamedov, Sabir

    2017-12-01

    1-(4-Methylsulfonyl)-2-thione-4-aryl-5-Z-6-methyl and oxyalkyl-imidazoles were synthesized from different tetrahydropyrimidinethiones and aryl sulfonyl chloride. These compunds were tested for metal chelating effects and to determine the phrase in which inhibition occured between two physiologically pertinent compunds and carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes I and II (hCA I and II), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). AChE was detected in high concentrations in the brain and red blood cells. BChE is another enzymes that is abundant available in the liver and released into the blood in a soluble form. Newly synthesized hetaryl sulfonamides exhibited impressive inhibition profiles with Ki values in the range of 1.42-6.58 nM against hCA I, 1.72-7.41 nM against hCA II, 0.20-1.14 nM against AChE and 1.55-5.92 nM against BChE. Moreover, acetazolamide showed Ki values of 43.69 ± 6.44 nM against hCA I and 31.67 ± 8.39 nM against hCA II. Additionally, tacrine showed Ki values of 25.75 ± 3.39 nM and 37.82 ± 2.08 against AChE and BChE, respectively.

  20. 75 r:t

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-01-16

    Jan 16, 1971 ... The over-all standard of the reproductions and printing is outstanding, and I have no hesitation in recommending that ... visers in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Ed. by E. L. Harris. M.B., B.Ch., M.R.C.P., M.R.C.P. ... Industry (Great Britain) in February 1969. The work is inter- esting on 2 counts. Firstly it is a clear ...

  1. Anticholinesterase and Antityrosinase Activities of Ten Piper Species from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Hashim, Nur Athirah; Ahmad, Farediah; Heng Yen, Khong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and antityrosinase activities of extracts from ten Piper species namely; P. caninum, P. lanatum, P. abbreviatum, P. aborescens, P. porphyrophyllum, P. erecticaule, P. ribesioides, P. miniatum, P. stylosum, and P. majusculum. Methods: Anticholinesterase and antityrosinase activities were evaluated against in vitro Ellman spectroscopy method and mushroom tyrosinase, respectively. Re...

  2. Surface Water Quality Study of the South Plants Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    SQES N/C ASTOT 83161 HQTOT Ri LT 2 UGL .. .NOQC 83158 CD RI LT .01 MQL .. 0357 5SOU2i A30591 634J40 031S4 DBCP RI LT .2 UCL ... QUPIN 83143 DCPD Ti...L . 63i57 TCL EE TI LT i UGL . ... 63157 BCH Ti LT i UGL ., . 83164 CA RI 20 MGL . 83171 MiG Ri 2.4 MQL . 83174 F RI .77 MGL ... . ,,, 83161 CL RI

  3. Aspirin Hydrolysis in Plasma Is a Variable Function of Butyrylcholinesterase and Platelet-activating Factor Acetylhydrolase 1b2 (PAFAH1b2)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K.; Hartiala, Jaana; Hazen, Stanley L.; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W. H. Wilson; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed within erythrocytes by a heterodimer of PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 but also in plasma by an unidentified activity. Hydrolysis in both compartments was variable, with a 12-fold variation in plasma among 2226 Cleveland Clinic GeneBank patients. Platelet inhibition by aspirin was suppressed in plasma that rapidly hydrolyzed aspirin. Plasma aspirin hydrolysis was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease compared with control subjects (16.5 ± 4.4 versus 15.1 ± 3.7 nmol/ml/min; p = 3.4 × 10−8). A genome-wide association study of 2054 GeneBank subjects identified a single locus immediately adjacent to the BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) gene associated with plasma aspirin hydrolytic activity (lead SNP, rs6445035; p = 9.1 × 10−17). However, its penetrance was low, and plasma from an individual with an inactivating mutation in BCHE still effectively hydrolyzed aspirin. A second aspirin hydrolase was identified in plasma, the purification of which showed it to be homomeric PAFAH1b2. This is distinct from the erythrocyte PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 heterodimer. Inhibitors showed that both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PAFAH1b2 contribute to aspirin hydrolysis in plasma, with variation primarily reflecting non-genetic variation of BChE activity. Therefore, aspirin is hydrolyzed in plasma by two enzymes, BChE and a new extracellular form of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, PAFAH1b2. Hydrolytic effectiveness varies widely primarily from non-genetic variation of BChE activity that affects aspirin bioavailability in blood and the ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation. PMID:23508960

  4. Long pulse FRC sustainment with enhanced edge driven rotating magnetic field current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Guo, H.Y.; Miller, K.E.; Milroy, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    FRCs have been formed and sustained for up to 50 normal flux decay times by Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF) in the TCS experiment. For these longer pulse times a new phenomenon has been observed: switching to a higher performance mode delineated by shallower RMF penetration, higher ratios of generated poloidal to RMF drive field, and lower overall plasma resistivity. This global data is not explainable by previous RMF theory based on uniform electron rotational velocities or by numerical calculations based on uniform plasma resistivity, but agrees in many respects with new calculations made using strongly varying resistivity profiles. In order to more realistically model RMF driven FRCs with such non-uniform resistivity profiles, a double rigid rotor model has been developed with separate inner and outer electron rotational velocities and resistivities. The results of this modeling suggest that the RMF drive results in very high resistivity in a narrow edge layer, and that the higher performance mode is characterized by a sharp reduction in resistivity over the bulk of the FRC. (author)

  5. Numerical Study of Field-reversed Configurations: The Formation and Ion Spin-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, E.V.; Davidson, R.C.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Cothran, C.D.; Brown, M.R.; Schaffer, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Results of three-dimensional numerical simulations of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) are presented. Emphasis of this work is on the nonlinear evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in kinetic FRCs, and the new FRC formation method by counter-helicity spheromak merging. Kinetic simulations show nonlinear saturation of the n = 1 tilt mode, where n is the toroidal mode number. The n = 2 and n = 3 rotational modes are observed to grow during the nonlinear phase of the tilt instability due to the ion spin-up in the toroidal direction. The ion toroidal spin-up is shown to be related to the resistive decay of the internal flux, and the resulting loss of particle confinement. Three-dimensional MHD simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging and FRC formation show good qualitative agreement with results from the SSX-FRC experiment. The simulations show formation of an FRC in about 20-30 Alfven times for typical experimental parameters. The growth rate of the n = 1 tilt mode is shown to be significantly reduced compared to the MHD growth rate due to the large plasma viscosity and field-line-tying effects

  6. Numerical Study of the Formation, Ion Spin-up and Nonlinear Stability Properties of Field-reversed Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, E.V.; Davidson, R.C.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Cothran, C.D.; Brown, M.R.; Schaffer, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Results of three-dimensional numerical simulations of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) are presented. Emphasis of this work is on the nonlinear evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in kinetic FRCs and the new FRC formation method by the counter-helicity spheromak merging. Kinetic simulations show nonlinear saturation of the n = 1 tilt mode, where n is the toroidal mode number. The n = 2 and n = 3 rotational modes are observed to grow during the nonlinear phase of the tilt instability due to the ion spin-up in the toroidal direction. The ion toroidal spin-up is shown to be related to the resistive decay of the internal flux, and the resulting loss of particle confinement. Three-dimensional MHD simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging and FRC formation show good agreement with results from the SSX-FRC experiment. Simulations show formation of an FRC in about 30 Alfven times for typical experimental parameters. The growth rate of the n = 1 tilt mode is shown to be significantly reduced compared to the MHD growth rate due to the large plasma viscosity and field-line-tying effects

  7. Nonlinear and Non-ideal Effects on FRC Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, E.V.; Davidson, R.C.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.

    2002-01-01

    New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). We present results of hybrid and two-fluid (Hall-MHD) simulations of prolate FRCs in strongly kinetic and small-gyroradius, MHD-like regimes. The n = 1 tilt instability mechanism and stabilizing factors are investigated in detail including nonlinear and resonant particle effects, particle losses along the open field lines, and Hall stabilization. It is shown that the Hall effect determines the mode rotation and change in the linear mode structure in the kinetic regime; however, the reduction in the growth rate is mostly due to the finite Larmor radius effects. Resonant particle effects are important in the large gyroradius regime regardless of the separatrix shape, and even in cases when a large fraction of the particle orbits are stochastic. Particle loss along the open field lines has a destabilizing effect on the tilt mode and contributes to the ion spin up in toroidal direction. The nonlinear evolution of unstable modes in both kinetic and small-gyroradius FRCs is shown to be considerably slower than that in MHD simulations. Our simulation results demonstrate that a combination of kinetic and nonlinear effects is a key for understanding the experimentally observed FRC stability properties

  8. Equilibrium paradigm for field-reversed configurations and application to experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.; Intrator, T. P.

    2009-01-01

    Fresh insights on field-reversed configurations (FRCs) are incorporated in a new paradigm for equilibria. In particular four new or unappreciated properties are accounted for: an empirically based scrape-off layer thickness; a new, more accurate axial force balance relation; viscous force regularity at the O-point; and the broken-surface effect. The new paradigm corrects glaring defects of previous models (rigid rotor, Hill's vortex). Further, the new paradigm is simple enough to be easily used as an interpretive tool despite the limited data suite in most experiments. It is applied to the newly enhanced FRC data compendium, a database of 69 records from 15 facilities. Several important observations and corrections on the previous understanding of FRCs follow, three of which stand out. (1) The traditional axial force balance ('average-β' relation) gives an inaccurate scaling with the separatrix-to-wall radius ratio. (2) The improved equilibrium paradigm yields separatrix particle transport rates of 3-5 m 2 /s for 'best confinement' examples; this is a factor of three lower than crude 'bulk' estimates commonly used. (3) The transport compared to the Bohm rate shows a great deal of scatter (40% scatter/mean ratio), i.e., 'Bohm' is not a useful representation for transport scaling.

  9. Review of the Los Alamos FRX-C experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemon, R.E.; Armstrong, W.T.; Barnes, D.C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Chrien, R.E.; Cochrane, J.C.; Hugrass, W.; Kewish, R.W.; Klingner, P.L.; Lewis, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    The FRX-C device is a large field-reversed theta pinch experiment, with linear dimensions twice those of its FRX-A and FRX-B predecessors. It is used to form field-reversed configurations (FRCs), which are high-beta, highly prolate compact toroids. FRX-C has demonstrated an R/sup 2/ scaling for particle confinement in FRCs, indicating particles are lost by diffusive processes. Particle losses were also observed to dominate the energy balance. FRC lifetimes exceeding 300 ..mu..s were observed when weak quadrupole fields were applied to stabilize the n = 2 rotational mode. Detailed studies of the FRC equilibrium were performed using multi-chord and holographic interferometry. Measurements of electron temperature by Thomson scattering showed a flat profile and substantial losses through the electron channel. The loss rate of the internal poloidal flux of the FRC was observed to be anomalous and to scale less strongly with temperature than predicted from classical resistivity.

  10. Oxidative stress, hematological and biochemical alterations in farmers exposed to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Tayeb; Nadia, Koubaa; Amel, Nakbi; Ikbal, Chaieb; Insaf, Tayeb; Asma, Kassab; Hedi, Miled Abdel; Mohamed, Hammami

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a cohort of farmers from the Mateur region in the North of Tunisia, were interviewed and examined for the biochemical effects of pesticides. We studied their haematological profile, lipid parameters, serum markers of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. We also evaluated the activities of Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and thiolactonase-paroxonase (PON). Moreover, lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined. The duration of pesticide use and the farmers' age were considered in the analysis. Our results revealed significant differences in some haematological parameters, in liver and kidney functions, in the lipidic status of the pesticide-exposed group. We also reported an increase in the index of incidence of cardiovascular risk in farmer populations. A significant decrease in AChE, BChE and PON levels was found among farmers. Lipid peroxidation, however, increased. The activities of SOD and CAT were remarkably elevated in farmer populations. There was a significant relation between changes in biological markers, the duration of pesticide use and the farmers' age. This study indicates that a long-term exposure to pesticides may play an important role in the development of vascular diseases via metabolic disorders of lipoproteins, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, inhibition of BChE and decrease in thiolactonase-PON levels.

  11. Inhibition of Cholinesterases and Some Pro-Oxidant induced Oxidative Stress in Rats Brain by Two Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum) Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, G.; Bakare, O.O.; Ademosun, A.O.; Akinyemi, A.J.; Olasehinde, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of two tomato varieties [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. esculentum (ESC) and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (CER)] on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in vitro. Phenolics content, carotenoids characterisation, inhibition of Fe2+ and quinolinic acid-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats brain homogenate and NO* scavenging abilities were also assesed in addition to the AChE and BChE inhibition assays. There was no significant difference in the AChE inhibitory ability of the samples, while CER had significantly higher BChE inhibitory activity. Furthermore, the tomatoes inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid-induced MDA production and further exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO* scavenging abilities. There was no significant difference in the phenolic content of the samples, while significantly high amounts of lycopene were detected in the tomatoes. The cholinesterase-inhibition and antioxidant properties of the “tomatoes” could make them good dietary means for the management of neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Synthesis, structural characterization, docking, lipophilicity and cytotoxicity of 1-[(1R)-1-(6-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)ethyl]-3-alkyl carbamates, novel acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase pseudo-irreversible inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejchal, Vladimír; Štěpánková, Šárka; Pejchalová, Marcela; Královec, Karel; Havelek, Radim; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Ajani, Haresh; Lo, Rabindranath; Lepšík, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In the current study, sixteen novel derivatives of (R)-1-(6-fluorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)ethanamine were synthesized as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. Chemical structures together with purity of the synthesized compounds were substantiated by IR, (1)H, (13)C, (19)F NMR, high resolution mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The optical activities were confirmed by optical rotation measurements. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their AChE and BChE inhibitory activities. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the most active compounds was investigated against human cell lines employing XTT tetrazolium salt reduction assay and xCELLigence system allowing a label-free assessment of the cells proliferation. Our results demonstrated that the inhibitory mechanism was confirmed to be pseudo-irreversible, in line with previous studies on carbamates. Compounds indicated as 3b, 3d, 3l and 3n showed the best AChE inhibitory activity of all the evaluated compounds and were up to tenfold more potent than standard drug rivastigmine. The binding mode was determined using state-of-the-art covalent docking and scoring methodology. The obtained data clearly demonstrated that 3b, 3d, 3l and 3n benzothiazole carbamates possess high inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE and concurrently negligible cytotoxicity. In conclusion, our results indicate, that these derivatives could be promising in an effective therapeutic intervention for Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of substituted N-(2-phenylcyclopropyl)carbamates as acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horáková, Eva; Drabina, Pavel; Brož, Břetislav; Štěpánková, Šárka; Vorčáková, Katarína; Královec, Karel; Havelek, Radim; Sedlák, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    A serie of O-substituted N-2-phenylcyclopropylcarbamates was prepared and characterized. These carbamates were tested as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). It was found, that these compounds exhibit moderate inhibition activity with values of IC 50 in the range of 54.8-94.4 μM (for AChE) and up to 5.8 μM (for BChE). The AChE/BChE selectivity for each carbamate was calculated. These values varied from 0.50 to 9.46, two carbamate derivatives inhibited only AChE selectively. The most promising derivative was prepared in all optically pure forms (four isomers). It was found that individual stereoisomers differed only slightly in the inhibition ability. The cytotoxicity of all carbamates was evaluated using the standard in vitro test with Jurkat cells. With regard to their inhibition activity and cytotoxicity as well as easy preparation, O-substituted N-2-phenylcyclopropylcarbamates can be considered as promising compounds for potential medicinal applications.

  14. Native and tabun-inhibited cholinesterase interactions with oximes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarik, Z.; Katalinic, M.; Sinko, G.

    2009-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the serine hydroxyl group in the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inactivates this essential enzyme in neurotransmission. Its related enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) also interacts with organophosphorus compounds (OP) scavenging anti-cholinesterase agents and protects synaptic AChE from inhibition. Oximes are reactivators of AChE phosphorylated by OP including insecticides and nerve agents. The effectiveness of oxime-assisted reactivation is primarily attributed to the nucleophilic displacement rate of organophosphate, but efficiency varies with the structure of the bound organophosphate, the structure of the oxime as well as rates of several other cholinesterase's reactions. Besides reactivating cholinesterases, oximes also reversibly inhibit both cholinesterases and protect them from phosphorylation by OP. We tested oximes varying in the type of ring (pyridinium and/or imidazolium), the length and type of the linker between rings, and in the position of the oxime group on the ring to find more effective oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte AChE and plasma BChE. Herein we bring an overview of in vitro interactions of native and tabun-inhibited AChE and BChE with oximes together with conformational analysis of the oximes relating molecular properties to their reactivation potency.(author)

  15. Pseudocatalytic scavenging of the nerve agent VX with human blood components and the oximes obidoxime and HI-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Timo; von der Wellen, Jens; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2017-03-01

    Despite six decades of extensive research in medical countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning, a broad spectrum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator is not yet available. One current approach is directed toward synthesizing oximes with high affinity and reactivatability toward butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma to generate an effective pseudocatalytic scavenger. An interim solution could be the administration of external AChE or BChE from blood products to augment pseudocatalytic scavenging with slower but clinically approved oximes to decrease nerve agent concentrations in the body. We here semiquantitatively investigate the ability of obidoxime and HI-6 to decrease the inhibitory activity of VX with human AChE and BChE from whole blood, erythrocyte membranes, erythrocytes, plasma, clinically available fresh frozen plasma and packed red blood cells. The main findings are that whole blood showed a VX concentration-dependent decrease in inhibitory activity with HI-6 being more potent than obidoxime. Using erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes again, HI-6 was more potent compared to obidoxime. With freshly prepared plasma, obidoxime and HI-6 showed comparable results for the decrease in VX. The use of the clinically available blood products revealed that packed red blood cells showed similar kinetics as fresh erythrocytes. Fresh frozen plasma resulted in a slower and incomplete decrease in inhibitory plasma compared to freshly prepared plasma. In conclusion, the administration of blood products in combination with available oximes augments pseudocatalytic scavenging and might be useful to decrease the body load of persistent, highly toxic nerve agents.

  16. High-Confidence Qualitative Identification of Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Adducts to Human Butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Thomas P; Carter, Melissa D; Johnson, Darryl; Isenberg, Samantha L; Graham, Leigh Ann; Thomas, Jerry D; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2017-02-07

    In this study, a data-dependent, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (ddHRMS/MS) method capable of detecting all organophosphorus nerve agent (OPNA) adducts to human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was developed. After an exposure event, immunoprecipitation from blood with a BChE-specific antibody and digestion with pepsin produces a nine amino acid peptide containing the OPNA adduct. Signature product ions of this peptic BChE nonapeptide (FGES*AGAAS) offer a route to broadly screen for OPNA exposure. Taking this approach on an HRMS instrument identifies biomarkers, including unknowns, with high mass accuracy. Using a set of pooled human sera exposed to OPNAs as quality control (QC) materials, the developed method successfully identified precursor ions with 15 ng/mL. The developed method was applied to a convenience set of 96 unexposed serum samples and a blinded set of 80 samples treated with OPNAs. OPNA biomarkers were not observed in convenience set samples and no false positive or negative identifications were observed in blinded samples. All biomarkers in the blinded serum set >15 ng/mL were correctly identified. For the first time, this study reports a ddHRMS/MS method capable of complementing existing quantitative methodologies and suitable for identifying exposure to unknown organophosphorus agents.

  17. In Vitro Ability of Currently Available Oximes to Reactivate Organophosphate Pesticide-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Musilek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6 to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE, inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos. We also tested reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE with the aim of finding a potent oxime, suitable to serve as a “pseudocatalytic” bioscavenger in combination with this enzyme. Such a combination could allow an increase of prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of the administered enzyme. According to our results, the best broad-spectrum AChE reactivators were trimedoxime and obidoxime in the case of paraoxon, leptophos-oxon, and methamidophos-inhibited AChE. Methamidophos and leptophos-oxon were quite easily reactivatable by all tested reactivators. In the case of methamidophos-inhibited AChE, the lower oxime concentration (10−5 M had higher reactivation ability than the 10−4 M concentration. Therefore, we evaluated the reactivation ability of obidoxime in a concentration range of 10−3–10−7 M. The reactivation of methamidophos-inhibited AChE with different obidoxime concentrations resulted in a bell shaped curve with maximum reactivation at 10−5 M. In the case of BChE, no reactivator exceeded 15% reactivation ability and therefore none of the oximes can be recommended as a candidate for “pseudocatalytic” bioscavengers with BChE.

  18. In vitro neuroprotective properties of some commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Nwanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Green leafy vegetable is one of the major cuisines in Southern Nigeria and they are not only consumed for their palatability, but also for their nutritional and medicinal properties as reported in folklore. Notable among them are afang (Gnetum africanum, editan (Lasianthera africana and utazi (Gongronema latifolium. In this study, we investigated the effect of aqueous extracts from afang, editan and utazi leaves on cholinesterases [acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE] and monoamine oxidase (MAO activities. Fe2+ chelating abilities were also determined as an assessment of their neuroprotective potentials in vitro. We also assayed for their total phenol contents while the constituent phenolics were characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that the extracts inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO activities and also chelated Fe2+ in concentration dependent manner. The HPLC-DAD characterization showed that gallic, caffeic and ellagic acids and rutin were the dominant phenolic compounds in the extracts; nevertheless, utazi had the highest distribution of identified phenolics while afang had the least. The ability of the aqueous extracts of the vegetables to inhibit key enzymes (AChE, BChE and MAO relevant to neurodegeneration, as well chelate metal ion could help suggest their possible neuroprotective properties. These vegetables could be use as dietary intervention in the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  19. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions.

  20. The in vitro antioxidant properties of alcalase hydrolysate prepared from silkie fowl (Gallus gallus) blood protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fu-Yuan; Lai, I-Chun; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

    2016-07-01

    Two types of proteins including blood plasma protein and blood cell protein were isolated from silkie fowl (Gallus gallus) blood and hydrolyzed using alcalase for 0, 2, 4 and 6 h. The blood plasma protein hydrolysate (BPH) and blood cell protein hydrolysate (BCH) were analyzed for pH value, peptide content and antioxidative properties. The significantly higher peptide contents were observed in BPH than that of BCH, which showed that blood plasma protein was more suitable to hydrolysis by alcalase than blood cell protein. Both BPH and BCH showed strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and Fe(2+) chelating ability. BPH at 4 h of hydrolysis (BPH4) demonstrated significantly higher antioxidant capacity than those treated by alcalase in most of the assays. The BPH4 was separated using ultra-filtration and assessment of the fractions and indicated that low molecular weight of peptides (< 3 kDa) possessed greater DPPH scavenging activity, Fe(2+) chelating ability and inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation. These results show that BPH has the potential to be ingredients in the food industry as a replacement of synthetic antioxidants. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Electronic properties of B and Al doped graphane: A hybrid density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapasha, R. E.; Igumbor, E.; Andriambelaza, N. F.; Chetty, N.

    2018-04-01

    Using a hybrid density functional theory approach parametrized by Heyd, Scuseria and Ernzerhof (HSE06 hybrid functional), we study the energetics, structural and electronic properties of a graphane monolayer substitutionally doped with the B (BCH) and Al (AlCH) atoms. The BCH defect can be integrated within a graphane monolayer at a relative low formation energy, without major structural distortions and symmetry breaking. The AlCH defect relaxes outward of the monolayer and breaks the symmetry. The density of states plots indicate that BCH doped graphane monolayer is a wide band gap semiconductor, whereas the AlCH defect introduces the spin dependent mid gap states at the vicinity of the Fermi level, revealing a metallic character with the pronounced magnetic features. We further examine the response of the Al dependent spin states on the multiple charge states doping. We find that the defect formation energy, structural and electronic properties can be altered via charge state modulation. The +1 charge doping opens an energy band gap of 1.75 eV. This value corresponds to the wavelength in the visible spectrum, suggesting an ideal material for solar cell absorbers. Our study fine tunes the graphane band gap through the foreign atom doping as well as via defect charge state modulation.

  2. Chiral perturbation theory and the first moments of the generalized parton distributions in a nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorati, Marina [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita' degli Studi di Pavia and INFN, Pavia (Italy); Physik-Department, Theoretische Physik T39, TU Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Gail, Tobias A. [Physik-Department, Theoretische Physik T39, TU Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: tgail@ph.tum.de; Hemmert, Thomas R. [Physik-Department, Theoretische Physik T39, TU Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    We discuss the first moments of the parity-even Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) in a nucleon, corresponding to six (generalized) vector form factors. We evaluate these fundamental properties of baryon structure at low energies, utilizing the methods of covariant Chiral Perturbation Theory in the baryon sector (BChPT). Our analysis is performed at leading-one-loop order in BChPT, predicting both the momentum and the quark-mass dependence for the three (generalized) isovector and (generalized) isoscalar form factors, which are currently under investigation in lattice QCD analyses of baryon structure. We also study the limit of vanishing four-momentum transfer where the GPD-moments reduce to the well-known moments of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). For the isovector moment {sub u-d} our BChPT calculation predicts a new mechanism for chiral curvature, connecting the high values for this moment typically found in lattice QCD studies for large quark masses with the smaller value known from phenomenology. Likewise, we analyze the quark-mass dependence of the isoscalar moments in the forward limit and extract the contribution of quarks to the total spin of the nucleon. We close with a first glance at the momentum dependence of the isoscalar C-form factor of the nucleon.

  3. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp(X) exp(Y) = exp(W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp(X) exp(Y) exp(Z) = exp(W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  4. Essential oil from lemon peels inhibit key enzymes linked to neurodegenerative conditions and pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from lemon (Citrus limoni) peels on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in vitro. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography. Antioxidant properties of the oil and inhibition of pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenate were also assessed. The essential oil inhibited AChE and BChE activities in a concentration-dependent manner. GC analysis revealed the presence of sabinene, limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, linalyl acetate and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, the essential oil exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by ferric reducing property, Fe(2+)-chelation and radicals [DPPH, ABTS, OH, NO] scavenging abilities. The inhibition of AChE and BChE activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration.

  5. DNA Barcoding through Quaternary LDPC Codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Tapia

    Full Text Available For many parallel applications of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS technologies short barcodes able to accurately multiplex a large number of samples are demanded. To address these competitive requirements, the use of error-correcting codes is advised. Current barcoding systems are mostly built from short random error-correcting codes, a feature that strongly limits their multiplexing accuracy and experimental scalability. To overcome these problems on sequencing systems impaired by mismatch errors, the alternative use of binary BCH and pseudo-quaternary Hamming codes has been proposed. However, these codes either fail to provide a fine-scale with regard to size of barcodes (BCH or have intrinsic poor error correcting abilities (Hamming. Here, the design of barcodes from shortened binary BCH codes and quaternary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC codes is introduced. Simulation results show that although accurate barcoding systems of high multiplexing capacity can be obtained with any of these codes, using quaternary LDPC codes may be particularly advantageous due to the lower rates of read losses and undetected sample misidentification errors. Even at mismatch error rates of 10(-2 per base, 24-nt LDPC barcodes can be used to multiplex roughly 2000 samples with a sample misidentification error rate in the order of 10(-9 at the expense of a rate of read losses just in the order of 10(-6.

  6. Cholinesterase inhibition activity of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. an edible leafy vegetable from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    Maesilea quadrifolia Linn. (Marsileaceae) is a leafy vegetable well known in India. The current study aims to explore the phytochemical profile of M. quadrifolia and investigate its anti-cholinesterase potential. The methanol extract of the plant was subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening (total alkaloidal content, saponin content and phenol content) and its anti-cholinesterase potential was tested by TLC bioautography and other screening methods using acytylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The study revealed that the extract contains various classes of phytoconstituents including steroids, saponins, alkaloids and other polyphenols. Total alkaloid, phenolic and saponin contents were found to be 19.3 mg g⁻¹ and 158.5 ± 1.02 mg g⁻¹ as gallic acid equivalents and 2.63 mg g⁻¹ of the extract, respectively. The TLC bioautography method exhibited the inhibition of both enzymes. In a microtiter plate assay, the IC₅₀ values of the extract for AChE and BChE were found to be 51.89 ± 0.24 µg mL⁻¹ and 109.43 ± 2.82 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. These findings suggest that M. quadrifolia is a potential lead as an AChE and BChE inhibitor, which may be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Anticholinesterase activity of 7-methoxyflavones isolated from Kaempferia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawasdee, Pattara; Sabphon, Chalisa; Sitthiwongwanit, Duangporn; Kokpol, Udom

    2009-12-01

    The rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora or kra-chai-dum (in Thai) is used traditionally as a folk medicine. The preliminary cholinesterase inhibitory screening of this plant extract exhibited significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities. Thirteen known methoxyflavones (1-13) were isolated and their structures were completely elucidated based on NMR analysis and compared with literature reports. Minor compounds 12-13 were reported for the first time from this species. The cholinesterase inhibitory test results showed that the highest potential inhibitors toward AChE and BChE were 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (6) and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (7), respectively, with the percentage inhibitory activity varying over 43-85%. The structure-activity relationship study led to the conclusion that compounds bearing 5,7-dimethoxy groups and a free substituent at C-3 had a significant inhibitory effect at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL, but those bearing a 5-hydroxyl group reduced the inhibitory potency. On the other hand, flavones bearing a 3'- or 5'-methoxy group did not influence the inhibitory effect. Interestingly, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (7) exhibited strong selectivity for BChE over AChE which may be of great interest to modify as a treatment agent for Alzheimer's disease. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A study on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of agricultural workers exposed to organophosphorus insecticides during spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S K; Satyanarayan, P V V; Ravishankar, D; Tripathi, Sachin

    2009-12-01

    Oxidative stress status and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were studied in blood samples obtained from 61 agricultural workers engaged in spraying organophosphorus (OP) insecticides in the mango plantation, with a minimum work history of one year, in the age range of 12-55 years. Controls were age-matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to OP pesticides. They were evaluated for oxidative stress markers MDA (end product of lipid peroxidation), reduced glutathione (GSH), and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) levels in blood. The results showed a marked inhibition of the AChE and BChE activities in the sprayers as compared to the controls. The malondialdehyde(MDA), the last product of lipid peroxidation was found to be increased significantly in sprayers(pdifference was statistically not significant. It was concluded on the basis of biochemical analysis that pesticides sprayers are exposed to more oxidative stress as evidenced by the changes in antioxidant status. The measurement of the AChE and BChE activities in agricultural workers who spray OPs could be a good biomonitoring factor and is recommended to be performed on a regular basis.

  9. Synthesis of novel triazoles and a tetrazole of escitalopram as cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr-un-Nisa; Munawar, Munawar A; Chattha, Fauzia A; Kousar, Samina; Munir, Jawaria; Ismail, Tayaba; Ashraf, Muhammad; Khan, Misbahul A

    2015-09-01

    A novel serie of escitalopram triazoles (60-88) and a tetrazole (89) have been synthesized and subjected to a study to establish the inhibitory potential of these compounds toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Some selectivity in inhibition has been observed. The 4-chlorophenyl- (75, IC50, 6.71 ± 0.25 μM) and 2-methylphenyl- (70, IC50, 9.52 ± 0.23 μM) escitalopram triazole derivatives depicted high AChE inhibition, while 2-fluorophenyl- (76, IC50 = 4.52 ± 0.17 μM) and 4-fluorophenyl- (78, IC50 = 5.31 ± 0.43 μM) have found to be excellent BChE inhibitors. It has also been observed that ortho, meta and para substituted electron donating groups increase the inhibition, while electron withdrawing groups reduce the inhibition. Docking analyses of inhibitors with AChE have depicted the binding energies for 70 and 75 as ΔG(bind) -6.42 and -6.93 kcal/mol, respectively, while ligands 76 and 78 have shown the binding affinity ΔG(bind) -9.04 and -8.51 kcal/mol, respectively, for BChE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma in Three Regions of Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Casabonne, Delphine; Carrilho, Carla; Ferro, Josefo; Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Zaqueu, Clesio; Nhabomba, Augusto; Aguilar, Ruth; Bassat, Quique; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Dobaño, Carlota; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Data on the burden and incidence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) across Mozambique are scarce. We retrospectively retrieved information on eBL cases from reports of the three main hospitals of Mozambique: Maputo Central Hospital (MCH), Beira Central Hospital (BCH), and Nampula Central Hospital (NCH) between 2004 and 2014. For 2015, we prospectively collected information of new eBL cases attending these hospitals. A total of 512 eBL cases were reported between 2004 and 2015: 153 eBL cases were reported in MCH, 195 in BCH, and 164 in NCH. Mean age of cases was 6.9 years (standard deviation = 2.8); 63% (319/504) of cases were males. For 2015, the estimated incidence rate of eBL was 2.0, 1.7, and 3.9 per 106 person-year at risk in MCH, BCH, and NCH, respectively. Incidence was higher in NCH (northern Mozambique), where intensity of malaria transmission is higher. Data presented show that eBL is a common pediatric malignancy in Mozambique, as observed in neighboring countries. PMID:27799648

  11. Marketing de relacionamento em bibliotecas universitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keina Maria Guedes da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Aborda o marketing de relacionamento em biblioteca universitária, tendo como objeto de estudo o Setor de Assistência ao Leitor da Biblioteca de Ciências Humanas (BCH da Universidade Federal do Ceará, e as relações existentes entre os bibliotecários de referência e os usuários.Objetivo: Investigar, junto à direção e aos bibliotecários de referência da BCH, o conhecimento que eles têm sobre marketing de relacionamento, se veem a importância de fazer uso desse tipo de marketing para melhor satisfazer os usuários, que ações de marketing de relacionamento são praticadas, como são praticadas e se praticam de forma consciente, bem como verificar, junto aos usuários da biblioteca, sua percepção dessa prática e seu grau de satisfação quando às ações de marketing de relacionamento desenvolvidas.Metodologia: consiste em uma pesquisa de caráter exploratório, com abordagem qualitativa. Utilizou-se o funcionalismo e, como instrumento para a coleta de dados, optou-se pela entrevista semiestruturada e questionários. Para analisar os dados, optou-se pela análise de conteúdo.Resultados: Verificou-se que o conhecimento que a diretora da BCH e os bibliotecários de referência têm sobre marketing de relacionamento ainda é muito restrito, e embora vejam a importância do tema no âmbito da BCH, as ações que praticam são de forma inconsciente, o que deixa lacunas quanto à percepção dos usuários em relação a essas práticas.Conclusões: Independente do tipo de ações, os usuários apresentaram um grau considerável de satisfação em relação às ações praticadas pela BCH

  12. Constraining the baryon-dark matter relative velocity with the large-scale three-point correlation function of the SDSS BOSS DR12 CMASS galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Zachary; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Blazek, Jonathan A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ho, Shirley; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; McEwen, Joseph E.; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Seo, Hee-Jong; Slosar, Anže; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana

    2018-02-01

    We search for a galaxy clustering bias due to a modulation of galaxy number with the baryon-dark matter relative velocity resulting from recombination-era physics. We find no detected signal and place the constraint bv baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) method measurements of the cosmic distance scale using the two-point clustering. Our limit on the relative velocity bias indicates a systematic shift of no more than 0.3 per cent rms in the distance scale inferred from the BAO feature in the BOSS two-point clustering, well below the 1 per cent statistical error of this measurement. This constraint is the most stringent currently available and has important implications for the ability of upcoming large-scale structure surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) to self-protect against the relative velocity as a possible systematic.

  13. Time-Sliced Perturbation Theory II: Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and Infrared Resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We use time-sliced perturbation theory (TSPT) to give an accurate description of the infrared non-linear effects affecting the baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) present in the distribution of matter at very large scales. In TSPT this can be done via a systematic resummation that has a simple diagrammatic representation and does not involve uncontrollable approximations. We discuss the power counting rules and derive explicit expressions for the resummed matter power spectrum up to next-to leading order and the bispectrum at the leading order. The two-point correlation function agrees well with N-body data at BAO scales. The systematic approach also allows to reliably assess the shift of the baryon acoustic peak due to non-linear effects.

  14. Forecast and analysis of the cosmological redshift drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazkoz, Ruth; Leanizbarrutia, Iker; Salzano, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmological redshift drift could lead to the next step in high-precision cosmic geometric observations, becoming a direct and irrefutable test for cosmic acceleration. In order to test the viability and possible properties of this effect, also called Sandage-Loeb (SL) test, we generate a model-independent mock data set in order to compare its constraining power with that of the future mock data sets of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The performance of those data sets is analyzed by testing several cosmological models with the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, both independently as well as combining all data sets. Final results show that, in general, SL data sets allow for remarkable constraints on the matter density parameter today Ω _m on every tested model, showing also a great complementarity with SNe and BAO data regarding dark energy parameters.

  15. High Temperature Protonic Conductors by Melt Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-21

    Experimental methods Solid-state sintering Starting materials were commercially available BaO (99.99 % pure), CeO2 (99 % pure) and Yb2O3 (99.9...with x = 0.05, 0.2, were ball-milled (WC ball and bottle) for 5 min. The resulting slurry was then dried at 70 ºC. The dried powders were heated 1000...fabricate Yb-doped BaCeO3 the powder derived from mixing BaO, CeO2 and Yb2O3 was heated to 1000 and 1200 °C for 1 hour at 5 °C/min, and the products

  16. Adsorption-controlled growth of La-doped BaSnO3 by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hanjong; Chen, Zhen; Lochocki, Edward; Seidner H., Ariel; Verma, Amit; Tanen, Nicholas; Park, Jisung; Uchida, Masaki; Shang, ShunLi; Zhou, Bi-Cheng; Brützam, Mario; Uecker, Reinhard; Liu, Zi-Kui; Jena, Debdeep; Shen, Kyle M.; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2017-11-01

    Epitaxial La-doped BaSnO3 films were grown in an adsorption-controlled regime by molecular-beam epitaxy, where the excess volatile SnOx desorbs from the film surface. A film grown on a (001) DyScO3 substrate exhibited a mobility of 183 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature and 400 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 10 K despite the high concentration (1.2 × 1011 cm-2) of threading dislocations present. In comparison to other reports, we observe a much lower concentration of (BaO)2 Ruddlesden-Popper crystallographic shear faults. This suggests that in addition to threading dislocations, other defects—possibly (BaO)2 crystallographic shear defects or point defects—significantly reduce the electron mobility.

  17. Surface Relaxations, Surface Energies and Electronic Structures of BaSnO3 (001) Surfaces: Ab Initio Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slassi, A.; Hammi, M.; El Rhazouani, O.

    2017-07-01

    The surface relaxations, surface energies and electronic structures of BaO- and SnO2-terminated BaSnO3 (001) surfaces have been studied by employing the first-principles density functional theory. For both terminations, we find that the upper-layer Ba and Sn atoms move inward, whereas upper-layer O atoms move outward from the surface. Moreover, the largest relaxations are occurred on the first-layer atoms of both terminations. The surface rumpling of BaO-terminated BaSnO3 (001) is slightly less than that of the SnO2-terminated BaSnO3 (001) surface. The surface energies show that both terminated surfaces are energetically stable and favorable. Finally, the surface band gap is slightly decreased for the BaO termination, while it is dramatically decreased for the SnO2 termination.

  18. Adsorption-controlled growth of La-doped BaSnO3 by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjong Paik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial La-doped BaSnO3 films were grown in an adsorption-controlled regime by molecular-beam epitaxy, where the excess volatile SnOx desorbs from the film surface. A film grown on a (001 DyScO3 substrate exhibited a mobility of 183 cm2 V−1 s−1 at room temperature and 400 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 10 K despite the high concentration (1.2 × 1011 cm−2 of threading dislocations present. In comparison to other reports, we observe a much lower concentration of (BaO2 Ruddlesden-Popper crystallographic shear faults. This suggests that in addition to threading dislocations, other defects—possibly (BaO2 crystallographic shear defects or point defects—significantly reduce the electron mobility.

  19. Observational constraints on dark matter-dark energy scattering cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Suresh [BITS Pilani, Department of Mathematics, Rajasthan (India); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    In this letter, we report precise and robust observational constraints on the dark matter-dark energy scattering cross section, using the latest data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) Planck temperature and polarization, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) measurements and weak gravitational lensing data from Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). The scattering scenario consists of a pure momentum exchange between the dark components, and we find σ{sub d} < 10{sup -29} cm{sup 2} (m{sub dm}c{sup 2}/GeV) at 95% CL from the joint analysis (CMB + BAO + CFHTLenS), where m{sub dm} is a typical dark matter particle mass. We notice that the scattering among the dark components may influence the growth of large scale structure in the Universe, leaving the background cosmology unaltered. (orig.)

  20. Baryon acoustic oscillation intensity mapping of dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; McDonald, Patrick

    2008-03-07

    The expansion of the Universe appears to be accelerating, and the mysterious antigravity agent of this acceleration has been called "dark energy." To measure the dynamics of dark energy, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used. Previous discussions of the BAO dark energy test have focused on direct measurements of redshifts of as many as 10(9) individual galaxies, by observing the 21 cm line or by detecting optical emission. Here we show how the study of acoustic oscillation in the 21 cm brightness can be accomplished by economical three-dimensional intensity mapping. If our estimates gain acceptance they may be the starting point for a new class of dark energy experiments dedicated to large angular scale mapping of the radio sky, shedding light on dark energy.

  1. Photocathode operation of a thermionic RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorin, S.; Cutic, N.; Lindau, F.; Werin, S.; Curbis, F.

    2009-01-01

    The thermionic RF gun using a BaO cathode at the MAX-lab linac injector has been successfully commissioned for additional operation as a photocathode gun. By retaining the BaO cathode, lowering the temperature below thermal emission and illuminating it with a UV (263 nm) 9 ps laser pulse a reduced emittance and enhanced emission control has been achieved. Measurements show a normalised emittance of 5.5 mm mrad at 200 pC charge and a maximum quantum efficiency of 1.1x10 -4 . The gun is now routinely switched between storage ring injections in thermionic mode and providing a beam for the MAX-lab test FEL in photocathode mode.

  2. Depolarization temperature and piezoelectric properties of TiO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    References. Abe Y, Yanagisawa T, Kakegawa K and Sasaki Y 1999 Solid. State Commun. 113 331. Bao-Jin C, Da-Ren C, Guo-Rong L and Qing-Rui Y 2002 J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 22 2115. Cho J H, Lee Y H, Chu B J and Kim B I 2003 Mater. Sci. Forum. 439 259. Hiruma Y, Nagata H and Takenaka T 2006 Jpn J. Appl. Phys.

  3. Reflections on the Establishment of the Chinese Air Identification Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Bao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Yinan Bao presents a very timely legal investigation into aspects of the current territorial dispute in the East China Sea. The author focuses on the Chinese Air Identification Zone and considers the issues regarding the legitimacy of the Chinese ADIZ and Chinese Aircraft Identification Rules. Drawing on previous comparable behaviour involving other countries and international relations, he makes the argument that this Zone is in accordance with international law.

  4. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahagirdar, P.B.; Wattal, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  5. Interband distortion allocation in lossy compression of hyperspectral imagery: impact on global distortion metrics and discrimination of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastri, Cinzia; Aiazzi, Bruno; Baronti, Stefano; Alparone, Luciano

    2007-10-01

    The problem of distortion allocation varying with wavelength in lossy compression of hyperspectral imagery is investigated. Distortion is generally measured either as maximum absolute deviation (MAD) for near-lossless methods, e.g. differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), or as mean square error (MSE) for lossy methods (e.g. spectral decorrelation followed by JPEG 2000). Also the absolute angular error, or spectral angle mapper (SAM), is used to quantify spectral distortion. A band add-on (BAO) technique was recently introduced to calculate a modified version of SAM. Spectral bands are iteratively selected in order to increase the angular separation between two pixel spectra by exploiting a mathematical decomposition of SAM. As a consequence, only a subset of the original hyperspectral bands contributes to the new distance metrics, referred to as BAO-SAM, whose operational definition guarantees its monotonicity as the number of bands increases. Two strategies of interband distortion allocation are compared: given a target average bit rate, distortion, either MAD or MSE, may be set to be constant varying with wavelength. Otherwise it may be allocated proportionally to the noise level on each band, according to the virtually-lossless protocol. Thus, a different quantization step size depending on the estimated standard deviation of the noise, is used to quantize either prediction residuals (DPCM) or wavelet coefficients (JPEG 2000) of each spectral band, thereby determining band-varying MAD/MSE values. Comparisons with the uncompressed originals show that the average spectral angle mapper (SAM) is minimized by constant distortion allocation. Conversely, the average BAO-SAM is minimized by the noise-adjusted variable spectral distortion allocation according to the virtually lossless protocol. Preliminary results of simulations performed on reflectance data obtained from compressed radiance data show that, for a given compression ratio, the virtually

  6. Evaluation of the Thorax of Manduca sexta for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    autonomous or semi-autonomous flying robots will be useful for gathering information in nearly any dangerous scenario which precludes direct human...Similarly, a MAV could enter small or dangerous crevices in a collapsed and unstable building. Police might use a MAV in much the same way the military...requirement of M.sexta (Bao, et al. 2011). Other options include comb drive, parallel plate, thermal biomaterial cantilever, and thermal expansion

  7. A Military-Relevant Model of Closed Concussive Head Injury: Longitudinal Studies Characterizing and Validating Single and Repetitive mTBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    solution. The samples were processed at FD Neurotechnologies Inc. (Ellicott City, MD, USA). A series of coronal free floating brain sections (40 μm; 960...suggest altered glucose availability that may arise from a change in uptake and/or utilization. In support, further analysis revealed that the glycogen ...Dixon, Bao, Long, & Hayes, 1996). Glutathione metabolism TBI can be accompanied by an accumulation of high energy oxidants and free radicals that

  8. Continuous relaxation time spectrum of α-process in glass-like B2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenev, G.M.; Lomovskij, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    α-process of relaxation of glass-like B 2 O 3 was investigated in a wide temperature range. Continuous spectrum of relaxation times H(τ) for this process was constructed, using data of dynamic methods of investigation. It is shown that increase of temperature of α-process investigation leads to change of glass-like BaO 3 structure in such a way, that H(τ) spectrum tends to the maxwell one with a unit relaxation time

  9. Probing a steep EoS for dark energy with latest observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Mariana; Macorra, Axel de la

    2018-01-01

    We present a parametrization for the Dark Energy Equation of State "EoS" which has a rich structure, performing a transition at pivotal redshift zT between the present day value w0 to an early time wi =wa +w0 ≡ w(z ≫ 0) with a steepness given in terms of q parameter. The proposed parametrization is w =w0 +wa(z /zT) q /(1 +(z /zT)) q , with w0, wi, q and zT constant parameters. It reduces to the widely used EoS w =w0 +wa(1 - a) for zT = q = 1 . This transition is motivated by scalar field dynamics such as for example quintessence models. We study if a late time transition is favored by BAO measurements combined with local determination of H0 and information from the CMB. We find that our dynamical DE model allows to simultaneously fit H0 from local determinations and Planck CMB measurements, alleviating the tension obtained in a ΛCDM model. We obtain a smaller χ2 in our DE model than in ΛCDM showing that a dynamical DE is preferred with a reduction of 4.8%, 20.2% and 42.8% using BAO + H0, BAO + CMB and BAO + CMB + H0 datasets, respectively. However due to the increased number of free parameters in the EoS information criteria favors ΛCDM over our DE model at this stage. Nevertheless it is crucial to obtain the dynamics of DE from the observational data to show the path for theoretical DE models based on fundamental physics.

  10. Comparison of cosmological models using standard rulers and candles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaolei; Cao, Shuo; Zheng, Xiaogang; Li, Song; Biesiada, Marek

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we used standard rulers and standard candles (separately and jointly) to explore five popular dark energy models under assumption of spatial flatness of the Universe. As standard rulers, we used a data set comprising 118 galactic-scale strong lensing systems (individual standard rulers if properly calibrated for the mass density profile) combined with BAO diagnostics (statistical standard ruler). Supernovae Ia served asstandard candles. Unlike in the most of previous statistica...

  11. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-10

    Feb 10, 2017 ... Best-fit values of the EoS parameters H0, As and α (As and α are defined in the energy density for generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) and in EoS) are then determined from OHD+BAO+CMB+. Union2.1 data and contours are drawn to obtain their allowed range of values. The present age of the Universe.

  12. Fisher.py: Fisher Matrix Manipulation and Confidence Contour Plotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Fisher.py allows you to combine constraints from multiple experiments (e.g., weak lensing + supernovae) and add priors (e.g., a flat universe) simply and easily. Calculate parameter uncertainties and plot confidence ellipses. Fisher matrix expectations for several experiments are included as calculated by myself (time delays) and the Dark Energy Task Force (WL/SN/BAO/CL/CMB), or provide your own.

  13. BDML Metadata: 389 [SSBD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available riken.jp/data/bdml/Ce_ZB/081505_L1-t1_50.bdml0.18.xml http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/d...ata/pdpml/bao2006.pdpml0.06.xml http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/search/ffec2fe1-34ae-4ddb-b644-55e28cf11e2f/ ...

  14. Numerical Analysis for Stochastic Partial Differential Delay Equations with Jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan; Hu, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the convergence rate of Euler-Maruyama method for a class of stochastic partial differential delay equations driven by both Brownian motion and Poisson point processes. We discretize in space by a Galerkin method and in time by using a stochastic exponential integrator. We generalize some results of Bao et al. (2011) and Jacob et al. (2009) in finite dimensions to a class of stochastic partial differential delay equations with jumps in infinite dimensions.

  15. A Survey on Postsecondary Korean Language Programs in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Susie Kim

    2017-01-01

    Students of the less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) retain higher motivation in learning (Bao & Lee, 2012; Brown, 2009; Liu & Shibata, 2008; Murphy, Back, & Garrett-Rucks, 2009; Nunn, 2013), but it is uncertain to what extent the LCTL programs are equipped to provide an education that meets students’ expectations. In this study, I diagnosed various aspects of the organization and management of Korean programs in U.S. postsecondary education as an example case. I contacted 104 Korean lan...

  16. To Investigate the Therapeutic Efforts of the COX-2 Inhibitor NS-398 as a Single Agent, and in Combination with Vitamin D, in Vitro and in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    pathological states including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic retinopathy and cancer progres- sion (2). Initiation of angiogenesis (angiogenic switch) is...gifts from Dr. Rama Natarajan (Gonda Diabetes Center, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA). Transfections and reporter gene... predict antiproliferative effects of vitamin D in human prostate cancer cell lines, Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 126 (1997) 83–90. [12] B.Y. Bao, Y.C. Hu

  17. Automated Lineage and Expression Profiling in Live Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: John Isaac Murray and Zhirong Bao Adapted from [*Imaging in Developmental Biology*](http://www.cshlpress.com/link/imagingdevbiop.htm)(ed. Sharpe and Wong). CSHL Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA, 2011. ### Abstract Describing gene expression during animal development requires a way to quantitatively measure expression levels with cellular resolution and to describe how expression changes with time. Fluorescent protein reporters make it possible to measure expression dyna...

  18. Faster, Better, Cheaper N-Body with Abacus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Douglas; Eisenstein, D.; Metchnik, M. V.; Pinto, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce Abacus, a cosmological N-body code based on a novel gravity solver. Abacus can obtain machine precision force accuracy at significantly greater speeds than any other currently available N-body code. This speed lets us run large-scale cosmological simulations on a single $8000 workstation built with commodity hardware. We present the results of a 40963 particle cosmological simulation, and examine the shift of the BAO acoustic scale bias as a first science application.

  19. Characterization and Conduction Mechanism of Highly Conductive Vanadate Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuaki Nishida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent studies of highly conductive barium iron vanadate glass with a composition of 20 BaO ∙ 10 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 (in mol %. Isothermal annealing of the vanadate glass for several ten minutes at a given temperature, higher than glass transition temperature or crystallization temperature, caused an increase in σ. Substitution of CuI (3d10, ZnII (3d10 and CuII (3d9 for FeIII (3d5 was investigated to elucidate the effect of electron configuration on the conductivity (σ. A marked decrease in the activation energy of conduction (Ea was also observed after the annealing. Values of Ea were correlated to the energy gap between the donor level and the conduction band (CB in the n-type semiconductor model. Isothermal annealing of ZnII-substituted vanadate glass (20 BaO ∙ 5 ZnO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 at 450 °C for 30 min showed an increase in σ from 2.5 × 10–6 to 2.1 × 10–1 S cm–1, which was one order of magnitude larger than that of non-substituted vanadate glass (3.4 × 10–2 S cm–1. Under the same annealing condition, σ’s of 2.0 × 10–1 and 3.2 × 10–1 S cm–1 were observed for 20 BaO ∙ 5 Cu2O ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 and 20 BaO ∙ 5 CuO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 glasses, respectively. These results demonstrate an increase in the carrier (electron density in the CB, primarily composed of anti-bonding 4s-orbitals.

  20. A Literature Review of Millimeter and Submillimeter Radiation Absorption and Scattering in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    Products C, K2O, SnO ^, Na20, BaO (Pb, Sb, Si, Zr, Ca, Al) 112 •3 r O " 10.6^ Observed Data + - Water Model Result t -2 £ -1 O ’ 1.06...USED TO MEASURE THE TRANSMISS ON OF LIQUID H?0, THE BULK SEMICONDUCTOR GAAS. THE EPITAXIAL SEMICONDUCTOR INAS, AND THE H I GH-TEMPERA JURE

  1. Characterization of a human antigen specific helper factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, B.

    1986-01-01

    While antigen (Ag) specific helper factors have been characterized in mice, similar molecules have not been identified in humans. To characterize human antigen specific helper molecules, an IL-2 dependent tetanus toxoid (T.T.) reactive T cell line was fused with a 6-thioguanine resistant CEM line, and hybrids selected in medium containing hypoxanthine and azaserine. Hybrids were screened by culturing the cells with 35 S-Met then reacting the supernatants with T.T. or hepatitis vaccine immobilized on nitrocellulose. One hybrid, TT6BA-O, was identified which secreted a Met-containing molecule which bound T.T. but not hepatitis vaccine. Supernatants from TT6BA-O, but not the parent CEM line, when added to autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's) stimulated secretion of T.T. specific antibodies (Abs). Specificity controls demonstrated that TT6BA-O supernatant did not induce antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, hepatitis vaccine or pneumococcal polysaccharide, and total immunoglobulin (lg) synthesis was minimally increased. In contrast, pokeweed mitogen stimulated significant lg synthesis as well as Ab's to pneumococcal polysaccharide and T.T. TT6BA-O supernatant induced anti-T.T.Ab's in autologous PBMC's but not PBMC's from 3 unrelated donors, suggesting that the activity of the helper factor is restricted, possibly by the MHC. The molecular weight of the helper factor was estimated at 100,000-150,000 by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. Finally, the helper factor could be demonstrated to bind and elute from sephorose-immobilized T.T. and anti-DR antisera, but not anti-lg antisera or the T40/25 monoclonal antibody, which binds a nonpolymorphic determinant on the human T cell receptor. These results demonstrate that human Ag specific helper factors exist, bind antigen and bear class II MHC determinants

  2. Vertebral artery stenosis in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): prevalence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compter, Annette; van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; van der Worp, H Bart; Vos, Jan Albert; Weimar, Christian; Rueckert, Christina M; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of vertebral artery (VA) stenosis or occlusion and its influence on outcome in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We studied 141 patients with acute BAO enrolled in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS) registry of whom baseline CT angiography (CTA) of the intracranial VAs was available. In 72 patients an additional CTA of the extracranial VAs was available. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for death and poor outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, were calculated with Poisson regression in relation to VA occlusion, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %, and bilateral VA occlusion. Sixty-six of 141 (47 %) patients had uni- or bilateral intracranial VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. Of the 72 patients with intra- and extracranial CTA, 46 (64 %) had uni- or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % and 9 (12 %) had bilateral VA occlusion. Overall, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % was not associated with the risk of poor outcome. Patients with intra- and extracranial CTA and bilateral VA occlusion had a higher risk of poor outcome than patients without bilateral VA occlusion (aRR, 1.23; 95 % CI 1.02-1.50). The risk of death did not depend on the presence of unilateral or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. In conclusion, in patients with acute BAO, unilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % is frequent, but not associated with an increased risk of poor outcome or death. Patients with BAO and bilateral VA occlusion have a slightly increased risk of poor outcome.

  3. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... their possible applications as laser hosts, lamp phosphors and other photonic devices [1, 2]. BaO glasses will be a new possibility for a lead-free radiation ... The measurements are taken between 25 and 1000 °C (in the air using Al2O3 powder as a reference material) at the rate of 30 °C/min. -Optical ...

  4. The National Guard State Partnership Program: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    partnerships: South Africa and New York, Morocco and Utah, Ghana and North Dakota, Tunisia and Wyoming, Nigeria and California, Botswana and North...Nigeria - 2006 AFRICOM Texas Chile - 2008 SOUTHCOM New York South Africa - 2003 AFRICOM West Virginia Peru - 1996 SOUTHCOM North Carolina Botswana ...region before working at the desk next to mine . NGB needs to normalize the funding stream so that a BAO can receive at least a few months of

  5. Dielectric and impedance spectroscopic studies of (Sr1–xPbx)TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ⋅TiO2]–[2SiO2⋅B2O3]–5[K2O–. BaO] (0⋅0 ≤ x ≤ 0⋅4) with addition of 1 mol% Nb2O5. Perovskite strontium lead titanate in solid solution phase has been crystallized in borosilicate glassy matrix with suitable choice of composition and heat ...

  6. Topotactic reduction as a route to new close-packed anion deficient perovskites: structure and magnetism of 4H-BaMnO(2+x).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadermann, Joke; Abakumov, Artem M; Adkin, Josephine J; Hayward, Michael A

    2009-08-05

    The anion-deficient perovskite 4H-BaMnO(2+x) has been obtained by a topotactic reduction, with LiH, of the hexagonal perovskite 4H-BaMnO(3-x). The crystal structure of 4H-BaMnO(2+x) was solved using electron diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction and further refined using neutron powder diffraction (S.G. Pnma, a = 10.375(2) A, b = 9.466(2) A, c = 11.276(3) A, at 373 K). The orthorhombic superstructure arises from the ordering of oxygen vacancies within a 4H (chch) stacking of close packed c-type BaO(2.5) and h-type BaO(1.5) layers. The ordering of the oxygen vacancies transforms the Mn(2)O(9) units of face-sharing MnO(6) octahedra into Mn(2)O(7) (two corner-sharing tetrahedra) and Mn(2)O(6) (two edge-sharing tetrahedra) groups. The Mn(2)O(7) and Mn(2)O(6) groups are linked by corner-sharing into a three-dimensional framework. The structures of the BaO(2.5) and BaO(1.5) layers are different from those observed previously in anion-deficient perovskites providing a new type of order pattern of oxygen atoms and vacancies in close packed structures. Magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction data reveal 4H-BaMnO(2+x) adopts an antiferromagnetically ordered state below T(N) approximately 350 K.

  7. Present accelerated expansion of the universe from new Weyl-integrable gravity approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguila, Ricardo; Madriz Aguilar, Jose Edgar; Moreno, Claudia [Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG), Departamento de Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e ingenierias (CUCEI), Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Bellini, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-11-15

    We investigate if a recently introduced formulation of general relativity on a Weyl-integrable geometry contains cosmological solutions exhibiting acceleration in the present cosmic expansion. We derive the general conditions to have acceleration in the expansion of the universe and obtain a particular solution for the Weyl scalar field describing a cosmological model for the present time in concordance with the data combination Planck + WP + BAO + SN. (orig.)

  8. Lyman-tomography of cosmic infrared background fluctuations with euclid : probing emissions and baryonic acoustic oscillations at z ≳ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Arendt, R. G. [Observational Cosmology Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Atrio-Barandela, F. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Salamanca (Spain); Helgason, K., E-mail: Alexander.Kashlinsky@nasa.gov [MPA, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    The Euclid space mission, designed to probe evolution of the Dark Energy (DE), will map a large area of the sky at three adjacent near-IR filters, Y, J, and H. This coverage will also enable mapping source-subtracted cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations with unprecedented accuracy on sub-degree angular scales. Here, we propose methodology, using the Lyman-break tomography applied to the Euclid -based CIB maps, to accurately isolate the history of CIB emissions as a function of redshift from 10 ≲ z ≲ 20 and to identify the baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) at those epochs. To identify the BAO signature, we would assemble individual CIB maps over conservatively large contiguous areas of ≳400 deg{sup 2}. The method can isolate the CIB spatial spectrum by z to sub-percent statistical accuracy. We illustrate this with a specific model of CIB production at high z normalized to reproduce the measured Spitzer -based CIB fluctuation. We show that even if the latter contains only a small component from high- z sources, the amplitude of that component can be accurately isolated with the methodology proposed here and the BAO signatures at z ≳ 10 are recovered well from the CIB fluctuation spatial spectrum. Probing the BAO at those redshifts will be an important test of the underlying cosmological paradigm and would narrow the overall uncertainties on the evolution of cosmological parameters, including the DE. Similar methodology is applicable to the planned WFIRST mission, where we show that a possible fourth near-IR channel at ≥2 μ m would be beneficial.

  9. Determination of the constituents and suitability of Azara barytes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azara baryte was analyzed and had an average specific gravity of 4.3g/cm3 and loss on ignition of 1.71wt%. Atomic Absorption spectrometery was used to determine the Fe2O3,Al2O3 and BaO contents. SiO2 and SO3 were determined by gravimetry while CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O were determined by flame photometry.

  10. Postoperative hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy improved survival of pancreatic cancer after radical pancreatectomy: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Y; Xu Y; Zheng Y; Bao Y; Wang P

    2018-01-01

    Yongchun Wang,1 Yongqiang Xu,1 Yinyuan Zheng,2 Ying Bao,1 Ping Wang1 1Department of General Surgery, First People’s Hospital affiliated to Huzhou Normal College, Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, First People’s Hospital affiliated to Huzhou Normal College, Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: To determine the effect of postoperative hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) on long-term su...

  11. Small-scale structure and the Lyman-α forest baryon acoustic oscillation feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Christopher M.

    2018-02-01

    The baryon-acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the Lyman-α forest is a key probe of the cosmic expansion rate at redshifts z ˜ 2.5, well before dark energy is believed to have become significant. A key advantage of the BAO as a standard ruler is that it is a sharp feature and hence is more robust against broad-band systematic effects than other cosmological probes. However, if the Lyman-α forest transmission is sensitive to the initial streaming velocity of the baryons relative to the dark matter, then the BAO peak position can be shifted. Here we investigate this sensitivity using a suite of hydrodynamic simulations of small regions of the intergalactic medium with a range of box sizes and physics assumptions; each simulation starts from initial conditions at the kinematic decoupling era (z ˜ 1059), undergoes a discrete change from neutral gas to ionized gas thermal evolution at reionization (z ˜ 8), and is finally processed into a Lyman-α forest transmitted flux cube. Streaming velocities suppress small-scale structure, leading to less violent relaxation after reionization. The changes in the gas distribution and temperature-density relation at low redshift are more subtle, due to the convergent temperature evolution in the ionized phase. The change in the BAO scale is estimated to be of the order of 0.12 per cent at z = 2.5; some of the major uncertainties and avenues for future improvement are discussed. The predicted streaming velocity shift would be a subdominant but not negligible effect (of order 0.26σ) for the upcoming DESI Lyman-α forest survey, and exceeds the cosmic variance floor.

  12. Changes in ozone and precursors during two aged wildfire smoke events in the Colorado Front Range in summer 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindaas, Jakob; Farmer, Delphine K.; Pollack, Ilana B.; Abeleira, Andrew; Flocke, Frank; Roscioli, Rob; Herndon, Scott; Fischer, Emily V.

    2017-09-01

    The relative importance of wildfire smoke for air quality over the western US is expected to increase as the climate warms and anthropogenic emissions decline. We report on in situ measurements of ozone (O3), a suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and reactive oxidized nitrogen species collected during summer 2015 at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, CO. Aged wildfire smoke impacted BAO during two distinct time periods during summer 2015: 6-10 July and 16-30 August. The smoke was transported from the Pacific Northwest and Canada across much of the continental US. Carbon monoxide and particulate matter increased during the smoke-impacted periods, along with peroxyacyl nitrates and several VOCs that have atmospheric lifetimes longer than the transport timescale of the smoke. During the August smoke-impacted period, nitrogen dioxide was also elevated during the morning and evening compared to the smoke-free periods. There were nine empirically defined high-O3 days during our study period at BAO, and two of these days were smoke impacted. We examined the relationship between O3 and temperature at BAO and found that for a given temperature, O3 mixing ratios were greater (˜ 10 ppbv) during the smoke-impacted periods. Enhancements in O3 during the August smoke-impacted period were also observed at two long-term monitoring sites in Colorado: Rocky Mountain National Park and the Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge near Walden, CO. Our data provide a new case study of how aged wildfire smoke can influence atmospheric composition at an urban site, and how smoke can contribute to increased O3 abundances across an urban-rural gradient.

  13. Cosmic microwave background constraints on secret interactions among sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forastieri, Francesco; Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lattanzi, Massimiliano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mangano, Gianpiero [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Mirizzi, Alessandro [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin,' Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Saviano, Ninetta, E-mail: francesco.forastieri@unife.it, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it, E-mail: mangano@na.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: natoli@fe.infn.it, E-mail: nsaviano@uni-mainz.de [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, JohannesGutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Secret contact interactions among eV sterile neutrinos, mediated by a massive gauge boson X (with M {sub X} || M {sub W} ), and characterized by a gauge coupling g {sub X} , have been proposed as a mean to reconcile cosmological observations and short-baseline laboratory anomalies. We constrain this scenario using the latest Planck data on Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies, and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We consistently include the effect of secret interactions on cosmological perturbations, namely the increased density and pressure fluctuations in the neutrino fluid, and still find a severe tension between the secret interaction framework and cosmology. In fact, taking into account neutrino scattering via secret interactions, we derive our own mass bound on sterile neutrinos and find (at 95 % CL) m {sub s} < 0.82 eV or m {sub s} < 0.29 eV from Planck alone or in combination with BAO, respectively. These limits confirm the discrepancy with the laboratory anomalies. Moreover, we constrain, in the limit of contact interaction, the effective strength G {sub X} to be < 2.8 (2.0) × 10{sup 10} G {sub F} from Planck (Planck+BAO). This result, together with the mass bound, strongly disfavours the region with M {sub X} ∼ 0.1 MeV and relatively large coupling g {sub X} {sub ∼} 10{sup −1}, previously indicated as a possible solution to the small scale dark matter problem.

  14. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  15. Basilar artery occlusion: Prognostic signs of severity on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Canel, Lucie; Sztajzel, Roman; Becker, Minerva; Perneger, Thomas; Platon, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    To determine the computed tomography (CT) signs that are predictive of the clinical outcome of basilar artery occlusion (BAO). The study population consisted in 37 patients (14 women, 23 men, mean age: 63 years), admitted with onset of neurological deficit, starting 1-72 h prior to admission, who were diagnosed with BAO on the basis of a CT examination with intravenous contrast agent. The following signs were collected on CT scans performed on admission: clot density on noncontrast images, clot length, and clot location, as well as the presence of acute ischemic lesions. The results were compared against the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of patients at 3 months, favorable clinical outcome being defined as a mRS score ≤3. The clinical outcome was favorable in 13 (35%) of the 37 patients and unfavorable in 24 (65%). Signs of acute ischemia were visible in 13 of the 24 patients with unfavorable outcome but in none of the 13 patients with favorable outcome (p<0.001). None of the other CT signs analyzed were significantly correlated with clinical prognosis. Of all the CT signs analyzed, only the presence of signs of acute ischemia on the admission CT of patients with BAO was associated with poor prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of alkaline earth metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekhovskoj, V.Ya.; Irgashov, Kh.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the known experimental data on enthalpy and heat capacity of CaO, SrO, BaO and RaO above 300 K is performed. New results of experimental study: enthalpy and heat capacity in solid and liquid states of BaO up to 2500 K, SrO up to 3000 K, CaO - up to 3100 K, as well as melting points, melting heats and entropies, heat capacity of melts and formation energy of anion and cation vacancy pair are presented. For Ra evaluations of temperature, melting heat and entropy, melt heat capacity, Debye point and formation energy of anion and cation vacancy pairs are made. On the basis of high-temperature data on enthalpy and low-temperature literature data on heat capacity the tables of thermodynamic functions in the range of 0-2500 K for BaO, 0-1300 K for SrO and 0-3128 K for CaO are calculated

  17. Characterization of LSM/CGO Symmetric Cells Modified by NOx Adsorbents for Electrochemical NOx Removal with Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2013-01-01

    This study uses electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to characterize an LSM/CGO symmetric cell modified by NOx adsorbents for the application of electrochemical NOx reduction. Three cells were prepared and tested: a blank cell, a cell impregnated with BaO, and a cell coated with a Ba......O-Pt-Al2O3 layer. The impedance analysis revealed that modification with the NOx adsorbents, either by impregnating the BaO into the electrode or by adding a BaO-Pt-Al2O3 layer on top of the electrode significantly enhanced the electrode activity. This activity enhancement was mainly due to the decrease...... in the resistance of the low-frequency processes, which were ascribed to adsorption, diffusion, and transfer of O2 species and NOx species at or near the triple phase boundary (TPB) region and the formation of the reaction intermediate NO2. The BaO impregnation improved the adsorption of NOx on the LSM...

  18. Narrowing down the possible explanations of cosmic acceleration with geometric probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Suhail; Goobar, Ariel; Mörtsell, Edvard; Amanullah, Rahman; Feindt, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    Recent re-calibration of the Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) magnitude-redshift relation combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data have provided excellent constraints on the standard cosmological model. Here, we examine particular classes of alternative cosmologies, motivated by various physical mechanisms, e.g. scalar fields, modified gravity and phase transitions to test their consistency with observations of SNe Ia and the ratio of the angular diameter distances from the CMB and BAO. Using a model selection criterion for a relative comparison of the models (the Bayes Factor), we find moderate to strong evidence that the data prefer flat ΛCDM over models invoking a thawing behaviour of the quintessence scalar field. However, some exotic models like the growing neutrino mass cosmology and vacuum metamorphosis still present acceptable evidence values. The bimetric gravity model with only the linear interaction term as well as a simplified Galileon model can be ruled out by the combination of SNe Ia and CMB/BAO datasets whereas the model with linear and quadratic interaction terms has a comparable evidence value to standard ΛCDM. Thawing models are found to have significantly poorer evidence compared to flat ΛCDM cosmology under the assumption that the CMB compressed likelihood provides an adequate description for these non-standard cosmologies. We also present estimates for constraints from future data and find that geometric probes from oncoming surveys can put severe limits on non-standard cosmological models.

  19. Long-Lasting Phosphorescent Properties of Tb3+ Doped ZnO-P2O5-SiO2 Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuxia

    2016-03-01

    The long-lasting phosphorescent glass with the composition of ZnO-P2O5-SiO2: Tb3+ was prepared by melt-quenched method. After irradiation by 254 nm light, a visible greenish light can be observed with the naked eyes, in the dark for up to 9 h after removal of the activating light. The luminescent properties of ZnO-P2O5-SiO2: Tb3+ were studied by fluorescence spectra, afterglow spectra and thermoluminescence spectra. The results show that the luminescent properties of the glasses become better with the increase of ZnO contents. The luminescent properties of glasses increase with the increase of Tb3+ contents. When 2% of ZnO is replaced by 2% of RO (RO=CaO, SrO, BaO), the luminescent property of glasses become worse in the order of CaO, SrO, BaO. The higher the contents of RO (RO=CaO, SrO, BaO) are, the worse the luminescent properties of the glasses become.

  20. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Measurement of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation scale in the distribution of galaxies to redshift 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, T.M.C.; et al.

    2017-12-17

    We present angular diameter distance measurements obtained by locating the BAO scale in the distribution of galaxies selected from the first year of Dark Energy Survey data. We consider a sample of over 1.3 million galaxies distributed over a footprint of 1318 deg$^2$ with $0.6 < z_{\\rm photo} < 1$ and a typical redshift uncertainty of $0.03(1+z)$. This sample was selected, as fully described in a companion paper, using a color/magnitude selection that optimizes trade-offs between number density and redshift uncertainty. We investigate the BAO signal in the projected clustering using three conventions, the angular separation, the co-moving transverse separation, and spherical harmonics. Further, we compare results obtained from template based and machine learning photometric redshift determinations. We use 1800 simulations that approximate our sample in order to produce covariance matrices and allow us to validate our distance scale measurement methodology. We measure the angular diameter distance, $D_A$, at the effective redshift of our sample divided by the true physical scale of the BAO feature, $r_{\\rm d}$. We obtain close to a 4 per cent distance measurement of $D_A(z_{\\rm eff}=0.81)/r_{\\rm d} = 10.75\\pm 0.43 $. These results are consistent with the flat $\\Lambda$CDM concordance cosmological model supported by numerous other recent experimental results.

  1. Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D: Modeling redshift-space power spectrum from perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Saito, Shun

    2010-09-01

    We present an improved prescription for the matter power spectrum in redshift space taking proper account of both nonlinear gravitational clustering and redshift distortion, which are of particular importance for accurately modeling baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Contrary to the models of redshift distortion phenomenologically introduced but frequently used in the literature, the new model includes the corrections arising from the nonlinear coupling between the density and velocity fields associated with two competitive effects of redshift distortion, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects. Based on the improved treatment of perturbation theory for gravitational clustering, we compare our model predictions with the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of N-body simulations, and an excellent agreement is achieved over the scales of BAOs. Potential impacts on constraining dark energy and modified gravity from the redshift-space power spectrum are also investigated based on the Fisher-matrix formalism, particularly focusing on the measurements of the Hubble parameter, angular diameter distance, and growth rate for structure formation. We find that the existing phenomenological models of redshift distortion produce a systematic error on measurements of the angular diameter distance and Hubble parameter by 1%-2% , and the growth-rate parameter by ˜5%, which would become non-negligible for future galaxy surveys. Correctly modeling redshift distortion is thus essential, and the new prescription for the redshift-space power spectrum including the nonlinear corrections can be used as an accurate theoretical template for anisotropic BAOs.

  2. Correlation of gamma ray shielding and structural properties of PbO–BaO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K.J., E-mail: kanwarjitsingh@yahoo.com; Anand, Vikas

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Transparent glass samples of the system 55PbO{sub x}BaO(45 − x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (x = 1 up to 5) have been prepared in the laboratory. • Gamma ray shielding properties improve with the addition of BaO. • Number of non-bridging oxygens decrease with the increase in the content of BaO. • Investigated glass system can be potential candidate as an alternate to conventional radiation shielding ‘concrete’. - Abstract: The presented work has been undertaken to evaluate the applicability of BaO doped PbO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass system as gamma ray shielding material in terms of mass attenuation coefficient and half value layer at photon energies 662, 1173 and1332 keV. A meaningful comparison of their radiation shielding properties has been made in terms of their mass attenuation coefficient and HVL parameters with standard radiation shielding concrete ‘barite’. The density, molar volume, XRD, FTIR, Raman and UV–visible techniques and mechanical properties (by Yamane and Mackenzie's procedure) have been used to study the structural properties of the prepared glass system in order to check the possibility of their commercial utility as alternate to conventional concrete for gamma ray shielding applications.

  3. Testing and selecting cosmological models with ultra-compact radio quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaolei [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cao, Shuo; Qi, Jingzhao; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); Zheng, Xiaogang; Biesiada, Marek [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); University of Silesia, Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Phyisics, Katowice (Poland)

    2017-10-15

    In this paper, we place constraints on four alternative cosmological models under the assumption of the spatial flatness of the Universe: CPL, EDE, GCG and MPC. A new compilation of 120 compact radio quasars observed by very-long-baseline interferometry, which represents a type of new cosmological standard rulers, are used to test these cosmological models. Our results show that the fits on CPL obtained from the quasar sample are well consistent with those obtained from BAO. For other cosmological models considered, quasars provide constraints in agreement with those derived with other standard probes at 1σ confidence level. Moreover, the results obtained from other statistical methods including figure of merit, Om(z) and statefinder diagnostics indicate that: (1) Radio quasar standard ruler could provide better statistical constraints than BAO for all cosmological models considered, which suggests its potential to act as a powerful complementary probe to BAO and galaxy clusters. (2) Turning to Om(z) diagnostics, CPL, GCG and EDE models cannot be distinguished from each other at the present epoch. (3) In the framework of statefinder diagnostics, MPC and EDE will deviate from the ΛCDM model in the near future, while GCG model cannot be distinguished from the ΛCDM model unless much higher precision observations are available. (orig.)

  4. Smoothing the redshift distributions of random samples for the baryon acoustic oscillations: applications to the SDSS-III BOSS DR12 and QPM mock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Jiang; Guo, Qi; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the impact of different redshift distributions of random samples on the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) measurements of D_V(z)r_d^fid/r_d from the two-point correlation functions of galaxies in the Data Release 12 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Big surveys, such as BOSS, usually assign redshifts to the random samples by randomly drawing values from the measured redshift distributions of the data, which would necessarily introduce fiducial signals of fluctuations into the random samples, weakening the signals of BAO, if the cosmic variance cannot be ignored. We propose a smooth function of redshift distribution that fits the data well to populate the random galaxy samples. The resulting cosmological parameters match the input parameters of the mock catalogue very well. The significance of BAO signals has been improved by 0.33σ for a low-redshift sample and by 0.03σ for a constant-stellar-mass sample, though the absolute values do not change significantly. Given the precision of the measurements of current cosmological parameters, it would be appreciated for the future improvements on the measurements of galaxy clustering.

  5. SU-E-T-446: Group-Sparsity Based Angle Generation Method for Beam Angle Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This work is to develop the effective algorithm for beam angle optimization (BAO), with the emphasis on enabling further improvement from existing treatment-dependent templates based on clinical knowledge and experience. Methods: The proposed BAO algorithm utilizes a priori beam angle templates as the initial guess, and iteratively generates angular updates for this initial set, namely angle generation method, with improved dose conformality that is quantitatively measured by the objective function. That is, during each iteration, we select “the test angle” in the initial set, and use group-sparsity based fluence map optimization to identify “the candidate angle” for updating “the test angle”, for which all the angles in the initial set except “the test angle”, namely “the fixed set”, are set free, i.e., with no group-sparsity penalty, and the rest of angles including “the test angle” during this iteration are in “the working set”. And then “the candidate angle” is selected with the smallest objective function value from the angles in “the working set” with locally maximal group sparsity, and replaces “the test angle” if “the fixed set” with “the candidate angle” has a smaller objective function value by solving the standard fluence map optimization (with no group-sparsity regularization). Similarly other angles in the initial set are in turn selected as “the test angle” for angular updates and this chain of updates is iterated until no further new angular update is identified for a full loop. Results: The tests using the MGH public prostate dataset demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed BAO algorithm. For example, the optimized angular set from the proposed BAO algorithm was better the MGH template. Conclusion: A new BAO algorithm is proposed based on the angle generation method via group sparsity, with improved dose conformality from the given template. Hao Gao was partially supported by the

  6. The FRX-C/LSM compression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Siemon, R.E.; Taggart, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    After two years of preparation, hardware for high-power FRC compression heating studies is now being installed onto FRX-C/LSM. FRCs will be formed and translated out of the θ-pinch source, and into a compressor where the external B-field will be increased from 0.4 to 2 T in 55 μs. The compressed FRC can then be translated into a third stage for further study. A principal experimental goal is to study FRC confinement at the high energy density, n(T/sub e/ + T/sub i/) ≤ 1.0 /times/ 10 22 keV/m 3 , associated with the large external field. Experiments are scheduled to begin in April. 11 refs., 5 figs

  7. Statistics of Microstructure, Peak Stress and Interface Damage in Fiber Reinforced Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushch, Volodymyr I.; Shmegera, Sergii V.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2009-01-01

    to simulate both the uniform and clustered random fiber arrangements. By averaging over a number of numerical tests, the empirical probability functions have been obtained for the nearest neighbor distance and the peak interface stress. It is shown that the considered statistical parameters are rather...... sensitive to the fiber arrangement, particularly cluster formation. An explicit correspondence between them has been established and an analytical formula linking the microstructure and peak stress statistics in FRCs has been suggested. Application of the statistical theory of extreme values to the local......This paper addresses an effect of the fiber arrangement and interactions on the peak interface stress statistics in a fiber reinforced composite material (FRC). The method we apply combines the multipole expansion technique with the representative unit cell model of composite bulk, which is able...

  8. Advancing Discontinuous Fiber-Reinforced Composites above Critical Length for Replacing Current Dental Composites and Amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard C

    2017-02-01

    Clinicians have been aware that posterior dental particulate-filled composites (PFCs) have many placement disadvantages and indeed fail clinically at an average rate faster than amalgam alloys. Secondary caries is most commonly identified as the chief failure mechanism for both dental PFCs and amalgam. In terms of a solution, fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) above critical length (L c ) can provide mechanical property safety factors with compound molding packing qualities to reduce many problems associated with dental PFCs. Discontinuous chopped fibers above the necessary L c have been incorporated into dental PFCs to make consolidated molding compounds that can be tested for comparisons with PFC controls on mechanical properties, wear resistance, void-defect occurrence and packing ability to reestablish the interproximal contact. Further, imaging characterizations can aid in providing comparisons for FRCs with other materials using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and photographs. Also, the amalgam filling material has finally been tested by appropriate ASTM flexural bending methods that eliminate shear failure associated with short span lengths in dental standards for comparison with dental PFCs to best explain increased longevity for the amalgam when compared to dental PFCs. Accurate mechanical tests also provide significant proof for superior advantages with FRCs. Mechanical properties tested included flexural strength, yield strength, modulus, resilience, work of fracture, critical strain energy release and critical stress intensity factor. FRC molding compounds with fibers above L c extensively improve all mechanical properties over PFC dental paste and over the amalgam for all mechanical properties except modulus. The dental PFC also demonstrated superior mechanical properties over the amalgam except modulus to provide a better explanation for increased PFC failure due to secondary caries. With lower PFC modulus, increased adhesive

  9. Profile relaxation and tilt instability in a field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Sato, T.

    2003-01-01

    The profile relaxation from a magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) profile to a kinetic equilibrium in field-reversed configurations (FRCs) is investigated by two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation. The radial oscillation takes place in order to relax an excess energy in the MHD profile, and the system spontaneously relaxes toward a kinetic equilibrium. In this kinetic equilibrium, the hollow electron current profile is realized as a result of the combined effects of the single particle orbits and the ion finite Larmor radius, and the ion current profile becomes peaked due to the effect of the ion meandering motion. Three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle simulation is also performed to study the stability of these kinetic equilibrium against the tilt mode. The growth rate of the tilt instability is reduced by the kinetic effects. It is found that the stabilization effect of tilt mode becomes much distinct when the current density changes from the peaked profile to the hollow one. (author)

  10. Physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of interaction between C-type lectin-like receptor 2 and podoplanin: partners from in utero to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Inoue, K; Osada, M; Ozaki, Y

    2017-02-01

    A platelet activation receptor, C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2), has been identified as a receptor for a platelet-activating snake venom, rhodocytin. CLEC-2 protein is highly expressed in platelets/megakaryocytes, and at lower levels in liver Kupffer cells. Recently, podoplanin has been revealed as an endogenous ligand for CLEC-2. Podoplanin is expressed in certain types of tumor cells, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) in lymph nodes, kidney podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells, but not in vascular endothelial cells. CLEC-2 in platelets cannot have access to podoplanin under normal conditions, but they interact with each other under pathologic conditions or during developmental stages, and play various pathophysiologic roles. CLEC-2 facilitates hematogenous metastasis of podoplanin-expressing tumors. During development, the interaction between CLEC-2 and podoplanin in lymphatic endothelial cells or neuroepithelial cells facilitates blood-lymphatic vessel separation and cerebrovascular patterning and integrity, respectively. In adulthood, platelet CLEC-2 binding to FRCs is crucial for maintenance of the integrity of high endothelial venules in lymph nodes. Podoplanin-expressing FRC-like cells have recently been identified in the bone marrow, and facilitate megakaryocyte proliferation and proplatelet formation by binding to megakaryocyte CLEC-2. Podoplanin is inducibly expressed in liver monocytes and keratinocytes during Salmonella infection and wound healing, and regulates thrombus formation in the liver and controlled wound healing, respectively. By binding to unknown ligands, platelet CLEC-2 regulates the maintenance of vascular integrity during inflammation, thrombus stability under flow, and maintenance of quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells. Podoplanin is expressed in various cells, and additional roles of the CLEC-2-podoplanin interaction will be revealed in the future. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. Coaxial slow source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.D.; Jarboe, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    Field reversed configurations (FRCs) are a class of compact toroid with not toroidal field. The field reversed theta pinch technique has been successfully used for formation of FRCs since their inception in 1958. In this method an initial bias field is produced. After ionization of the fill gas, the current in the coil is rapidly reversed producing the radial implosion of a current sheath. At the ends of the coil the reversed field lines rapidly tear and reconnect with the bias field lines until no more bias flux remains. At this point, vacuum reversed field accumulates around the configuration which contracts axially until an equilibrium is reached. When extrapolating the use of such a technique to reactor size plasmas two main shortcomings are found. First, the initial bias field, and hence flux in a given device, which can be reconnected to form the configuration is limited from above by destructive axial dynamics. Second, the voltages required to produce rapid current reversal in the coil are very large. Clearly, a low voltage formation technique without limitations on flux addition is desirable. The Coaxial Slow Source (CSS) device was designed to meet this need. It has two coaxial theta pinch coils. Coaxial coil geometry allows for the addition of as much magnetic flux to the annular plasma between them as can be generated inside the inner coil. Furthermore the device can be operated at charging voltages less than 10 kV and on resistive diffusion, rather than implosive time scales. The inner coil is a novel, concentric, helical design so as to allow it to be cantilevered on one end to permit translation of the plasma. Following translation off the inner coil the Annular Field Reversed Configuration would be re-formed as a true FRC. In this paper we investigate the formation process in the new parallel configuration., CSSP, in which the inner and outer coils are connected in parallel to the main capacitor bank

  12. Adhesion of resin materials to S2-glass unidirectional and E-glass multidirectional fiber reinforced composites: effect of polymerization sequence protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacek, Petr; Pavelka, Vladimir; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of different polymerization sequences employed during application of bis-GMAbased particulate filler composites (PFC) or a flowable resin (FR) on fiber-reinforced composite (FRC). Unidirectional, pre-impregnated S2-glass fibers (Dentapreg) and multidirectional preimpregnated E-glass fibers (Dentapreg) (length: 40 mm; thickness: 0.5 mm) were obtained (N = 144, n = 12 per group) and embedded in translucent silicone material with the adhesion surface exposed. The resulting specimens were randomly divided into 12 groups for the following application sequences: a) FRC+PFC (photopolymerized in one step), b) FRC+FR (photopolymerized in one step), c) FRC+PFC (photopolymerized individually), d) FRC+FR (photopolymerized individually), e) FRC (photopolymerized)+intermediate adhesive resin and PFC (photopolymerized in one step), f) FRC (photopolymerized)+intermediate adhesive resin and FR (photopolymerized in one step). The sequences of unidirectional (groups a to f) were repeated for multidirectional (groups g to l) FRCs. PFCs were debonded from the FRC surfaces using the shear bond test in a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). On additional specimens from each FRC type, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to characterize the fiber weight content (Wf) (N = 6, n = 3 per group). After debonding, all specimens were analyzed using SEM to categorize the failure modes. The data were statistically analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Significant effects of the FRC type (S2 or E-glass) (p resin type (PFC or FR) (p TGA revealed 55 ± 3 wt% fiber content for multidirectional and 60 ± 3 wt% for unidirectional FRCs tested. Multidirectional pre-impregnated E-glass fibers cannot be recommended in combination with the PFC and FR materials tested in this study. Application of an intermediate adhesive resin layer increases the adhesion of both PFC and FR to unidirectional FRC. FRC and FR can be polymerized in one step, but FRC and PFC

  13. The effect of a fiber reinforced cavity configuration on load bearing capacity and failure mode of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM resin composite overlay restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, G T; Saratti, C M; Cattani-Lorente, M; Feilzer, A J; Scherrer, S; Krejci, I

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the fracture strength and the mode of failure of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM overlays with fiber reinforced composite build-up of the pulp chamber. 40 Devitalized molars were cut over the CEJ and divided into five groups (n=8). The pulp chamber area was filled with: group 0 (control), no resin build-up; group 1, hybrid composite build-up (G-aenial posterior, GC); group 2, as in group 1 but covered with 3 nets of bi-directional E-glass fibers (EverStickNET, Stick Tech Ltd.); group 3, a FRC resin (EverX posterior, GC); group 4, as in group 3 but covered by the bi-directional fibers. The crowns were restored with CAD-CAM composite restorations (Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE). Maximum fracture loads were recorded in Newton and data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test (p0.05). All specimens fractured in a catastrophic way, under the CEJ. The main crack evolved in the corono-apical direction. In groups 2 and 4 secondary fracture paths with apico-coronal direction were detected close to the bi-directional fibers' layer. For the restoration of endodontically treated molars, the incorporation of FRCs did not influence the load-bearing capacity of the tooth-restoration complex. The SEM analysis showed a low ability of the bi-directional fibers net in deviating the fracture but this effect was not sufficient to lead more favorable fracture patterns, over the CEJ. The use of FRCs to reinforce the "core" of devitalized molars against vertical fractures under static loads seems useless when the thickness of the CAD/CAM composite overlay restoration is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of 3-[{sup 125}I]iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine, a tumor imaging agent, after probenecid loading in mice implanted with colon cancer DLD-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Syuichi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 9200-942 (Japan); Shikano, Naoto [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan)], E-mail: sikano@ipu.ac.jp; Kotani, Takashi; Ogura, Masato [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Nishii, Ryuichi [Research Institute, Shiga Medical Center, 5-4-30 Moriyama, Moriyama-City, Shiga 524-8524 (Japan); Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 9200-942 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Naoto [Center for Medical Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Iwamura, Yukio [Center for Humanities and Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kubota, Nobuo; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kawai, Keiichi [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 9200-942 (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    Introduction: In order to improve tumor imaging, changes in the pharmacokinetics of 3-[{sup 123}I]iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine ([{sup 123}I]IMT), an artificial amino acid that exhibits high tumor accumulation, after probenecid (PBC) loading was studied in mice implanted with colon cancer DLD-1 cells using {sup 125}I-labeled IMT ([{sup 125}I]IMT). Methods: DLD-1-implanted KSN-slc nude male mice received 740 kBq of [{sup 125}I]IMT via the tail vein at 5 min after 50 mg/kg body weight PBC loading, and autoradiography was performed at 5, 15 and 30 min after injection. Male ddY mice then received 670 kBq of [{sup 125}I]IMT and 50 mg/kg 2-amino-bicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) or p-aminohippurate (PAH) via the tail vein, and kidney autoradiography was performed at 5 min after injection. In vitro inhibition study was then performed based on the accumulation mechanisms of [{sup 125}I]IMT in DLD-1, using 1 mM L-tyrosine, BCH, {alpha}-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, N-benzoyl-{beta}-alanine, PBC, PAH, 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium azide. Both Na{sup +}-dependent and Na{sup +}-independent uptake were investigated. Results: Higher tumor accumulation in PBC-loaded DLD-1-implanted mice was seen when compared to control mice. PAH and BCH, respectively, reduced renal accumulation in the tubule segment-2 (S2)-like and S1-like regions. We confirmed that [{sup 125}I]IMT transport is predominantly mediated by L-type amino acid transporter-1 in DLD-1 cells. Conclusions: [{sup 125}I]IMT uptake is mediated by organic anion and amino acid transporters in the kidney. Organic anion transporter inhibitors may yield better tumor images with good tumor/normal tissue radioactivity ratios if adequate administration plans are developed.

  15. Fundamental Reaction Pathway and Free Energy Profile for Butyrylcholinesterase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yan; Han, Keli; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacological function of heroin requires an activation process which transforms heroin into 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) which is the most active form. The primary enzyme responsible for this activation process in human plasma is butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The detailed reaction pathway of the activation process via BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis has been explored computationally, for the first time, in the present study by performing molecular dynamics simulation and first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy calculations. It has been demonstrated that the whole reaction process includes acylation and deacylation stages. The acylation consists of two reaction steps, i.e. the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of 3-acetyl group of heroin by the hydroxyl oxygen of Ser198 side chain and the dissociation of 6-MAM. The deacylation also consists of two reaction steps, i.e. the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the acyl-enzyme intermediate by a water molecule and the dissociation of the acetic acid from Ser198. The calculated free energy profile reveals that the second transition state (TS2) should be rate-determining. The structural analysis reveals that the oxyanion hole of BChE plays an important role in the stabilization of the rate-determining transition state TS2. The free energy barrier (15.9±0.2 or 16.1±0.2 kcal/mol) calculated for the rate-determining step is in good agreement with the experimentally-derived activation free energy (~16.2 kcal/mol), suggesting that the mechanistic insights obtained from the present computational study are reliable. The obtained structural and mechanistic insights could be valuable for use in future rational design of a novel therapeutic treatment of heroin abuse. PMID:23992153

  16. Evaluation of phenolic profile, enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Topcagic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin (Nigella sativa L. [N.sativa] seed extracts demonstrated numerous beneficial biological effects including, among others, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antioxidant activity. To better understand the phytochemical composition of N. sativa seeds, methanol seed extracts were analyzed for phenolic acid and flavonoid content. Furthermore, we tested N. sativa methanol, n-hexane, and aqueous seed extracts for their inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE and catalase (CAT as well as for antimicrobial activity against several bacterial and a yeast strains. The phenolic content of N. sativa was analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The inhibition of BChE was assessed by modified Ellman’s method, and the inhibition of CAT was determined by monitoring hydrogen peroxide consumption. The extracts were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli using the agar diffusion method. The UHPLC-MS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of 23 phenolic compounds within 15 minutes. The major components found in N. sativa seed extract were sinapinic acid (7.22 ± 0.73 µg/mg as a phenolic acid and kaempferol (11.74 ± 0.92 µg/mg as a flavonoid. All extracts showed inhibitory activity against BChE, with methanol seed extract demonstrating the highest inhibitory activity (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50] 79.11 ± 6.06 µg/ml. The methanol seed extract also showed strong inhibitory activity against CAT with an IC50 value of 6.61 ± 0.27 µg/ml. Finally, the methanol extract exhibited considerable inhibitory activity against the tested microbial strains. Overall, this is the first study to investigate the ability of black cumin seed extracts to inhibit CAT. Our results indicate that N. sativa seed can be considered as an effective inhibitor

  17. Reward and Toxicity of Cocaine Metabolites Generated by Cocaine Hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vishakantha; Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Jordan D; Reyes, Santiago; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) gene therapy is emerging as a promising concept for treatment of cocaine addiction. BChE levels after gene transfer can rise 1000-fold above those in untreated mice, making this enzyme the second most abundant plasma protein. For months or years, gene transfer of a BChE mutated into a cocaine hydrolase (CocH) can maintain enzyme levels that destroy cocaine within seconds after appearance in the blood stream, allowing little to reach the brain. Rapid enzyme action causes a sharp rise in plasma levels of two cocaine metabolites, benzoic acid (BA) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), a smooth muscle relaxant that is mildly hypotensive and, at best, only weakly rewarding. The present study, utilizing Balb/c mice, tested reward effects and cardiovascular effects of administering EME and BA together at molar levels equivalent to those generated by a given dose of cocaine. Reward was evaluated by conditioned place preference. In this paradigm, cocaine (20 mg/kg) induced a robust positive response but the equivalent combined dose of EME + BA failed to induce either place preference or aversion. Likewise, mice that had undergone gene transfer with mouse CocH (mCocH) showed no place preference or aversion after repeated treatments with a near-lethal 80 mg/kg cocaine dose. Furthermore, a single administration of that same high cocaine dose failed to affect blood pressure as measured using the noninvasive tail-cuff method. These observations confirm that the drug metabolites generated after CocH gene transfer therapy are safe even after a dose of cocaine that would ordinarily be lethal.

  18. Esterase inhibition in tadpoles of Scinax fuscovarius (Anura, Hylidae) as a biomarker for exposure to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Patricia Zazeri; Margarido, Tatiana Cristina Stefani; de Lima, Daína; Rossa-Feres, Denise de Cerqueira; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2010-09-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are among the most used insecticides in agriculture, causing the inhibition of esterases like acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE). Pesticides can reach the aquatic environment, posing risks to non-target organisms, including tadpoles. In this work, we characterized the activities of AChE, BChE and CbE in tadpoles of the snouted treefrog Scinax fuscovarius, and verified their in vitro sensibility to different inhibitors [phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), tetra-isopropylpyrophosphamide (iso-OMPA) and the OP diazinon]. In vivo effects of diazinon and esterase recovery after 2-pyridine-aldoxime (2-PAM) treatment of the protein extract were also studied in tadpoles with distinct stages of development exposed to 1 and 3 mg/l for 2 and 7 days. Optimal conditions were established for AChE and CbE; BChE activity was negligible. PMSF affected esterase activities and is not recommended for homogenization buffers. Iso-OMPA treatment caused no changes in AChE and CbE activities, but diazinon inhibited these enzymes in a dose-responsive manner. In vivo, CbE activity was insensitive to diazinon in younger tadpoles, but inhibited after 2 days of exposure in more developed tadpoles. AChE activity was inhibited after 2 and 7 days of exposure, in a dose-responsive manner. Esterase reactivation by 2-PAM was obtained both in vitro and in vivo. (1) Tadpoles can be adequate sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies of OP contamination; (2) AChE was more sensitive than CbE to diazinon; (3) tadpoles from earlier developmental stages seems to be less responsive to OPs; (4) AChE activity was sensitive to diazinon in both development stages, being a better OP biomarker.

  19. Design, synthesis and evaluation of some N-methylenebenzenamine derivatives as selective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and antioxidant to enhance learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sushant K; Srivastava, Pavan; Upendra, T V R; Tripathi, Prabhash Nath; Sinha, Saurabh K

    2017-02-15

    Series of some 3,5-dimethoxy-N-methylenebenzenamine and 4-(methyleneamino)benzoic acid derivatives comprising of N-methylenebenzenamine nucleus were designed, synthesized, characterized, and assessed for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory, and antioxidant activity thereby improving learning and memory in rats. The IC 50 values of all the compound along with standard were determined on AChE and BChE enzyme. The free radical scavenging activity was also assessed by in vitro DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay. The selective inhibitions of all compounds were observed against AChE in comparison with standard donepezil. The enzyme kinetic study of the most active compound 4 indicated uncompetitive AChE inhibition. The docking studies of compound 4 exhibited the worthy interaction on active-site gorge residues Phe330 and Trp279 responsible for its high affinity towards AChE, whereas lacking of the BChE inhibition was observed due to a wider gorge binding site and absence of important aromatic amino acids interactions. The ex vivo study confirmed AChE inhibition abilities of compound 4 at brain site. Further, a considerable decrease in escape latency period of the compound was observed in comparison with standard donepezil through in vivo Spatial Reference Memory (SRM) and Spatial Working Memory (SWM) models which showed the cognition-enhancing potential of compound 4. The in vivo reduced glutathione (GSH) estimation on rat brain tissue homogenate was also performed to evaluate free radical scavenging activity substantiated the antioxidant activity in learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of cholinesterases in plasma of three Portuguese native bird species: application to biomonitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia S A Santos

    Full Text Available Over the last decades the inhibition of plasma cholinesterase (ChE activity has been widely used as a biomarker to diagnose organophosphate and carbamate exposure. Plasma ChE activity is a useful and non-invasive method to monitor bird exposure to anticholinesterase compounds; nonetheless several studies had shown that the ChE form(s present in avian plasma may vary greatly among species. In order to support further biomonitoring studies and provide reference data for wildlife risk-assessment, plasma cholinesterase of the northern gannet (Morus bassanus, the white stork (Ciconia ciconia and the grey heron (Ardea cinerea were characterized using three substrates (acetylthiocholine iodide, propionylthiocholine iodide, and S-butyrylthiocholine iodide and three ChE inhibitors (eserine sulphate, BW284C51, and iso-OMPA. Additionally, the range of ChE activity that may be considered as basal levels for non-exposed individuals was determined. The results suggest that in the plasma of the three species studied the main cholinesterase form present is butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. Plasma BChE activity in non-exposed individuals was 0.48±0.11 SD U/ml, 0.39±0.12 SD U/ml, 0.15±0.04 SD U/ml in the northern gannet, white stork and grey heron, respectively. These results are crucial for the further use of plasma BChE activity in these bird species as a contamination bioindicator of anti-cholinesterase agents in both wetland and marine environments. Our findings also underscore the importance of plasma ChE characterization before its use as a biomarker in biomonitoring studies with birds.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Anti-Alzheimer’s Disease Potential of Coumestrol and Puerarol Isolated from Pueraria lobata Using Molecular Modeling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashamsa Koirala

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study assesses the antioxidant effects of two similar isoflavonoids isolated from Pueraria lobata, coumestrol and puerarol, along with the cholinergic and amyloid-cascade pathways to mitigate Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Antioxidant activity was evaluated via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH and peroxynitrite (ONOO− scavenging ability further screened via ONOO−-mediated nitrotyrosine. Similarly, acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (AChE/BChE and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 inhibitory activities were assessed together with docking and kinetic studies. Considering DPPH and ONOO− scavenging activity, coumestrol (EC50 values of 53.98 and 1.17 µM was found to be more potent than puerarol (EC50 values of 82.55 and 6.99 µM followed by dose dependent inhibition of ONOO−-mediated nitrotyrosine. Coumestrol showed pronounced AChE and BChE activity with IC50 values of 42.33 and 24.64 µM, respectively, acting as a dual cholinesterase (ChE inhibitor. Despite having weak ChE inhibitory activity, puerarol showed potent BACE1 inhibition (28.17 µM. Kinetic studies of coumestrol showed AChE and BChE inhibition in a competitive and mixed fashion, whereas puerarol showed mixed inhibition for BACE1. In addition, docking simulations demonstrated high affinity and tight binding capacity towards the active site of the enzymes. In summary, we undertook a comparative study of two similar isoflavonoids differing only by a single aliphatic side chain and demonstrated that antioxidant agents coumestrol and puerarol are promising, potentially complementary therapeutics for AD.

  2. Determination of organochlorine pesticides in organic quinoa grains (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) by GC-µECD, using the QuEChERS method

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Barriga, Rosario Edely; Universidad Nacional del Altiplano Puno; Zamalloa Cuba, Walter Alejandro; Universidad Nacional del Altiplano Puno; Luiz Tornisielo, Valdemar; Ecotoxicology Laboratory of the Center of the Nuclear Energy in Agriculture University of Sao; Zirena Vilca, Franz; Ecotoxicology Laboratory of the Center of the Nuclear Energy in Agriculture University of Sao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is currently great interest in environmental pollutants in relation to food security; previous studies show that persistent organic pollutants  (POPs) could be found in small amounts, even in organic food; therefore, in this  research, 12 organochlorine pesticides residues (p, p'-DDD; p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'DDE, Dicofol, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, α-BHC, β-BCH, heptachlor and mirex) were monitored in quinoa grains from organic production systems, sampled ...

  3. Associação entre o gene da Butrilcolinesterase e Diabete Melito Tipo 1

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Alejandro Boechat

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: A butirilcolinesterase (BChE) é codificada pelo gene BCHE que apresenta dezenas de alelos, sendo alguns polimórficos. O diabete melito (DM) é uma síndrome de etiologia múltipla, decorrente da falta de insulina e/ou da incapacidade desta exercer adequadamente seus efeitos levando a vários distúrbios metabólicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi buscar informações que levem à indicação mais precisa do possível envolvimento do gene BCHE na susceptibilidade ao diabete melito ou se existe outro...

  4. Reducing vulnerability of modified LSB algorithm to a chosen statistic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The LSB algorithm is one of the most studied steganographic algorithms. There are several types of attacks that can detect the fact of conducting cover communication — chi-square attack and RS. This paper presents modification of the LSB algorithm which introduces fewer changes to carrier than the original LSB algorithm. Modified algorithms use a compression function, which significantly hinders the detection process. This paper also includes a description of main steganalytic methods along with their application to the proposed modification of the LSB algorithm.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, cyclic code, error correction codes, LSB, BCH, chi-square, steganalysis

  5. Cyclodextrin-Based Bimodal Fluorescence/MRI Contrast Agents: An Efficient Approach to Cellular Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotková, Z.; Kotek, J.; Jirák, D.; Jendelová, Pavla; Herynek, V.; Berková, Z.; Hermann, P.; Lukeš, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 33 (2010), s. 10094-10102 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN201110651 Grant - others:EC FP6 project DiMI(XE) LSHB-CT-2005-512146; EC FP7 project ENCITE(XE) HEALTH-2007 A-201842; GA MŠk(CZ) GAUK 2007-B-Ch-132307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : mesenchymal stem-cells * marrow stromal cells * water exchange-rate Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.476, year: 2010

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fundamentals of information theory and coding design

    CERN Document Server

    Togneri, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In a clear, concise, and modular format, this book introduces the fundamental concepts and mathematics of information and coding theory. The authors emphasize how a code is designed and discuss the main properties and characteristics of different coding algorithms along with strategies for selecting the appropriate codes to meet specific requirements. They provide comprehensive coverage of source and channel coding, address arithmetic, BCH, and Reed-Solomon codes and explore some more advanced topics such as PPM compression and turbo codes. Worked examples and sets of basic and advanced exercises in each chapter reinforce the text's clear explanations of all concepts and methodologies.

  8. Short-term effects of fertility management under organic farming in Mediterranean region on soil properties and tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Jarrar, Mohammad; Dumontet, Stefano; Mondelli, Donato

    2014-05-01

    In organic farming, plant production depends almost exclusively on nutrient deriving from the decomposition of exogenous organic matter in soil which is able to provide significant quantities of several important nutrients for the plant growth. However, in the soil the timing and amount of mineralization often does not coincide with crop nutritional need, making in-season fertilization necessary. The Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 on organic farming standards recognizes these needs and allows the use of a limited range fertilizers and soil conditioners (inputs) in order to meet nutritional needs of the plants and to achieve short term economically viable yield. Short-term open field experiment was conducted at the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (MAIB) located in Apulia region (Southern Italy) in order study the effects of different fertilization scenarios based on equilibrated nutritional requirement on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv. San Marzano) production efficiency and soil chemical properties. In soil dressing phase, three months before planting, biochar (BCH), organic fertilizers (OF), combined treatment (BCH+OF), cattle manure and vineyard wood compost (MVC), dairy wastes industry and vineyard wood compost (DVC) and unamended soil as control (CON) were established. In the pre-crop phase, organic and/or mineral fertilizers were incorporated into the previous treatments except CON and BCH in order to achieve balanced N, P and K application rates for tomato plants. Different fertilization scenarios significantly increased the yields over CON and BCH treatments, maintaining fruits quality. In short period of time, most of the soil parameters remained invariable, only available phosphorus significantly increased in the treatments which received organic fertilizers maybe due to the slight reduction in soil pH. However, such results are not surprising, if we consider the quantity of amendments and fertilizers applied in the experiment, as well as

  9. High performance 1.3 μm buried crescent lasers and LEDs for fiber optic links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, R.J.; Chan, E.Y.; Hong, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Self-aligned buried crescent heterostructure (BCH) semiconductor lasers and LEDs have been successfully developed as superb light sources for fiber optic communications. The fabrication and performance characteristics of these InGaAsP/InP lasers and LEDs are described. For lasers, the threshold currents as low as 10 mA and differential quantum efficiencies as high as 50% are achieved. For LEDs, the output powers at 150 mA are higher than 1 mW. Good far field patterns are obtained in both the LEDs and lasers. Measured I-V, L-I, spectrum and far field patterns are presented

  10. Absorption of Submillimeter Radiation by Battlefield Gases. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    cm"I with the exception of the feature at 2 am -’ due * to magnetic dipole absorption by diatomic oxygen. The line at 6 cm"I is due to H20. A narrow...energy. This is a rather crude example of the need for accurate line parameters for both the trasmitter and absorbing medium. [The overshoot in Figure 1...poteitiial of affecting the HCN laser which operates at 29.71258 am - 7 he line strengths for BCH were calculated using V 11 ’ : , , i.............. "lI-" I I

  11. Interception of cocaine by enzyme or antibody delivered with viral gene transfer: a novel strategy for preventing relapse in recovering drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimijoin, Stephen

    2011-12-01

    Recent progress in enzyme engineering has led to versions of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) that hydrolyze cocaine efficiently in plasma, reduce concentrations reaching reward neurocircuity in the brain, and weaken behavioral responses to this drug. Along with enzyme advances, increasingly avid anti-cocaine antibodies and potent anti-cocaine vaccines have also been developed. Here we review these developments and consider the potential advantages along with the risks of delivering drug-intercepting proteins via gene transfer approaches to treat cocaine addiction.

  12. Long-Term Blockade of Cocaine Self-Administration and Locomotor Activation in Rats by an Adenoviral Vector–Delivered Cocaine Hydrolase

    OpenAIRE

    Smethells, John R.; Swalve, Natashia; Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang; Parks, Robin J.; Greer, Adam; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach in treating cocaine abuse is to metabolize cocaine in the blood using a mutated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) that functions as a cocaine hydrolase (CocH). In rats, a helper-dependent adenoviral (hdAD) vector–mediated delivery of CocH abolished ongoing cocaine use and cocaine-primed reinstatement of drug-seeking for several months. This enzyme also metabolizes ghrelin, an effect that may be beneficial in maintaining healthy weights. The effect of a single hdAD-CocH vector ...

  13. Flexible video conference system based on ASICs and DSPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiang; Yu, Songyu

    1995-02-01

    In this paper, a video conference system we developed recently is presented. In this system the video codec is compatible with CCITT H.261, the audio codec is compatible with G.711 and G.722, the channel interface circuit is designed according to CCITT H.221. In this paper emphasis is given to the video codec, which is both flexible and robust. The video codec is based on LSI LOGIC Corporation's L64700 series video compression chipset. The main function blocks of H.261, such as DCT, motion estimation, VLC, VLD, are performed by this chipset, but the chipset is a nude chipset, no peripheral function, such as memory interface, is integrated into it, this results in great difficulty to implement the system. To implement the frame buffer controller, a DSP-TMS 320c25 and a group of GALs is used, SRAM is used as a current and previous frame buffer, the DSP is not only the controller of the frame buffer, it's also the controller of the whole video codec. Because of the use of the DSP, the architecture of the video codec is very flexible, many system parameters can be reconfigured for different applications. The architecture of the whole video codec is a streamline structure. In H.261, BCH(511,493) coding is recommended to work against random errors in transmission, but if burst error occurs, it causes serious result. To solve this problem, an interleaving method is used, that means the BCH code is interleaved before it's transmitted, in the receiver it is interleaved again and the bit stream is in the original order, but the error bits are distributed into several BCH words, and the BCH decoder is able to correct it. Considering that extreme conditions may occur, a function block is implemented which is somewhat like a watchdog, it assures that the receiver can recover from errors no matter what serious error occurs in transmission. In developing the video conference system, a new synchronization problem must be solved, the monitor on the receiver can't be easily

  14. Evaluación de biomarcadores no destructivos en sapo gigante (Rhinella marina) de la cuenca baja del Río Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Santiago, Omar

    2016-01-01

    En este estudio se determinó la actividad de biomarcadores no destructivos (glutatión s-transferasa –GST-, malondioaldehído –MDA-, ácido aminolevulínico dehidratasa -δ-ALAD-, parámetros hematológicos –HCM-, butirilcolinesterasa –BChE-, apoptosis, factor de condición –FC- y vitelogenina –VTG-) en sapos gigantes (R. marina) de dos zonas (alta y baja) de la cuenca baja del Río Coatzacoalcos para compararlos con organismos de referencia (sapos mantenidos en laboratorio). De cada estación de muest...

  15. Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Is Commonly Present within the Genus Limnohabitans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasalický, Vojtěch; Zeng, Yonghui; Piwosz, Kasia; Šimek, Karel; Kratochvílová, Hana; Koblížek, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2018), č. článku e02116-17. ISSN 0099-2240 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S; GA ČR GA15-12197S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : fish * IR microscopy * Limnohabitans * bacteriochlorophyll * bchY Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology; Microbiology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 3.807, year: 2016

  16. Investigations of anticholinestrase and antioxidant potentials of methanolic extract, subsequent fractions, crude saponins and flavonoids isolated from Isodon rugosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Zeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Based on the ethnomedicinal uses and the effective outcomes of natural products in various diseases, this study was designed to evaluate Isodon rugosus as possible remedy in oxidative stress, alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. Acetylecholinestrase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory activities of crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr, resultant fractions (n-hexane (Ir.Hex, chloroform (Ir.Cf, ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc, aqueous (Ir.Aq, flavonoids (Ir.Flv and crude saponins (Ir.Sp of I. rugosus were investigated using Ellman's spectrophotometric method. Antioxidant potential of I. rugosus was determined using DPPH, H2O2 and ABTS free radicals scavenging assays. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents of plant extracts were determined and expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg RTE/g of dry sample respectively. RESULTS: Among different fractions Ir.Flv and Ir.Cf exhibited highest inhibitory activity against AChE (87.44 ± 0.51, 83.73 ± 0.64% and BChE (82.53 ± 0.71, 88.55 ± 0.77% enzymes at 1 mg/ml with IC50 values of 45, 50 for AChE and 40, 70 μg/ml for BChE respectively. Activity of these fractions were comparable to galanthamine causing 96.00 ± 0.30 and 88.61 ± 0.43% inhibition of AChE and BChE at 1 mg/ml concentration with IC50 values of 20 and 47 μg/ml respectively. In antioxidant assays, Ir.Flv, Ir.Cf, and Ir.EtAc demonstrated highest radicals scavenging activities in DPPH and H2O2 assays which were comparable to ascorbic acid. Ir.Flv was found most potent with IC50 of 19 and 24 μg/ml against DPPH and H2O2 radicals respectively. Whereas antioxidant activates of plant samples against ABTS free radicals was moderate. Ir.Cf, Ir.EtAc and Ir.Cr showed high phenolic and flavonoid contents and concentrations of these compounds in different fractions correlated well to their antioxidant and anticholinestrase activities. CONCLUSION: It may be inferred from the current investigations that the

  17. PucC and LhaA direct efficient assembly of the light-harvesting complexes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mothersole, David; Jackson, Philip J.; Vasilev, Cvetelin

    2016-01-01

    interactions between pigments newly arriving from BchG and nascent proteins within the SecYEG-SecDF-YajC-YidC assembly machinery, thereby co-ordinating pigment delivery, the co-translational insertion of LH polypeptides and their folding and assembly to form photosynthetic complexes.......The mature architecture of the photosynthetic membrane of the purple phototroph Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been characterised to a level where an atomic-level membrane model is available, but the roles of the putative assembly proteins LhaA and PucC in establishing this architecture are unknown...

  18. Testing anionic spacers by SERRS (surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering) of a cationic free-base porphyrin in systems with laser-ablated Ag colloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmejkal, P.; Vlčková, B.; Procházka, M.; Mojzeš, P.; Pfleger, Jiří

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (1999), s. 243-247 ISSN 0924-2031 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/97/0259; GA ČR GA202/98/P139; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Grant - others:GA UK(XC) 219/96/B/CH Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : laser ablation * porphyrin * SERRS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.848, year: 1999

  19. Utilization of silver solid amalgam electrode for amperometric determination of plant growth regulator by HPLC-ED

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daňhel, A.; Shiu, K. K.; Josypčuk, Bohdan; Vyskočil, V.; Pecková, K.; Barek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 8 (2008), s. 626-627 ISSN 0009-2770. [Sjezd chemických společností /60./. 01.09.2008-04.09.2008, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA ČR GA203/07/1195 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP203/07/P261; GA UK(CZ) 6107/2007/BCh/PrF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : amalgam electrode * voltammetry * HPLC Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  20. Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope (ADEPT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles L. Bennett

    2009-03-26

    In 2006, we proposed to NASA a detailed concept study of ADEPT (the Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope), a potential space mission to reliably measure the time-evolution of dark energy by conducting the largest effective volume survey of the universe ever done. A peer-review panel of scientific, management, and technical experts reported back the highest possible 'excellent' rating for ADEPT. We have since made substantial advances in the scientific and technical maturity of the mission design. With this Department of Energy (DOE) award we were granted supplemental funding to support specific extended research items that were not included in the NASA proposal, many of which were intended to broadly advance future dark energy research, as laid out by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF). The proposed work had three targets: (1) the adaptation of large-format infrared arrays to a 2 micron cut-off; (2) analytical research to improve the understanding of the dark energy figure-of- merit; and (3) extended studies of baryon acoustic oscillation systematic uncertainties. Since the actual award was only for {approx}10% of the proposed amount item (1) was dropped and item (2) work was severely restricted, consistent with the referee reviews of the proposal, although there was considerable contradictions between reviewer comments and several comments that displayed a lack of familiarity with the research. None the less, item (3) was the focus of the work. To characterize the nature of the dark energy, ADEPT is designed to observe baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in a large galaxy redshift survey and to obtain substantial numbers of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The 2003 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) made a precise determination of the BAO 'standard ruler' scale, as it was imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at z {approx} 1090. The standard ruler was also imprinted on the pattern of galaxies, and was first